WorldWideScience

Sample records for mekanismer och rekommendationer

  1. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  2. Maintenance methods: Development, Trends and Recommendations[M]; Underhaallsmetoder: Utveckling, Trender och Rekommendationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Johan; Sonden, Mikael; Haegg, Maria; Johansson, Bernt Aake; Johansson, Mikael; Aagren, Karoline; Gunnarsson, Haakan; Sandin, Paer

    2006-12-15

    Vaermeforsk has an ambition to map the maintenance management area to improve its decision support to plant owners and increase the level of knowledge in the energy sector. Thus, Inspecta Technology, Fortum and Systecon have been given the task to perform a project with the expressed objectives to: describe the general knowledge level in other sectors of the industry and how the use of improvement methods contributes to the plant reliability; illustrate and recommend improvement methods applicable in the energy industry; and to identify further need for development and make priorities. The project is performed in three steps. The first consists of an inventory of existing methods and strategies. The starting point has been the typical problems you face in the maintenance field. It turns out that there are numerous examples of successful approaches used in other sectors of industry. The next step is an enquiry to describe current status in the energy sector. 21 plants were included in this study and it points out a need both for specific analysis methods and more general strategies for maintenance management. The result from both inventory and enquiry forms the base for development of the guide. The guide is structured from the identified problem areas but also from a notional maintenance process. To improve the basis for Vaermeforsk's priorities, a number of possible development areas are proposed, such as the development of standard performance indicators, pilot projects to emphasize the use of analytical methods and in some cases further development of methods for use within the energy sector.

  3. Maintenance methods: Development, Trends and Recommendations[M]; Underhaallsmetoder: Utveckling, Trender och Rekommendationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Johan; Sonden, Mikael; Haegg, Maria; Johansson, Bernt Aake; Johansson, Mikael; Aagren, Karoline; Gunnarsson, Haakan; Sandin, Paer

    2006-12-15

    Vaermeforsk has an ambition to map the maintenance management area to improve its decision support to plant owners and increase the level of knowledge in the energy sector. Thus, Inspecta Technology, Fortum and Systecon have been given the task to perform a project with the expressed objectives to: describe the general knowledge level in other sectors of the industry and how the use of improvement methods contributes to the plant reliability; illustrate and recommend improvement methods applicable in the energy industry; and to identify further need for development and make priorities. The project is performed in three steps. The first consists of an inventory of existing methods and strategies. The starting point has been the typical problems you face in the maintenance field. It turns out that there are numerous examples of successful approaches used in other sectors of industry. The next step is an enquiry to describe current status in the energy sector. 21 plants were included in this study and it points out a need both for specific analysis methods and more general strategies for maintenance management. The result from both inventory and enquiry forms the base for development of the guide. The guide is structured from the identified problem areas but also from a notional maintenance process. To improve the basis for Vaermeforsk's priorities, a number of possible development areas are proposed, such as the development of standard performance indicators, pilot projects to emphasize the use of analytical methods and in some cases further development of methods for use within the energy sector.

  4. The Ash Programme 2009 - 2011. Evaluation and recommendations; Askprogrammet 2009 - 2011. Utvaerdering och rekommendationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axberg, Stefan

    2010-10-15

    The present evaluation deals with the third period of the Ash Programme, extending between 2009 and 2011. There are no final reports from most of the research projects financed by the Programme available, and some uncertainties might still be present and the assessments and recommendations made in this report should be read bearing this in mind. The purpose of this assignment is to evaluate the activities of the national research program 'Environmentally friendly uses of Ashes 2009 - 2011'. The evaluation is based on the initial conditions. In addition, the evaluation shall culminate in a recommendation for the continuation or not of the program after the current programming period and, where appropriate, what changes can or should take place. This work was conducted in four stages -scanning, data collection and observation, analysis and reporting. Analysis has been carried out in seven main areas: Organization, Financing, Research, Quality, Utility, Communication/Information and Potential threats. The programme manager is well informed and knowledgeable and seems to lead the program in a structured and objective way that inspires respect. The program is administered efficiently and at a relatively low cost compared to universities and colleges. The Ash Programme uses a 3-shared funding model meaning that programme participants may gain results from some 35 research projects for a fee roughly equivalent to that of one project. Generally, the program keeps a good academic standard. Variations are, of course, ranging from the more study-oriented reports to the traditional (peer review) scientific articles. That the financiers persist and return to the programme can be interpreted as they are satisfied and that they are aware of the long-term nature of the programme - something that was hardly self-evident when the programme started. However, the Ash Programme has large and serious gaps in its ability to communicate the obtained results to policy makers at local, regional and central level, the officials of the ministries and via the media to the public. It is noteworthy that the Working Group on Information has no chairman and that the group has only two members. Measures are proposed for the near future to address these shortcomings. However, from interviews and a survey carried out it can be concluded that the programme is perceived as having a fair to large benefit to all concerned groups, the authorities' response is, quite natural, somewhat more cautious. A new four-year program period is recommended as are the preparation of a manual/supervisory guidance and an expanded classification of ashes. If one excludes the deficiencies noted regarding the dissemination of information one can sum up, that the Ash Programme reaches its given goals. This is most clearly illustrated by that a larger percentage of the ash is nowadays used in a more environmentally correct way compared to what the conditions were at the start of the programme

  5. MEMAHAMI MEKANISME PASAR DALAM EKONOMI ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto Sukamto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasar adalah sebuah mekanisme pertukaran produk baik berupa barang maupun jasa yang alamiah dan telah berlangsung sejak peradaban awal manusia. Islam menempatkan pasar pada kedudukan yang penting dalam perekonomian. Praktek ekonomi pada masa Rasulullah SAW dan Khulafaurrasydin menunjukkan adanya peranan yang besar dalam pembentukan masyarakat Islam pada masa itu. Rasulullah SAW sangat menghargai harga yang dibentuk oleh mekanisme pasar sebagai harga yang adil (price intervencion seandainya perubahan harga terjadi karena mekanisme pasar yang wajar yaitu hanya karena pergeseran permintaan dan penawaran. Namun, pasar di sini mengharuskan adanya moralitas dalam aktivitas ekonominya, antara lain; persaingan sehat dan adil (fair play, kejujuran (honesty, keterbukaan (transparancy, dan keadilan (justice. Jika nilai ini ditegakkan maka tidak ada alasan dalam ekonomi Islam untuk menolak harga yang terbentuk oleh mekanisme di pasar.

  6. Korrosion-mekanismer, havarier, beskyttelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . In den forbindelse har vi indgået et samarbejde med Dansk Elektrokemisk Forening for at sammensætte et program, som belyser forskningsaspekter, teknologiaspekter og den industrielle anvendelse af korrosions mekanismer, havarier og beskyttelse. Traditionen tro viser bidragene i denne årbog en symbiose af...... grundlæggende forskning, anvendt forskning og industriel udvikling. Det er denne symbiose der gør materialevidenskab og –teknologi til en enestående tværfaglig disciplin og DMS vintermødene til en unik årlig begivenhed. Bidragyderne takkes for deres anstrengelser, som jeg forventer vil bidrage til vores...... forståelse af metalliske materialer og vil give os inspiration til fremtidig forskning, udvikling og innovation. Marcel A.J. Somers...

  7. Löslighet och transport av sällsynta jordartsmetaller i Källfallsfältets gruvsandsmagasin

    OpenAIRE

    de Campos Pereira, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Löslighet och transport av sällsynta jordartsmetaller i Källfallsfältets gruvsandsmagasin Hugo de Campos Pereira Syftet med detta arbete har varit att kartlägga vilka mekanismer som styr lösligheten av sällsynta jordartsmetaller (eng. rare earth elements, REE) i sulfidhaltig anrikningssand vid den föredetta gruvan Källfallsfältet i Västmanland. För syftet har markvatten- och grundvattenprovtagning utförts, tillsammans med laktester och geokemisk modellering med Visual MINTEQ ver. 3.0. Resulta...

  8. Perumusan Kebijakan dan Peraturan Daerah Dengan Mekanisme Konsultasi Publik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Yasir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penulisan ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan pentingnya ketersediaan mekanisme konsultasi publik dalam perumusan kebijakan dan peraturan ditingkat daerah. Berdasarkan tinjauan normatif, disimpulkan bahwa tersedianya mekanisme konsultasi publik sangat penting guna membangun keterlibatan masyarakat sekaligus membentuk keterbukaan lembaga publik. Kondisi yang demikian selaras dengan prinsip negara hukum. Guna menjamin efektifitas mekanisme tersebut, maka daerah perlu mengundangkan peraturan daerah yang mengatur akan hal itu.

  9. Kreativitet och innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard; Skov, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Kreativitet i arbetsterapi beskriver och analyserar kreativitetens många uttryck ur flera olika perspektiv: dels som en etablerad dimension av arbetsterapeutiska arbetsmetoder och yrkeskunskap, dels som en aktuell och efterfrågad grund för ny utveckling och innovation inom framtidens vård. Boken...... innehåller många praktiska exempel på hur vi kan se krea­tiviteten i arbetsterapeutens arbete såväl med klienter som när det gäller de system och den miljö människor lever och arbetar i. Boken beskriver också hur arbetsterapeuter arbetar och tänker kreativt samt hur de använder sig av kreativa strategier...

  10. Fotboll och huliganism i Skandinavien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian

    De skandinaviska länderna är lika i en rad hänseenden, exempelvis samhällsstruktur, lagstiftning och kultur. Också när det gäller fotboll finns stora likheter ? Danmark, Norge och Sverige introducerades ungefär samtidigt under 1970- och 80-talen till den engelska fotbollen och dess supporterkultu...

  11. Teckensnitt och dess personlighetsdrag

    OpenAIRE

    Linnarsson, Johan; Borja, Mårten

    2014-01-01

    När du arbetar med teckensnitt, vare sig du skapar – eller helt enkelt väljer ett teckensnitt, finns det konsekvenser till följd av skapandet och/eller valet. Läslighet och läsbarhet ligger i hjärtat av teckensnitts utformning – men principerna kring läslighet och läsbarhet är flexibla och kan komma att bortses ifrån, beroende på den tänkta kontexten för teckensnittet. Ett grepp om historiken bakom användningen av vissa teckensnitt, såväl som kunskap om de möjliga associationer de kan väcka ä...

  12. National objectives and flexible mechanisms: A discussions report; Nationella maal och flexibla mekanismer: En diskussionsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2003-11-01

    The Swedish climate policy has the target that the national emissions of greenhouse gases should be reduced 4%, compared to the 1990 level. But according to the EU common policy in line with the Kyoto agreement, Sweden has the right to increase the emissions by 4%. The Kyoto obligations could also be fulfilled by acting through the flexible mechanisms. In the present report the following issues are discussed: Why did Sweden set so ambitious targets; How can you handle the interconnection between national targets and flexible mechanisms; Methods to determine the amounts of the emissions rights that should be allocated to the trading sectors; Are there alternative means for achieveing the targets that the national objectives have set.

  13. MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT, DAN NILAI PERUSAHAAN PERBANKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestari Dwi Handayani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine corporate governance mechanism. This study also examines the effect of mediation of ERM on relationships corporate governance mechanism and the value of company. The population of this research is financial sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Sample selection using purposive sampling. This study uses path analysis in hypothesis testing and Sobel test for testing mediation ERM. The results of this study indicate that there is significant influence between corporate governance mechanisms (managerial ownership, institutional ownership, independent commissioner and audit committee with the value of company. This study provides evidence that ERM mediating influence between institutional ownership, independent directors and audit committee with company’s value, but not significant in mediating the effect of managerial ownership. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji mekanisme corporate governance. Penelitian ini juga menguji pengaruh mediasi dari ERM pada hubungan mekanisme corporate governance dan nilai perusahaan tersebut. Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan sektor keuangan yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. Teknik pemilihan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis jalur (path analysis dalam pengujian hipotesis dan sobel test untuk pengujian mediasi ERM. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh signifikan antara mekanisme corporate governance (kepemilikan manajerial, kepemilikan institusional, komisaris independen, dan komite audit dengan nilai perusahaan. Penelitian ini memberikan bukti bahwa ERM memediasi pengaruh antara kepemilikan institusional, komisaris independen, dan komite audit terhadap nilai perusahaan. Namun tidak signifikan dalam memediasi pengaruh kepemilikan manajerial.

  14. Use of ashes from straw and grass on agricultural land. Conditions and recommendations; Spridning av aska fraan straabraenslen paa aakermark. Foerutsaettningar och rekommendationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadders, G.; Floden, S.

    1997-12-31

    The composition of ashes from straw fuel varies depending on the plant species, any fertilisation during the growing season, and weather conditions during the year in question, etc. The composition of ashes will also vary depending on what type of boiler the fuel has been combusted in. In this report the discussion has been restricted to so-called `grate boilers` with a capacity of <5 MW. In such boilers one can distinguish between the so-called `bottom ashes` from the boiler grate and the `fly-ashes` which are extracted from exhaust gases. Today there are no regulations prescribing how ashes from straw and energy crops shall be handled. However, there is a policy on biofuel ash recycling which was developed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. In their policy the Environmental Protection Agency states that `whatever is removed may be returned`. Through the use of ashes from straw fuels as plant nutrients, the nutrients removed at harvest are returned. At the same time new supplies of minerals from external sources, and thereby following input of undesirable substances such as for instance cadmium, are avoided. The alternative i.e., dumping the ashes in landfills, results in unnecessary costs. In an explanatory note accompanying the agency document, it is stated that the ashes should preferably be returned to the crop and soil from which they had originated. If the ashes are to be spread on other land, the agency proposes that the restrictions imposed on sludge applications be applied here as well. In our opinion, it would be unreasonable for limitations on the use of ashes from agricultural crops as plant nutrients to be more strict than those concerning the use of fertilizers. Since chemical fertilizers can be used on any type of crop, there is no logical reason why the same should not also apply to ashes from straw fuels. Thus we recommend that the application of such ashes to non-energy crops be allowed. If there is reason to suspect high contents of undesirable metals in the soil, a soil analysis should also be performed. However, this advice applies to the use of all types of plant-nutrient amendments, not just straw fuels. Furthermore, it is unreasonable to expect each individual farm to be responsible for carrying out such an analysis. In a number of limited tests with straw ashes, lime spreaders gave better results than conventional manure-spreaders, according to the operator. However, even with this type of spreader the dose was too large. With two pages summary in English. Tables with text in English. 23 refs, 7 tabs

  15. Projektering av produktions- och lagerhall

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Detta examensarbete är utfört åt Ingenjörsbyrå Mathias Smeds. Syftet med arbetet var att projektera en hallbyggnad som skulle fungera som produktions- och lagerhall åt företaget i fråga och åt andra företag som köper delar i hallen. I arbetet ingår att uppgöra bygglovshandlingar, en byggsättsbeskrivning, en jämförelse mellan energikällor och enkel kostnadskalkyl. Efter diskussioner och möten med beställaren blev resultatet en hall med limträstomme och med NR-takstolar som vindsbjälklag. Y...

  16. MEKANISME PEMBERIAN INSENTIF TENAGA AKADEMIK DI UNIVERSITAS NEGERI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani'atul Millah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengkaji tentang mekanisme pemberian insentif dan dampaknya terhadap kinerja tenaga akademik di UNY. Dampak insentif ini dilihat secara umum dan pasca- lahirnya kebijakan baru tentang penghentian beberapa insentif finansial dosen tahun 2013. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif, pengumpulan data melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumentasi, dengan sampel purposive dan teknik snowball. Pembahasan hasil penelitian dilakukan dengan analisis induktif interpretatif komponensial yang dikembangkan berdasarkan model Spradley. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, (1 UNY tidak memiliki satu aturan khusus dan integral yang mengatur mekanisme pemberian insentif untuk tenaga akademik, baik pada tingkat universitas maupun fakultas. (2 Insentif finansial, non-finansial dan perverse incentives yang ditemukan dari hasil penelitian memiliki pengaruh terhadap kinerja tenaga akademik. Tetapi insentif finansial memiliki pengaruh lebih signifikan dibanding kedua bentuk insentif lain. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tingkat kehadiran dosen mengajar dan mengawas ujian mahasiswa di kelas yang tinggi saat ada insentif dan menurun saat insentif tersebut dihilangkan. Kata kunci: insentif, dampak insentif, tenaga akademik THE MECHANISM OF INCENTIVE DISTRIBUTION OF ACADEMIC STAFF AT YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY Abstract This study reveals the mechanism of incentive distribution and its impact on the performance of academic staff at UNY. Its impact is seen in general and after the issuing of a new policy that stopped the financial incentives of lecturer in 2013. The research used a qualitative method. Data were collected through depth interview, observation, and review of documents, with purposive sampling based on snowball technique. The data was analyzed using componential interpretative inductive analysis developed by Spradley’ model. The result shows, (1 UNY does not have the specific and integral rules that regulate mechanism of incentive

  17. MEKANISME IDEAL PENYELESAIAN SENGKETA ADAT SESUAI DENGAN KONSEP KEKINIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    i wayan arta ariawan

    2016-07-01

    , selanjutnya diolah dengan teknik pengolahan data kualitatif, dan dianalisis, mengacu pada asas-asas hukum adat, teori hegemoni, pendapat para sarjana dan berdasarkan peraturan perundang-undangan khususnya Undang-undang No. 7 tahun 2012 tentang Penanganan konflik sosial. Keseluruhan hasil penelitian disajikan secara deskriptif analitis, dengan 2 (dua rumusan permasalahan yaitu, bagaimanakah mekanisme yang ideal penyelesaian sengketa adat sesuai dengan konsep kekinian, dan apakah faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penyelesaian sengketa adat di Bali.

  18. Tidsperspektiv, mindfulness och stress: : en korrelationsstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Koudriavtseva, Antonina

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie undersökte det potentiella sambandet mellan tidsperspektiv, mindfulness och upplevd stress. Kring 60 studenter besvarade en online-enkät som inkluderade den svenska versionen av Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire och Perceived Stress Scale. Analyserna omfattade bivariata korrelationer, multipel linjär regressionsanalys och path analys. I linje med hypoteserna indikerade resultaten statistiskt signifikanta samband mellan mindfulness, ett ...

  19. Metoder och verktyg för motivation till och integration av arbetsmiljöarbete

    OpenAIRE

    Åteg, Mattias; Nygren, Olle; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Laring, Jonas; Neely, Greg; Rosén, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Rapporten utgår från forskningsområdet "Hur kan och bör arbetsmiljöarbete bedrivas och integreras i organisationers kärnverksamhet?" vid tema SMARTA, Arbetslivsinstitutet. I ett tidigare arbete har ett antal egenskaper identifierats som viktiga för motivation och engagemang för arbetsmiljöarbete, sk Moveit-egenskaper. Dessa egenskaper och deras roll i arbetsmiljöarbetet ställs här i relation till perspektivet integrerat arbetsmiljöarbete, där arbetsmiljön ingår i styrsystemet och arbetsmiljöa...

  20. Autism och Asperger syndromtvå studier om pedagogers ochspecialpedagogers kunskaper och erfarenheter

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Pauline; Olsson, Sofia; Simonsson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Lindgren, P, Olsson, S & Simonsson, D. (2008) Autism och Asperger syndrom – två studier om pedagogers och specialpedagogers kunskaper och erfarenheter (Autism and Asperger syndrome – two studies of teachers´ and special educators´ knowledge and experience). Högskolan, Kristianstad. Specialpedagogiska programmet. Syftet med vårt arbete är att undersöka vilka kunskaper som specialpedagoger inom grund-skola och grundsärskola har, samt hur pedagoger uppfattar sina kunskaper och erfarenheter när d...

  1. Musik- och Kulturskolans framtid… : En kvalitativ studie om musiklärares och rektorers tankar om dagens och framtidens musik- och kulturskola

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, David

    2011-01-01

    Den här undersökningen syftar till att få en djupare förståelse för hur musik- och kulturskolans verksamhet kan se ut i framtiden. Jag vill få en inblick i vilka faktorer som påverkar utvecklingen av den kommunala musik- och kulturskolan, samt hur musik- och kulturskolan väljer att förhålla sig till dessa faktorer. För att undersöka detta har jag använt mig av kvalitativ intervju som forskningsmetod för att därigenom få fram fyra instrumentallärares och tre musikledares tankar och erfarenhete...

  2. Pengaruh Mekanisme Corporate Governance Terhadap Peringkat Obligasi Yang Tercatat Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode Tahun 2008 – 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mariana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana pengaruh mekanisme corporate governance terhadap default risk yang diproksikan dengan peringkat obligasi. Mekanisme corporate governance diproksikan dengan jumlah blockholder, kepemilikan institusi, kepemilikan insider, kualitas audit, komite audit, ukuran dewan komisaris, dan proporsi dewan komisaris independen. Penelitian ini menggunakan leverage, ROA, dan ukuran perusahaan sebagai variable kontrol. Sampel dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari 81 obligasi yang diterbitkan oleh perusahaan yang terdaftar di BEI selama periode 2008-2010 yang telah diperingkat. Penelitian ini menggunakan model analisis ordinal logistic regression untuk menguji pengaruh dari mekanisme corporate governance terhadap peringkat obligasi. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa blockholder, kualitas audit, dan proporsi dewan komisaris independen berpengaruh signifikan terhadap peringkat obligasi. Penelitian ini tidak berhasil membuktikan bahwa kepemilikan institusi, kepemilikan insider, komite audit dan ukuran dewan komisaris berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap peringkat obligasi.

  3. Sociala medier och levnadsvanor : Användning av Facebook och Twitter samt mat-, motions- och sömnvanor

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Bakgrund: Ohälsosamma levnadsvanor bidrar avsevärt till sjukdomsbördan. Allt mer tid spenderas vid skärm och forskning tyder på negativa effekter på mat-, motions- och sömnvanor. Teknikens utveckling har förändrat skärmtiden. Sociala medier har intagit en viktig plats i mångas liv och skärmtid är inte längre automatisk förknippat till faktorer såsom stillasittande samt möjlighet att äta mer. Forskning om levnadsvanor och sociala medier saknas. Syfte: Att undersöka graden av användning av de s...

  4. Sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i Sörmlands skolor

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Öjemalm, Karolina

    2009-01-01

    Sexualitet är ett grundläggande behov hos människor och påverkar individens upplevelse av hälsa och välbefinnande. Skolan fungerar som en viktig arena för att främja unga vuxnas sexuella hälsa och sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen i skolan kan ha stor betydelse för unga vuxnas utveckling. Sex- och samlevnadsundervisning har varit obligatorisk i svenska skolor sedan år 1955. Trots det visar en kvalitetsgranskning av sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen i svenska skolor från år 1999 att kvaliteten...

  5. HUBUNGAN MEKANISME KOPING DENGAN KEPATUHAN KEMOTERAPI PADA PENDERITA KEGANASAN YANG MENGALAMI ANSIETAS DAN DEPRESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenderita keganasan mendapat kemoterapi banyak menunjukkan gejala psikologisseperti ansietas dan depresi yang sangat berpengaruh terhadap kepatuhan penderita dalammenjalani kemoterapi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat hubungan mekanisme kopingdengan kepatuhan melakukan kemoterapi pada penderita keganasan yang mengalamiansietas dan depresi. Penelitian dilakukan selama 3 bulan pada penderita keganasan yangmenjalani kemoterapi di RSUP M.Djamil dengan metode cross sectional. Jumlah pasienadalah 59 pasien, 38 diantaranya mengalami ansietas dan/atau depresi. Mekanisme kopingdinilai dengan Brief Cope. Kepatuhan dinilai dengan wawancara dan kuesioner. Ansietasdan depresi dinilai dengan HAD Scale. Data di analisa dengan SPSS menggunakan uji Chi-Square dan korelasi koefisien kontingensi dengan tingkat kebermaknaan p<0,05. Kesimpulandari penelitian ini adalah prevalensi depresi lebih tinggi dari pada ansietas pada penderitakeganasan yang menjalani kemoterapi, dan ada hubungan kuat yang bermakna secarastatistik antara mekanisme koping dengan kepatuhan melakukan kemoterapi pada penderitakeganasan yang mengalami ansietas dan depresi.AbstractPatients with malignancies who received chemotherapy show psychological symptomssuch as anxiety and depression that correlated with their adherence to chemotherapy. Thisstudy aims to see the relationship between coping mechanisms with chemotherapy adherencein patients with malignancies who experience anxiety and depression. The study was conductedfor 3 months in patients with malignancies undergoing chemotherapy at Dr M.Djamil usingcross sectional design. The number of patients was 59, 38 of them experienced anxiety and/ordepression. Coping mechanism was assessed using the Brief Cope. Compliance was assessedby interview and questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the HAD Scale. Datawas analyzed with SPSS using Chi-Square and coefficient contingency correlation, significancelevel of p <0.05. The

  6. Bland prinsessor och soldater : En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av genus och stereotyper i två Disneyfilmer

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Syfte: Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka hur genus representeras och hur feministisk kritik syns i Disneyfilmerna Mulan och Frost. Arbetet behandlar kopplingen till tidigare Disneyfilmer och stereotypa framställningar av manligt och kvinnligt. Det utgår från ett genusperspektiv som tar hänsyn till könsroller som är resultatet av sociala konstruktioner. Metod: Filmerna har studerats i sin helhet och sedan har specifika scener och sekvenser valts ut för närmare studie. De har analys...

  7. PERANCANGAN REPLIKASI BASIS DATA MYSQL DENGAN MEKANISME PENGAMANAN MENGGUNAKAN SSL ENCRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Yuliansyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karena faktor pentingnya data dan informasi pada organisasi small medium business (SMB, maka diperlukan suatu replikasi basis data sehingga jika terjadi suatu keadaan force majure, organisasi tersebut tidak akan mengalami kehilangan data. Replikasi basis data ini melibatkan paling sedikit 2 sistem basis data yang terhubung dalam suatu jaringan komputer. Konsep CIA Triad yaitu Confidentiality, Integrity dan Availability, merupakan dasar keamanan untuk mengelola data dan informasi. Keterkaitan antara faktor replikasi data dan keamanan informasi sangat perlu diperhatikan untuk diteliti lebih lanjut sehingga diharapkan dapat meningkatkan faktor keamanan data dalam jaringan komputer.Metodologi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu dengan melakukan pengumpulan data terkait topik penelitian melalui studi pustaka, observasi, dan membuat pengujian di laboratorium dengan membuat simulasi replikasi basis data tanpa mekasnisme pengamanan dan melakukan pengujian keamanan komunikasinya kemudian membandingkannya dengan replikasi data dengan mekanisme pengamanan dengan SSL serta melakukan pengujian keamanan komunikasinya melalui proses penyadapan paket data yang dikirimkan dari server master dan server slave.Hasil dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan yaitu replikasi basis data MySQL dengan tanpa mekanisme pengamanan SSL memunculkan celah kemanan karena pesan yang dikirimkan dalam bentuk pesan plain tidak tersantikan. Sedangkan melalui penambahan dukungan SSL telah memberikan manfaat keamanan terhadap replikasi basis data MySQL, hal ini dibuktikan bahwa hasil proses penyadapan pesan terlihat paket data yang dikomunikasikan dari server master ke server slave sudah dalam keadaan terenkripsi.Kata Kunci : Replikasi basis data, MySQL, SSL Encryption.

  8. Facebook applikationsutveckling : En analys och guide

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkmann, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Facebook har blivit det ledande sociala nätverket på nätet. Facebook erbjuder även mycket goda möjligheter för företag att presentera sig, skapa sig ett brand på sidan och utveckla nya försäljningsinitiativ. Arcada har redan en tid haft en Facebook-sida. Nu ville de satsa mera på den och därför prova på att göra en kampanj i form av en facebook-applikation. Detta gjordes i och med deras brandförnyelse för läsåret 2011-2012. Detta examensarbete analyserar applikationen jag gjort tillsamma...

  9. Belöning och motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Många företag använder sig av belöningssystem för att hålla kvar den nuvarande personalen och för att motivera personalen till ett bättre resultat i framtiden. För att ett belöningssystem skall fungera måste personalen vara motiverade. Syftet med detta arbete är att utreda vad personalen i några företag på Kimitoön anser om belöning och betydelsen av belöning i arbetet. I undersökningen utreder jag även motivationens betydelse i arbetet och vilken typ av belöning som motiverar på längre si...

  10. PENGARUH MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, KUALITAS AUDITOR EKSTERNAL, DAN LIKUIDITAS TERHADAP KUALITAS LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanita Novi Yushita

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pengaruh Mekanisme Corporate Governance, Kualitas Auditor Eksternal, dan Likuiditas Terhadap Kualitas Laba. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memberikan bukti empiris pengaruh penerapan mekanisme corporate governance yang terdiri dari struktur dewan direksi, kepemilikan manajerial, kepemilikan institusional, komite audit, dan komisaris independen terhadap kualitas laba. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel sebanyak 22 perusahaan manufaktur yang listing di BEI pada periode 2007-2011. Analisis GLS digunakan sebagai teknik analisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa struktur dewan direksi, komisaris independen berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap Discretionary Accrual (DTAC atau berpengaruh negatif terhadap kualitas laba. Kemudian kualitas auditor eksternal berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap Discretionary Accrual (DTAC atau berpengaruh positif terhadap kualitas laba. Sedangkan kepemilikan manajerial, kepemilikan institusional, komite audit, dan likuiditas tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kualitas laba.   Kata kunci: corporate governance, kualitas auditor eksternal, likuiditas, kualitas laba. Abstract: The influence of Corporate Governance Mechanism, External Auditor Quality, and Liquidity on the Quality of Earnings. The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the effect of the application of corporate governance mechanisms consisting of board structure, managerial ownership, institutional ownership, audit committees and independent commissioners on the quality of earnings. This study used a sample of 22 manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange in the period 2007-2011. GLS analysis is used as a data analysis technique in this study. The results showed that the board structure and the proportions of independent commissioner have a positive and significant effect to discretionary accrual (DTAC or have a negative effect to the earnings quality. The quality of external

  11. Hjälplöshet och hopplöshet : samtidig och prediktiv relation till depression och ångest

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Charlotta; Lindberg, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Forskning visar att hjälplöshet och hopplöshet är betydelsefulla faktorer för förståelse av depression och ångest. Enligt Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS) är känslor av hjälplöshet och hopplöshet dessutom prediktiva för psykopatologi. Hjälplöshet definieras som den inlärda förväntan att egen ansträngning inte kan åstadkomma skillnad, och hopplöshet som att egen ansträngning leder till försämring. Den här studien undersökte relationen mellan hjälplöshet/hopplöshet och depression/ån...

  12. Konflikter och mobbning på arbetsplatsen : En osynlig kostnad

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka vilka negativa konsekvenser konflikter och mobbning kan orsaka medarbetare och organisationer. Den ekonomiska krisen har medfört nedskärningar, ökad osäkerhet och hård konkurrens som påverkat arbetsmiljöerna i Finland. Eftersom arbetsvälbefinnande sjunkit på grund av dessa yttre faktorer, vill jag med detta examensarbete beskriva varför arbetsvälfärden borde få hög proritet. Detta examensarbete är baserat på litteratur, lagar, statistik och inter...

  13. Budgetering och budgeteringsprocessen inom ekonomiförvaltningen

    OpenAIRE

    Finnström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med undersökningen är att ge en bild av vad budgetering är och budgeteringsprocessen inom ekonomiförvaltningen. Forskningsproblemet är att ta reda på vilken kritiken är mot budgetering, hur man kan förbättra budgetarbetet och få fram vilka de alternativa metoderna är till budgetering. I lärdomsprovets teoretiska del behandlas vad en budget är, syften med en budget, huvud- och delbudgetar, budgeteringsprocessen, kritik och alternativa metoder till budgeteringen. I den empiriska delen ha...

  14. Chaos Paintball : -En investering och finansieringsbedömning

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Per; Söderqvist, Hanna

    2009-01-01

     I uppsatsen "Chaos Paintball, en investerings- och finansieringsbedömning" har en undersökning gällande en nyinvestering och finansieringen avseende nya aktiviteter och en byggnad genomförts. Undersökningen har utförts genom att tre olika byggnadsalternativ har tagits i beaktande och beräkningar på byggnadsalternativen har gjorts. Företagets planerade aktiviteter har undersökts genom att, med hjälp av kalkyler, genomföra beräkningar. Detta har lett fram till en rekommendation om vilka aktivi...

  15. Vinylskivor, Nivea och Teinitalo, Genus- och åldersperspektiv på reklam i ungdomstidningen Suosikki 1964

    OpenAIRE

    Rydman, Ina

    2016-01-01

    Populärkulturen och ungdomskulturen uppkom på 1950-talet då Finland hade börjat klassas som ett modernt konsumtionssamhälle. Ett ekonomiskt uppsving under efterkrigstiden ledde till ökad konsumtion i samhället och till den så kallade tonårsindustrin. Det skedde en amerikanisering som syntes i finsk media och i reklam vilket präglade ungdomskulturen. I början av 1960-talet var en stor del av landets befolkning unga och de hörde till babyboom-generationen. I ungdomstidningar kan man se tecken p...

  16. MEKANISME PENGAWASAN YANG SINERGIS IMPLEMENTASI STANDAR PELAYANAN MINIMAL PENDIDIKAN DASAR DAN MENENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moerdiyanto *

    2005-01-01

    ment index, Indonesia hanya berada di peringkat 111 dari 177 negara di dunia yang disurvei. Salah satu upaya pemerintah untuk meningkatkan mutu layanan pendidikan dituangkan dalam Keputusan Mendiknas nomor 0971U/2002, tentang pengawasan penyelenggaraan pendidikan, termasuk pemenuhan standar pelayanan minimal (SPM. Pada tataran praktis justru yang harus menjadi perhatian adalah bagaimana mekanisme dan prosedur monitoring dan kontrol dilakukan, agar pelaksanaan SPM di setiap lembaga pendidikan berjalan sebagaimana mestinya. Model monitoring dan pengawasan yang intensif adalah bentuk kolaborasi yang sinergis dan produktif antara inspektorat jenderal, Bawasda Provinsi, Bawasda KabupatenlKota dan Pengawas Sekolah, dan masyarakat. Oi dalam pelaksanaan pengawasan perlu dilakukan koordinasi dan sinkronisasi melalui pembagian kekuasaan dan kewenangan pengawasan yang diatur dalam Buku Pedoman Pengawasan Standar Pelayanan Minimal. Pelaksanaan pemeriksaan kolaboratif hendaknya dilandasi oleh prinsip-prinsip sebagai berikut: (1 prinsip manajemen yaitu fungsi kontrol, (2 prinsip pengendalian yaitu memberikan bimbingan, (3 prinsip integritas yang dilandasi integritas pribadi dan profesional, (4 prinsip pemberdayaan atas kemampuan dan kinerja kelembagaan, dan (5 prinsip efektivitas dan efisiensi agar pengawasan hemat biaya, tenaga, dan waktu. Selain itu, pengawasan harus ditempuh secara prosedural, yaitu: (1 dilaksanakan secara berkala dan terpadu, (2 melakukan penilaian atas manfaat dan keberhasilan pelaksanaan program kegiatan, (3 memberikan informasi adanya kotupsi, kolusi dan nepotisme, dan penyampaian saran perbaikan, (4 dilakukan oleh pengawas yang memadai, dan (5 adanya semangat saling memberi dan menerima secara profesional, obyektif dan akuntabel yang bernuansa pemberdayaan.

  17. KR’PTA. Samtidspoesin och Derrida : Spår och ärrbildningar hos Johannes Heldén, Ingrid Storholmen och Anna Hallberg

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Lisa Schmidt, KR’PTA. Samtidspoesin och Derrida. Spår och ärrbildningar hos Johannes Hel­dén, Ingrid Storholmen och Anna Hallberg. (CR’PT. Contemporary Poetry and Derrida: Traces and Scarring in the Poetry of Johannes Heldén, Ingrid Storholmen and Anna Hallberg.) Through the analyses of three contemporary Nordic poets whose work challenges the boun­daries of literature and even the laws of grammar, I draw attention to the term linguistic materialism. I also sketch an historical line between t...

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry of CH3CH2OCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Bjørn Svendsen, Sissel; Østerstrøm, Freja From

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of methyl ethyl ether, CH3CH2OCH3, was examined using FT-IR/relative-rate methods. Hydroxyl radical and chlorine atom rate coefficients of k(CH3CH2OCH3+OH) = (7.53 ± 2.86) × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and k(CH3CH2OCH3+Cl) = (2.35 ± 0.43) × 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were...

  19. Millennials och baby boomers attityder till fake news : Generationernas upplevelser av nyhetsmediers sanningshalt

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfsson, Claes; Strömberg, Markus; Stenberg, John

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att ta reda på generationerna millennials och baby boomers inställning till mediernas sanningshalt och politiska neutralitet. Detta gjordes med hjälp av följande frågeställningar: Vilka attityder och vilken inställning har millennials och baby boomers till nyhetsmediernas sanningshalt? Finns skillnader och likheter kvar när vi väger in variablerna kön och politiskt ställningstagande?   För att definiera generationerna använde vi oss av Cliff Zukins generationsteor...

  20. Higher Ground : Stevie Wonder och New Age

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    Syftet med min uppsats är att jämföra religiösa företeelser från tre av Stevie Wonders album med New Age för att på så sätt uttröna om Stevie Wonders texter påverkats av New Age- föreställningar. Jag hittar både skillnader och likheter när jag jämför det religiösa budskapet i Stevie Wonders texter med New Age. De New Age- företeelser som går att hitta i texterna är få i förhållande till New Age i sin helhet och det är svårt att avgöra vilka influenser som kommer ifrån Stevie Wonder, New Age ...

  1. Teoretisk och praktisk genomgång av IPv6 och dess säkerhetsaspekter

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, David

    2012-01-01

    Den här uppsatsen går teoretiskt och praktiskt igenom IPv6 för att skapa en förståelse för det nya protokollet. Uppsatsen beskriver utöver den teoretiska genomgången av protokollet även det praktiska arbete som ligger bakom implementationen som är tänkt att kunna ge såväl privatpersoner som mindre organisationer tillgång till en säker IPv6 lösning även om Internetleverantören endast kan erbjuda IPv4.   Arbetet är gjort på eget initiativ då behovet av kunskap kring IPv6 växer lavinartat och då...

  2. Thermal decomposition of FC(O)OCH3 and FC(O)OCH2CH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, M; Argüello, G A; Burgos Paci, M A

    2018-05-09

    The thermal decomposition of methyl and ethyl formates has been extensively studied due to their importance in the oxidation of several fuels, pesticidal properties and their presence in interstellar space. We hitherto present the study of the thermal decomposition of methyl and ethyl fluoroformates, which could help in the elucidation of the reaction mechanisms. The reaction mechanisms were studied using FTIR spectroscopy in the temperature range of 453-733 K in the presence of different pressures of N2 as bath gas. For FC(O)OCH3 two different channels were observed; the unimolecular decomposition which is favored at higher temperatures and has a rate constant kFC(O)OCH3 = (5.3 ± 0.5) × 1015 exp[-(246 ± 10 kJ mol-1/RT)] (in units of s-1) and a bimolecular channel with a rate constant kFC(O)OCH3 = (1.6 ± 0.5) × 1011 exp[-(148 ± 10 kJ mol-1/RT)] (in units of s-1 (mol L)-1). However for ethyl formate, only direct elimination of CO2, HF and ethylene operates. The rate constants of the homogeneous first-order process fit the Arrhenius equation kFC(O)OCH2CH3 = (2.06 ± 0.09) × 1013 exp[-(169 ± 6 kJ mol-1/RT)] (in units of s-1). The difference between the mechanisms of the two fluoroformates relies on the stabilization of a six-centered transition state that only exists for ethyl formate. First principles calculations for the different channels were carried out to understand the dynamics of the decomposition.

  3. Surdegsbröd och jästbröd : skillnad i smak och GI-värde

    OpenAIRE

    Björkman, Andreas; Jeppsson, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Inledning: Surdeg är idag en trend som fångats av många och de flesta bagerier ochdagligvarubutiker säljer bröd som kallas för surdegsbröd. Ett traditionellt surdegsbröd är ettbröd där surdegen används som enda hävningsmedel i brödet. Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka skillnader i sensoriska egenskaper, utifrån ettkonsumentperspektiv, samt GI-värde mellan surdegsbröd, jästbröd och bröd bakat på bådesurdeg och jäst. Material och metod: Metoderna som användes var två olika konsumenttester för att...

  4. Gymnasierektors ledarskapsparadox: att vara verksamhetschef och pedagogisk utvecklare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Johansson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Forskning om rektors ledarskap är omfattande, men studier som undersöker gymnasierektors arbetssituation och ledarskap är mer sällsynta. Avsikten med den föreliggande studien var att bidra till att denna kunskapslucka fylls igen. Semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio gymnasierektorer genomfördes med fokus på rektors arbetsuppgifter, möjlighet att planera och styra arbetet, förväntningar kring ledarskapet, samt möjlighet att utvecklas och lära i arbetet. I resultaten av den tematiska analysen framträdde fyra teman: (1 ledarskapsideal, (2 kollegialt stöd, (3 ledarskap i en förändringsbenägen organisation, och (4 begränsat utrymme för reflektion. Ett övergripande, gemensamt tema: "Ledarskapsparadox" speglar de högst varierande omständigheter och förhållanden i vardagen som en gymnasierektor ska kunna hantera, vilka också präglar resultatet av analysen. Ett något oväntat resultat var att gymnasierektor upplevde stort, eget ansvar för elevernas bästa. Studien kastar nytt ljus på gymnasierektorers ledarskap, och bidrar till ökad förståelse för vad rollen som ledare för en komplex organisation som gymnasieskolan kan innebära. Genom att knyta an till en arbetspsykologisk ledarskapsteori och formulera en arbetspsykologisk hypotes kan studien bidra till forskningen om arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL.

  5. Fungsi Kelembagaan Independen Dalam Penguatan Mekanisme Penyelesaian Sengketa Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kusnali

    2017-06-01

    Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK. Berdasarkan Peraturan OJK No. 1/POJK.07/2014 tentang Lembaga Alternatif Penyelesaian Sengketa di Sektor Jasa Keuangan, Lembaga Jasa Keuangan wajib menjadi anggota Lembaga Alternatif Penyelesaian Sengketa di sektor jasa keuangan. Namun terdapat perbedaan mekanisme penyelesaian sengketa dalam program JKN yaitu adanya peran atau intervensi negara sebagai penyelenggara JKN. Kajian yang digunakan adalah yuridis normatif dengan menggunakan analisis data secara kualitatif. Potensi sengketa dalam JKN yang bersumber pengaduan terjadi karena adanya hubungan antara Peserta dengan BPJS Kesehatan dan Peserta dengan fasilitas kesehatan. Sedangkan sengketa yang bersumber di luar pengaduan terjadi karena adanya hubungan antara fasilitas kesehatan dengan BPJS, dan asosiasi fasilitas kesehatan dengan BPJS Kesehatan. Pola hubungan yang beragam tersebut perlu diakomodasi dalam suatu lembaga yang independen untuk mengawasi pelaksanaan JKN di lapangan, seperti pembayaran klaim yang terlambat, pemberian kode diagnosa atau coding, peserta mandiri yang tidak bisa naik kelas perawatan, kontrak kerja sama dengan BPJS Kesehatan, dan masalah lainnya. Keberadaan lembaga independen adalah penting sekaligus sebagai bentuk penguatan sistem penyelesaian sengketa alternatif dan meminimalisir masuknya sengketa ke pengadilan. Pembentukan lembaga independen yang sekaligus berfungsi sebagai wasit dalam sengketa JKN perlu di tata ulang untuk memudahkan Pemerintah menjalankan tugas dalam fungsi pengaturan dan pengawasan.   

  6. Vad och hur gör de? − att synliggöra lärande i grundskolans slöjdpraktik via videoetnografi och mikroanalys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln bygger på resultat och erfarenheter av etnografiskt insamlade videoinspelningar från grundskolans slöjdundervisning utgående från tre studier; dels vid ett projekt med förstudier under slutet av 1990-talet (Johansson, 1996, dels vid avhandlingsprojektet Slöjdpraktik i skolan (Johansson, 2002 och dels inom forskningsprojektet Kommunikation och lärande i slöjdpraktiker, (”Komolär-projektet”, under 2005−2010 (Lindström, Borg, Johansson & Lindberg, 2003.Att insamla empiri i autentiska slöjdmiljöer är av intresse då lärandesituationer kan synliggöras när elever med hjälp av material och redskap arbetar med att tillverka artefakter. Utifrån detaljerade analyser av slöjdaktiviteter går det att upptäcka det som utspelar sig och möjligheter ges att uppfatta något annat jämfört med vad man kan tro känna väl eller ha förenklade och till och med felaktiga uppfattningar om. Videoobservationer möjliggör att antaganden istället görs på empiriskt grundat datamaterial. Med risk att videofilma och analysera det man tror sig veta och söka har forskningsprojektens insamlingar mer förutsättningslöst arbetat efter vad och hur elever och lärare gör i slöjdpraktik och vad man får veta när slöjdaktiviteter analyseras mer ingående. Videomaterialen har analyserats både på en mer övergripande nivå och detaljerat med hjälp av mikroanalyser. Därefter har lärandet synliggjorts och beskrivits bland annat i teman för att visa hur personerna är resurser för varandra och hur lärandet utvecklas genom olika språkanvändning och med slöjdpraktikens fysiska redskap och material.Sökord: metod, slöjd, klassrumsforskning, videoetnografi, mikroanalysURN:NBN:no-29955

  7. Employer branding. : - En fallstudie vid Sandvik AB om uppfattningar av begreppet employer branding och hur detta tillämpas idag och i framtiden.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding är ett begrepp som är aktuellt bland företagen just nu och allt fler väljer att satsa på employer branding som marknadsföringsstrategi. Den här studien handlar om employer branding på Sandvik och begreppet employer branding.Syftet med denna fallstudie av en global koncern är att förklara och beskriva begreppet employerbranding, samt hur man arbetar med detta och vilka framtidsvisioner man har på Sandvik.Studien genomfördes med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer med ett antal ny...

  8. Arkitekturer i operativsystem : en fallstudie i monolitisk och micro kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Hjortsberg, Andreas; Frederiksen, Kristofer

    2001-01-01

    Den tekniska utvecklingen driver fram allt mer avancerade datorsystem. Samtidigt ställs allt större krav på stabilitet och flexibilitet i de operativsystem som ska användas på dessa system. De senaste årtiondena har micro kernel arkitekturen varit föremål för intensiv forskning och det finns idag ett flertal operativsystem på marknaden som använder denna arkitektur. Traditionella monolitiska operativsystem är relativt resurskrävande system som ofta anklagats för att sakna struktur. Micro kern...

  9. Barbröstade grabbar, med färgat hår och litervis med öl : En analys av Aftonbladets skildring av herr- och damfotboll i Herr-VM 2006 och Dam-VM 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Henning

    2012-01-01

    I den här uppsatsen har jag undersökt hur män och kvinnor framställs i bild och text i Aftonbladets rapportering från herrarnas fotbolls-VM i Tyskland 2006 och damernas fotbolls-VM i Kina 2007. Mitt syfte var att titta på hur konstrueringen av en nationell diskurs skiljer sig åt i texterna om dam- och herrfotboll, om det finns någon tydlig manlig och kvinnlig diskurs på bilderna, samt hur väl min undersökning stämmer in på beprövade genusteorier. För att kunna besvara mitt syfte använde jag m...

  10. Lämplighetsbedömningar av unga kvinnor och män – Värme- och kompetensdimensionernas betydelse i rekrytering

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnblad, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    I frågan om social bedömning av andra individer och grupper utgör värme och kompetens två centrala dimensioner. Värme syftar på hur snäll, vänlig och omtänksam en person är, dess funktion är att bedöma vad personens avsikt är. Kompetens tyder på hur intelligent, självsäker och rationell en person är, dess funktion är att bedöma hur kapabel personen är att utföra avsikterna. Vanligtvis attribueras män utgående från kompetensdimensionen och kvinnor från värmedimensionen. Utgående från teorin om...

  11. Konflikten mellan arbetsliv och familjeliv : En kvalitativ studie om småbarnsföräldrars upplevelser av psykisk hälsa och balans i tillvaron

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlzén, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Dagens arbetsliv ställer helt andra krav på individen än förr. På arbetsmarknaden krävs flexibilitet och eget ansvar, där individen förväntas kunna arbeta när som helst och var som helst. Dessa faktorer har bidragit till en obalans mellan arbetsliv och familjeliv som kan orsaka olika former av ohälsa. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur småbarnsföräldrar upplever sin psykiska hälsa i relation till balansen mellan arbetsliv och familjeliv. Studien bygger på en kvalitativ metod och dat...

  12. MEKANISME PERHITUNGAN KEUNTUNGAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP BAGI HASIL (STUDI TERHADAP PEMBIAYAAN MUDHARABAH PADA BPRS HIKMAH WAKILAH BANDA ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardiah Wardiah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the process of calculating the profit of mudharabah financing at BPRS Hikmah Wakilah from an Islamic perspective and its influence on profit sharing. It also aims to explore the mechanism of adjusting the profit-sharing ratio, and the effect of calculating the profitability of mudharabah financing on profit sharing. The method of this research is descriptive analysis. The research data is collected through library research and field research. The results showed that the calculation of profit sharing PT. BPRS Hikmah Wakilah uses revenue sharing system in accordance with the National Sharia Board Fatwa No.15/DSN-MUI/IX/2000 About Principles of Distribution of Business Results in Sharia Financial Institutions. While in the calculation of profit, the BPRS refers to the percentage of total financing and average income earned by the customer and projected the same profit sharing during the financing period. Profit calculation significantly affects the percentage of profit sharing and the period of profit received by the bank. =========================================== Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proses perhitungan keuntungan pembiayaan mudharabah pada BPRS Hikmah Wakilah ditinjau menurut hukum Islam, mekanisme penyesuaian nisbah pembagian keuntungan, serta pengaruh perhitungan keuntungan pembiayaan mudharabah terhadap bagi hasil. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif analisis. Pengumpulan data penelitian dilakukan melalui library research dan field research. Teknik pengumpulan data melalui wawancara dan studi dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perhitungan bagi hasil, PT. BPRS Hikmah Wakilah menggunakan sistem revenue sharing sesuai dengan Fatwa Dewan Syariah Nasional No.15/DSN-MUI/IX/2000 Tentang Prinsip Distribusi Hasil Usaha Dalam Lembaga Keuangan Syariah. Sementara dalam melakukan perhitungan keuntungan, BPRS merujuk pada persentase jumlah pembiayaan dan pendapatan rata

  13. MEKANISME DAN KINETIKA QUENCHING OKSIGEN SINGLET DARI SENYAWA FENOLIK DAUN CENGKEH TERHADAP FOTOKSIDASI YANG DISENSITASI OLEH ERITROSIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Suryanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi senyawa fenolik dalam daun cengkeh dan mempelajari mekanisme dan kinetika quenching oksigen singlet. Daun cengkeh diekstraksi dengan cara destilasi uap menggunakan air selama 6 jam. Minyak daun cengkeh kasar selanjutnya dimurnikan dengan destilasi pengurangan tekanan. Fraksi-fraksi yang terisolasi ditentukan strukturnya dengan metoda infra merah (IR, resonansi magnetik inti (1H NMR, dan spectrometer massa (MS. Efek 0, 500, 1000 dan 1500 ppm eugenol terhadap fotooksidasi asam linoleat (0,03M yang mengandung 15 ppm eritrosin dalam etanol dipelajari dengan mengukur angka peroksida minyak. Mekanisme dan kinetika quenching oleh eugenol dipelajari dengan metode steady-state. Sampel 0; 0,06 x 10-4; 0,12 x 10-4; 0,24 x 10-4 dan 0,48x 10-4 mM eugenol dipersiapkan dalam pelarut air yang juga mengandung 0; 17,05 x10-4; 34,10 x 10-4; 68,19 x 10-4 dan 136,39 x 10-4 mM eritrosin yang disinari oleh cahaya fl uoresen (4000 lux pada suhu kamar selama 15 jam. Hasil analisis kandungan eugenol dari minyak cengkeh, F1, F2, F3 dan F4 berturut-turut adalah 49,68; 54,32; 87,16 dan 73,65%. Kebenaran struktur F3 diidentifi kasi dengan spektrometer IR pada serapan kuat 3448 cm-1 yang menunjukkan adanya gugus hidroksil dari senyawa fenolik sedangkan pada 1H NMR menunjukkan jumlah proton pada cincin aromatic menjadi 3 atom H dan spektrometer massa menunjukkan m/e = 164 sebagai puncak tertinggi dan tidak muncul puncak (M-14+ sebagai petunjuk adanya eugenol. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa eugenol memiliki aktivitas antifotooksidatif terhadap fotooksidasi asam linoleat yang disensitasi oleh eritrosin. Mekanisme quenching oksigen singlet terhadap fotodegrasi eritrosin oleh eugenol menunjukkan bahwa eugenol hanya menstabilkan oksigen singlet. Konstanta laju quenching oksigen singlet total oleh eugenol adalah 4,42 x 108/M/s. Kata kunci: Eugenol, quencher, eritrosin, oksigen singlet   ABSTRACT The objectives of this research were to

  14. Crystallization-induced dynamic resolution R-epimer from 25-OCH3-PPD epimeric mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sainan; Tang, Yun; Cao, Jiaqing; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Yuqing

    2015-11-15

    25-OCH3-PPD is a promising antitumor dammarane sapogenin isolated from the total saponin-hydrolyzed extract of Panax ginseng berry and Panax notoginseng leaves. 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was more potent as an anti-cancer agent than 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD and epimeric mixture of 25-OCH3-PPD. This paper describes the rapid separation process of the R-epimer of 25-OCH3-PPD from its epimeric mixture by crystallization-induced dynamic resolution (CIDR). The optimized CIDR process was based on single factor analysis and nine well-planned orthogonal design experiments (OA9 matrix). A rapid and sensitive reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was developed and validated for the quantitation of 25-OCH3-PPD epimeric mixture and crystalline product. Separation and quantitation were achieved with a silica column using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (87:13, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The ELSD detection was performed at 50°C and 3L/min. Under conditions involving 3mL of 95% ethanol, 8% HCl, and a hermetically sealed environment for 72h, the maximum production of 25(R)-OCH3-PPD was achieved with a chemical purity of 97% and a total yield of 87% through the CIDR process. The 25(R)-OCH3-PPD was nearly completely separated from the 220mg 25-OCH3-PPD epimeric mixture. Overall, a simple and steady small-batch purification process for the large-scale production of 25(R)-OCH3-PPD from 25-OCH3-PPD epimeric mixture was developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Verksamhetsanalys, Planering och Utveckling av en webbtjänst

    OpenAIRE

    Kindstedt, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Arbetet behandlar utvecklingsprocessen av programmet SECTMA, ett cirkeltränings-program designat för människor som utövar kampsporter. Programmet är designat för alla konditionsnivåer från toppidrottare till de som endast vill förbättra sin kondition. Arbetet är tudelat, i den första delen går jag igenom teori för STOF och Agile för att skapa en grund och en förståelse för hur jag vill utveckla programmet. Den andra delen följer med utvecklingsprocessen stegvis. STOF erbjuder ett ramverk...

  16. Balans mellan arbete och familjeliv : Ett vinnande koncept för alla

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Viktor; Ajena, David

    2012-01-01

    Under de senaste årtionden har en stor förändring skett hos familjers olika sätt att förhålla sig till arbetslivet. Den traditionella arbetsdagen på 8-timmar är inte längre normen, och den framväxande informations- och kommunikations teknologin gör att en anställd kan få tillgång till allt arbete 24/7. En följd av dessa förändringar är att efterfrågan på familjerelaterande- och hushållsnäratjänster har ökat både för män och kvinnor. Rapporten har visat forskning och studier som påvisar att de...

  17. Ramverk för en drift- och underhållsstrategi ur ett regelstyrt infrastrukturperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Espling, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    Att förvalta statens järnvägar är en komplex uppgift där hänsyn måste tas till interna och externa faktorer och processer samtidigt som krav på effektivitet ställs från ägare, kunder och slutkunder. Banverket bildade 1988 genom att det affärsdrivande verket Statens Järnvägar delades i ett infrastrukturverk, Banverket, och ett trafikutövningsverk SJ. Vid tidpunkten för delningen var infrastrukturanläggningarna i stort behov av upprustning och förnyelse. Till att börja med tillämpades regelstyr...

  18. Förbättring av IKEAs Kvalitetstester och Hantering av Kundklagomål : - Köksluckor och Bänkskivor

    OpenAIRE

    Assbring, Lisa; Halilović, Elma

    2012-01-01

    IKEA grundades 1943 av Ingvar Kamprad och återförsäljs idag i 44 länder runt om i världen. Med den 25-års garanti på kök som IKEA erbjuder har det blivit allt viktigare för dem att bekräfta kvaliteten på kökssortimentet och hur tillfredsställd kunden är. Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att identifiera de mest kritiska faktorerna för köksfronter och bänkskivor baserat på nuvarande kundklagomål och vilka testmetoder som kan användas för att testa dessa faktorer i produktutvecklingsproc...

  19. ADO.NET och Entity Framework : En jämförelse av prestanda mellan en objektorienterad databas och en relationsdatabas

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Emelie; Andreasen, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Denna uppsats mäter och jämför prestanda mellan en objektorienterad databas och en relationsdatabas. Uppsatsen bygger på en utredande karaktär utifrån vår hypotes och vårt intresse att testa den.Hypotesen bygger på problematiken omkring mängden kod utvecklaren måste skriva för att kunna koppla ihop applikation med databas. En större mängd skriven kod som utvecklaren måste skriva borde göra att prestanda och svarstider blir långsammare. Därför ville vi undersöka om verktyg som medför en mindre...

  20. Från outsiderfilmmakare till etablerad indieregissör : David Lynch, Jim Jarmusch och Steven Soderbergh

    OpenAIRE

    Simberg, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Det här arbetet behandlar kreativ frihet och konstnärligt oberoende i filmskapande, utgående från begreppet independent film och regissörerna David Lynch, Jim Jarmusch och Steven Soderbergh. Den centrala frågeställningen är hur det har varit möjligt för en filmkonstnär att uppnå konstnärligt oberoende och samtidigt ha en långlivad och framgångsrik karriär. Arbetets fokus ligger på de tre regissörernas genombrottsfilmer; Eraserhead, Stranger Than Paradise och sex, lies, and videotape, och förs...

  1. Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel : underlagsrapporter 1-10

    OpenAIRE

    Carlén, Björn; Hultkrantz, Lars; Liu, Xing; Lunander, Anders; Mandell, Svante; Mellin, Anna; Nilsson, Jan-Eric; Pyddoke, Roger; Sorkina, Edith; Vierth, Inge

    2014-01-01

    VTI notat 28-2014 innehåller de tio underlagsrapporter som ligger till grund för VTI rapport 831: ”Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel – Sammanfattande rapport”. I VTI rapport 831 diskuterar forskarna flera dimensioner av hur växthusgaserna från godstransportsektorn ska kunna minskas, till exempel med hjälp av så kallade Gröna korridorer. Vidare diskuteras hur man ska se på de klimatpolitiska konsekvenserna av överflyttning från väg till järnväg eller elektrifierade fordon på v...

  2. Room-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiOCH films using tetraethoxysilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Yoshizako, Y.; Kato, H.; Tsukiyama, D.; Terai, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-doped silicon oxide (SiOCH) thin films were deposited by room-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The deposition rate and composition of the films strongly depended on radio frequency (RF) power. The films deposited at low RF power contained more CH n groups. The SiOCH films showed high etch rate and low refractive index in proportion to the carbon composition. The deposition with low plasma density and low substrate temperature is effective for SiOCH growth by PECVD using TEOS

  3. Komplexitet för kvalitet i lärande och undervisning: bedömning av komplexa problem och studenters resonemang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kjellström

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vi utbildar studenter för att de ska ha möjlighet att lösa mycket komplexa samhällsproblem,men hur vet vi att de har utvecklat de former av tänkande och handlande som krävs? Forskning visar att vuxna tänker, talar och handlar utifrån olika nivåer av komplexitet, och att utbildning i hög grad påverkar människors förmågor. Model of Hierarchical Complexity(MHC är en teori som beskriver hur komplext information sätts samman och hur komplext personer resonerar i en fråga, vanligtvis på någon av nivåerna konkret, abstrakt, formellt, systematiskt eller metasystematisk. Syftet med denna artikel är att introducera MHC och visa på dess relevans som verktyg inom högre utbildning. Med hjälp av teorin är det möjligt att analysera både hur komplex en uppgift är och hur studenter klarar av att lösa den, vilket speglar förståelse inom ett ämne. Med modellen som mått på komplexitet tydliggörs svårighetsgraden i det som ska läras och på vilken nivå studenterna klarar att ta till sig kunskapsinnehållet. Avslutningsvis diskuteras hur studenter kan stödjas att utvecklasina förmågor till komplext resonerande och därmed skapa kvalitet i både lärande och undervisningOne of the aims of higher education is to teach students to solve complex problems, but what is the complexity of problems and the reasoning of students? The Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC is a theory applicable to all domains in which information is organized and accounts for increases in behavioral complexity which includes cognitive or reasoning complexity. The paper is a theoretical introduction to MHC as a tool for teaching in higher education. The model clarifies and shows the gap between the complexity in the subject and the students understanding of the same subject. We also discuss how to support the development of more complex reasoning in students.

  4. IKEA nätbutik och hemleverans - En marknadsundersökning

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselström, Matias

    2011-01-01

    Konkurrensen på marknaderna blir ständigt hårdare. Internet och nät handel har medfört möjligheten att nå kunder dygnet runt och nästan helt utan geografiska begränsningar. För att företaget skall klara av konkurrensen måste deras produkter och tjänster tillfredsställa de alltmer krävande kundernas behov. För att tillfredsställa kundernas behov måste företagen undersöka vad kunderna efterfrågar och om företaget möter dessa krav. I detta arbete beskrivs hur en marknadsundersökning för IKEA nät...

  5. Inre och yttre motivation till träning : en kvalitativ studie bland regebundet aktiva kvinnor

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund: Regelbunden träning är viktig för både fysiskt och psykisktvälbefinnande. För att bibehålla en regelbundenhet i träningen krävs det ettengagemang och en motivation. En person kan motiveras av både inre ochyttre faktorer beroende på personens intresse. Trots att människor tenderaratt vara mer stillasittande, tycks intresset för träning och hälsa öka. Inteminst syns detta på sociala medier, där bilder och inlägg medträningsbudskap förmedlas frekvent. Syfte: Studiens syfte är att under...

  6. Flavours – det smakar doft : Upplevelsen av mat och vin i kombination

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Jonas; Lagnetoft, David; Nygren, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Inledning: Den vetenskapliga förankringen om mat och vin i kombination är låg. Upplevelsenav en måltid involverar alla de mänskliga sinnena, vilket således har gjort den svår att mäta.Hur stor roll spelar egentligen grundsmakerna och krävs det ytterligare element för att lyfta enkombination av mat och vin till högre höjder?Bakgrund: Förutom smaklökarna på tungan som bildar den grundläggande uppfattningen avdet vi stoppar i munnen, är det främst munkänsla och flavours som bidrar till helheten ...

  7. JALUR MOLEKULER MEKANISME APOPTOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a normal condition for development and live multicellular organism. Apoptosis is a morphological phenomenon that plays an important role in physiologic processes during fetal development and in adult. Mitochondria play an important role in apoptosis. Mitochondria can do apoptosis directly. Mitochondria has 2 family of protein Bcl-2. Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are anti apoptosis while Bad an Bax are pro apoptosis. There are 3 different mechanism to receptors at the cell surface and a third may be triggered by dangerous agent that different from two ways before. Apoptosis also need caspase as cell death executor. Study of apoptosis still done especially in case of disease. Some disease have known related with disturbing of apoptosis mechanism for example cancer and auto immune. This article reviews about molecular mechanism of apoptosis for understanding disease and future therapy.

  8. Bankvärldens framtid : En studie kring hur banker utnyttjar den teknologiska utvecklingen och digitaliseringen av tjänster, samt dess påverkan på kundrelationer, förtroende och lojalitet

    OpenAIRE

    Grip, Sebastian; Hellström, Gustav; Skyttevall, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Titel: Bankvärldens framtid: En studie kring hur banker utnyttjar den teknologiska utvecklingen och digitaliseringen av tjänster samt dess påverkan på kundrelationer, förtroende och lojalitet   Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi   Akademi: Akademin för Ekonomi, Samhälle och Teknik, Mälardalens Högskola   Författare: Sebastian Grip, Gustav Hellström och Tobias Skyttevall (92/04/22), (94/02/28), (95/05/21) Handledare: Hadjikhani, Annoch   Datum: 05–06–17   Bakgrund: Att skapa en lojal kun...

  9. Guide för referenshantering : APA-manual inom Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap (BUVA)

    OpenAIRE

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Denna guide behandlar först hur du enligt APA refererar i löpande text och därefter hur man skriver en referenslista. För en komplett guide till APA Style hänvisas till Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010) eller till hemsidan http://www.apastyle.org, där det finns tydlig introduktion i ljud och bild till APA Style.

  10. Water-soluble derivatives of 25-OCH3-PPD and their anti-proliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Yuan, Wei-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-05-01

    (20R)-25-Methoxyl-dammarane-3β,12β,20-triol (25-OCH 3 -PPD, AD-1) is a dammarane-type sapogenin showing anti-tumor potential. In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 25-OCH 3 -PPD, 11 novel sulfamic acid and diacid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 25-OCH 3 -PPD, compounds 1, 4, and 5 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on almost all cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 1 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays. The water solubility of 25-OCH 3 -PPD and its derivatives was tested and the results showed that the solubility of 25-OCH 3 -PPD sulfamic acid and diacid derivatives were better than that of 25-OCH 3 -PPD in water, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. För vilka finns kroppspositivismen? : En diskursanalytisk och semiotisk studie av hur kroppsaktivister på Instagram artikulerar kroppspositivism

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie har genomförts med syfte att undersöka hur kroppsaktivister artikulerar kropp och kroppspositivitet genom bilder och texter på deras Instagramkonton. Studien syftar även till att undersöka om, och i så fall hur, artikulationerna av kroppspositivitet skiljer sig mellan olika kroppsaktivister. Slutligen syftar studien till att studera hur kroppsaktivisterna artikulerar syftet med rörelsen. Det teoretiska ramverket består av tidigare forskning och etablerade teorier i postmodern fem...

  12. Hur äldres sexualitet och sexuella hälsa är kopplade till deras livskvalitet : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Elsa; Johansson, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Sexualiteten och den sexuella hälsan är en grundpelare i att varje människas individualitet. Det finns ett fördomsfullt synsätt angående äldre och deras sexualitet där gruppen blir betraktade som asexuell. Ämnet är tabubelagt och det föreligger relativt lite kunskap kring det. Livskvalitet är en subjektiv upplevelse som förändras över tid. Åldrandet bidrar till flera riskfaktorer som kan leda till nedsatt livskvalitet. Denna litteraturstudies syfte var att undersöka hur sexualitet och sexuell...

  13. Nu mår man? : en kvalitativ studie om tidspress och välmående

    OpenAIRE

    Asfedai Larsson, Joel; Falk, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Tidigare forskning visar att många akademiker upplever hög arbetsbelastning och påtaglig tidspress på arbetsplatsen. Det kan leda till en konflikt mellan arbete och fritid. Tidspress och välmående är aktuella ämnen, vilket dagspressen styrker. Tidigare forskning upplever dessutom en kunskapslucka vad gäller forskning om obalans mellan arbete och fritid, samt vilket effekt det får på individens välmående. Studiens syfte är således att utforska hur redovisningskonsulten upplever tidspress utifr...

  14. Batman: En musikalisk berättelse : En analys av filmerna Batman: The Movie, Batman och The Dark Knight

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlin, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att analysera hur filmmusiken har använts i Batman: The Movie (1966), Batman (1989) och The Dark Knight (2008). Att se en narrativ användning och beskrivning av Batman samt hur upplevelsen av filmen ändras när man ser den utan musik. Kompositörerna till filmerna är, för Batman: The Movie (1966) Nelson Riddle, till Batman (1989) är det Danny Elfman och till The Dark Knight (2008) är kompositörerna Hans Zimmer och James Newton Howard. Filmerna analyserats från ett mult...

  15. Evidensgraderingssystemet GRADE : Ett sätt att granska vetenskaplig kunskap om metoder och arbetssätt i hälso- och sjukvården

    OpenAIRE

    Roback, Kerstin; Carlsson, Per

    2009-01-01

    Beslut om införande av nya behandlingsmetoder och arbetssätt i sjukvården präglas alltid av en viss grad av osäkerhet. De studier som gjorts av metodens för- och nackdelar kan vara av olika god kvalitet och därmed ge mer eller mindre säkra resultat. Efter att användningen av systematiska litteraturstudier vid medicinsk teknologiutvärdering tog fart på 1980-talet började man efterfråga ett beslutsunderlag som även tar hänsyn till olika studiers kvalitet. Detta initierade utvecklingen av flera ...

  16. Starbucksfenomenet i Finland : Hur uppfattar och upplever finska konsumenter tillhörande generation Y och Z varumärket Starbucks?

    OpenAIRE

    Emtö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    I den här undersökningen har jag undersökt hur finska konsumenter uppfattar och upplever varumärket Starbucks. Jag har utfört undersökningen genom att använda mig av fokusgruppintervjuer. Intervjuerna utfördes på basen av min frågeguide som utvecklats kring de relevanta teoriområden som är presenterade i arbetet. Mitt urval för intervjuerna var finska konsumenter tillhörande generationerna Y och Z i och med att dessa vuxit upp med varumärket samt upplevt inflytandet av sociala medier i vardag...

  17. Kan ekologisk och ekonomisk hållbarhet kombineras? : En studie av en neoklassisk jämviktsmodell och dess relation till hållbarhet

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, David

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrunden till examensarbetet är att aktiviteter kopplat till den globala ekonomin samt tillväxt av denna har skapat en situation som i dagsläget inte uppfyller den ekologiska dimensionen av hållbarhet. Lösningar för att minska den miljöpåverkan som sker idag samtidigt som ekonomisk tillväxt sker har kritiserats och istället föreslås ekonomier med låg eller ingen tillväxt. Med bakgrund till detta har forskningsprojektet Bortom BNP-tillväxt startat och examensarbetet genomförs hos ekonomiska ...

  18. Förskolechefens anavar och uppdrag i ett kommunalt förvaltningsperspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eriksson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The revision of the Swedish Education Act and of the Pre-School Curriculum of 2010 involved a demand for improved pedagogical quality and for an alteration and clarification of roles and responsibilities within the pre-school sector. In the revision the responsibilities, authorizations and rights to make decisions of the Heads of Preschool were articulated and clarified. This article describes and discusses how the new responsibilities and tasks of the Heads of Preschool have been interpreted and how the response to the revisions has manifested itself within a framework of municipal public administration. The data used consists of a questionnaire answered by 48 administrative officials with responsibility for education government in different municipalities. The result shows that the Heads of Preschool in a majority of municipalities are faced with increasing responsibilities and a new accountability structure. In order to meet the demands for improved pedagogical quality they are also expected to provide competence development opportunities for preschool staff.2010-års revideringen av skollagen och förskolans läroplan innebar dels ökade krav på pedagogisk kvalitet och dels på en förändrad och förtydligad ansvarsstruktur i förskolan. För förskolechefens del explicitgjordes och förtydligades både ansvar, befogenhet och beslutsrätt. I artikeln beskrivs och problematiseras hur förskolechefens ansvar och uppdrag tolkas och kommer till uttryck i ett övergripande kommunalt förvaltningsperspektiv i samband med dessa revideringar. Data utgörs av en enkätundersökning besvarad av 48 förvaltningstjänstemän anställda i olika kommuner. Resultatet visar att förskolechefen i flertalet kommuner har tilldelats ett stort ansvar när det gäller att tolka och initiera den förtydligade ansvarsstrukturen och skapa förutsättningar i form av kompetensutvecklingsinsatser för förskolepersonalen för att möta de ökade kraven p

  19. SPECIFIC ALLOCATION FUND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO INCREASE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDONESIA (Mekanisme Dana Alokasi Khusus Efisiensi Energi dalam Mendukung Perbaikan Lingkungan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2015-03-01

    sebesar 26% dengan usaha sendiri dan 41% dengan bantuan pendanaan asing. Dalam Perpres tersebut telah diatur sektor-sektor apa saja yang dianggap menjadi sumber emiten terbesar termasuk sektor energi, sekaligus adanya kewajiban pendanaan APBN/APBD dalam mengatasinya. Di sisi lain, kegiatan efisiensi energi tercatat sebagai salah satu aksi penurunan emisi GRK yang cukup signifikan dalam sektor energi baik untuk bangunan maupun mesin. Sayangnya kegiatan tersebut membutuhkan investasi yang cukup besar. Akibatnya kegiatan efisiensi energy menjadi tidak menarik. Di sinilah peran pendanaan APBN/ APBD menjadi sangat krusial. Terkait dengan pengaturan pengalokasian pendanaan APBN/APBD inilah peran Kemenkeu menjadi sangat vital, khususnya dalam mekanisme pengalokasian Dana Alokasi Khusus (DAK yang menjadi kewenangannya. Dari hasil analisis, mekanisme alokasi DAK ternyata memungkinkan untuk ditujukan bagi pendanaan kegiatan efisiensi energi. Namun demikian, mekanisme yang harus dijalankan lebih difokuskan kepada inisiatif Kementerian/Lembaga (K/L yang berwenang dalam pengusulan alokasi DAK tersebut.

  20. Anti-lung cancer effects of novel ginsenoside 25-OCH(3)-PPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rayburn, Elizabeth R; Hang, Jie; Zhao, Yuqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2009-09-01

    20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3beta, 12beta, 20-triol (25-OCH(3)-PPD), a newly identified natural product from Panax notoginseng, exhibits activity against a variety of cancer cells. Herein, we report the effects of this compound on human A549, H358, and H838 lung cancer cells, and compare these effects with a control lung epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. 25-OCH(3)-PPD decreased survival, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest in the lung cancer cell lines. The P. notoginseng compound also decreased the levels of proteins associated with cell proliferation and cell survival. Moreover, 25-OCH(3)-PPD inhibited the growth of A549 lung cancer xenograft tumors. 25-OCH(3)-PPD demonstrated low toxicity to non-cancer cells, and no observable toxicity was seen when the compound was administered to animals. In conclusion, our preclinical data indicate that 25-OCH(3)-PPD is a potential therapeutic agent in vitro and in vivo, and further preclinical and clinical development of this agent for lung cancer is warranted.

  1. Dubbel ABC-analys av inrednings- och gåvoartiklar för en blombutik

    OpenAIRE

    Ruokolainen, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Kirkkonummen Kukkapiste är en blombutik i Kyrkslätt centrum, som år 2012 utvidgade sitt sortiment av inrednings- och gåvoartiklar. Konkurrensen är hög och en ABC-analys kan hjälpa företagare att identifiera vilka faktorer i ett företag som det lönar sig att lägga tid och resurser på, vilket i sin tur effektiverar verksamheten. Syftet med detta arbete är att med hjälp av en dubbel ABC-analys för Kirkkonummen Kukkapiste ta reda på vilka inrednings- och gåvoartiklar som binder mest kapital och v...

  2. Varumärket IKEA : en studie om identitet och image vid företagets etablering i Karlstad

    OpenAIRE

    Almqvist, Jessica; Reinholdsson, Åsa

    2007-01-01

    IKEA är i nuläget ett av Sveriges och världens starkaste varumärken och under sommaren 2007 kommer IKEA att etablera sig i Karlstad. För att ett varumärke ska kunna anses vara starkt krävs det att företagets identitet och image stämmer överens. Identitet är de signaler som företaget sänder ut till kunden och image är den uppfattning som uppstår i kundens medvetande om själva företaget. Intresset i nuläget var att se till vad IKEA har för identitet och vad boende i Karlstad med omnejd har för ...

  3. "Oftast du vet själv vad är det rätta" : Högstadieelevers sociala mediavanor och regelperception i onlinesammanhang

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Sociala medier spelar en allt större roll i hur vi kommunicerar och uttrycker oss. Denna studie är ämnad att utveckla och koppla ihop den redan existerande forskningen om ungdomars sociala mediavanor på Snapchat och Instagram, och forskning om vad sociala mediaanvändare upplever vad man kan och får publicera på dessa sociala medier. Denna studie utforskar detta genom tre fokusgruppsintervjuer med 15 åriga niondeklassare. Resultatet analyseras genom dramaturgi som till stor del...

  4. Lekfull kreativitet. Fysiska användargränssnitt som erbjuder social och fysisk interaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Eva Irene

    2017-01-01

    I den här artikeln presenteras en studie som ägde rum under två år i fem olika förskolor i Danmark och som inkluderade 55 barn. Specifikt undersökte vi hur fysiska användargränssnitt kan stötta social och fysisk interaktion. Studien applicerade en design-baserad metodologi som följde en iterativ,......, cyklisk process. Analysen visade att fysiska gränssnitt som främjar utforskande aktiviteter, verbala interaktioner och samarbete har en potential att erbjuda lekfulla lärande situationer som understödjer fria men också guidade aktiviteter....

  5. Tre lampor och ett ben : produktserie för Gotlands Lampfabrik

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Gotlands Lampfabrik är en nystartad verksamhet (2009) som drivs av Jonas Kling och Jane Odell centralt på Gotland. De producerar stilrena lampskärmar i ett ljust polymermaterial med papp på båda sidorna. Produktionen är liten och görs för hand på plats i den egna fabriken i Väskinde. Sortimentet består av 33 lampskärmar och i nuläget producerar inte Gotlands Lampfabrik sina egna lampben eller upphängningar utan köper in dem från fristående parter vilket medför att sortimentet kan uppfattas so...

  6. Boye och "jag" : En grammatisk analys av en litterär persona

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Elina

    2015-01-01

    I denna uppsats använder jag den interpersonella metafunktionen inom systemisk-funktionell grammatik för att undersöka sex av Karin Boyes dikter, detta med syfte att se huruvida en sådan här analys kan säga något av intresse om diktjaget. Analysen genomfördes enligt Holmberg och Karlssons modell i Grammatik med betydelse, där subjekt och finit tagits ut varpå språkhandlingar markerats och modalitet kommenterats. Dikterna är hämtade ur Boyes Samlade dikter. Av min analys framgår att jaget beha...

  7. Ogräs, åkertistlar och taggiga växter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Klintwall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Psykiatriska diagnoser är kontroversiella. Vissa, ofta psykiatriker, menar att psykiska tillstånd går att dela upp i distinkta klasser medan andra, ofta psykologer, menar att all sådan uppdelning gör våld på verkligheten. Dessutom har psykiatrin anklagats för att vara moraliserande: vem kan avgöra vad som är sjukt och friskt? Är autism en sjukdom? Utifrån en pragmatisk begreppsanalys är uppdelningen mellan sjukt och friskt nödvändigtvis godtycklig. Precis som när en trädgårdsmästare avgör vad som är ogräs så beror det på situationen och ens syften. Och precis som växterarter ibland är distinkta arter så kan vissa psykiatriska diagnoser vara distinkta klasser, och andra inte. Kanske är autism en avgränsad diagnos, kanske inte. Men ibland är inte artsuppdelning det mest användbara för en trädgårdsmästare, precis som det inte behöver vara det för psykiatrin. Istället kan man formulera nya kategoriseringar helt baserade på pragmatiska hänsyn. Ibland räcker det med taggiga växter och socialt indifferenta barn.

  8. Motivation beroende på anställningsform? : En fallstudie om motivationsrelaterade skillnader mellan fast anställda och inhyrda medarbetare på ett bank- och försäkringsföretag

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist Swahn, Sofia; Emthén, Niklas; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Bemanningsbranschen växer och allt fler personer blir anställda via bemanningsföretag. Bemanningsföretagens viktigaste uppgift är att öka flexibiliteten på arbetsmarknaden. De gör det lättare för företagen att snabbt anpassa arbetsstyrkan till efterfrågan. Samtidigt finns problem och risker med att hyra in personal. Flertalet studier kring dessa problem tangerar ämnena motivation och/eller inhyrda medarbetare, men forskningen är begränsad vad gäller inhyrda medarbetares motivation. Under anta...

  9. Pemodelan dan Analisa Reduksi Respon Getaran Translasi pada Sistem Utama dan Energi Listrik yang Dihasilkan oleh Mekanisme Dynamic Vibration Absorber Metode Cantilever Piezoelectric (CPVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Rachma Efendy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Getaran banyak terjadi pada mesin-mesin di industri. Salah satu solusi untuk mereduksi getaran berlebih adalah dengan menambahkan Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA. Prinsip kerja dari Dynamic Vibration Absorber adalah penambahan massa absorber dan pegas pada sistem utama. DVA akan mereduksi getaran sistem utama dengan menghasilkan getaran yang arahnya berlawanan dengan arah getar dari sistem utama. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Pachpute [1], penggunaan DVA telah terbukti dapat mereduksi getaran dari sistem utama yang dioperasikan di frekuensi natural secara signifikan. Dalam penelitian Tugas Akhir ini telah dirancang sebuah mekanisme alat vibration absorber dan energy harvesting metode Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Absorber (CPVA. Sistem utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah plat datar yang ditopang oleh empat pegas. Plat tersebut akan menerima gaya eksitasi dari pegas dibawahnya yang dihubungkan dengan massa eksentris pada motor DC. Koefisien pegas yang digunakan untuk menumpu plat datar memiliki nilai yang sama, yaitu sebesar 300 N/m. Sehingga eksitasi yang terjadi pada plat datar hanya ke arah translasi. Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa dengan variasi amplitudo massa eksentris sebesar 0.025 m, 0.030 m, dan 0.035 m. Kecepatan putaran motor sebesar 20.61 rad/s (frekuensi natural, 22.05 rad/s (frekuensi panen, dan 25 rad/s (frekuensi lembah. Sedangkan variasi jumlah cantilever piezoelectric yang digunakan adalah 2600, 2800, dan 3000 buah. Dari simulasi yang telah dilakukan, daya bangkitan dan nilai persentase reduksi terbesar dari CPVA terjadi ketika sistem dioperasikan di frekuensi naturalnya, yaitu sebesar 3.52E-7 watt dan 20.36%. Selain itu, dari simulasi juga didapatkan karakteristik CPVA dengan memvariasikan jumlah piezoelectric, didapatkan rentang jumlah piezoelectric optimum adalah 1400 hingga 2400 buah. Pada rentang tersebut, daya bangkitan dan persentase reduksi perpindahan massa utama terbesar yang

  10. Imageskapande och marknadsföringskommunikation : En deskriptiv studie om Örebro Bostäders arbete i Vivalla och Markbacken

    OpenAIRE

    Abedian Sanandaji, Foad

    2011-01-01

    Slutsatsen efter genomfört arbetet är att Örebro Bostäder AB bland annat har en önskvärd image av Vivalla som ett område med en unik och personlig omgivning med mindre individuella bostadsområden där det finns något för alla smaker. I Markbacken vill Öbo behålla och förstärka en image av variation, där allt från barnfamiljer till den som söker ett lite mer exklusivt boende skall lockas. Vidare har undersökningen visat att dessa önskvärda imager främst förmedlas via mun till mun-metoden, massm...

  11. Sociala medier - en påverkande faktor på identitetsutveckling och psykiskt välbefinnande : En kvalitativ studie om unga kvinnors uppfattningar och erfarenheter av sociala medier

    OpenAIRE

    Wiksten, Isabell; Ström, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och uppmärksamma unga kvinnors uppfattningar och erfarenheter avseende hur sociala medier påverkar deras identitetsutveckling och psykiska välbefinnande. Det är en kvalitativ studie baserad på två fokusgrupper med tre högskole- och universitetsstuderande kvinnor, i åldern 18 - 25. Det genomfördes även en individuell intervju med en professionell som är verksam på en stödmottagning för psykisk ohälsa. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten i analysen är symbolis...

  12. LCA som verktyg för ökad kunskap om miljöpåverkan från golvmaterialen vinyl, linoleum och parkett : Utifrån certifieringskriterier om relevans, potential och styrbarhet

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Secil

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Assesment, LCA, används för att sammanställa och utvärdera in- och utflöden ur ett system samt potentiell miljöpåverkan under en produkts livscykel. Beräkningarna görs genom att se hela produkten ur ett livscykelperspektiv, dvs. från det att produkten är en råvara till det att den hanteras som avfall. Beroende på måldefinition och systemgränser kan detaljgraden och tidsramen för LCA-studien varieras. LCA används för att identifiera möjligheter att förbättra produkten i olika delar ...

  13. Krav och Kontroll på arbetet : - vilka förklaringsvariabler påverkar individens upplevelse?

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg-Linna, Annica

    2011-01-01

    Arbetsmiljön kan enligt Karasek och Theorell (1990) karaktäriseras i två dimensioner, psykologiska krav från arbetet och i vilken utsträckning individen möter dessa med hjälp av egenkontrollen. De har utvecklat krav-kontroll modellen som mäter den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Modellen används i denna studie för att undersöka huruvida några förklaringsvariabler relaterar till individens upplevelse av krav och kontroll på arbetet. Deltagarna fick besvara en enkät besående av olika variabler och s...

  14. Om rättssäkerheten i instans- och processordningen : ur ett svenskt asylrättsligt perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Kristofer

    2007-01-01

    Den 1 Mars 2006 ersattes den gamla UtlL (1989:529) av en ny UtlL (2005:716) med stora förändringar i instans- och processordningen. De grundläggande kraven på denna var att öppenheten i asylprocessen skulle öka, att de sökande skulle ges ökade möjligheter till muntlig förhandling vid överklagande av asyl- och medborgarskapsärenden, att processen skulle bestå av en tvåpartsprocess och att instans- och processordningen skulle utformas så att kraven på skyndsam handläggning uppfylldes. I denna u...

  15. Vinstvarningars påverkan på företag i Large och Small Cap? :  

    OpenAIRE

    Maliqi, Agon; Persson, Henric

    2013-01-01

    Den här studien undersöker hur vinstvarningar påverkar stora och små företag. För att förklara dess påverkan på företagen har den effektiva marknadshypotesen och behavioral finance använts som grund. Avgränsningen har gjorts till Stockholmsbörsen då inga tidigare studier haft fokus på den. Empirin visar att företag i Large Cap påverkas med i snitt -4,63% och företagen i Small Cap med -8,42%. Large Cap visade signifikanta abnorma avkastningar under eventdatumet och dagen efter medan Small Cap ...

  16. Från yrkesvalslärare till karriärvägledare : Studie- och yrkesvägledaryrket i ett professionaliseringsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Holmsten, Nina; Lehninger, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    I Sverige finns det idag ett stort antal yrken och en del av dessa är i en professionaliseringsprocess. Studie- och yrkesvägledaryrket är ett exempel på ett yrke i denna process. Syftet är att beskriva utvalda aktörers syn på studie- och yrkesvägledaryrkets avgränsningar, kompetens samt eventuella auktorisation i ett professionaliseringsperspektiv. En kvalitativ metod har använts och fem elitintervjuer har genomförts med representanter från Lärarförbundet, Lärarnas Riksförbund, Sveriges vägle...

  17. Gympa på skärmen : En kvalitativ studie om IKT-stöd i undervisning i idrott och hälsa

    OpenAIRE

    Herco, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka elevernas upplevelser och erfarenheter av IKT-stöd i undervisningen i idrott och hälsa och hur användningen av IKT bidrog till deras lärande. Den metod som användes i studien var kvalitativa intervjuer genom stimulated recall och nio elever från en högstadieskola intervjuades. Eleverna som intervjuades i studien hade deltagit i IKT-stödd undervisning under en tvåårsperiod där en del av lektionerna spelades in på video. Videodokumentationens syf...

  18. Riskuppfattningar om preventivmedel för män och kvinnor : altruism, riskbenägenhet och traditionella könsroller

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Gauffin, Rebecka

    2017-01-01

    Preventivmedel för kvinnor innefattar en betydande andel biverkningar. Hittills har män inte upplevt några allvarliga biverkningar av de testade preventivmedlen för män, trots detta är det biverkningarna som stoppat preventivmedel för män från att lanseras på marknaden. I denna studie argumenteras för att en möjlig förklaring till detta ligger i skilda riskuppfattningar om preventivmedel för män och kvinnor. Studien undersöker riskuppfattningar om preventivmedel samt hur individers egenskaper...

  19. Modellering och analys av grundvattenflödet i en byggnads grundläggning

    OpenAIRE

    Hargelius, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    På en fastighet i Luthagen i Uppsala uppfördes en byggnad grundlagd på träpålar år 1936. Under 60-talet uppstod läckage på en spillvattenledning vilket ledde till en kontaminering av sprickvattenakviferen där träpålar är särskilt utsatta för påverkan av bakterie, svamp- och virusangrepp till följd av torrläggning. För att spola bort kontaminerat sprickvatten och för att hålla en jämn sprickvattennivå i akviferen installerades påfyllningsbrunnar på två platser i källaren under huset. Brunnarna...

  20. Expansion av e-handelsverksamhet i detaljhandeln : En studie om utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer

    OpenAIRE

    Steen Lagerstam, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    I vårt allt mer digitaliserade samhälle har internet fått en central roll, och har förändrat många aspekter i vårt vardagsliv. Ett av de områden som påverkats starkt av denna utveckling, är den svenska detaljhandelns e-handelsmarknad. De senaste 10 åren har dess omsättning sexdubblats, och prognoser tyder på att denna expansiva trend kommer att hålla i sig. Detta innebär helt nya förutsättningar för de svenska detaljhandelsföretag som tidigare bara bedrivit försäljning i fysiska butiker, elle...

  1. Fascians funktion och olika fysioterapeutiska interventioners effekt på fascian

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman, Mikaela

    2017-01-01

    Fasciabehandlingar är ett relativt nytt område inom fysioterapin, även om intresse för ämnet funnits redan under antikens tid. Forskningsmetoderna har i dag blivit bättre och vi kan undersöka vävnader som varit omöjliga att undersöka tidigare, på grund av tek-nikbrist. Syftet med det här arbetet är att ta reda på vad forskningen idag kommit fram till i fråga om fascia, ffa då det handlar om smärta, och hur fysioterapeuten kan ha nytta av kunskapen vid behandling av klienter. Den första forskn...

  2. Solcellsparkeringen : En jämförande fallstudie för elbilar och bensinbilar

    OpenAIRE

    Myrén Andersson, Isac; Yttermyr-Sütt, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Av Sveriges totala växthusgasutsläpp är det i nuläget transportsektorn som står för den största andelen och står för mer än 30 % av alla utsläpp. Med ett ökande fordonsbestånd och ett fortsatt behov av transporter blir lösningar som minskar utsläppen från denna sektor avgörande för Sveriges hållbara utveckling. Eftersom 93 % av Sveriges drygt 4,7 miljoner personbilar drivs av fossila bränslen skulle investeringar i alternativa färdmedel såsom elbilar kunna leda Sverige i rätt riktning. Förfat...

  3. Multifaktormodeller på den svenska marknaden - En studie av OMX Stockholm mellan 1996 och 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarfrid, Peter; Henningsson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund:CAPM räcker i flera tillfällen inte till för att estimera framtida avkastning. Vissa av prisavvikelsernafrån CAPM är väldokumenterade och har bestått över tid, vilket har lett till uppkomsten avkorrigerande faktorer. En modell som använder sig av två sådana korrigerande faktorer är Fama ochFrenchs tre-faktormodell. Den har testats flertalet gånger på den svenska marknaden där den visat gehögre förklaringsgrader än CAPM. År 2012 samt år 2014 presenterades två nya multifaktormodeller,s...

  4. Determination of 25-OCH3-PPD and the related substances by UPLC-MS/MS and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Lu, Jingjing; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Sainan; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    20(R)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β,12β,20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD) is a promising antitumor compound belonging to triterpenoid saponins isolated from radix notoginseng. A systematic research on the related impurities in raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD has not been conducted. In this study, three impurities obtained by HPLC-ELSD and characterized by (13)C NMR and MS were observed in the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Cytotoxic activities of the related substances were also evaluated, of which impurity B with 25-OCH3-PPD showed synergistic inhibitory activity against BGC-823 with IC50 values of 8.33μM. Furthermore, a rapid and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of the principal component and three related substances in the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Multiple reaction monitoring scan mode was used for the quantification of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD and its three related substances. The four constituents were separated within 11min on a BEH C18 column (100 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) using a mobile phase comprising methanol and 0.03% formic acid water (82:18, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method displayed acceptable levels of linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied for the establishment of a rational quality control standard for the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. PENGARUH MEKANISME SCREENING, PEMBERIAN INSENTIF DAN HUBUNGAN SOSIAL BANK DENGAN NASABAH DALAM MENGURANGI MASALAH AGENCY KREDIT PADA BANK PERKREDITAN RAKYAT DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Basuki

    2015-11-01

    nasabah kredit, program motivasi pelunasan kredit, program fasilitas pinjaman (kredit kembali dan program hubungan sosial bank dengan nasabah terhadap pengurangan masalah agensi dalam kredit pada BPR di Indonesia.Kata kunci: agensi kredit, hubungan sosial, insentif, mekanisme screening, nasabah.

  6. Natural product ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis through down-regulating MDM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2012-01-01

    Although ginseng and related herbs have a long history of utility for various health benefits, their application in cancer therapy and underlying mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Our recent work has shown that 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (25-OCH(3)-PPD), a newly identified ginsenoside from Panax notoginseng, exerts activities against a variety of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This study was designed to investigate its anti-breast cancer activity and the underlying mechanisms of action. We observed that 25-OCH(3)-PPD decreased the survival of breast cancer cells by induction of apoptosis and G1 phase arrest and inhibited the growth of breast cancer xenografts in vivo. We further demonstrated that, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, 25-OCH(3)-PPD inhibited MDM2 expression at both transcriptional and post-translational levels in human breast cancer cells with various p53 statuses (wild type and mutant). Moreover, 25-OCH(3)-PPD inhibited in vitro cell migration, reduced the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and prevented in vivo metastasis of breast cancer. In summary, 25-OCH(3)-PPD is a potential therapeutic and anti-metastatic agent for human breast cancer through down-regulating MDM2. Further preclinical and clinical development of this agent is warranted.

  7. M2-metoden: Minne och motivation i harmoni för ökad genomströmning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Suppatt Ngaosuvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available God genomströmning är en ekonomisk förutsättning för lärosäten inom högre utbildning. Studiens syfte var att testa en didaktisk metod där studenter övar med tentamensuppgifter under kursens gång. Metoden testades på ett moment i metod och statistik på en samhällsvetenskaplig utbildning. Ett treveckorsmoment i kvantitativ metod och statistik genomfördes på avancerad nivå och bestod av föreläsningar, statistikövningar och gruppövningar. Inför momentet presenterades 117 uppgifter ur vilka ett stratifierat slumpvist urval konstituerade salstentan. Studenterna arbetade självständigt med studieuppgifterna med lärarstöd. Resultatet visade god genomströmning, där samtliga 64 förstagångstentander blev godkända. Metodens framgång i genomströmning förklaras i termer av både minnes- och motivationspsykologi. 

  8. MKB and SMB in the Northern countries[Environmental impact assessment; Strategic environmental assessment; Radiactive waste disporal]; MKB och SMB i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Andersson, K. [Krinta konsult (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment has been held in Turku, Finland, August 22-24 2001. It was held within the framework of two NKS projects: SOS-3 (Radioactive waste) and SOS- 1 (Risk assessment and strategies for safety). The meeting included presenta- tions, discussions and a study visit to the final repository for low- and intermedi- ate level radioactive waste and the intermediate storage for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Abstract in Danish: Inom ramen for NKS-projekten SOS-3 (Avfall) och SOS-1 (Riskvaardering och strategi for saakerhet) har ett seminarium om miljokonsekvensbeskrivningar och strategisk miljokonsekvensbedomning haallits i Aabo 22-24 augusti, 2001. Seminariet omfattade foredrag, diskussioner samt en studieresa till Olkoluoto daar besok gjordes till mellanlagret for anvaant braansle och till slutforvaret for laag- och medelaktivt avfall. Under forutsaattning att styrelsen for NKS samtycker kommer ett nytt MKB- seminarium att haallas i Osthammar 2002. (au)

  9. Work-life balance utifrån ett arbetsgivarperspektiv : Om arbetsgivares arbete och inställning mot work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Johan

    2014-01-01

    I och med att tid spenderad på arbetsplatsen verkar fortsätta öka blir allt mindre och mindre tid kvar till familj och fritid, eller det som i denna uppsats benämns som övrigt liv. Den vanligaste orsaken till att en individ upplever obalans är att arbetssfären är för dominerande och lämnar kvar för lite tid till övriga sfärer. Därför har syftet i denna uppsats varit att öka förståelsen för hur och varför olika arbetsgivare arbetar med work-life balance samt att ta reda på vad de har för instä...

  10. Digitala spel : En kvalitativ studie om E-sportspelares erfarenheter från karriär och upplevd hälsa

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Ungdomar och unga vuxna är de främsta användarna av digitala spel och även de främsta entusiasterna av fenomenet E-sport. Spelvanor är av betydelse då studier har påvisat att det finns determinanter, både fysiologiska och psykologiska som kan påverka individens välbefinnande.Syftet med studien var att undersöka professionella E-sportspelares erfarenheter av att utöva sin sport och hur de upplever att detta påverkar hälsan. En kvalitativ metod användes och datainsamling utfördes genom intervju...

  11. "Humankind before the flood" : En kvalitativ studie om användningen av retorik i en dokumentärfilm av och med Leonardo DiCaprio

    OpenAIRE

    Björnberg, Nana; Hansen, Jonna

    2018-01-01

    Följande studie undersökte Before the Flood, en dokumentärfilm av och med Leonardo DiCaprio, utifrån ett retoriskt perspektiv. Studiens syfte var att undersöka om och i så fall på vilket sätt Leonardo DiCaprio, experter och skaparna bakom dokumentärfilmen använde retoriska strategier för att förstärka Before the Flood’s budskap och verka övertygande inför sin publik. Som metod tillämpade studien kvalitativ textanalys och de tre grundläggande appellformerna, visuell retorik samt argumentation ...

  12. Föräldrar och förskolans matematik : En enkätundersökning om föräldrars inställning och uppfattning om matematik på förskolan

    OpenAIRE

    Elvsén, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    Enligt Lpfö-98 skall man på förskolan arbeta med att barnen utvecklar sin förmåga att upptäcka och använda matematik i meningsfulla sammanhang. Jag tror att en förutsättning för en lyckad förskoleverksamhet är att man har föräldrarnas stöd och intresse i de aktiviteter som förekommer och har därför genom enkäter undersökt hur föräldrar uppfattar matematik i förskolan, viken inställning de har, samt deras eventuella tankar om utformningen. Detta har jämförts med den aktuella förskolans tankar ...

  13. Sol och stränder eller bra bibliotek? : En studie över vilka faktorer som påverkar utlandsstudenters val av destination och lärosäte

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Charlotta; Halling, Lisa Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sammanfattning Akademi:     Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling, Mälardalens högskola. Nivå:             Kandidatuppsats i marknadsföring, 15 hp. Datum:         2009-05-18 Författare:   Lisa Kristin Halling och Charlotta Jokinen. Handledare: Lars Albert. Bakgrund:   I dagens samhälle är det vanligt att åka utomlands på semester och tidigare forskning har gjorts för att undersöka vilka faktorer det är som påverkar en resenär vid val av destination. Det är även vanligt förekomma...

  14. Ledarskapet och de två faktorerna : En induktiv studie för att förstå hur organisationsfaktorer och könsstereotyper påverkar ledarskap

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Hampus; Tang, Vinh; Vannfält, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Sammanfattning   Titel: Ledarskapet och de två faktorerna: En induktiv studie för att förstå hur organisationsfaktorer och könsstereotyper påverkar ledarskap.   Seminariedatum: 2018-01-09   Akademi: Akademin för Ekonomi, Samhälle och Teknik, Mälardalen Högskola   Ämne/kurs: FOA300, examensarbete i företagsekonomi på kandidatnivå.   Författare: Larsson, Hampus 930903, Tang, Vinh 940523, Vannfält, Jessica 911031   Handledare: Magnus Linderström   Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att genom en i...

  15. 25-OCH3-PPD induces the apoptosis of activated t-HSC/Cl-6 cells via c-FLIP-mediated NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-ling; Wan, Ying; Jin, Xue-Jun; OuYang, Bing-Qing; Bai, Ting; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2011-11-15

    25-OCH(3)-PPD is a dammarane-type triterpene sapogenin isolated from the roots, leaves and seeds of Panax notoginseng, which has shown anti-tumor effects in several human cancer lines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 25-OCH(3)-PPD on apoptosis of activated t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The inhibitory effects of eleven compounds isolated from Panax ginseng and P. notoginseng were detected in activated t-HSC/Cl-6 cells. 25-OCH(3)-PPD produced a significant inhibitory effect on activated t-HSC/Cl-6 cells. However, 25-OCH(3)-PPD showed almost no effect on the cell viability of Chang liver cells, a type of normal human hepatic cell line. Therefore, we aimed to determine the anti-fibrotic potential of 25-OCH(3)-PPD and to characterize the signal transduction pathways involved in activated HSCs. 25-OCH(3)-PPD decreased the fibrosis markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). 25-OCH(3)-PPD elevated the level of cellular GSH in activated HSCs, which demonstrated that 25-OCH(3)-PPD might inhibit HSC activation by its antioxidant capacity. Further analyses revealed that 25-OCH(3)-PPD increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3, decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and the expression of survivin via c-FLIP-mediated NF-κB activation and shed light on the regulation of apoptosis. Therefore, 25-OCH(3)-PPD may prove to be an excellent candidate agent for the therapy of hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mekanisme Transmisi Syariah di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ERWIN HARDIANTO

    2005-01-01

    Since Indonesia has two different type of banking system (shariah and interest rate system) debtor or investor can chose appropriate system for their investment. When monetary instrument became tightening (high interest rate) so instrument from shariah system will substituted it. This situation arises because of nature from shariah instrument (revenue sharing) that flexible for price volatility. The other circumstances are revenue sharing can reduce inflation because with this system possibil...

  17. Moden er en social mekanisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A comment to a debate on whether fashion is a source of low self esteem with teenagers. The piece suggests that perhaps if the young people develop a language to articulate the role fashion plays in creating social identity, certain issues may be improved. My up-coming book on the topic is a step...

  18. Bildskapande i relation till genus i förskolans verksamhet : Att skapa sig själv och genus

    OpenAIRE

    Brännlund, Angelika

    2018-01-01

    Studiens syfte är att bidra till ökad medvetenhet för verksamma inom förskolans område kring frågor som rör pedagogers förhållningssätt kring relationen mellan bildskapande och genus, men även hur dessa förhållningssätt kan påverka barnens möjligheter i deras bildskapande. En viktig fråga som burits med från starten av arbetet och som lyser igenom i resultatdelen har varit: Vilka möjligheter att förhålla sig till bildskapande och genus kan uppstå om ett kritiskt sätt att tänka kring könsstere...

  19. It´s called being fabulous! : Genus och sexualitet i de visuella praktikerna kring Youtube-fenomenet Pewdiepie

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Denna uppsats behandlar hur olika föreställningar kring genus och sexualitet tar sig uttryck, dels i de videos som producerar på internet av karaktären Pewdiepie men också i det material som fansen genererar. Studien fokusera på en specifik videohändelse, en sekvens där Pewdiepie ikläder sig en rosa boa och bland annat säger säger ”It’s not called being gay. It’s called being fabulous!” samt vad som görs med denna händelse, hur den remedieras och tas i bruk av fansen. Detta har jag gjort geno...

  20. Motivation : En studie om lärares och elevers syn på motivation i skolan

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström, Jenny; Wiman, Malin

    2009-01-01

    I vårt examensarbete undersöker vi olika typer av motivation. Vårt syfte med arbetet var att undersöka lärares syn motivation samt elevers egen motivation i skolan. De frågeställningar vi utgick från var: 1. Vilken typ av motivation har elever i år 4 och år 5? 2. Finns det någon skillnad mellan pojkars och flickors motivation? 3. Vilken typ av motivation strävar lärare efter att elever ska erhålla och använda sig av? 4. Hur ser lärare på intrinsic (inre) motivation, extrinsic (yttre) motivati...

  1. Musikbranschen i förändring : Artistens möjligheter med och utan skivbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Järnström, Sofia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med mitt examensarbete är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning artister kan nå en publik utan att ingå ett skivkontrakt och att klargöra för vilka kanaler som finns tillgäng-liga för självständig marknadsföring. Undersökningen är kvalitativ och jag kommer att fokusera på fyra intervjuer med personer inom branschen. Jag fokuserar på dessa frågor: 1) Hur kan en artist nå ut med sin musik, utan att ha ett skivbolag bakom sig som marknadsförare och distributör? 2) Vilka nya...

  2. Hållbarhetsredovisning : Identifiering och prioritering av hållbarhetsfrågor i en verksamhet som Sweco Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Anna-Karin

    2017-01-01

    I en hållbarhetsredovisning redovisar en organisation information om sin påverkan inom ekonomisk, miljömässig och social hållbar utveckling. Några av de inledande stegen i en redovisningsprocess är att identifiera organisationens hållbarhetsfrågor, och att bestämma frågornas prioriteringsordning för att på så sätt kunna bestämma ett väsentligt innehåll till redovisningen. De här stegen av redovisningsprocessen har varit i fokus under arbetet. En identifiering och prioritering av konsultbolage...

  3. Slutrapport - utökad samordning av landskapsövervakning och uppföljning av Natura 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Göran; Gardfjell, Hans; Glimskär, Anders; Hagner, Åsa; Holm, Sören; Walheim, Mats

    2007-01-01

    I denna kortversion av 2006 års slutrapport från projektet ”utökad samordning av landskaps- övervakning och uppföljning av Natura 2000” redovisas de viktigaste resultaten på ett sätt som gör dem enklare tillgängliga för inriktningsbeslut om ambitionsnivå för uppföljnings- arbetet. Nuvarande målsättning är att Naturamoment införlivas i Nationell Inventering av Landskapet i Sverige (NILS) och Riksinventeringen av Skog (RIS) från och med 2008; under 2009 beräknas kompletteran...

  4. Analys och förslag till förbättringar med avseende på GUI och funktion ur ett användbarhetsperpektiv av programvaran Service Desk Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Företaget Kerfi AB i Norrköping är en leverantör av informationsteknik och har bland annat specialistkompetens inom service management. För detta använder de programvara från företaget CA technologies. CA Service Desk Manager är en så kallad IT Service Management applikation med processer för samordning och styrning av service management. Under inledande diskussioner kom det fram att även om programvaran har varit i bruk under flera år så finns det fortfarande problem med användargränssnittet...

  5. Machoideal och/eller meningslös underhållning? : Om fem mäns berättelser kring krigsfilmen Saving Private Ryan med fokus på maskulinitet och publiken som meningsskapare.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Uppsatsen undersöker fem mäns berättelser kring krigsfilmen Saving Private Ryan, med fokus på maskulinitet. Föreställningarna och bilderna kring maskulinitet som kan urskiljas i intervjupersonernas berättelser, knyts till R.W. Connells teoretiska ramverk kring hegemonisk maskulinitet och de hierarkiska relationerna mellan olika maskuliniteter. Vidare resoneras det kring hur berättelserna exemplifierar en syn på mediepublik som aktiva meningsskapare, då intervjupersonerna tar fasta på olika as...

  6. Feminismens skilda erfarenheter : Problematiken att kombinera islam och feminism för muslimska kvinnor i Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Till följd av att en muslimsk kvinna misshandlades i en förort till Stockholm på grund av att hon bar slöja, genomfördes den politiska manifestationen Hijabuppropet. Denna manifestation resulterade i att kvinnor uppmanades att beslöja sig i syfte att visa solidaritet för den misshandlade kvinnan, och muslimska kvinnor som en marginaliserad samhällsgrupp. Agerandet möttes med en stark kritik från bland annat den svenska kvinnorörelsen som menade att slöjan är anti-feministisk och representerar...

  7. Functional characterization of the gene FoOCH1 encoding a putative α-1,6-mannosyltransferase in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Hui; Xie, Xiao-Ling; Lin, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Xiu; Ding, Zhao-Jian; Ling, Jin-Feng; Xi, Ping-Gen; Zhou, Jia-Nuan; Leng, Yueqiang; Zhong, Shaobin; Jiang, Zi-De

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) is the causal agent of banana Fusarium wilt and has become one of the most destructive pathogens threatening the banana production worldwide. However, few genes related to morphogenesis and pathogenicity of this fungal pathogen have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the disrupted gene in a T-DNA insertional mutant (L953) of FOC with significantly reduced virulence on banana plants. The gene disrupted by T-DNA insertion in L953 harbors an open reading frame, which encodes a protein with homology to α-1,6-mannosyltransferase (OCH1) in fungi. The deletion mutants (ΔFoOCH1) of the OCH1 orthologue (FoOCH1) in FOC were impaired in fungal growth, exhibited brighter staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Concanavalin A, had less cell wall proteins and secreted more proteins into liquid media than the wild type. Furthermore, the mutation or deletion of FoOCH1 led to loss of ability to penetrate cellophane membrane and decline in hyphal attachment and colonization as well as virulence to the banana host. The mutant phenotypes were fully restored by complementation with the wild type FoOCH1 gene. Our data provide a first evidence for the critical role of FoOCH1 in maintenance of cell wall integrity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variable-energy positron annihilation study of subnanopores in SiOCH-based PECVD films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenji; Oka, Toshitaka; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    Subnanoporosity was introduced into SiOCH-based thin films by mixing tetraethyl orthosilicate with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) in the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process, and was evaluated by the variable-energy positron annihilation lifetime technique. It was found that with increasing the HMDSO fraction both porosity and pore size were enhanced, as evidenced by the decreased refractive index and increased ortho-positronium lifetime. The lifetimes from 2.0 to 6.8 ns suggested the tunable pore volumes within a range of 0.1-0.7 nm 3

  9. Tjernobyl och rennäringen - Lägesrapport från Sverige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Åhman

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Status report about Chernobyl and reindeer husbandry in Sweden including participants' discussion.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Den 1 juli hojdes grånsvårdet for Cs-137 i bl a renkott från 300 till 1 500 Bq/kg. Efter hojningen av grånsvårdet friklassades nåstan alla samebyar i Norrbottens lån under sarvslakten. Samtliga fjållsamebyar i Norrbottens lån utom den sydligaste år tills vidare helt friklassade. Tre samebyar i sodra delen av Jåmtlands lån var friklassade under sarvslakten. I ovrigt omfattas all renslakt i Våsterbottens och Jåmtlands lån av kontroll betråffande Cs-137. Under juli - aug i år var cesiumhalten lågre ån vid motsvarande tidpunkt i f jol (tabell 1 och figur 1. Under juli - aug slaktades drygt 1 000 renar i skogslandet i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3. Fr.o.m. andra veckan i juli godkåndes de fiesta slaktkropparna. Halveringstiden for Cs-137 i renarna, som betade i skogslandet kring inlandsbanan i sodra delen av Våsterbottenslån, har beråknats till ca en vecka. Genom tidigarelåggning av sarvslakter i Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3 och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån (tabell 5 minskades kassationen med ett par tusen slaktkroppar. Under senare delen av september steg cesiumhalten till ungefår samma nivå som i f jol. En långsiktig prognos har utarbetats betråffande halten Cs-137 i renar på naturbete. Prognosen visar att omfattande åtgårder kommer att behova vidtagas under de nårmaste 15 - 25 åren om ren-kottet från samebyarna i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån skall kunna god-kånnas som livsmedel vid ett riktvårde på 1 500 Bq Cs-137/kg kott.

  10. Comparison Of Several Metrology Techniques For In-line Process Monitoring Of Porous SiOCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, D.; Imbert, G.; Beitia, C.; Yu, L.; Plantier, L.; Volpi, F.; Royer, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    As porous SiOCH is a widely used inter-metal dielectric for 65 nm nodes and below, the control of its elaboration process by in-line monitoring is necessary to guarantee successful integration of the material. In this paper, the sensitivities of several non-destructive metrology techniques towards the film elaboration process drifts are investigated. It appears that the two steps of the process should be monitored separately and that corona charge method is the most sensitive technique of the review for this application

  11. Lärares yrkesetiska dilemman och den ökande juridifieringen i Sverige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Colnerud

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Följande artikel under temat “Etikbølgen i yrkesutdanning og praksis” beskriver och diskuterar etik och juridik i läraryrket med utgångspunkt i det dilemma som lärare själva anser vara ett av de svåraste enligt två svenska empiriska studier – att ingripa mot en kollega som handlar etiskt klandervärt mot elever. Artikeln diskuterar vidare den dygdetiska kritik mot regeletik som förekom vid tillkomsten av de etiska principerna. Vidare pekar den på de problem som följer av att lärarna är föremål för en tilltagande juridifiering. En våg, en bølge, kan beröra endast ytan som en krusning eller vara en djupgående och energirik rörelse. För att använda den aktuella metaforen på mitt studieobjekt skulle jag vilja påstå att diskussionen av lärares yrkesetik och medvetenheten om svenska lärares etiska riktlinjer utvecklades till en våg av endast blygsam storlek. I dagsläget (2014 har den ersatts av en juridisk våg med stor kraft.Nyckelord: etik i läraryrket, etiska dilemman, juridifiering av lärarpraktikenEnglish summary: Teachers’ ethical dilemmas and the juridification of the Swedish schoolIn this article, ethics and law in the teaching profession are described and discussed, starting with the ethical dilemma that teachers point to as the most difficult, according to referred empirical studies – intervention when a colleague acts in an ethically incorrect way towards students. Furthermore the author discusses the critique coming from virtue ethics in relation to ethical principles and shows that even Aristotle suggests ethical principles under certain circumstances. Swedish teachers’ ethical principles had very little time to be achieved before an increasing juridification of teaching took place. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of professional autonomy and professional judgement.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i2.1856

  12. Vem leder organisationens narrativ? : En jämförelse mella Kvinnojouren Emblas och Rädda Barnens kommunikation på Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Pakola Monsen, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Det är inget nytt att undersöka interaktioner på Facebook, dock är det oftast ur privatpersoners synvinkel Facebook undersöks och inte lika ofta ur en organisations synvinkel. Den här studien syftar till att fylla en del av gapet i medie- och kommunikationsforskningen om hur ideella organisationer beter sig på Facebook genom att undersöka den narrativa processen hos två ideella organisationer och hur delaktiga användare är i organisationernas berättelse beroende på organisationens storlek, Kv...

  13. Bör Barnkonventionen bli lag i Sverige? : En komparativrättslig studie om barnets rättigheter i Sverige och Norge.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Wendela

    2014-01-01

    Abstrakt ”Bör barnkonventionen bli lag i Sverige? – En komparativrätts-lig studie on barnets rättigheter genom barnkonventionen i Sverige & Norge” Uppsatsen diskuterar med en komparativrättslig metodik implementeringen och inkorporering av barnkonventionen i Sverige och Norge. I tre steg ämnar uppsatsen att undersöka huruvida barnkonventionen bör implementeras till fullo och göras till svensk lag på samma sätt som Norge har valt att göra.Uppsatsen fokuserar på FN:s barnrättkommittés yttra...

  14. Etik och marknadsföring i bloggar : Var går gränsen för smygreklam?

    OpenAIRE

    Hellman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att belysa marknadsföringen i bloggar och dess etiska problem. Avsikten är att redogöra för var gränsen för smygreklam går och att få reda på hur mycket bloggarna känner till om ämnet. Bloggarnas andel av sociala medier samt mängden bloggläsare har vuxit explosionsartat. Marknadsföring och reklam i soci-ala medier har vuxit i och med populariteten av sociala medier bland folket. På grund av den ökade marknadsföringen i bloggar har smygreklam uppstått. Efterso...

  15. Fantasifull utflykt med skilda perspektiv : En studie om genus, normbrytning och stereotyper i bilderboken Se upp för krokodilen! (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungberg, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Studien undersöker hur könsroller gestaltas ur ett genusperspektiv i bilderboken Se upp för krokodilen! (Moroni & Eriksson, 2013). Syftet är att få djupare kunskaper om hur dessa skildringar speglar målen i läroplanen för förskolan om att motverka traditionella könsnormer och främja jämställdhet och likabehandling mellan könen. Forskare menar att bilderboken är ett användbart och didaktiskt verktyg för att fånga barns intressen och påverka deras tankegångar. Tidigare forskning (Kåreland, ...

  16. Webb Couture : En studie om hur modedesign kan inspirera och förändra webbdesignprocessen för att utmana User Experience standarder

    OpenAIRE

    Carlfjord, Adam; Gustavsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Webbdesign är ett hantverk med potential till oändlig variation och oräkneliga möjligheter, men det är även en process styrd av standarder och förhållningssätt för att optimera resultatet för slutanvändaren. Begrepp så som user experience och framför allt user experience design har i och med utvecklingen blivit allt viktigare aktörer inom webbdesign. Samtidigt som de underlättar i utvecklingsprocessen genom att diktera hur design bör utformas, skapar de inte också då begränsningar av potentia...

  17. Karlstads universitet - Ut i skogen, vad ska jag dit och göra? : En rapport om skapandet av ett unikt monterkoncept

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Karin; Jernberg, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Sammanfattning Mässor förekom som fenomen redan under medeltiden och har allt sedan dess använts som en kanal för försäljning och marknadsföring. Idag tävlar företag och organisationer om mässbesökares uppmärksamhet genom att skapa attraktiva montrar med vinnande koncept som ska locka människor och få dem att lägga företagsnamnet på minnet. Detta är vad Karlstads universitet haft i åtanke då de utformat beskrivningen till detta projekt. Bakgrunden till projektet är att universitetet finns r...

  18. Etching Enhancement Followed by Nitridation on Low-k SiOCH Film in Ar/C5F10O Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Yudai; Shibata, Emi; Kondo, Yusuke; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Okamoto, Hidekazu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2013-02-01

    The etching rates of low-dielectric-constant (low-k), porous SiOCH (p-SiOCH) films were increased by nitrogen-added Ar/C5F10O plasma etching in dual-frequency (60 MHz/2 MHz)-excited parallel plate capacitively coupled plasma. Previously, perfluoropropyl vinyl ether [C5F10O] provided a very high density of CF3+ ions [Nagai et al.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 7100]. Surface nitridation on the p-SiOCH surface exposed to Ar/N2 plasma led to the etching of larger amounts of p-SiOCH in Ar/C5F10O plasma, which depended on the formation of bonds such as =C(sp2)=N(sp2)- and -C(sp)≡N(sp).

  19. Sjuksköterskor och skötares upplevelser av möten i psykiatrisk öppenvård : En intervjustudie

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckman, Jenny; Nyman, Nyman

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka sjuksköterskors och skötares upplevelser av möten med patienter i psykiatrisk öppenvård.   Bakgrund – I psykiatrisk öppenvård möter sjuksköterskor och skötare många olika människor med individuella behov. Sedan tidigare forskning har det framkommit att patienters känsla av trygghet uppkommer genom faktorer som personalens inställning och empati. Relationen mellan personal och patient är viktig för patientens känsla av att bli tagen på allvar samt att bli b...

  20. [Minna Ahokas. Valistus suomalaisessa kirjakulttuurissa 1700-luvulla. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk 188] / Tuija Laine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laine, Tuija, 1964-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Minna Ahokas. Valistus suomalaisessa kirjakulttuurissa 1700-luvulla. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk 188. Diss. Sasatamala : Finska Vetenskaps-societeten. (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2011)

  1. Effektivisering av materialhantering inom hälso- och sjukvård : En fallstudie på Barnonkologen, Uppsala Akademiska sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Marcus; Tådne, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Barnonkologen vid Uppsala Akademiska sjukhus är en barnavdelning för blod- och tumörsjukdomar. Avdelningen hanterar dagligen en stor mängd förbrukningsvaror för att kunna utföra en högkvalitativ och säker vård för patienterna. Ett identifierat behov är att effektivisera det nuvarande inventerings- och beställningsförfarandet på avdelningen, samt att organisera förråden efter personalens behov. Denna studie utreder och ger förslag på hur Barnonkologen kan förbättra sin hantering av förbrukning...

  2. I nöd och lust : En praktisk studie om hållbara bröllopssminkningar inspirerat av årstidernas färger

    OpenAIRE

    Guldbrand, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med detta arbete är att beskriva med vilka sminktekniker och produkter man får till hållbara bröllopssminkningar inspirerade av årstidernas färger, för att visa hur färger, tekniker och produkter anpassas i bröllopssminkningar. Detta för att visa de egna kunskaperna inom området och för att kunna inspirera blivande brudar. Arbetet kommer även vara till nytta för estenomer, branschmänniskor och andra människor som är intresserade av området då de också kan inspireras av arbetet. So...

  3. I betraktarens ögon – Betydelsen av kön och ålder för studenters läraromdömen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Karlsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Under senare år har studenters läraromdömen allt mer hamnat i fokus inom skola såväl som högre utbildning. Parallellt med dessa utvecklingar har olika typer av internettjänster genom vilka studenter kan betygsätta sina lärare dykt upp i flera länder. I Sverige lanserades 2008 tjänsten ”Studenter tycker till” (STT där studenter kan registrera sig och fylla i bedömningar av lärare enligt kriterierna utlärningsförmåga, kunskap, engagemang och lärandestöd. I denna studie undersöks betydelsen av lärarens kön och ålder för studenters läraromdömen genom en kvantitativ analys av omdömen av 98 högskole- och universitetslärare som givits på hemsidan STT. Syftet är att synliggöra hur sociala markörer, i detta fall om läraren är man eller kvinna, ung eller gammal, spelar en stor roll för hur en lärare utvärderas. Resultaten visar att kvinnor och unga lärare systematiskt ges lägre betyg av studenter, än män och äldre lärare. Studenter är således inte könsblinda eller oberoende av föreställningar om förhållandet mellan ålder och kompetens i sina bedömningar. Studien aktualiserar betydelsen av sociala markörer så som kön och ålder måste synliggöras och tas i beaktning när studenters utvärderingar av lärare och kurser behandlas inom högre utbildning.

  4. "Vi är inte en tummelplats för dårar" : Hur journalister och ansvariga utgivare resonerar kring och förhåller sig till användargenererat material i lokaltidningar

    OpenAIRE

    Öberg, Therese; Borgström, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Sedan 1700-talet har läsarnas medverkan varit en väsentlig del i tidningarnas produktion. Utan deras deltagande har det inte heller blivit någon tidning. En förändring på området skedde när professionaliseringen av publicistrollen blev ett faktum och läsarnas medverkan ifrågasattes. Samhällsförändringar och tekniska utvecklingar har sedan lett fram till det vi har idag: ett samhälle där medieorganisationerna är i allt större behov av att läsarna återigen deltar i olika former. Syftet med stud...

  5. Antitumor activity of ginseng sapogenins, 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD, on gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Su, Guangyue; Wang, Xude; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Guo, Shuang; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    25-Hydroxyprotopanaxadiol (25-OH-PPD) and 25-methoxylprotopanaxadiol (25-OCH3-PPD), two ginseng sapogenins, have potent antitumor activity and their effects on gastric cancer (BGC-823, SGC-7901, MKN-28) cells and a gastric mucosa (GES-1) cell line are reported. Both compounds significantly inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells, while having lesser inhibitory effects on GES-1 cells by MTT assay. A mechanistic study revealed that the two ginseng sapogenins could induce apoptosis in BGC-823 cells by morphological observation, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Besides, the apoptosis was inhibited by Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase 3 inhibitor, which was confirmed by cell viability analysis. These results indicate that 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD have potential to be promising agents for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  6. Att arbeta i restaurangbranschen : En kvalitativ studie om arbetstagares upplevelser av psykosocial arbetsmiljö och stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Emma

    2016-01-01

    En utgångspunkt för arbetslivet bör vara att skapa en arbetsmiljö som ger individer förutsättningar att ingå, kvarstå och utvecklas i arbetet. Arbetsmiljön är betydande för både individers hälsa och verksamheters utveckling samt förutsättningar för tillväxt. Arbetsplatsen betonas därmed vara en betydande arena för förebyggande insatser. Det är arbetsgivaren som har huvudsakligt ansvar för arbetsmiljön. Ingen arbetstagare ska riskera att skadas eller drabbas av ohälsa i arbetet. Syftet med stu...

  7. Livsbalans i det nya arbetslivet : En kvantitativ studie om chefer och övriga anställda

    OpenAIRE

    Eltell, Maria; Nordin, Matilda

    2014-01-01

    Syfte: Det nya arbetslivet har inneburit en rad förändringar för den lönearbetande populationen i Sverige, gällande allt ifrån tid, rum och tillgänglighet i de alltmer flexibla arbetsvillkoren. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka ett antal faktorer i det nya arbetslivet som kan ha inverkan på den lönearbetande populationens livsbalans. Studien undersöker också om det finns skillnader mellan chefers och övriga anställdas livsbalans samt även om chefens nivå i hierarkin påverkar liv...

  8. En undersökning av Norwegians kriskommunikation under flygstrejken 2015. : En textanalys av Facebookinlägg och pressmeddelanden.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma, Mickelsson

    2016-01-01

    Numera lever vi i ett krissamhälle där vi nästan varje dag nås av budskap från olika typer av kriser. När en organisation drabbas av en kris är det viktigt att tänka på vilken kommunikation man använder för att nå ut med sitt budskap. Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur en organisation använder sig av olika försvarsstrategier och retoriska appeller i sin kriskommunikation. Organisationen som valdes ut var flygbolaget Norwegian och deras hantering av den 11 dagar långa flygs...

  9. Hydrologi i Ulleråker : En studie om dagvattenhantering och dess inverkan på grundvatten

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlquist, Josefin; Larsson, Martin; Rickfält, Tea

    2017-01-01

    Vattenbehovet stiger i världen till följd av ökande befolkning. Med ökad urbaniseringskapas mer hårdgjorda ytor där föreningar ackumuleras. Dagvattnet transporterar dessa föroreningar som således kan nå grundvattnet. Ett miljömål har antagits i Sverigeför att skydda grundvattentäkter och därmed säkra framtida dricksvattenförsörjning. Rullstensåsar innehåller stora grundvattenmagasin och har hög infiltrationsförmåga för vatten från markytan. Uppsala kommun tar 95 % av sitt dricksvatten från ru...

  10. Bristande samsyn i lärares definition av hot och våld : En kvalitativ studie om förekomst av hot och våld mot lärare på högstadieskolor.

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Anton; Johansson, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Denna kvalitativa studie syftar till att studera förekomsten av hot och våld mot lärare på högstadieskolor, hur man på de undersökta skolorna arbetar med att minimera förekomsten av hot och våld samt hur lärare definierar sin syn på vad som kan vara hot och våld från föräldrar och elever. Studien är baserad på ett riktat bekvämlighetsurval där skyddsombud på högstadieskolor i den undersökta kommunen valdes ut. I samband med analysen av studiens resultat har Lintons rollteori använts för att s...

  11. Ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD promotes activity of LXRs to ameliorate P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin; Song, Jian; Lian, Li-Hua; Yao, You-Li; Shao, Dan-Yang; Fan, Ying; Hou, Li-Shuang; Wang, Ge; Zheng, Shuang; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2018-06-22

    Ginseng is widely used in energy drinks, dietary supplements and herbal medicines, and its pharmacological actions are related with energy metabolism. As an important modulating energy metabolism pathway, liver X receptors (LXRs) can promote the resolving of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. The present study aims to evaluate the regulation of 25-OCH3-PPD, a ginsenoside isolated from Panax ginseng, against hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in thioacetamide (TAA)-stimulated mice by activating LXRs pathway. 25-OCH3-PPD decreases serum ALT/AST levels and improves the histological pathology of liver in TAA-induced mice; attenuates transcripts of pro-fibrogenic markers associated with hepatic stellate cell activation; attenuates the levels of pro-Inflammatory cytokines and blocks apoptosis happened in liver; inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome by affecting P2X7R activation; regulates PI3K/Akt and LKB1/AMPK-SIRT1. 25-OCH3-PPD also facilitates LX25Rs and FXR activities decreased by TAA stimulation. 25-OCH3-PPD also decreases α-SMA via regulation of LXRs and P2X7R-NLRP3 in vitro. Our data suggest the possibility that 25-OCH3-PPD promotes activity of LXRs to ameliorate P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  12. Leksaker baserade på teknik sedda ur ett genusperspektiv : En studie om 6-åringars preferenser och användande av könsstereotypa konstruktionsleksaker

    OpenAIRE

    Bernström, Annelie

    2007-01-01

    Genom kvalitativa intervjuer med barn i förskoleklass och genom enkätundersökningar hos pedagoger har jag fått svar på mina frågeställningar som handlar om pojkar, flickor och deras leksaksval då det gäller teknikbaserade leksaker. Syftet var att försöka se om det fanns skillnader i valet och användandet av dessa leksaker och i så fall försöka tydliggöra dem, och dessutom ta reda på varför barnen är olika i sina leksakspreferenser. Resultatet påvisar att för barnen i denna förskoleklass är ko...

  13. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled

  14. She’s the Boss – HR och kvinnligt chefskap : Hur Human Resources kan arbeta för att främja kvinnorschefskarriärer

    OpenAIRE

    Linderfyhr, Jessica; Malm, Mikaela

    2017-01-01

    Enligt undersökningar som chefsorganisationen Ledarna publicerar årligen finns det en återkommande problematik med att rekrytera unga kvinnor till chefspositioner. Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka vad som kan inverka på kvinnors vilja att söka en chefstjänst och att utforma en HR strategi som främjar och motiverar kvinnor att söka chefstjänster. Unga kvinnor kan känna tvekan inför chefskap på grund av känslan av bristande erfarenhet och svårighet med att identifiera sig med den ster...

  15. Sambandet mellan Theory of Mind, språkliga förmågor och exekutiva funktioner hos barn i treårsåldern

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna; Sirén, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Barns fem första levnadsår präglas av en omfattande utveckling av språkliga förmågor och exekutiva funktioner, vilka är färdigheter som visat sig ha en stor påverkan på hur barn utvecklar förståelse för sina egna och andras tankar, det vill säga deras Theory of Mind. En central aspekt inom forskning har varit att undersöka hur förmågorna samvarierar vid olika åldrar. Syftet i föreliggande studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan Theory of Mind, språkliga förmågor och exekutiva funktioner hos...

  16. Importprocessen för inrednings- och gåvoartiklar från USA till Finland : En handbok för företagaren

    OpenAIRE

    Smeds, Desiré; Backlund, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Det här examensarbetet handlar om import från USA med fokus på inrednings- och gåvoartiklar. I arbetet lyfter vi steg för steg fram de delar som utgör importprocessen hela vägen från hur man hittar en pålitlig leverantör till förtullningen av produkterna här i Finland. Syftet med arbetet är att det skall kunna fungera som en handbok för företag som vill starta en småskalig importverksamhet av inrednings- och gåvoartiklar. Vi tar även upp information om import och internationell handel i a...

  17. Våga vara dig själv : Att förstå och skapa en illusion av ljus med digitala medier

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Jasmin; Lundbladh, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Vi omges ständigt av ljus i vår vardag, det finns naturligt ljus samt artificiellt. Även under de grå dagarna finns det ljus och dess närvaro är alltid där även om den inte alltid är som klarast. I detta kandidatarbete beskrivs ljuset ur olika synvinklar, men framförallt hur Rembrandt och impressionisterna i sina konstverk använt ljuset i sitt skapande. För att få en bredare syn på vår process tar vi hjälp av de två begreppen “fluid” och “fire” som kommer från aktör-nätver...

  18. Låt medborgarna skapa staden : Om tactical urbanism och idéburen stadsförbättring samt medborgarnas rätt till staden

    OpenAIRE

    Bretz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    I skapandet av staden har människan möjlighet att göra om sig själv och förverkliga sitt hjärtas önskan. Hur och för vem staden ska utformas för är troligtvis en diskussion vilken kommer att finnas lika länge som staden i sig. Genom historien har privat ägande och andra samhälleliga former av dominans kontrollerat dess rum, vilket ofta resulterat i olika former av proteströrelser.   Tactical urbanism har i flertalet städer världen över blivit en populär metod för att förbättra livskvaliteten ...

  19. Word of mouth muntligt och via sociala medier : - På vilket sätt påverkar det turisters reseplanering?

    OpenAIRE

    Hugosson, Jennie; Ahlberg, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Vår studie belyser hur informationsspridning både muntligt och via internet kan påverka turisters reseplaneringsprocess. Studien undersöker vilka känslomässiga attityder individer upplever genom word of mouth och electronic word of mouth och hur vida dessa attityder påverkar valet av ett nytt resmål. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur word of mouth kan påverka turisters val av nya resmål. För att möjliggöra detta har vi genomfört intervjuer med respondenter utifrån förutbestämda kriterie...

  20. Ripsteg mot spetskunskap i samisk matematik:lärares perspektiv på transformeringsaktiviteter i samisk förskola och sameskola

    OpenAIRE

    Jannok-Nutti, Ylva

    2010-01-01

    Syftet med föreliggande avhandling är att utifrån lärarperspektiv beskriva, analysera och försöka förstå transformering av utbildning i matematik så att ett samiskt perspektiv blir utgångspunkt för utbildningen. Avhandlingen genomfördes såsom ett aktionsforskningsprojekt med fokus på lärares perspektiv avseende transformering och genomförande av transformeringsaktiviteter i matematik. Teoretiska utgångspunkter togs utifrån Smiths teori om urfolksperspektiv, Banks teori för integrering av mult...

  1. Investigation of the O+allyl addition/elimination reaction pathways from the OCH2CHCH2 radical intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, Benjamin L.; Lau, K.-C.; Butler, Laurie J.; Lee, S.-H.; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2008-01-01

    These experiments study the preparation of and product channels resulting from OCH 2 CHCH 2 , a key radical intermediate in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction. The data include velocity map imaging and molecular beam scattering results to probe the photolytic generation of the radical intermediate and the subsequent pathways by which the radicals access the energetically allowed product channels of the bimolecular reaction. The photodissociation of epichlorohydrin at 193.3 nm produces chlorine atoms and c-OCH 2 CHCH 2 radicals; these undergo a facile ring opening to the OCH 2 CHCH 2 radical intermediate. State-selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection resolves the velocity distributions of ground and spin-orbit excited state chlorine independently, allowing for a more accurate determination of the internal energy distribution of the nascent radicals. We obtain good agreement detecting the velocity distributions of the Cl atoms with REMPI, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization at 13.8 eV, and electron bombardment ionization; all show a bimodal distribution of recoil kinetic energies. The dominant high recoil kinetic energy feature peaks near 33 kcal/mol. To elucidate the product channels resulting from the OCH 2 CHCH 2 radical intermediate, the crossed laser-molecular beam experiment uses VUV photoionization and detects the velocity distribution of the possible products. The data identify the three dominant product channels as C 3 H 4 O (acrolein)+H, C 2 H 4 +HCO (formyl radical), and H 2 CO (formaldehyde)+C 2 H 3 . A small signal from C 2 H 2 O (ketene) product is also detected. The measured velocity distributions and relative signal intensities at m/e=27, 28, and 29 at two photoionization energies show that the most exothermic product channel, C 2 H 5 +CO, does not contribute significantly to the product branching. The higher internal energy onset of the acrolein+H product channel is consistent with the relative barriers en route to

  2. Investigation of the O+allyl addition/elimination reaction pathways from the OCH2CHCH2 radical intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin L.; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J.; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2008-08-01

    These experiments study the preparation of and product channels resulting from OCH2CHCH2, a key radical intermediate in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction. The data include velocity map imaging and molecular beam scattering results to probe the photolytic generation of the radical intermediate and the subsequent pathways by which the radicals access the energetically allowed product channels of the bimolecular reaction. The photodissociation of epichlorohydrin at 193.3 nm produces chlorine atoms and c-OCH2CHCH2 radicals; these undergo a facile ring opening to the OCH2CHCH2 radical intermediate. State-selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection resolves the velocity distributions of ground and spin-orbit excited state chlorine independently, allowing for a more accurate determination of the internal energy distribution of the nascent radicals. We obtain good agreement detecting the velocity distributions of the Cl atoms with REMPI, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization at 13.8 eV, and electron bombardment ionization; all show a bimodal distribution of recoil kinetic energies. The dominant high recoil kinetic energy feature peaks near 33 kcal/mol. To elucidate the product channels resulting from the OCH2CHCH2 radical intermediate, the crossed laser-molecular beam experiment uses VUV photoionization and detects the velocity distribution of the possible products. The data identify the three dominant product channels as C3H4O (acrolein)+H, C2H4+HCO (formyl radical), and H2CO (formaldehyde)+C2H3. A small signal from C2H2O (ketene) product is also detected. The measured velocity distributions and relative signal intensities at m/e=27, 28, and 29 at two photoionization energies show that the most exothermic product channel, C2H5+CO, does not contribute significantly to the product branching. The higher internal energy onset of the acrolein+H product channel is consistent with the relative barriers en route to each of these product channels

  3. Dömda att leva i skuggan : En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hälsan hos personer med albinism i Rwanda, utifrån begreppen diskriminering, coping och socialt stöd

    OpenAIRE

    Niyonkuru, Elsie Diane

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) är en ärftlig sjukdom som fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt påverkar de drabbade individerna. Okunskap, fördomar och myter om albinism utgör de största orsakerna till den diskriminering som personer med albinism utsatts för särskilt i vissa länder i Afrika söder om Sahara. Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva hälsan hos personer med albinism i Rwanda, utifrån begreppen diskriminering, coping och socialt stöd. Metod: En kvalitativ metod med induktiv ansats ligger t...

  4. [Stat-kyrka-samhälle : Den stormaktstida samhällsordningen i Sverige och Östersjöpinserna] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn, 1963-

    2002-01-01

    Arvustus: Stat-kyrka-samhälle : Den stormaktstida samhällsordningen i Sverige och Östersjöpinserna. (Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis Studia Baltica Stockholmiensa, 21). Stockholm, 2000. Stockholmi Ülikooli Balti Uuringute Keskuse teaduslik väljaanne "Riik-kirik-ühiskond" Rootsi suurriigi provintsipoliitikast Eesti- ja Liivimaal 16.-17. sajandil

  5. Reduktion av slöseri inom den spanska ölindustrin : – en studie av åtgärder och metoder i spåren av krisen

    OpenAIRE

    Carlström, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Den rådande eurokrisen har påverkat det spanska samhället och den spanska ölindustrin negativt. Industrin står inför utmaningar vad gäller minskad försäljning och förändrade kundpreferenser. I tider då intäkterna och försäljningen minskar finns det många sätt att öka sina marginaler. Ett av detta sätt är att börja arbeta med resurseffektivitet och att se till att slöseriet av de resurser man har minskar. De frågor studien besvarar är hur bryggeriindustrin i Spanien har arbetat för att minska ...

  6. Interkulturell kommunikation i en kinesisk kontext : En undersökning av svenska och kinesiska företagsrepresentanters upplevelser av det interkulturella mötet. Ett teoretiskt perspektiv på en praktisk utmaning.

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalmarsson, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Jag har genom en förberedande fältstudie, litteraturgenomgång och enkätintervjuer undersökt svenska och kinesiska företagsrepresentanters upplevelser av det interkulturella mötet, med utgångspunkt i svenska företag som opererar på den kinesiska marknaden. Det var uppsatsens syfte och jag har utgått ifrån frågeställningen: Hur upplever svenska och kinesiska företagsrepresentanter det interkulturella mötet? Subfrågor till denna är: Vilka kulturella faktorer skapar det kinesiska sättet att kommu...

  7. Face to Face : Marknadsföring på Facebook - en studie av åsikter från ett inifrån- och utifrånperspektiv.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensson, Annika; Hedborn, Jenny; Källberg, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Sociala nätverk, eller så kallade communityn är ett fenomen som fått större betydelse idag och snabbt spridit sig runt om i världen. Communityn Facebook har blivit känd för att den samlar många användare och har en god målgruppskännedom, vilket gör Facebook till en attraktiv marknadsföringsplats som har uppmärksammats av en rad olika företag och organisationer. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka möjligheter och begränsningar Facebook har som marknadsföringskanal, samt undersöka s...

  8. Vem vill betala för musik? : En studie om populariteten av digitala musiktjänster och illegal fildelning bland Generation Y i en svenskspråkig yrkeshögskola

    OpenAIRE

    Hjort, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Generation Y skiljer sig mycket från tidigare generationer enligt många forskare och inte minst då när det gäller konsumtionsbeteende och värderingar. Till Generation Y tillhör de personer som är födda från åttiotalets början till mitten av nittiotalet. Under de senaste tio åren har sättet vi konsumerar musik ändrat mycket drastiskt. Genom internet och digitaliseringen av musiken har de flesta och inte minst Generation Y gått över från att köpa Cd-skivor i butiken till att ladda ner, båd...

  9. Det gränslösa arbetslivets genomtränglighet i Spotify-rekryterarnas sfärer : hur flexibilitet och tillgänglighet påverkar work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emelie; Hallgren, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med en förståelse för hur rekryterare upplever och hanterar flexibilitet, tillgänglighet och work-life balance i en multinationell och expanderande organisation präglad av det gränslösa arbetslivet. Denna förståelse är betydelsefull då det gränslösa arbetslivet innebär ett stort eget ansvar för individen, vilket skapar en utmaning för individen själv att måna om sin work-life balance och upprätthållandet av ett långsiktigt välmående. För att uppfylla studi...

  10. Finansiell Bootstrapping i SME : en kvantitativ studie om hur ett starkt socialt och affärsmässigt nätverk påverkar valet av bootstrappingmetoder

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Ida; Sacic, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är se hur ett starkt socialt och affärsmässigt nätverk påverkar valet av bootstrappingmetoder i små och medelstora företag (SME). Detta eftersom SME står för 99,9 procent av samtliga företag på den svenska marknaden och därmed är betydelsefulla för landets ekonomiska tillväxt och sysselsättning. Däremot möter SME svårigheter vid extern finansiering av sin verksamhet. SME kompenserar detta genom att engagera sig i olika ”bootstrappingaktiviteter”. Bootstrapping...

  11. Låt inte gästen få sista ordet. : En kvalitativ studie om hur tjänsteföretag inom besöksnäringen arbetar och skulle kunna arbeta med Sociala medier, WOM och eWOM

    OpenAIRE

    Braunander, Joacim; Olofsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Internet har utvecklats snabbt de senaste åren och med utvecklingen har sociala medier blivit en stor del av Internet. Sociala medier innebär all form av kommunikation som sker på Internet så som exempelvis Tripadvisor, Facebook, Twitter, Booking.com eller Instagram. Konsumenter som väljer att kommentera upplevelser och produkter på sociala medier ökar. Enligt forskning så litar framtida konsumenter mer på andra konsumenters kommentarer än vad de litar på företagets marknadsföring över deras ...

  12. Luhmanns masmedieteori och Internet som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system Luhmanns massmedieteori och Internet som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system [Luhmann’s mass-media theory and Internet as an artificial intelligent semiotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kåhre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln diskuterar hur en modern form av AI-programmering, som kallas Konnektionism i en design som kallas Distribuerad AI (DAI, påverkar den uppfattning Luhmann har om massmediernas roll för den andra ordningens observationer. DAI använder noder för att skapa aktivitet i systemen och inte de koder som styr processerna i den klassiska eller symboliska formen av AI. Luhmanns teori kan utvecklas genom att ersätta systemens koder med noder som förändras beroende på i vilken relation de står till andra noder. På så sätt kan kommunikationsbegreppet utvecklas så att det också omfattar systemens interaktioner med omvärlden. Det skapar en bättre förutsättning för att observationsmöjligheter direkt uppstår genom systemens relationer till omvärlden. Internet och AI-programmerade söksystem och robotar kan då fungera som ett artificiellt semiotiskt system som skapar möjligheter att göra observationer.The article discusses how a modern form of AI programming, known as Connectionism in a design known as Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI, affects the perception Luhmann has on mass media's role concerning second-order observations. DAI uses nodes to create activity in the systems and not the codes used by the Classic or Symbolic form of AI. Luhmann’s theory can be developed by replacing the systems codes with nodes that change depending on their relations to other nodes. In this way, we can reformulate the concept of communication, so that it includes the systems interactions with the environment. It creates better conditions so that observing opportunities may arise directly from these interactions. Internet and AI-programmed search systems and robots can then act as an artificial semiotic system that creates opportunities for making observations.

  13. BENZYLIDENESALICYLOYLHYDRAZINATO- N,OTIN(IV] (R = OCH3, Br, N(CH32 AND THEIR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shmatkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexes [SnCl4(2-OH-HB-4R-b] ·CH3CN (R = 4-OCH3 (І, 4-Br(II were obtained by interaction of SnCl4 with salicyloylhydrazones 4–R- benzaldehydes (2-OH-HB-4R-b in acetonitrile. The composition and structure (O(C=O-N(CH=N – the coordination of ligand’s amide form were established by element analysis methods, conductometry, thermogravimetry and IR spectroscopy. It was studied the anti-inflammatory activity of (I, II and previously synthesized, structurally characterized [SnCl4(2-OH-HB-4R-b∙H] (R=N (CH32 (III in model of aseptic carrageenan induced swelling, and it is shown that compound (II demonstrates the highest activity.

  14. Patientstråldosjämförelse vid konventionell urografi och lågdos CT-urografi

    OpenAIRE

    Gohil, Jignasa; Bertell, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Röntgensjuksköterskans huvudområde är radiografi som innefattar bland annat användning av joniserande strålning. CT undersökningar av urinvägssystemen och dess funktion ökar. CT ger en högre stråldos till patienter, jämfört med konventionell röntgen, vilket kan medföra olika sorters skador hos den som bestrålats. ALARAprincipen skall användas för att minska joniserande strålning så mycket som möjligt. Studien är utförd på Höglandsjukhuset i Eksjö där de har implementerat lågdosprotokoll på CT...

  15. En socialpsykologisk analys av samkönat partnervåld ur ett makt- och normativitetsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Thérèse

    2009-01-01

    Uppsatsens syfte var att nå en större teoretisk förståelse av samkönat partnervåld, genom att analysera olika forskningsartiklars narrativa konstruktioner av våldet. De två frågeställningarna var: 1. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen samkönat partnervåld med fokus på temana relationsdynamik, karaktär hos parterna, kön, genus och sexualitet samt betydelsen av social kontext? 2. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen det professionella bemötandet av samkönat partnervåld? De 21 valda primärdo...

  16. UV absorption spectrum of CH3OCH2 radicals and kinetics of the reaction of CH3OCH2O2 radicals with NO and NO2 in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Ljungström, E.; Ellermann, T.

    1995-01-01

    Alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals originating from dimethyl ether have been studied in the gas phase at 296 K. A pulse radiolysis-UV absorption technique was used. Absorption cross-sections were quantified over the wavelength range 220-350 nm. At 230 nm, sigma(CH3OCH2) = (4.2 +/- 0.5) X 10(-18) cm(2...

  17. Planering och genomförandet av en leende-kampanj för de anställda på Esbo IKEA

    OpenAIRE

    Hietanen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Kundservice är viktigt för ett företags framgång och därför bör de investera i det. Då kundernas upplevelser överrensstämmer med de förväntningar de haft för företaget kommer de mer sannolikt att komma tillbaka och berätta om upplevelserna till personer i sin omgivning. De anställda har en avgörande roll i detta sammanhang. De kan med sitt agerande inverka både positivt samt negativt på synen på kundservicenivån i företaget. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att planera samt genomföra en leen...

  18. Den inre och yttre självkänslans betydelse för tendensen att bruka self-handicapping

    OpenAIRE

    Ottosson, Olivia

    2008-01-01

    Självkänsla är något vi ständigt bär med oss och den inverkar på vårt agerande samt våra val i livet. Johnson (2003) delar in självkänslan i två delar den inre och yttre, vilka kan kombineras till fyra personligheter. Forskning har visat att självkänslan samvarierar med tendensen till att bruka self-handicapping. Self-handicapping innebär att människan skapar hinder för sig själv påhittade eller verkliga. Etthundrasju studenter fyllde i en enkät bestående av 58 påståenden, vilken mätte inre, ...

  19. Isolation, structural determination, and evaluation of the biological activity of 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3beta, 12beta, 20-triol [20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD], a novel natural product from Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Wang, W; Han, L; Rayburn, E R; Hill, D L; Wang, H; Zhang, R

    2007-01-01

    Ginseng has been used extensively for medicinal purposes, with suggested utility for indications as diverse as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Herein we report the discovery and characterization of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD, a ginsenoside that inhibits growth and survival of cancer cells. The novel dammarane triterpene sapogenin (C31H56O4; molecular weight 492) was isolated from the total hydrolyzed saponins extracted from the leaves of Panax notoginseng using conventional and reverse-phase silica gel chromatography. Based on physicochemical characteristics and NMR data, the compound was identified as 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD. The biological activities of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD and its known analogs, 20(S)-PPD and Rg3, were evaluated in 12 human cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, the order of cytotoxicity of the test compounds was 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD > 20(S)-PPD > Rg3. 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD also induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and inhibited proliferation in breast cancer cell lines, demonstrating its potent biological effects. In regard to cytotoxicity, the IC50 values of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD for most cell lines were in the lower microM range, a 5-15-fold greater cytotoxicity relative to 20(S)-PPD and a 10-100-fold increase over Rg3. These findings suggest a structure-activity relationship among dammarane-type sapogenins. The data presented here may provide a basis for the future development of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD as a novel anti-cancer agent.

  20. Är vi överens om det? Samspel och samstämmighet i svensklärares bedömningssamtal om gymnasieelevers skrivande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Blomqvist

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln beskriver svensklärares interaktion och samstämmighet i samtal om summativ bedömning av gymnasieelevers skrivande. I ett dialogiskt perspektiv (Linell, 2011 undersöks interaktionella mönster avseende dominans, dynamik och koherens i tre svensklärargruppers bedömningssamtal. Dessa interaktionella mönster ställs i relation till uttryck för samstämmighet inom och mellan lärargrupperna. Resultatet visar att lärarna uttrycker hög grad av samstämmighet i bedömningssamtalen men att de bedömningar som lärarna gör enskilt i anslutning till samtalen enbart till viss del överensstämmer med gruppens beslut. Lägst grad av samstämmighet uppvisar den lärargrupp som i samtalen framstod som mest samstämmig. Där kännetecknas beslutsprocesserna av låg intensitet genom att få alternativ till bedömningar prövas. I de lärargrupper där intensiteten är högre genom att flera lärare styr samtalet i olika riktningar och där lärarna tillsammans prövar flera olika förslag på bedömning överensstämmer även enskilda lärares bedömningar i högre grad med gruppens beslut. Bedömningsöverensstämmelsen mellan lärargrupperna är däremot låg.

  1. PCB and Dioxin content of Swedish waste fuels; PCB- och dioxininnehaall i svenska avfallsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, Evalena (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)) (and others)

    2009-06-15

    Reported dioxin data in the literature presents a rather large variation, 1-255 ng I-TEQ/kg, among different municipal solid waste (MSW) mixture samples taken within different countries. However the variation is not only large between different countries, a significant variation is reported within each study as well. Results that shows the importance of using reliable and representative sampling methods. The majority of the reported dioxin levels is within 4 to 45 ng I-TEQ/kg waste. In some of the reported studies the dioxin content has as well been analysed in sources-sorted fractions. The majority, 90-95%, of the detected dioxins were found in the fraction consisting of textiles and leather. This study aims to analyse the amount and variations, of the toxic dioxin and PCB congeners within a typical MSW mixture in Sweden, before it is energy recovered in a waste incineration plant. The study includes 20 samples, taken from two different plants in Sweden i.e. Renova and Boraas Energi och Miljoe, during 2007/2008. A well evaluated sampling method were used at both plants to achieve representative samples. Each sampling campaign resulted in a 30 kg sample that was transported in sealed containers to a laboratory. The heat value and a complete determination of the elementary content was analysed as well as the levels of toxic dioxins and PCBs in all samples. All results, both organic and inorganic, were rather similar between the two incineration plants. The resemblance within the results is an outcome of that good and representative sampling method has been used during the sampling campaigns. The average value (+/- standard deviation) of all 20 samples is 29 +/-15 ng I-TEQ per kilo of dry MSW. An average value which is within the lower range of the previous reported levels in the literature. The lower dioxin content within Swedish MSW mixtures is most likely due to the relative well-controlled waste management and sorting system in Sweden. The majority of the

  2. Den komplexa väven Att organisera för barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ackesjö

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how children's transitions to and from preschool classes are organized in different schools. Principal’s arguments for this organization were sought via a web-based survey and analyzed using the frame factor theory in addition to theories of practical sense and the concept of continuity. The results show that children tend to make more transitions between social communities the younger they are. The distribution of the principal’s answers show that the majority of them, because of external conditions, split the preschool groups to new classes in the transition to preschool class. However, the same movements are not indicated in the transition to first grade. The results show how the work of organizing chidren’s transitions represent a complex web of external actual conditions as the number of children and the recruitment area of the school, the internal logics and ideas about what is best for children and best for continued learning as well as the school's own traditions of working with transitions. Föreliggande studie fokuserar på hur barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass organiseras på olika skolor. Via en webbaserad enkät söks skolledares argument för denna organisering. I analysen nyttjas ett ramfaktorteoretiskt tänkande som kompletteras med teorier om praktiskt förnuft samt kontinuitetsbegreppet. Resultaten visar att barn tenderar att göra fler övergångar mellan barngrupper och sociala gemenskaper ju yngre de är. Fördelningen av skolledarnas svar visar att majoriteten, på grund av yttre villkor, delar förskolegrupperna till nya klasser i övergången till förskoleklass. Däremot indikeras inte samma rörlighet i övergången till årskurs 1. Resultaten visar hur arbetet med att organisera övergångarna utgör en komplex väv av yttre faktiska villkor som barnantal och upptagningsområdets storlek, av inre logiker och föreställningar om vad som är det bästa för barnen och det b

  3. Conformational and spectroscopic study of xanthogen ethyl formates, ROC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3. Isolation of CH3CH2OC(O)SH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncal, Luciana C.; Cozzarín, Melina V.; Romano, Rosana M.

    2015-03-01

    ROC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3, with R = CH3sbnd , (CH3)2CHsbnd and CH3(CH2)2sbnd , were obtained through the reaction between potassium xanthate salts, ROC(S)SK, and ethyl chloroformate, ClC(O)OCH2CH3. The liquid compounds were identified and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. The conformations adopted by the molecules were studied by DFT methods. 6 conformers were theoretically predicted for R = CH3sbnd and (CH3)2CHsbnd , while the conformational flexibility of the n-propyl substituent increases the total number of feasible rotamers to 21. For the three molecules, the conformers can be associated in 3 groups, being the most stable the AS forms - the Cdbnd S double bond anti (A) with respect to the Csbnd S single bond and the Ssbnd C single bond syn (S) with respect to the Cdbnd O double bond - followed by AA and SS conformers. The vibrational spectra were interpreted in terms of the predicted conformational equilibrium, presenting the ν(Cdbnd O) spectral region signals corresponding to the three groups of conformers. A moderated pre-resonance Raman enhancement of the ν(Cdbnd S) vibrational mode of CH3(CH2)2OC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3 was detected, when the excitation radiation approaches the energy of a n → π∗ electronic transition associated with the Cdbnd S chromophore. UV-visible spectra in different solvents were measured and interpreted in terms of TD-DFT calculations. The unknown molecule CH3CH2OC(O)SH was isolated by the UV-visible photolysis of CH3OC(S)SC(O)OCH2CH3 isolated in Ar matrix, and also obtained as a side-product of the reaction between potassium xanthate salts, ROC(S)SK, and ethyl chloroformate, ClC(O)OCH2CH3.

  4. Från tonåring till toppbloggare : En kvalitativ fallstudie om självpresentation och det personliga varumärket kommunicerat genom en blogg

    OpenAIRE

    Laricchia, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Sammanfattning Detta är en fallstudie över en Sveriges mest välkända och framgångsrika bloggar – www.kenzas.se, driven av Kenza Zouiten. Syftet med studien var att ta reda på hur man via självpresentation genom en blogg kan bygga upp och skapa sig ett starkt personligt varumärke. De frågeställningar studien utgick ifrån var hur Kenza Zouiten väljer att framställa sig själv som person i skriven text och i bilder, samt huruvida det finns några skillnader i hur hon väljer att framställa sig själ...

  5. Hur reagerar läsarna på sponsrade inlägg publicerade på Isabella Löwengrips blogg? : En teoriprövande studie av Stuart Halls teori om inkodning och avkodning.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentzon, Karin; Gustafsson, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie handlar om hur ett sponsrat blogginlägg av en influencer inkodas och hur läsarna i kommentarerna avkodar meddelandet och reagerar på inlägget. Studiens syfte är att öka förståelsen för hur läsare avkodar sponsrade blogginlägg. Vi antog innan genomförandet att fler skulle avkoda meddelandena på ett sätt som skulle vara mer kritiskt gentemot samarbetet, därför har det gjorts en teoriprövande studie av Stuart Halls teori om inkodning och avkodning. För uppnå vårt syfte har vi använt...

  6. Employer branding på Q-Med : En fallstudie i hur företagsspecifika värden förmedlas till potentiella och befintliga medarbetare

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Stina; Ljungmark, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Sammanfattning "Employer branding på Q-Med – En fallstudie i hur företagsspecifika värden förmedlas till potentiella och befintliga medarbetare" Datum: 19 januari, 2011 Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi, 15 ECTS Institution: Akademin för hållbar samhälls‐ och teknikutveckling, HST, Mälardalens Högskola Författare: Erik Ljungmark 29 januari 1980, Stina Nilsson 25 april 1983 Titel: Employer branding på Q-Med – En fallstudie i hur företagsspecifika värden förmedlas till potentiella och...

  7. Arbetet med arbetsgivarvarumärkets attraktivitet : En kvalitativ intervjustudie i tre företag om hur arbetet med "Employer branding" ser ut och implementeras i företag.

    OpenAIRE

    Drugge, Marie; Bernelind, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Arbetet med att stärka ett arbetsgivarvarumärkes attraktivitet, både internt och externt, det alltmer välbekanta begreppet “Employer branding”, är ett vanligt förekommande koncept i dagens organisationer. Syftet med studien är att försöka ta reda på vad fenomenet “Employer branding” är och hur organisationer kan bedriva arbetet med att göra sitt arbetsgivarvarumärket attraktiv på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Tieto, COWI och Klarna AB är de företag som deltar i studien. Begreppen legitimitet o...

  8. Disproportionation and thermochemical sulfate reduction reactions in S-H20-Ch4 and S-D2O-CH4 systems from 200 to 340 °C at elevated pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shunda; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Elemental sulfur, as a transient intermediate compound, by-product, or catalyst, plays significant roles in thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) reactions. However, the mechanisms of the reactions in S-H2O-hydrocarbons systems are not clear. To improve our understanding of reaction mechanisms, we conducted a series of experiments between 200 and 340 °C for S-H2O-CH4, S-D2O-CH4, and S-CH4-1m ZnBr2 systems in fused silica capillary capsules (FSCC). After a heating period ranging from 24 to 2160 hours (hrs), the quenched samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Combined with the in situ Raman spectra collected at high temperatures and pressures in the S-H2O and S-H2O-CH4 systems, our results showed that (1) the disproportionation of sulfur in the S-H2O-CH4 system occurred at temperatures above 200 °C and produced H2S, SO42-, and possibly trace amount of HSO4-; (2) sulfate (and bisulfate), in the presence of sulfur, can be reduced by methane between 250 and 340 °C to produce CO2 and H2S, and these TSR temperatures are much closer to those of the natural system (2O-CH4 system may take place simultaneously, with TSR being favored at higher temperatures; and (4) in the system S-D2O-CH4, both TSR and the competitive disproportionation reactions occurred simultaneously at temperatures above 300 °C, but these reactions were very slow at lower temperatures. Our observation of methane reaction at 250 °C in a laboratory time scale suggests that, in a geologic time scale, methane may be destroyed by TSR reactions at temperatures > 200 °C that can be reached by deep drilling for hydrocarbon resources.

  9. Att lära sig se trådraken – om tvekan och fokusförskjutning på väg mot förändrat kunnande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Utgångspunkten i denna artikel är empiriskt förankrade exempel från textilslöjdspraktiker i den svenska skolan; grundskolans slöjdundervisning årskurs 8 och ett specialutformat program inom gymnasieskolan med textil inriktning i årskurserna 1 och 3. Artikelns videoutdrag handlar alla om principiellt samma handling – trådrak mönsterutläggning på tyg – men, dels finns det två olika inramningar (grundskolan och gymnasieskolan, och dels exemplifierar de olika skeden av kunnande. Syftet är att beskriva skillnader i kunnande och vad som framstår som svårt för elever med liten eller ingen erfarenhet av att lägga ut mönster på ett tyg inför tillklippning och hur kunnandet förändras med ökande erfarenhet, liksom vilka nya svårigheter som följer med att elever arbetar med mönster av ökande komplexitet. Det som vid en första blick kan framstå som samma handling utvecklas över tid från något som framstår som enkel handling till att utvecklas i komplexitet. I de tvekan-situationer som beskriv finns potential för ett förändrat deltagande, där förändringen idealt är ett mer kompetent deltagande där ingen tvekan förekommer. Med ökad förtrogenhet kan uppmärksamheten förflyttas till något annat. Det vi är förtrogna med blir till rutiner och därmed behövs det en avvikelse för att fånga uppmärksamheten. I avvikelsen ligger möjligheterna till fortsatt lärande. Artikelns empiriska exempel synliggör dessa skillnader i kunnande som annars oreflekterat kan uppfattas som lika. Eleverna bygger in kunskap i sina handlingar, fokus flyttar från att inte veta vad man tittar på till självklarheten i handlingen. Eleverna lär sig se och urskilja.

  10. Low-k SiOCH Film Etching Process and Its Diagnostics Employing Ar/C5F10O/N2 Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Mikio; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Okamoto, Hidekazu

    2006-09-01

    We proposed an environmental harmonic etching gas of C5F10O (CF3CF2CF2OCFCF2), and demonstrated the etching of low-k SiOCH films employing a dual-frequency capacitively coupled etching system. Dissociative ionization cross sections for the electron impact ionizations of C5F10O and c-C4F8 gases have been measured by quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS). The dissociative ionization cross section of CF3+ from C5F10O gas was much higher than those of other ionic species, and 10 times higher than that of CF3+ from C4F8 gas. CF3+ is effective for increasing the etching rate of SiO2. As a result, the etching rate of SiOCH films using Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma was about 1000 nm/min, which is much higher than that using Ar/C4F8/N2 plasma. The behaviours of fluorocarbon radicals in Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma, which were measured by infrared diode laser absorption spectroscopy, were similar to those in Ar/C4F8/N2 plasma. The densities of CF and CF3 radicals were markedly decreased with increasing N2 flow rate. Etching rate was controlled by N2 flow rate. A vertical profile of SiOCH with a high etching rate and less microloading was realized using Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma chemistry.

  11. Rehabilitering efter dekompression och diskoperation - framställandet av en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning : Ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Examensarbetet är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete med fokus på rehabiliteringen efter en dekompressions- och diskoperation. Det är ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus med syftet att framställa en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning. Önskemål från uppdragsgivare var att utforma en tydlig patientanvisning för ryggopererade bestående av skriftliga instruktioner angående postoperativ rehabilitering i form av vardagliga aktiviteter, fysisk aktivitet, ryggens viloställningar, vi...

  12. Främja medarbetarnas engagemang : Ett ledarskapsverktyg för att öka engagemang och undvika utbrändhet

    OpenAIRE

    Järnström, Ida

    2016-01-01

    De senaste åren har engagemang varit ett mycket omtalat ämne, då forskning har visat att engagemang har en positiv inverkan på organisationens framgång. Dagens turbulenta värld tvingar dock organisationerna att kräva högre prestationer av sina medarbetare trots färre resurser, vilket kan resultera i oengagemang och utbrändhet. Detta bekräftas utgående från gallupundersökningar, vilka visar att en endast en liten del av medarbetarna verkligen är engagerade på sina arbetsplatser. Syftet med...

  13. Characterization of a distonic isomer C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 of methyl benzoate radical cation by associative ion-molecule reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechamps, Noémie; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Nam, Pham-Cam; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2006-03-01

    The C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 radical cation, formally a distonic isomer of ionized methyl benzoate, has been prepared by dissociative ionization of neopentyl benzoate, as earlier suggested by Audier et al. [H.E. Audier, A. Milliet, G. Sozzi, S. Hammerum, Org. Mass. Spectrom. 25 (1990) 44]. Its distonic character has now been firmly established by its high reactivity towards neutral methyl isocyanide (ionized methylene transfer) producing N-methyl ketenimine ions. Other mass spectrometric experiments and ab initio quantum chemical calculations also concur with each other pointing toward the existence of a stable distonic radical cation.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CHOCH3, (CF3)2CHOCHO, and CF3C(O)OCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Wallington, Timothy J.; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk

    2015-01-01

    Smog chambers with in situ FTIR detection were used to measure rate coefficients in 700 Torr of air and 296 ± 2 K of: k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (5.41 ± 1.63) × 10(-12), k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCHO) = (9.44 ± 1.81) × 10(-15), k(Cl+CF3C(O)OCH3) = (6.28 ± 0.98) × 10(-14), k(OH+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (1.86 ± 0.41) × 10(-1...

  15. Att veta när man ska göra det man vet att man ska göra : om barn med ADHD, uppfattning av tid och att komma ihåg att göra det man har planerat

    OpenAIRE

    Hillertz, Anna

    2005-01-01

    I den här studien undersöks om det är bristande tidsuppfattning som orsakar sämre prospektivt minne hos barn med diagnos ADHD. Studien syftar även till att utreda vad prospektivt minne har för relation till arbetsminne och exekutiva funktioner. Studien har genomförts genom att två grupper, en grupp barn med diagnos ADHD och en kontrollgrupp, har utfört uppgifter som ger mått på prospektivt minne, tidsuppfattning, arbetsminne och exekutiva funktioner. Barnen i ADHD-gruppen har även deltagit i ...

  16. Structure of X-ray photoelectron spectra of low-energy and core electrons of Ln(C6H4OCH3COO-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the results of an X-ray photo electron spectroscopy of lanthanide ortho-metoxybenzoates Ln(C6H4OCH3COO-3, where Ln represents lanthanides La through Lu except for Pm and C6H4OCH3COO- - residuum of ortho-metoxybenzoic acid. The core and outer electron X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectra in the binding energy range of 0-1250 eV were shown to exhibit a complex, fine structure. The said structure was established due to the outer (0-15 eV binding energy and inner (15-50 eV binding energy valence molecular orbital from the filled Ln5p and O2s atomic shells multiple splitting, many-body perturbation, dynamic effect, etc. The mechanisms of such a fine structure formation were shown to manifest different probabilities in the spectrum of a certain electronic shell. There fore, the fine X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectral structure resulting from a certain mechanism can be interpreted and its quantitative parameters related to the physical and chemical properties of the studied com pounds (degree of delocalization and participation of Ln4f electrons in the chemical bond, electronic configuration and oxidation states, density of uncoupled electrons on paramagnetic ions, degree of participation of the low binding energy filled electronic shells of lanthanide and ligands information of the outer and in nervalence molecular orbitals, lanthanide close environment structure in amorphous materials, etc.

  17. A computational study of the addition of ReO3L (L = Cl(-), CH3, OCH3 and Cp) to ethenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniagyei, Albert; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans

    2016-01-01

    The periselectivity and chemoselectivity of the addition of transition metal oxides of the type ReO3L (L = Cl, CH3, OCH3 and Cp) to ethenone have been explored at the MO6 and B3LYP/LACVP* levels of theory. The activation barriers and reaction energies for the stepwise and concerted addition pathways involving multiple spin states have been computed. In the reaction of ReO3L (L = Cl(-), OCH3, CH3 and Cp) with ethenone, the concerted [2 + 2] addition of the metal oxide across the C=C and C=O double bond to form either metalla-2-oxetane-3-one or metalla-2,4-dioxolane is the most kinetically favored over the formation of metalla-2,5-dioxolane-3-one from the direct [3 + 2] addition pathway. The trends in activation and reaction energies for the formation of metalla-2-oxetane-3-one and metalla-2,4-dioxolane are Cp Cp Cp Cp Cp. The direct [2 + 2] addition pathways leading to the formations of metalla-2-oxetane-3-one and metalla-2,4-dioxolane is thermodynamically the most favored for the ligands L = OCH3 and Cl(-). The difference between the calculated [2 + 2] activation barriers for the addition of the metal oxide LReO3 across the C=C and C=O functionalities of ethenone are small except for the case of L = Cl(-) and OCH3. The rearrangement of the metalla-2-oxetane-3-one-metalla-2,5-dioxolane-3-one even though feasible, are unfavorable due to high activation energies of their rate-determining steps. For the rearrangement of the metalla-2-oxetane-3-one to metalla-2,5-dioxolane-3-one, the trends in activation barriers is found to follow the order OCH3 Cp. The trends in the activation energies for the most favorable [2 + 2] addition pathways for the LReO3-ethenone system is CH3 > CH3O(-) > Cl(-) > Cp. For the analogous ethylene-LReO3 system, the trends in activation and reaction energies for the most favorable [3 + 2] addition pathway is CH3 > CH3O(-) > Cl(-) > Cp [10]. Even though the most favored pathway in the ethylene-LReO3 system is

  18. Självkänsla hos daghemsbarn : En kvalitativ undersökning om hur barnträdgårdslärare bekräftar och stärker barnets självkänsla på daghem

    OpenAIRE

    Fant, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att ta reda på hur en barnträdgårdslärare kan stärka och bekräfta barnets självkänsla på daghem. Vilken syn och uppfattning finns det om självkänslan på daghem och hur kan man stödja barnen på bästa sätt när det gäller självkänslan? I detta examensarbete har jag genom litteratur tagit fram vad självkänsla är, men även olika definitioner kring självkänslan och hur miljön runt om kan påverka självkänslan hos barnet. I intervjuerna som blev gjorda framkom ...

  19. Vad behöver eleverna undervisning i för att utveckla sitt skrivande? Förväntningsnormer och didaktiska beslut i svensklärares bedömningssamtal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Blomqvist

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available I studien samtalar tre lärargrupper om elevers skrivande och skrivundervisning i ämnet svenska på gymnasiet. Det teoretiska perspektiv som läggs på dessa samtal är didaktiskt och inriktas på hur lärare formulerar och använder bedömningsinformation om elevers skrivande för beslut om skrivundervisningens innehåll. Resultatet visar att lärares bedömningar av elevers skrivande behandlar fler och delvis andra aspekter av skrivförmåga än vad deras didaktiska beslut sedan omfattar. De kvalitetsuppfattningar och förväntningsnormer som lärarna uttrycker i sina bedömningar av elevers skrivande inriktas huvudsakligen på texters kommunikativa kvaliteter, den stilistiska utformningen och textuppbyggnaden, följt av ämnesinnehåll och källanvändning. De didaktiska beslut som fattas utifrån bedömningen av elevers texter inriktas däremot i stort sett enbart på att eleverna behöver skrivundervisning i att disponera text och att använda källor. Detta gör att överensstämmelsen är låg mellan lärarnas beslut om skrivundervisningens inriktning och deras förväntningar på vad eleverna ska kunna. De didaktiska besluten omfattar i begränsad utsträckning den bedömningsinformation som lärarna själva har formulerat.Nyckelord: Skrivbedömning, kvalitetsuppfattningar, förväntningsnormer, didaktiska beslut, formativ bedömning, svenskämnets didaktik, svenska på gymnasietAbstractThis article presents an analysis of teacher group discussions about students’ writing in the subject of Swedish in upper secondary school. The study adopts a pedagogical perspective on these discussions and focuses on examining teachers’ expressed assessment criteria and relating them to their pedagogical decision-making. The results reveal that the teachers’ assessments of students’ writing focus on much more, and partly other, criteria than their pedagogical decisions. The quality standards that teachers express in the discussions about

  20. Studiemotivation en jämförelse mellan gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om motivationsnivå och Self-Determination Theory : en jämförelse mellan gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om motivationsnivå och Self-Determination Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hagdahl, Kristina; Jimmy, Hammarbäck

    2014-01-01

    Studien handlar om svenska gymnasieelevers motivation för att studera matematikämnet. Den teoretiska grunden hämtas ifrån Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur väl gymnasieelevers egen uppfattning om sin motivationsnivå kan prediceras genom de fyra ingående motivationsorienteringarna i Self-Determination Theory: (1) external regulation; (2) introjected regulation; (3) identified regulation; och (4) intrinsic motivation. Deltagarna (n = 132), 44...

  1. Volkswagen - Ett globalt fusk : En deskriptiv studie om biljättens utsläppsskandal och dess påverkan

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Erik; de Bourgh, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Genom åren har ett flertal bolag världen över involverats i olika slags skandaler, en del som rena brott och andra som skylls på misstag eller olyckshändelser. Några av det större slaget är t.ex. BP-skandalen där miljontals fat med olja läckte ut i mexikanska golfen, detta skylldes på en olyckshändelse. Andra exempel är Enron som gjorde ett rent bedrägeri i form av bokföringsbrott eller Stora Enso som sysslade med barnarbete i utvecklingsländer, vilket blossade upp som en skandal i form av bo...

  2. Arbetstidsförkortning : för ökad arbetstillfredsställelse och bättre relationer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hultberg, Jenny; Klarenius, Karna; Liljekvist, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bakgrund: Redan på 1700-talet diskuterade Owen att det inte var bra att ha barn som arbetade långa arbetspass i treskift. Detta synsätt införde han på sin fabrik, vilket han fick mycket kritik för. Först 1962 väcktes tanken på 6-timmars arbetsdag i Sverige. Sedan dess har flera försök genomförts bl.a. hos Helsingborgs stads äldreomsorg, äldreomsorgen i Höganäs kommun samt Toyota Center i Mölndal. Problem: Dagens företag är relativt fokuserade på traditionella mått som t.ex. lönsamhet och prod...

  3. Familjearbetaren hos en ensamförsörjare : en kvalitativ studie om ensamförsörjarens livssituation och hur familjearbetet påverkas

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Mikaela; Azimi, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med vårt lärdomsprov är att redogöra för familjearbetarnas åsikter om familjearbetet har specifika drag i utförandet av det hos familjer med en försörjare. I teoridelen tas det upp om familjepolitiken i Finland, familjearbete samt om hur en ensamförsörjares livssituation kan se ut. I undersökningen använde vi oss av kvalitativa forskningsintervjuer. Undersökningspersonerna bestod av åtta familjearbetare från fyra olika kommuner. Intervjuerna gjordes både i grupper och som individue...

  4.  Svensk företagsetablering i Dubai :   - en studie om företagens motiv och processer

    OpenAIRE

    Thaqi, Alban; Edvinsson, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Inledning Ett ökat intresse för globalisering har gjort att företag söker sig till nya marknader kontinuerligt, svenska företag utgör inget undantag. En mycket aktuell marknad för utlandsetablering är Dubai. Från att ha varit ett litet fisk- och pärlsamhälle är det idag ett globalt center för affärer som attraherar aktörer från hela världen. Syfte Syftet med studien är att undersöka varför samt hur svenska företag väljer att etablera sig i Dubai. Metod Studien bygger på en kvalitativ metod...

  5. Överensstämmelsen mellan ett företags önskade employer brand och den faktiska uppfattningen bland de anställda.

    OpenAIRE

    Leander, Kajsa; Johannesson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Employer branding (som kan ses som ett företags arbetsgivarvarumärke) är ett begrepp som det under det senaste decenniet riktats mycket uppmärksamhet mot och i denna uppsats undersöks hur ett företags önskade interna employer brand överensstämmer med uppfattningen de anställda har om företaget i fråga. För att undersöka den interna uppfattningen har en kvantitativ undersökning genomförts i form av enkäter som sedan kompletterats med en kvalitativ undersökning bestående av intervjuer för att p...

  6. 1+1=3? : en studie om co-branding och dess påverkan på ett varumärkes värde

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Ida; Andersson, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Co-branding, vilket är en typ av varumärkessamarbete, har på senare tid blivit en populär strategi i strävan efter att skapa ett högre värde för konsumenten samt nå fördelar så som ökade intäkter samt möjligheten att skapa och attrahera lojala kunder. Dock finns det siffror som pekar på att många co-brandingsamarbeten misslyckas. Mot denna bakgrund har syftet med denna studie varit att, utifrån lojala kunders perspektiv, undersöka vilken påverkan ett varumärkessamarbete av typen co-branding k...

  7. Tack, men nej tack : En undersökning om Online Behavioral Advertising och dess förhållande till blockeringstjänster

    OpenAIRE

    Holgersson, Pontus; Haglund, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Online Behavioral Advertising betyder att man spårar användares beteende över Internet för att kunna skapa skräddarsydda annonser till användare baserat på deras internetaktiviteter. Det är kostnadseffektivt och ger möjlighet för företag att skapa relevanta annonser för internetanvändare. Online Behavioral Advertising möts ofta av motstånd eftersom att företag inkräktar på den personliga integriteten när man samlar in information om människor för att skapa annonser. Samtidigt har användandet ...

  8. Rotational Spectrum, Conformational Composition, and Quantum Chemical Calculations of Cyanomethyl Formate (HC(O)OCH2C≡N), a Compound of Potential Astrochemical Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdal, Svein; Møllendal, Harald; Carles, Sophie

    2015-08-27

    The rotational spectrum of cyanomethyl formate (HC(O)OCH2C≡N) has been recorded in the 12–123 GHz spectral range. The spectra of two conformers were assigned. The rotamer denoted I has a symmetry plane and two out-of plane hydrogen atoms belonging to the cyanomethyl (CH2CN) moiety. In the conformer called II, the cyanomethyl group is rotated 80.3° out of this plane. Conformer I has an energy that is 1.4(6) kJ/mol lower than the energy of II according to relative intensity measurements. A large number of rotational transitions have been assigned for the ground and vibrationally excited states of the two conformers and accurate spectroscopic constants have been obtained. These constants should predict frequencies of transitions outside the investigated spectral range with a very high degree of precision. It is suggested that cyanomethyl formate is a potential interstellar compound. This suggestion is based on the fact that its congener methyl formate (HC(O)OCH3) exists across a large variety of interstellar environments and the fact that cyanides are very prevalent in the Universe. The experimental work has been augmented by high-level quantum chemical calculations. The CCSD/cc-pVQZ calculations are found to predict structures of the two forms that are very close to the Born–Oppenheimer equilibrium structures. MP2/cc-pVTZ predictions of several vibration–rotation interaction constants were generally found to be rather inaccurate. A gas-phase reaction between methyl formate and the cyanomethyl radical CH2CN to produce a hydrogen atom and cyanomethyl formate was mimicked using MP2/cc-pVTZ calculations. It was found that this reaction is not favored thermodynamically. It is also conjectured that the possible formation of cyanomethyl formate might be catalyzed and take place on interstellar particles.

  9. Omsättning, rörelseresultat och kapitalstruktur – Påverkas företags kapitalstruktur av förändringar i dess omsättning eller rörelseresultat?

    OpenAIRE

    Lisstorp, Mattias; Steinberger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur omsättning och rörelseresultat har samband med företagets kapitalstruktur. Resultaten jämförs med befintlig teori för att verifiera de teoretiska ansatserna. Regressionsanalys av tidsserier för 32 svenska börsnoterade företag med mer än 20 miljarder svenska kronor i omsättning 2010 har använts vid den här undersökningen. Data från åren 2004 till 2010 till varje företag är tagen från databasen ”Affärsdata” och undersöks genom regressionsanalys. Först u...

  10. Förhållandet mellan den fria rörligheten inom EU och internationella dubbelbeskattningsavtal : En analys med utgångspunkt i EU-domstolens praxis

    OpenAIRE

    Österman, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    När en skattskyldig blir beskattad flera gånger för samma inkomst, i minst två länder och under samma tidsperiod, uppstår juridisk dubbelbeskattning. En vanlig metod för att i möjligaste mån undvika dubbelbeskattning är att stater ingår bilaterala dubbelbeskattningsavtal med varandra. I ett dubbelbeskattningsavtal avgör de avtalsslutande staterna vilken stat som, i en rad olika situationer, ska ha beskattningsrätt och vilken stat som till följd därav avstår från sin rätt till beskattning. Där...

  11. "Stendum, feg och impotent är Turkiets president" : En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av den tyska mediedebatten om Jan Böhmermann-affären utifrån olika argument för yttrandefrihet.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker argument för yttrandefrihet som framkommit i den så kallade Böhmermannaffären som inträffade våren 2016 i Tyskland, då den tyska satirikern Jan Böhmermann läste upp en niddikt om Turkiets president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Erdoğan kände sig kränkt och anmälde Böhmermann enligt ett tyskt lagrum. Undersökningen syftar till att utröna vilka typargument för yttrandefrihet som framkommit i debatten om Böhmermannaffären från olika aktörer och utifrån vilket intresse dessa ...

  12. Leca, bostad och landskap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Dahl, Torben; Sørensen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    I december 1992 var svensk LECA inviteret til en åben svensk konkurrence. Målet var at tegne en lille boligblok med 5-12 boliger. De skulle udformes inden for det eksisterende bygningsreglement. Publikationen viser vinderforslagene fra konkurrencen ...

  13. Methodology - evaluation of strategies -and the system for taking care of spent nuclear fuel; Metodval - utvaerdering av strategier och system foer att ta hand om anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports 'Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, 'Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and 'Utvecklingen av KBS-3-metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete' ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the

  14. Insamling av geografisk information med UAV över området Stomsjö i Värnamo kommun : En effektiv arbetsmetod för kartering i 2D och 3D samt dokumentation av arbetsgång och kvalitetssäkring av geografisk information

    OpenAIRE

    Bauner, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    I detta examensarbetesprojekt genomfördes en flygkartering över deponiområdet Stomsjö i Värnamo kommun, mha. en drönare, eller den i detta sammanhang mer använda benämningen UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). Värnamo kommuns tekniska avdelning var i behov av beräkning av massor vid deponin, ett område på ca 15 hektar samt modellering av densamma. Den låga kostnaden för inköp av UAV och programvara motiverade kommunen att driva egen verksamhet jämfört med att köpa tjänsterna från konsulter. Projek...

  15. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  16. Omvårdnadsåtgärder för att minska rädsla, oro och ångest hos barn 0-18 år i samband med en röntgenundersökning : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen, Nadja; Imsirovic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Att besöka en röntgenavdelning kan vara något nytt och skrämmande för många barn. Den nya miljön kan orsaka rädsla, oro och ångest hos barn. Därför är det viktigt att röntgensjuksköterskan har kunskap om barnets behov för att upplevelsen på röntgenavdelningen ska vara så bra som möjligt. Syfte: Syftet med den här studien är att beskriva omvårdnadsåtgärder för att minska rädsla, oro och ångest hos barn 0-18 år i samband med röntgenundersökning. Metod: Detta arbete är en litteraturstu...

  17. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  18. Preparation of Ultra Low-κ Porous SiOCH Films from Ring-Type Siloxane with Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Side Chains by Spin-On Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Xiao, Yang; Chi, Zhang; Qing-Qing, Sun; Sai-Sheng, Xu; Li-Feng, Zhang; Yu, Shi; Shi-Jin, Ding; Wei, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-low-dielectric-constant (ultra low-k, or ULK) porous SiOCH film is prepared using a single ring-type siloxane precursor of the 2,4,6,8-tetravinyl-2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane by means of spin-on deposition, followed by crosslinking reactions between the precursor monomers under UV irradiation. The as-prepared film has an ultra low k of 2.41 at 1 MHz due to incorporation of pores and hydrocarbon crosslinkages, a leakage current density of 9.86 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at 1 MV/cm, as well as a breakdown field strength of ∼1.5 MV/cm. Further, annealing at 300°C results in lower k (i.e., 1.94 at 1 MHz), smaller leakage current density (2.96 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at 1 MV/cm) and higher breakdown field strength (about 3.5 MV/cm), which are likely caused by the short-ranged structural rearrangement and reduction of defects in the film. Finally, the mechanical properties and surface morphology of films are also evaluated after different temperature annealing. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Reactions of 11C recoil atoms in the systems H2O-NH3, H2O-CH4 and NH3-CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebeling, B.

    1988-11-01

    In this study the chemical reactions of recoil carbon 11 in the binary gas mixtures H 2 O-NH 3 , H 2 O-CH 4 and NH 3 -CH 4 in different mixing ratios as well as in solid H 2 O and in a solid H 2 O-NH 3 mixture were analyzed in dependence of the dose. The analyses were to serve e.g. the simulation of chemical processes caused by solar wind, solar radiation and cosmic radiation in the coma and core of comets. They were to give further information about the role of the most important biogeneous element carbon, i.e. carbon, in the chemical evolution of the solar system. Besides the actual high energy processes resulting in the so-called primary products, also the radiation-chemical changes of the primary products were also observed in a wide range of dosing. The generation of the energetic 11 C atoms took place according to the target composition by the nuclear reactions 14 N(p,α) 11 C, 12 C( 3 He,α) 11 C or the 16 O(p,αpn) 11 C reaction. The identification of the products marked with 11 C was carried out by means of radio gas chromatography or radio liquid chromatography (HPLC). (orig./RB) [de

  20. Fattigdomens hjälplöshet – too hot to handle? Hur Astrid Lindgrens böcker om Madicken översatts i USA och Storbritannien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolowski-Bogomoloff, Angelika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In children’s literature, power relations are fundamentally assymetrical. This is furthermore accentuated in the process of translation where translation norms, social and cultural norms as well as the power game of adult authorities play a major part.The Swedish author Astrid Lindgren’s ideology is based on the notion that no aspects of life should be hidden from the child, making her thematize as well as break taboos in her writing for children. There has been extensive research on Lindgren’s authorship per se, but research on translations of her books seems to be limited. The fact that discussions on taboo elements in children’s books in general, and Lindgren’s source texts and target texts in particular are sparse indicates that this is a vast – and interesting – field still to be explored.This paper focuses on the American and British translations of Lindgren’s Madicken (1960 and Madicken och Junibackens Pims (1976 in order to find out why and to what extent these books were censored in translation.

  1. Constraining the Molecular Complexity in the Interstellar Medium—The Formation of Ethyl Methyl Ether (CH3OCH2CH3) in Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantini, Alexandre; Frigge, Robert; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2018-05-01

    We report the first confirmed synthesis of ethyl methyl ether (EME, CH3CH2OCH3) within astrophysical model ices containing water (H2O) and methane (CH4) exposed to ionizing radiation at ultra-low temperatures of 5 K. EME (also known as methoxyethane), was recently observed toward Orion KL and currently is the largest confirmed oxygen-bearing molecule found in the interstellar medium. Exploiting isomer-selective photoionization (PI) of the subliming molecules in the temperature-programmed desorption phase at 10.49, 9.92, and 9.70 eV, coupled with reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry and isotopic substitution experiments (H2 18O–CH4), the detection of fragment ions of EME at m/z = 45 (C2H5O+) and m/z = 59 (C3H7O+), and probing the proton transfer in subliming ethanol–EME complexes via m/z = 61 (C3H9O+), the present study reveals that EME can be formed from suprathermal reactions initiated by cosmic rays and secondary electrons generated within astrophysical ices. The detection of EME in our experiments represents a significant advance in the understanding of formation pathways of complex organic molecules present in hot cores and helps to constrain astrochemical models on the formation of such species within molecular clouds.

  2. Pengaruh Corporate Governance terhadap Efektifitas Mekanisme Pengurang Masalah Agensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Arifin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate whether there are a significant influence between corporate governance and effectiveness of agency-problem-reducing mechanism. The corporate governance is concern on all stakeholder interest while the agency variables are concern only on one of the most important stakeholders’ that is the stockholders. In theory, there should be a significant relationship between the corporate governance and the effectiveness of agency-problem-reducing mechanism. Using all manufacturing companies listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange during 2001 - 2004, this research found that corporate governance influence the effectiveness of debt mechanism in reducing agency problem. The other mechanism, dividend and independent board of director, do not effective to reduce agency problem and the corporate governance does not influence the effectiveness of these two mechanisms. Key words: agency problem, corporate governance, dividend, debt, independent Board of director

  3. EFEKTIVITAS JALUR KREDIT DALAM MEKANISME TRANSMISI KEBIJAKAN MONETER DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Mayo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transmission mechanism of monetary policy had an important influence in determining the final target ofmonetary policy and also affected the business and economic activity with several channels namely interestrate, asset price channel, credit channel, exchange rate channel and expectations channel. The function ofchanel was as an intermediary of monetary policy that should be able to be influential for a long time, as wellas to anticipate the imperfect information and the possibility of adverse selection and misappropriation. It wasknown as credit channel. The purpose of this research was to explain which sector credit that contributedgreatly to inflation. To analyze data, this research used VECM with two indicators namely impulse responsefunction and variance decomposition to determine which sector credit was effective to explain inflation. Theresults showed several findings. Investment credit of trade, hotel and restaurant sector and working capitalcredit of mining and quarrying sector was effectively explaining inflation. The conclusion of this research wasinvestment credit of trade, hotel and restaurant sector and working capital credit of mining and quarryingsector gave great contribution to inflation

  4. Studi Mekanisme Kinetik dengan Parametrik Camshaft pada Selubung Bangunan Adaptif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firza Utama Sjarifudin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is essential to manage the problem of climate change. In order to meet the challenge, this paper proposes an adaptive building envelope system that can optimize its configuration by responding environmental changes to achieve new levels of sustainable performance and energy efficiency. Most current adaptive building envelope uses kinetic techniques make its formation transformable. However, the use of kinetic components such as a large amount of interactive motorized system that requires electrical power may alsocause further decrease the building energy efficiency. This paper proposes a camshaft mechanism system for adaptive building envelope that uses less motors, controllers, and sensors. This system uses pre-programmed analysis data of daily solar radiation changes to parametrically drive the number of rotation phase and length of nose (Lobe Lift that generates the shape of camshaft. The camshaft then controls the values of opening and closing of the building envelope components. The advantages of this system are less energy consumption, less maintenance and lower cost since it uses fewer motors, controllers and wiring. In conclusion, this paper has developed a prototypical tool that facilitates a new approach to energy-efficient kinetic buildings.

  5. Review Hepatoprotektor Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa: Aktivitas, Mekanisme Aksi dan Toksisitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Liem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis has become the international health problem that causes significant mortality. Handling using herbs from various countries has been done, one of them by consuming roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract. H. sabdariffa contains anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and ascorbic acid that function as hepatoprotector. H. sabdariffacalyx extract may inhibit the increasing of various clinical parameters, such as ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH in various inducer types, ie acetaminophen, CCl4, CdCl2, DNPH, and TAA. The mechanism of action of H. sabdariffacalyx extract are as an antioxidant, inhibition of cytochrome enzyme, induction of phase II metabolism enzymes, increase cell viability percentage, increase CAT, GSH and decrease protein expression of pJNK, tBid and Bax. However, the consumption of H. sabdariffacalyx extract may also cause acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity depending on the given dose.

  6. Mekanisme Inhibisi Sintesis Protein dan Dasar Molekuler Resistensi Antibiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtami Soedarsono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms by antibiotics selectively kill or inhibit growth and proliferation of pathogen bacteria. Some antibiotics work by interfering the process of protein synthesis in bacterial ribosome, the machinery that builds proteins amino acid by amino acid for the living bacterial cell. This type of antibiotics which inhibit the protein synthesis include streptomycin, chlor amphenicol and tetracycline which are described in this article. Antibiotic resistencic is a worldwide problem in treating infectious diseases. Multiple factors contribute to the problem, but the most important ones are the prevalence of resistance genes and the excessive or inappropriate antibiotic use. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics may develop from the natural state of the bacterial genome, or the bacteria can acquire resistance genes by mutation or exchange of genes. Bacteria are able to exchange genes by several mechanisms such as conjugation, transduction, transposition and transformation, in which genetic material caries such plasmids, bacteriophages or transposons play an important role.

  7. Pengalaman Emosi dan Mekanisme Koping Lansia yang Mengalami Penyakit Kronis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Suyanta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of aging is a natural process faced by humans. They may experience health problems when it gets old, it is contributing to their emotional suffering. This study aims to answer the question of how the experience of seniors during chronic disease, what is the meaning of old age and disease for the elderly, how the dynamics of the elderly in the face of chronic illness , and what are the factors that influence the experience of emotions and coping mechanisms elderly who have chronic diseases. The study was conducted with a qualitative phenomenological approach, involving 6 subjects as key informants , and 6 family members and community leaders as one additional informant. The data was collected through in-depth interviews and participatory observation. Subject selection is determined by reference to key person who know the condition of the subject to the criteria of age 60 years or older , had more chronic disease than a year, can provide information through interviews. Results showed that the elderly experience while facing chronic illness can be identified through the important themes that are synthesized in the form of the internal dimensions of the disease view of the subject , the denial of the disease, the emergence of the thoughts that accompany illness, the emergence of a variety of emotional experience, surrender to face pain, and actions undertaken in overcoming the disease, and the external dimension of support or attention of the family. Old age is interpreted as the age of the subjects was nearing death, a lot of pain, and the patient should be approached religion, and should be able to accept the situation. Disease is defined as fairness occurs in old age, as a rebuke of God, as a trial, as a reward, as a disaster, as well as the will of God. Thoughts that accompany the disease appears to make the subject was not ready to accept the disease in old age. Old age is the age of the end of life and disease is the cause of a person's death. Factors that influence the experience of emotions and coping mechanisms include lack of knowledge about the subject of illness, type of illness and prior illness experiences, desires and thoughts experienced by subjects when sick, and the presence or absence of support or care from family for sick. Keywords: chronic disease, coping, elderly, emotion

  8. PENGEMBANGAN SDM KESEHATAN DI ERA DESENTRALISASI DAN MEKANISME PASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo J Pudjirahardjo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Political changes in health policy, pertaining to the regional autonomy in lndonesia, have caused changes in the structural and funetional components in the health field at Provincial and District level. The role of District Health Office becomes very essential in manage the health program and resources, including health human resources. Since the variability of resources between inter-regional health system is veryenormous, and same problems are existed, thus government should develop the system atie scenario of human resources management system. The scenario needs support from a leader that has visionary and transformationalleadership as well as entrepreneur and professionalism mindset to tackling the health problems in the regional area. In conclusion, despite the important role of District Health Office in managing the health human resources as the anticipation of the impact ofdecentralization, the health workers should also take the opportunities and challenge to provide program and health services that suffice the needs and demands of society Key words: health human resource, policy, leadership, decentralization ABSTRAK Perubahan politik dalam kebijakan kesehatan, khususnya terkait dengan otonomi daerah di lndonesia, menyebabkan perubahan pada komponen struktural dan fungsional pada level Provinsi dan Kabupaten/Kota. Peran Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten dan Kota menjadi sangat vital dalam mengelola program sekaligus dalam pengelolaan sumber daya, termasuk SDM kesehatan. Karena variabilitas sistem kesehatan antardaerah yang sangat besar serta adanya berbagai kendala yang harus dihadapi dalam penyelenggaraan desentralisasi, maka pemerintah daerah harus mengembangkan sistem pengelolaan SDM yang secara sistematis. Selain itu, diperlukan kepemimpinan yang visioner dan transformasional sekaligus ber-mindset profesional dan berjiwa enterprenuer yang dapat mendorong implementasi desentralisasi kesehatan. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa peran Dinas Kabupaten atau Kota cukup besar dalam melakukan penataan SDM Kesehatan, sebagai upaya mengantisipasi dampak dari kebijakan desentralisasi. Selain itu, SDM Kesehatan juga harus mampu memanfaatkan peluang di era desentralisasi dan pasar bebas sehingga dapat menyediakan program dan pelayanan kesehatan yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan tuntutan masyarakat. Kata kunci: SDM kesehatan, kebijakan, kepemimpinan, desentralisasi

  9. PENGARUH INTERDEPENDENSI MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP KINERJA PERBANKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muktiyanto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of interdependence mechanisms of corporate governance on company performance (Agrawal and Knoeber 1996. These mechanisms are: managerial ownership, institutional ownership, independent commissioner, board size, debt policy, dividend policy, market concentration, and market share with the control variables are growth, size, and firm ages. Test results on 349 firm-years using OLS regression for each mechanism and 2SLS regression for simultaneous testing indicate the presence of interdependence between the mechanisms. both parsial and simultanously; managerial ownership and dividend policy does not significantly influence on the banking efficiency. Significant positive effect of the board size and institutional ownership when tested by OLS did not recur when tested simultaneously using 2SLS. Instead, the independent commissioner when tested by 2SLS have significant negative effect but using OLS no significant effect. There are three variables of corporate governance mechanisms have consistent effect on the banking efficiency; debt policy has significant negative effect, while the market concentration and market share have significant positive effect. Different results between the tests using OLS and 2SLS emphasize the interdependence of these mechanisms is also shown that application of the policy of corporate governance mechanisms should be done carefully so that the expected performance can be achieved.

  10. RESISTENSI INSULIN TERKAIT OBESITAS: MEKANISME ENDOKRIN DAN INTRINSIK SEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Dewi

    2012-01-01

    The number of obese individuals worldwide has reached 2.1 billion and this will lead to explosion of obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Obese individuals will develop re­sistance to celluler action of insulin. The obesity related insulin resistance is the major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, the disease which number has reached epidemic proportion. The association between obesity and insulin resistance seem to be cause and effect relation because s...

  11. RESISTENSI INSULIN TERKAIT OBESITAS: MEKANISME ENDOKRIN DAN INTRINSIK SEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The number of obese individuals worldwide has reached 2.1 billion and this will lead to explosion of obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Obese individuals will develop re­sistance to celluler action of insulin. The obesity related insulin resistance is the major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, the disease which number has reached epidemic proportion. The association between obesity and insulin resistance seem to be cause and effect relation because studies on human and animal has indicated that the increase or decrease of body weight correlates with insulin sensitivity.  Among of many mechanisms proposed, the most often proposed mechanisms are endocrine and cell in­trinsik mechanism. The increase of fatty acid plasma concentration, dysregulation of adi­pokines and ectopic fat storage are proposed to be the endocrin mechanism that lead to obesity related insulin resistance while oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction are the cell intrinsic mechanisms that play role to the disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of obesity related insulin resistance will provide valuable information to search for interventions that help to prevent or treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and cardiovascular diseases and its related pathologies. Keywords: Obesity, insulin resistance, fatty acid, adipokines, oxidative stress, mitochondria

  12. Koolipärimuse kogumisest Noarootsis ja Vormsis 2006. aasta kevadel : Rootsi-Eesti lastenaljade kogumik Det var en ko och det var poängen / Piret Voolaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voolaid, Piret, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Autor käsitleb artiklis Ahvenamaa Põhjamaade Instituudi (Nordens Institut på Åland) eestvedamisel korraldatud lastepärimuse projekti, mille käigus koguti koolipärimust Soomest Ahvenamaalt ja Rootsist Gotlandilt ning Eestist endistelt rannarootsi aladelt. Kogutu põhjal ilmus rootsikeelne antoloogiline naljakogumik Det var en ko och det var poängen. Artiklis keskendutakse välitööde kogumismetoodikale ja tulemustele Eestis. Välitööd toimusid Noarootsi Koolis ja Vormsi Põhikoolis

  13. Pulsmätning och stegräkning från Android Wear : Utveckling av en applikation för att spara mätdata

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Detta examensarbete beskriver utvecklingen av en applikation för att överföra data från en Android Wear smartklocka till en Android smarttelefon som sedan skickar datan vidare till en server. Servern sätter in datan i en MySQL-databas. Android Wear smartklockornas sensorer undersöks även. Smartklockorna har sensorer för stegräkning och pulsmätning. I examensarbetet beskrivs det hur sensorerna fungerar. Därtill genomgås Androids historia i korta drag samt basfunktionerna i Android operativsyst...

  14. Correlation between stress-induced leakage current and dielectric degradation in ultra-porous SiOCH low-k materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C., E-mail: Chen.Wu@imec.be; De Wolf, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Li, Y.; Leśniewska, A.; Varela Pedreira, O.; Marneffe, J.-F. de; Ciofi, I.; Verdonck, P.; Baklanov, M. R.; Bömmels, J.; Tőkei, Zs.; Croes, K. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-10-28

    Stress-Induced Leakage Current (SILC) behavior during the dielectric degradation of ultra-porous SiOCH low-k materials was investigated. Under high voltage stress, SILC increases to a critical value before final hard breakdown. This SILC increase rate is mainly driven by the injected charges and is negligibly influenced by temperature and voltage. SILC is found to be transient and shows a t{sup −1} relaxation behavior, where t is the storage time at low voltages. This t{sup −1} transient behavior, described by the tunneling front model, is caused by both electron charging of neutral defects in the dielectric close to the cathode interface and discharging of donor defects close to the anode interface. These defects have a uniform density distribution within the probed depth range, which is confirmed by the observed flat band voltage shift results collected during the low voltage storage. By applying an additional discharging step after the low voltage storage, the trap energies and spatial distributions are derived. In a highly degraded low-k dielectric, the majority of defects have a trap depth between 3.4 eV and 3.6 eV and a density level of 1 × 10{sup 18 }eV{sup −1 }cm{sup −3}. The relation between the defect density N and the total amount of the injected charges Q is measured to be sub-linear, N ∼ Q{sup 0.45±0.07}. The physical nature of these stress-induced defects is suggested to be caused by the degradation of the Si-O based skeleton in the low-k dielectric.

  15. ”På Facebook slipper man vara närvarande” : En studie kring unga vuxnas syn på användande, identitetsskapande och kvarlämnade digitala identiteter på Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Carlsson; Lahdensuo, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Bakgrund: Facebook är ett socialt onlinenätverk som under sina levnadsår har ökat explosionsartat i popularitet. På Facebook sköter många användare stora delar av sina sociala relationer och delar med sig mycket av sig själva. Det finns inget tidigare socialt nätverk i stil med Facebook som har haft samma genomslagskraft hos internetanvändarna. I användandet skapas en digital identitet som lämnar spår på Facebook, även om en användare är död. Kring dessa kvalämnade digitala identiteter vill v...

  16. "Det är inte mig det är fel på, det är huset" : en studie av prognosfaktorer och bemötande med fokus på sjuka hus-syndromet

    OpenAIRE

    Edvardsson, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund: Sick Building Syndrome, SBS, är fortfarande 2015 ett tillstånd som vållar mycket diskussion. Symtomen kan grupperas i slemhinnesymtom, hudsymtom och allmänna symtom. I definitionen ingår att personen/ personerna som fått symtom har exponerats för dålig inomhusluft i en speciell byggnad. När personen inte är i byggnaden så förbättras eller försvinner symtomen. Många olika faktorer kan orsaka eller medverka till uppkomst eller försämringar av SBS-symtom, som t.ex. luftens innehåll av ...

  17. Optimization of lime addition in a dry air pollution control device; Optimerad rening av HCl och SO{sub 2} med minskade kalktillsatser vid torr roeasrening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Samuelsson, Jessica; Ohlsson, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The focus of this project is to optimize the absorption of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (SO{sub 2}) in a dry air pollution control device system connected to a waste combustor. A significant amount of absorbent are generally added into the processes to achieve an efficient cleaning of the flue gas. Reduced absorbent consumption has double benefits on the operative expenses due to decreased purchase and landfilling costs. The objective was to study the affect of flue gas temperature and moisture, (relative humidity, RH), on the efficiency of HCl and SO{sub 2} absorption on hydrated lime. Additionally, the efficiency of a pre-treated hydrated lime with larger specific surface and pore volume was investigated. The measuring campaign was conducted on the 20 MW fluidized bed waste incinerator own by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB in Sweden. Results from 26 experimental days with normal hydrated lime showed a positive correlation between the efficiency of the lime and RH in the flue gas. Four levels of RH between 3.28% to 4.84% were tested. The levels were adjusted by lowering the flue gas temperature and/or by adding water to the waste fuel. The smallest effect where achieved by solely adding water to the waste fuel. RH increased solely to 3.62% and the amount of lime consumption was reduced with only 5% compare to normal condition. By lowering the flue gas temperature 10 deg C to 143 deg C, RH increased to 4.06% and the amount of lime added was reduced with 13%. The largest impact was found when both the flue gas temperature and the moisture content were changed. At those process conditions RH reach 4.84 % and the usage of lime were reduced with 26%. Additional 12 experimental days were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a pretreated hydrated lime with larger specific surface and pore volume. The results showed that the surface enlarged absorbent was almost twice as effective as the normal hydrated lime. Moreover, the results indicated an equal

  18. Tjock och vacker - kvinnlighet och kroppsstorlek bland nicaraguanska kvinnor

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anna

    1996-01-01

    Fat and beautiful - femininity and body size among Nicaraguan women This article aims to illuminate and discuss body size as a central element in the social construction of a feminine body. It also emphases the variations in the social definitions and experiences of womens body size; historical and social as well as cultural ones. The dominant body ideal today in Western culture is the slender and fat free body. Women are to a higher extent then men subdued to the disciplinary practices of fa...

  19. Politisk liberalism och skolans religionsundervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Rosenquist

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available POLITICAL LIBERALISM AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. Based on John Rawls’ latertheory of political liberalism, this article critically analyses what religiouseducation could mean in times of increasing societal pluralism and a world-wide revival of religion. Important elements of political liberalism – such asthe notions of reasonable persons and public reason – are elaborated onand related to religious individuals and perspectives. It is argued that polit-ical liberalism supports mandatory religious education, but of a certainkind. Schools have an obligation to provide students with knowledge aboutreligions, and to foster a spirit of tolerance and respect for the demands ofpublic reason. But they cannot legitimately give students the impression thatall religions are equally true or false. This makes for a problematic situation:how is it possible to teach students about religion without crossing the lineand teaching religious relativism? If it is not possible, then political liberalismseems to be more controversial than Rawls would admit.

  20. Findability och informationskompetens vid webbnavigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    needed. But the information is not equally available, even if it is published and freely available on the Web. Each Web page, or other information object, has a degree of findability. The degree of the findability depends on the relationships between object, system and the Web. Six sub concepts......The article discusses the relationship between users, information objects, information systems and the Web, combined with the concepts findability and information literacy. An important aspect in all information literacy definitions is the ability to effectively gain access to the information...... are identified: the object's characteristics, accessibility, internal navigation, internal search, reachability and web prestige. Both information literacy and findability are defined as query independent aspects of the search, working on a structural level....

  1. Webbaserad pedagogisk meritportfölj - från idé till verklighet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Johansson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogisk meritering och pedagogiska meritportföljer har under det senaste decenniet fått ökad uppmärksamhet. Idag (mars 2011 ger en sökning på Google® 6 140 respektive 1 990 träffar på dessa två sökord. Många av träffarna på Google® handlar om högskolors rekommendationer att dokumentera pedagogiska meriter, men antalet publicerade artiklar i detta ämne är mycket få. Högskolan behöver bra lärare och för att uppnå det så måste undervisning och andra utbildningsinsatser uppmärksammas och belönas. Användandet av pedagogiska meritportföljer anses öka betydelsen av undervisningsinsatsen vid anställningar och befordran och är ett sätt att professionalisera undervisning (Fayne, 1991. Många högskolor och universitet har utarbetat handlingsplaner för hur pedagogiska meriter ska dokumenteras och bedömas liksom strategier för hur medarbetarna ska utveckla sin pedagogiska skicklighet. ”Uppifrån” finns således både skrivna dokument och viljan och intentionen att premiera pedagogiska insatser. Trots detta upplever många medarbetare att pedagogiska insatser inte lönar sig att dokumentera då dessa meriter inte värderas tillräckligt högt, exempelvis i jämförelse med forskningsmeriter. Samtidigt vittnar pedagogiskt sakkunniga om att de pedagogiska meritportföljer som de ombeds granska (vid exempelvis tjänstetillsättningar ofta är ostrukturerade och av varierande kvalité. För att pedagogiska meriter ska få avsedd tyngd vid tjänstetillsättningar fordras att de redovisas på ett sätt som gör det möjligt för sakkunniga att värdera dem. Bedömning av både vetenskapliga och pedagogiska meriter görs i många fall av sakkunniga utan särskild pedagogisk utbildning och de pedagogiska meriterna anses generellt mer svårbedömda än de vetenskapliga (Lindberg, 1997. Någon form av standardisering och mallar i samband med presentation av pedagogiska meriter bör därför kunna vara till hjälp för s

  2. Oral nano-delivery of anticancer ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD, a natural inhibitor of the MDM2 oncogene: Nanoparticle preparation, characterization, in vitro and in vivo anti-prostate cancer activity, and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Sukesh; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Sarkar, Sushanta; Nag, Subhasree; Walbi, Ismail A; Wang, Shu; Zhao, Yuqing; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-08-28

    The Mouse Double Minute 2 (MDM2) oncogene plays a critical role in cancer development and progression through p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Both natural and synthetic MDM2 inhibitors have been shown anticancer activity against several human cancers. We have recently identified a novel ginsenoside, 25-OCH3-PPD (GS25), one of the most active anticancer ginsenosides discovered thus far, and have demonstrated its MDM2 inhibition and anticancer activity in various human cancer models, including prostate cancer. However, the oral bioavailability of GS25 is limited, which hampers its further development as an oral anticancer agent. The present study was designed to develop a novel nanoparticle formulation for oral delivery of GS25. After GS25 was successfully encapsulated into PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (GS25NP) and its physicochemical properties were characterized, the efficiency of MDM2 targeting, anticancer efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of human prostate cancer. Our results indicated that, compared with the unencapsulated GS25, GS25NP demonstrated better MDM2 inhibition, improved oral bioavailability and enhanced in vitro and in vivo activities. In conclusion, the validated nano-formulation for GS25 oral delivery improves its molecular targeting, oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy, providing a basis for further development of GS25 as a novel agent for cancer therapy and prevention.

  3. The Role of Anisotropic Exchange in Single Molecule Magnets: A CASSCF/NEVPT2 Study of the Fe4 SMM Building Block [Fe2(OCH32(dbm4] Dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lunghi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rationalisation of single molecule magnets’ (SMMs magnetic properties by quantum mechanical approaches represents a major task in the field of the Molecular Magnetism. The fundamental interpretative key of molecular magnetism is the phenomenological Spin Hamiltonian and the understanding of the role of its different terms by electronic structure calculations is expected to steer the rational design of new and more performing SMMs. This paper deals with the ab initio calculation of isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions in the Fe(III dimer [Fe 2 (OCH 3 2 (dbm 4 ]. This system represents the building block of one of the most studied Single Molecule Magnets ([Fe 4 RC(CH 2 O 3 2 (dpm 6 ] where R can be an aliphatic chain or a phenyl group just to name the most common functionalization groups and its relatively reduced size allows the use of a high computational level of theory. Calculations were performed using CASSCF and NEVPT2 approaches on the X-ray geometry as assessment of the computational protocol, which has then be used to evinced the importance of the outer coordination shell nature through organic ligand modelization. Magneto-structural correlations as function of internal degrees of freedom for isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions are also presented, outlining, for the first time, the extremely rapidly changing nature of the anisotropic exchange coupling.

  4. Är vi där än? - BIM inom produktion och försäljning : En fallstudie om hur BIM kan utveckla byggföretaget

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Christoffer; Hansson, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Titania köpte hösten 2010 in programvaran Revit för att skapa möjligheten att kunna BIM-projektera sina ROT-projekt. En övergång från 2D-projektering har ännu inte skett då den allmänna synen inom företaget är att projekten innehåller för många komplexa delar i utförandet och därför bör lösas på plats. Idag säljer Titania sina råvindslägenheter när dessa står färdiga men de har som mål att tidigarelägga försäljningen av sina projekt, om detta ska kunna ske måste företaget ha mer material att ...

  5. Opto-electronic properties and light-emitting device application of widegap layered oxychalcogenides: LaCuOCh (Ch=chalcogen) and La2CdO2Se2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hirano, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hayato; Ueda, Kazushige; Ohta, Hiromichi; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Electronic and optical properties of widegap oxychalcogenides, LaCuOCh (Ch chalcogen) and La 2 CdO 2 Se 2 , are reviewed with a focus on those relevant to their layered crystal structures, including high hole mobility, degenerate p-type conduction, room temperature exciton, and large third order optical nonlinearity. In particular, the widegap p-type metallic conduction was realized in Mg-doped LaCuOSe: the first demonstration among any class of widegap materials including GaN:Mg. Furthermore, we demonstrate the room temperature operation of a blue light-emitting diode using a pn hetero-junction composed of a LaCuOSe epilayer and an n-type amorphous InGaZn 5 O 8 . Those results strongly suggest that a series of the layered oxychalcogenides are applicable to the light-emitting layers in opto-electronic devices that operate in the ultraviolet-blue region as well as to transparent p-type conductors. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Kritisk självreflektion i komplexa frågor: Att hjälpa studenterna att ta makten över sitt tänkande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wolrath Söderberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Den här artikeln handlar om studenters kritiska självreflektion. Utgångspunkten är att de former av kritiskt tänkande som vi traditionellt odlar inom högskolan är otillräckliga när det gäller vår tids kritiska frågor, som exempelvis klimatfrågan. När det rör sig om komplexa och värdeladdade frågor där många perspektiv kan vara giltiga har vi att förhålla oss till olika mänskliga mekanismer som på olika vis hindrar oss från att tänka och agera klokt, exempelvis polarisering, bekräftelsebias, glapp mellan tanke och handling och olika former av legitimeringsstrategier för att låta blir att ta ansvar. Här diskuteras sådana hinder och hur vi kan förhålla oss till dem i högre utbildning.

  7. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes

  8. Synthesis and X-ray structure of the dysprosium(III complex derived from the ligand 5-chloro-1,3-diformyl-2-hydroxybenzene-bis-(2-hydroxybenzoylhydrazone [Dy2(C22H16ClN4O53](SCN 3.(H2O.(CH3OH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliou H. Barry

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [Dy2(C22H16ClN4O53](SCN 3.(H2O.(CH3OH has been synthesized and its crystal structure determined by single X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The two nine coordinated Dy(III are bound to three macromolecules ligand through the phenolic oxygens of the p-chlorophenol moieties, the nitrogen atoms and the carbonyl functions of the hydrazonic moieties. The phenolic oxygen atoms of the 2-hydroxybenzoyl groups are not bonded to the metal ions. In the bases of the coordination polyhedra the six Dy-N bonds are in the range 2.563(13-2.656(13 Å and the twelve Dy-O bonds are in the range 2.281(10-2.406(10 Å.

  9. Tuning the composition of metastable CoxNiyMg100−xy(OH)(OCH3) nanoplates for optimizing robust methane dry reforming catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Xiaoli; Liu, Zhiting; Zhu, Yi-An

    2015-01-01

    of the metastable precursor CoxNiyMg100−x−y(OH)(OCH3) derived from solvothermal synthesis. The catalyst composition and reaction conditions have been modulated to achieve maximum coke resistance and catalyst stability. Long-term stability for 1000 h time on stream at 800°C has been achieved for the optimized Co0.......075Ni7.425Mg92.5O catalyst. The role of Co in the catalyst has been disclosed through kinetic measurements and detailed characterization of the spent catalysts. Co is enriched on the Co–Ni alloy surface under reforming conditions and accelerates the gasification of coke intermediates. Co also enhances...

  10. Utveckling av riktningsanalys exergiberäkningar i Luleå och Strängnäs kommuner eller Hur kan man veta om man hushållar med resurserna på ett hållbart sätt?

    OpenAIRE

    Delin, Staffan; Gundelius, Eva

    1998-01-01

    Bakgrunden till projektet är den riktningsanalys som utvecklades av Eva Grundelius år 1991. Riktningsanalysen som är uppbyggd kring sex frågor fungerar som en checklista för hållbar utveckling. Den kan användas i många slag av beslutssituationer. För att göra riktningsanalysen mer operativ och kvantifierbar har den i detta projekt kopplats samman med en exergianalys. Exergi är ett fysiskt mått på resursers värde. Denna analys görs med utgångspunkt från det livsuppehållande systemet, ekosystem...

  11. Lärplatta som verktyg för elever i behov av särskilt stöd! : En specialpedagogisk studie om hur elever i åk 4-7 använder lärplatta i klassrummet och hur uppföljning av användningen sker

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Ditte; Nordström, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Studiens syfte var att få kunskap om hur lärplatta används som verktyg för elever i behov av särskilt stöd i åk 4-7, samt om lärplattan används utifrån specialpedagogens syfte för den enskilda eleven med den. Använda datainsamlingsmetoder är kvalitativa intervjuer med specialpedagoger, lärare och elever, samt elevobservationer. De frågeställningar som studien sökt svar på är: i vilket syfte valdes lärplatta som verktyg av specialpedagog för elever i behov av särskilt stöd, hur använder elever...

  12. "Mu vend mu õde ja mina põgeneme Valguskoonused kalduvad ..." = "Min bror min syster och jag flyr Ljuskäglor välter över vägkanten ..." : [luuletused] / Catharina Gripenberg ; tlk. Juta-Tiia Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gripenberg, Catharina

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Mu vend mu õde ja mina põgeneme Valguskoonused kalduvad ..." = "Min bror min syster och jag flyr Ljuskäglor välter över vägkanten ..."; "Tean, et kajad vastavad, aga väga lühidalt. Valad sa välja oma ..." = "Vet att ekon svarar, men i all korthet. Gjuter du ut ditt hjärta ..."; "Kirjasõber, ma otsin välja jääkraabitsa ..." = "Brevvän, jag lagrar upp med fönsterskapare ..."; "Säravselge hommik. Linnupojad trügivad välja kolbast ..." = "Det var en glasklar morgon. Fågelungarna knuffas från skallen ..."; Armastuskiri = Kärleksbrev

  13. Peran p53 Sebagai Jalur Kritis pada Mekanisme Kontrol Siklus Sel Sebagai Pencegah Terjadinya Kanker Mulut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlia Nur Istindiah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In cell cycle control, p53 acts as an emergency brake, where its important checkpoint function is to maintain the genome integrity by preventing the formation and proliferation of mutant cells. P53 activity is increased by DNA damage occurs caused by agents (such as radioation, UV light or drugs or oncogenes. Mdm2 protein can inhibit the p53 activation, but oncogenes can inhibit Mdm2 or activate p53. If DNA damage occurs, then p53 prevents the cells from replicating their DNA by arresting the cell cycle, so that the cells can repair the damage. Alternatively, p53 instructs the cells to undergo apoptosis by inducing bax gene expression, so that irregular cell growth, and cancer can be avoided. Cancer, including oral cancer, oftenthuolved cells with altered p53. Exogenous factors, such as tobacco and alcohol, presumably plays a role in triggering p53 mutations. Several techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and PCR can be used to investigation their etiology and development of oral cancer. The results hopefully be applied clinically in early detection, prevention and prediction of cancer. This paper discusses the role on p53 in preventing the occurrence and proliferation of mutated cells that lead to cancer, including oral cancer.

  14. Mekanisme Proses Pemanasan Air Di Dalam Boiler Dengan Mempergunakan Heater Tambahan Untuk Efisiensi Pembakaran

    OpenAIRE

    Helmon Sihombing

    2010-01-01

    Pada proses pemanasan air, air yang berasal dari raw water (air tanah) tidak langsung dibakar didalam boiler. dalam hal ini digunakan peralatan instrumen Deaerator dan economizer yang berfungsi untuk pemanasan awal sebelum dibakar didalam boiler. Fungsi deaerator dan economizer ini adalah sebagai komponen pembantu untuk memanaskan air sebelum dibakar didalam boiler. Apabila pemanasan air langsung dilakukan didalam boiler maka akan membutuhkan waktu yang cukup lama dan menggunakan bahan b...

  15. Potensi Kebijaksanaan Kontrak Pemeliharaan Mesin dalam Menunjang Keberhasilan Mekanisme Industri Pertanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Husniah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss a mathematical model of maintenance policy for certain type of agricultural equipments. It is assumed that the equipments are repairable and sold with two-dimensional warranty, i.e. a warranty with two scales of limit, such as the age of the equipment and the usage of the equipment. As an example in the case of automobile, the warranty is cease whenever the age of the automobile reaches 5 years or its mileage reaches 50.000 km, whichever occurs first. The model is intended to provide the best contract-based preventive maintenance (PM strategy chosen from available options. A method to determine the optimal cost of service contract, both from user and producer view points, is presented. Numerical simulations reveal that the resulting optimal strategy depends on the level of the consumer usage pattern. In this paper we show that the selection of optimal policy is potential in supporting the performance of mechanization in agricultural industry in terms of choosing the best strategy to maintain agricultural equipments effectively (is able to reduce the failure rate of the equipment with a minimal cost.

  16. KONSEKUENSI NEGARA INDONESIA MENJADI ANGGOTA ICC (Studi Tentang Mekanisme Penegakan Hukum Humaniter Internasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isplancius Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available International Humanitarian Law (IHL is a set of rules which is based on the 1949 Geneva Law and Hague Law in 1907 and equipped with Additional Protocols I and II of 1977. IHL seeks to provide protection to the victims of war and civilians in armed conflict (law of Geneva 1949 and what methods and tools that may be used in war (Hague Law 1907. The parties involved in armed conflict must respect the principles of limitation, proportionality and distinction. Violations of international humanitarian law called war criminals must be prosecuted as crimes against human rights. Enforcement of international humanitarian law carried out through the mechanism according to the 1949 Geneva Law, by temporary or ad hoc Court, and by the International Criminal Court (ICC. The method used in this research is normative qualitative approach by taking secondary data as a source of information. The results indicate that the consequences of Indonesia as a state to be a member of ICC are having the synergy process national law with Rome Statute covering criminal law, criminal procedural law, extradition, human rights court and the law of human rights itself. The final goals of the synergy are to make Rome Statuta as a follow up system of national judicial, to avoid conflict between ICC and the law of Indonesia, and to make internal law procedure for Indonesia when ICC jurisdiction is active in Indonesia

  17. MEKANISME GCG DAN PENGUNGKAPAN TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL TERHADAP KOEFISIEN RESPON LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurika Restuningdiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of good corporate governance mechanism tocorporate social responsibility (CSR disclosure and the impact of CSR disclosure to earning responsecoefficient. The proxy of good corporate governance mechanism were institutional ownership, managerialownership, independency of board commisioner and the size of board commisioner. Regression analysis of35 public companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in year 2009 through a random sampling techniqueindicated that only the size of commisioner board had a positive effect CSR disclosure. This study alsoshowed that there was no significant impact of CSR disclosure to ERC. The implication of this study wasrelevant for the decision maker of public companies to consider the size of board commisioner to supportthe good corporate governance mechanism.

  18. MEKANISME KETAHANAN KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM TERHADAP NEMATODA SISTA KUNING (GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Fitriyanti, Mulyadi, dan Christanti Sumardiyono .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance mechanism of potato (Solanum tuberosum to golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis.  The research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2006 in Kepuhharjo, Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The aims of the research were to find the resistance status of 20 potato varieties, role of  chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid  in the resistance mechanism and histopathological differences between resistant and susceptible potato varieties to  G. rostochiensis. The results showed that two varieties were resistant to G. rostochiensis, i.e, Hertha and Manohara.  Thirteen varieties were moderately resistant, i.e; No.30, No.44, No. 5, No.19, Batang Hitam, Agria,  Desiree, Berolina, Atlantik, No.095, Cipanas, FLS and Colombus, and five varieties were susceptible, i.e; Kikondo, Granola, Erika, LBR, and Fries. The presence of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Hertha (resistant variety and in Granola (susceptible variety were analized by TLC. In Hertha chlorogenic acid was detected at 4, 5, and 6 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas in Granola it was detected at 1 and 6 DAI. It was assumed that the presence of chlorogenic acid for 3 successively week in Hertha, caused it more resistant than Granola.  Cell lignification inhibited                       G. rostochiensis grow well inside the root tissue of Hertha, whereas in Granola only a few cell was lignified as indicated by less absorption of red colour (safranin in infected areas. Caffeic acid was not detected either in uninoculated or inoculated of both potato varieties.  It indicated that caffeic acid might not be naturally present in Hertha and Granola and nematode infection could not stimulate the production of this compound.

  19. Mekanisme dan Torsi Pengepresan Tunggul Tebu menggunakan Pisau Bajak Piring yang diputar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisyanto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutting of sugar cane stubble is one of important activities in sugar cane agriculture system. Problems on labor and low quality of cutting have not been solved by manual cutting system. In addition, a kind of farm machinery, which work in rotating ways did not give a good result in doing the cutting of sugar cane stubble. Due to low quality of cutting and broken sugar cane stubble, it is not used any more. The problem of broken sugar cane stubble in mechanical cutting system should be solved by changing the system of cutting mechanism, prefering impact cutting to chips forming. The goal of the study is to analyze the mechanism of cutting on sugar cane stubble by using rotating disk plow and to develop a mathematical model in order to determine cutting force of sugar cane stubble. Method of analyzing on movement of node on edge is used to discribe a curve of edge movement. A mathematical model of cutting force was developed base on instant cutting area which was calculated using Simpson method, numerical integration system. Equations resulted from this study can be applied to simulate the movement of edge using input parameters, mainly: tilt angle, disk angle, angular velocity,linier velocity. Variety of PA 198 has the higher specific cutting resistance per area of cutting than the other varieties. The mathematical model developed can be used to determine the cutting force with a good result.

  20. Mekanisme Gempa Vulkanik Gunung Talang Pasca Gempa Tektonik Mentawai Tahun 2007-2009, Sumatra Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estu Kriswati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.104The Mentawai tectonic earthquake (magnitude 6.8 on the Richter Scale on April 10, 2005 is assumed to trigger Talang volcanic activity that caused an eruption on April 12, 2005. Information on the source mechanism of volcanic earthquakes after the tectonic earthquake is expected to answer question of “Do tectonic earthquakes around the Talang Volcano trigger its volcanic activities?” Epicenter distribution of the volcanic earthquakes between 2007 and 2009 shows a southeast – northwest pattern with dextral strike-slip fault and normal fault mechanisms. The data show that earthquake activities at the Talang Volcano were dominated by local structure movements influenced by regional tectonic movements. Between 2007 and 2009, there were three process stages related to magnitude 6 or larger tectonic earthquakes around the Talang Volcano. First stage was a period before August 16, 2009. In this stage, volcanic fluids rose to the shallower chamber beneath the Talang Volcano. Second stage was a compressional stage and formation of a reverse fault influenced by Mentawai tectonic earthquake on August 16, 2009 and activation of a fault that intersects the Volcano. The third stage was a compresional stage and formation of a reverse fault influenced by Padang tectonic earthquake on September 30, 2009. In this stage, area fracturing was intensified, thereby the fracturing became more intensive. As the result, the accumulated volume and pressure of several tectonic earthquakes were released that caused an increase of eruption column soon after the tectonic earthquake.

  1. Upaya Perlindungan Hak-Hak Tersangka/Terdakwa Melalui Mekanisme Praperadilan di Kota Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Ekawaty Ismail

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Building justice through judicature institution always contends with consequence which sacrifices the suspected as being object of investigation. There is a guarantee called “presumption of innocence”, but the guarantee is not representative enough, there must be still a guarantee that the position of the suspected is quiet strong, not only as object, but also, as possible as being subject, and law officers effort to find fair decisions. With the existing of prejudge, in hope, Criminal affairs will run well which is suitable with the current regulation. Arresting, jailing etc can not be accomplished at haphazard. The whole is to manifest law protection of human rights in order not to be violated. Besides it, the existence of prejudge in hope, is able to help and gives the protection of law to the basic rights of the accused as an effort to protect the one from forced trial by investigators and public prosecutors. Therefore, automatically the rights of the accused can also be protected. The execution of prejudge as managed within KUH Pidana is influenced by several factors such as: first, prejudge as the law protection of human rights. Second: prejudge as the instrument to control the investigator and prosecutor, Besides the factor as explained above, there are also barriers in the execution of prejudge. The hindering factor of prejudge execution consists, such as; First the prejudge practice is still rare. second, the basic difference of judge’s decision of sentence, third, limited time for inspection of prejudge affairs.

  2. PEMBENTUKAN KARAKTER PADA ANAK: MODEL MEKANISME SANKSI DIRI DARI ALBERT BANDURA SEBAGAI REGULASI PERILAKU MORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari

    2016-06-01

    being and happiness. Albert Bandura proposed self‐sanction mechanism model to regulate moral behavior by giving physical sanction and verbal reprimand. As child grows, the child need parental guiding to understand standards of conduct and to learn about social sanction. If child can function self‐sanction mechanism, child is expected be able to evaluate his conduct right or wrong. The functioning of behavior moral regulation is an important part in developing child’s character. The strength and weakness of model and the application of this model in Indonesian context will be discussed.

  3. PEMBENTUKAN KARAKTER PADA ANAK: MODEL MEKANISME SANKSI DIRI DARI ALBERT BANDURA SEBAGAI REGULASI PERILAKU MORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Sri

    2016-01-01

    Child rearing in family has various purposes, among of them is to build child’s character. The evidence shows that character strengths are positively related to the individual’s well‐ being and happiness. Albert Bandura proposed self‐sanction mechanism model to regulate moral behavior by giving physical sanction and verbal reprimand. As child grows, the child need parental guiding to understand standards of conduct and to learn about social sanction. If child can function s...

  4. MEKANISME PASAR DAN KEBIJAKAN PENETAPAN HARGA ADIL DALAM PERSPEKTIF EKONOMI ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to conventional system, concept of Islamic economy emphasize that market mechanism and price arrangement need to be regulated to create market balance and economic justice, taking into consideration the interest of the parties involved in the market. Reasonable and fair price is the price obtained through the force of supply and demand. If there exist actions such as zhulm resulting distortion or imbalance market price, government needs to take steps to implement price arrangement taking into account factors causing distortion and restore the original price at the balance pointDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2552

  5. Mekanisme Pasar dalam Kebijakan Penetapan Harga Adil dalam Perspektif Ekonomi Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to conventional system, concept of Islamic economy emphasize that market mechanism and price arrangement need to be regulated to create market balance and economic justice, taking into consideration the interest of the parties involved in the market. Reasonable and fair price is the price obtained through the force of supply and demand. If there exist actions such as zhulm resulting distortion or imbalance market price, government needs to take steps to implement price arrangement taking into account factors causing distortion and restore the original price at the balance pointDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2106

  6. PENGEMBANGAN MEKANISME OTENTIKASI DAN OTORISASI MANAJEMEN CONFIG PADA KASUS SHARED WEB HOSTING BERBASIS LINUX CONTAINER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Saifuddin

    2016-08-01

    The results show config on web applications that are in the directory in a single server can be read using these methods but can not be decoded to read user, password, and dbname, because it has given authorization can be decoded only from the directory already listed. on testing performance for latency, memory, and CPU system be followed, to get good results the previous system. The test results using the cache, the response time generated when accessed simultaneously by 20 click per user amounted to 941.4 ms for the old system and amounted to 786.6 ms.

  7. Studi Molekuler pada Instabilitas Genetik : Mekanisme Kerusakan DNA dan Proses Perbaikannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The life survival of individuals depends on their DNA stability. Radiation exposure, physical and chemical change, and also replication errors can induce DNA lesions. Multiple pathways are involved in the maintenance of genetic integrity, most link to the cell cycle. By arresting the cell cycle, checkpoints allow cells to repair DNA when damage to the genome is detected. Genes induced in genetic instability to respond to DNA damage include ATM, p53, p21, BRCA1 and Chk2. Cells have various DNA repair systems to keep homeostasis condition with enzymes that search for some changes or distortion to be repaired.

  8. Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, N O; Møller, M; Garde, E

    1993-01-01

    Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may be a pres......Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may...

  9. Mekanisme Corporate Governance dan Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan [Mechanisms of Corporate Governance and Financial Statement Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Ismiyanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine factors that may affect fraud on financial statements that could encourage the emergence of corruption by management. This research uses banks as an industry sample because the banking industry is highly regulated and should report their financial statement to a central bank. Meanwhile, banks still frequently have fraudulent financial statements. Good corporate governance mechanisms indicated that banks have the capability to detect fraud in financial statements. This research focuses on testing factors that may affect the financial statements fraud which lead to the corruption of management. The data used in this research is financial statement data. Corporate governance mechanisms tested in this study are the number of commissioners, percentage of independent directors, number of commissioners meeting, percentage of largest share ownership, managerial ownership, long tenure of commissioners, and type of auditor. This research found that the number of commissioners and managerial ownership affects management's fraud, while the number of independent directors, the number of commissioners meeting, a long tenure managing director, large share ownership, and the type of auditor has no effect on fraud.

  10. Mekanisme Parasitisme Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Fusarium Oxysporum Pada Semai Acacia Mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Tasik, Susanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah; Harjono

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism of parasitism of Trichoderma harzianum on Fusarium oxysporum on Acacia mangium seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most important soil-borne fungi the causal agent of damping-off disease. Detailed information it needed to know how the pathogen can be inhibited by Trichoderma harzianum. The objective of this research was to investigate the inhibition mechanism of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum in vitro and in planta. Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) T. harzianum was used as bioc...

  11. EFEKTIFITAS MEKANISME TRANSMISI KEBIJAKAN MONETER PADA JALUR SUKU BUNGA PERIODE 2005:07-2010:06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alfian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vector Auto Regression (VAR is an analysis or statistic method which can be used to predict time series variable and to analyst dynamic impact of disturbance factor in the variable system. In addition, VAR analysis is very usefull to assess the interrelationship between economics variable. This research through the following test phases: unit root test, optimal lag test, granger causality test, and form a vector auto regression model (VAR. The data used in this research is the Bank Indonesia Certificate rate data (SBI, interbank offered rate data (PUAB, deposit rate data (DEP, loan rate data (KDRT and credit aggregate data (AGKDRT of Indonesia in the period 2005:07-2010:06. The effectiveness was measured by two indicators. They are: (1. how fast or how many time lag needed since the shock of monetary instruments (rSBI until the realisation of intermediary target of monetary policy (monetary aggregate. (2. How strong the variables of Interest Rate Channel response the shock of SBI interest rate and other variable. This study used secondary data issued by Bank Indonesia. The result of the study shows that response velocity of variable in Interest Rate Channel towards shock instrument of monetary policy (SBI until reach the final target about 4 months. While impulse response function of variables in this channel to the shock instrument of monetary policy (SBI is quiet weak and the main variable in interest rate money market among bank (PUAB able to explain diversity intermediary target of monetary policy (Monetary Aggregate about 2,82%. This result once shows a weak Granger causality and predictive power between PUAB as the operational target with monetary aggregate as the intermediary target of monetary policy. Thus we can conclude that mechanism of monetary policy transmission through Interest Rate Channel is not effective to reach the intermediary target of monetary policy of Indonesia period of 2005:072010:06. Keyword: Vector Auto Regression (VAR, The Monetary Transmission Mechanism (MTKM, The Interest Rate Channel.

  12. Optogenetik bringer neurale mekanismer frem i lyset og kan blive en ny terapiform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Tobias Melton; Navntoft, Charlotte Amalie Emdal; Christiansen, Søren Hofman

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics is an emergent technology that combines light-sensitive proteins derived from algae, so-called opsins, with genetics. Viral vectors encoding opsins are injected into selective brain regions whereby specific cell populations can be controlled with high precision light pulses delivered...

  13. Molekylaere mekanismer bag den immunologiske reaktion mod gluten hos patienter med cøliaki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Husby, Steffen; Lillevang, Søren T

    2003-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a complex inflammatory disorder of the small intestine, induced by dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Recently, the nature of gluten-derived peptides recognized by gut-derived T cells from patients has been elucidated. It has further been established...... that the binding of such peptides to HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 molecules is enhanced following the modification of the peptides by the ubiquitous enzyme tissue transglutaminase. This knowledge has allowed the establishment of a molecular basis for the well-known association between coeliac disease and the expression...... of these HLA-molecules. This article summarizes the latest progress in coeliac disease molecular biology....

  14. BAKTERI PROBIOTIK DALAM BUDIDAYA UDANG: SELEKSI, MEKANISME AKSI, KARAKTERISASI, DAN APLIKASINYA SEBAGAI AGEN BIOKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widanarni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial disease attack occurs at the hatchery stage, which is considered to be the most serious threat, and often results in mass mortality of shrimp larvae by vibrosis which is that caused by a luminous bacterium identified as Vibrio harveyi. This research was carried out to obtain local isolates of probiotic bacteria that were able to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi and effectively apply it as a biocontrol of vibriosis in shrimp cultures. The research was carried out as follows: (1 In vitro and in vivo selection of probiotic bacteria candidates, (2 Study of the action mechanism and characterization of the selected pro biotic bacteria, (3 Study on application of the selected probiotic bacteria as a biocontrol agent in shrimp cultures. Results of in vitro and in vivo selection provided the best three isolates, which were 1Ub, SKT-b and Ua. The survival rate of shrimp larvae which were not only inoculated by V. harveyi but also with 1Ub, SKT-b and Ua probiotic bacteria were 88.33, 83.33, and 81.67% respectively; where as the positive control treatment (merely inoculated with V. harveyi gave a 41.67% survival rate and the negative control (without bacterial addition was 68.33%. Studies using a rifampicin resistant marker (RfR demonstrated that the number of V. harveyi MR5339 RfR cells in treatments without probiotic addition were higher than the treatment with the probiotic bacteria, in dead larvae, living larvae, as well as in the culture media. Partial sequencing of the I6S-rRNA gene showed that the I Ub isolate was similar to Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, whereas the SKT -b and Ua isolates were similar to Vibrio alginolyticus. Selected probiotic bacteria could be applied directly to shrimp larva culture media, or orally through enrichment of both natural and artificial food

  15. MEKANISME SEGMENTASI LAJU BIT PADA DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Audy Bazly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  16. Perancangan Replikasi Basis Data Mysql Dengan Mekanisme Pengamanan Menggunakan Ssl Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliansyah, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Karena faktor pentingnya data dan informasi pada organisasi small medium business (SMB), maka diperlukan suatu replikasi basis data sehingga jika terjadi suatu keadaan force majure, organisasi tersebut tidak akan mengalami kehilangan data. Replikasi basis data ini melibatkan paling sedikit 2 sistem basis data yang terhubung dalam suatu jaringan komputer. Konsep CIA Triad yaitu Confidentiality, Integrity dan Availability, merupakan dasar keamanan untuk mengelola data dan informasi. Keterkaitan...

  17. PERANCANGAN REPLIKASI BASIS DATA MYSQL DENGAN MEKANISME PENGAMANAN MENGGUNAKAN SSL ENCRYPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Yuliansyah

    2014-01-01

    Karena faktor pentingnya data dan informasi pada organisasi small medium business (SMB), maka diperlukan suatu replikasi basis data sehingga jika terjadi suatu keadaan force majure, organisasi tersebut tidak akan mengalami kehilangan data. Replikasi basis data ini melibatkan paling sedikit 2 sistem basis data yang terhubung dalam suatu jaringan komputer. Konsep CIA Triad yaitu Confidentiality, Integrity dan Availability, merupakan dasar keamanan untuk mengelola data dan informasi. Keterkaitan...

  18. PENGARUH STRUKTUR KEPEMILIKAN DALAM MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tarjo tarjo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance mechanisms believed to have strong impact to the companies’ performance. Corporate governance mechanisms examined in this study are managerial ownership and institutional ownership structure. The purposes of this study are to know the variables effect of managerial ownership and institutional ownership on cost of equity capital. The samples of the study are firms listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange in 2005. The F-test on the all variables at the level confidence 1% indicates the effect of all variables on cost of equity capital is significant. The result of this study showed that managerial ownership and institutional ownership have positive significant impact (at the level of confidence 1% and 5% on the cost of equity capital. However this result showed that corporate governance mechanisms fail to decrease the cost of equity capital.  Keywords: corporate governance, managerial ownership, institutional ownership, cost of equity capital.

  19. UJI BIOKIMIA UNTUK IDENTIFIKASI MEKANISME RESISTENSI GANDA VEKTOR MALARIA TERHADAP INSEKTISIDA DI JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiarti -

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance is inherited and has proved to be the biggest single barrier to successful chemical control of insect vectors. The continuity of along time period insecticide usage can produce mosquitoes resistance. Resistance to insecticide as a results from three main mechanism : 1 insecticide penetration is reduce, 2 the insecticides is more efficiently metabolized by esterases, mixed function oxidases, or glutathione transferase enzyme and, 3 the target of the insecticide is modified (insensitive acetylcholinesterase. The objectives of this study was to determine the potency of malaria vector from East Java Province to be resistant to organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides. The research methods used were biochemical assays (microplate assays for elevated esterase and insensitive acetylcholinesterase. The esterase activity and insensitive acetylcholinesterase were measured at 450 nm and 405 nm with a Dytech Elisa plate reader. Biochemical assays indicated that susceptibility (resistant or tolerance, of the malaria vector collected from East Java Province natural population against insecticide were mostly decreased, although there were different level and mechanism occurs. Microplate enzymatic assay on individual Anopheles sundaicus collected from Banyuwangi, Pacitan, Jember, Malang Regency revealed that 31,25 %, 12,5 %, 45,2 % and 15,25 % population were resistant respectively due to elevated esterase activity mechanism. Base on the susceptibility test which was held using WHO method (as a cross-check An. sundaicus from Teleng village, Pacitan Regency was proven to have a double resistance agains Malathion 0,5 % (cause mortality 28 % and Bendiocarb 0,1 % (cause mortality 66 %. The percentage resistance of Anopheles aconitus population collected from Pacitan and Trenggalek Regency were 35,42 % and 29,17 % population respectively due to elevated esterase activity mechanism. There was no evidence of an altered acetylcholinesterase (insensitive acetylcholinesterase mechanism of the malaria vector population in East Java.

  20. PENGARUH MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP PENGUNGKAPAN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL: PADA PERUSAHAAN IC INTENSIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dista Amalia Arifah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intangible asset proxied by Intellectual Capital has important role to drive companies values creation. Although many companies have applied corporate governance mechanism in order to have IC disclosure recognition, most of them do not focus on Intellectual Capital disclosure yet. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of corporate governance mechanisms consisting of size of the board commissioners, the independence level of independent commissioner, the activities of independent commissioners, and audit committee on the intellectual capital disclosures of the companies listed in BEI in 2009 using intensive ICs category with the adding of kontrol variables. This study will provide an illustration on how the mechanisms of corporate governance practices and IC disclosure become a value creation source for the company. There are a total of 176 companies categorized as IC intensive. Using a purposive sampling method, 45 companies were selected as samples. The 2009 annual reports of the companies are used as secondary data source of this research. Furthermore, to get ICs disclosure data content analysis technique was used both for quantity and quality terms. The results indicate that audit committee is the only corporate governance mechanism that significantly affects the level of IC disclosures.

  1. Pengaruh Mekanisme Corporate Governance Terhadap Tingkat Kepatuhan Mandatory Disclosure Konvergensi IFRS di Perbankan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiyok Sutiyok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze whether the mechanism of corporate governance has the influence on the level of mandatory disclosure with the IFRS convergence. The sample used in this study is the banking industry listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2011-2012. Disclosure checklist from Bapepam LK is used to identify the mandatory disclosure items. The items are adjusted to GAAP applicable in Indonesia. The results of this study indicates that the total number of meetings of the Board of Commissioners and Board of Commissioners have significant effect on the level of the compliance of the mandatory disclosure convergence with IFRS. However, the number of audit committee have no influence on the level of mandatory disclosure compliance convergence IFRS.

  2. Pengaruh Mekanisme Corporate Governance, Kinerja Keuangan dan Kinerja Lingkungan terhadap Pengungkapan Islamic Social Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahardhika Kurniawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is obtain empirical evidence about the effect of commissioner board size, commisioner board independence, audit committee size, profitability, and the environmental performance on Islamic Social Reporting (ISR of companies which are in the Sharia Securities List (DES. The population of this research consisted of all companies under DES which joined PROPER environmental rating during 2011-2015. There were 31 companies were selected as samples based on purposive sampling method. The method employed to measure the ISR Disclosure was content analysis by scoring the items of social disclosure in the annual report of those companies. The multiple linier regression shows that the size of commisioner board, profitability, and environmental performance have positive effects on the disclosure of Islamic Social Reporting, while the independence of commisioner board and audit committe do not affect the disclosure of Islamic Social Reporting.

  3. Pengaruh Mekanisme Corporate Governance Terhadap Tingkat Kepatuhan Mandatory Disclosure Pasca Konvergensi IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isna Fauziah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of independent commissioners and the number of audit committee meeting. Data analysis method used is descriptive analysis method and hypothesis testing. The result in this study showed the average level of mandatory disclosure compliance after convergence of IFRS in statement comprehensive income is 59.73%. The result showed that corporate governance mechanism simultaneously affect the level of compliance with mandatory disclosure after convergence of IFRS. Meanwhile corporate governance mechanism variables that affect compliance are the managerial ownership, institutional ownership and the proportion of independent commissioners. Other variable that no affect is the numbers of audit committee meeting.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v5i2.2349

  4. Mekanisme Penambatan Nitrogen Udara oleh Bakteri Rhizobium Menginspirasi Perkembangan Teknologi Pemupukan Organik yang Ramah Lingkungan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEDE MENAKA ADNYANA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of microbes with human living in the nature are able to seen from their capabilitiesimproving the environmental by composting waste of agriculture to become organic fertilizer. In thecontrary, the epidemic and infectious phatogens are also its contribution. In agriculture sector, the livingof microbes has been explored to keep the soil fertile, and to improve growth and plant production.The symbiosis of Rhizobium bacteria with the specific host plant from legumes is able to run because ofboth side giving a signal, where host plant give an organic molecoles called inducer. From the bacteriaside, also give an organic materials called nod factor. The step of nitrogen fixation mechanism can bedescribed from infection of root legume as the first step, followed by the nitrogen fixation by thebacteroid and synthesis of the nitrogen organic by host plant as the last step. These natural processesinspire finding and development of the ecologically organic fertilizer technology.

  5. Dansk biomedicin under mikroskopet: Positive og negative feedback mekanismer i forskningens belønningssystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kladakis, Alexander; Aagaard, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    Et nyt dansk studie zoomer ind på de lokale konsekvenser af et ekstremt kompetitivt biomedicinsk forskningsklima, hvor adgang til eksterne midler efterhånden er et uomgængeligt overlevelseskrav. Studiet illustrerer, hvordan store bevillinger ikke blot starter en opadgående spiral for bevillingsmo...

  6. IMATERALISASI JAMINAN BENDA DALAM BENTUK CASH COLLATERAL SEBAGAI JAMINAN PROYEK INFRA STRUKTUR MELALUI MEKANISME SWIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsisius Murwaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of infrastructure projects require large expenses. The cost for the project loan is usually derived from international banks. Legal issues, among others: we do not guarantee the legal system conducive to use in large financing; corporate body and banking institutions we considered to be of international standard, and our le-gal system is regarded as the country risk. The other hand many people of Indonesia who have collateral material, usually pure gold (precious metals that have been diimaterialization and included in the accounts of foreign banks. Such guarantees may be used as the basis of the issuance of bank guarantees and through the mechanism of Society Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT can be used as loan collateral banks in Indonesia.

  7. HUBUNGAN ANTARA TEKANAN EKONOMI DAN MEKANISME KOPING DENGAN KESEJAHTERAAN KELUARGA WANITA PEMETIK TEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Study in correlation between economic pressure and coping mechanism and its impact to family welfare in peasant in Indonesia are still less likely to be done. The general objective of this research was to analyze the correlation between economic pressure, financial management, and coping mechanism with family welfare of plantation women workers. This was cross sectional study that involved 87 families of plantation women workers who had under-6 years old children as samples. The data which was collected in April 2008 consists of primary and secondary data. The primary data consists of economic pressure, financial management, and coping mechanism that taken by using structured questionnaire. Result of the research shows that there are significant correlation between family size with economic pressure and between economic pressure with family welfare. It means that the bigger family size, then higher level economic pressure, and then lower the level of family welfare. There are positive significant correlation between education level with financial management and between financial management with family welfare. here are also negative significant correlation between sample’s age with subjective and objective economic pressure, and positive significant correlation between economic pressure with coping mechanism in reducing food and non-food expenditure.

  8. Pengaruh Pajak, Tunneling Incentive dan Mekanisme Bonus Terhadap Keputusan Transfer Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mispiyanti Mispiyanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to find empirical effidence of tax, tunneling incentive and bonus mecahnism toward transfer pricing decision taken by manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The research population are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange arround 2010 to 2013. The samples were taken using purposive sampling method. The research results show that tax and bonus mechanism do not have effect toward companies’ transfer pricing decision. While, tunneling incentive has effect toward companies’transfer pricing decision.

  9. Uji Empiris Mekanisme Transmisi Kebijakan Moneter: Interest Rate Pass-through Sektor Perbankan Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Buddi; Lazuardi, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Empirical Evidence of Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism: Indonesia Banking Sector Interest Rate Pass-throughRobust measurement of interest rates speed of adjustment to monetary policy changes is very important to obtain acomprehensive understanding on the monetary transmission process and the eectiveness of monetary policy. The speed of adjustment are determined by number of frictions that interfere with the transmission of monetary policy.We measure Indonesia interest rate pass-through ...

  10. KEPUTUSAN STRUKTUR MODAL DAN KEBIJAKAN DIVIDEN SEBAGAI MEKANISME MENGURANGI MASALAH KEAGENAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Yulianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Perilaku oportunistik manajerial pada keputusan pendanaan perusahaan menimbulkan konflik antara manajemen dan pemegang saham maupun kreditur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui secara empiris pengaruh kepemilikan manajerial (hipotesis masalah keagenan yang dipengaruhi oleh debt equity ratio dan dividend payout ratio yang akan mengurangi masalah keagenan. Penelitian dilakukan pada perusahaan manufaktur yang tercatat di Bursa Efek Indonesia tahun 2008 sampai dengan 2011. Berdasarkan dua model regresi yang dipergunakan, diperoleh hasil bahwa kepemilikan manajerial berpengaruh positif terhadap debt equity ratio yang merupakan indikasi bahwa dengan peningkatan utang maka akan meningkatkan monitoring yang dilakukan kreditur terhadap perilaku manajerial. Selain itu ditemukan hasil yang tidak signifikan pengaruh kepemilikan manajerial terhadap dividend payout ratio yang merupakan indikasi inkonsisten dengan masalah keagenan. The managerial opportunistic behaviour on the financing activity decision can generate a conflict between the management and the stockholder or creditor as a consequence of the opportunity management behaviors. This paper aims to provide empirical evidence  on the managerial ownership (agency costs  hypothesis which suggests debt equity ratio and dividend payout ratio may reduce agency costs. This research was conducted at manufacturing firms listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2011. In this research, two regression models were used. Management ownership is positively associated with debt equity ratio. It indicates that the increase of monitoring, done by creditors, due to the increasing amount of debt. However, there is not a significant relationship between management ownership and dividend payout ratio, it indicates that the finding is inconsistent with the agency conflict.

  11. IMATERALISASI JAMINAN BENDA DALAM BENTUK CASH COLLATERAL SEBAGAI JAMINAN PROYEK INFRA STRUKTUR MELALUI MEKANISME SWIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsisius Murwaji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction of infrastructure projects require large expenses. The cost for the project loan is usually derived from international banks. Legal issues, among others: we do not guarantee the legal system conducive to use in large financing; corporate body and banking institutions we considered to be of international standard, and our le-gal system is regarded as the country risk. The other hand many people of Indonesia who have collateral material, usually pure gold (precious metals that have been diimaterialization and included in the accounts of foreign banks. Such guarantees may be used as the basis of the issuance of bank guarantees and through the mechanism of Society Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT can be used as loan collateral banks in Indonesia. Key words: bank guaranty, SWIFT, security law, international banking system

  12. Efektifitas Mekanisme Bonding Dividen dan Hutang untuk Mengurangi Masalah Agensi pada Perusahaan di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Arifin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Jensen (1986 said that the agency problem can be minimized by reducing the free cash flows in a company. These free cash flows can be reduced by increasing the debt or by increasing the dividend. This theory was developed in the United State of America in which most of the listed companies have a dispersed ownership structure. It is interesting to evaluate the effectiveness of this bonding mechanism for the listed companies in Jakarta Stock Exchange in which most of them have a concentrated ownership structure. The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of this bonding mechanism.By investigating the same sample of listed companies in Jakarta Stock Exchange in 1996 and in 2000, this research discovers that in 1996, the debt bonding mechanism is not effective to reduce an agency problem but it increases the agency problem instead. In 2000, the debt bonding mechanism is still not effective but it does not increase the agency problem anymore. Meanwhile, the dividend bonding mechanism is effective to reduce the agency problem both in 1996 and in 2000. However, the dividend bonding mechanism is avoided by the companies that have a family ownership that closed to a minimum portion of majority or domination.Kata Kunci: Agency Problem, Bonding, Hutang, Dividen, Kepemilikan Keluarga

  13. Sweden's Future Climate in the short- and medium-term perspective. Basis for development of climate adaptation tools; Sveriges framtida klimat paa kort och medellaang sikt. Underlag foer utveckling av verktyg foer klimatanpassning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Parmhed, Oskar

    2008-12-15

    This report studies two questions - how the actual amount of greenhouse gas emissions has changed over time in comparison with previous assumptions and what will happen to Sweden's climate from short and medium term perspectives given the future development of the climate in general. The content of this report shall be used as the basis for continued work in the development of climate adaptation tools that can be used primarily in Sweden. The first section of this report presents the development of actual greenhouse gas emissions in recent years. Eight years have passed since IPCC published its emissions scenarios (SRES) and for this reason a comparison between the emissions levels from the report and the experimental data from observations made in recent years is well due. Measurements show that current levels of emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels exceed the average of the SRES families as a whole. Among other implications, this means that emission levels are significantly higher than the levels assumed in the climate scenarios of the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (Klimat- och saarbarhetsutredningen). There is little support from the experimental data to indicate that this rate of increase will subside. In addition, studies are indicating that the increased emissions are not solely attributable to a rise in population levels and increased wealth (GNP/capita). Another aspect is that the carbon intensity, measured as the amount of carbon dioxide per unit production price, has been declining since 2000. This is entirely contrary to the assumptions made in all of the emissions scenarios in SRES that carbon dioxide efficiency would continue to increase. The report therefore concludes that work with climate adaptation in Sweden must take into consideration to a greater extent than is currently done today the consequences of emissions levels that are in line with or exceed the highest SRES levels. The second section of this report takes

  14. Kapitalstruktur och Affärsrisk

    OpenAIRE

    Eckerhall, Marc; Karlsson, Mårten

    2001-01-01

    During the past year it has been made possible to buy back a company’s outstanding stock. This is done in order to change the capital structure towards a situation with less equity. A change in capital structure means a change in the cost of capital for a company and by that a change in the value for the stockholder. This Master Thesis studies the relation between capital structure and business risk. Studying the debt to equity ratio in a company captures capital structure. Studying the volat...

  15. Sexuella trakasserier och identitetsskapande bland unga

    OpenAIRE

    Runsö, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Sexual harassments have since long been an issue all over the world and schools have not been an exception. Reports from Swedish secondary schools show how 47% of the female pupils state that they have, sometime during their time in school, been the victim of sexual harassment. Other studies claim that pupils exposed to sexual harassments will develop low self-esteem and a decreased sense of self. The Swedish curriculum state that all children shall have the right to a harassment free school ...

  16. Skolidentitet och managementkultur som mytologisk diskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunneblad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available School identity management culture as a mythological discourse.As inter-related educational reforms spread, they permeate and re-orient educational systems in different social and political contexts. The new package of reforms is held against older policy technologies of professionalism and bureaucracy and thereby it helps to re-align the public sector towards the methods and ethics of private markets. The focus of this article is on displaying the strategies that school leaders of a suburban school in a low income and multi-ethnic area use. The article displays that the strategies employed are a strong leadership and the identity work of creating the image of the “successful school”. An important part of is to maintain and create good relations to media and municipal politicians. This article argues that this has resulted in that school leaders are paying less attention to the real pedagogical needs of their students and more attention to “impression anagement”.

  17. Mina sociologiska stationer - om utsikter och insikter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of Sociologisk Forskning contains 14 papers by distinguished Swedish sociologists on the Development of sociology in Sweden during the last decades and the forming of their own academic habitus in relation to that development....

  18. Bildning till verklighet och icke-representationell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dahlin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the educational significance of the critique of representationalism. As it includes the notion of non-representational knowledge, Rudolf Steiner’s epistemology is introduced and further linked to elements in Bergson and Deleuze. Humboldt’s idea of Menschenbildung as the central function of knowledge is brought in, since both Humboldt and Steiner emphasise knowledge as mediating the interplay between self and world, producing a deeper sense of reality. Such an education must respect the living nature of genuine concepts as well as the aesthetic aspects of learning. After a note on the educational abuse of language in discursive closures, some traits of Steiner’s practical pedagogy are presented as possible practical implications.

  19. On the Formation of the C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O Isomers Ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) and Dimethyl Ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) in Star-forming Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergantini, Alexandre; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The structural isomers ethanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) and dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) were detected in several low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star-forming regions, including Sgr B2, Orion, and W33A, with the relative abundance ratios of ethanol/dimethyl ether varying from about 0.03 to 3.4. Until now, no experimental data regarding the formation mechanisms and branching ratios of these two species in laboratory simulation experiments could be provided. Here, we exploit tunable photoionization reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) to detect and analyze the production of complex organic molecules (COMs) resulting from the exposure of water/methane (H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4}) ices to energetic electrons. The main goal is to understand the formation mechanisms in star-forming regions of two C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O isomers: ethanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) and dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}). The results show that the experimental branching ratios favor the synthesis of ethanol versus dimethyl ether (31 ± 11:1). This finding diverges from the abundances observed toward most star-forming regions, suggesting that production routes on interstellar grains to form dimethyl ether might be missing; alternatively, ethanol can be overproduced in the present simulation experiments, such as via radical–radical recombination pathways involving ethyl and hydroxyl radicals. Finally, the PI-ReTOF-MS data suggest the formation of methylacetylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 4}), ketene (CH{sub 2}CO), propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}), vinyl alcohol (CH{sub 2}CHOH), acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO), and methyl hydroperoxide (CH{sub 3}OOH), in addition to ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), and CO{sub 2} detected from infrared spectroscopy. The yield of all the confirmed species is also determined.

  20. Electron pairing analysis of the Fischer-type chromium-carbene complexes (CO){sub 5}Cr=C(X)R (X=H, OH, OCH{sub 3}, NH{sub 2}, NHCH{sub 3} and R=H, CH{sub 3}, CH=CH{sub 2}, Ph, C-CH )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poater, Jordi; Cases, Montserrat; Fradera, Xavier; Duran, Miquel; Sola, Miquel

    2003-10-15

    The electron-pair density distributions of a series of 25 Fischer carbene complexes of the type (CO){sub 5}Cr=C(X)R (X=H, OH, OCH{sub 3}, NH{sub 2}, NHCH{sub 3} and R=H, CH{sub 3}, CH=CH{sub 2}, Ph, C-CH) are analyzed using the Atoms in Molecules theory. Localization and delocalization indices are used to characterize the electron pairing taking place in the Cr=C---X moiety in these complexes. Electron delocalization between the Cr and C atoms and between the C atom and the X group are related to the {pi}-donor strength of the X group and the degree of back-donation between the chromium pentacarbonyl and the carbene fragments. The results obtained with the Atoms in Molecules theory complement those obtained in a previous study by means of energy and charge decomposition analyses. Electron delocalization between the Cr atom and the X group is consistent with the hypothesis of a weak 3-center 4-electron bonding interaction in the Cr=C-X group of atoms. Except for X=H, {delta}(Cr,X) increases with the decrease of the {pi}-donor character of the X group.

  1. Atmospheric chemistry of HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF (2)CF (2)OCH (3)) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (CF (3)CF (2)CF (2)CH (2)OH): kinetic rate coefficients and temperature dependence of reactions with chlorine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Bravo, Iván; Rodríguez, Diana; Rodríguez, Ana; Moreno, Elena

    2008-10-01

    The adverse environmental impacts of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the Earth's ozone layer have focused attention on the effort to replace these compounds by nonchlorinated substitutes with environmental acceptability. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and fluorinated alcohols are currently being introduced in many applications for this purpose. Nevertheless, the presence of a great number of C-F bonds drives to atmospheric long-lived compounds with infrared absorption features. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge about lifetimes and global warming potentials (GWP) for these compounds in order to get a complete evaluation of their environmental impact. Tropospheric degradation is expected to be initiated mainly by OH reactions in the gas phase. Nevertheless, Cl atoms reaction may also be important since rate constants are generally larger than those of OH. In the present work, we report the results obtained in the study of the reactions of Cl radicals with HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) (1) and its isomer CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH (2). Kinetic rate coefficients with Cl atoms have been measured using the discharge flow tube-mass spectrometric technique at 1 Torr of total pressure. The reactions of these chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) substitutes have been studied under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions in excess of the fluorinated compounds over Cl atoms. The temperature ranges were 266-333 and 298-353 K for reactions of HFE-7000 and CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH, respectively. The measured room temperature rate constants were k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) = (1.24 +/- 0.28) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)and k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH) = (8.35 +/- 1.63) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors are 2sigma + 10% to cover systematic errors). The Arrhenius expression for reaction 1 was k (1)(266-333 K) = (6.1 +/- 3.8) x 10(-13)exp[-(445 +/- 186)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k (2)(298-353 K) = (1.9 +/- 0.7) x 10(-12)exp[-(244 +/- 125)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors

  2. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases and water chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i tallskog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, avgaang av vaexthusgaser och vattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Ernfors, Maria; Jacobson, Staffan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Nilsson, Mats; Ring, Eva

    2006-04-15

    , accumulation of tree biomass needs to increase by approximately 2%. In run off, sampled in the main ditches, the electric conductivity increased after addition of 3.1 tonnes of crushed ash, as well as the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, PO{sub 4}-P, S, SO{sub 4}-S and Zn. For most elements, the increase appeared immediately after the ash application, and lasted from a few months to the whole observation period (c. one year). The concentrations of Pb and V was lower than expected during six and nine months, respectively. Thereafter, the Pb-concentration tended to be higher than the control. The concentration of TOC was reduced during eight months, and pH was reduced during three months after the ash addition. The effects on ground water chemistry corresponded to the effects on chemistry in run off. Two months after treatment, the concentrations of B, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl{sup -}, Li, Mn, Na, P, S och SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}S were elevated in the groundwater in the ash treated area. For some of the elements this was evident down to 90 - 100 cm depth. The concentrations of As and TOC at 30 - 40 cm tended to be lower in the area treated with ash. The results from this study demonstrate the initial effects (1 - 2.5 years) of wood ash addition in some drained, oligotrophic peatland forests in southern Sweden. Ash addition may affect the turn over of the peat, and potentially affect other ecosystem properties, for several decades. Hence, in order to confirm the duration of the shown short-term effects, to establish the duration of not yet ceased effects, and, establish effects that might show up in a long-term perspective, continuous follow up of the established experiments is important. This long-term monitoring is also a prerequisite of a more complete evaluation of the benefits and possible detrimental effects on the environment of wood ash addition.

  3. CSR och politisk konsumtion : - en studie av Nikes och Pumas CSR- rapporter

    OpenAIRE

    Björling, Ameli

    2010-01-01

    “CSR and political consumption – a study of Nike’s and Puma’s CSR-reports” The purpose of this dissertation is to examine if political consumption has influenced multinational corporations to improve their Corporate Social Responsibility reports and policies more, than a company who has not been a target for political consumption. This dissertation is a content analysis of Nike’s and Puma’s first (Nike 2001, Puma 2001) and latest (Nike 2007/09, Puma 2007/08) CSR- reports. Archie Carroll’s mod...

  4.  Moderbolagsperspektiv kontra enhetsperspektiv  : - motiv och konsekvens i teori och praktik

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Anna; Gustavson, Jennie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The development towards an international accounting standard implies that Swedish groups of companies that are not quoted on the stock exchange can use a parent company perspective or an entity perspective while making their group accounting. The purpose of this study is to describe and explain the motives behind the groups of companies choice of perspective and to show how these motives agrees with the effect it has on the profit and loss account and on the balance sheet. The study...

  5. Resultat och berättelser - En analys av sportnyheterna i finsk och svensk television

    OpenAIRE

    Silfverberg, Kalle

    2004-01-01

    Endast sammandrag. Inbundna avhandlingar kan sökas i Helka-databasen (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Elektroniska kopior av avhandlingar finns antingen öppet på nätet eller endast tillgängliga i bibliotekets avhandlingsterminaler. Only abstract. Paper copies of master’s theses are listed in the Helka database (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Electronic copies of master’s theses are either available as open access or only on thesis terminals in the Helsinki University Library. Vain tiivi...

  6. Mannen och kvinnan i reklamen. : En studie av annonserna i tidskrifterna Café och Elle.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Men and women in advertising - a study of the ads in the magazines Café and Elle is an essay in media and communication studies covering 15hp. The author examines what is considered masculinity and femininity in a variety of advertisements, and which products are linked to masculinity and femininity. Besides this, the author also examines the production of happiness, and how this may differ between men and women. Although stereotypes, myths and metaphors are examined. The essay is examined on...

  7. Dödsfallsutredningar : med oklar bakgrund och avsikt hos barn och ungdomar

    OpenAIRE

    Sandrehav, Jenny; Björkehed, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Violence against children and particularly the “Bobby Case” in spring 2006 initiated an unprecedented debate in the Swedish media about child maltreatment and child murder. There are however some children whose death causes never will be solved, and some of these cases are erroneously classified as something else. The present survey is commissioned by the Swedish Rescue Services Agency and the Swedish Centre for Lessons Learned from Incidents & Accidents, and will serve as the basis for a...

  8. Barn och stress : Lärare och fritidspedagogers medvetenhet om orsakerna till stress hos barn.

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    In today's society it is not uncommon for all of us at some point to suffer from stress. There may be situations where we have a lot to do at work, in family relationships, death, illness, relationships with our friends, the pace of our surroundings, external and internal demands that we often carry with us. The children are also affected to a greater extent of stress and distress of it. The purpose of this essay was to study the awareness of teachers and recreation instructors have about the...

  9. ANALISIS PENGARUH MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PADA PERUSAHAAN MANUFAKTUR YANG TERDAFTAR DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani .

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This  study  was  conducted  to  analyze  the  effect  of  corporate  governance mechanisms, (Ownership Concentration, Size of the Board of Commissioners, Board  Size,  Komisarin  Independent Audit  Committee,  Debt  Policy  and  Firm Size on financial performance. This research was conducted on a manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The population in this study amounted to 148 companies manufacturing and samples were taken of 20 companies with a passing stage purposive sampling. The data used in this research is secondary data. Data taken from the companies listed  in  Indonesia  Stock  Exchange  in  2010-2012  were  obtained  from  the Indonesian  Capital  Market  Director  (ICMD.  Data  collection  techniques using methods of documentation and analysis techniques using multiple linear regression model. Based on the results of hypothesis testing is known that the variable size of the board  of  directors,  audit  committee  and  manufacturing  company  size  has  no effect on CFROA on manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Sementra  independent  commissioner  terhdap  CFROA  significant  negative effect on manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Means that the more the number of independent komasaris sekamin lowering CFROA and vice versa. Variable concentration of ownership, board size and debt policies CFROA significant positive effect on the manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock Exchange Keywords: Corporate Governance Mechanisms, CFROA, Ownership Concentration, Size BOC, Size Independent Commissioner Board, Audit Committee, Debt Policy, Company Size

  10. Rancang Bangun dan Uji Kinerja Mekanisme Pengendali Otomatis Pedal Rem dan Tuas Transmisi Maju Mundur pada Traktor Roda Empat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Made Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the four wheeled tractors were operated manually for many agricultural applications. Therefore the operator’s fatigue during operating tractor can’t be avoided. To decrease operator’s fatigue it was necessary to operate tractor automatically for forward and backward motion. This research focus on the automatic backward motion and decrease turning radius by modify the brake pedal and forward-backward transmission mechanisms, which were controlled using DC motor with H-bridge actuator. Functional test was done by lifting up the tractor so that it was not move sideways while the tires were rotated. Performance test was done on the field to know the ability of the tractor to move forward and backward automatically and to know the turning radius when the left or right brake pedal was pushed down automatically. Experimental result showed that the time required to push the brake was about 0.47 s for left brake and 0.61 s for right brake. Field test result showed that the tractor was able to control automatically for forward motion with average speed of 0.62 m/s, backward motion with average speed of 0.63 m/s, to turn left with average turning radius of 2.2 m, and turn right with average turning radius of 2.4 m.

  11. STRUKTUR KEPEMILIKAN, MEKANISME TATA KELOLA PERUSAHAAN, DAN BIAYA KEAGENAN DI INDONESIA (Studi Empirik pada Perusahaan di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Basuki Hadiprajitno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is to examine the effect of corporate governance (the owners’s character and thegovernance mechanism on agency cost. This research shows that family ownership, financialinstitution ownership, government ownership, and foreign ownership have negative effects onagency cost that is proxied as managerial operation cost and or as assets turnover, compared topublic ownership. Furthermore, ownership concentration of at least 5 percent each is not provento effect the agency cost. Results of other examination show that the proportion of independentboard and the number of board meetings have negative effects to the agency cost that is proxiedas assets turnover. However, these two variables and the number of audit committee meetinghave the opposite effect to the agency cost when it is proxied as managerial operation cost.Theseinconsistencies are caused by the ineffective implementation of corporate governance mechanismin Indonesia even after 10 years of implementation.

  12. Prices and risks for flexible mechanisms on the international markets; Priser og risici pae internationale markeder for de fleksible mekanismer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. [Copenhagen Economics Aps, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this report is to calculate the expected equilibrium prices on flexible mechanisms in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) and the equilibrium prices on the EU quota trading market in the period 2005-2007. The calculation will combined with additional information be used for evaluating to what extend it is socio-economic recommendable to use flexible mechanisms in the Danish climate strategy. The calculations are made by means of Copenhagen Economics' climate model, CECM, which has been extended with a module performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The report concludes, that before the budget period (2005-2007) the principal element of uncertainty for price fixing will be the individual country's ambition to reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions before the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Whether it is socio-economic recommendable to use flexible mechanisms before the budget period is primarily dependent on the expectations to future prices of the flexible mechanisms. (ba)

  13. Pengaruh Mekanisme Corporate Governance Terhadap Pelaksanaan Enterprise Risk Manegement pada Perusahaan Manufaktur yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sitinjak, Mauritz P I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of corporate governance mechanism on the implementation of enterprise risk management. Variable corporate governance mechanism in this study consisted of, independent board, board size and audit committee size. The population in this research is manufacturing companies that listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2013-2014 period. Sample selection is done by purposive sampling method so that samples obtained for this study amounted to 89 companies. Data an...

  14. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  15. MEKANISME PENERBITAN AKTA PEMISAHAN RUMAH SUSUN SEBAGAI ALAS HAK LAHIRNYA SHM SARUSUN/SKBG SARUSUN BERIKUT PERALIHAN DAN PEMBEBANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESY EKA WIDYANTARI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Deed of High-Rise Separation is an important stage in the development and ownership ofhigh-rise because deed of separation is proof of high-rise separation upon high-rise units, mutualparts, mutual objects and mutual land with clear report in the form of drawings, descriptions andboundaries in vertical and horizontal directions which containing proportional comparison value.Proportional comparison value is very important for the owner of high-rise unit because itrepresents the owner’s rights and obligations on ownership, maintenance and management ofsuch high-rise. Proportional comparison value is a number that indicates the ratio high-rise unittowards the rights over mutual parts, mutual objects and mutual land, calculated based on totalarea and value of the concerned high-rise unit towards the building total area or the high-riseoverall value at the first time the developer calculates its overall development cost to determineits selling price. In relation to the issue of deed of separation, some problems raised as follow;firstly, its legal consequences if there is changes on building plan in further stage during thehigh-rise development which results in changes on proportional comparison value of the Deed ofHigh-Rise Separation, and secondly, whether strata unit and Strata title / Building title can beused as credit security and how is the implementation of partial revocation mortgage in high-riseconstruction credit.A research is designed as normative legal research in order to respond those problems byusing 2 types of approaches that consists of: The Statue Approach and The Legal ContentAnalitical Approach. The legal materials analyzed herein are primary legal material andsecondary legal material, arranged descriptively and systematically.Research shows that it is possible for the high-rise developer to change the building planprovided that before making any changes on the building plan, it must inform such changes tothe Association of High-Rise Residents and also has received approval from the Association ofHigh-Rise Residents, especially if such changes result in changes of the high-rise comparisonvalue. High-rise and high-rise unit can also be used as debt security through Mortgage/FiduciaryInstitution, which allows the developer to pledge the high-rise for construction credit, in whichthe high-rise unit that has been fully paid by its owner can be released from the credit security ofhigh-rise construction, thus the high-rise owner may then transfer their high-rise unit for creditsecurity of apartment ownership (KPA as well as other financing credit security.

  16. MEKANISME PENERBITAN AKTA PEMISAHAN RUMAH SUSUN SEBAGAI ALAS HAK LAHIRNYA SHM SARUSUN/SKBG SARUSUN BERIKUT PERALIHAN DAN PEMBEBANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESY EKA WIDYANTARI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Deed of High-Rise Separation is an important stage in the development and ownership of high-rise because deed of separation is proof of high-rise separation upon high-rise units, mutual parts, mutual objects and mutual land with clear report in the form of drawings, descriptions and boundaries in vertical and horizontal directions which containing proportional comparison value. Proportional comparison value is very important for the owner of high-rise unit because it represents the owner’s rights and obligations on ownership, maintenance and management of such high-rise. Proportional comparison value is a number that indicates the ratio high-rise unit towards the rights over mutual parts, mutual objects and mutual land, calculated based on total area and value of the concerned high-rise unit towards the building total area or the high-rise overall value at the first time the developer calculates its overall development cost to determine its selling price. In relation to the issue of deed of separation, some problems raised as follow; firstly, its legal consequences if there is changes on building plan in further stage during the high-rise development which results in changes on proportional comparison value of the Deed of High-Rise Separation, and secondly, whether strata unit and Strata title / Building title can be used as credit security and how is the implementation of partial revocation mortgage in high-rise construction credit. A research is designed as normative legal research in order to respond those problems by using 2 types of approaches that consists of: The Statue Approach and The Legal Content Analitical Approach. The legal materials analyzed herein are primary legal material and secondary legal material, arranged descriptively and systematically. Research shows that it is possible for the high-rise developer to change the building plan provided that before making any changes on the building plan, it must inform such changes to the Association of High-Rise Residents and also has received approval from the Association of High-Rise Residents, especially if such changes result in changes of the high-rise comparison value. High-rise and high-rise unit can also be used as debt security through Mortgage/Fiduciary Institution, which allows the developer to pledge the high-rise for construction credit, in which the high-rise unit that has been fully paid by its owner can be released from the credit security of high-rise construction, thus the high-rise owner may then transfer their high-rise unit for credit security of apartment ownership (KPA as well as other financing credit security.

  17. KONSEP DESAIN MEKANISME TELESKOPIS AS/RS (AUTOMATED STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM DAN ANALISIS BEBAN PADA GUIDE RAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriansyah Febriansyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistem penyimpanan barang semakin berkembang pemakaiannya, terutama pada industri-industri maju. Hal ini disebabkan semakin banyaknya jumlah permintaan akan barang-barang kebutuhan baik industri maupun rumah tangga. Oleh karena itulah dikembangkan sistem penyimpanan dan pengambilan barang secara otomatis yang biasa dikenal dengan AS/RS. Untuk merancang sistem penyimpanan dan pengambilan barang tersebut, perlu terlebih dahulu memilih model sistem yang digunakan. Dalam perancangan ini dipilih model Telescopic Shuttle, dengan pertimbangan lebih efisien dari sisi pemakain ruang.Untuk merancang Telescopic Shuttle menggunakan bantuan software Autodesk Inventor Professional 2015, yang kemudian dibandingkan dengan perhitungan manual tegangan serta efek defleksi terjadi.

  18. Synthesis and Structural Characterisation of [Ir4(CO8(CH3(m4-h3-Ph2PCCPh(m-PPh2] and of the Carbonylation Product [Ir4(CO8{C(OCH3}(m4-h3-Ph2PCCPh(m-PPh2]; First Evidence for the Formation of a CO Cluster Adduct before CO Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Dario

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Deprotonation of [(mu-HIr4(CO10(mu-PPh2], 1, gives [Ir4(CO10(mu-PPh2]- that reacts with Ph2PCCPh and CH3I to afford [Ir4(CO8(CH3(mu4-eta³-Ph2PCCPh(mu-PPh2], 2 (34%, besides [Ir4(CO9(mu3-eta³-Ph2PC(HCPh(mu-PPh2] and [(mu-HIr4(CO9(Ph2PCºCPh(mu-PPh2]. Compound 2 was characterised by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and exhibits a flat butterfly of metal atoms, with the Ph2PCCPh ligand interacting with all four Ir atoms and the methyl group bonded terminally to a wingtip Ir atom. Carbonylation of 2 yields initially (25 °C, 20 min a CO addition product that, according to VT 31P{¹H} and 13C{¹H} studies, exists in solution in the form of two isomers 4A and 4B (8:1, and then (40 °C, 7 h, the CO insertion product [Ir4(CO8{C(OCH3}(mu4-eta³-Ph2PCCPh(mu-PPh2], 5. The molecular structure of 5, established by an X-ray analysis, is similar to that of 2, except for the acyl group that remains bound to the same Ir atom. The process is reversible at both stages. Treatment of 2 with PPh3 and P(OMe3 affords the CO substitution products [Ir4(CO7L(CH3(mu4-eta³-Ph2PCCPh(mu-PPh2] (L = PPh3, 6 and P(OMe3, 7, instead of the expected CO inserted products. According to the ¹H and 31P{¹H} NMR studies, the PPh3 derivative 6 exists in the form of two isomers (1:1 that differ with respect to the position of this ligand.

  19. Key ratios for energy and climate 2012 - Buildings and transportation of municipal and county; Nyckeltal energi och klimat 2012 - Byggnader och transporter i kommun och landsting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This is the second report that presents key ratios on energy and climate for municipalities, county councils and regions. It has been developed through a collaboration between SKL and Energy Agency. The key ratios show inter alia a sharply increased share of renewable fuels in public transport and some reduction in energy in both commercial and residential premises. The main content is derived from the data on energy use in their own premises and transport in 2012 reported by those who sought support for energy efficiency improvement in municipalities and county from the Swedish Energy Agency.

  20. Pox-rättegången, Mangafallet och Tintin-gate : en diskursanalys av debatter och nyhetsrapportering i svensk media om tecknade serier och censur

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Elin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to examine how censorship and comics have been discussed in three debates. The aim is also to identify discourses and the orders and relations of power constructed in the debates, and to examine how librarians should handle debates about censorship and comics. Selected sources are articles from Swedish newspapers and tabloids about the debates on the Pox-trial, the manga case and the debate about Tintin in Kulturhuset. The results from the analysis indicates that the debates ha...

  1. Vad associeras egentligen med begreppet feminism? : En kvantitativ och kvalitativ studie av hur begreppet och identiteten feminism porträtteras i tidningarna Aftonbladet och Nyheter24.

    OpenAIRE

    Edmark, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Feminism is a concept that stands for equality and it is being lively discussed in both political, private and media spheres. As a concept that is so discussed and that is essential in the fight for equality between men and women, it is essential to study what is connected to it. The aim with this study was to examine how the concept feminism and the identity feminist were being illustrated and constructed in the newspaper Aftonbladet and newssite Nyheter24. The methods for the study were qua...

  2. Bylocks Drakskeppstrilogi – analogi och kulturmöten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemansson, Mary

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In my thesis “It could just as well have happened today”: Maj Bylock's Drakskeppstrilogi and historical consciousness in ten- to twelve-year-olds, I provide a textual, thematic analysis of the three novels from 1997–1998. Further, in an empirical study I have documented the reading of Bylock's fictitious, historical trilogy about the Viking era as done by 11-year-old children, whose thematic work and development of a historical consciousness also have been part of the study. This article deals only with the textual analysis aspect, which purpose is to show what in the texts might produce a historical consciousness in children as well as how the characters are portrayed in order for children to identify with them. Two functions of the novels are studied: knowledge and analogy. The focus is on the main character Petite/Åsa and her development with a view to gender, ethnicity and class as seen from an intersectional perspective. I use postcolonial concepts such as diaspora and hybrid identity in order to describe cultural encounters brought on by migration. I portray female characters gaining a higher level of empowerment, a term used by Joanne Brown and Nancy St. Clair. Bylock claims that she is reflecting the present in her historical texts and that this is more straightforwardly achieved when the events are set several hundred years ago. As a result irrelevant details can be removed and the focus be placed on timeless, human phenomena, for instance cultural encounters. In the light of the above and ideas about how best to describe cultural encounters I analyse the cultural contexts in which the main character finds herself focusing on her transition from a girl into a woman and her quest for a multicultural identity. I elaborate on the concepts mentioned in the previous by describing two cultural encounters which provide an analogy with the present.

  3. Import of biofuels and peat; Import av biobraenslen och torv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertsson, N

    1993-06-01

    In areas neighbouring Sweden, i.e., foremost the Baltic States, it is probable that a large part of the available amounts will be consumed on the domestic market. Studies of the possible use of wood fuel in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are being made by the World Bank. Considerable investments will probably be made in the near future to replace existing coal- and oil-fired boiler plants with plants burning wood fuel. Consequently, the opportunities for exports of wood fuel will probably be small. In a global perspective, peat is used only to a limited extent as fuel. In the former Soviet Union alone it is estimated that the amount of peat that is economically feasible to extract is about 166x10{sup 9} tonnes at a moisture content of 40%. Among the most interesting bio products that can be used in energy production from different food processing industries are nut-shells and fruit stones. Some stones, such as those in olives, plums and peaches, are excellent as fuels. The advantage with olive stones, in comparison with chips is that the bulk weight is high and the moisture content is low. Olive stones are thus similar to processed biofuels such as pellets. Due to their high energy content the olive stones can replace coal, which cannot be done by unprocessed fuels without expensive investments in materials handling equipment. Our survey shows that processed forest fuels and crushed olive stones are the products of greatest interest for the Swedish market. It also shows that both chips and peat-based products from the Baltic States are competitive.

  4. "Konfettaskar" och "typografiska läckerbitar" eller funktionalistisk formgivning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druker, Elina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eva Billow as picture book artist and graphic designerThe 1940’s and 50’s was a dynamic period for the Nordic picture book. There is a general aspiration to explore picture book aesthetics, a need to find imagery and expressions capturing a new era. In my article, I will discuss how these ideas are expressed in the illustrator and graphic artist Eva Billow’s picture books. Her illustration style is originated in a modernist tradition of simplicity, clarity and typographic precision. Also, an idea about books as an art form is evident through her production. Eva Billow’s production covers a wide field of graphic design, from picture books, cartoons and illustrations to book art, posters and advertisements. I will discuss Billow’s use of aesthetics that can be related to functionalist ideas and will further place this approach in a larger context in the history of Swedish graphic design. The general interest in graphic design and new printing techniques among picture book illustrators can also be seen as a part of a tendency within Nordic Modernism where the artist aspired to make arts a part of the society. But the appeal for the picture book among the young Nordic artists and authors, prior and after the Second World War, also expresses an inter-artistic tendency, where the limits between different forms of art are explored.

  5. Robust and reliable fuel cells; Robusta och tillfoerlitliga braensleceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, Joakim [Cellkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-15

    For fuel cells to be a viable alternative for backup power in applications, where reliability is a critical factor, the reliability of fuel cells has to be high and documented. Based on intrinsic properties of fuel cells, it is safe to argue that it is possible to make them highly reliable, but to unleash the full reliability potential of fuel cells, some great engineering work has to be performed. Cellkraft has since many years been addressing this issue and this project is an important piece of this puzzle. The project included both a large number of laboratory testing of fuel cells and long experiments in field environment to verify the results from the laboratory work. The development work performed within this project is a solid base for the continuous work to fulfil Cellkraft's own, tough, technical reliability targets. The project targets below were achieved within this project: 1. The fuel cell start with 100 % reliability. 2. The fuel cell provides nominal power within 30 seconds in 100 % of the cases. 3. The fuel cell keeps providing nominal power as long as there is a demand in 100 % of the cases. 4. No cell in the fuel cell deviates from the mean cell potential with more than 0,1 V at full power.

  6. Föräldrars kunskaper om kost och karies

    OpenAIRE

    Hamiti, Edona; Weinås, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate parents' knowledge about diet and dental caries. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire consisting of 19 questions regarding knowledge of diet and caries, and preventive measures. The questionnaires were distributed to parents who were visiting a dental hygienist or prophylaxis nurse with their children aged 0-3 years. A total of 88 completed surveys were collected. The study showed that the majority of the parents had knowledge ...

  7. Naturkunskapens sexualitets- och relationsundervisning analyserad ur ett heteronormativitetsperspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylwa Li Hast

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Title: Teaching about sexuality and relation within science education analysed from the perspective of heteronormativityIn Sweden, a new subject syllabus for Science Studies (Naturkunskap in upper secondary school was introduced in 2011. In this syllabus knowledge about norms concerning sexualities and relations was brought to the fore as a core content. The aim of this paper is to explore how norms concerning sexuality guide the teaching, through a case study where three upper secondary school teachers were observed and their teaching was analysed from the perspective of companion meanings. All three observed teachers did teach about homosexuality, bisexuality, and transgender identities, often using genetics or evolution as their explanatory model. The teaching most often assumed that all students in the class were heterosexual, positioning LGBT-people as the Other, and did at no times take power perspectives into account.

  8. Utbildning – mellan individ, nation och samhälle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Ljunggren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Education – between the individual, the nation and the society. In this lecture I dwell on the question of how different forms of national identity affect the education of young citizens. Although this significant contemporary problem is by no means new in the history of education it has become increasingly evident during the 21st century. Starting with a brief picture of a downward trend for a multicultural policy I argue that the increasing focus on national identity, when related to education, is about individual and collective self-consciousness – a consciousness that is further characterized in terms of citizenship education. By referring to Jürgen Habermas’ thesis of a public sphere and nationality; John Dewey’s focus on the meaning of democracy; Hannah Arendt’s highlighting of the authentic person taking place in the public sphere, and to Richard Rorty’s emphasis on contingency as an ontological condition of the individual and society, I discuss the principles for a citizenship education that treats nationality as a political claim, rather than an ethno-cultural fact. I do this in terms of an expressive agonism.

  9. Utvärdering av aktuella rehabiliteringsinsatser. Problem och metodval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, B; Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    the difficulties involved in assessing the impact of such political measures, when at the same time the chances of people being able to return to work after extended sick leave are reduced owing to the recession. An evaluation model is presented which, in addition to variables related to monetary savings...... to the community, incorporates indicators capable of identifying gains due to a rehabilitation programme that are important determinants of the changes of target groups returning to a productive and meaningful life....

  10. Utbildningens villkor – globalisering och lokal mångfald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninni Wahlström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of education – globalization and local plurality. Taking some of my previous research as a point of departure, in this inaugural lecture I want to formulate a conception of education that reflects some principles that are specific for the period starting with the Educational Reform 1991. With gradual displacements this reform is still going on. Through an analysis of three different arenas within a framework of curriculum theory; the society arena, the governing- and curricula arena, and the arena of the local school and classroom, it is possible to characterize these arenas in terms of internationalization, management by demand and control, and individual choice. It may be argued that this is a new conception of education; a denationalized – instrumental conception. The national education arena becomes denationalized in two ways: globally there is an increasing influence by transnational organizations (and corporations; and locally, the privatization of schools has been extensive. The conception is instrumental in its basic assumption that there is a fairly simple connection between clearly expresseddemands and the productivity of the school.

  11. Dialog, olikhet och globalisering. En intervju med Nicholas Burbules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Roth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available DIALOGUE, DIFFERENCE AND GLOBALIZATION. In this interview Associate Profes-sor Klas Roth talks with Nicholas Burbules, Grayce Wicall Gauthier Pro-fessor in the Department of Educational Policy Studies, College of Educa-tion, Illinois University, USA, about the value and importance of philoso-phy of education for education in general and teachers in particular, aswell as the barriers to philosophical reflection in schools. They also talkabout issues of difference, globalization, and dialogue in times of transi-tion, and especially about Burbules’s own writing and thinking on theseissues. In particular Professor Burbules puts forward his ideas on thetragic sense of education, which he says is probably the most importantperspective for him in his work on education and related issues.

  12. The heat market and the large customers; Vaermemarknaden och storkunderna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maardsjoe, Olle

    2007-12-28

    This report focuses on the cost of heating in multiple-occupancy buildings, commercial premises and industrial premises. A summary has been created of the development of heating, primarily in the 2000s, for as long as statistics are available (essentially 2004). Total heating has seen a reduction over the period as regards both total usage and specifically in kWh/sq. m. District heating, on the other hand, has seen an increase in total turnover, now accounting for around two-thirds of demand - or about 42 TWh - as well. The increase in district heating has come about partly as a result of property renovation and people exchanging their sources of heating. A reduction in oil consumption has been the primary cause of this transition. There has also been a slight increase in the number of heat pumps in use. In total, heat pumps account for a small proportion of the heating of the properties in question. Heating costs account for a large proportion of operating expenses for property owners, in fact up to 40-50 percent of ongoing operating expenses. Reducing the cost of heating is very important, as this directly affects the property owners' bottom lines. Contractors are offering services to help property owners to optimise their energy-saving measures. The price of district heating, where this is available, is being used as a basis. This is why the structure of the price of district heating affects what measures are implemented. In price constructions with too high a flexible element, there is plenty of incentive to make savings on energy. District heating suppliers' coverage of set costs is reduced once the measures to ensure savings have been implemented, and so they have to increase their prices retrospectively. In price constructions with a high set element, there is little incentive to make savings, with a subsequent increase in demand for heating in extreme cases. District heating suppliers can be forced to make investments in both generation and distribution systems and will be forced to charge higher prices in order to cover the increase in set costs. All in all, the composition of the price of district heating constitutes a business risk as it affects the long-term behaviour of customers. In addition to this, there are also risks due to the weather, fuel prices, the cost of finance, etc. Competition model and skills balance sheets are used as a basis for discussion of how property owners can organise and implement energy and cost savings. The criteria differ for smaller and larger property owners. The smaller ones are unable to maintain their own skills base; instead, they have to buy in skills for both analysis and implementation. Their skills as regards buying these services may be limited. The odds are against property owners with not much in the way of resources, and they would benefit greatly from having assistance and support to help them work effectively. Conditions are better for major property owners. They can either build up organisations of their own or acquire external assistance by professional means. Their larger property stock allows them to implement benchmarking between various initiatives and make the most of the results. District heating companies should have every opportunity to help property owners make savings on energy. As long as the price of district heating is correct in terms of cost with regard to the cost of generation, and as long as the company's profit margin is covered mainly by the set element of the price, district heating suppliers do not need to suffer financial harm on account of energy savings. Using the skills available among contractors, using energy savings as a business concept, district heating companies can add even more value for property owners. Furthermore, this will also make it easier to increase utilisation of distribution networks and reduce generation costs. The competitiveness of district heating companies on the heating market can be enhanced by means of more active customer work with a view to reducing costs for customers.

  13. Läkemedelsinteraktioner inom medicinsk onkologi och hematologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Troels Korshøj

    2010-01-01

    Kittelhåndbog for onkologer og hæmatologer i Sverige (oversættelse af Dansk udgave) Håndteringen af lægemiddelinteraktioner i klinisk praksis er vanskelig. Patienternes kliniske udtryk er præget af broget mangfoldighed og evidensniveauet for flertallet af interaktioner begrænser sig ofte til kasu...

  14. Innovation and Safety. A prestudy; Innovation och saekerhet. En foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollenhagen, Carl; Hansson, Sven Ove; Hortberg, Johan; Jakobsson, Fredrik; Zhau, Victoria Jing; Mojeri, Sara

    2010-04-15

    The project summarized in this report was initiated to explore relations between innovation and safety. The first two sections of the report discuss some previously conducted research and give a general background to the subject. It is concluded that safety research and innovation research, by and large, has developed as separate academic disciplines. The concepts of 'innovative safety culture' and 'safe innovation cultures' are suggested as two concepts that can be used to integrate research: innovative safety cultures depart from safety culture research but attempts to introduce an innovative dimension with the aim to create adaptive and innovative safety cultures that efficiently can handle risks arising from existing innovations. Safe innovation cultures have focus on innovation itself, but with the ambition to introduce concepts and methods from safety research in the innovative processes. Three subprojects conducted in the context of the present research are summarized. The first project examines how an existing organization (e.g. SKB - Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management) attempts to integrate both innovative activities and operative activities in the same organisation. Interviews with key personnel explored different views about how innovative and safety work coexists in the organisation. The second project focuses on how major retrofit projects of a nuclear power plant is managed in parallel to operative activities (e.g. operating the plant on an everyday basis). By means of an innovative technique (e.g. system groups) seminars were held to suggest improvements in the technical change process. The third project conducted a risk analysis of a major organisational change (e.g. control centres for energy distribution). Experiences from the three projects are finally discussed in terms of similarities and differences associated with the cultures for innovation and safety. Suggestions for further research are made

  15. Chernobyl and our health. Tjernobyl och vaar haelsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragnarsson, P; Larsson, B; Johansson, K J; Walinder, G; Barnaby, F; Sjoeberg, L

    1986-01-01

    The health impacts in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident are discussed in this booklet. Five experts of different relevant fields (biology, radioecology, nuclear physics and psychology) give their views on probable radiation doses and health effects from these doses, contamination of food chains etc. (L.E.).

  16. Current and future sustainable biofuels; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the government study of Fossil-Free Vehicle traffic (FFF investigation). The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on the production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international outlooks. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, GHG performance and production costs are based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain up to produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and production chains and is based primarily on standardized LCA and for some systems also on industrial systems analysis.

  17. Current and future sustainable biofuels; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Tekniska Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Ingrid [Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, Goeteborg (Sweden); CIT Industriell Energi., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the state investigation 'Fossil Free Vehicle Traffic'. The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development, and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, greenhouse gas performance and production costs is based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain to the produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and commercial development of the respective chains. They are based primarily from standardized life cycle analysis and, in some production systems, also on industrial systems analysis. These two approaches have some differences in methodology, which are highlighted in the report. In the overview values and results have been compiled to make it possible to compare the results.

  18. Current and future sustainable biofuels; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the government study of Fossil-Free Vehicle traffic (FFF investigation). The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on the production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international outlooks. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, GHG performance and production costs are based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain up to produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and production chains and is based primarily on standardized LCA and for some systems also on industrial systems analysis.

  19. Current and future sustainable biofuels; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Tekniska Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Ingrid [Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, Goeteborg (Sweden); CIT Industriell Energi., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the state investigation 'Fossil Free Vehicle Traffic'. The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development, and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, greenhouse gas performance and production costs is based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain to the produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and commercial development of the respective chains. They are based primarily from standardized life cycle analysis and, in some production systems, also on industrial systems analysis. These two approaches have some differences in methodology, which are highlighted in the report. In the overview values and results have been compiled to make it possible to compare the results.

  20. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in Sweden that come in contact or are involved in cycle chemistry

  1. Boiler system lay-up; Avstaellning och konservering av pannanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2007-04-15

    Corrosion in power plant equipment is to a large extent a result of poor lay-up procedures. This applies for all equipment on the water and steam side e.g. condensers, boilers, turbines, heat exchangers etc. In theory, lay-up procedures are quite straightforward. The main objective is to avoid a combination of water and oxygen on the steel surfaces within the system. When using dry lay-up procedure, a totally dry environment is essential. The corrosion of steel cannot take place if there is no humidity; in spite of the abundance of oxygen i.e. air. As an alternative the steam side system can be purged with nitrogen so that no air ingress can take place. When using wet lay-up procedures it is important to achieve an oxygen free environment. Creating a slight over-pressure thus avoiding air in leakage can achieve this. Oxygen scavengers might be used as an alternative. Usually problems of maintaining the above mentioned conditions are rarely of technical art. More likely it is due to a lack of knowledge and commitment or short sighted economical considerations. This report summarises the experiences gathered at several visits at plants and discussions with vendors, users and consultants in the power industry. In addition to that, guidelines from well-reputed organisations, international and domestic, have been studied. In many cases the power plant managers believe they have proper lay-up routines but often the routines just regard long time lay-up. This may be regarded as the most important case. However, a number of shorter plant outages in combination with poor lay-up routines can result in severe damages. There is a consensus that a proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. Each unit is unique in terms of needs and requirements. In order to have as low corrosion as possible a systematic review to evaluate and revise lay-up procedures is preferred. A high in-house knowledge of the power plant enhances the possibility to maintain the equipment in good condition. Lay-up control is an important part of the life extension of the plant. In the literature there are many guidelines regarding lay-up procedures. However an overall scheme that applies to all kind of boilers will either become very complex or too superficial to be user friendly. The objective of this report is to give information and know-how of current lay-up practices. Furthermore the report describes the considerations to be taken when designing a plant specific guideline for lay-up.

  2. Folkbildning i (avkoloniseringens skugga Demokrati, nationella mytologier och solidaritetens paradoxer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Dahlstedt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular adult education in the shadows of (decolonialization.In Sweden and among Swedish popular movements, there has long been agreat willingness to share experiences from establishing the “Swedish model” of welfare and democracy with countries in other parts of the world. In this sharing of experience, popular adult education has played an important role. Over the years, there have also been several attempts to spread the “Swedish model” of education of this kind, i.e. study circles and folk high schools.Here, we analyse a large-scale project to establish Folk Development Colleges (FDCs in Tanzania in the 1970s and 1980s, focusing on the ways in which Swedish popular adult educators have described the project. In theoretical terms, the article is based on a postcolonial framework, highlighting the continuing importance of the legacies of colonialism in today’s society. One of the main conclusions drawn is that, in the process of “exporting” the ideaof popular adult education around the world, there is an ongoing formation of national self-images in contrast to images of “the Other”, involving a constant risk of reproducing ideas from a colonial past.

  3. Strategies for rationalisation and safety; Rationaliseringsstrategier och saekerhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Karin [Castor Analys AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-09-01

    The electricity sector is undergoing an extensive restructuring due to deregulation. This presents a challenge not only to the power industry but also to the regulatory agencies. In order to assess safety conditions the authorities have to be one step ahead. The aim of this report is to show in what way enterprises and organizations are transformed due to new business strategies in the 'network society'. Experiences of industrial downsizing and rationalisation in the late nineties are also analysed in order to serve as a framework for the personnel of nuclear power plants when reflecting over their own change process. Temporary employment and project work is spreading. The world of work is becoming more flexible and individualised and the traditional carrier- and employment pattern is eroding. Process orientation is the common denominator of the rationalisation process in enterprises. The main aim is to fasten the business cycles by eliminating unnecessary loops and turns. The processes are flowing horizontally; i.e. straight across the functions. Enterprises are integrated systems, which demand a synchronised change of all steering variables, of which important ones are business strategy, economic- and performance measures, organization, competence, reward systems, leadership style, culture and values. Contradictions and conflicts between those will counteract sustainable changes and be a threat to safety. The change process will be complex and put high demands on organization, management and participation of the staff. The concept of 'lean production' seams to have been interpreted by many managers as if the workforce and not the organization ought to be slimmed. Organisations have in many cases been heavily downsized with the result of negative consequences like undermanning and stress. Undermanning creates reactive actions. Developmental work is neglected when there is a strong time pressure and the organizational learning vanishes. Suboptimization enforces a special kind of behaviour, as an individual one perceive the situation as highly dependent on the one's own activities. In practice process orientation in many cases only seems to mean continuous improvements of routines. A serious shortcoming in the model is the lack of organizational analysis and development. Decades of research have given us deep knowledge about the relations between work organization, leadership, human development and health. One can ask why this knowledge has not been applied. During periods of change it is common that the organisation's driving force is lost. The whole business will be negatively affected if the change process isn't managed in a proper way. The organizational change process differs from the technical. In order to changes their attitudes, values, competence and ways of working, the staff must be mobilized and willing to participate in all steps of the process. The transformation from functional to process-oriented forms of organisations has in practise turned out to be problematic. Few corporations have managed to break with the functional organisation but an evolution of power from the functional units to process-owners and projects can be observed. In this field of tension conflicts concerning power and resources are arising. Lack of resources and authority restrains flexibility and causes frustrations among the staff. To be able to quickly adjust to changing conditions there must be direct connections between working teams and units. Vertical co-ordination is a barrier to networking and direct communication between units. Creating those connections and bridges between units is a new and important task for middle managers. Most performance measures are still adjusted to the functional organization Rigid systems of economy and performance measures are hindering the transformation to horizontal 'network' organizations. With the process in focus, control systems and performance measures must capture the integrative whole and not the performance of isolated units. It is not unusual that contradictory measurement systems are used at the same time. Systems of reward are important steering instruments and will have to be adjusted to the new conditions. Not only salaries and wages are include here, but also corporate climate and leadership style. When the environment becomes more unpredictable goals, visions, culture and values become more important as steering means. When outsourcing functions enterprises have to act as 'intelligent customers', which means that they must have resources to review and assess the competence and activities of contractors. A number of events have recently occurred where contractors have been involved showing that their knowledge of safety has been inadequate. The main question is what shall be considered as core competencies of the licensee and accordingly be kept in-house. When organisations are streamlined there are increased risks of slack and redundancy.(abstract truncated)

  4. Gasification - Status and Technology; Foergasning - Status och teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2011-07-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect atmospheric gasification and Pressurized oxygen blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them is based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others more advantageous solutions, still need further development. The report deals to a minor extent with the conversion of syngas to synthetic fuels. The ongoing research and development of gasification techniques is extensive, both on national and international level. Although many process concepts and components have been demonstrated, there is still no full-scale plant for the production of synthetic fuels based on biomass. Factors affecting the choice of technology are plant size, operating conditions, the possibility for process integration, access to feedstock, market aspects, incentives and economic instruments et cetera. Increased competition for biofuels will inevitably lead to higher raw material costs. This in turn means that the fuel chains with high efficiency, such as biomethane through gasification and methanation, are favored. The lower the investment cost, the lower the financial risk. This implies that techniques that are relatively cost-effective in the smaller scale, may benefit initially. As the technology develops and experience is built up the plant size will increase.

  5. Damages and methods for reparation; Hydropower structures; Skador och reparationsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Tomas

    2008-10-15

    As the focus of the Swedish Hydropower Industry shifted from the developing phase of the 20th century to the present phase of managing and maintenance of the hydropower plants and the adherent structures knowledge regarding issues concerning repair work and degradation processes of concrete has become truly important. Hydropower structures are submitted to live loads (for example caused by ice, water, snow and wind) and physical attacks such as Freeze/thaw, leaching and erosion (abrasion and cavitation). Hydropower structures are also submitted to chemical and electro chemical attacks like ASR and corrosion of the reinforcement bars. All of the mentioned processes have a negative affect on concrete structures service life. As it is today the Hydropower Industry possesses a rather high degree of knowledge concerning principal repair and strengthening techniques like shotcreting and grouting. The purpose of this report is (1) to point out the Swedish Hydropower Industry's need for extensive knowledge regarding overlays and toppings and (2) the potential advantages of overlays and toppings as repair techniques with respect to hydropower environments and the corresponding degradation processes acting on those structures. The performance of repairing a concrete structure using overlays or toppings is principally executed by the removal (totally or partially) of the damaged concrete surface, afterwards a new concrete overlay or topping is applied. The overlay must be able to withstand the live loads and the physical, chemical and electro-chemical attacks that are acting on the structure. The overlay is also required to co-operate with, and protect, the host material for a very long time. This report deals with the most common types of physical and chemical processes that are acting in Hydropower environments and the damages that they are causing concrete structures. Some of the common principal repair techniques that can be used when repairing the damaged concrete structures are also presented in this report. The input used for establishing the most common types of damage are taken from studies made in the USA and Sweden as well as from the literature and from observations made at some Swedish hydropower plants. In conclusion, the following can be said about the need of overlays in regard to Hydropower applications and about the deteriorating processes acting in those environments: The bulk of the damages that occur on the concrete structures can be derived to the environment and the physical and chemical attacks caused by it. The deterioration of concrete structures are therefore more likely to occur due to the environmental affects than due to extensive live loads caused by ice, wind, water, snow etc. Overlays and/toppings are repair techniques that are adequate for repairing most of the damages that occur on concrete structures in Hydropower environments. The performance of the repair work as well as the determination of the composition of the repair mortar or concrete can sometimes be difficult tasks to undertake, often due to the environment (location of the damage and the underlying cause of damage). The continuing work regarding overlays and toppings for Hydropower environments should focus on long-term properties and affects with regards to the whole repair work (including the repair material, the host material and the transition zone). The conclusions above show that there are a rather high potential good with the pursuing of an extensive knowledge in this area

  6. Influence map baserad Ms. Pac-Man och Ghost Kontroller

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis will cover the use oftheinfluence map technique applied to the retro game Ms. Pac-Man. A game thatis easy to learn but hard to master. The Ms. Pac-Man controller is implemented with five main parameters that alters the behaviour of the controller while the Ghost controller have three parameters. The experimental results of the controllers is explored to using the alterations of the parameters to find its peak of performance. The conclusion from using the influence map for this gam...

  7. w; 1ch tum 1qto~ochesJ' !aye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encourage the development of language skills. Working on a specific ... important step in helping children to find the words they need to ... and to describe it. (See Figure 1). The children were encouraged to note anything of interest about their tree e.g. fruit, pods, flowers, insect and other life as well as possible uses. A walk.

  8. Mobila och semi-mobila slakterier som alternativa slaktsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Hedberg, Eva; Gebresenbet, Girma

    1999-01-01

    Mobile and semi-mobile abattoirs, in which animals can be slaughtered on the farm or near the farm, could be an alternative slaughtersystem to the conventional one. This alternative is aimed to minimize stress induced by handling and transport activities on animals prior to slaughtering, and thereby attenuate the risks for reduced meat quality. More over, minimized transport could lead to reduction of environmental degradation imposed by emissions generated from vehicles. The objective of the...

  9. Manlighet, mod och moral: Amanda Kerfstedts Carl Bergs skoltid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Amanda Kerfstedt’s ”Carl Bergs skoltid” describes a boy’s journey to manhood in late 19th century Sweden. This article pertains that the text contrasts an ideal of masculinity based on physical strength with an ideal emphasizing morality. Although a true man, as described in the story, is expected to be strong as well as righteous, the moral component is the most important. The text shows that courage and force, which are not checked by a sense of ethics, may turn into brutality and abuse of power. Different types of masculinity are compared in ”Carl Bergs skoltid” but masculinity is also defined in relation to ideas about femininity. The association with women is utilized to stress a lack of courage in men as well as to redefine a masculine ideal that has focused too much on physical prowess instead of strength of character.

  10. Manure digestate recycling - Technologies and manufacturers; Biogoedselfoeraedling - Tekniker och leverantoerer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Carl (SWECO Environment AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Today, several biogas plants are planned. Some are large-scale or in localizations that means a long distance to croplands. The digestate indeed contain phosphorus and nitrogen but above all large quantities of water, which makes it tempting to try to refine the product. Low concentration of nutrients in the digestate means that the theoretically possible value is low which sets high demand on resource consumption of the processes to be used. In this report you can find ammonia stripping, evaporation, ultra filter + reverse osmosis and struvite precipitation, but there might be other methods. None of these methods will generate a profit, but are dependent of that the alternative, handling of not dewatered digestate, for some reason (e.g. transport distance) is to expensive. Dewatering of digestate followed by reject water treatment with aim to transform the ammonia and organic nitrogen to airborne nitrogen (disposal) has not been discussed in this report. In this project, visits have been made to three full scale plants and one pilot plant. The techniques on these plants have been ammonia stripping to ammonium sulphate, ammonia stripping to ammonia nitrate, ultra filter + reverse osmosis and struvite precipitation (pilot plant). Any appropriate plant where evaporation with developed energy recovery is used has not been found. Both plants with ammonia stripping work satisfying as well as the struvite precipitation plant. Struvite precipitation should be seen as a way to separate the phosphate from the reject water. Ultra filter + Reverse Osmosis are a functioning technique, but the concentrate was too dilute to be possible to transport any longer distance at the current facility

  11. Organizational change. Success factors and risks; Foeraendringsarbete. Framgaangsfaktorer och risker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor Analys AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    The electricity sector is undergoing a restructuring due to deregulation. This might present a challenge to safety. Safety issues cannot be separated from organizational issues. They must be an integral part of the change process from the very beginning. This overview is based on a study of recent literature about organizational development and change management in general. The 'multi standard' organizations of today are no consistent creations, but conglomerates of loosely coupled units. This form of organization has developed during the latest 30-40 years and is also called a 'network organization'. Relatively autonomous groups of actors are identifying themselves with the same type of groups in other organizations and they meet on external scenes of development. They are for instance human resource experts, managers on different levels, safety delegates, quality experts, engineers and economists. The expansion of the network enterprise also means a closer interaction with suppliers and customers. Impulses of change are reaching the organization from many angles and this creates plenty of imbalances and tensions. The traditional view that changes are initiated and steered top - down is challenged. The organizations of today are difficult to change in a planned way due to the influence of those powerful forces. The organizational behavior is not so 'rational' as could be expected. A strong, but often neglected force, is the social or symbolic environment of an organization. The organizational identity is formed in relation to other significant organizations and actors. The search for identity is a powerful driving force. Norms and conventions are influencing how a company shall be organized at a certain period of time. Several organizational models and concepts, often of American origin, have been replacing each other's during recent years. Marketing, fashion and actions of significant others are also influencing the behavior of organizations. Inherent of the 'programmatic' change strategy is that changes can be planned and implemented in detail. This strategy can work under conditions that are clearly defined and demarcated, but are less useful when people are to be mobilized and when attitudes, values and ways of working are to be changed. An alternative approach is the 'learning strategy', in which the participation of those concerned is essential. The idea is that learning and shared control of the situation will be developed through dialogues and common activities. When the total organization is to be restructured a strategy for dealing with several parallel change processes is needed. Creating developmental networks is a new strategy based on cooperation between companies. Networks can also be formed within a 'loosely coupled' enterprise. The network strategy is built on cooperation between several self-steering units, which gives the possibility to work with change processes in several units at the same time. This will have several advantages. The change process will be speeded up, a more informal and situational way of working is possible, and development and spreading can be made in parallel. The point of departure of a planned change process is to create a vision of the future. This vision will then steer the change work. For change to come trough every one involved has to understand the reasons for change and share the vision. The first step is to get everybody to understand the motives for change. The implementation will then be a joint realization of the vision. The change process is ideally driven by a 'learning' way of working, which means formulating stepwise, measurable goals, developing of solutions, making up and continuously monitoring action plans, and reflecting over the results. By trying and reflecting the organization will be altered. Of utmost importance for a new identity to be formed is the staff's participation and their possibilities of personal development. The phases of the change process are in practice iterative, they will be repeated when formulating stepwise goals, making action plans implementing, monitoring and reflecting over what has been achieved. This will develop organizational change competence. The phases are over-lapping. Not only one, but several processes are going on in different phases. The on-going change processes have to be coordinated and synchronized. The safety issues cannot be separated from other organizational issues. All organizational changes have to be synchronized. Issues of competence and staffing have to be continuously analyzed. The motivation of the staff will be effected in the beginning of a change process. Participation is a key to success. The work organization must be continuously developed. 'Just in time'- thinking can be in conflict with 'just in case'- thinking in high-risk environments. Under manning. Temporary staff. Outsourcing. (abstract truncated)

  12. Heating and cooling distribution in residential and non-residential premises; Distribution av kyla och vaerme i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardeby, Aasa; Soleimani-Mohseni, Mohsen; Axell, Monica

    2009-08-15

    The building sector accounts for approximately 40% of energy use in Europe, and about the same ratio applies to Sweden. Distribution systems for heating and cooling are an important part of the building's heating and cooling systems. The desired indoor climate can not be achieved without a properly sized distribution system. The aim of this report is to highlight the opportunities for energy efficiency with a properly designed distribution system by identifying and comparing different system solutions for the distribution of heating and cooling in residential and non-residential premises. The report presents which affect various factors have on the system as a whole, such as media selection, sizing of the piping system, heat transfer surface and regulation and control strategies. It also gives a picture of the possibilities and limitations of different needs and requirements of indoor environment (such as requirements for the thermal environment, air quality, noise, space, etc.). By having a systems perspective at the heating and/or cooling, energy efficiency is achieved. There are possibilities of big gains with a systems approach, since the choices made in designing a distribution system, affects many other parts of the system and there is a risk of poor optimization. A first step in reducing the energy use is to reduce the cooling and heating loads in the building. A heating and cooling systems should be designed properly so as not to consume excessive energy. There are other strategies to reduce energy consumption, e.g. by allowing more variations in temperature. However, it is important that it is not at the expense of the needs and requirements of the building. If the building has a cooling requirement that can be covered by the air flow required for ventilation it is recommended to provide under tempered air. In addition, the air can be cooled by free cooling from outside over large parts of the year. If the building has greater cooling requirements hydronic cooling is recommended since water has a higher specific heat capacity and is able to handle large heat surplus. Constant flow systems (for both air and water) will help the regulation and the design of the system, but typically entail higher energy. By allowing variable flow, pump and fan energy can be saved both because of a lower flow but also by fewer valves which introduces pressure drops. Introducing capacity controlled pumps and fans leads to better part load conditions but also that the flow does not need to be throttled and thus reducing pressure drops and the work of the system. It is also possible to choose a decentralized system that saves energy because pumps and fans do not need to be dimensioned for the total pressure drop in the system. However, it should be ensured that the additional units will not cause unacceptable sound levels. Another way to save operating energy is to replace older pumps and fans with newer with better efficiencies. In the selection of heat and/or cooling transfer devices one should take into account the requirements that they impose on the supply water temperatures. A larger transfer area leads to lower supply water temperatures in the case of heating and higher in the case of cooling. These changes in temperature lead to that certain production of heat and cold can be used with higher efficiency, such as solar heating and heat pumps. Apart from this example the design of the distribution system gives different degrees of freedom in the selection of production units. Air systems can, for example make greater use of free cooling. Variable flow systems provide greater temperature differences which is beneficial for various production techniques

  13. Presence and effects of copper in water and soil; Upptraedande och effekter av koppar i vatten och mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternbeck, J.

    2000-01-01

    Copper is one of the most common metals in society. Although Cu is essential to all forms of life, high exposure can lead to toxic effects. It is difficult to assess the risk for eco toxicological effects to appear in a certain situation, because Cu is largely present in chemical species with low bioavailability. In this report it is analysed how the bioavailability of Cu is regulated in natural environments, and how different organism groups may be affected bu Cu. Significant emission sources and exposure pathways are briefly described. It appears that the relationship between concentration and bioavailability is highly dynamic in natural environments. Relatively moderate increases of total-Cu can lead to strongly increasing bioavailability. The ability to control Cu intracellularly differs between different organism groups. This brings about that the sensitivity toward Cu differs widely between different organism groups.

  14. Bioenergy: Resource efficiency and contributions to energy- and climate policy objectives; Bioenergi: Resurseffektivitet och bidrag till energi- och klimatpolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goeran; Karlsson, Sten [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Physical Resource Theory; Boerjesson, Paal; Rosenqvist, Haakan [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies

    2008-09-15

    Increasing the use of bioenergy in place of fossil fuels is motivated by a number of energy policy goals. Individual bioenergy systems must be evaluated relative to a particular goal or set of goals. Depending on which specific political goal that is in focus, the attractiveness of different bioenergy systems can vary in relation to even broad objectives such as the resource-efficient use of agricultural and forest land. Furthermore, the outcome of a specific evaluation is sensitive to explicit as well as implicit assumptions and choices regarding, e.g., definition of system boundaries, economic conditions, implementation of policies, byproduct markets, and establishment of new technologies. Several biofuels production chains generate byproducts of value. Energy balance calculations are greatly influenced by how such byproducts are taken into account. Often, the most important factor underlying different results from different energy balance studies is a difference in analytic assumptions, for instance in allocation methods and system borders. Different studies can only be accurately compared if they are based on comparable analytic assumptions. Which methods are justified in a given energy balance study is determined by the current conditions for the specific bioenergy system under analysis. In the future, bioenergy systems may increasingly consist of various generation combinations wherein liquid biofuels may for instance be co-generated with power, heat, and solid biofuels, etc. from a mix of raw biomass. The driving factors are the synergies available with the higher total energy efficiency and resources efficiency obtained by combined approaches, compared to when the energy carriers are produced on their own. These solutions imply that if there is a market for the other energy carriers, and the total net system exchange is high, a lower net value for liquid fuels may be acceptable. The climate efficiency of a bioenergy system also depends on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions other than carbon dioxide, for instance nitrous oxide and methane. In some cases, a bioenergy system may reduce certain greenhouse gas emissions such as methane. One example of this is biogas produced from manure. A broad life cycle analysis perspective is important for analyzing the climate efficacy of bioenergy systems correctly. Broad bioenergy system studies should also consider the possibility of expansion of energy crops with respect to geography, economics, and potential rate of expansion. Certain energy crops such as oil crops and sugar beets have a relatively limited possibility for expansion in Sweden with the current methods of production and climate, while the opposite is true of crops such as grasses and grain. The short-rotation woody crops such as willow fall somewhere in between; willow does best on somewhat higher quality agricultural land in southern and mid- Sweden as well as in areas with sufficiently high precipitation. The best choice in a given situation is not always provided by the bioenergy alternative that has the best score on production costs, LCA, and/or energy balance. Energy system modeling provides an opportunity to evaluate and compare bioenergy alternatives to each other and to other energy alternatives such as wind and hydro power in terms of climate neutral power generation. This means that the competitiveness of a bioenergy system and the potential extent of non-biomass based systems are relevant to determining the most attractive option. One example of how the availability and cost of other alternatives plays a major role in determining the priorities for biomass is the choice between using biomass in stationary applications or as liquid fuel for transportation. A critical factor in this determination is the projected availability of climate neutral transportation not dependent on biofuels. The projected schedule for commercial availability of various technologies in relation to the requirements on the rate of transition, and given specific targets for mitigation or use of renewables within a certain sector, is also important. In addition to climate impact, bioenergy initiatives are motivated by for example the goal of creating jobs as well as the goal of improving the nation's security of supply. Discussions surrounding security of supply have mainly focused on our dependency on imported oil. Naturally, this puts the transportation sector in sharp relief; consequently, liquid biofuels are advocated as the most effective bioenergy alternative when the goal is increasing the security of energy supply. However, in the rest of Europe, the growing dependency on imported natural gas is also a central issue. In the long run, conditions may change dramatically when new technologies are established, if these are deployed large-scale. For instance, plug-in hybrid technology makes possible a far-reaching liberation from the need for transportable fuels in the transportation sector.

  15. Fruktsamhet och barnafödande : upplevelser, tankar och attityder bland kvinnor som inte fött barn

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Malin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis is to describe experiences offertility, interpret thoughts on childbearing, and compare attitudes to fertility and childbearing with background characteristics, among women not yet mothers. Methods:In study I a phenomenological method was used to describe women’s experiences of fertility. In study II a lifeworldhermeneutic approach was used to interpret women’s thoughts on childbearing. In study III explorative factor analysis with prin...

  16. Genetic gain from present and future seed orchards and clone mixes; Genetiska vinster i nuvarande och framtida froeplantager och klonblandningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosvall, O; Jansson, Gunnar; Andersson, Bengt; Ericsson, Tore; Karlsson, Bo; Sonesson, Johan; Stener, L.G.

    2001-10-01

    This report is intended to be the basis for decisions concerning establishment of the third cycle of seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta, Picea abies and Betula pendula in Sweden. First genetic gain is presented for existing seed orchards and clone mixes for vegetative propagation and the additional improvement possible by genetic thinning. Then the potential additional gain is given for the two coming cycles of seed orchards and clone mixes and the point in time when this can bee realised for each seed zone. The calculations were based on genetic parameters summarised from hundreds of genetic tests throughout Sweden. The gain refers to the genetic level of the unimproved source populations and assumes ideal functioning of seed orchards and clone mixes e.g. no background pollination. A simplification is that the gain is presented as if only one character were considered, per hectare production, although in reality an index of many traits is used, including also e.g. survival, stem quality. For Scots pine in harsh areas gain in survival is also given. In general the genetic gain of existing seed orchards is 10-25%, while it can reach 20-25% in all third cycle orchards. The feasible gain from thinning is 2-3%. That is half of the theoretical gain, which can be attained only in the most closely spaced orchards. The next step of improvement will reach 35% for orchard establishment in the period 2015-2020, in some cases already in 2010. Clone mix gains are of the same magnitude as seed orchards, but can be realised in commercial planting stock with less delay. All production populations gain predictions took into account sufficient genetic variability.

  17. Substituent Effects Dehalogenation of Aryl Bromides with NaAlH2(OCH2CH2OCH3)2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czakoová, Marie; Hetflejš, Jiří; Včelák, Jaroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2001), s. 277-287 ISSN 0133-1736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/1173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : substituent effects * aryl bromides * Co-assisted debromination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.475, year: 2001

  18. Evaporative and sorptive cooling. Possibilities and limitations in air treatment.; Evaporativ och sorptiv kylning. Moejligheter och begraensningar vid luftbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Techn., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2001-10-01

    A primary demand for a good indoor climate in a building is that temperature and humidity are maintained at comfortable levels, regardless of the prevailing outdoor climate. Some buildings often have a heat surplus for a great part of the year due to internal activities, even in climates with moderate ambient temperatures. This heat surplus has to be removed in order to fulfil the specified requirements on the indoor climate. The focus in this report is on possibilities and limitations using evaporative and desiccant cooling to satisfy the cooling demands in such buildings. Today the most common technical solution is to use a compressor refrigeration system for air-conditioning. As a result of the greenhouse effect and the ozone depletion debate, the prerequisites for compressor refrigeration systems have been changed. Evaporative cooling is an interesting alternative to conventional compressor refrigeration systems. However, the use of evaporative cooling presupposes all-air systems. The use of such a system will also, to a large extent, be limited by ambient conditions as well as the settled demands on the indoor climate. High outdoor humidity levels have great influence on the supply-air temperature achievable, i.e., cooling loads possible to meet. One way to considerably reduce the influence of these limitations is to use desiccant cooling, i.e., to dehumidify the ambient air before the evaporative stages. In this report, a general methodology to describe possibilities and limitations for evaporative and desiccant cooling, is presented. The major advantage of this methodology is that it may give rise to an increased understanding of these processes and, hence, be a guide to a proper dimensioning.

  19. Barnmisshandel ur barns och ungas perspektiv : Omfattning, hälsa, avslöjande och stöd

    OpenAIRE

    Jernbro, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem which is largely hidden in the society. The main aim of the thesis was to study child maltreatment from children’s and young people’s perspectives focusing on prevalence, health, disclosure and support. The thesis is based on four studies. Quantitative and qualitative data from three national surveys of child maltreatment, including children in different age groups and young adults, have been analysed. The results showed that child maltreatment is ...

  20. Alva Myrdal och svenskt familjeplaneringsbistånd : Affinitet mellan välfärdsideologi och principerna bakom befolkningskontroll

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Around the 1950s an explosive population growth started in the Third World. Parallel with the population growth a global network grew up advocating population control and limited population growth. Sweden had a unique place in that network through a pioneering role promoting the issue in the UN organization. During the 20th century Sweden was a pioneer country in terms of initiatives for population control. Ceylon family planing pilot project was something new in a time when other donors cons...

  1. Control and follow-up of fly ash roads - Communication and Acceptance; Kontroll och uppfoeljning av askvaegar - Kommunikation och acceptans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Edeskaer, Tommy; Hellman, Fredrik

    2011-10-15

    The report is aimed at those who perform or plan to perform stabilization of the unbound layers or terrace gravel roads or industrial areas, with binder where a major binder component is fly ash from bio-peat or coal fuel. Stabilization of unbound layers of road structures is a promising technique from technical, economical and environmental point of view. The need of demonstration projects on road sections to show the relationship of laboratory measurements and field measurements are great in order to promote this stabilization technique. Results from follow-up of several stabilized distances and industrial surfaces are presented, where the fly ash is a binder component. The results complement the guidance, Munde et al. (2006) respect to durability, environmental characteristics on several years of perspective. Our hope is that report will serve as a support for the implementation of demonstration projects of stabilized terrace or unbound layers of fly ash as binder component.

  2. Uppfatta och reagera : En kvalitativ studie om IT-relaterade resursers roll i kundkännedomsprocesser och kundresponskapacitet

    OpenAIRE

    Åhlin, Mairon; Bergqvist, Linnéa

    2014-01-01

    The structures of organizations have gone through a dramatic change over the last years; as a result customer service is no longer a small side activity but a critical part in customer relationship management. Development in information technology has created opportunities as well as challenges for organizations when it comes to providing a customer service with capacity of sensing and responding to customers' needs. Previous research shows a relationship between customer response capability ...

  3. Uppsamling och lagring av natursnö för kyla och smältvattenrening i Uppsala

    OpenAIRE

    Lundahl, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the possibility to provide cooling for the Uppsala University Hospital by using a snow cooling plant. The reason for this is to increase the cooling system's resilience and decrease the dependence on district cooling. This is done by modelling the possible share of the hospital's cooling demand that can be covered with snow cooling. Furthermore it's investigated if the pollution levels in the snow can decreased by treating the meltwater in the snow cooling plant and if it...

  4. I skilda idrottsvärldar : barn, ledare och föräldrar i flick- och pojkfotboll

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Inger Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    The sporting triangle represents the relationships among children, leaders and parents in the context of child sport. These relations are of significant importance for the child’s experience of sport. Taking the sporting triangle as its point of departure this thesis aims to describe and understand the socialisation processes among children, leaders and parents in girls’ and boys’ football teams, focusing on how the children's perspective is reflected in practice. The study has an ethnographi...

  5. UPAYA PERANCANGAN UNDANG-UNDANG TENTANG LARANGAN MERENDAHKAN MARTABAT PENGADILAN (CONTEMPT OF COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimly Asshiddiqie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Untuk menjaga martabat dan kehormatan peradilan tidak semata menggunakan pendekatan melalui mekanisme hukum pidana, melainkan juga diperlukan pendekatan melalui mekanisme civil contempt of court dan ethical contempt of court secara integral.

  6. DESAIN DAN SINTESIS SENYAWA ACES (ANALOG CURCUMIN SERIES DENGAN METODE SOLID PHASE REACTION SEBAGAI SENYAWA ANTIKANKER POTEN DENGAN MEKANISME MENGHAMBAT PROTEIN NF-kB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Sabrina Widiapranolo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analog of curcumin in forms of enone and dienone aromatic is known for their activity as an NF-κB inhibitor. In this study, will be synthesize 2-(4'-N, N-dimethylamino benzilidine cyclohexane-1,3-dione as an analog that predicted has an activity as an NF-κB inhibitor. This research was conducted based on the crossed aldol condensation reaction by reacting 3 mmole pN,N-dimethylamino benzaldehide and 6 mmole cyclohexane-1,3-dione with hydrochloric acid as the catalyst using solid phase reaction method. Based on computational analysis, 2-(4'-N,Ndimethylamino benzilidine cyclohexane-1,3-dione showed a better interaction with NF-κB protein with PLANTSPLP score was -69,7895. The outcome of the reaction was yellow colored powder, no odor and soluble in hydrochloric acid 3N. The yield value was 78.8%. Liquid chromatography showed 100% purity. The melting point range was 237.5-240.3°C. The results of structure elucidation by 1H-NMR, infrared and mass spectroscopy tests indicated the compound was 2-(4-(dimetilaminobenzilidena-4-(3-oksosiklohex-1-enil sikloheksana-1,3-dion. Key words: 2-(4'-N, N-dimethylamino benzilidine cyclohexane-1,3-dione, crossed aldol condensation, solid phase reaction.

  7. PENGARUH MEKANISME GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE (GCG PADA NILAI PERUSAHAAN (Studi Pada Perusahaan Yang Masuk Indeks LQ45 Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanera Saroh Firdausya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of managerial ownership, institutional ownership, board size, independent board size, board size and the size of the value of the company on the companies included in the LQ 45 index in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The sampling method used was purposive sampling. Of the population of firms that  enter  in  LQ  45  during  the  period  of  2009-2011,  taken  nineteen  sampel. Alat  companies  that  meet  the  criteria  of  analysis  used  is  multiple  linear regression analysis by first covering the classical assumption of normality test, multikolonieritas, autocorrelation, heteroskedasticity. is partially managerial ownership. While the variable institutional ownership, board size, board size independent, board size and size has no effect on firm value. Keywords: agency theory, corporate governance, corporate performance

  8. PENGARUH MEKANISME GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN STRUKTUR KEPEMILIKAN TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN MANUFAKTUR YANG TERDAFTAR DI BEI TAHUN 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehdawati .

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This  study  aims  to  identify  and  analyze  the  influence  of  the  number  of commissioners,  the  proportion  of  independent  board,  the  number  of  audit committee,  the  number  of  the  board  of  directors,  managerial  ownership, institutional ownership as the independent variables, and the company size as the control variable either partially or simultaneously on the company’s financial performance, namely ROA and ROE as dependent variables in companies listed on the Stock Exchange from 2010 to2012. The  method  of  sampling  was  done  through  purposive  sampling  method.  The population of companies were the ones listed on the Stock Exchange from 2010 to 2012. The obtained samples were 91 companies, so that the amount of data used were as many as 273, but there are some outlier data that must be removed in order to meet the assumption of normality. Therefore, the amount of the final samples  used  in  this  study  were  75  companies  with  the  amount  of  data  used were 194. The analytical tool used was multiple linear regression analysis, and to test the level of significance the F test and the t-test were used which were processed with SPSS 22. The  results  showed  that  the  variable  of  the  proportion  of  independent  board significantly  gave  negative  effects  on  ROA  and  ROE,  while  the  variable  of the  number  of  commissioners,  the  number  of  board  of  directors,  managerial ownership,  institutional  ownership  and  firm  size  did  not  affect  the  ROA  and ROE. The variable of the number of the audit committee was not used in the analysis because the data had constant value. Keywords : Corporate governance, ownership structure, financial performance

  9. HUBUNGAN FINANCIAL DISTRESS & MEKANISME GCG TERHADAP PELAPORAN AUDIT PADA PERUSAHAAN PERBANKAN YANG TERDAFTAR DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA PERIODE 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pratama Putra Riyanda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relation between the composition of financially distressed banks, boards of director Committees and institutional ownership to the likelihood of receiving going concern reports. The composition board of director Committees and institutional ownership represent Good Corporate Governance (GCG mechanism in banks. Financial firms were highly regulated, so we combine BAPEPAM regulation and Altman Z score to identify banks that fit for the financial distress category. For banks experiencing financial distress during 2005-2010, by using logistic regression we find that the greater percentage of financial distress in banks, the smaller the probability the Auditor will issue a going concern report. This empirical study did not support role GCG mechanism on Audit reporting. These results can give us a little sight about implementation of GCG in Indonesia specially for financial firm. The contribution will go to support regulators’ concern about financial reporting, firms behavior (financial and non financial firms in making healthy environment with GCG and the need of balancing proportion in ownership structure in form of the composition board committee and institutional ownership to minimize moral hazard .

  10. Pengaruh Mekanisme Good Corporate Governance, Financial Distress terhadap Earning Management dengan Variabel Financial Distress sebagai Mediasi : Studi Empiris pada Perusahaan Pertambangan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fathoni, Ahmad Fauzan; Ewanto, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of good corporate governance on Earning Management and Financial Distress on mining companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI ) in the year 2009-2011. Variables tested in this study consists of institutional ownership,managerial ownership, the proportion of audit committee and independent commissioners, earningsmanagement and financial distress.The sample was mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange ( IDX years 2009-2011). The sam...

  11. ANALISIS PENGARUH MEKANISME INTERNAL DAN EXTERNAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP PROFITABILITAS DAN KEBIJAKAN DIVIDEN PERUSAHAAN (Studi Empiris Pada Perusahaan Go Publik di Pasar Modal Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Fara Dharmastuti

    2015-04-01

    Dividend policy is an interesting topic to be discussed despite the fact that there are contentious arguments on theories about dividend. In this research dividend policy will be viewed through the agency theory by considering the effect of the company's corporate governance, in particular through the separation mechanism of internal and external corporate governance (Gillan, 2006 which are mediated by profitability. The study was conducted by all non-financial companies at the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2007 to 2010. AMOS 16.0 program is used in estimating the completion path model and testing hypotesis. The results shows that the mechanisms of internal corporate governance via the existence of independent commissioner and executive compensation can not significantly influence the company's financial performance, while mechanisms of external corporate governance as measured by the stability and the percentage of institutional ownership significantly influence the companys financial performance. This indicates that the external corporate governance has a greater power to monitor and influence the financial policies of the company.

  12. Ash and sludge covering of mine waste - Final report. Benefits and/or risks using ash and sludge for covering of weathered mine waste; Aska och roetslam som taet- och taeckskikt foer vittrat gruvavfall - Slutrapport. Foerdelar och/eller risker med att anvaenda aska och slam som taet- och taeckskikt foer vittrat gruvavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Karlsson, Ulrika [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2006-02-15

    One of the main sources for metal pollution in Sweden is mine waste. One way to decrease the leaching of metals from mine waste areas are covering which decreases the volume of acid drainage. There is a shortage of appropriate materials to use for covering and excavation of till and clay from the environment might cause damages on the landscape. Previous studies have demonstrated that sludge and ashes are suitable materials for covering of waste deposits. When covering mine waste with ash and sludge various positive effects would arise, since the production of drainage water decreases as well as the pH increases due to the high buffer capacity of the ash. In Ervalla outside Oerebro an area with mine waste (tailings) has been covered with ash and sludge. This area gives a unique possibility to study benefits and/or risks with the covering of mine waste with ash and sludge. Unfortunately, the covering was not, from the start, carried out in a way that made it possible to evaluate the data. For instance, data about the surface and groundwater quality prior to the covering is lacking. Sulphidic minerals are also very common in the area, giving rise to acidic groundwater from other parts of the area, which haven't been remediated. This report is a final report where all phases are presented (phase 1 and 2). Focus in phase 1 has been on characterization of the material that has been used for covering and initiation of a monitoring program. In phase 2 focus has been on evaluation of monitoring data and the pros and cons of the deposit regarding the environment. Preliminary findings indicate that that the covering increases the leaching of some metals whereas the leaching of some metals decreases. An increase was observed for pH, calcium, potassium, sodium, arsenic, barium, chromium and copper. A decrease in the concentration of iron, nickel, cobalt, lead and zinc was observed. Other benefits with the remediation is also discussed (increased plant growth and an area for storing timber). From the results an approach towards future covering of weathered mine waste with ash and sludge is presented.

  13. Forecasts and restrictions on vibrations from rock excavation and transportation. Encapsulation Plant and Repository for spent nuclear fuel, Laxemar; Prognoser och restriktioner foer vibrationer fraan bergschaktning och transporter. Inkapslingsanlaeggning och slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle, Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Carl; Johansson, Sven-Erik (Nitro Consult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This study describes the impact on the surroundings that may occur during rock excavation activities for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Laxemar and the encapsulation facility in Simpevarp. The study also includes vibrations created by heavy shipments related to activities at the final repository. The study will provide input to the environmental impact assessment and future design work. The survey area for buildings and facilities covered by the study extends approximately 1,000 metres from the proposed location of the final repository. For the encapsulation facility the survey area has been limited to residential buildings and summer houses within 1,000 metres of the proposed location. In addition, residential buildings along road 743 have been surveyed with regard to the impact of heavy shipments between Laxemar and Faarbo. The results of the surveys and information on planned rock excavation activities have been used to formulate preliminary restrictions and predictions of vibrations and air shock waves from blasting, as well as noise from rock drilling. Predictions have also been made of vibrations from heavy shipments, and a reference survey has been carried out in a residential building near road 743. The predictions of vibrations from blasting rounds reveal low or very low levels. No risk of damage to buildings or equipment is expected. Vibrations from blasting may, however, be perceptible within large parts of the study area, since the human perception threshold for vibration is very low. They will hardly be regarded as disturbing, however. When the accesses to the final repository have been built and rock excavation continues at repository level, the impact on the surroundings is expected to be minimal. The main reason for this is that the blasting will then occur at a depth of about 500 metres, at an ample distance to buildings at surface level. Predictions of air shock waves from blasting rounds indicate low levels. There is no risk of damage but air shocks may be audible at great distances during the first few years when surface facilities are being built and blasting is being done for the ramp and sunk shafts. They are not expected to be perceived as disturbing, since the blasting will be limited to a few times per day during the most intensive period. Structure-borne noise from rock drilling for the repository will not be audible due to large distances to buildings. Noise from above-ground drilling may be audible, but below guideline values. Also, the drilling is limited to a relatively short period of time. In Clab, indoor guideline values may be exceeded during drilling for the encapsulation facility. There is no risk of flyrock from blasting that could cause damage to the surroundings. The scope and nature of flyrock protection will be determined at a later stage, but as a general rule the initial blasting rounds, when the risk of flyrock is the greatest, will be carried out as controlled blasting. Vibrations in surrounding buildings caused by heavy shipments to and from the final repository are not expected to cause any damage, mainly due to the fact that the supporting ground along the transport routes is dominated by rock or till. The reference survey carried out in Oevrahammar verifies this and shows low vibration levels. If the future status of the concerned parts of road 743 is the same as today, disturbing vibrations are unlikely to occur, even if the heavy shipments increase in number. In summary, it is concluded that the guideline values and limit values stipulated in applicable standards, recommendations and guidelines for vibrations, air shock waves and noise from blasting activities, as well as noise from drilling and boring will be met by ample margin. The impact on the surroundings from blasting activities during the construction of the final repository and the encapsulation facility is therefore expected to be very limited

  14. Homoadoption i Bamse : hur skildras homosexualitet och homoadoption i serietidningen ”Bamse” och var placerar sig resultatet mot en kort jämförelse av homohistoria, samhälle och genus?

    OpenAIRE

    Beischer, Per-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how homosexuality and homosexual adoptions are manifested in children's comic "Bamse" and study the result in the light of a brief background about the western society and gay history. The study has a historical gender perspective and focus homosexuality primarily in modern times. Drawing on critical theory and semiotic analysis, the study shows how ideas and ideology surrounding same-sex relations and parenting are negotiated in the ”Bamse” comic. ...

  15. Nuclear Energy, Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Reports to the Energy Commission's Expertgroup for Safety and Environment. Kaernenergi, geotermisk energi och miljoe. Underlagsrapporter till rapport om miljoeeffekter och risker vid utnyttjandet av energi fraan Expertgruppen foer saekerhet och miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains reports on uranium mining, working conditions in the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, risks at storage of spent fuel elements, environmental impact of future reactor technology, effects of waste heat disposal and risks at geothermal energy extraction in Sweden. These reports have been use by the expert group to produce their final paper.

  16. Befolkningens hälsa och samhällets kostnader för vård och produktionsbortfall - resultat från ULF-studien 1996 och 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Public health and health care consumption is permanently of current interest as research field and an object for many studies. In this study the results from the National Living Survey, ULF, are used for the years 1996/97 and 2004/05. The choice of years is done regarding to the circumstances that these years have more questions in depth concerning health and health care consumption. Of a total of 18 940 respondents 8 600 can be counted to the years 2004 and 2005. The first part of this study...

  17. Miljöberikning för domesticerade lamadjur i en djurpark : En studie om lama (Lama glama) och alpacka (Vicugna pacos) och deras beteenden

    OpenAIRE

    Pörhölä, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enrich the environment for llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in a zoo. The zoo is located in northern Sweden (Umeå, Mickelträsk). The llama herd consists of three individuals of breed qara, two males and one female and the alpaca herd consists of six individuals of breed huacaya, one male, four females and one foal. The species lived in separate enclosures, they lived outside all year round and they had a shelter for wind and rain protection. They ...

  18. Myndigheter och effektivkriskommunikation : En kvalitativ studie om hur Utrikesdepartementet och svenska ambassaden i Ankara hanterade krisen i Turkiet 2015 på sociala medier.

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlman, Henrietta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the problems of crisis communication within authorities is the lack of meeting expectations regarding crisis management. This study is based on this particular problem. Meeting expectations within crisis management and crisis communication has previously been a struggle for the Swedish authorities during crisis, -such as at the time of the Estonia disaster in 1994 and the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The main purpose of this qualitative study is to examine how the Swedish Minist...

  19. Socialt Kapital och de Svenska Hjälpkassorna : En historisk undersökning om föreningar, socialt kapital och ekonomisk utveckling

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Rydell, Linus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine some historical aspects of Robert Putnam’s thesisabout voluntary associations and social capital. According to a micro perspective theory ofsocial capital the trust and reciprocity required and created by associations is important toexplain the disparity between institutional performance and socioeconomic development ofsocieties. The social patterns governing this therefore set a precedent for the future. Using themutual sickness benefit societies in...

  20. Gitarrkulturer : förändringar i gitarrens sociala och musikaliska status och dess utveckling som kulturell symbol i Sverige 1820-1980

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Guitar Cultures, I aim to examine changes in the social, musical and cultural status of the guitar in Sweden during the period of 1820–1980. I also will outline the instrument’s development as a cultural symbol during this time. The main reason for my choice of subject is my distinct impression that the guitar probably is the most widely spread and played of all musical instruments, not only in Sweden, but worldwide.  Another reason is that I am a guitar player myself since man...

  1. Offshore wind power - Possibilities and shortcomings in the planning and design; Vindkraft till havs - Moejligheter och brister vid planering och projektering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Daniel

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to examine how the planning preparedness offshore unfolds. Planning conditions of municipalities have been investigated through interviews with municipal planners and representatives of the wind power stakeholders. At the same time, the problems and deficiencies that impede the expansion of offshore wind power have been identified. In the report, based on the survey of the state of planning, as well as the shortcomings of current systems, the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning presents opportunities for improvements. With these proposals the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning opens up for an increased cooperation with the aim to facilitate a future expansion of offshore wind power. The report primarily addresses central government agencies and authorities, county councils, as well as planners or other officers of the national, regional and municipal levels

  2. Effects of energy and climate advisory service in 2012, to individuals, businesses and organizations; Effekter av energi och klimatraadgivningen 2012, till privatpersoner, foeretag och organisationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency has government mandate to finance energy and climate consultancy in the country's municipalities. Energy and climate advisors' mission is to provide local and regional custom information about energy efficiency, renewable energy, transportation, energy and climate change and on the potential to transform energy use in commercial and residential premises. The target group for counsel ing are households, businesses and organizations. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the effects of counsel ing, in the advice seekers perspective, with an emphasis on measurable energy savings in kWh. The aim is that the Agency should have a deeper understanding of what effect the counsel ing interventions have. The evaluation highlights the issues covered and the measures taken to reduce energy use and, where possible, an estimate / calculation of the energy saving made by measures taken.

  3. Climate, transports and regions. A study of goal-conflicts and goal-synergies; Klimat, transporter och regioner. En studie om maalkonflikter och maalsynergier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Matts; Hammarqvist, Jarl; Jarlebring, Isak; Algers, Staffan; Baeckstroem, Sebastian; Svalgaard, Stehn; Hultin, Kia [WSP Analys och Strategi, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundgren, Tommy [Dept. of Forest Economics, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    In this report, we address how climate gas emissions and regional development are influenced by policy instruments. We compare costs in terms of decreased regional development with the benefits in CO{sub 2} reductions. Regional development is measured by production and employment within the manufacturing industry, and by the size of the labour markets. For two reasons, we study policy instruments in the transport system: 1. The transport system represents a large and constantly increasing part of CO{sub 2} emissions. 2. Within the transport industry, analytical tools are readily available. We study tax on fossil fuels, three levels of kilometer tax and car benefit tax based on CO{sub 2} emissions. The two first instruments are taken from a Swedish parliamentary investigation on road taxes, the third from an investigation by the Swedish environmental Protection Agency. All instruments have little impact on production. In total, production in the manufacturing industry is decreased by SEK 2 billion annually, or 0.1 per cent of GDP, when the highest kilometer tax is applied. For some industries the effects are noticeable in absolute values, though the largest decrease is only 2.5 percent of the production in the industry (earth and stone). The impact on employment is greater and positive. Employment in the manufacturing industry increases by 1.2 per cent, or 5,000 individuals, with the highest kilometer tax. Labour intense industries grow on behalf of transport intense industries and transports are exchanged for labour within each industry. As shown in the figure on the next page, the greatest increase is in the food and beverage industry and the largest decrease in paper and pulp. Our calculations of goods transport emissions are quite rough. The highest level of kilometer tax will decrease emissions from heavy goods vehicles with 5 to 11 per cent (which means a 1 to 2 percent decrease in emissions from the transport sector), whereas the middle level is decreases emissions with 4 to 8 per cent. The decreases in emissions might be underestimated since they do not consider potential reallocation to other means of transport. Car benefit tax based on CO{sub 2} emissions stimulates people to purchase cars that consume less petrol, which decreases their expenses for transport and their emissions per kilometer. The lower costs means that people drive more and increases labour markets. The combined effect of more driving and less emissions per kilometer is a 5.3 percent decrease in CO{sub 2} emissions from passenger cars. Emission effects from the fuel tax is a result of both more efficient vehicles and that the use of the vehicles decreases. In total, emissions are decreased by 3.3 percent. As a result of the tax on fuel, costs for transports increases which decreases labour market regions. However, the decrease is rather small since the tax increase is small. If both car benefit tax based on CO{sub 2} emissions and increased fuel tax is implemented, the effect on emissions from passenger car traffic will be minus 8.6 percent in 2020 compared with if nothing is done. Since two thirds of the CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector comes from passenger cars this means that transport emissions decreases with 5.5 percent or 1,360,000 tons. The effect on costs approximately neutralizes each other, making the effects on region enlargement insignificant. On the whole there is a clear improvement on CO{sub 2}-emissions without negative effects on regional development. This comes from increasing vehicle efficiency, leaving the quantity it is used unaffected. Our conclusions regarding tax on fuel and kilometer tax assumes that the money are thrown away, i.e. we have analyzed the effects of collecting the taxes but not how those funds could be put to use. If the funds are used to lower other distortionary taxes, as for example income taxes, the effects on production might be positive in total. Correctionary taxes have two uses: they corrects the behaviour on the market where they are put to use, and the revenues may be used for lowering distortionary taxes (or for public investments that increases productivity)

  4. Skolplikten och samhällsordningen - Om nödvändigheten och önskvärdheten av obligatorisk skolgång

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Dahlkvist

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a question of whether school obligatory with its officially established educational objectives is consistent with the fundamental principles of the modern state governed by law and political democracy. How do we think and reason about school obligatory and how could we think differently? The main conclusion conveyed in the article is that liberal political philosophy neither in terms of rights theory or utilitarian thinking is consistent with the idea of school obligatory. Because of this, the author argues, we will either have to abandon the obligatory in order to maintain liberal political philosophy or we must keep the obligatory, but would then have to abandon or radically modify liberal political philosophy. The communitarian political philosophy is elaborated as an alternative and is supplemented by a discussion on how Jürgen Habermas would possibly regard school obligatory.

  5. Genus- och könsroller i läromedel : - En läromedelsanalys av Magic och Happy, engelska årskurs 4-6

    OpenAIRE

    Bjureland, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    This study examines gender roles, with a basis in the fundamental values of the Swedish curriculum. I analyse dialogues in two commonly used textbooks, Magic! Classbook 5 by Hedencrona, Smed-Gerdin and Watcyn-Jones (2009) and Happy textbook year 6 by Sutcliffe, Thunman and Mälström Timling (2011) for English, 4-6. The dialogues are analysed with a quantitative and a qualitative method. In the qualitative analysis, I investigate gender awareness, using levels from negligence to a high level of...

  6. Ökad efterfrågeflexibilitet och elhandel : modeller och tillämpningar för analys av ekonomiska konsekvenser

    OpenAIRE

    Mogos, Musie

    2015-01-01

    As the introduction of renewable energy sources increase in the power market, the need for effective use of electricity by consumers gains importance. The Swedishpower market is characterized by demand inelasticity. Thus, resulting in a system where supply follows demand. Increased demand response in electricity markets is essential in order to cope with future challenges. Electricity retailers can encourage an increased demand response by offering contracts to their customers such as “Realti...

  7. Inventory of vegetation and benthos in newly laid and natural ponds in Forsmark 2012; Inventering av vegetation och bottenfauna i nyanlagda och naturliga goelar i Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvarfordt, Susanne; Wallin, Anders; Borgiel, Micke [Sveriges Vattenekologer AB, Vingaaker (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    SKB plans to build a repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The repository is planned to be built in Forsmark and constitutes installations above and below ground. The building and operation of the construction will involve activities that might affect the nature in the area. The impact means, among other things, that a small water body, which today is a reproduction site for the red listed pool frog (Rana lessonae), will disappear. The lost locality for the pool frog has been compensated by creating four new ponds in the Forsmark area. This study is part of the follow-up of these new habitats. The aim is to describe the plant and animal communities in the ponds, and follow the succession, i.e. the development of the habitats. The study also includes two natural ponds that will serve as reference objects. The survey of vegetation and invertebrate fauna in the ponds was conducted in October 2012. The results show that the new ponds had low coverage of submersed vegetation and the species composition in the plant communities differed between the ponds. The reference ponds also had different plant communities, both in terms of species composition and coverage. This indicates that the species composition of the plant communities in the new ponds will likely depend on physical factors specific to the respective pond, but that higher vegetation coverage can be expected over time in all new ponds. The reference ponds had similar animal communities that differed from the animal communities in the new ponds. The similar species composition in the reference ponds, despite the variety of plant communities, suggests that similar animal communities are likely to develop in the new ponds, even if the plant communities continues to be different. Water chemical sampling has also been conducted in the ponds during 2012. A comparison of the inorganic environment (with regard to analysed ions) showed that the reference ponds had relatively similar ion compositions with little variation compared to the new ponds. The organic environment with respect to nutrients and organic carbon was similar in five of the ponds. The pond, AFM001420, differed from the others, with higher levels of total nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC) and total phosphorus during the sampling period. The sampling methods used in the survey gave results that describe the ponds plant and animal communities well. The results are also suited for statistical analysis, which means that changes in communities over time is likely to be detectable.

  8. Äldre människors berättelser om att bli och vara gammal tolkade utifrån genus- och etnicitetsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Aléx, Lena

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim of the five studies that make up this thesis is to elucidate constructions of being old from the perspectives of gender and ethnicity. One of the studies uses quantitative data and four use qualitative data. The sample in study I consisted of 125 participants from the Umeå 85+ study, aged 85 to 103 years old, who were able to use Likert scales in responding to questions. Studies II and III involved content analysis of interviews with old persons scoring on the extremes of the ...

  9. Uppkopplad eller nedkopplad? -Konflikt mellan förnuft och känsla : En etnografiskt inspirerad studie av fyra studenters vardag online och offline

    OpenAIRE

    Saller, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this thesis has been to study and obtain greater understanding of the consequences of active social media use. Specifically, in terms of social identity, social life and the sense of belonging. Secondly, the thesis studies the consequences of disconnecting and for a limited amount of time opt out of the social media context. Method/material:  The study is based on an explorative, cultural ethnographically-inspired method, in which four respondents were studied: two men and...

  10. Hur kan film vara berikande i religionsundervisningen? : En hermeneutisk filmanalys av Harry Potter och de vises sten & Berättelsen om Narnia: Häxan och Lejonet

    OpenAIRE

    Hagberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study how the use of movies can enrich the educational platform. Movies: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone (2001) and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (2005) have been analyzed using a hermeneutic method and postcolonial theory to identify stereotypes and religious and mythologicial motives. This thesis shows that the presentation of religiosity in both movies can be useful in the classroom setting although the presence of s...

  11. Operation and maintenance of waste incinerators - A comparison of two techniques and strategies; Drift och underhaall av avfallsfoerbraenningsanlaeggningar - En jaemfoerelse av tvaa tekniker och strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Andreas [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden); Niklasson, Fredrik [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Johnsson, Anders [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Fredaeng, Julia [Dalkia, Stockholm (Sweden); Wettergren, Hans [Renova AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    This work has developed and demonstrated a simple method for comparison of operation and maintenance cost for various waste combustion techniques and plants. The principal of the method is to coarsely and initially divide cost into comparable posts. Post of specific interest is thereafter compared on a more detailed level. This procedure allows comparison with a modest consumption of time and effort. There is a lack of such comparison because of the effort needed to in detail compare the, often for each plant unique, selection of techniques and strategies. A consequence of the lack of comparisons is that success stories become invisible. The same can be said about common research needs. The demonstrated method visualizes the effects of various selections of techniques and strategies. It also points out bottlenecks for further improvement of the investigated units. The method has been simple to use and it is therefore considered as suitable to use in a larger investigation covering several waste combustion units. Thus, the project has accomplished its aims.

  12. Jämförelse mellan prefab och platsgjuten betongstomme för kv.Kleopatra : Arbetsmiljö, kvalitet, tidplanering- kostnader och miljö

    OpenAIRE

    Chouhan, Nimesh; Jound, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    This diploma work is about the comparison between the prefabricated and on-site mixed concrete frames for Cleopatra that is a multi-residential building in Västerås, Sweden. Prefabricated and on-site mixed concrete structures are two methods used in the construction of new buildings. Due to lack of time after procurement of project contractors usually do not have time to make a detailed study for the selection of frames. In such cases they select a frame that has been chosen for previous proj...

  13. Nuclear power now and in the future. In Sweden and the rest of the world; Kaernkraften nu och i framtiden. I Sverige och resten av vaerlden.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-15

    The global net installed nuclear power in early 2010 was just over 370 GWe distributed over 436 nuclear power plants. In 2007, the global electricity generation from nuclear power was about 14 percent of total electricity generation, compared with 44 percent in Sweden. The average availability for nuclear power was about 82 percent between 2005 and 2007. During the same period the Swedish availability was almost 84 percent. The Swedish availability have fallen. 2004, availability was almost comparable to that in Finland, which amounted to just over 94 percent between 2005 and 2007. The expansion of nuclear power may be limited by technical challenges in manufacturing infrastructure and a shortage of skilled labor. There is only a few reactor vendors on the market and the quality demand on the materials is much higher than for other major projects. Nuclear power's competitiveness against alternative investments is uncertain. The investment costs for building new reactors is high but the operational and maintenance costs are low compared with many other types of power. Emission trading systems increases the nuclear power competitiveness compared to fossil options. Nuclear power is a power source with low greenhouse gas emissions over its lifecycle. Uranium is a limited resource and other natural resources is limited to a number of countries. Most nuclear reactors are also dependent on the enrichment of the natural uranium. If an open or closed nuclear fuel cycle is used is crucial for how long the uranium reserves will last and how nuclear power can grow. With a closed cycle, reserves will last a long time, but society has to deal with plutonium

  14. Nuclear power at present and in the future. Sweden and the rest of the world; Kaernkraften nu och i framtiden. I Sverige och resten av vaerlden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-15

    The report provides by no means a complete picture of nuclear power. There are a number of issues not covered, such as environmental impacts caused by the nuclear plants used (with the exception of the greenhouse gases that highlights some of report), the link with nuclear weapons and waste disposal. The share of nuclear power in Sweden in 2010 is higher than the average for the world The global net installed power of nuclear power in early 2010 was just over 370 GW{sub e} distributed over 436 nuclear power plants. In 2007, global electricity generation from nuclear power was about 14 percent of total electricity generation, compared with 44 percent in Sweden. The average availability for nuclear power plants was about 82 percent between 2005 and 2007. During the same period the availability in Swedish plants was lose to 84 percent. The Swedish availability has fallen, in 2004 the availability was comparable to that in Finland, which amounted to just over 94 percent between 2005 and 2007. The expansion of nuclear power may be limited by technical challenges in manufacturing infrastructure and a shortage of skilled labor. There is only a few reactor suppliers in the market and the quality demand of the material is much higher than for other major projects. Whether nuclear power is competitive with alternative investments or not is uncertain. The investment costs for building new reactors is high but the operational and maintenance costs are low compared to many other types of power sources. In an Emission Trading System nuclear power competitivity with fossil options increases. Nuclear power is a power source with low greenhouse gas emissions over its life cycle. Uranium is a limited resource and like other natural resources limited to a number of countries. Most nuclear reactors are also dependent on enrichment of the natural uranium. If an open or closed nuclear fuel cycle is used is crucial for how long the uranium reserves will last and how nuclear energy can grow. With a closed cycle reserves will last a long time, but society has to handle the plutonium that this cycle produces

  15. Handling of crisis situations in the electric power system; Krishantering i elsystemet. Elnaetbolags, kommuners och hushaalls uppfattningar om roller och ansvarsfoerdelning vid elavbrott

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, Jenny (Linkoepnig Univ., Linkoeping (SE). Dept. of Technology and Social Change)

    2007-12-15

    In this report municipalities, grid companies and electricity users' relations and responsibilities are discussed in connection to the actors experience during two storms named Per and Gudrun. Special focus is on households' action space, that is possibilities and constrains to uphold every day routines during outages. The material consists of case studies in Oestergoetland, involving a survey to households, interviews and participating observations. The theoretical perspective used is Karl Poppers' three worlds related to everyday life. World 1 is the physical and material world; World 2 consists of people's perception and ideas and World 3 is the cultural and social world. In world 1 is the importance of information and communication as well as spare power supply capacity discussed. Municipalities and grid companies emphasise Internet as an important communication tool. For the users the phone was the most important tool used during black-outs. One problem was however to get in contact with the energy company because of the overload on the companies' switchboard. Both the municipalities and the energy companies meant that they had enough spare power supply capacity. Around one third of the households said they had a portable generator to use during long lasting power outages. In relation to World 2 most households said that 12-24 hours power outages was acceptable, then the problems start for the households and they try to inform themselves of how long the outage will last. But some households never felt the need to contact anyone and they expressed a trust to the grid companies' competence to deal with the problems causing the outage. All actors state that the municipalities have a social responsibility to their citizens and must ensure that they do not suffer during outages. The grid companies' responsibilities according to the actors are to prevent power outages, repair damages and give the customers economical compensations. The households' responsibility for emergency management was fuzzier for the actors. Both municipalities and grid companies expected the customers to have some preparedness. The household meant that they lacked any responsibility to be prepared for an outage even if they need to be prepared to survive during the power loss. When it comes to economical compensation the grid companies meant that the compensation should cover the extra costs that the households had during an outage. The household thought that the compensation paid should cover the suffering that the households experienced due to not having electricity. On top of that the households felt they should have compensation for their expenses. World 3 consist of regulation and social networks. The networks between municipalities and grid companies differ. Some municipalities totally lacked cooperation and coordination with the grid companies, while others had established personal contacts and deep relations. Through the networks the municipalities could influence how the companies prioritize when they repaired the grid. The municipalities with well developed networks also had more knowledge and were better informed than municipalities lacking contacts. The households where not represented in any networks. The municipalities and companies instead developed different tools to inform the households such as Internet. The household used their networks consisting of neighbours and friends to be informed during black-outs. Neighbours' knowledge of each other is an important aspect of the emergency management in the rural areas. Municipalities' involvement in networks also influence if the municipality had priority lists or not. Municipalities engaged in networks with the energy companies had made priority lists. Municipalities without such involvement lacked priority lists and thought that it was not possible to make prioritizations between users

  16. Nuclear criticality safety 2005 and 2006. Monitoring, follow-up and communication; Nukleaer kriticitetssaekerhet 2005 och 2006. Bevakning, uppfoeljning och kommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennerdahl, Dennis (E Mennerdahl Systems, Taeby (SE))

    2007-03-15

    A number of selected issues have dominated during 2005 and 2006. This include development of models for realism based on physics (not only statistics and praxis), criteria for criticality safety, regulations and standards, burnup credit, determination of source convergence in calculations, substantial improvements in calculation methods, validation of those methods, etc. In spite of some criticism against certain parts of the NRC FCSS/ISG-10, it is an important document. It should support both authorities and utilities to determine adequate safety margins. To a large extent, the principles that have been applied in Sweden since the 1970's are supported. The extra safety margin (MMS or DELTAk{sub m}) that protects against unknown uncertainties in k{sub eff} should be related to the known uncertainty. In Sweden this has been achieved by limitation of the total, statistically determined standard deviation to 0.01. In addition, FCSS/ISG-10 supports the principle of using different values of DELTAk{sub m} for normal situations than for design basis incidents (must have very low probabilities). In Sweden, DELTAk{sub m} have been included in the design limits that have been 0.95 for normal scenarios and 0.98 for incident scenarios. The corresponding values of DELTAk{sub m} are 0.05 and 0.02. They are exactly the same values as are mentioned in FCSS/ISG-10. The recently issued SCALE 5.1 is very important for burnup credit. Similar capabilities have been available in Sweden, in the form of CASMO, PHOENIX and their predecessor BUXY, for more than 30 years. SCALE 5.1 makes reactor calculations available in a procedure that is easily accessible to specialists on criticality safety. The physics simulation of the irradiation (Monte Carlo through KENO in 3-D or deterministic through NEWT in 2-D) becomes much more realistic with SCALE 5.1 than with earlier versions. A very important project is the OECD/NEA study on reference values for criticality safety. The final report has now been distributed. Among other issues, the report contains application of modern methods for validation of calculation methods, comparisons of determinations of material compositions in solutions with fissile material, comparisons of data from handbooks and from new calculations as well as a preliminary evaluation of reference values that probably are more accurate than the results of most experiments

  17. Heating in churches. Heat and moisture transfer simulations for design and climate control; Uppvaermning i kyrkor. Fukt- och vaermetekniska beraekningar foer dimensionering och klimatstyrning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, T. [KTH College of Engineering, Visby (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    This thesis aims to describe heat and moisture transfer in churches, i.e. how the outdoor climate and the building fabric influence the indoor climate. The goal is to provide methods for calculating the heat and moisture transfer that can be used to simulate and control the indoor climate. The methods suggested are developed from the basic relations for heat and mass transfer and then verified in relation to measurements made in five medieval churches. When a church is heated intermittently with a constant heat input, the temperature increases proportionally to the square root of time. In the present work it is shown how this relation can be used to: Determine the total thermal inertia of the building; Calculate heating-up load and the heating times. The design outdoor temperature (DOT) depends on the thermal inertia of the building. It is shown that the method commonly used in Sweden to determine DOT can also be used for buildings with extremely high thermal inertia, such as stone churches. Furthermore, it is shown how internal walls and the insulation of external walls may affect the thermal inertia of the building. Churches built in stone have a great capacity for moisture exchange with the indoor air. This enables them to dampen variations in humidity. It is shown here how the humidity in a church can be calculated as a function of the indoor temperature and the outdoor humidity. There is not enough scientific evidence to determine what constitutes a good indoor climate with respect to damage. It is certain, however, that the variations in relative humidity should be minimized. The heating strategy is crucial in this respect. Permanent heating gives great annual variations, whereas intermittent heating will limit the variations. The above-mentioned calculation methods can be used to predict and control the relative humidity, both annually and during intermittent heating. 87 refs, 133 figs, 13 tabs

  18. Äldre och relationsskapande på Facebook : Hur äldre använder och förhåller sig till Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Thoi, Ming; Mohammed Amin, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract IT can facilitate communication among individuals and connect people across geographical distances. On the contrary, citizens of the society who do not use communication technologies to some extent might feel excluded from the information society. As elderly citizens are already in a vulnerable position for the digital divide, communication technology becomes an important tool for interacting with friends and family. The social situation of elderly, 60 years of age and older, is a to...

  19. Carbon and nitrogen pools in soil and vegetation at afforestation of a cutover peatland; Kol- och kvaevefoerraad i mark och vegetation vid beskogning av en avslutad torvtaekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Lundin, Lars

    2006-02-15

    There are a number of land-use alternatives for cutover peat areas after finished peat cutting. One land-use alternative is afforestation. In this investigation it was studied how drainage, soil treatments including fertilization, and plantation affected the carbon storage 20 years later. The studied area is located on the mire Flakmossen in the county of Vaermland, SW Sweden. Peat was harvested on 34 hectare of this mire up to 1945. The major part of the cutover area was abandoned until 1982 when after-use activities started. The depth of the remaining peat varied between a few decimeters up to about two meters. Prior to any soil measures, determination of peatland conditions was carried out. Important to this investigation was, a priori, the carbon store, i.e. remaining peat thickness was crucial. Therefore, peat depth was thoroughly investigated on 14 hectares of the cutover area in summer 1983. The remaining peat was also sampled at different depths within 18 plots of the whole cutover peat area. These samples were analyzed on i.a. concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. As bulk density also was determined, the amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the remaining peat could be estimated. A very good correlation was found between peat depth and the carbon pool in the peat. After-use activities included two afforestation projects that in the beginning of the 1980's were set up on the abandoned peat cutover area. One project was a conventional pine plantation on 19 hectares, where the effects of different drain spacings and PK-fertilizer doses were studied. The other project was an intensively managed forest experiment carried out on 14 hectares. This area was first drained and then fertilized with on average 23 tonnes of wood fly ash, 0.4 tonnes of raw phosphate and 0.25 tonnes of superphosphate per hectares. The applied fertilizers and the uppermost 30-40 cm of the peat were then mixed by a tractor-drawn rotovator in one meter wide strips. In these strips, on the 97 established plots, six different tree species were planted. In autumn 2003, twenty years after the establishment of the intensively managed forest experiment, peat depth was measured in totally 49 plots on the two afforestation experimental areas. Peat was sampled from up to 6 depths on 30 plots and analyzed on bulk density, and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. On 48 plots the tree biomass were estimated by measurement of breast height diameter on trees within ca 100 m2 sample plots. The carbon concentration in the tree biomass was assumed to be 50 % of dry weight, while nitrogen concentration was assumed to vary between 0.2 and 0.8 % of dry weight, depending on tree compartment and tree species. At the intense cultivation area, the peat depth was on average 8 cm smaller in autumn 2003 compared to the depth in summer 1983. If the humus layer with an accumulation of on average 4.6 cm during the 20 years until autumn 2003 would be included, the depth of organic material was only 3 cm smaller in 2003. The carbon pool in the peat had decreased by on average 2.4 kg C/m{sup 2}. With the humus layer included the decrease was only 0.5 kg C/m{sup 2}. The total tree biomass (above and under ground) contained on average 5.4 kg C/m{sup 2}. During the 20 years, since the establishment of the intense cultivation area, the total carbon pool (soil + biomass) had increased with, on average, 10 % or 4.9 kg C/m{sup 2}. However, the variation was large between the plots within this area. Some plots showed a negative carbon balance, but most plots showed a net accumulation of carbon during these 20 years. The values for the nitrogen pools in peat and biomass are more uncertain, but the total nitrogen pool (soil + biomass) might have increased somewhat 20 years after the plantation. This investigation shows that already 20 years after drainage and an extensive soil treatment including fertilization and rotovation, and planting on an abandoned peat cutover area, the carbon balance can be positive, i.e. a net accumulation of carbon was achieved within the area. Thus, afforestation of abandoned peat harvested areas can be one after-use activity to increase the carbon pool in these ecosystems in a long term perspective.

  20. Spänningslitteratur för barn och vuxna: När målgrupper och genrer korsas i verkens paratexter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärrholm, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the established Swedish crime writers write for both adults and young readers. These authors are successful in the two literary market segments that are dominating the contemporary Swedish book market: crime literature and children’s literature. Can certain developed trademarks in their authorship for adults be used in order to market books for other age groups and to what extent do the authors use this possibility? This article specifically addresses three authors writing for both young and adults: Anna Jansson, Kristina Ohlsson and Åsa Larsson. Their novels for a younger audience are analysed based on how they are packaged and marketed through paratexts such as covers, illustrations, and other texts, using Gérard Genette’s theory of paratexts and theories of genre and marketing. The analysis shows that these authors and their publishers use similar, but also different strategies to hold on to their former target group while also reaching out to new readers. The adult crime genre has an indirect influence over the market of mystery books for children, which is also seen in how different aspects of the crime market for adult crime fiction have become more important on the book market for children, involving agents, events and tourism.

  1. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  2. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the spruce stands The ash treatments appear to have given the positive effects aimed at without negative effects on the carbon balance and the nitrogen dynamics. In addition, tree growth increased in the spruce stands. The positive effects were, however, small on the soil chemistry and the soil water chemistry. The dose two tons of wood-ash and two tons of lime appear to have been too low in order to improve the mineral soil pH and the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in the soil water. This is probably due to desorption of historically deposited sulfate. The dose appears to be too low to compensate for whole tree harvest losses of K and P. It is probable that the increased tree growth was caused by the increased tree P-status. This is reinforced by the positive correlation between the tree growth and the needle P concentration and the lack of correlation between the tree growth and the needle N concentration. The improved nutrient status of the trees and the soil implies an improved future sustainable production capacity and makes the trees more stress resistant. There is a high possibility of good profitability in ash recycling for the land owner.

  3. Concentrations of base cations, phosphorous and nitrogen in tree stumps in Sweden, Finland and Denmark; Halter av baskatjoner, fosfor och kvaeve i stubbar i Sverige, Finland och Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Sofie; Waengberg, Ingvar (The Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Helmisaari, Heljae-Sisko; Kaakinen, Seija; Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna (Metla, Vantaa (Finland)); Melin, Ylva; Petersson, Hans (Swedish Univ. of Agriculture, Umeaa (Sweden)); Skovsgaard, Jens Peter (Forest and Landscape Denmark, Univ. of Copenhagen, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Akselsson, Cecilia (Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    Stump removal is becoming increasingly important in as demand for renewable energy is increasing. Nutrient concentrations in stumps are applied when evaluating the environmental effect of stump removal on acidification and nutrient balances in forest soil. The objectives of this study was to evaluate concentrations of nutrients in stumps in Sweden, Finland and Denmark, and to evaluate how nutrient concentrations vary with site characteristics, stand age and deposition level. Concentrations of N, P, Ca, K, Mg and Na in spruce, pine and birch stumps were assessed in eight sites across Scandinavia. The results of this study indicate that the concentration of nutrients are higher in birch stumps compared with spruce and pine. In Sweden and Finland, the nutrient concentrations were generally higher in the southern sites compared with northern sites in the country, except for P. Nutrient concentrations were significantly higher in the bark of the stump and the roots compared to the wood for all nutrients. Furthermore nutrients concentration increased significantly with decreasing root diameter. In Jaedraaas, Sweden, nutrient concentration of N, K, Mg and P in pine decreased with age of the stump harvested tree, for stumps < 65 years. This relation was not evident for other age spans or sites. Further studies are needed to provide a broader picture of how the nutrient concentrations vary with site characteristics, stand age and forestry management to get a better foundation when setting up recommendations for stump removal

  4. Nationalräkenskapernas produktionsgräns och prostitutionen: En jämförelse mellan Nederländerna och Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Arnberg, Klara

    2006-01-01

    Both Statistics Netherlands and Statistics Sweden have estimated value added in the illegal economy. According to the System of National Accounts 1993 all economic activities that are made by willingly engagement of buyers and sellers should be included in the national accounts. This paper provides a comparison between the two estimations of prostitution. By addressing theories on sexuality and prostitution the production boundary is discussed in relation to prostitution and unpaid household ...

  5. HIIT och dess effekt på löpekonomi hos vältränade löpare och triatleter

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenius, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Running economy is one of the key factors to achieve top performance in endurance events. Little evidence exists for improving running economy using high-intensity interval training while running.   Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine how HIIT affects running economy and VO2max.   Method: 14 well-trained athletes (age 35 ± 8,9 years, height 175 ± 11,7 cm and weight 69 ± 12,2 kg) were divided into two separate groups (HIIT and Control). HIIT group performed 3 HIIT ...

  6. Alkalization of steam and condensate with 2-amino-1-butanol and hydrazine; Alkalisering av aanga och kondensat med butanolamin och hydrazin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    To maintain a low corrosion level in steam- and condensate systems at power and industrial plants, an alkalization of the steam is needed. A low corrosion level lowers the risk of operation disturbances and reduces the cost of the condensate clean up. A better knowledge in the behavior of the alkalis will improve the possibilities to avoid the corrosion attacks. In this work experimental measurements have been carried out during steam boiler conditions as temperature, continuous steam generation and condensation. It has been found that the volatility of 2-amino-1-butanol is very low during stationary dynamic conditions at 250 deg C and 120 deg C. To achieve a high ph-value in the final condensate a very high concentration of 2-amino-1-butanol is thus needed especially when the steam contains acidic compounds. The alkalization effect is obtained from ammonia which is created by thermal decomposition of hydrazine in the boiler water. It is necessary to carry out experimental investigations showing the thermal stability of organic compounds in boiler water before it is possible to recommend them as better volatile alkalis than ammonia and hydrazine. 6 refs, 13 figs

  7. Intelligent soot blowing for boilers co-firing waste and biofuel; Behovsstyrd sotblaasning foer bio- och avfallseldade pannor - inventering och teknikval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    To achieve optimum boiler operation and performance it is necessary to control the cleanliness and limit the fouling of the heat transfer surfaces. Historically, the heating surfaces in boilers firing biomass and waste are cleaned by steamblowing soot blowers on scheduled time-based and/or parameter-based intervals or by mechanical methods. With the advent of fuel switching strategies and use of mixed-in industrial waste, the control of heating surface cleanliness has become even more crucial for these boilers. Scheduled and/or parameter based approaches do not easily address operational changes. As plant operators push to achieve greater efficiency and performance from their boilers, the ability to more effectively optimize cleaning cycles has become increasingly important. If soot blowing is done only when and where it is required rather than at set intervals, unit performance can be maintained with reduced blowing, which saves steam. Two philosophical approaches toward intelligent soot blowing are currently being applied in the industry. One incorporates heat flux monitors to gather real-time heat transfer data to determine which areas of the furnace need cleaning. The other uses indirect temperature and pressure data to infer locations where soot blowing is needed, and is mainly applied for controlling soot blowers in the superheater and economiser area. The heat flux monitors are so fare used for control of the furnace wall blowers. A system using temperature, pressure and flow data does not require much additional instrumentation as compared with what is available on a standard boiler. However the blower control system must be capable of operating blowers on an individual basis. For advanced options it should also be possible to adjust the speed of the soot blower and the steam pressure. The control program could be more or less advanced but the ability to model heating surfaces and determine real-time cleanliness is crucial for an intelligent soot blowing system. Both boiler manufacturer and company dealing with soot blowers work with this issue and have a set of different solutions, all of them based on some kind of modelling of the boiler heat transfer surfaces. A model is needed to take the load changes and fuel switches into account. An intelligent soot blowing system should be easy to tune and adjust depending on the actual experience gained on each installation. It is also important that the system still works without jeopardy the availability of the boiler even if any instrument fails. As a first step it is therefore advisable to start with an indicative system which then when it is proved to be safe could control the soot blowing. From an economical point of view large boilers with many hours in operation are best suited for an intelligent soot blower system installation.

  8. SCR in biomass and waste fuelled plants. Benchmarking of Swedish and European plants; SCR i biobraensle- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar. Erfarenheter fraan svenska och europeiska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Olsson, Henrik; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-11-15

    In this report the state-of-art of SCR technology in biomass and waste fired plants is investigated. The aim of the investigation is to answer the question why new Swedish biomass combustion and co-combustion plants often prefer SNCR technology, whilst European waste combustion plants often choose SCR technology. In the report positives and negatives of various types of SCR installations are discussed, high-dust versus tail-end, 'normal' SCR versus low-temperature SCR, etc. Experiences, e g catalyst lifetime, deactivation and maintenance requirement, are discussed. The investigation is based partly on literature, but mainly on interviews with plant owners and with suppliers of SCR installations. The interviewed suppliers are mentioned in the reference list and the interviewed plant owners are mentioned in appendix A and B. The experiences from the Swedish and European plants are quite similar. Tail-end SCR is often operated without serious problems in both biomass and waste fuelled plants. The catalyst lifetimes are as long or even longer than for coal fired plants with high-dust SCR. In waste incineration plants high-dust SCR causes big problems and these plants are almost always equipped with tail-end SCR. In co-combustion boilers, where coal and biomass is co-combusted, high-dust SCR is more common, especially if the boilers were originally coal fired. In plants with both SNCR and high-dust SCR, i.e. slip-SCR, the SCR installation is considered to be much less of a problem. Although the activity loss of the catalyst is as quick as in conventional high-dust SCR, the catalyst can be changed less often. This is due to the fact that installed slip-SCR catalysts often are as large as conventional SCR catalysts, although less NO{sub x} reduction is required after the initial SNCR step. Thus, the catalyst lifetime is prolonged.

  9. Ash from Straw and Grain - Chemical Composition, Physical Properties and Technique for Spreading; Aska fraan halm och spannmaal - kemisk sammansaettning, fysikaliska egenskaper och spridningsteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmolin, Christina; Ugander, Joakim; Gruvaeus, Ingemar; Lundin, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Ash is a inorganic solid material with physical properties that are highly dependent upon how well the combustion has progressed and where in the furnace the ash is produced (fly ash or bottom ash). Ash samples from 23 heating plants fuelled by mainly grain but also straw were analysed with respect to their content of plant nutrients, heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (AH), the largest group of carcinogens known today. Overall, the ash samples showed a high content of crop nutrients on a level comparable with artificial fertiliser, with a content of 10% phosphorus (P), 10% potassium (K) and 4% magnesium (Mg). The liming effect was relatively low. The analysis of ash from oats showed consistently low levels of heavy metals and PAH, while 70% of the phosphorus present was in the form of readily soluble phosphate. Ash from barley and wheat grain and oilseed rape and wheat straw showed similar results to those for oats. Ash from straw contained lower levels of phosphorus, which was expected. The low levels of heavy metals and PAH did not impose any restrictions on the use of the ash as a crop fertiliser. However, the plant availability of phosphorus in ash from rape straw needs further investigation. The ash samples contained no undesirable substances that could affect the recycling of ash from grain or straw. The fly ash contained higher levels of heavy metals than the bottom ash but not to such extent that the two fractions would have to be handled separately. Uniform distribution of the ash and relatively low application rates per hectare are prerequisites for a high use efficiency of the crop nutrients available. Doses of ash should not exceed a rate of 1-2 tons/hectare at any one time since that would lead to excessive amounts of phosphorus and potassium in the soil profile. In a long-term perspective, applying an amount of ash equivalent to the amount of grain removed is the most appropriate strategy. For example, five tons of oats produce 150-200 kg of ash. Ash from combusted oats from a 3.5 MW power plant in the region of Uppsala and ash from a 20 kW on-farm plant were analysed with respect to particle size distribution, bulk density, moisture content and angle of repose. The ash from the large power plant was also used in a practical spreading test in which a lime spreader and a manure spreader were evaluated. Moisture content of the ash had a great impact on physical properties. Dry ash directly from the furnace consisted to 70% of particles smaller than 0.4 mm and the ash was very dusty. Ash that had been stored outdoors had a moisture content of about 32-35% and contained large clods up to 40 cm in length and also aggregates of finer particles similar to moist gravel. This ash was dust-free. In the evaluation of the spreaders, the ash was collected using boxes measuring 0.5 x 0.5 m and placed with a c-c spacing of 1-2 m across the full spreading width of the spreaders. The results showed that the ash was difficult to handle in both dry and moist condition. The lime spreader had difficulties in achieving a uniform material flow when presented with the moist ash. The uneven flow from the loading bin to the spreader discs also caused variations in the spreading width. It was evident that appropriate mixing and crushing of large clods in the ash before spreading was crucial if acceptable uniformity of spreading we re to be achieved. The lime spreader had a major drawback in that the speed of the spreading discs was synchronised with the speed of the feeder belt from the loading bin. It was therefore impossible to reduce the spreading rate without affecting the spreading width. Using dry ash with the lime spreader produced an M-shaped spreading pattern that was probably caused by the direction of rotation of the spreading discs, which were set for moist material. Another problem with spreading of dry ash with the lime spreader was that the casting width was limited to 10 m, and the effective working width after overlaps was just 4 m. The manure spreader was less sensitive to large clods in the ash but the uniformity of flow at lower rates must be investigated further since a lower speed of the bottom chains might give uneven flow of material. During the test it was not possible to reach sufficiently low spreading rates in combination with acceptable uniformity of spread. However, the results proved better than those achieved in a similar test with manure spreaders in 1995. With precise settings and modern spreaders equipped with controllers for spreading it should be possible to further improve the outcome

  10. Teoretiska perspektiv på kön, klass och gränsöverskridanden i akademin. Margit Abenius som forskare och litteraturkritiker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ronne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO GENDER AND IDENTITY IN STUDIES OF THE INTELLECTUAL.MARGIT ABENIUS AND THE MAKING OF A FEMALE CRITIC. The aim of this article is todiscuss some of the most important feminist approaches to Pierre Bourdieu’ssociology of culture and the way in which they make possible new interpre-tations of gender and identity. Feminist readings of Bourdieu, from Toril Moi1991 to very recent contributions, have developed a new concept of gender asa part of the general social field and of a ”gender habitus”. These theoretical,non-essentialist standpoints can be combined both with intersectional analy-sis and with quite recent feminist concepts of ”women” as ”social class”(Lovell and ”women” as ”seriality” (Young. Here I use my own study ofthe Swedish literary critic Margit Abenius (1899–1970 to exemplify howthese different theoretical approaches can be brought together. A possibilityof combining feminist readings of Bourdieu with Zygmunt Bauman’s theoryof identity is also discussed in relation to contemporary debate on the con-cepts of subjectivity and identity.

  11. Teoretiska perspektiv på kön, klass och gränsöverskridanden i akademin. Margit Abenius som forskare och litteraturkritiker

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Ronne

    2006-01-01

    THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO GENDER AND IDENTITY IN STUDIES OF THE INTELLECTUAL.MARGIT ABENIUS AND THE MAKING OF A FEMALE CRITIC. The aim of this article is todiscuss some of the most important feminist approaches to Pierre Bourdieu’ssociology of culture and the way in which they make possible new interpre-tations of gender and identity. Feminist readings of Bourdieu, from Toril Moi1991 to very recent contributions, have developed a new concept of gender asa part of the general social field and ...

  12. Minskad miljöpåverkan av kapslar för kaffe, te och choklad : med avseende på materialval och utformning

    OpenAIRE

    Hollsten, Petra

    2012-01-01

    During the spring semester of 2012 did Petra Hollsten independently a thesis on reducing the environmental impact of capsule for coffee, tea and chocolate. The work was performed at Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science under the Bachelor of Science program in innovation, technology and design. The project's scope is at 22.5 points. The employment for this project is the company Löfbergs Lila AB in Karlstad. Supervisor at the Principal has been Maria Herou Wallner and Sandra ...

  13. Konstruktion och undersökelse, exotism och närhet i Per Olof Sundmans böker om Lofoten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bourguinon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish writer Per Olof Sundman (1922-1992 wrote mostly short stories and novels, but also reportages. The paper deals with two reportages from the Lofoten islands, Människor vid hav (1966, “People by the sea” and Lofoten, sommar (1973, “Lofoten, summer” The choice of the Lofoten islands as a subject is related to a fascination Sundman felt towards northern and arctic regions, a fascination he also expressed in a number of fictional narratives and in the documentary novel Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (1967. English title: The Flight of the Eagle A question that arises almost immediately is whether that fascination affects the way the reporter works and how it affects it. How does Sundman look at the Lofoten? What does he take notice of and tell us about? What kind of image does he give? And how does he understand his own role, his function as an investigator in an environment which is neither his own nor his postulated readers’ usual environment? Another question deals with the relationship between the reportages from the Lofoten and the author’s other works. Are the reportages easy to recognize as Sundmanian texts, can Sundman’s “signature” be traced in them? It appears that “People by the sea” and “Lofoten, summer” are not merely informative texts. They also to a rather high degree suggest an atmosphere, using among other things inherited representations and judgements to that purpose. Those reportages turn out to be strongly literary texts, in the traditional meaning of the word.

  14. Dans och moral : En studie om moralpanik och Jönköpingspostens retorik kring dans mellan 1921-1926.

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Jansson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the debate about dancing and the effects it have on its consumers during the 1920:s. The main source material is the local newspaper Jönköpingsposten (between 1921-1926), but other cases of moral panics are examined for comparative purposes. The study uses a version of Stanley Cohens theory about moral panics as theoretical starting point and aim to identify moral entrepreneurs, folk devils, victims/abusers, disproportionality, calls for social control ...

  15. Atomic energy - Bombs and nuclear power. Drivers and controversies during 65 years; Atomenergi - Bomber och kaernkraft. Drivkrafter och kontroverser under 65 aar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrmarck, Urban

    2010-10-15

    Over the years, written books, scientific papers, conducted parliamentary inquiries and public discussions have been published to describe and explain the Swedish nuclear power program. There is probably no other more thoroughly debated area. Still question marks are piling up. The report provides a broad illumination over the subject and fills in a number of explanations. No new unknown facts are presented, however, a number of factors are highlighted, whose importance has not received attention. One such factor is the well known link between a Swedish nuclear weapons program and the nuclear power program. By combining the information, especially from the last 15 years on nuclear weapons development with the nuclear power program, a new and largely unknown picture emerges. This issue is only superficially touched upon earlier. The ambition to develop Swedish nuclear weapons was the basis for all development until Sweden ratified the CTBT. The handling of the nuclear issue especially during the 1960s created a crisis of confidence which still affects the decisions and attitude toward nuclear power. The report finds it likely that the over-sized nuclear program was not the result of a forecast failure, but a deliberate effort by the power industry to get a hegemony in the heating sector by replacing oil with electricity. The report also shows that the only practical, working tool for an early phase-out of nuclear power was to financially compensate the plant owners. A massive increase of renewable electricity generation or a program for raising the energy use efficiency was not sufficient to compete with the reactors. However, seen in a longer perspective, renewable electricity can compete with nuclear power. With the current ambitious expansion rate, conditions are right for such a competition. Parliament's decision in June 2010 authorizing the replacement of the present 10 reactors does not necessarily mean that the nuclear debate is terminated

  16. Regional monitoring of deposition and effects of air pollution; Regional oevervakning av nedfall och effekter av luftfoeroreningar. Sammanfattande slutrapport fraan ett samarbetsprojekt mellan IVL, laenen och Naturvaardsverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselsson, Cecilia; Ferm, Martin; Hallgren Larsson, Eva; Knulst, Johan; Loevblad, Gun; Malm, Gunnar; Westling, Olle

    2000-05-01

    Regional programmes in Sweden focused on deposition and effects of air pollutants have been evaluated by IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Various air quality protection associations and regional environmental authorities initiated the monitoring programmes during the period 1985 to 1990. The result of the evaluation is a revised and coordinated programme with improved methods. The new regional programme combines collection of field data with national model calculations of deposition of air pollutants. The new programme involves collection of deposition on open field (bulk) and in forest stands (throughfall), and soil solution, according to national and international standards. Improved methods for monitoring of base cation and nitrogen deposition have been developed. Ambient air concentrations are measured at some locations. The purpose is to describe environmental conditions, regional differences, and temporal changes. Data on forest stands, such as needle loss, growth, and soil chemistry, are available since most locations are permanent forest plots, established for scientific forest observations. Regional dispersion and deposition of air pollutants will be calculated with a model (SMHI-MATCH), developed for simulating the dispersion and deposition of Swedish emissions in relation to the long-range transport on a relatively fine scale (grid square 11 km). The programme also includes developed methods for data handling, interpretation, evaluation, quality assurance and demonstration of results in written reports and via Internet.

  17. "Vem är jag nu?" Känslor och betydelser av genus och plats i digitalt spelande : Affektiva dimensioner av spelande i XCOM: Enemy Within

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I analyze the ways in which gender and space are shaped and made sense of through digital gameplay. Specifically in the turn based strategy game XCOM: Enemy Within for the MacBook Air with a computer mouse as the primary input device. Using a mixed methods approach consisting of gameplay sessions of XCOM and qualitative interviews with two players regarding their gameplay I argue that earlier research on space within game studies has overlooked the ways in which the shaping of s...

  18. Metod, personlighet och forskning : Kontinuitet och förändring i vårdlärarutbildarnas kunskapskultur 1958-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on continuity and change in a local knowledge culture, the nursing teacher education in Stockholm, during the years between 1958 and 1999, with a strong emphasis on conceptions of knowledge and learning. Concepts of analysis come from Basil Bernstein, Ludwik Fleck, Reinhart Koselleck and gender theory. The study is based on archived documents and interviews with nursing teacher educators. The results show continuity as well as change of the knowledge culture. The fir...

  19. Idrottsämnet och ämnessamverkan : Idrottslärares attityder och förutsättningar till ämnessamverkan

    OpenAIRE

    Sterner, Magnus; Augustsson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Our interest about interdisciplinary teaching has grown during our time at Högskolan Dalarna and especially during the subject physical education. It became clear that people learn in different ways. The theoretical education in school benefits the visual and auditory strong learners but the kinesthetic strong learners find it more difficult to absorb the information. We argue that integrating subjects is a good way to mix theory and practice and thus gives more students an opportunity to lea...

  20. Energy efficiency in small houses and apartment blocks; Energieffektivitet i smaahus och flerbostadshus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin Ferdman, Ulrika

    2001-05-01

    The report shows examples of energy efficient small houses as a basis for estimation of the potentials for future small houses with low energy consumption. The study also describes building technology that affects the energy use in dwellings and how energy efficiency can be improved.

  1. Genmodifierade livsmedel och kommunikativ etik : En analys av etisk oenighet i debatten om genmodifierade livsmedel

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the Swedish debate regarding genetically modified food products. What does the moral disagreements within this debate entail? In which way would it be possible to obtain and maintain a true dialogue? Is consensus a plausible or even a desirable goal? Can communicative ethics contribute? These questions are analysed in this research project. The project focuses on three themes of the debate on genetically modified food 1990-2000 in Sweden. The first the...

  2. Wind Power: Building and Connecting Large Wind Power Plants; Vindkraft: bygga och ansluta stoerre vindkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-09-15

    This brochure is written for those who want to build a large wind power plant (1 MW or more) or wind power parks. It describes the process from idea to completed plant. A review of environmental impacts of wind power is also included

  3. Reconciliation with environmental quality and public health; Avstaemning mot miljoekvalitetsmaal och folkhaelsomaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to the 'Environmental Impact Assessment - Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The report makes a reconciliation with how the national and regional environmental quality and public health objectives are met in the construction, operation and decommissioning of the encapsulation plant and final disposal facility, and the Clink (encapsulation facility combined with CLAB). The starting point for reconciliation is the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This report provides reconciliations against how the environmental and health objectives are met. A more detailed description of the business and its environmental impacts is provided in the EIA.The disposal facility is planned to be constructed in Forsmark municipality, Oesthammar and the encapsulation is constructed, combined with CLAB, in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn municipality.

  4. Att bygga manlig kropp och identitet : Mediabilder av bodybuilding i 1960-talets Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkert Egrenius, Ida

    2016-01-01

    This study is about how bodybuilders in the 1960s are produced in the Swedish media image. The purpose of the study is to clarify how the male, muscular, body and identity is portrayed in the media image. Through an analysis of how daily- and evening newspapers reported, negotiated and linguistically produced bodybuilding and its practitioners, I hope to access these representations which together can be considered to form a specific discourse about bodybuilding. The language used by journali...

  5. Självkörande fordon : En analys av energianvändning och kapacitet

    OpenAIRE

    Örarbäck, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Self-driving cars are soon to become a reality to the commercial market. A self-driving car does not have a human operator, which enables some interesting characteristics. The main benefits are considered to be: The number of accidents and traffic jams should be reduced. Enhanced comfort. Energy usage could be decreased while capacity could be increased. This study concerns the causes for improved energy efficiency. The reason for improved energy efficiency is mainly because of the variation...

  6. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections; Ekonomi, energi och miljoe - metoder att analysera samband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology; Ekvall, Thomas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Accounts

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  7. Operation experiences of landfill gas engines; Motorer foer deponigas - Tillgaenglighet och drifterfarenheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejfors, Charlotte; Grimberger, Goeran [AaF-Energikonsult Stockholm AB (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    The gas that is obtained from landfilled waste is produced by bacteria that digest organic material in an anaerobic environment. Landfill gas consists mainly of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapour. It may be used either as auxiliary fuel in boilers close to the landfill or to generate electricity by means of a gas engine. Several plants where landfill gas is used in gas engines have had serious problems, a. o. with burned exhaust valves. These problems may occur already after a short period of operation, which influences the profitability. The purposes of the project reported were to collect operational experience in Sweden with engines using landfill gas as fuel, to identify which problems there are and which actions or improvements have been implemented in order to correct for these problems. Today, there are 9 facilities where landfill gas is used to fuel a total of 13 gas engines. In addition, there is an engine in Goeteborg which has scarcely been in operation after its installation because there is not enough gas. Contact has been taken with all these facilities. Many have pointed out that the gas engines are sensitive in the vicinity of maximum load, where the control system requires an even gas flow and a stable composition of the gas. A counter-measure in the facilities is to avoid running the engine at full load. All engines are equipped with a lean-NO{sub x} system in order to minimise NO{sub x} emissions. Many have remarked that the lean-NO{sub x} system shuts the engine off when emissions exceed the allowed limits. There is a consensus that spark plugs and ignition cables have created operational problems. These have been changed more frequently than originally expected. Another problem, which has caused operational problems and a need for maintenance, is deposits mainly in the combustion chamber, in valves and cylinder heads. Deposits and high exhaust gas temperature have led to burnt exhaust gas valves and cylinder heads on half of the engines. The actions taken depend on how serious the problem was. The characteristics of the production of landfill gas is an important factor. Most facilities have overestimated the volume of gas produced, which has lead to oversized engines and a specific cost, SEK per kW{sub el} produced, which is higher than calculated. However, many point out that running the engines on part load most of the time contributes to lower maintenance costs. It has been decided that combustible waste shall not be landfilled starting from 2002, and that organic waste shall not be landfilled starting from 2005. These decisions will lead to a further reduction of the production of landfill gas. Today, there is no interest for investing in new engines running on landfill gas. The laws that are considered are one reason, and the other reason is the low price for electricity. However, the number of engines running on biogas could increase in the future. A problem that should be investigated further, not only for landfill gas engines but also for biogas engines, is the deposits that have been observed. What is their composition? None of the facilities interviewed have analysed which elements and which compounds are found in these deposits. Is there any difference between engines from different manufacturers, depending on their solution for controlling fuel and air, the temperature of air, etc?.

  8. Barns rätt till skydd och undervisning i krigsdrabbade områden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wessells

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread global support for children’s rights is reflected in the nearly universal ratification of the U N Convention on the rights of the child. An immense gap exists, however, between the concept of children’s rights and the realities that many children experience. Millions of children are under assault by armed conflicts, prostitution, hunger, poverty and exposure to HIV/AIDS. This paper illuminates the violations of children’s rights that result from armed conflict and examines the opportunities and challenges this situation poses for education. Emergency education is increasingly viewed as a fundamental support for children in contexts of war, but educational interventions face difficult issues such as the presumed universality of human rights, colonial residues and ecological pressures that support violence at multiple levels. Relating these and other issues to the author’s field of experience in assisting war-affected children, the paper situates informal education in critical perspective yet argues that education is an essential tool for protecting children’s rights and building peace.

  9. Korruption och intressekonflikter : Hur hanteras offentliga intressekonflikter av den svenska lagstiftningen?

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Anna-Maria

    2009-01-01

          Officially, Sweden has a very low level of corruption and in 2008 topped Transparency International’s list in terms of the perception of a lack of corruption. However, on closer examination it would appear that the Swedish public sector is not as clean as the Transparency International list suggests. What appears to be relatively common and quite widely accepted in Sweden, especially in local government, are conflict of interest situations in which public officials use their position to...

  10. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  11. Corrosion on air preheaters and economisers; Korrosion hos luftfoervaermare och ekonomisrar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus

    2012-05-15

    Combustion plants in Sweden are exposed to considerable stress regarding low temperature corrosion, and failures due to low temperature corrosion occur regularly. Particularly common is corrosion problems connected to air preheaters and economisers. The number of combustion plants having air preheaters and economisers is however large, and the result of a collection of experiences regarding corrosion on air preheaters and economisers therefore has the potential to give a broad knowledge base. The summary of collection of experiences that has been done here, complemented with a literature survey, is expected to give plant owners and plant constructors a valuable tool to prevent corrosion on the flue gas side of air preheaters and economisers. The choice of plants for the inquiry was made using a list from the Swedish Naturvaardsverket (Environmental Protection Agency) indicating the emissions of NO{sub x}gases from Swedish combustion plants. From that list mainly the plants with the largest emissions were chosen, resulting in a number of 30 plants. Depending on that most of the plants have several boilers, and that the connected tubes often have several economisers and air preheaters, the number of economisers and air preheaters in this experience collection is at least 85. The study was however not limited to economisers and air preheaters, but also experiences connected to corrosion of other units were collected when mentioned, and the most interesting information here is also included in the report. Also a number of the plants were visited to improve the basis of the report, e.g. by photographing the most interesting parts. As the insight of the extension of the problem increased, renewed interview rounds were made, and the last one was made in August 2011.

  12. Inventory of mammals at Forsmark and Haallnaes; Inventering av daeggdjur i Forsmark och Haallnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-08-15

    A selection of terrestrial mammals was surveyed in the SKB site investigation areas near Forsmark and Haallnaes between January and April 2012. The methods that were used include snow tracking along line transects, snow tracking along water, aerial survey and fecal pellet counts. The same species were found in 2012 as in previous surveys performed in 2002, 2003 and 2007. Some species show a large variation in density between years and it is difficult to draw any conclusions about their long term development. Several carnivores, i.e. lynx, fox and otter show a positive growth rate in both areas. The wild boar population is also growing whilst moose density remains fairly stable and roe deer are becoming less numerous.

  13. Current and future sustainable biofuels - Summary; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel - Sammanfattning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Tekniska Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Ingrid [Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, Goeteborg (Sweden); CIT Industriell Energi., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the state investigation 'Fossil Free Vehicle Traffic'. The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development, and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international views. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, greenhouse gas performance and production costs is based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain to the produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and commercial development of the respective chains. They are based primarily from standardized life cycle analysis and, in some production systems, also on industrial systems analysis. These two approaches have some differences in methodology, which are highlighted in the report. In the overview values and results have been compiled to make it possible to compare the results.

  14. Apoptosis induced by (di-isopropyloxyphoryl-Trp) -Lys-OCH in K562 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    Rational drug development in cancer therapy appears to ... at this point, resulting in the treated cells entering into programmed cell death. ... foetal bovine serum; IC50, inhibitory concentration 50%; IR%, inhibition rate; MTT, .... negative) from the late apoptotic cells (annexin V-positive .... Results are representative of three.

  15. Indirect Energy for Road and Railway Transportation in Sweden; Indirekt energi foer svenska vaeg- och jaernvaegstransporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Daniel K.

    2005-02-01

    Besides energy for propulsion, there are a number of considerable indirect energy categories in the life-cycle of transport systems, e.g. construction and maintenance of infrastructure, and manufacture and service of vehicles. Indirect energy represents 64-66% of the total amount of energy used in the railway sector, while the corresponding share in the road sector is 42-45%. Consequently, decision-making and planning processes regarding transport infrastructure and environmental impacts should also consider indirect energy-use. Two energy case studies have been carried through; the railroad project Botniabanan in the north of Sweden, and the motorway tunnel Soedra Laenken in Stockholm. The result for Botniabanan corresponds with the Swedish railroad average, but Botniabanan contributes to decreased energy use in the transport sector as a whole. The infra structural energy use for Soedra Laenken is considerably higher than the Swedish road average. Soedra Laenken also contributes to an increase of the energy use in the transport sector as a whole.

  16. Ensamhet eller tvåsamhet. Om social dekontextualisering och kontextualisering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Christer Hydén

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitude and commonality – or ”two-ness” – are two central traditions in social scientific thinking. In much of social scientific research it is the socially isolated and lonely individual that is in focus as the given and natural theoretical starting point. Against this tradition of solitude the tradition of commonality or ”two-ness” has always been a smaller but vigorous tradition starting from the exemplar of two (or more individuals doing something together or jointly. The commonality tradition is discussed with special reference to the ideas of George Herbert Mead. Three central concepts are singled out and discussed: (1 Intersubjectivity as connected to the problem of co-ordination of actions; (2 interaction as the problem of linking actions to each other; (3 institution as the problem of concerted actions of people over time.

  17. Läroplanen och föreställningen om ett kosmopolitiskt arv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ancient idea of cosmopolitanism is a topic of renewed interest today. Scholars and practitioners in many fields are examining what it means to conceive all human beings as linked by their membership in a shared cosmos. Some people focus on political cosmopolitanism, others on moral, cultural, or economic cosmopolitanism. This paper examines educational cosmopolitanism by elucidating the idea of curriculum as a cosmopolitan inheritance. It argues that curriculum can generate a cosmopolitan sensibility, by which one means an outlook that regards life experience as universally educational. It suggests that a cosmopolitan sensibility can assist people in working through some of the tensions that accompany global and local change in our time. It can position them to reconstruct creatively cultural and individual values rather than abandon them in the face of the ceaseless pressure of globalization. A cosmopolitan ensibilityedifies human beings by helping them perceive why all persons, in principle, can be creative guardians and practitioners of creativity itself.

  18. Här är alla lika! Jämlikhetsideologi och konstruktion av den

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso M. Milani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we’re all equal! The ideology of equality and the constructionof ‘Otherness’ in media and educational settings. The focus ofthis article lies on the question of how linguistic diversity is talked about and dealt with in contemporary Sweden. More specifically, we examine media utterances which target the linguistic practices of young men who are perceived as “non-Swedish”. We also investigate the ways in which these young men who are the object of media attention actually use language in the classroom. The key argument of the article is that media utterances and classroom interactions have a common denominator: they are underpinned by a shared discursive constraint – a well-established ideology of equality, according to which individuals should be treated as equal irrespective of their social, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. Our aim is to show the ways in which this ideology is normative insofar as it defines the discursive conditions for the creation of boundaries between “Us” and “Them”.

  19. Low energy houses and passive houses - common questions; Laagenergihus och passivhus - vanliga fraagestaellningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Samuelson, Ingemar; Gustavsson, Thorbjoern; Ruud, Svein; Larsson, Krister; Hiller, Carolina; Werner, Goesta; Gabrielii, Kristina

    2009-07-01

    This feasibility study of passive houses and low-energy houses has raised several questions concerning aspects of which more knowledge is needed. Many can be answered by existing knowledge, but there are still several that can only partly be answered, and some that cannot be answered at all. As there is a substantial demand for, and interest in, the construction of low-energy houses and passive houses, it is important that the remaining questions should be addressed so that the building sector can continue to develop. Examples of areas where further knowledge is needed include: moisture safe and energy-efficient building envelopes; demand-responsive ventilation, without risk of poor indoor environmental conditions; thermal comfort (summer and winter); airtight and durable detailing; design systems and working methods to ensure retention of good characteristics when converting or extending buildings; durability aspects of certain components and functions; the effects of occupants on energy use; how indoor environment conditions and functions will cope with climate change; quality assurance in order to ensure that the appropriate knowledge is applied, and that the work is carried out properly. Some important points to emphasise: The design and construction of low-energy houses and passive houses must be firmly based on the correct design principles and appropriate standards of workmanship, in order to ensure that the houses are energy-efficient, have good indoor environmental conditions and can be expected to have long lives. Proper understanding of the principles, coupled with constant quality awareness, are essential in all stages of the work from the developer, designer and construction personnel but also during operation-phase. Hitherto, low-energy houses and passive houses have been built in relatively small numbers, but the expectation is that interest in them will increase. This raises the question of how, if production is to be very much more than at present, the building sector needs to adjust in terms of knowledge, resources and production methods, in order to be able to produce low-energy houses or passive houses with the necessary quality level. Another aspect concerned with buildings having very low energy demands for operation and heating is that occupants and their habits become increasingly important in determining the energy demand. It may become necessary in the future to pay more attention to their attitudes and awareness if we are further to reduce energy use in our buildings

  20. Alla ska ha kul! : Parodisk barnkultur och publik i nutida kommersiell animation

    OpenAIRE

    Milia, Mirella

    2006-01-01

    Barnfilmen har länge haft en undanskymd plats inom filmteori. Man har tidigare intresserad sig för den i termer av ideologisk påverkan eller pedagogisk nytta alternativt onytta, men intresse för frågor som rör mer specifika textmekanismer har hittills dröjt. En sådan fråga är, exempelvis, hur barnfilmen konstruerar eller implicerar sin egen åskådare. Med tanke på att motsvarande problema¬tik har dragit till sig många barnlitteraturforskares intresse, är det märkligt att en liknande omsorg int...

  1. Silver eel migration, wind power and alternating current fields; Blankaalsvandring, vindkraft och vaexelstroemsfaelt, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagenfelt, Ingvar; Andersson, Ingemar; Westerberg, Haakan

    2012-02-15

    How are eels affected by large offshore wind farms? The study follows the silver eels' migration and behavior at Lillgrund wind farm in Oeresund and the passage over an 130 kV AC cable between the mainland and Oeland. The aim is to see if the AC cable precludes or otherwise affects the eel's ability to reach its destination. Eels migrate up to 7500 km from the Baltic Sea to spawn in the Sargasso Sea. Every delay is of importance for the silver eels, which must be able to travel the entire distance on a single energy reserve. Fish, which make use of the earth's magnetic field for navigation or which are sensitive to electromagnetic fields, may be affected by AC cables on the seabed. The study shows that the silver eels swimming speed was reduced when there was more current in the cable and there was an average delay of 40 minutes before they passed it

  2. Commercial kitchens - Feasibility study of energy consumption and food wastage; Storkoek - Foerstudie av energifoerbrukning och livsmedelssvinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfsman, Lennart; Pettersson, Ulrik; Barr, Ulla-Karin; Sund, Veronica

    2010-07-01

    A pre project aiming at the end to create demonstration examples of full scale professional kitchens is reported. To create a big impact school meals were chosen for the investigation. In Sweden all children are during the day given a cooked lunch. For that reason large kitchens exist in all schools. There are two main different organizations. A central kitchen delivers hot meals to each school where the meals are served to the children. The other model is local kitchens in each school. There are more non technical differences between different communities making the need to analyze more than one kitchen of each type. The two parameters in the study are energy and wasted food

  3. Wind power's impact on birds and bats; Vindkraftens paaverkan paa faaglar och fladdermoess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    Wind turbines can be a danger to birds and bats. Therefore it is important to place the turbines correct. The risks can be minimized with the help of knowledge of birds and bats behavior. It was found in a synthesis report published 2011, where research from Europe and the U.S. are summarized. The report shows which environments should be avoided and the species that are affected in different areas. This popular science brochure is based on the synthesis report 'Wind power's impact on birds and bats'.

  4. Leaching of wood ash - Laboratory and field studies; Lakning av vedaska - Laboratorie- och faeltstudier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik

    2012-02-15

    High forest production leads to diminishing amounts of base cations and micro nutrients in forest soils. This is due to uptake in, and harvest of, the trees. Losses can be compensated for by spreading stabilized wood ash on the forest ground, which means recycling of base cations and micro nutrients. Chemical composition of wood ash can easily be described by standard methods in the laboratory. However, this does not include the process of leaching in nature, such as which components and leaching rate for different compounds. During field conditions several factors are added, which are not available in the laboratory. After almost 10 years in the forest soils there still remains large quantities of the original product. Only 10-30 % of the wood ash products and 5 % of the lime product has been leached. In the laboratory study the leached amount was slightly larger, at the most 35 % for wood ash and 20 % for lime. Both studies indicate long time for weathering of the products in forest soils. Slower leaching rate from pellets of wood ash compared to leaching rate from crushed wood ash in the laboratory study is not verified by the field study. This indicates limited possibilities to control rates of leaching in the environment

  5. Management by process based systems and safety focus; Verksamhetsstyrning med process-baserade ledningssystem och saekerhetsfokus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydnert, Bo; Groenlund, Bjoern [SIS Forum AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    An initiative from The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate led to this study carried out in the late autumn of 2005. The objective was to understand in more detail how an increasing use of process management affects organisations, on the one hand regarding risks and security, on the other hand regarding management by objectives and other management and operative effects. The main method was interviewing representatives of companies and independent experts. More than 20 interviews were carried out. In addition a literature study was made. All participating companies are using Management Systems based on processes. However, the methods chosen, and the results achieved, vary extensively. Thus, there are surprisingly few examples of complete and effective management by processes. Yet there is no doubt that management by processes is effective and efficient. Overall goals are reached, business results are achieved in more reliable ways and customers are more satisfied. The weaknesses found can be translated into a few comprehensive recommendations. A clear, structured and acknowledged model should be used and the processes should be described unambiguously. The changed management roles should be described and obeyed extremely legibly. New types of process objectives need to be formulated. In addition one fact needs to be observed and effectively fended off. Changes are often met by mental opposition on management level, as well as among co-workers. This fact needs attention and leadership. Safety development is closely related to the design and operation of a business management system and its continual improvement. A deep understanding of what constitutes an efficient and effective management system affects the understanding of safety. safety culture and abilities to achieve safety goals. Concerning risk, the opinions were unambiguous. Management by processes as such does not result in any further risks. On the contrary. Processes give a clear view of production and other business relations thus increasing possibilities to comprehensive and detailed risk analyses. more efficient management and thus prerequisites for diminishing risks. However. some remarks were given: Processes might result in higher speed (e.g. in production), which may cause increasing risks. Almost all companies also noticed that the matrix organisation causes uncertainties in terms of responsibilities, authorities, resource allocations and reporting. In the companies with the most advance process management, these issues are thoroughly regulated.

  6. Kalejdoskopiska rum : Diskurs, materialitet och praktik i den decentraliserade psykiatriska vården

    OpenAIRE

    Högström, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    During the period 1967-1995, Swedish mental healthcare underwent a complete re-organisation, starting with county councils taking over responsibility for mental healthcare from the state. Asylums were then phased out and mental health care moved closer to patients. The Mental Health Reform of 1995 completed this decentralisation and put the emphasis on an independent and integrated life as a citizen in society and the idea of a dwelling of one’s own. This thesis describes and analyses spatial...

  7. Remote control and load management of electric power distribution networks; Fjaerroevervakning och belastningsstyrning av eldistributionsnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Mats; Larsson, Mikael

    1993-02-01

    Remote control and load management increase the electricity distributors possibilities to even out the consumption of electricity for optimal usage of electricity subscription and supply system. Controlling can be done either through technology or through encouragement of off-peak consumption. There are a number of similar systems for controlling consumption, where the manufacturers have chosen different ways to solve the main problem, namely the communication. We have concentrated in examining systems which communicate through the supply system, different types of telephone connections and wireless communication links. In the future demands for better electricity consumption control will be put forward. This will bring along a greater need at distribution level for continuous monitoring of purchased and used electricity flow. The distributors will also need better possibilities to directly affect power consumption. Those manufacturers who do not use load management today should acquire experience through provincial installations in suitable areas with equipment ready for tomorrows needs and requirements. Today there are some different systems on the market that offer flexibility and ready-to-use possibilities. (3 refs., 17 figs.)

  8. Lärarlegitimationen som organisationsfråga. Strategisk respons och professionella konsekvenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Frostenson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish teacher certification reform as an organizational issue – strategic responses and professional consequences. The Swedish teacher certification reform can be seen as a professional reform introduced to enhance the status and knowledge level of the teaching profession. However, a high degree of autonomy is granted to local schools when it comes to organizing and preparing for the reform. The article identifies different strategic responses of schools and discusses their professional consequences. Strategic responses include, for example, organizational selection and prioritization between certified and non-certified teachers, unwanted re-organization of schools and emergency solutions. It is argued that such responses imply a stronger division between certified and non-certified teachers as well as a clash between formalized competence and ideals relating to professional practice.

  9. Pressure Separators for District Cooling; Tryckvaexlare foer fjaerrkyla - Teknik och funktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Bror-Arne [Fludex AB, Goeteborg (SE)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    About 10 pressure separators run today in commercial operation in district heating networks. Undoubtedly, the pressure separator has become a new tool for more efficient operation of district heating systems. The pressure separator makes it possible to keep different parts of the pipe network at different pressure levels without the unavoidable temperature losses of heat exchangers. The objectives of this project are to find the answers of two questions. The first question is: Will the pressure separator function in district cooling systems if it is designed in the same way as for district heating? The only difference should then be the temperatures of operation. The second question is: Is there a modified design that will perform better in district cooling systems? To find the answers of the two questions, a test rig was built in Rosenlund Power Station in Goeteborg. Also computer simulations were carried out to clarify actual phenomena. The answer to the first question is: Yes/no. Measurements show that the original design of the pressure separator can be made working at temperatures of operation typical for district cooling. It will, however, be very sensitive and is not recommended for practical applications. The answer to the second question is: Yes, there is. This makes the details of the original design less interesting. The modified design is characterized by 'Differential pressure control' instead of temperature layer control'. This means a working principle that is completely independent of operational temperatures. The TVX-tank is replaced by a 'short cut' with a spring loaded checkvalve. One of the control valves creates a differential pressure that is too low to open the check valve but high enough to keep the next checkvalve in the next short cut closed. Measurements and computer simulations show that the pressure separator in the modified design works very well in district cooling applications. The temperature losses of heat exchangers are eliminated and the safety level retained. Thrilling possibilities to save electricity exist in some cases. Most cost effective is the pressure separator if the larger areas with several customers have their pressure level adjusted in one and the same pressure separator. The disadvantage of the pressure separator is mainly that it requires a far-sighted planning of the head diagram of the entire district cooling network.

  10. Musiklärares handlingsutrymme - möjligheter och begränsningar

    OpenAIRE

    Houmann, Anna

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Titel: Music teachers’ discretionary power – possibilities and limitations. According to previous research in music education, during recent decades the working conditions for professional music teachers in schools have changed radically. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the working conditions of music teachers by focusing on their experiences of and ideas about discretionary power in their professional lives. This is accomplished by addressing the research question...

  11. eSport: Den professionella sidan och vägen dit

    OpenAIRE

    Lahti, Daniel; Nyström, Per

    2012-01-01

    Computer games is a growing market with over millions of players that are playing and/or enjoying the play of games on a daily basis. The nerdy gamers that once were, are now becoming professional athletes in the virtual world called eSport. We have identified a lack of studies in this area which implies that there is little data of what it is. In this paper we have focused on the phenomena that is eSport and more closely on the game series Starcraft made by Blizzard Entertainment. Our focus ...

  12. Chopped hemp: Logistics, compaction and financial viability; Logistik, komprimering och ekonomi angaaende hackad hampa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, Yvonne

    2010-05-15

    In this project compaction and logistics experiments were conducted using chopped hemp. The aim was to reduce the hemp to 250 kg/m3, as well as to identify the best possible logistical system for compaction and subsequent transportation to the end-user in terms of cost and environmental impact. The project primarily focused on landowners and power companies. Other stakeholders are industries, universities and other ongoing projects in related fields. These studies have shown that it is possible to compact chopped hemp from a density of 60 kg dm/m3 (0.30 MWh/m3) when harvesting directly into the container, to a density of 202 kg dm/m3 (1.01 MWh/m3) using the baler. The original compaction target was a volumetric weight of 250 kg/m3. It was determined that straw and hemp react similarly to compaction. This project has demonstrated that the transport rig system has the best potential for large-scale use as compared with the alternate systems used. According to our calculations, the transport rig was the most cost-effective system measured in kronor per energy content. In addition, this system is also flexible. From an environmental standpoint, however, the energy balance showed that the container system was slightly superior

  13. Ritning som byggande: Lewerentz och ritningarna till S:t Petri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    from the site and into drawing studios. Today, with complex tools of virtual communication between builders and designers, it is quite common for an architect to design buildings without ever setting foot on the construction site. In contrast to the strong distinction between drawing and building made...... and S:t Petri. Through close collaborations with materials and builders, Lewerentz translated his ideas into an architecture that was deeply personal. What is more, such an approach was thoroughly inseparable from his unique method of engaging construction through drawing and sketching. Upon examining...

  14. Ekoturisten : En studie om kunskap, motiv och vanor gällande ekoturism

    OpenAIRE

    Ilberg, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    There are several man-made environmental problems in today’s society. Tourism gives a lot of people serenity, creates jobs and better social circumstances but also has a dark side, a dark side that is harming our environment. Mass tourism creates large amounts of harmful gasses through transportation of tourists, littering ends up in pollution and acidification and the list goes on. Ecotourism has during the latter part of the last decade been marketed as a counter pool to the harmful kind of...

  15. Hållbara inköpsresor : Stads- och handelsutveckling i samverkan

    OpenAIRE

    Wärnhjelm, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the objective: How can the city's transport system and land use be coordinated and stakeholder collaboration be developed, to make the proportion of environmentally sustainable shopping trips increase? Trading and transportation in the town has been developed so that consumer’s traffic dependence has increased and the elderly, children and people without cars have got poorer accessibility to basic services. The consequences in terms of increased car use is negative f...

  16. Cs-137 in biofuel and reuse of the ash; Radiocesium i biobraenslen och aateranvaendning av askan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, K. J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-07-01

    The activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in sheep fescue grown in pots where ashes had been added to forest soil were studied. The added ash corresponded to 3000 kg per hectare and were either mixed into the forest soil or spread above the soil. The results were expressed as percentage of control value from sheep fescue grown on the same forest soil but without adding ash. In the first harvest the {sup 137}Cs were 60 and 33 % of the control value in the pots where fly ash respectively wet ash was mixed with the forest soil before starting the experiment. In the pots where the ash was spread on the soil 80 and 76 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash pots. In the second harvest 87 and 10 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash in the pots where ash were mixed with soil. The corresponding values in pots where the ash was spread on the soil were 31 respectively 42 %. The results show that we probably can expect at least a 50 % decrease in the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations after adding ash particularly if the ash is spread on the soil. There will take a certain time before the optimal reduction occur and after spreading in the forest there will probably take one year before maximum reduction is obtained. In a field experiment using potassium fertilization we obtained about the same reduction in {sup 137}Cs levels in bilberry, lingonberry and heather and also in some fungal species. The reduction could be seen even after 7 vegetation periods. It thus seems that the adding of ash to forest soil should be a rather effective counter measure with expected reduction of {sup 137}Cs levels of about 50 %.

  17. Pelletizing and combustion of wood from thinning; Pelletering och foerbraenning av gallringsvirke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerberg, Haakan; Thyrel, Mikael; Kalen, Gunnar; Larsson, Sylvia

    2007-12-14

    This work has been done in order to find new raw material sources for an expanding pellet industry, combined with finding a use for a forest product that has no market today. The raw material has been forest from early thinning in two typical stands in Vaesterbotten. The purpose has been to evaluate this material as a raw material for producing pellets. Two typical stands have been chosen. One stand with only pine trees and one mixed stand dominated by birch. The soil of these stands was poor. Half of the trees were delimbed by harvest and half of the trees were not delimbed. This formed four different assortments that were handled in the study. After harvesting the assortments were transported to an asphalt area to be stored. Half of the material was stored during one summer and half of the material was stored during one year and one summer. The different assortments were upgraded to pellets and test combusted in the research plant BTC at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, in Umeaa. The upgrading process contains of the following steps: 1.Chipping by a mobile chipper. 2.Low temperature drying (85 deg C). 3. Coarse shredding ({phi}15 mm). 4. Fine shredding ({phi}4-6 mm) and 5. Pelletizing (Die: {phi}8). Samples for fuel analysis were taken during the chipping. Analyses shows that the net calorific value for delimbed assortments are about 0,3 MJ/kg DM higher than for limbed assortments. Pellets made of the assortments Mixed limbed and Pine limbed has shown a net calorific value comparable to stem wood pellets. Pellets made of Birch delimbed show a net calorific value 0,4 MJ/kg DM lower than stem wood pellets. Analyses show that ash contents of the assortment Mixed delimbed was 1 %-unit higher compared to stem wood pellets. The assortment Pine delimbed and Birch delimbed has showed an ash contents comparable with stem wood pellets. The ash melting characteristics can reduce the value of a raw material. Low ash melting temperature for a fuel might cause huge problems by sintering in boilers and burners. Good quality stem wood pellets show an ash melting temperature >1500 deg C. The assortment Pine limbed which has shown the lowest ash melting temperature 1270-1320 deg C can be critical for combustion and needs very god temperature control to avoid sintering. For the rest of the different assortments, ash melting temperatures have been over 1500 deg C which indicates good ash melting characteristics. Emissions in flue gases were measured during test combustion. All measured parameters showed that this wood material from thinnings could be burned very efficiently and with low emissions. The largest difference was registered between emissions of NO{sub x} from the different assortments. The assortment Mixed limbed gave the highest NO{sub x} value 70 mg/MJ fuel, and the assortment Pine delimbed gave the lowest NO{sub x} value 46 mg/MJ fuel. Other emissions of CO, HC and SO{sub x} that were measured showed very low values. Pelletizing characteristics of the different assortments were defined by four different parameters: 1.Production capacity (kg/h), 2. Energy consumption (kWh/ton), 3. Density of produced pellets (kg/m{sup 3}) and 4. Durability of produced pellets. The measurements show that all assortments have pelletizing characteristics comparable with pure stem wood. Best results were obtained with Mixed limbed, which gave high production capacity and therefore low energy consumption, and durable pellets with acceptable density. The assortment Birch delimbed was most difficult to pelletize which resulted in high energy consumption and high-density pellets. After storing one year all assortments were pelletized again. Results from those tests show that pelletizing characteristics of the material had changed during storage. Assortment Mixed undelimbed and Birch delimbed could not be pelletized successfully. These materials could not be transported evenly enough in to the pelletizer. Material flow characteristics had changed during the storage. On the other hand assortment Pine delimbed and Pine undelimbed showed higher production capacity compared to the same material stored only one summer.

  18. Idrottsutövandets estetik : en narrativ studie om meningsskapande och lärande

    OpenAIRE

    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha

    2012-01-01

    The overall interest of this thesis is to explore aesthetic experience in sport and its significance for learning in sport. The main purpose is to contribute to a theoretical and methodological development of studies relating to learning in sport. The exploration is undertaken within the field of pragmatism using the works of John Dewey and Ludwig Wittgenstein. The exploration consists of four case studies, consisting mainly of narrative analyses of people’s written stories of participating i...

  19. Operation experiences of biofuel dryers; Drifterfarenheter fraan aangtorkar och direkta roekgastorkar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Christian; Dejfors, Charlotte [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    A study regarding operation experiences of indirect steam dryers and direct flue gas dryers of biofuels has been conducted. In the study, plants with the two types of dryers have been visited and operational experiences have been gathered and analysed. Results show that the well proven technique with flue gas dryers has a higher availability than the steam dryers. Several plants have problem with the feeding and discharge systems. Material selection is very important to prevent corrosion. Indirect steam dryers have more environmental regulations than flue gas dryers because of the generated condensate from the fuel drying process. Future work should concentrate on material selections, refining the feeding and discharge systems and control system.

  20. Fäder i Sovjetryssland: Ideal, känslor och praktik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Carlbäck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates fatherhood ideals and practices in late Soviet Russia, 1960–1989. For the theoretical basis, dominant ideals on masculinity and fatherhood have been derived from the rich but predominantly Western research literature of the past three decades. These are used as guiding tools in examining the research material for this study: the monthly magazine Semia i shkola. Zhurnal dlia roditelei (Family and School; Journal for Parents and eleven in-depth interviews with men in Russia on their memories of fatherhood in the 1960s–1980s. The research questions are: What did the ideal image of fatherhood look like in this period? What remembered practices do respondents communicate in interviews, and how do these relate to dominant public/official ideals of the time? Are there differences in the emphasis on various aspects of fatherhood ideals/practices between public discourses and the accounts given by these men? The interview narratives yield a multifaceted picture, with both coinciding and contradictory representations of the respondents’ ideal images, on the one hand, and remembered practices, on the other. Possible explanations are then discussed. In conclusion, Soviet Russian fatherhood is tentatively contextualized within the framework of research results on Western fatherhood.

  1. Att göra (e)sport : om datorspel och sportifiering

    OpenAIRE

    Thiborg, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Competitive computer gaming, under the name e-sport, have become a popular activity inSweden and worldwide. Within the e-sport community the question about the relationbetween the e-sport and sport has been discussed. Despite of this, very few sport scientistshave studied e-sport. The aim of this licentiate thesis is to create an understanding of thephenomenon e-sport. As a theoretical framework the concept of sportification was used. Inthree articles aspects of sportification in e-sport was ...

  2. The space heating market and the big customers; Vaermemarknaden och storkunderna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maardsjoe, Olle

    2007-07-01

    This report focuses on the cost of heating in multiple-occupancy buildings, commercial premises and industrial premises. A summary has been created of the development of heating, primarily in the 2000s, for as long as statistics are available (essentially 2004). Total heating has seen a reduction over the period as regards both total usage and specifically in kWh/sq. m. District heating, on the other hand, has seen an increase in total turnover, now accounting for around two-thirds of demand - or about 42 TWh - as well. The increase in district heating has come about partly as a result of property renovation and people exchanging their sources of heating. A reduction in oil consumption has been the primary cause of this transition. There has also been a slight increase in the number of heat pumps in use. In total, heat pumps account for a small proportion of the heating of the properties in question. Heating costs account for a large proportion of operating expenses for property owners, in fact up to 40-50 percent of ongoing operating expenses. Reducing the cost of heating is very important, as this directly affects the property owners' bottom lines. Contractors are offering services to help property owners to optimise their energy-saving measures. The price of district heating, where this is available, is being used as a basis. This is why the structure of the price of district heating affects what measures are implemented. In price constructions with too high a flexible element, there is plenty of incentive to make savings on energy. District heating suppliers' coverage of set costs is reduced once the measures to ensure savings have been implemented, and so they have to increase their prices retrospectively. In price constructions with a high set element, there is little incentive to make savings, with a subsequent increase in demand for heating in extreme cases. District heating suppliers can be forced to make investments in both generation and distribution systems and will be forced to charge higher prices in order to cover the increase in set costs. All in all, the composition of the price of district heating constitutes a business risk as it affects the long-term behaviour of customers. In addition to this, there are also risks due to the weather, fuel prices, the cost of finance, etc. Competition model and skills balance sheets are used as a basis for discussion of how property owners can organise and implement energy and cost savings. The criteria differ for smaller and larger property owners. The smaller ones are unable to maintain their own skills base; instead, they have to buy in skills for both analysis and implementation. Their skills as regards buying these services may be limited. The odds are against property owners with not much in the way of resources, and they would benefit greatly from having assistance and support to help them work effectively. Conditions are better for major property owners. They can either build up organisations of their own or acquire external assistance by professional means. Their larger property stock allows them to implement benchmarking between various initiatives and make the most of the results. District heating companies should have every opportunity to help property owners make savings on energy. As long as the price of district heating is correct in terms of cost with regard to the cost of generation, and as long as the company's profit margin is covered mainly by the set element of the price, district heating suppliers do not need to suffer financial harm on account of energy savings. Using the skills available among contractors, using energy savings as a business concept, district heating companies can add even more value for property owners. Furthermore, this will also make it easier to increase utilisation of distribution networks and reduce generation costs. The competitiveness of district heating companies on the heating market can be enhanced by means of more active customer work with a view to reducing costs for customers

  3. Biogas from manure and waste residues; Biogas ur goedsel, avfall och restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The consumption of fossil fuels must be reduced if we are to meet environmental and climate related goals and reduce the greenhouse effect. In contrast to fossil fuels, biogas is renewable and carbon dioxide neutral. Biogas is also the cleanest fuel on the market and has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuel used in Sweden. The residue produced after anaerobic digestion is a valuable fertilizer and soil conditioner. Organic wastes are recycled through the biogas process to become a resource. This creates a sustainable recycling of nutrients and energy between urban and rural areas, and between consumption and production. This handbook is intended as a source of information on biogas, targeting politicians and decision- and policy makers in local authorities, farmers and farmers' organisations, and indeed anyone with an interest in biogas in Sweden and abroad. The handbook starts with an introduction of biogas in Sweden today. In part two general information is given about biogas technologies, a description of the biogas process, from the use of substrates to the final distribution of biogas and organic residues, followed by short information about economic support and incentives. In the last part twelve Swedish biogas plants are described, which have been particularly successful, and which can therefore serve as models for the future. The plants are grouped into four different categories: codigestion plants, farm-based biogas plants, sewage treatment plants and industrial plants. Each case study is described as of March 2012. Production figures are given for 2011, unless otherwise stated.

  4. Mellan tradition och förnyelse : Utmaningar i religionsläraruppdraget

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The current assignment of religious studies teachers is grounded on a confession-free foundation, expressed through the values of Swedish society. However, the subject still carries traces of a confessional tradition. Up until recently, Christianity played a major role in both teaching and teacher assignments. This study focuses on the complexity that emerges when it comes to the assignment of religious studies teachers in Swedish schools. In order to shed light on two traditions of importanc...

  5. Birds and wind power. Result report 1977-1982; Faglar och Vindkraft. Resultatrapport 1977-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Johnny

    1983-02-15

    Two large-scaled aerogenerators were erected in Sweden in 1980-82. Questions about how birds react on the generators were raised early. Theoretical calculations about the risk for collisions between migrating birds and the generators, together with data on the bird collision frequencies at radio- and television towers in Sweden were presented in a report in 1978. It was assumed that the collision frequency will normally not exceed five birds per night during nights with normal traffic rate of migrating birds, and with maximum of about 50 birds on special occasions (few cases per season). In 1979-1982 the local breeding bird fauna was censused in the immediate vicinities of the sites (arable land and grazed bushland) where the aerogenerators has been erected. The results obtained so far, do not indicate any effect at all on species diversity or abundance when comparing the situation before and after the erection of the arerogenerators. Some species have successfully colonized the areas, obviously exploiting resources created by the building activities. Two such species are Oenanthe oenanthe and Delichon urbica. Reactions of migrating birds when passing close to the generators will be studied in the nearest future (autumn 1983) when the plants will be in continous work.

  6. Processing biofuels from farm raw materials - A systems study; Pelletering och brikettering av jordbruksraavaror - En systemstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven

    2008-03-15

    Use of processed biofuels (pellets, briquettes) has greatly increased in Sweden in recent decades, mainly to replace fossil fuels in large boilers, e.g. in coal powder boilers. More recently, the demand from private households and residential heating systems has also increased, mainly due to conversion from fossil heating oil. This increased interest in pellets and briquettes for heating is beginning to cause a shortage of the traditional raw materials, sawdust and wood shavings, and therefore attention is turning to using a variety of agricultural products as raw material. Such raw materials include cultivated energy crops and wastes and by-products from agriculture. This study describes the typical systems currently used for production of pellets and briquettes and investigates the possibility of using energy crops (Salix, reed canary-grass and hemp) and various wastes and by-products from processing of farm products (straw, cereal screenings, rape-seed meal and distiller's waste) as raw materials. Previous experiences of pelletizing and briquetting of these raw materials are reviewed in order to comprehensively identify possible combustion problems that may occur. On the basis of the results obtained, scenarios for possible production systems in a five-year perspective are presented and the costs and energy demands for these systems calculated. These future scenarios include large scale plants and micro-scale plants, as well as static and mobile equipment. The five main conclusions from the study are: - The farm raw materials of greatest interest for large-scale production are pelleted Salix and reed canary-grass. They have competitive prices and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelletizing factories in Sweden. - Straw has low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems. Hemp has too high production costs to be of commercial interest, while distiller's waste and rape-seed meal currently have a higher alternative value when used as protein feed. Cereal screenings can be a suitable raw material provided that they only make up a minor proportion in mixtures with other more problem-free raw materials. - The scale of production has a great influence on production costs. In large-scale plants, the machinery and equipment, etc. are used much more efficiently than in smaller plants, which results in lower costs. - Small-scale pelletizing, both static and mobile, requires cheap raw materials and a high through-put to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. - The energy consumption in manufacturing pellets from dry farm by-products is generally no higher than when moist sawdust is used as the raw material. More energy is admittedly required for cultivation and transport of farm by-products, but since there is no need for drying the total energy consumption is often lower. However, wet raw materials such as fresh Salix and distiller's waste can increase the total energy consumption

  7. Regulations for storage and transport of biofuels; Regler foer foervaring och transport av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmefors, Elin; Karlsson, Emelie

    2012-07-01

    The trend towards a fossil-free agriculture is of great importance. Partly due to the fossil fuel energy is finite but also because of the importance of agriculture to reduce the environmental impact of food production. There are also an economic aspect. It is likely that in the near future will be economically burdensome being limited to fossil fuels. Therefore, it is important that agriculture is well prepared to move towards alternative biofuels. The introduction of alternative fuels in agriculture as a substitute for diesel has proven more difficult than in other industrial sectors, depending on both the specific technical conditions and a regulatory framework that may not have been written with agriculture as target. LRF, Farmers' Association, has instructed the JTI, Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, identifying which rules, laws and regulations that will affect farmers at the farm level that for their own use stores and manages one of the most likely future biofuels for agricultural tractors.

  8. Device for dewatering of raw biomass. Anordning foer avvattning och uppluckring av raa biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubat, J; Aabom, J J.V.; Klason, T C.F.; Bultzingsloewen, F von

    1993-09-27

    This invention concerns a device for loosening of raw biomass through roll dewatering. It is primarily applicable for comminuted and milled raw wood. The invention is of special interest for the production of pulverized wood fuel

  9. Teknik, system och hälsa för personer som arbetar med djur

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmermark, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Air in animal houses contains high concentrations of organic dust, gases, endotoxins, and micro-organisms. Thus, work in animal houses can result in a number of heath related issues. Systems used in the production as well as management and used techniques affect the work environment in animal production and should followingly be as good as possible from a work perspective. Data was collected by the help of a questionnaires sent to 1000 farmers working with animals, and the answers were analyz...

  10. SSI and the Environmental Code; SSI och miljoebalken - utvaerdering av raettsliga konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, T

    1997-12-01

    Radiation is, to some extent, included in the environmental code being prepared by the government. As a consequence both the Radiation Protection Institute and the proposed Environmental Court may set legal conditions concerning radiation protection for the proponent. Legal and other matters related to this issue are discussed in the report.

  11. Network cost in transmission and distribution of electric power; Naetkostnader i oeverfoering och distribution av el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, A; Naeslund, B; Oettinger-Biberg, C; Olander, H; Wuolikainen, T; Fritz, P

    1994-12-31

    This report is divided in two parts, where part 1 treats the charges on the regional nets with special emphasis on the net owners tariffs on a deregulated market. Part 2 describes the development of the network costs in electric power distribution for the period 1991-1993. 11 figs, 33 tabs

  12. Arkitektur i Mayariket : en jämförelse mellan Palenque och Tikal

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    The classical age cities of Palenque and Tikal where ones great Mayan bastions with extraordinary architecture.  This architecture still fascinates modern archaeologies and historians alike. Still much of the architecture in the Mayan cities had the same style and function, but could diverse from town to town. This is the case of Palenque and Tikal. They share much of their buildings like temples, palaces and ball courts. But the main differences are in the subtle things like vault constructi...

  13. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  14. New nuclear technology; International developments. Review 1995; Ny kaernteknik; Utvecklingsinsatser internationellt. Sammanfattning och oeversikt 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devell, L.; Aggeryd, I.; Hultgren, Aa.; Lundell, B.; Pedersen, T.

    1995-09-01

    A summary review of the development of new nuclear rector technology is presented in this report. Fuel cycle strategies and waste handling developments are also commented. Different plans for dismantling nuclear weapons are presented. 18 refs.

  15. Tur och Retur : en kvalitativ studie om resan genom ett narkotikaberoende

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Annette; Nyhlén, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to, through the life stories of four women and their experiences, thoughts and feelings according to a life in drug dependency reach an increased knowledge about how a dependency can arise, continue and be brought to an end. The question at issue were: How do a small amount of women describe and comprehend their experiences, thoughts and feelings according to their drug addiction seen through a process perspective. In order to answer that question three themes we...

  16. Energideklaration- Vad är det och hur ska det hanteras i fastighetsbranschen?

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Energy Declaration is a law that will come into effect October 1: Th 2006. This report has Värnamo municipality as principal and shall clarify what the estate owner in general and Värnamo municipality in particular need to know about this law. Another part that is going to be dealt with is how large the future need for energy experts in this field will be, and which competence that will be demanded for them. The work will in general deal with simplified energy declarations for ap...

  17. Arbetsbelastning och tidsåtgång i moderna svenska grisningsboxar

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Anne-Charlotte; Pinzke, Stefan; Andersson, Mats; Rantzer, Dan; Botermans, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Productivity in Swedish pig production is high, but unfortunately so are production costs, especially those of labour and of buildings. The piglet producing herds allocate about a quarter of their total working time for the work operation scraping manure (including supervision). In addition to being labour consuming, the workers also consider that manure scraping is heavy and hard work. Problems with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), especially in the upper extremities, are also a reality for ...

  18. Production and Distribution Planning in District Heating Systems; Produktions- och distributionsplanering av fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvarnstroem, Johan; Dotzauer, Erik; Dahlquist, Erik

    2006-12-15

    To produce heat and power is costly. Therefore it is important for the district heating companies to plan and optimize the production. The aim with the present project is to find out how also the distribution of heat can be considered in the planning. The principal procedure is to first construct a prediction of the heat demand, and then, given the demand prediction, construct the production plan. Due to the complexity of the problem, the need for mathematical models is obvious. The report gives a survey introduction to production planning in district heating systems and presents a model for the purpose. The model is developed for one of the district heating systems in Stockholm owned by the energy company Fortum. Traditionally, models for production planning do not consider the distribution network. In such models, usually the methodology Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is used. The report suggests how the distribution network can be modeled as a MIP; it shall be possible to link the network model to existing software that models the production plants as MIP. The model is developed in the programming language GAMS. Analysis and results are presented. The results show that the suggested plans vary depending on if the distribution network is considered or not. The report also suggests how a simple sensitivity analysis of the production plans can be performed. This is necessary since there are always uncertainties associated with weather- and load predictions.

  19. Reliability assessment - for production and distribution of heat; Riskbaserad tillfoerlitlighet - i produktion och leverans av vaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Transtroem, Christoffer; Joerud, Fredrik; Ehrstedt, Thomas

    2006-06-15

    The content of this project gives the basic framework of a guideline in how to study the reliability of both production and distribution of heat, i.e. the report forms the developing phase of a methodology for identification of potential risks in a system for district heat. The risks are prioritized and used as a decision tool to design a program for mitigation of the risk exposure. This report also describes a basic idea of how to further develop this methodology. The methodology is based on an initial screening with an optional phase of detailed analysis for weak links identified in the initial screening process. The methodology is different to previous tools as it facilitate an efficient approach to identify weak links in all parts of the system for district heat. The objective is to clearly describe the methodology in order to enable performance, also without support from experts in risk engineering. The practicing personnel intend to be technical staff from both the operational- and maintenance departments of a district heat company in general. During the project, several technical meetings were performed and interviews also took place, with engineers intended to be the typical end users of this tool. As a basic part of the methodology, established methodologies of risk assessment were studied. The studies have been a part of the design to achieve a method well adjusted for the end user group. Some parts of the methodology have already been tested in real cases, as several regular analyses have been performed in parallel with the development of this methodology.

  20. Om behovet att skilja mellan empiriska och begreppligt konstitutiva frågor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schaffar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article clarifies the fundamental difference between empirical and conceptual questions in education. In the ongoing debate about the role of philosophy of education, many authors either unreflectively assume or actively demand that philosophy of education should try to adapt to (empircal science. Through a discussion of the possibilities of a child to open up to educational processes (Herbart: Bildbarkeit the article illustrates how philosophical reflection on education fundamentally differs in character from empirical approaches. It suggests that one important task for philosophy of education is to clarify what questions can be answered empirically from those that are constitutive of our understanding of education. Wittgenstein’s later philosophy is used as a central starting point in this article.

  1. Requirements and solutions for future pellet technology; Krav och loesningar foer framtidens pelletsteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie; Ryde, Daniel; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Requirements and solutions for future pellet burning technologies Since 2006, sales of pellet burning technologies to the Swedish residential market have fallen. The main reasons for this decrease are: many of the economically favorable easy conversions from oil to pellets have been made; competition from heat pumps; warm winters; a stable electricity price; and the current structure of heating in residential buildings, where electric heating dominates. To change this falling trend pellets need to become more attractive to consumers. This project aimed to analyze the requirements for the next generation of pellets systems and to develop potential solutions, in collaboration with the pellets industry. More specifically, the study looked at consumers' attitudes toward heating choices and different heating through a survey to 2000 house owners across Sweden. The project included a market analysis of Swedish and international technologies and examines the conditions for Swedish pellet burning technology in different markets. In addition, new solutions and developments for Swedish pellets burning technology are described

  2. Electrochemical recycling of metals from slags and flyash; Elektrokemisk metallaatervinning ur slagg och flygaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerefors, Fredrik; Ulrich, Christian (Linkoepings Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    The main objective with this project was to explore the possibility to employ electrochemical methods to reduce the metal content in waste products (slag and fly ash) from waste incineration facilities. The basic idea was to first dissolve the waste products in acid, and then to reduce and deposit as much as possible of the metal ions onto an electrode surface. Experiments were further performed to determine to which extent the deposited metals could be reoxidized into a separate and clean acidic solution (with metal recycling in mind). Parameters like the pH, deposition potential and time, and electrode area were investigated. The results clearly indicated that it to a large extent was possible to decrease the metal concentration in the slag and flyash, more than 90% of the copper ions could for example be extracted from the initial acidic slurry. However, a very strong acid was necessary to dissolve the waste products, and it was further necessary to increase the pH in this solution prior to the electrochemical reduction. In the report, some suggestions for future activities at a larger scale will also be addressed

  3. Finansbubblor & babybooms : - en studie av sambandet mellan ekonomiska faktorer och fertilitet i Sverige 1960-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Clarström, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Variations in fertility have caused a problematic situation in Sweden among other European countries. According to the Council of Europe we are facing an economic and demographic challenge, when the baby boomers of the 1940’s are retiring. Economists have for a long time studied the connection between economic factors and fertility, and several studies have found a correlation between business cycles and birth rates. This connection is again of current interest 2008, when a financial bubble b...

  4. Natural gas at the service of economy and politics; Naturgas i ekonomins och i politikens tjaenst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrmarck, Urban

    2008-06-15

    Sweden is - except Iceland, Cyprus and Malta which have no gas at all - the country in Europe where natural gas plays the smallest role. The report raises and answers the question of why Sweden, unlike the rest of Europe, never built an extended natural gas networks. It also addresses the historical and future development of natural gas in Europe. An effective competition stopped the expansion of natural gas in Sweden. The Swedish gas projects offered state aid that was equivalent to the support given the rest of Europe. But competition and price worked better in Sweden than in many parts of Europe in 1960, the 1970s and into 1980s. It made an investment in a natural gas system unprofitable or in at least involving too large a financial risk to attract investors. Low or no profitability is still factors affecting natural gas futures in Sweden. There is also a political resistance. Therefore, there is hardly any reason to believe that major new gas projects would attract either new owners or funding organizations. Based on a commercial basis, only a specific and strongly limited expansion can come about. Over the next few years, the EU will need to sharply increase imports of natural gas just to maintain current consumption. The domestic European gas production is steadily decreasing. This means that new delivery systems, new contracts and new gas fields have come at a rate close to the border of what is technically, economically and politically possible. There is hardly any other option than increasing imports of Russian gas for the foreseeable future. In the long term, in addition to Russia, the OPEC countries will become major gas suppliers to Europe. In a medium term perspective, the question of whether Europe has time to expand its import capacity. It is also uncertain if the exporting countries Russia, Algeria, the former Soviet republics east of the Caspian Sea, Nigeria and Qatar, can or want expand its capacity to export. The need to achieve a southern distribution line through Turkey and a line through the Baltic Sea (Nord Stream) is increasing. The pressure on Sweden and other neighbouring States quickly to approve the Nord Stream will probably be large

  5. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.

    2007-12-15

    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the assumption that a 60% reduction of the thickness is acceptable. The changes of the operation conditions, particularly the lower rotating speed that the new design led to, have shifted the wear/corrosion condition so that corrosion is more dominating in the wear-corrosion. This is obvious as the SS2377, one of the softest of the evaluated materials, shows low wear rate due to its good corrosion resistant characteristics. The design of the screw has proved to be very crucial for wear-corrosion. The results from the wear-corrosion test show a number of effects that are more or less difficult to explain. One example is that the SS2377 have better wear resistance than the harder materials in both corrosion and in non-corrosive environment. The general conclusion from these testing is that the conditions at the screw have not been successfully imitated. For the prediction of the useful life, a wear-corrosion model has been developed to be used with operation data to follow and/or predict the wear-corrosion. Especially with SS2377, where the synergy effects between corrosion and abrasion is small, a good conformance can be reached. The model needs however further verification to become more general

  6. Research and Development in the Energy Area; Forskning och utveckling inom energiomraadet. Resultatredovisning 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Anita; Lundborg, Anna; Lundqvist, David; Westin, Paul; Oefverbeck, Lena; Aafelt, Sten

    2003-01-01

    The report gives a review of the Swedish energy research and how it has developed since 1975. In this period 1,200 million SEK (about 150 million USD) has been spent on governmentally funded energy research (excluding the supplementary financing by the businesses). The criteria used in evaluation and follow-up are reported, and the usefulness, efficiency and quality of energy research to society are discussed. Five case-studies are described, showing which factors are important in the development and giving insight in the process of technology development from research, development and demonstration up to market introduction. Beside the case-studies, a short review of the research connected with buildings is given. The case-studies are: Biofuel-based energy systems, Transport (Biofuels, Efficient engines, Electric drives), Power production and Power technology (Hydro power, Wind power, Solar cells, Power transmission and distribution), Industry (Energy efficient metal and paper processes), Support systems - fans, pumps, compressed air and lighting, Buildings (Heating, Cooling, Lighting)

  7. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased implementation of different bioenergy systems based on a review of existing environmental systems analyses. This part also includes a description of the consequences of choosing different methods for the analysis of the environmental effects. The final part of the report consists of some calculations showing how much heat, electricity and/or transportation fuels Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much of the residues and by-products are recovered, how much agricultural land is utilised for energy production and what kind of conversion systems are utilised.

  8. Energy and electricity use in buildings. Pre-study; Energi- och Elanvaendning i byggnader. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalenbaeck, Jan-Olof; Goeransson, Anders; Jagemar, Lennart [Chalmers EnergiCentrum CEC, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    The built environment accounts for 40 % of energy use and 50 % of electricity use in Sweden. Sweden uses more than twice as much electrical energy as the mean value for EU-15 and the principal reason for this is good access to relatively inexpensive electricity. This pre-study summarises the current use of electricity, the prerequisites and potential for reducing the use of electricity and current RDandD projects focusing on the use of energy. It also gives a brief description of a couple of visions for the future. The proposed research projects focus on describing the use of electricity (energy, output, voltage etc) and analysing the way different control mechanisms influence the opportunity to realise sustainable developments. The heated areas in houses and buildings are distributed as follows: 45 % in detached or semi-detached houses, 30 % in blocks of flats (including some business premises) and 25 % in business premises. About 80 % of these areas were erected before 1980. A large percentage of the energy that is supplied to these houses and buildings, around 65 %, is used for various heating purposes, first and foremost in older detached or semi-detached houses and blocks of flats. The heating for detached or semi-detached houses is supplied in many different ways, while district heating is primarily responsible for the heating that is supplied to blocks of flats and business premises. A large percentage of the electricity usage is accounted for by heating, primarily in new detached or semi-detached houses, and electricity for operations in business premises - around 35% and 28% respectively. In addition to heating, electricity is used first and foremost for lighting and different types of electrical equipment, but most of the existing statistics relating to the distribution of electricity usage between different applications are based on old surveys and studies and need to be updated. It is estimated that the techno-economic potential for saving energy in residential buildings and business premises is about 30 TWh of net heat and 15 TWh of electricity. The savings that are in fact realised depend on a number of factors. Based on the assumption that energy prices will continue to rise, energy declarations will be generally accepted and the requirements governing the energy performance of buildings will be stepped up, we feel that it is realistic to expect the realisable potential to be somewhere in the region of 10 TWh of net heat and 5 TWh of electricity within the next 10-20 years. Future energy declarations and the classification of buildings, the call for hour-based readings of electricity subscriptions and new lighting technology are the kind of factors that could impact future electricity use in existing houses and buildings. A number of relevant projects which are aiming to 'understand' (user behaviour, mapping of electricity usage etc) and make the energy use more efficient in buildings are currently in progress. Several of them are focusing on reducing the usage of electricity in houses and buildings. A number of different studies of the future indicate everything from an increase in the use of energy to a significant reduction. Several studies stress the large-scale potential for energy efficiency and saving measures, while describing many obstacles along the way. To summarise, it would probably be true to say that 'business as usual' means that the use of electricity will remain at the same level or will continue to increase within the foreseeable future and that a reduction in the use of electricity can only be achieved by joining forces to implement a combination of wholehearted efforts.

  9. Färgval hos blomkrabbspindeln (Misumena vatia) med och utan konkurrens

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Sanna

    2011-01-01

    The colour choice of spiders and the effects of competition on this phenomenon were examined in the laboratory using the sit-and-wait predator goldenrod crab spider (Misumena vatia, (Thomisidae)). This species can  be both white and yellow (could also change colour)  and it was here examined whether individuals preferred to sit on flowers which has the same colouration as their bodies. I found that M.vatia showed preference for flowers that matched their own body colour, but when competition ...

  10. Social isolering. En studie om åsiktspolarisering och normativ press i sociala medier

    OpenAIRE

    Tuoma, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to look for tendencies that social media can contribute to exposing users to a stronger perception of opinion polarization, and further to see if the daily presence of social networking sites can put normative pressure on the users. The study was made using a survey with participants from Umeå University during the time frame of november-december 2014. The theoretical framework behind the study was mainly drawn from The Spiral Of Silence by Elisabeth Noelle-Neum...

  11. Technical and financial evaluation of agricultural based vehicle gas; Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av lantbruksbaserad fordonsgasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Peter; Bohman, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Johan Benjaminsson [Gasefuels AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    This study has examined two concepts for producing vehicle gas from farm based feedstock like manure: (1) Centralized production where the biogas is produced in a large scale biogas plant where the biogas is upgraded to vehicle gas adjacent the biogas plant; (2) Decentralized or farm based production where the biogas is produced on several farms and the gas is then transported via a gas grid to a centralized upgrading unit. The investigation has focused on the differences between the two concepts, from three different perspectives; technically, economically and legally. The economic calculations concerning the decentralized system has considered a governmental financial support of 1,8 Mkr or 30 % of the investment. This generates two different scenarios for the decentralized production system (with or without financial support). The study and the calculations are based on 100 000 ton manure which is either digested in one large biogas plant or 20 small scale farm based biogas units, which each digest 5000 tons. 100 000 tons farm based feedstock corresponds to 18 GWh in our calculations. Technically there are few differences between the concepts except the gas grid for decentralized production. Legally, the main differences are the environmental permits and the requirements concerning sterilization, which is necessary for a centralized vehicle gas production Financially, there are relatively large differences between the two vehicle gas production systems. With a centralized system the production cost is around 0,80 kr/kWh compared to over 1,00 kr/kWh for decentralized production when including governmental financial support. Without financial support the costs exceed 1,20 kr/kWh. Nonetheless, a production cost over 0,60 kr/kWh is problematic due to the prize of natural gas, which indicate that none of the systems would be profitably without more extensive governmental financial support. The study also presents two scenarios based on real cases. Both this cases indicates that a centralized production system is financially preferable even though the transportation costs increases significantly.

  12. Pålitligt och opålitligt i Strindbergs Den starkare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Törnqvist, E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliability and unreliability in Strindberg's 'The Stronger'. As a monodrama, The Stronger belongs to the rare category of plays that have only one speaking character, Mrs. X. Listening and reacting to her is Miss Y. Mrs. X is married to Bob. Miss Y has been and perhaps still is Bob’s mistress. In

  13. Neutral network and fuzzy logic based grate control; Roststyrning med neutrala naetverk och fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstroem, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Grate-control is a complex task in many ways. The relations between controlled variables and the values they depend on are mostly unknown. Research projects are going on to create grate models based on physical laws. Those models are too complex for control implementation. The evaluation time is to long for control use. Another fundamental difficulty is that the relationships are none linear. That is, for a specific change in control value, the change in controlled value depends on the original size of control value, process disturbances and controlled values. There are extensive theories for linear process control. Non-linear control theory is used in robotic applications, but not in process and combustion control. The aim of grate control is to use as much of the grate area as possible, without having unburned material in ash. The outlined strategy is: To keep the position of the final bum out zone constant and its extension controlled. The control variables should be primary airflow, distribution of primary air, and fuel flow. Disturbances that should be measured are the fuel moisture content, the temperature of primary air and the grate temperature under the fuel bed. Technologies used are, fuzzy-logic and neural networks. A combination of booth could be used as well as any of them separately. A Fuzzy-logic controller acts as a computerised operator. Rules are specified with 'if - then' thesis. An example of that is: - if temperature is low, then close the valve The boundaries between the rules are made fuzzy. That makes it possible for the temperature to be just a bit low, which makes the valve open a bit. A lot of rules are created so that the controller knows what to do in every situation. Neural networks are sort of multi dimensional curves, with arbitrary degrees of freedom. The nets are used to predict future process values from measured ones. The model is evaluated from collected data. Parameters are adjusted for best correspondence between predicted and actual outputs. After adjustment you can use the model. A vision is to invert the network to be able to calculate appropriate control signals from controlled values and disturbances. Alternatively you can use the network for prediction and let the predicted value into a fuzzy or optimisation algorithm, which calculates the control signal. It seems that these problems could be solved mainly with neural network technology. A neural network is sort of empirical non-linear relationship between control- and controlled values.

  14. Technical and environmental analysis of biofuel dryers; Teknisk och miljoemaessig analys av biobraensletorkar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenter, M; Hagman, U; Harnevie, H; Johansen, H; Kristensson, I; Westermark, M; Viberg, T [Vattenfall Energimarknad, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    A study regarding technology and environmental impact of the drying process of biofuels has been conducted. In the study two different types of dryers are analyzed. The result from the study shows that emissions of primarily hydrocarbons is high from the direct technic. The emission can be decreased considerably by improving the burner of the dryer. For the indirect technic the evaporated water give rise to problems in the sewage treatment plant. Studies show that biological treatment will result in an acceptable condensate.

  15. Environmental accounts. Environmentally related taxes, subsidies and emission permits; Miljoerelaterade skatter, subventioner och utslaeppsraetter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Maja; Brolinson, Hanna; Palm, Viveka

    2010-12-15

    Environmental Economic instruments is seen as an important component towards a sustainable society. In Prop. (proposition) 2009/10:155 'Swedish environmental objectives - for a more effective environmental' the Ministry of the Environment says that 'We must therefore work to improve the price signals by internalising external environmental costs and increase the use of economic instruments in environmental policy.' Statistics Sweden have now for the first time quantified the environmental economic instruments, both individually and together. In addition, the results are broken down by industry and for most time series can be presented. The result of this work is presented in this report

  16. Ethanol from residues - Paper tubes and textiles; Etanol ur avfall - Pappersrullar och textilier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeihanipour, Azam; Talebnia, Farid; Loren, Anders; Nordman, Roger; Taherzadeh, Mohammad

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this project was to investigate the possibilities to produce ethanol from waste fractions. In this project, the investigation was limited to paper tubes and textiles. Project goals were to study: (a) Is it possible to produce ethanol from the selected waste fractions? (b) Which problems could arise in the hydrolysis and fermentation, and how could these be solved? (c) What yields could be achieved in practice, expressed as kg ethanol per kg waste? Tests have been made in both laboratory scale and in pilot scale. Weak acid hydrolysis was made in laboratory scale and in pilot scale, while enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation), was made in laboratory scale only. Two different acids, phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid were used. The results from the experiments show that phosphoric acid have the best effect on dissolving the crystalline cellulosic structure of the two acids tested. This results in higher glucose yields before fermentation. The tests with paper tubes resulted in ethanol yields of 20-24 % based on dry raw material. Some textiles (jeans material) resulted in yields of 30-40% based on dry raw material. The results from the experiments show that yields of 25-30 l ethanol per 100 kg paper tubes, and 35-50 l ethanol per 100 kg textiles were reached. Waste fractions that were studied in this project are available in whole Sweden, but the relative share of the wastes depends on local conditions. In Boraas, the amount of paper tubes is approximately 300 tons per year, and textiles amounts to about 17 000 tons per year. About 25 % of the textiles are considered to be available for ethanol production. Any negative effects on the ethanol production from additives could not be noted in the experiments. For example, the additive poly-vinylic alcohol, PVA, which is present in the paper tubes, does not hamper the ethanol yield in any large proportion. During the experiments with textiles, comparative fermentation tests using pure cotton did not show any effect from dyes or other additives. In the experiments with the pilot reactor, optimum reaction time and temperature were 15 minutes and 180 deg C for weak acid hydrolysis of textiles. Corresponding optimum conditions for the experiments on paper tubes ware minutes and 200 deg C respectively.

  17. Energy Choices. Efficient Energy Use - possibilities and barriers; Vaegval Energi. Energieffektivisering - moejligheter och hinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagemar, Lennart (CIT Energy Management AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Pettersson, Bertil (Chalmers EnergiCentrum, CEC, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    Sweden's total energy supply in 2006 amounted to a total of 624 TWh and was dominated by crude oil, nuclear fuels, biofuels and hydropower. Different types of losses in the system accounts for one third of the energy. The final energy consumption, i.e. delivery minus losses, was divided in the following way: industry 157 TWh, the habitat of 145 TWh (of which 19 TWh relates to Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and other service and secondary homes) and transport of 101 TWh. For the transport sector, studies show that combinations of various efficiency measures ideally can achieve an reduction in energy use by between 60 and 75 percent. The Governmental Energy Efficiency Inquiry (EnEff - 2008) estimated that the domestic transport techno-economic efficiency potential up to 2016 is 13 TWh (mainly fuel) of the total delivered energy is 87 TWh under EnEff. The potential about 5 TWh is expected to be completed by current instruments. The study assesses that despite the increased need for transport in 2016 the sector's energy use can remain at the same level or even be reduced. Buildings have a large technical and economic energy efficiency potential. According to EnEff's assessment, the streamlining potential is 33 TWh of which 8 TWh can implemented in 2016 with today's instruments. This compares with the total delivered energy is 151 TWh under EnEff. The total energy efficiency potential for buildings by 2020 is considered to be substantially higher, about 41 TWh, and affect the use of district heating, fuel and electricity. New powerful tools must be implemented for the building sector in order to realize the potential energy efficiency measures. Industry's total energy potential is assessed to be around 13 TWh by 2016. Industry's total energy use is 155 TWh according to EnEff. Only 2 TWh can realistically be saved up to 2016 taking into account a reasonable acceptance factor. The beneficiaries of the carbon emissions trade account for about four-fifths of industry fossil fuel use and therefore has the greatest energy efficiency potential in absolute terms. According Eneffs final report the total energy efficiency potential for that part of the industry is about 7 TWh. Efficiency potential to 2016 for the industry not covered by the emissions trading amounts to just 6 TWh per year. Eneff believe that the industry's total energy use by 2016 may correspond to the present use at an expected increased production output, provided that additional stimulating instruments are deployed. Such a development requires that almost all of the industry's profitable energy efficiency potential (nearly 11 TWh) is realized. Possible energy efficiency potential for the industry, based on previous studies (IVAs Energiframsyn) were 10 and 15 percent, which totals 15 to 20 TWh. Finally in this report, a qualitative analysis is made of the consequences of ambitious energy efficiency measures, mainly the effects on volumes and relative importance of the different energy carriers for a twenty year term

  18. Artificial photosynthesis - Energy from the sun and water; Artificiell fotosyntes - Energi fraan sol och vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    One of the greatest challenges facing humanity today is to find ways to convert energy into forms that we can make use of without unnecessary burdens on our environment or affect earth's climate. An example of this is the transport sector, which is currently facing a major adjustment when Sweden has set a national target of a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. Furthermore, greater opportunities for energy storage will be a prerequisite for increased use of renewable energy sources in the community. The Swedish Energy Agency supports research, development, demonstration and commercialization of products and services that help to create a sustainable energy system. The ambition behind the bets are that the results will be utilized to achieve a desired societal impact. This brochure presents one of the Agency's far-reaching initiatives, namely the research within the Consortium for Artificial Photosynthesis. This is the third edition of the booklet, which has been revised, as new research has been conducted and the horizon of what can be possible to do in this area has been moved forward. With continued development, this can be a useful contribution to future sustainable energy systems.

  19. Apoptosis induced by (di-isopropyloxyphoryl-Trp) -Lys-OCH in K562 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    Kornblau S M 1998 The role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis, prognosis, and therapy of ... Reeves J P 1979 Accumulation of amino acids by lysosomes incubated with amino acid ... of disease; Science 267 1456–1462. Van Engeland M ...

  20. Hur den svenska innovationspolitiken framställer och bemöter globalisering

    OpenAIRE

    Henningsson, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Globalization is a diffuse term, which is why it’s interpreted very differently.  The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how the Swedish innovation policy portrays globalization and what consequences this imposes. How countries’ politics are run depends on their views on globalization. This study involves an ideal type analysis. The chosen ideal types represent three different perspectives on globalization. The three ideal types I have chosen are the neo-liberals, the reformists an...