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Sample records for meiotic recombination generates

  1. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

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    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    for assaying recombination using tetrad analysis in a higher eukaryotic system (6). This system enabled the measurement of the frequency and distribution of recombination events at a genome wide level in wild type Arabidopsis (7), construction of genetic linkage maps which include positions for each centromere (8), and modeling of the strength and pattern of interference (9). This proposal extends the use of tetrad analysis in Arabidopsis by using it as the basis for assessing the phenotypes of mutants in genes important for recombination and the regulation of crossover interference and performing a novel genetic screen. In addition to broadening our knowledge of a classic genetic problem - the regulation of recombination by crossover interference - this proposal also provides broader impact by: generating pedagogical tools for use in hands-on classroom experience with genetics, building interdisciplinary collegial partnerships, and creating a platform for participation by junior scientists from underrepresented groups. There are three specific aims: (1) Isolate mutants in Arabidopsis MUS81 homologs using T-DNA and TILLING (2) Characterize recombination levels and interference in mus81 mutants (3) Execute a novel genetic screen, based on tetrad analysis, for genes that regulate meiotic recombination

  2. Initiation of Meiotic Recombination in Mammals

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    Rajeev Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. DSB repair promotes homologous interactions and pairing and leads to the formation of crossovers (COs, which are required for the proper reductional segregation at the first meiotic division. In mammals, several hundred DSBs are generated at the beginning of meiotic prophase by the catalytic activity of SPO11. Currently it is not well understood how the frequency and timing of DSB formation and their localization are regulated. Several approaches in humans and mice have provided an extensive description of the localization of initiation events based on CO mapping, leading to the identification and characterization of preferred sites (hotspots of initiation. This review presents the current knowledge about the proteins known to be involved in this process, the sites where initiation takes place, and the factors that control hotspot localization.

  3. RNAi and heterochromatin repress centromeric meiotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Chad; Higuchi, Emily C; Phadnis, Naina

    2010-01-01

    to genetic disabilities, including birth defects. The basis by which centromeric meiotic recombination is repressed has been largely unknown. We report here that, in fission yeast, RNAi functions and Clr4-Rik1 (histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase) are required for repression of centromeric recombination....... Surprisingly, one mutant derepressed for recombination in the heterochromatic mating-type region during meiosis and several mutants derepressed for centromeric gene expression during mitotic growth are not derepressed for centromeric recombination during meiosis. These results reveal a complex relation between...... types of repression by heterochromatin. Our results also reveal a previously undemonstrated role for RNAi and heterochromatin in the repression of meiotic centromeric recombination and, potentially, in the prevention of birth defects by maintenance of proper chromosome segregation during meiosis....

  4. Meiotic Recombination in the Giraffe (G. reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdova, Miluse; Fröhlich, Jan; Kubickova, Svatava; Sebestova, Hana; Rubes, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata) was identified as a distinct species, which emphasized the need for intensive research in this interesting animal. To shed light on the meiotic process as a source of biodiversity, we analysed the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination in 2 reticulated giraffe males. We used immunofluorescence detection of synaptonemal complex protein (SYCP3), meiotic double strand breaks (DSB, marked as RAD51 foci) in leptonema, and crossovers (COs, as MLH1 foci) in pachynema. The mean number of autosomal MLH1 foci per cell (27), which resulted from a single, distally located MLH1 focus observed on most chromosome arms, is one of the lowest among mammalian species analysed so far. The CO/DSB conversion ratio was 0.32. The pseudoautosomal region was localised in the Xq and Yp termini by FISH and showed an MLH1 focus in 83% of the pachytene cells. Chromatin structures corresponding to the nucleolus organiser regions were observed in the pachytene spermatocytes. The results are discussed in the context of known data on meiosis in Cetartiodactyla, depicting that the variation in CO frequency among species of this taxonomic group is mostly associated with their diploid chromosome number. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Meiotic Recombination in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gerald R.

    2009-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is well-suited for studying meiotic recombination. Methods are described here for culturing S. pombe and for genetic assays of intragenic recombination (gene conversion), intergenic recombination (crossing-over), and spore viability. Both random spore and tetrad analyses are described.

  6. Prevention of DNA Rereplication Through a Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint Response

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    Nicole A. Najor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DSBs, and can help coordinate activation of the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase in the mitotic cell cycle, is required for the full checkpoint response. Phosphorylation sites that are targeted by Rad53 in a mitotic S phase checkpoint response are also involved, based on the behavior of cells containing mutations in the DBF4 and SLD3 DNA replication genes. However, RAD53 does not appear to be required, nor does RAD9, which encodes a mediator of Rad53, consistent with their lack of function in the recombination checkpoint pathway that prevents meiotic progression. While this response is similar to a checkpoint mechanism that inhibits initiation of DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle, the evidence points to a new variation on DNA replication control.

  7. ReCombine: a suite of programs for detection and analysis of meiotic recombination in whole-genome datasets.

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    Carol M Anderson

    Full Text Available In meiosis, the exchange of DNA between chromosomes by homologous recombination is a critical step that ensures proper chromosome segregation and increases genetic diversity. Products of recombination include reciprocal exchanges, known as crossovers, and non-reciprocal gene conversions or non-crossovers. The mechanisms underlying meiotic recombination remain elusive, largely because of the difficulty of analyzing large numbers of recombination events by traditional genetic methods. These traditional methods are increasingly being superseded by high-throughput techniques capable of surveying meiotic recombination on a genome-wide basis. Next-generation sequencing or microarray hybridization is used to genotype thousands of polymorphic markers in the progeny of hybrid yeast strains. New computational tools are needed to perform this genotyping and to find and analyze recombination events. We have developed a suite of programs, ReCombine, for using short sequence reads from next-generation sequencing experiments to genotype yeast meiotic progeny. Upon genotyping, the program CrossOver, a component of ReCombine, then detects recombination products and classifies them into categories based on the features found at each location and their distribution among the various chromatids. CrossOver is also capable of analyzing segregation data from microarray experiments or other sources. This package of programs is designed to allow even researchers without computational expertise to use high-throughput, whole-genome methods to study the molecular mechanisms of meiotic recombination.

  8. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

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    Maria Balcova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd, it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2 genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  9. Contrasted patterns of crossover and non-crossover at Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic recombination hotspots.

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    Jan Drouaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of meiotic recombination events (crossovers (COs and non-crossovers (NCOs cluster in narrow hotspots surrounded by large regions devoid of recombinational activity. Here, using a new molecular approach in plants, called "pollen-typing", we detected and characterized hundreds of CO and NCO molecules in two different hotspot regions in Arabidopsis thaliana. This analysis revealed that COs are concentrated in regions of a few kilobases where their rates reach up to 50 times the genome average. The hotspots themselves tend to cluster in regions less than 8 kilobases in size with overlapping CO distribution. Non-crossover (NCO events also occurred in the two hotspots but at very different levels (local CO/NCO ratios of 1/1 and 30/1 and their track lengths were quite small (a few hundred base pairs. We also showed that the ZMM protein MSH4 plays a role in CO formation and somewhat unexpectedly we also found that it is involved in the generation of NCOs but with a different level of effect. Finally, factors acting in cis and in trans appear to shape the rate and distribution of COs at meiotic recombination hotspots.

  10. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

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    Ye Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs to generate crossovers (COs during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  11. Meiotic recombination modulates the structure and dynamics of the synaptonemal complex during C. elegans meiosis.

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    Divya Pattabiraman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase, a structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC assembles at the interface between aligned pairs of homologous chromosomes, and crossover recombination events occur between their DNA molecules. Here we investigate the inter-relationships between these two hallmark features of the meiotic program in the nematode C. elegans, revealing dynamic properties of the SC that are modulated by recombination. We demonstrate that the SC incorporates new subunits and switches from a more highly dynamic/labile state to a more stable state as germ cells progress through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase. We further show that the more dynamic state of the SC is prolonged in mutants where meiotic recombination is impaired. Moreover, in meiotic mutants where recombination intermediates are present in limiting numbers, SC central region subunits become preferentially stabilized on the subset of chromosome pairs that harbor a site where pro-crossover factors COSA-1 and MutSγ are concentrated. Polo-like kinase PLK-2 becomes preferentially localized to the SCs of chromosome pairs harboring recombination sites prior to the enrichment of SC central region proteins on such chromosomes, and PLK-2 is required for this enrichment to occur. Further, late pachytene nuclei in a plk-2 mutant exhibit the more highly dynamic SC state. Together our data demonstrate that crossover recombination events elicit chromosome-autonomous stabilizing effects on the SC and implicate PLK-2 in this process. We discuss how this recombination-triggered modulation of SC state might contribute to regulatory mechanisms that operate during meiosis to ensure the formation of crossovers while at the same time limiting their numbers.

  12. Unisexual Reproduction Drives Meiotic Recombination and Phenotypic and Karyotypic Plasticity in Cryptococcus neoformans

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    Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, R. Blake; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In fungi, unisexual reproduction, where sexual development is initiated without the presence of two compatible mating type alleles, has been observed in several species that can also undergo traditional bisexual reproduction, including the important human fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. While unisexual reproduction has been well characterized qualitatively, detailed quantifications are still lacking for aspects of this process, such as the frequency of recombination during unisexual reproduction, and how this compares with bisexual reproduction. Here, we analyzed meiotic recombination during α-α unisexual and a-α bisexual reproduction of C. neoformans. We found that meiotic recombination operates in a similar fashion during both modes of sexual reproduction. Specifically, we observed that in α-α unisexual reproduction, the numbers of crossovers along the chromosomes during meiosis, recombination frequencies at specific chromosomal regions, as well as meiotic recombination hot and cold spots, are all similar to those observed during a-α bisexual reproduction. The similarity in meiosis is also reflected by the fact that phenotypic segregation among progeny collected from the two modes of sexual reproduction is also similar, with transgressive segregation being observed in both. Additionally, we found diploid meiotic progeny were also produced at similar frequencies in the two modes of sexual reproduction, and transient chromosomal loss and duplication likely occurs frequently and results in aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity that can span entire chromosomes. Furthermore, in both α-α unisexual and a-α bisexual reproduction, we observed biased allele inheritance in regions on chromosome 4, suggesting the presence of fragile chromosomal regions that might be vulnerable to mitotic recombination. Interestingly, we also observed a crossover event that occurred within the MAT locus during α-α unisexual reproduction. Our results

  13. Meiotic homoeologous recombination-based alien gene introgression in the genomics era of wheat

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    Wheat (Triticum spp.) has a narrow genetic basis due to its allopolyploid origin. However, wheat has numerous wild relatives usable for expanding genetic variability of its genome through meiotic homoeologous recombination. Traditionally, laborious cytological analyses have been employed to detect h...

  14. BRIT1/MCPH1 is essential for mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair and maintaining genomic stability in mice.

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    Yulong Liang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BRIT1 protein (also known as MCPH1 contains 3 BRCT domains which are conserved in BRCA1, BRCA2, and other important molecules involved in DNA damage signaling, DNA repair, and tumor suppression. BRIT1 mutations or aberrant expression are found in primary microcephaly patients as well as in cancer patients. Recent in vitro studies suggest that BRIT1/MCPH1 functions as a novel key regulator in the DNA damage response pathways. To investigate its physiological role and dissect the underlying mechanisms, we generated BRIT1(-/- mice and identified its essential roles in mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Both BRIT1(-/- mice and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were hypersensitive to gamma-irradiation. BRIT1(-/- MEFs and T lymphocytes exhibited severe chromatid breaks and reduced RAD51 foci formation after irradiation. Notably, BRIT1(-/- mice were infertile and meiotic homologous recombination was impaired. BRIT1-deficient spermatocytes exhibited a failure of chromosomal synapsis, and meiosis was arrested at late zygotene of prophase I accompanied by apoptosis. In mutant spermatocytes, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs were formed, but localization of RAD51 or BRCA2 to meiotic chromosomes was severely impaired. In addition, we found that BRIT1 could bind to RAD51/BRCA2 complexes and that, in the absence of BRIT1, recruitment of RAD51 and BRCA2 to chromatin was reduced while their protein levels were not altered, indicating that BRIT1 is involved in mediating recruitment of RAD51/BRCA2 to the damage site. Collectively, our BRIT1-null mouse model demonstrates that BRIT1 is essential for maintaining genomic stability in vivo to protect the hosts from both programmed and irradiation-induced DNA damages, and its depletion causes a failure in both mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair via impairing RAD51/BRCA2's function and as a result leads to infertility and genomic instability in mice.

  15. The meiotic recombination checkpoint suppresses NHK-1 kinase to prevent reorganisation of the oocyte nucleus in Drosophila.

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    Oscar M Lancaster

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The meiotic recombination checkpoint is a signalling pathway that blocks meiotic progression when the repair of DNA breaks formed during recombination is delayed. In comparison to the signalling pathway itself, however, the molecular targets of the checkpoint that control meiotic progression are not well understood in metazoans. In Drosophila, activation of the meiotic checkpoint is known to prevent formation of the karyosome, a meiosis-specific organisation of chromosomes, but the molecular pathway by which this occurs remains to be identified. Here we show that the conserved kinase NHK-1 (Drosophila Vrk-1 is a crucial meiotic regulator controlled by the meiotic checkpoint. An nhk-1 mutation, whilst resulting in karyosome defects, does so independent of meiotic checkpoint activation. Rather, we find unrepaired DNA breaks formed during recombination suppress NHK-1 activity (inferred from the phosphorylation level of one of its substrates through the meiotic checkpoint. Additionally DNA breaks induced by X-rays in cultured cells also suppress NHK-1 kinase activity. Unrepaired DNA breaks in oocytes also delay other NHK-1 dependent nuclear events, such as synaptonemal complex disassembly and condensin loading onto chromosomes. Therefore we propose that NHK-1 is a crucial regulator of meiosis and that the meiotic checkpoint suppresses NHK-1 activity to prevent oocyte nuclear reorganisation until DNA breaks are repaired.

  16. Immunocytological analysis of meiotic recombination in two anole lizards (Squamata, Dactyloidae).

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    Lisachov, Artem P; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Giovannotti, Massimo; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Borodin, Pavel M

    2017-01-01

    Although the evolutionary importance of meiotic recombination is not disputed, the significance of interspecies differences in the recombination rates and recombination landscapes remains under-appreciated. Recombination rates and distribution of chiasmata have been examined cytologically in many mammalian species, whereas data on other vertebrates are scarce. Immunolocalization of the protein of the synaptonemal complex (SYCP3), centromere proteins and the mismatch-repair protein MLH1 was used, which is associated with the most common type of recombination nodules, to analyze the pattern of meiotic recombination in the male of two species of iguanian lizards, Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 and Deiroptyx coelestinus (Cope, 1862). These species are separated by a relatively long evolutionary history although they retain the ancestral iguanian karyotype. In both species similar and extremely uneven distributions of MLH1 foci along the macrochromosome bivalents were detected: approximately 90% of crossovers were located at the distal 20% of the chromosome arm length. Almost total suppression of recombination in the intermediate and proximal regions of the chromosome arms contradicts the hypothesis that "homogenous recombination" is responsible for the low variation in GC content across the anole genome. It also leads to strong linkage disequilibrium between the genes located in these regions, which may benefit conservation of co-adaptive gene arrays responsible for the ecological adaptations of the anoles.

  17. Cis- and trans-acting elements regulate the mouse Psmb9 meiotic recombination hotspot.

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    Frédéric Baudat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In most eukaryotes, the prophase of the first meiotic division is characterized by a high level of homologous recombination between homologous chromosomes. Recombination events are not distributed evenly within the genome, but vary both locally and at large scale. Locally, most recombination events are clustered in short intervals (a few kilobases called hotspots, separated by large intervening regions with no or very little recombination. Despite the importance of regulating both the frequency and the distribution of recombination events, the genetic factors controlling the activity of the recombination hotspots in mammals are still poorly understood. We previously characterized a recombination hotspot located close to the Psmb9 gene in the mouse major histocompatibility complex by sperm typing, demonstrating that it is a site of recombination initiation. With the goal of uncovering some of the genetic factors controlling the activity of this initiation site, we analyzed this hotspot in both male and female germ lines and compared the level of recombination in different hybrid mice. We show that a haplotype-specific element acts at distance and in trans to activate about 2,000-fold the recombination activity at Psmb9. Another haplotype-specific element acts in cis to repress initiation of recombination, and we propose this control to be due to polymorphisms located within the initiation zone. In addition, we describe subtle variations in the frequency and distribution of recombination events related to strain and sex differences. These findings show that most regulations observed act at the level of initiation and provide the first analysis of the control of the activity of a meiotic recombination hotspot in the mouse genome that reveals the interactions of elements located both in and outside the hotspot.

  18. Fine-scale variation in meiotic recombination in Mimulus inferred from population shotgun sequencing

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    Hellsten, Uffe [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Wright, Kevin M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jenkins, Jerry [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Shu, Shengqiang [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Yuan, Yao-Wu [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wessler, Susan R. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Schmutz, Jeremy [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Willis, John H. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Rokhsar, Daniel S. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-13

    Meiotic recombination rates can vary widely across genomes, with hotspots of intense activity interspersed among cold regions. In yeast, hotspots tend to occur in promoter regions of genes, whereas in humans and mice hotspots are largely defined by binding sites of the PRDM9 protein. To investigate the detailed recombination pattern in a flowering plant we use shotgun resequencing of a wild population of the monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus to precisely locate over 400,000 boundaries of historic crossovers or gene conversion tracts. Their distribution defines some 13,000 hotspots of varying strengths, interspersed with cold regions of undetectably low recombination. Average recombination rates peak near starts of genes and fall off sharply, exhibiting polarity. Within genes, recombination tracts are more likely to terminate in exons than in introns. The general pattern is similar to that observed in yeast, as well as in PRDM9-knockout mice, suggesting that recombination initiation described here in Mimulus may reflect ancient and conserved eukaryotic mechanisms

  19. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of

  20. Sequencing of Single Pollen Nuclei Reveals Meiotic Recombination Events at Megabase Resolution and Circumvents Segregation Distortion Caused by Postmeiotic Processes

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    Steven Dreissig

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is a fundamental mechanism to generate novel allelic combinations which can be harnessed by breeders to achieve crop improvement. The recombination landscape of many crop species, including the major crop barley, is characterized by a dearth of recombination in 65% of the genome. In addition, segregation distortion caused by selection on genetically linked loci is a frequent and undesirable phenomenon in double haploid populations which hampers genetic mapping and breeding. Here, we present an approach to directly investigate recombination at the DNA sequence level by combining flow-sorting of haploid pollen nuclei of barley with single-cell genome sequencing. We confirm the skewed distribution of recombination events toward distal chromosomal regions at megabase resolution and show that segregation distortion is almost absent if directly measured in pollen. Furthermore, we show a bimodal distribution of inter-crossover distances, which supports the existence of two classes of crossovers which are sensitive or less sensitive to physical interference. We conclude that single pollen nuclei sequencing is an approach capable of revealing recombination patterns in the absence of segregation distortion.

  1. Analysis of DNA polymerase ν function in meiotic recombination, immunoglobulin class-switching, and DNA damage tolerance.

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    Kei-Ichi Takata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase ν (pol ν, encoded by the POLN gene, is an A-family DNA polymerase in vertebrates and some other animal lineages. Here we report an in-depth analysis of pol ν-defective mice and human cells. POLN is very weakly expressed in most tissues, with the highest relative expression in testis. We constructed multiple mouse models for Poln disruption and detected no anatomic abnormalities, alterations in lifespan, or changed causes of mortality. Mice with inactive Poln are fertile and have normal testis morphology. However, pol ν-disrupted mice have a modestly reduced crossover frequency at a meiotic recombination hot spot harboring insertion/deletion polymorphisms. These polymorphisms are suggested to generate a looped-out primer and a hairpin structure during recombination, substrates on which pol ν can operate. Pol ν-defective mice had no alteration in DNA end-joining during immunoglobulin class-switching, in contrast to animals defective in the related DNA polymerase θ (pol θ. We examined the response to DNA crosslinking agents, as purified pol ν has some ability to bypass major groove peptide adducts and residues of DNA crosslink repair. Inactivation of Poln in mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not alter cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C, cisplatin, or aldehydes. Depletion of POLN from human cells with shRNA or siRNA did not change cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C or alter the frequency of mitomycin C-induced radial chromosomes. Our results suggest a function of pol ν in meiotic homologous recombination in processing specific substrates. The restricted and more recent evolutionary appearance of pol ν (in comparison to pol θ supports such a specialized role.

  2. Sequential Immunofluorescent Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy of Recombination Nodules During Meiotic Prophase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorinda K

    2017-01-01

    Immunolocalization using either fluorescence for light microscopy (LM) or gold particles for electron microscopy (EM) has become a common tool to pinpoint proteins involved in recombination during meiotic prophase. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, LM immunofluorescence is comparatively easier and higher throughput compared to immunogold EM localization. In addition, immunofluorescence has the advantages that a faint signal can often be enhanced by longer exposure times and colocalization using two (or more) probes with different absorbance and emission spectra is straightforward. However, immunofluorescence is not useful if the object of interest does not label with an antibody probe and is below the resolution of the LM. In comparison, immunogold EM localization is higher resolution than immunofluorescent LM localization, and individual nuclear structures, such as recombination nodules, can be identified by EM regardless of whether they are labeled or not. However, immunogold localization has other disadvantages including comparatively low signal-to-noise ratios, more difficult colocalization using gold particles of different sizes, and the inability to evaluate labeling efficiency before examining the sample using EM (a more expensive and time-consuming technique than LM). Here we describe a method that takes advantage of the good points of both immunofluorescent LM and EM to analyze two classes of late recombination nodules (RNs), only one of which labels with antibodies to MLH1 protein, a marker of crossovers. The method can be used readily with other antibodies to analyze early recombination nodules or other prophase I structures.

  3. Senataxin plays an essential role with DNA damage response proteins in meiotic recombination and gene silencing.

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    Olivier J Becherel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2, plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops, and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx⁻/⁻ revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome.

  4. Effects of the rad52 gene on recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [Comparison of. gamma. -, uv-induced meiotic and spontaneous mitotic recombination

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    Prakash, S.; Prakash, L.; Burke, W.; Montelone, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of the rad52 mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on meiotic, ..gamma..-ray-induced, uv-induced, and spontaneous mitotic recombination were studied. The rad52/rad52 diploids undergo premeiotic DNA synthesis; sporulation occurs but inviable spores are produced. Intra- and intergenic recombination during meiosis were examined in cells transferred from sporulation medium to vegetative medium at different time intervals. No intragenic recombination was observed at the hisl-1/hisl-315 and trp5-2/trp5-48 heteroalleles. Gene-centromere recombination was also not observed in rad52/rad52 diploids. No ..gamma..-ray-induced intragenic mitotic recombination is seen in rad52/rad52 diploids and uv-induced intragenic recombination is greatly reduced. However, spontaneous mitotic recombination is not similarly affected. The RAD52 gene thus functions in recombination in meiosis and in ..gamma..-ray and uv-induced mitotic recombination but not in spontaneous mitotic recombination.

  5. Direct and indirect control of the initiation of meiotic recombination by DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in budding yeast.

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    Bilge Argunhan

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination plays an essential role in the proper segregation of chromosomes at meiosis I in many sexually reproducing organisms. Meiotic recombination is initiated by the scheduled formation of genome-wide DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. The timing of DSB formation is strictly controlled because unscheduled DSB formation is detrimental to genome integrity. Here, we investigated the role of DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in the control of meiotic DSB formation using budding yeast. By using recombination defective mutants in which meiotic DSBs are not repaired, the effect of DNA damage checkpoint mutations on DSB formation was evaluated. The Tel1 (ATM pathway mainly responds to unresected DSB ends, thus the sae2 mutant background in which DSB ends remain intact was employed. On the other hand, the Mec1 (ATR pathway is primarily used when DSB ends are resected, thus the rad51 dmc1 double mutant background was employed in which highly resected DSBs accumulate. In order to separate the effect caused by unscheduled cell cycle progression, which is often associated with DNA damage checkpoint defects, we also employed the ndt80 mutation which permanently arrests the meiotic cell cycle at prophase I. In the absence of Tel1, DSB formation was reduced in larger chromosomes (IV, VII, II and XI whereas no significant reduction was found in smaller chromosomes (III and VI. On the other hand, the absence of Rad17 (a critical component of the ATR pathway lead to an increase in DSB formation (chromosomes VII and II were tested. We propose that, within prophase I, the Tel1 pathway facilitates DSB formation, especially in bigger chromosomes, while the Mec1 pathway negatively regulates DSB formation. We also identified prophase I exit, which is under the control of the DNA damage checkpoint machinery, to be a critical event associated with down-regulating meiotic DSB formation.

  6. Evidence that meiotic pairing starts at the telomeres: Molecular analysis of recombination in a family with a pericentric X chromosome inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashi, V.; Allinson, P.S.; Golden, W.L.; Kelly, T.E. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies in yeast have shown that telomeres rather than centromeres lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may have a role in recombination. Cytological studies of meiosis in Drosophila and mice have shown that in pericentric inversion heterozygotes there is lack of loop formation, with recobmination seen only outside the inversion. In a family with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) we recognized that only affected males and carrier females had a pericentric X chromosome inversion (inv X(p11.4;q26)). Since the short arm inversion breakpoint was proximal to the DMD locus, it could not be implicated in the mutational event causing DMD. There was no history of infertility, recurrent miscarriages or liveborn unbalanced females to suggest there was recombination within the inversion. We studied 22 members over three generations to understand the pattern of meiotic recombination between the normal and the inverted X chromosome. In total, 17 meioses involving the inverted X chromosome in females were studied by cytogenetic analysis and 16 CA repeat polymorphisms along the length of the X chromosome. Results: (a) There was complete concordance between the segregation of the DMD mutation and the inverted X chromosome. (b) On DNA analysis, there was complete absence of recombination within the inverted segment. We also found no recombination at the DMD locus. Recombination was seen only at Xp22 and Xq27-28. (c) Recombination was seen in the same individual at both Xp22 and Xq27-28 without recombination otherwise. Conclusions: (1) Pericentric X inversions reduce the genetic map length of the chromosome, with the physical map length being normal. (2) Meiotic X chromosome pairing in this family is initiated at the telomeres. (3) Following telomeric pairing in pericentric X chromosome inversions, there is inhibition of recombination within the inversion and adjacent regions.

  7. Novel nucleotide sequence motifs that produce hotspots of meiotic recombination in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Walter W; Steiner, Estelle M; Girvin, Angela R; Plewik, Lauren E

    2009-06-01

    In many organisms, including yeasts and humans, meiotic recombination is initiated preferentially at a limited number of sites in the genome referred to as recombination hotspots. Predicting precisely the location of most hotspots has remained elusive. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hotspots can result from multiple different sequence motifs. We devised a method to rapidly screen many short random oligonucleotide sequences for hotspot activity in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and produced a library of approximately 500 unique 15- and 30-bp sequences containing hotspots. The frequency of hotspots found suggests that there may be a relatively large number of different sequence motifs that produce hotspots. Within our sequence library, we found many shorter 6- to 10-bp motifs that occurred multiple times, many of which produced hotspots when reconstructed in vivo. On the basis of sequence similarity, we were able to group those hotspots into five different sequence families. At least one of the novel hotspots we found appears to be a target for a transcription factor, as it requires that factor for its hotspot activity. We propose that many hotspots in S. pombe, and perhaps other organisms, result from simple sequence motifs, some of which are identified here.

  8. Cohesin SMC1 beta is required for meiotic chromosome dynamics, sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revenkova, E.; Eijpe, M.; Heyting, C.; Hodges, C.A.; Hunt, P.A.; Liebe, B.; Scherthan, H.; Jessberger, R.

    2004-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion ensures the faithful segregation of chromosomes in mitosis and in both meiotic divisions1, 2, 3, 4. Meiosis-specific components of the cohesin complex, including the recently described SMC1 isoform SMC15, were suggested to be required for meiotic sister chromatid cohesion

  9. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Takato, S.

    1982-01-01

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M 1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M 1 , especially with low exposure

  10. Genetic probing of homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining during meiotic prophase in irradiated mouse spermatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Emad A. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516 Assiut (Egypt); Philippens, Marielle E.P.; Kal, Henk B. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Rooij, Dirk G. de, E-mail: d.g.derooij@uu.nl [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boer, Peter de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to obtain a better insight into the relative contribution of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at first meiotic prophase. Early and late pachytene and early diplotene spermatocytes that had completed crossing over were sampled. We studied the kinetics of {gamma}-H2AX chromatin foci removal after irradiation of mice deficient for HR and mice deficient for NHEJ. Analyzing {gamma}-H2AX signals in unirradiated RAD54/RAD54B deficient spermatocytes indicated incomplete meiotic recombination repair due to the pronounced increase of {gamma}-H2AX foci in late prophase primary spermatocytes. In these mice, 8 h after irradiation, early pachytene spermatocytes showed a reduction of the numbers of {gamma}-H2AX foci by 52% compared to 82% in the wild type, the difference being significant. However, after crossing over (in late pachytene and early diplotene), no effect of RAD54/RAD54B deficiency on the reduction of irradiation-induced foci was observed. In NHEJ deficient SCID mice, repair kinetics in early spermatocytes were similar to those in wild type mice. However, 1 h after irradiation in late pachytene and early diplotene spermatocytes 1.7 times more foci were found than in wild type mice. This difference might be related to the absence of a DNA-PKcs dependent fast repair component in SCID mice. As subsequent repair is normal, HR likely is taking over. Taken together, the results obtained in RAD54/RAD54B deficient mice and in SCID mice indicate that DSB repair in early pachytene spermatocytes is mainly carried out through HR. In late spermatocytes (late pachytenes and early diplotenes) NHEJ is active. However, probably there is an interplay between these repair pathways and when in late spermatocytes the NHEJ pathway is compromised HR may take over.

  11. Genetic probing of homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining during meiotic prophase in irradiated mouse spermatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Emad A; Philippens, Marielle E P; Kal, Henk B; de Rooij, Dirk G; de Boer, Peter

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to obtain a better insight into the relative contribution of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at first meiotic prophase. Early and late pachytene and early diplotene spermatocytes that had completed crossing over were sampled. We studied the kinetics of gamma-H2AX chromatin foci removal after irradiation of mice deficient for HR and mice deficient for NHEJ. Analyzing gamma-H2AX signals in unirradiated RAD54/RAD54B deficient spermatocytes indicated incomplete meiotic recombination repair due to the pronounced increase of gamma-H2AX foci in late prophase primary spermatocytes. In these mice, 8h after irradiation, early pachytene spermatocytes showed a reduction of the numbers of gamma-H2AX foci by 52% compared to 82% in the wild type, the difference being significant. However, after crossing over (in late pachytene and early diplotene), no effect of RAD54/RAD54B deficiency on the reduction of irradiation-induced foci was observed. In NHEJ deficient SCID mice, repair kinetics in early spermatocytes were similar to those in wild type mice. However, 1h after irradiation in late pachytene and early diplotene spermatocytes 1.7 times more foci were found than in wild type mice. This difference might be related to the absence of a DNA-PKcs dependent fast repair component in SCID mice. As subsequent repair is normal, HR likely is taking over. Taken together, the results obtained in RAD54/RAD54B deficient mice and in SCID mice indicate that DSB repair in early pachytene spermatocytes is mainly carried out through HR. In late spermatocytes (late pachytenes and early diplotenes) NHEJ is active. However, probably there is an interplay between these repair pathways and when in late spermatocytes the NHEJ pathway is compromised HR may take over. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solution structure and DNA-binding properties of the winged helix domain of the meiotic recombination HOP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moktan, Hem; Guiraldelli, Michel F; Eyster, Craig A; Zhao, Weixing; Lee, Chih-Ying; Mather, Timothy; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Sung, Patrick; Zhou, Donghua H; Pezza, Roberto J

    2014-05-23

    The HOP2 protein is required for efficient double-strand break repair which ensures the proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes and normal meiotic progression. We previously showed that in vitro HOP2 shows two distinctive activities: when it is incorporated into a HOP2-MND1 heterodimer, it stimulates DMC1 and RAD51 recombination activities, and the purified HOP2 alone is proficient in promoting strand invasion. The structural and biochemical basis of HOP2 action in recombination are poorly understood; therefore, they are the focus of this work. Herein, we present the solution structure of the amino-terminal portion of mouse HOP2, which contains a typical winged helix DNA-binding domain. Together with NMR spectral changes in the presence of double-stranded DNA, protein docking on DNA, and mutation analysis to identify the amino acids involved in DNA coordination, our results on the three-dimensional structure of HOP2 provide key information on the fundamental structural and biochemical requirements directing the interaction of HOP2 with DNA. These results, in combination with mutational experiments showing the role of a coiled-coil structural feature involved in HOP2 self-association, allow us to explain important aspects of the function of HOP2 in recombination. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Solution Structure and DNA-binding Properties of the Winged Helix Domain of the Meiotic Recombination HOP2 Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moktan, Hem; Guiraldelli, Michel F.; Eyster, Craig A.; Zhao, Weixing; Lee, Chih-Ying; Mather, Timothy; Camerini-Otero, R. Daniel; Sung, Patrick; Zhou, Donghua H.; Pezza, Roberto J.

    2014-01-01

    The HOP2 protein is required for efficient double-strand break repair which ensures the proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes and normal meiotic progression. We previously showed that in vitro HOP2 shows two distinctive activities: when it is incorporated into a HOP2-MND1 heterodimer, it stimulates DMC1 and RAD51 recombination activities, and the purified HOP2 alone is proficient in promoting strand invasion. The structural and biochemical basis of HOP2 action in recombination are poorly understood; therefore, they are the focus of this work. Herein, we present the solution structure of the amino-terminal portion of mouse HOP2, which contains a typical winged helix DNA-binding domain. Together with NMR spectral changes in the presence of double-stranded DNA, protein docking on DNA, and mutation analysis to identify the amino acids involved in DNA coordination, our results on the three-dimensional structure of HOP2 provide key information on the fundamental structural and biochemical requirements directing the interaction of HOP2 with DNA. These results, in combination with mutational experiments showing the role of a coiled-coil structural feature involved in HOP2 self-association, allow us to explain important aspects of the function of HOP2 in recombination. PMID:24711446

  14. Improving ethanol fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high-gravity fermentation through chemical mutagenesis and meiotic recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Ding, Wen-Tao; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Wang, Jing-Yu [Tianjin Univ. (China). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering

    2011-08-15

    Genome shuffling is an efficient way to improve complex phenotypes under the control of multiple genes. For the improvement of strain's performance in very high-gravity (VHG) fermentation, we developed a new method of genome shuffling. A diploid ste2/ste2 strain was subjected to EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutagenesis followed by meiotic recombination-mediated genome shuffling. The resulting haploid progenies were intrapopulation sterile and therefore haploid recombinant cells with improved phenotypes were directly selected under selection condition. In VHG fermentation, strain WS1D and WS5D obtained by this approach exhibited remarkably enhanced tolerance to ethanol and osmolarity, increased metabolic rate, and 15.12% and 15.59% increased ethanol yield compared to the starting strain W303D, respectively. These results verified the feasibility of the strain improvement strategy and suggested that it is a powerful and high throughput method for development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with desired phenotypes that is complex and cannot be addressed with rational approaches. (orig.)

  15. Refined genetic maps reveal sexual dimorphism in human meiotic recombination at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhérer, Claude; Campbell, Christopher L.; Auton, Adam

    2017-04-01

    In humans, males have lower recombination rates than females over the majority of the genome, but the opposite is usually true near the telomeres. These broad-scale differences have been known for decades, yet little is known about differences at the fine scale. By combining data sets, we have collected recombination events from over 100,000 meioses and have constructed sex-specific genetic maps at a previously unachievable resolution. Here we show that, although a substantial fraction of the genome shows some degree of sexually dimorphic recombination, the vast majority of hotspots are shared between the sexes, with only a small number of putative sex-specific hotspots. Wavelet analysis indicates that most of the differences can be attributed to the fine scale, and that variation in rate between the sexes can mostly be explained by differences in hotspot magnitude, rather than location. Nonetheless, known recombination-associated genomic features, such as THE1B repeat elements, show systematic differences between the sexes.

  16. Sequence requirement of the ade6-4095 meiotic recombination hotspot in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Steven J; Fowler, Kyle R; Steiner, Walter W

    2018-02-01

    Homologous recombination occurs at a greatly elevated frequency in meiosis compared to mitosis and is initiated by programmed double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). DSBs do not occur at uniform frequency throughout the genome in most organisms, but occur preferentially at a limited number of sites referred to as hotspots. The location of hotspots have been determined at nucleotide-level resolution in both the budding and fission yeasts, and while several patterns have emerged regarding preferred locations for DSB hotspots, it remains unclear why particular sites experience DSBs at much higher frequency than other sites with seemingly similar properties. Short sequence motifs, which are often sites for binding of transcription factors, are known to be responsible for a number of hotspots. In this study we identified the minimum sequence required for activity of one of such motif identified in a screen of random sequences capable of producing recombination hotspots. The experimentally determined sequence, GGTCTRGACC, closely matches the previously inferred sequence. Full hotspot activity requires an effective sequence length of 9.5 bp, whereas moderate activity requires an effective sequence length of approximately 8.2 bp and shows significant association with DSB hotspots. In combination with our previous work, this result is consistent with a large number of different sequence motifs capable of producing recombination hotspots, and supports a model in which hotspots can be rapidly regenerated by mutation as they are lost through recombination.

  17. Matefin/SUN-1 phosphorylation is part of a surveillance mechanism to coordinate chromosome synapsis and recombination with meiotic progression and chromosome movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Woglar

    Full Text Available Faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis I depends on the establishment of a crossover between homologous chromosomes. This requires induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, alignment of homologs, homolog association by synapsis, and repair of DSBs via homologous recombination. The success of these events requires coordination between chromosomal events and meiotic progression. The conserved SUN/KASH nuclear envelope bridge establishes transient linkages between chromosome ends and cytoskeletal forces during meiosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this bridge is essential for bringing homologs together and preventing nonhomologous synapsis. Chromosome movement takes place during synapsis and recombination. Concomitant with the onset of chromosome movement, SUN-1 clusters at chromosome ends associated with the nuclear envelope, and it is phosphorylated in a chk-2- and plk-2-dependent manner. Identification of all SUN-1 phosphomodifications at its nuclear N terminus allowed us to address their role in prophase I. Failures in recombination and synapsis led to persistent phosphorylations, which are required to elicit a delay in progression. Unfinished meiotic tasks elicited sustained recruitment of PLK-2 to chromosome ends in a SUN-1 phosphorylation-dependent manner that is required for continued chromosome movement and characteristic of a zygotene arrest. Furthermore, SUN-1 phosphorylation supported efficient synapsis. We propose that signals emanating from a failure to successfully finish meiotic tasks are integrated at the nuclear periphery to regulate chromosome end-led movement and meiotic progression. The single unsynapsed X chromosome in male meiosis is precluded from inducing a progression delay, and we found it was devoid of a population of phosphorylated SUN-1. This suggests that SUN-1 phosphorylation is critical to delaying meiosis in response to perturbed synapsis. SUN-1 may be an integral part of a checkpoint system to monitor

  18. Topoisomerase 3alpha and RMI1 suppress somatic crossovers and are essential for resolution of meiotic recombination intermediates in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Frank Hartung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Topoisomerases are enzymes with crucial functions in DNA metabolism. They are ubiquitously present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and modify the steady-state level of DNA supercoiling. Biochemical analyses indicate that Topoisomerase 3alpha (TOP3alpha functions together with a RecQ DNA helicase and a third partner, RMI1/BLAP75, in the resolution step of homologous recombination in a process called Holliday Junction dissolution in eukaryotes. Apart from that, little is known about the role of TOP3alpha in higher eukaryotes, as knockout mutants show early lethality or strong developmental defects. Using a hypomorphic insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (top3alpha-2, which is viable but completely sterile, we were able to define three different functions of the protein in mitosis and meiosis. The top3alpha-2 line exhibits fragmented chromosomes during mitosis and sensitivity to camptothecin, suggesting an important role in chromosome segregation partly overlapping with that of type IB topoisomerases. Furthermore, AtTOP3alpha, together with AtRECQ4A and AtRMI1, is involved in the suppression of crossover recombination in somatic cells as well as DNA repair in both mammals and A. thaliana. Surprisingly, AtTOP3alpha is also essential for meiosis. The phenotype of chromosome fragmentation, bridges, and telophase I arrest can be suppressed by AtSPO11 and AtRAD51 mutations, indicating that the protein is required for the resolution of recombination intermediates. As Atrmi1 mutants have a similar meiotic phenotype to Attop3alpha mutants, both proteins seem to be involved in a mechanism safeguarding the entangling of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. The requirement of AtTOP3alpha and AtRMI1 in a late step of meiotic recombination strongly hints at the possibility that the dissolution of double Holliday Junctions via a hemicatenane intermediate is indeed an indispensable step of meiotic recombination.

  19. Differences in meiotic recombination rates in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia at an MHC class II hotspot close to disease associated haplotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Thompson

    Full Text Available Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL is a malignant lymphoid disease of which B-cell precursor- (BCP and T-cell- (T ALL are subtypes. The role of alleles encoded by major histocompatibility loci (MHC have been examined in a number of previous studies and results indicating weak, multi-allele associations between the HLA-DPB1 locus and BCP-ALL suggested a role for immunosusceptibility and possibly infection. Two independent SNP association studies of ALL identified loci approximately 37 kb from one another and flanking a strong meiotic recombination hotspot (DNA3, adjacent to HLA-DOA and centromeric of HLA-DPB1. To determine the relationship between this observation and HLA-DPB1 associations, we constructed high density SNP haplotypes of the 316 kb region from HLA-DMB to COL11A2 in childhood ALL and controls using a UK GWAS data subset and the software PHASE. Of four haplotype blocks identified, predicted haplotypes in Block 1 (centromeric of DNA3 differed significantly between BCP-ALL and controls (P = 0.002 and in Block 4 (including HLA-DPB1 between T-ALL and controls (P = 0.049. Of specific common (>5% haplotypes in Block 1, two were less frequent in BCP-ALL, and in Block 4 a single haplotype was more frequent in T-ALL, compared to controls. Unexpectedly, we also observed apparent differences in ancestral meiotic recombination rates at DNA3, with BCP-ALL showing increased and T-ALL decreased levels compared to controls. In silico analysis using LDsplit sotware indicated that recombination rates at DNA3 are influenced by flanking loci, including SNPs identified in childhood ALL association studies. The observed differences in rates of meiotic recombination at this hotspot, and potentially others, may be a characteristic of childhood leukemia and contribute to disease susceptibility, alternatively they may reflect interactions between ALL-associated haplotypes in this region.

  20. Interpopulation hybridization generates meiotically stable rDNA epigenetic variants in allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyášek, Roman; Dobešová, Eva; Húska, Dalibor; Ježková, Ivana; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Kovařík, Aleš

    2016-02-01

    Uniparental silencing of 35S rRNA genes (rDNA), known as nucleolar dominance (ND), is common in interspecific hybrids. Allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus composed of Tragopogon dubius (d) and Tragopogon porrifolius (p) genomes shows highly variable ND. To examine the molecular basis of such variation, we studied the genetic and epigenetic features of rDNA homeologs in several lines derived from recently and independently formed natural populations. Inbred lines derived from T. mirus with a dominant d-rDNA homeolog transmitted this expression pattern over generations, which may explain why it is prevalent among natural populations. In contrast, lines derived from the p-rDNA dominant progenitor were meiotically unstable, frequently switching to co-dominance. Interpopulation crosses between progenitors displaying reciprocal ND resulted in d-rDNA dominance, indicating immediate suppression of p-homeologs in F1 hybrids. Original p-rDNA dominance was not restored in later generations, even in those segregants that inherited the corresponding parental rDNA genotype, thus indicating the generation of additional p-rDNA and d-rDNA epigenetic variants. Despite preserved intergenic spacer (IGS) structure, they showed altered cytosine methylation and chromatin condensation patterns, and a correlation between expression, hypomethylation of RNA Pol I promoters and chromatin decondensation was apparent. Reversion of such epigenetic variants occurred rarely, resulting in co-dominance maintained in individuals with distinct genotypes. Generally, interpopulation crosses may generate epialleles that are not present in natural populations, underlying epigenetic dynamics in young allopolyploids. We hypothesize that highly expressed variants with distinct IGS features may induce heritable epigenetic reprogramming of the partner rDNA arrays, harmonizing the expression of thousands of genes in allopolyploids. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Heteroduplex DNA in Mismatch Repair–Deficient Yeast Cells Reveals Novel Properties of Meiotic Recombination Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Emmanuelle; Borde, Valérie; Legendre, Matthieu; Audic, Stéphane; Regnault, Béatrice; Soubigou, Guillaume; Dujon, Bernard; Llorente, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiate crossover (CO) recombination, which is necessary for accurate chromosome segregation, but DSBs may also repair as non-crossovers (NCOs). Multiple recombination pathways with specific intermediates are expected to lead to COs and NCOs. We revisited the mechanisms of meiotic DSB repair and the regulation of CO formation, by conducting a genome-wide analysis of strand-transfer intermediates associated with recombination events. We performed this analysis in a SK1 × S288C Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrid lacking the mismatch repair (MMR) protein Msh2, to allow efficient detection of heteroduplex DNAs (hDNAs). First, we observed that the anti-recombinogenic activity of MMR is responsible for a 20% drop in CO number, suggesting that in MMR–proficient cells some DSBs are repaired using the sister chromatid as a template when polymorphisms are present. Second, we observed that a large fraction of NCOs were associated with trans–hDNA tracts constrained to a single chromatid. This unexpected finding is compatible with dissolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs) during repair, and it suggests the existence of a novel control point for CO formation at the level of the dHJ intermediate, in addition to the previously described control point before the dHJ formation step. Finally, we observed that COs are associated with complex hDNA patterns, confirming that the canonical double-strand break repair model is not sufficient to explain the formation of most COs. We propose that multiple factors contribute to the complexity of recombination intermediates. These factors include repair of nicks and double-stranded gaps, template switches between non-sister and sister chromatids, and HJ branch migration. Finally, the good correlation between the strand transfer properties observed in the absence of and in the presence of Msh2 suggests that the intermediates detected in the absence of Msh2 reflect normal intermediates. PMID

  2. Prdm9, a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, is not functional in dogs and their wild relatives, wolves and coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process needed for the correct segregation of chromosomes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. In humans, 80% of crossovers are estimated to occur at specific areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. Recently, a protein called PRDM9 was identified as a major player in determining the location of genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice. The origin of this protein seems to be ancient in evolutionary time, as reflected by its fairly conserved structure in lineages that diverged over 700 million years ago. Despite its important role, there are many animal groups in which Prdm9 is absent (e.g. birds, reptiles, amphibians, diptera and it has been suggested to have disruptive mutations and thus to be a pseudogene in dogs. Because of the dog's history through domestication and artificial selection, we wanted to confirm the presence of a disrupted Prdm9 gene in dogs and determine whether this was exclusive of this species or whether it also occurred in its wild ancestor, the wolf, and in a close relative, the coyote. We sequenced the region in the dog genome that aligned to the last exon of the human Prdm9, containing the entire zinc finger domain, in 4 dogs, 17 wolves and 2 coyotes. Our results show that the three canid species possess mutations that likely make this gene non functional. Because these mutations are shared across the three species, they must have appeared prior to the split of the wolf and the coyote, millions of years ago, and are not related to domestication. In addition, our results suggest that in these three canid species recombination does not occur at hotspots or hotspot location is controlled through a mechanism yet to be determined.

  3. Prdm9, a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, is not functional in dogs and their wild relatives, wolves and coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Di Rienzo, Anna; Vilà, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process needed for the correct segregation of chromosomes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. In humans, 80% of crossovers are estimated to occur at specific areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. Recently, a protein called PRDM9 was identified as a major player in determining the location of genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice. The origin of this protein seems to be ancient in evolutionary time, as reflected by its fairly conserved structure in lineages that diverged over 700 million years ago. Despite its important role, there are many animal groups in which Prdm9 is absent (e.g. birds, reptiles, amphibians, diptera) and it has been suggested to have disruptive mutations and thus to be a pseudogene in dogs. Because of the dog's history through domestication and artificial selection, we wanted to confirm the presence of a disrupted Prdm9 gene in dogs and determine whether this was exclusive of this species or whether it also occurred in its wild ancestor, the wolf, and in a close relative, the coyote. We sequenced the region in the dog genome that aligned to the last exon of the human Prdm9, containing the entire zinc finger domain, in 4 dogs, 17 wolves and 2 coyotes. Our results show that the three canid species possess mutations that likely make this gene non functional. Because these mutations are shared across the three species, they must have appeared prior to the split of the wolf and the coyote, millions of years ago, and are not related to domestication. In addition, our results suggest that in these three canid species recombination does not occur at hotspots or hotspot location is controlled through a mechanism yet to be determined.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of heteroduplex DNA in mismatch repair-deficient yeast cells reveals novel properties of meiotic recombination pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Martini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs initiate crossover (CO recombination, which is necessary for accurate chromosome segregation, but DSBs may also repair as non-crossovers (NCOs. Multiple recombination pathways with specific intermediates are expected to lead to COs and NCOs. We revisited the mechanisms of meiotic DSB repair and the regulation of CO formation, by conducting a genome-wide analysis of strand-transfer intermediates associated with recombination events. We performed this analysis in a SK1 × S288C Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrid lacking the mismatch repair (MMR protein Msh2, to allow efficient detection of heteroduplex DNAs (hDNAs. First, we observed that the anti-recombinogenic activity of MMR is responsible for a 20% drop in CO number, suggesting that in MMR-proficient cells some DSBs are repaired using the sister chromatid as a template when polymorphisms are present. Second, we observed that a large fraction of NCOs were associated with trans-hDNA tracts constrained to a single chromatid. This unexpected finding is compatible with dissolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs during repair, and it suggests the existence of a novel control point for CO formation at the level of the dHJ intermediate, in addition to the previously described control point before the dHJ formation step. Finally, we observed that COs are associated with complex hDNA patterns, confirming that the canonical double-strand break repair model is not sufficient to explain the formation of most COs. We propose that multiple factors contribute to the complexity of recombination intermediates. These factors include repair of nicks and double-stranded gaps, template switches between non-sister and sister chromatids, and HJ branch migration. Finally, the good correlation between the strand transfer properties observed in the absence of and in the presence of Msh2 suggests that the intermediates detected in the absence of Msh2 reflect normal intermediates.

  5. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Meiotic behaviour of Eragrostis tef and,i> Eragrostis Pilosa | Admas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also produced better seed and biomass yield and number of tillers than the parental lines which are the manifestation of meiotic stability in the hybrid and the subsequent generations. Pollen fertility test of the parental lines and selected recombinant inbred lines of E. tef and E. pilosa cross was also high (90 - 95%), which ...

  7. Generation of Modified Pestiviruses by Targeted Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Friis, Martin Barfred; Risager, Peter Christian

    involves targeted modification of viral cDNA genomes, cloned within BACs, by Red/ET recombination-mediated mutagenesis in E.coli DH10B cells. Using recombination-mediated mutagenesis for the targeted design, the work can be expedited and focused in principal on any sequence within the viral genome...

  8. Meiotic transmission of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosomal arrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Meisel

    Full Text Available Drosophila pseudoobscura harbors a rich gene arrangement polymorphism on the third chromosome generated by a series of overlapping paracentric inversions. The arrangements suppress recombination in heterokaryotypic individuals, which allows for the selective maintenance of coadapted gene complexes. Previous mapping experiments used to determine the degree to which recombination is suppressed in gene arrangement heterozygotes produced non-recombinant progeny in non-Mendelian ratios. The deviations from Mendelian expectations could be the result of viability differences between wild and mutant chromosomes, meiotic drive because of achiasmate pairing of homologues in heterokaryotypic females during meiosis, or a combination of both mechanisms. The possibility that the frequencies of the chromosomal arrangements in natural populations are affected by mechanisms other than adaptive selection led us to consider these hypotheses. We performed reciprocal crosses involving both heterozygous males and females to determine if the frequency of the non-recombinant progeny deviates significantly from Mendelian expectations and if the frequencies deviate between reciprocal crosses. We failed to observe non-Mendelian ratios in multiple crosses, and the frequency of the non-recombinant classes differed in only one of five pairs of reciprocal crosses despite sufficient power to detect these differences in all crosses. Our results indicate that deviations from Mendelian expectations in recombination experiments involving the D. pseudoobscura inversion system are most likely due to fitness differences of gene arrangement karyotypes in different environments.

  9. A Gene Regulatory Program for Meiotic Prophase in the Fetal Ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soh, Y Q Shirleen; Junker, Jan Philipp; Gill, Mark E; Mueller, Jacob L; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Page, David C

    The chromosomal program of meiotic prophase, comprising events such as laying down of meiotic cohesins, synapsis between homologs, and homologous recombination, must be preceded and enabled by the regulated induction of meiotic prophase genes. This gene regulatory program is poorly understood,

  10. Generation of truncated recombinant form of tumor necrosis factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generation of truncated recombinant form of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 to produce cancer vaccine. Hamide Hatamihanza1, Mehrdad Hashemi1*, Azim Akbarzadeh2, Fatemeh. Fotouhi3, Behrokh Farahmand3, Hasan Ebrahimi Shahmabadi4. 1Department of Molecular Genetics, Tehran Medical Branch, Islamic Azad ...

  11. Meioc maintains an extended meiotic prophase I in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Y Q Shirleen; Mikedis, Maria M; Kojima, Mina; Godfrey, Alexander K; de Rooij, Dirk G; Page, David C

    2017-04-01

    The meiosis-specific chromosomal events of homolog pairing, synapsis, and recombination occur over an extended meiotic prophase I that is many times longer than prophase of mitosis. Here we show that, in mice, maintenance of an extended meiotic prophase I requires the gene Meioc, a germ-cell specific factor conserved in most metazoans. In mice, Meioc is expressed in male and female germ cells upon initiation of and throughout meiotic prophase I. Mouse germ cells lacking Meioc initiate meiosis: they undergo pre-meiotic DNA replication, they express proteins involved in synapsis and recombination, and a subset of cells progress as far as the zygotene stage of prophase I. However, cells in early meiotic prophase-as early as the preleptotene stage-proceed to condense their chromosomes and assemble a spindle, as if having progressed to metaphase. Meioc-deficient spermatocytes that have initiated synapsis mis-express CYCLIN A2, which is normally expressed in mitotic spermatogonia, suggesting a failure to properly transition to a meiotic cell cycle program. MEIOC interacts with YTHDC2, and the two proteins pull-down an overlapping set of mitosis-associated transcripts. We conclude that when the meiotic chromosomal program is initiated, Meioc is simultaneously induced so as to extend meiotic prophase. Specifically, MEIOC, together with YTHDC2, promotes a meiotic (as opposed to mitotic) cell cycle program via post-transcriptional control of their target transcripts.

  12. Generation and Selection of Orf Virus (ORFV) Recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rziha, Hanns-Joachim; Rohde, Jörg; Amann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Orf virus (ORFV) is an epitheliotropic poxvirus, which belongs to the genus Parapoxvirus. Among them the highly attenuated, apathogenic strain D1701-V is regarded as a promising candidate for novel virus vector vaccines. Our recent work demonstrated that those ORFV-based recombinants were able to induce protective, long-lasting immunity in various hosts that are non-permissive for ORFV. In this chapter we describe procedures for the generation, selection, propagation, and titration of ORFV recombinants as well as transgene detection by PCR or immunohistochemical staining.

  13. High recombination rate in natural populations of Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conway, D. J.; Roper, C.; Oduola, A. M.; Arnot, D. E.; Kremsner, P. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; Curtis, C. F.; Greenwood, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria parasites are sexually reproducing protozoa, although the extent of effective meiotic recombination in natural populations has been debated. If meiotic recombination occurs frequently, compared with point mutation and mitotic rearrangement, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphic sites is

  14. Generation of truncated recombinant form of tumor necrosis factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To produce truncated recombinant form of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2) and CRD3 regions of the receptor were generated using pET28a and E. coli/BL21. Methods: DNA coding sequence of CRD2 and CRD3 was cloned into pET28a vector and the corresponding ...

  15. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  16. Genome Dynamics of Hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae During Vegetative and Meiotic Divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Dutta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutation and recombination are the major sources of genetic diversity in all organisms. In the baker’s yeast, all mutation rate estimates are in homozygous background. We determined the extent of genetic change through mutation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a heterozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome during successive vegetative and meiotic divisions. We measured genome-wide LOH and base mutation rates during vegetative and meiotic divisions in a hybrid (S288c/YJM789 S. cerevisiae strain. The S288c/YJM789 hybrid showed nearly complete reduction in heterozygosity within 31 generations of meioses and improved spore viability. LOH in the meiotic lines was driven primarily by the mating of spores within the tetrad. The S288c/YJM789 hybrid lines propagated vegetatively for the same duration as the meiotic lines, showed variable LOH (from 2 to 3% and up to 35%. Two of the vegetative lines with extensive LOH showed frequent and large internal LOH tracts that suggest a high frequency of recombination repair. These results suggest significant LOH can occur in the S288c/YJM789 hybrid during vegetative propagation presumably due to return to growth events. The average base substitution rates for the vegetative lines (1.82 × 10−10 per base per division and the meiotic lines (1.22 × 10−10 per base per division are the first genome-wide mutation rate estimates for a hybrid yeast. This study therefore provides a novel context for the analysis of mutation rates (especially in the context of detecting LOH during vegetative divisions, compared to previous mutation accumulation studies in yeast that used homozygous backgrounds.

  17. The genomic landscape of meiotic crossovers and gene conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Erik; Velikkakam James, Geo; Ding, Jia; Becker, Frank; Klasen, Jonas R; Rawat, Vimal; Rowan, Beth A; de Jong, Daniël F; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Zapata, Luis; Huettel, Bruno; de Jong, Hans; Ossowski, Stephan; Weigel, Detlef; Koornneef, Maarten; Keurentjes, Joost JB; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the exact distribution of meiotic crossovers (COs) and gene conversions (GCs) is essential for understanding many aspects of population genetics and evolution, from haplotype structure and long-distance genetic linkage to the generation of new allelic variants of genes. To this end, we resequenced the four products of 13 meiotic tetrads along with 10 doubled haploids derived from Arabidopsis thaliana hybrids. GC detection through short reads has previously been confounded by genomic rearrangements. Rigid filtering for misaligned reads allowed GC identification at high accuracy and revealed an ∼80-kb transposition, which undergoes copy-number changes mediated by meiotic recombination. Non-crossover associated GCs were extremely rare most likely due to their short average length of ∼25–50 bp, which is significantly shorter than the length of CO-associated GCs. Overall, recombination preferentially targeted non-methylated nucleosome-free regions at gene promoters, which showed significant enrichment of two sequence motifs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01426.001 PMID:24347547

  18. Contributions of classical and molecular cytogenetic in meiotic analysis and pollen viability for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinscky, M P; Souza, M M; Silva, G S; Melo, C A F

    2017-09-27

    The analysis of meiotic behavior has been widely used in the study of plants as they provide relevant information about the viability of a species. Meiosis boasts a host of highly conserved events and changes in genes that control these events will give rise to irregularities that can alter the normal course of meiosis and may lead to complete sterility of the plant. The recombination of genes that occur in meiosis is an important event to generate variability and has been important in studies for genetic improvement and to create viable hybrids. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in meiosis allows the localization of specific regions, enables to differentiate genomes in a hybrid, permits to observe the pairing of homoeologous chromosomes, and if there was a recombination between the genomes of progenitor species. Furthermore, the GISH allows us to observe the close relationship between the species involved. This article aims to report over meiosis studies on plants and hybrids, the use and importance of molecular cytogenetic in meiotic analysis and contributions of meiotic analysis in breeding programs.

  19. A Link between Meiotic Prophase Progression and CrossoverControl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, Peter M.; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-07-06

    During meiosis, most organisms ensure that homologous chromosomes undergo at least one exchange of DNA, or crossover, to link chromosomes together and accomplish proper segregation. How each chromosome receives a minimum of one crossover is unknown. During early meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans and many other species, chromosomes adopt a polarized organization within the nucleus, which normally disappears upon completion of homolog synapsis. Mutations that impair synapsis even between a single pair of chromosomes in C. elegans delay this nuclear reorganization. We quantified this delay by developing a classification scheme for discrete stages of meiosis. Immunofluorescence localization of RAD-51 protein revealed that delayed meiotic cells also contained persistent recombination intermediates. Through genetic analysis, we found that this cytological delay in meiotic progression requires double-strand breaks and the function of the crossover-promoting heteroduplex HIM-14 (Msh4) and MSH-5. Failure of X chromosome synapsis also resulted in impaired crossover control on autosomes, which may result from greater numbers and persistence of recombination intermediates in the delayed nuclei. We conclude that maturation of recombination events on chromosomes promotes meiotic progression, and is coupled to the regulation of crossover number and placement. Our results have broad implications for the interpretation of meiotic mutants, as we have shown that asynapsis of a single chromosome pair can exert global effects on meiotic progression and recombination frequency.

  20. Rapid generation of markerless recombinant MVA vaccines by en passant recombineering of a self-excising bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2010-09-01

    The non-replicating poxviral vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is currently a leading candidate for development of novel recombinant vaccines against globally important diseases. The 1980s technology for making recombinant MVA (and other poxviruses) is powerful and robust, but relies on rare recombination events in poxviral-infected cells. In the 21st century, it has become possible to apply bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology to poxviruses, as first demonstrated by B. Moss' lab in 2002 for vaccinia virus. A similar BAC clone of MVA was subsequently derived, but while recombination-mediated genetic engineering for rapid production was used of deletion mutants, an alternative method was required for efficient insertion of transgenes. Furthermore "markerless" viruses, which carry no trace of the selectable marker used for their isolation, are increasingly required for clinical trials, and the viruses derived via the new method contained the BAC sequence in their genomic DNA. Two methods are adapted to MVA-BAC to provide more rapid generation of markerless recombinants in weeks rather than months. "En passant" recombineering is applied to the insertion of a transgene expression cassette and the removal of the selectable marker in bacteria; and a self-excising variant of MVA-BAC is constructed, in which the BAC cassette region is rapidly and efficiently lost from the viral genome following rescue of the BAC into infectious virus. These methods greatly facilitate and accelerate production of recombinant MVA, including markerless constructs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Unisexual and heterosexual meiotic reproduction generate aneuploidy and phenotypic diversity de novo in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans.

    OpenAIRE

    Min Ni; Marianna Feretzaki; Wenjun Li; Anna Floyd-Averette; Piotr Mieczkowski; Fred S Dietrich; Joseph Heitman

    2013-01-01

    Aneuploidy is known to be deleterious and underlies several common human diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders such as trisomy 21 in Down's syndrome. In contrast, aneuploidy can also be advantageous and in fungi confers antifungal drug resistance and enables rapid adaptive evolution. We report here that sexual reproduction generates phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, which is globally distributed and commonly infects individual...

  2. Unisexual and heterosexual meiotic reproduction generate aneuploidy and phenotypic diversity de novo in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy is known to be deleterious and underlies several common human diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders such as trisomy 21 in Down's syndrome. In contrast, aneuploidy can also be advantageous and in fungi confers antifungal drug resistance and enables rapid adaptive evolution. We report here that sexual reproduction generates phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, which is globally distributed and commonly infects individuals with compromised immunity, such as HIV/AIDS patients, causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. C. neoformans has a defined a-α opposite sexual cycle; however, >99% of isolates are of the α mating type. Interestingly, α cells can undergo α-α unisexual reproduction, even involving genotypically identical cells. A central question is: Why would cells mate with themselves given that sex is costly and typically serves to admix preexisting genetic diversity from genetically divergent parents? In this study, we demonstrate that α-α unisexual reproduction frequently generates phenotypic diversity, and the majority of these variant progeny are aneuploid. Aneuploidy is responsible for the observed phenotypic changes, as chromosome loss restoring euploidy results in a wild-type phenotype. Other genetic changes, including diploidization, chromosome length polymorphisms, SNPs, and indels, were also generated. Phenotypic/genotypic changes were not observed following asexual mitotic reproduction. Aneuploidy was also detected in progeny from a-α opposite-sex congenic mating; thus, both homothallic and heterothallic sexual reproduction can generate phenotypic diversity de novo. Our study suggests that the ability to undergo unisexual reproduction may be an evolutionary strategy for eukaryotic microbial pathogens, enabling de novo genotypic and phenotypic plasticity and facilitating rapid adaptation to novel environments.

  3. Functional bottlenecks for generation of HIV-1 intersubtype Env recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaya, Bernard S; Vega, José F; Tian, Meijuan; Nickel, Gabrielle C; Li, Yuejin; Krebs, Kendall C; Arts, Eric J; Gao, Yong

    2015-05-23

    Intersubtype recombination is a powerful driving force for HIV evolution, impacting both HIV-1 diversity within an infected individual and within the global epidemic. This study examines if viral protein function/fitness is the major constraint shaping selection of recombination hotspots in replication-competent HIV-1 progeny. A better understanding of the interplay between viral protein structure-function and recombination may provide insights into both vaccine design and drug development. In vitro HIV-1 dual infections were used to recombine subtypes A and D isolates and examine breakpoints in the Env glycoproteins. The entire env genes of 21 A/D recombinants with breakpoints in gp120 were non-functional when cloned into the laboratory strain, NL4-3. Likewise, cloning of A/D gp120 coding regions also produced dead viruses with non-functional Envs. 4/9 replication-competent viruses with functional Env's were obtained when just the V1-V5 regions of these same A/D recombinants (i.e. same A/D breakpoints as above) were cloned into NL4-3. These findings on functional A/D Env recombinants combined with structural models of Env suggest a conserved interplay between the C1 domain with C5 domain of gp120 and extracellular domain of gp41. Models also reveal a co-evolution within C1, C5, and ecto-gp41 domains which might explain the paucity of intersubtype recombination in the gp120 V1-V5 regions, despite their hypervariability. At least HIV-1 A/D intersubtype recombination in gp120 may result in a C1 from one subtype incompatible with a C5/gp41 from another subtype.

  4. Theory of meiotic spindle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furthauer, Sebastian; Foster, Peter; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The meiotic spindle is a biological structure that self assembles from the intracellular medium to separate chromosomes during meiosis. It consists of filamentous microtubule (MT) proteins that interact through the fluid in which they are suspended and via the associated molecules that orchestrate their behavior. We aim to understand how the interplay between fluid medium, MTs, and regulatory proteins allows this material to self-organize into the spindle's highly stereotyped shape. To this end we develop a continuum model that treats the spindle as an active liquid crystal with MT turnover. In this active material, molecular motors, such as dyneins which collect MT minus ends and kinesins which slide MTs past each other, generate active fluid and material stresses. Moreover nucleator proteins that are advected with and transported along MTs control the nucleation and depolymerization of MTs. This theory captures the growth process of meiotic spindles, their shapes, and the essential features of many perturbation experiments. It thus provides a framework to think about the physics of this complex biological suspension.

  5. AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE 1 and Helicase FANCM Antagonize Meiotic Crossovers by Distinct Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Girard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic crossovers (COs generate genetic diversity and are critical for the correct completion of meiosis in most species. Their occurrence is tightly constrained but the mechanisms underlying this limitation remain poorly understood. Here we identified the conserved AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE-1 (FIGL1 as a negative regulator of meiotic CO formation. We show that Arabidopsis FIGL1 limits CO formation genome-wide, that FIGL1 controls dynamics of the two conserved recombinases DMC1 and RAD51 and that FIGL1 hinders the interaction between homologous chromosomes, suggesting that FIGL1 counteracts DMC1/RAD51-mediated inter-homologue strand invasion to limit CO formation. Further, depleting both FIGL1 and the previously identified anti-CO helicase FANCM synergistically increases crossover frequency. Additionally, we showed that the effect of mutating FANCM on recombination is much lower in F1 hybrids contrasting from the phenotype of inbred lines, while figl1 mutation equally increases crossovers in both contexts. This shows that the modes of action of FIGL1 and FANCM are differently affected by genomic contexts. We propose that FIGL1 and FANCM represent two successive barriers to CO formation, one limiting strand invasion, the other disassembling D-loops to promote SDSA, which when both lifted, leads to a large increase of crossovers, without impairing meiotic progression.

  6. COM-1 promotes homologous recombination during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis by antagonizing Ku-mediated non-homologous end joining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennie B L G Lemmens

    Full Text Available Successful completion of meiosis requires the induction and faithful repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. DSBs can be repaired via homologous recombination (HR or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ, yet only repair via HR can generate the interhomolog crossovers (COs needed for meiotic chromosome segregation. Here we identify COM-1, the homolog of CtIP/Sae2/Ctp1, as a crucial regulator of DSB repair pathway choice during Caenorhabditis elegans gametogenesis. COM-1-deficient germ cells repair meiotic DSBs via the error-prone pathway NHEJ, resulting in a lack of COs, extensive chromosomal aggregation, and near-complete embryonic lethality. In contrast to its yeast counterparts, COM-1 is not required for Spo11 removal and initiation of meiotic DSB repair, but instead promotes meiotic recombination by counteracting the NHEJ complex Ku. In fact, animals defective for both COM-1 and Ku are viable and proficient in CO formation. Further genetic dissection revealed that COM-1 acts parallel to the nuclease EXO-1 to promote interhomolog HR at early pachytene stage of meiotic prophase and thereby safeguards timely CO formation. Both of these nucleases, however, are dispensable for RAD-51 recruitment at late pachytene stage, when homolog-independent repair pathways predominate, suggesting further redundancy and/or temporal regulation of DNA end resection during meiotic prophase. Collectively, our results uncover the potentially lethal properties of NHEJ during meiosis and identify a critical role for COM-1 in NHEJ inhibition and CO assurance in germ cells.

  7. Synaptonemal complexes , transverse filaments and interference in mouse meiotic recombination; an immunocytological study = Synaptonemale complexen, transversale filamenten en interferentie bij de meiotsche recombinatie bij de muis; een immuuncytologische studie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de E.

    2007-01-01

    During the prophase of the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes (homologs} recognize each other and form stable pairs (bivalents). Subsequently non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange corresponding parts (crossing over). These events are accompanied by the formation of a

  8. Meiotic Divisions: No Place for Gender Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yakoubi, Warif; Wassmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    In multicellular organisms the fusion of two gametes with a haploid set of chromosomes leads to the formation of the zygote, the first cell of the embryo. Accurate execution of the meiotic cell division to generate a female and a male gamete is required for the generation of healthy offspring harboring the correct number of chromosomes. Unfortunately, meiosis is error prone. This has severe consequences for fertility and under certain circumstances, health of the offspring. In humans, female meiosis is extremely error prone. In this chapter we will compare male and female meiosis in humans to illustrate why and at which frequency errors occur, and describe how this affects pregnancy outcome and health of the individual. We will first introduce key notions of cell division in meiosis and how they differ from mitosis, followed by a detailed description of the events that are prone to errors during the meiotic divisions.

  9. Computational modelling of meiotic entry and commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Bhola, Tanvi; Kapuy, Orsolya; Vinod, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the re...

  10. Allelic recombination between distinct genomic locations generates copy number diversity in human β-defensins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Suhaili Abu; Hollox, Edward J.; Armour, John A. L.

    2009-01-01

    β-Defensins are small secreted antimicrobial and signaling peptides involved in the innate immune response of vertebrates. In humans, a cluster of at least 7 of these genes shows extensive copy number variation, with a diploid copy number commonly ranging between 2 and 7. Using a genetic mapping approach, we show that this cluster is at not 1 but 2 distinct genomic loci ≈5 Mb apart on chromosome band 8p23.1, contradicting the most recent genome assembly. We also demonstrate that the predominant mechanism of change in β-defensin copy number is simple allelic recombination occurring in the interval between the 2 distinct genomic loci for these genes. In 416 meiotic transmissions, we observe 3 events creating a haplotype copy number not found in the parent, equivalent to a germ-line rate of copy number change of ≈0.7% per gamete. This places it among the fastest-changing copy number variants currently known. PMID:19131514

  11. Plasticity of laccase generated by homeologous recombination in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Angela M; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Meglecz, Emese; Tron, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    Laccase-encoding sequences sharing 65-71% identity were shuffledin vivo by homeologous recombination. Yeast efficiently repaired linearized plasmids containing clac1, clac2 or clac5 Trametes sp. C30 cDNAs using a clac3 PCR fragment. From transformants secreting active variants, three chimeric laccases (LAC131, LAC232 and LAC535), each resulting from double crossovers, were purified, and their apparent kinetic parameters were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and syringaldazine (SGZ) as substrates. At acidic pH, the apparent kinetic parameters of the chimera were not distinguishable from each other or from those obtained for the LAC3 enzyme used as reference. On the other hand, the pH tolerance of the variants was visibly extended towards alkaline pH values. Compared to the parental LAC3, a 31-fold increase in apparent k(cat) was observed for LAC131 at pH 8. This factor is one of the highest ever observed for laccase in a single mutagenesis step.

  12. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Uttenthal, Åse

    Aim Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for generation of modified pestiviruses. We have recently reported a full genome amplification strategy for direct recovery of infectious pestivirus (Rasmussen et al., 2008). This comprised rescue of BDV strain “Gifhorn” from a full...... pestiviruses. Methods Pestivirus genomes were amplified from either total RNA preparations using long RT-PCR or from infectious cDNA clones using long PCR. Viral RNA was extracted from cell cultures inoculated with pestivirus (e.g. BDV “Gifhorn” or BVDV “CP7”) using a combined Trizol/RNeasy protocol. Total RNA......-length RT-PCR amplicon demonstrating that long RT-PCR can be used for direct generation of an infectious pestivirus. The strategy is not limited to amplification of BDV “Gifhorn”, but can be further utilized for amplification of a diverse selection of pestivirus strains and for the generation of modified...

  13. A yeast's eye view of mammalian reproduction: cross-species gene co-expression in meiotic prophase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yunfei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiotic prophase is a critical stage in sexual reproduction. Aberrant chromosome recombination during this stage is a leading cause of human miscarriages and birth defects. However, due to the experimental intractability of mammalian gonads, only a very limited number of meiotic genes have been characterized. Here we aim to identify novel meiotic genes important in human reproduction through computational mining of cross-species and cross-sex time-series expression data from budding yeast, mouse postnatal testis, mouse embryonic ovary, and human fetal ovary. Results Orthologous gene pairs were ranked by order statistics according to their co-expression profiles across species, allowing us to infer conserved meiotic genes despite obvious differences in cellular synchronicity and composition in organisms. We demonstrated that conserved co-expression networks could successfully recover known meiotic genes, including homologous recombination genes, chromatin cohesion genes, and genes regulating meiotic entry. We also showed that conserved co-expression pairs exhibit functional connections, as evidenced by the annotation similarity in Gene Ontology and overlap with physical interactions. More importantly, we predicted six new meiotic genes through their co-expression linkages with known meiotic genes, and subsequently used the genetically more amenable yeast system for experimental validation. The deletion mutants of all six genes showed sporulation defects, equivalent to a 100% validation rate. Conclusions We identified evolutionarily conserved gene modules in meiotic prophase by integrating cross-species and cross-sex expression profiles from budding yeast, mouse, and human. Our co-expression linkage analyses confirmed known meiotic genes and identified several novel genes that might be critical players in meiosis in multiple species. These results demonstrate that our approach is highly efficient to discover evolutionarily

  14. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; ter Meulen, Jan; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  15. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Govindarajan

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  16. Molecular analysis of recombination in a family with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and a large pericentric X chromosome inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashi, V.; Golden, W.L.; Allinson, P.S. [Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that, in animals heterozygous for pericentric chromosomal inversions, loop formation is greatly reduced during meiosis. This results in absence of recombination within the inverted segment, with recombination seen only outside the inversion. A recent study in yeast has shown that telomeres, rather than centromeres, lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may be involved in promoting recombination. We studied by cytogenetic analysis and DNA polymorphisms the nature of meiotic recombination in a three-generation family with a large pericentric X chromosome inversion, inv(X)(p21.1q26), in which Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was cosegregating with the inversion. On DNA analysis there was no evidence of meiotic recombination between the inverted and normal X chromosomes in the inverted segment. Recombination was seen at the telomeric regions, Xp22 and Xq27-28. No deletion or point mutation was found on analysis of the DMD gene. On the basis of the FISH results, we believe that the X inversion is the mutation responsible for DMD in this family. Our results indicate that (1) pericentric X chromosome inversions result in reduction of recombination between the normal and inverted X chromosomes; (2) meiotic X chromosome pairing in these individuals is likely initiated at the telomeres; and (3) in this family DMD is caused by the pericentric inversion. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Origin of meiotic nondisjunction in Drosophila females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grell, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Meiotic nondisjunction can be induced by external agents, such as heat, radiation, and chemicals, and by internal genotypic alterations, namely, point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements. In many cases nondisjunction arises from a reduction or elimination of crossing-over, leading to the production of homologous univalents which fail to co-orient on the metaphase plate and to disjoin properly. In some organisms, e.g., Drosophila and perhaps man, distributive pairing [i.e., a post-exchange, size-dependent pairing] ensures the regular segregation of such homologous univalents. When a nonhomologous univalent is present, which falls within a size range permitting nonhomologous recognition and pairing, distributive nondisjunction of the homologues may follow. Examples of nondisjunction induced by inversion heterozygosity, translocation heterozygosity, chromosome fragments, radiation, heat, and recombination-defective mutants are presented

  18. Laser-field-related recombination interference in high-order harmonic generation from CO2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Pengfei; Liu Peng; Zeng Zhinan; Guo Xiaodong; Ge Xiaochun; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan; Chen Jing

    2009-01-01

    We reinvestigate the modulation inversion of angular distribution of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from impulsively aligned CO 2 molecules. The angular distribution is found to be sensitive to both the harmonic order and the intensity of the driving laser pulse for HHG. The roles of intramolecular quantum interference and the laser intensity are clarified. A laser-field-related recombination interference model is proposed to explain the modulation inversion of harmonic yield with respect to the molecular alignment. We conclude that the two-center interference in the recombination process can be manipulated by changing the laser intensity.

  19. Comparison of two generation-recombination terms in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelidis, I. [Solid State Section, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece); Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Laboratoire de Physique des Systemes Complexes, 33 rue Saint-Leu 80039, Amiens (France); Barbero, G. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Sfarna, A. [Solid State Section, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece)

    2012-10-21

    Two phenomenological forms proposed to take into account the generation-recombination phenomenon of ions are investigated. The first form models the phenomenon as a chemical reaction, containing two coefficients describing the dissociation of neutral particles in ions, and the recombination of ions to give neutral particles. The second form is based on the assumption that in thermodynamical equilibrium, a well-defined density of ions is stable. Any deviation from the equilibrium density gives rise to a source term proportional to the deviation, whose phenomenological coefficient plays the role of a life time. The analysis is performed by evaluating the electrical response of an electrolytic cell to an external stimulus for both forms. For simplicity we assume that the electrodes are blocking, that there is only a group of negative and positive ions, and that the negative ions are immobile. For the second form, two cases are considered: (i) the generation-recombination phenomenon is due to an intrinsic mechanism, and (ii) the production of ions is triggered by an external source of energy, as in a solar cell. We show that the predictions of the two models are different at the impedance as well as at the admittance level. In particular, the first model predicts the existence of two plateaux for the real part of the impedance, whereas the second one predicts just one. It follows that impedance spectroscopy measurements could give information on the model valid for the generation-recombination of ions.

  20. Nuclear Envelope-Associated Chromosome Dynamics during Meiotic Prophase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome dynamics during meiotic prophase I are associated with a series of major events such as chromosomal reorganization and condensation, pairing/synapsis and recombination of the homologs, and chromosome movements at the nuclear envelope (NE. The NE is the barrier separating the nucleus from the cytoplasm and thus plays a central role in NE-associated chromosomal movements during meiosis. Previous studies have shown in various species that NE-linked chromosome dynamics are actually driven by the cytoskeleton. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC complexes are important constituents of the NE that facilitate in the transfer of cytoskeletal forces across the NE to individual chromosomes. The LINCs consist of the inner and outer NE proteins Sad1/UNC-84 (SUN, and Klarsicht/Anc-1/Syne (KASH domain proteins. Meiosis-specific adaptations of the LINC components and unique modifications of the NE are required during chromosomal movements. Nonetheless, the actual role of the NE in chromosomic dynamic movements in plants remains elusive. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on meiosis-specific constituents and modifications of the NE and corresponding nucleoplasmic/cytoplasmic adaptors being involved in NE-associated movement of meiotic chromosomes, as well as describes the potential molecular network of transferring cytoplasm-derived forces into meiotic chromosomes in model organisms. It helps to gain a better understanding of the NE-associated meiotic chromosomal movements in plants.

  1. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyun Shin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/ (- testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/ (- testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/ (- ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/ (- oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

  2. Antagonistic experimental coevolution with a parasite increases host recombination frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstes Niels AG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the big remaining challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand the evolution and maintenance of meiotic recombination. As recombination breaks down successful genotypes, it should be selected for only under very limited conditions. Yet, recombination is very common and phylogenetically widespread. The Red Queen Hypothesis is one of the most prominent hypotheses for the adaptive value of recombination and sexual reproduction. The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts an advantage of recombination for hosts that are coevolving with their parasites. We tested predictions of the hypothesis with experimental coevolution using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and its microsporidian parasite, Nosema whitei. Results By measuring recombination directly in the individuals under selection, we found that recombination in the host population was increased after 11 generations of coevolution. Detailed insights into genotypic and phenotypic changes occurring during the coevolution experiment furthermore helped us to reconstruct the coevolutionary dynamics that were associated with this increase in recombination frequency. As coevolved lines maintained higher genetic diversity than control lines, and because there was no evidence for heterozygote advantage or for a plastic response of recombination to infection, the observed increase in recombination most likely represented an adaptive host response under Red Queen dynamics. Conclusions This study provides direct, experimental evidence for an increase in recombination frequency under host-parasite coevolution in an obligatory outcrossing species. Combined with earlier results, the Red Queen process is the most likely explanation for this observation.

  3. Regulation of Rad51-Mediated Homologous Recombination by BRCA2, DSS1 and RAD52

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rants, Louise Olthaver Juhl

    Homologous recombination (HR) provides a mechanism to restore integrity and maintain stability of the genetic material. HR is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), recovery of broken replication forks and generation of meiotic crossovers. The defining step in HR is homolog......Homologous recombination (HR) provides a mechanism to restore integrity and maintain stability of the genetic material. HR is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), recovery of broken replication forks and generation of meiotic crossovers. The defining step in HR...... interaction is required for resistance to DNA damage. In avian DT40 cells, we show that endogenously tagged DSS1 redistributes into subnuclear foci in response to DNA damaging agents. However, DSS1 rarely colocalizes with BRCA2. Our data also indicate that both U. maydis Dss1 and avian DSS1 are involved...

  4. A Gene Regulatory Program for Meiotic Prophase in the Fetal Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Q Shirleen Soh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal program of meiotic prophase, comprising events such as laying down of meiotic cohesins, synapsis between homologs, and homologous recombination, must be preceded and enabled by the regulated induction of meiotic prophase genes. This gene regulatory program is poorly understood, particularly in organisms with a segregated germline. We characterized the gene regulatory program of meiotic prophase as it occurs in the mouse fetal ovary. By profiling gene expression in the mouse fetal ovary in mutants with whole tissue and single-cell techniques, we identified 104 genes expressed specifically in pre-meiotic to pachytene germ cells. We characterized the regulation of these genes by 1 retinoic acid (RA, which induces meiosis, 2 Dazl, which is required for germ cell competence to respond to RA, and 3 Stra8, a downstream target of RA required for the chromosomal program of meiotic prophase. Initial induction of practically all identified meiotic prophase genes requires Dazl. In the presence of Dazl, RA induces at least two pathways: one Stra8-independent, and one Stra8-dependent. Genes vary in their induction by Stra8, spanning fully Stra8-independent, partially Stra8-independent, and fully Stra8-dependent. Thus, Stra8 regulates the entirety of the chromosomal program but plays a more nuanced role in governing the gene expression program. We propose that Stra8-independent gene expression enables the stockpiling of selected meiotic structural proteins prior to the commencement of the chromosomal program. Unexpectedly, we discovered that Stra8 is required for prompt down-regulation of itself and Rec8. Germ cells that have expressed and down-regulated Stra8 are refractory to further Stra8 expression. Negative feedback of Stra8, and subsequent resistance to further Stra8 expression, may ensure a single, restricted pulse of Stra8 expression. Collectively, our findings reveal a gene regulatory logic by which germ cells prepare for the

  5. The DNA replication factor RFC1 is required for interference-sensitive meiotic crossovers in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Wang

    Full Text Available During meiotic recombination, induced double-strand breaks (DSBs are processed into crossovers (COs and non-COs (NCO; the former are required for proper chromosome segregation and fertility. DNA synthesis is essential in current models of meiotic recombination pathways and includes only leading strand DNA synthesis, but few genes crucial for DNA synthesis have been tested genetically for their functions in meiosis. Furthermore, lagging strand synthesis has been assumed to be unnecessary. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana DNA replication factor C1 (RFC1 important for lagging strand synthesis is necessary for fertility, meiotic bivalent formation, and homolog segregation. Loss of meiotic RFC1 function caused abnormal meiotic chromosome association and other cytological defects; genetic analyses with other meiotic mutations indicate that RFC1 acts in the MSH4-dependent interference-sensitive pathway for CO formation. In a rfc1 mutant, residual pollen viability is MUS81-dependent and COs exhibit essentially no interference, indicating that these COs form via the MUS81-dependent interference-insensitive pathway. We hypothesize that lagging strand DNA synthesis is important for the formation of double Holliday junctions, but not alternative recombination intermediates. That RFC1 is found in divergent eukaryotes suggests a previously unrecognized and highly conserved role for DNA synthesis in discriminating between recombination pathways.

  6. Correlation of a generation-recombination center with a deep level trap in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, X. S., E-mail: xuansang@smart.mit.edu, E-mail: elecsj@nus.edu.sg [Low energy electronic system IRG, Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology Center, 1 CREATE way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Lin, K. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3, Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); McSkimming, B.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Fitzgerald, E. A. [Low energy electronic system IRG, Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology Center, 1 CREATE way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 13-5153, 77 Mass. Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Chua, S. J., E-mail: xuansang@smart.mit.edu, E-mail: elecsj@nus.edu.sg [Low energy electronic system IRG, Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology Center, 1 CREATE way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3, Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E4, Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2015-03-09

    We report on the identification of a deep level trap centre which contributes to generation-recombination noise. A n-GaN epilayer, grown by MOCVD on sapphire, was measured by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and noise spectroscopy. DLTS found 3 well documented deep levels at E{sub c} − 0.26 eV, E{sub c} − 0.59 eV, and E{sub c} − 0.71 eV. The noise spectroscopy identified a generation recombination centre at E{sub c} − 0.65 ± 0.1 eV with a recombination lifetime of 65 μs at 300 K. This level is considered to be the same as the one at E{sub c} − 0.59 eV measured from DLTS, as they have similar trap densities and capture cross section. This result shows that some deep levels contribute to noise generation in GaN materials.

  7. The typical RB76 recombination breakpoint of the invasive recombinant tomato yellow leaf curl virus of Morocco can be generated experimentally but is not positively selected in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabess, Z; Urbino, C; Granier, M; Tahiri, A; Blenzar, A; Peterschmitt, M

    2018-01-02

    TYLCV-IS76 is an unusual recombinant between the highly recombinogenic tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), two Mediterranean begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). In contrast with the previously reported TYLCV/TYLCSV recombinants, it has a TYLCSV derived fragment of only 76 nucleotides, and has replaced its parental viruses in natural conditions (Morocco, Souss region). The viral population shift coincided with the deployment of the popular Ty-1 resistant tomato cultivars, and according to experimental studies, has been driven by a strong positive selection in such resistant plants. However, although Ty-1 cultivars were extensively used in Mediterranean countries, TYLCV-IS76 was not reported outside Morocco. This, in combination with its unusual recombination pattern suggests that it was generated through a rare and possibly multistep process. The potential generation of a recombination breakpoint (RB) at locus 76 (RB76) was investigated over time in 10 Ty-1 resistant and 10 nearly isogenic susceptible tomato plants co-inoculated with TYLCV and TYLCSV clones. RB76 could not be detected in the recombinant progeny using the standard PCR/sequencing approach that was previously designed to monitor the emergence of TYLCV-IS76 in Morocco. Using a more sensitive PCR test, RB76 was detected in one resistant and five susceptible plants. The results are consistent with a very low intra-plant frequency of RB76 bearing recombinants throughout the test and support the hypothesis of a rare emergence of TYLCV-IS76. More generally, RBs were more scattered in resistant than in susceptible plants and an unusual RB at position 141 (RB141) was positively selected in the resistant cultivar; interestingly, RB141 bearing recombinants were detected in resistant tomato plants from the field. Scenarios of TYLCV-IS76 pre-emergence are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nested Inversion Polymorphisms Predispose Chromosome 22q11.2 to Meiotic Rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demaerel, Wolfram; Hestand, Matthew S.; Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; López-Sánchez, Marcos; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Breckpot, Jeroen; Devriendt, Koenraad; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Arango, Celso; Armando, Marco; Bassett, Anne S.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Boot, Erik; Bravo-Sanchez, Marta; Breetvelt, Elemi; Busa, Tiffany; Butcher, Nancy J.; Campbell, Linda E.; Carmel, Miri; Chow, Eva W C; Crowley, T. Blaine; Cubells, Joseph; Cutler, David; Demaerel, Wolfram; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Duijff, Sasja; Eliez, Stephan; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Epstein, Michael P.; Evers, Rens; Fernandez Garcia-Moya, Luis; Fiksinski, Ania; Fraguas, David; Fremont, Wanda; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Golden, Aaron; Gothelf, Doron; Guo, Tingwei; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.; Heine-Suner, Damian; Hestand, Matthew; Hooper, Stephen R.; Kates, Wendy R.; Kushan, Leila; Laorden-Nieto, Alejandra; Maeder, Johanna; Marino, Bruno; Marshall, Christian R.; McCabe, Kathryn; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Michaelovosky, Elena; Morrow, Bernice E.; Moss, Edward; Mulle, Jennifer; Murphy, Declan; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Niarchou, Maria; Ornstein, Claudia; Owen, Michael J; Philip, Nicole; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Schneider, Maude; Shashi, Vandana; Simon, Tony J.; Swillen, Ann; Tassone, Flora; Unolt, Marta; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Van Duin, Esther; Vergaelen, Elfi; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Vicari, Stefano; Vingerhoets, Claudia; Vorstman, Jacob; Warren, Steve; Weinberger, Ronnie; Weisman, Omri; Weizman, Abraham; Zackai, Elaine; Zhang, Zhengdong; Zwick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Inversion polymorphisms between low-copy repeats (LCRs) might predispose chromosomes to meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events and thus lead to genomic disorders. However, for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common genomic disorder, no such inversions have

  9. Histone H2AX phosphorylation is associated with most meiotic events in grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J; Teruel, M; Carmona, F D; Camacho, J P M

    2007-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the H2AX histone in its phosphorylated form (gamma-H2AX) is related to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In several organisms, gamma-H2AX presence has been demonstrated in meiotic processes such as recombination and sex chromosome inactivation during prophase I (from leptotene to pachytene). To test whether gamma-H2AX is present beyond pachytene, we have analysed the complete sequence of changes in H2AX phosphorylation during meiosis in grasshopper, a model organism for meiotic studies at the cytological level. We show the presence of phosphorylated H2AX during most of meiosis, with the exception only of diplotene and the end of each meiotic division. During the first meiotic division, gamma-H2AX is associated with i) recombination, as deduced from its presence in leptotene-zygotene over all chromosome length, ii) X chromosome inactivation, since at pachytene gamma-H2AX is present in the X chromosome only, and iii) chromosome segregation, as deduced from gamma-H2AX presence in centromere regions at first metaphase-anaphase. During second meiotic division, gamma-H2AX was very abundant at most chromosome lengths from metaphase to telophase, suggesting its possible association with the maintenance of chromosome condensation and segregation. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Generation and characterization of koi herpesvirus recombinants lacking viral enzymes of nucleotide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Walter; Fichtner, Dieter; Bergmann, Sven M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2011-06-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a fatal disease in koi and common carp, but no reliable and genetically characterized vaccines are available up to now. Therefore, we generated KHV recombinants possessing deletions within the viral ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), thymidine kinase (TK), dUTPase, or TK and dUTPase genes, and their corresponding rescuants. All KHV mutants were replication competent in cultured cells. Whereas plaque sizes and titers of RNR-negative KHV were reduced, replication of the other mutants was not affected. Experimental infection of carp indicated attenuation of TK- or dUTPase-deleted KHV, and PCR analysis of tissue samples permitted differentiation of mutant from wild-type virus.

  11. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats ...

  13. Novel strategy for generation and titration of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Ai-Li; Liu, Pu-Ste; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have many advantages for gene therapeutic applications compared with other vector systems. Several methods that use plasmids or helper viruses have been reported for the generation of rAAV vectors. Unfortunately, the preparation of large-scale rAAV stocks is labor-intensive. Moreover, the biological titration of rAAV is still difficult, which may limit its preclinical and clinical applications. For this study, we developed a novel strategy to generate and biologically titrate rAAV vectors. A recombinant pseudorabies virus (PrV) with defects in its gD, gE, and thymidine kinase genes was engineered to express the AAV rep and cap genes, yielding PS virus, which served as a packaging and helper virus for the generation of rAAV vectors. PS virus was useful not only for generating high-titer rAAV vectors by cotransfection with an rAAV vector plasmid, but also for amplifying rAAV stocks. Notably, the biological titration of rAAV vectors was also feasible when cells were coinfected with rAAV and PS virus. Based on this strategy, we produced an rAAV that expresses prothymosin alpha (ProT). Expression of the ProT protein in vitro and in vivo mediated by rAAV/ProT gene transfer was detected by immunohistochemistry and a bioassay. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the PrV vector-based system is useful for generating rAAV vectors carrying various transgenes.

  14. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Juliana Branco; Morganti, Ligia; Moro, Ana Maria; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Raw, Isaias; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR) results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher's patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr−) cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa) and secreted (63–69 kDa) form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources. PMID:23091360

  15. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Branco Novo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher’s patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr− cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa and secreted (63–69 kDa form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources.

  16. Development of a recombination system for the generation of occlusion positive genetically modified Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Santiago; McCarthy, Christina B; Ferrelli, M Leticia; Pidre, Matias L; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Romanowski, Victor

    2015-03-31

    Anticarsia gemmatalis is an important pest in legume crops in South America and it has been successfully controlled using Anticarsia gemmatalis Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) in subtropical climate zones. Nevertheless, in temperate climates its speed of kill is too slow. Taking this into account, genetic modification of AgMNPV could lead to improvements of its biopesticidal properties. Here we report the generation of a two-component system that allows the production of recombinant AgMNPV. This system is based on a parental AgMNPV in which the polyhedrin gene (polh) was replaced by a bacterial β-galactosidase (lacZ) gene flanked by two target sites for the homing endonuclease I-PpoI. Co-transfection of insect cells with linearized (I-PpoI-digested) parental genome and a transfer vector allowed the restitution of polh and the expression of a heterologous gene upon homologous recombination, with a low background of non-recombinant AgMNPV. The system was validated by constructing a recombinant occlusion-positive (polh+) AgMNPV expressing the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp). This recombinant virus infected larvae normally per os and led to the expression of GFP in cell culture as well as in A. gemmatalis larvae. These results demonstrate that the system is an efficient method for the generation of recombinant AgMNPV expressing heterologous genes, which can be used for manifold purposes, including biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications and the production of orally infectious recombinants with improved biopesticidal properties.

  17. Generation of recombinant destabilase-lysozyme from medicinal leeches in three different expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuvera, Valentin A; Kurdyumov, Alexey S; Filonova, Kseniya A; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-12-01

    Destabilase-lysozyme (mlDL) is an enzyme secreted by the salivary gland cells of medicinal leeches. Destabilase-lysozyme possesses lysozyme and isopeptidase activities. We generated recombinant destabilase-lysozyme isoform 2 in three expression systems, i.e., in the bacteria Escherichia coli, in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and in the human cell line Expi293F. In E. coli, we generated both polypeptide in inclusion bodies that was later undergone to the refolding and soluble protein that had been fused with the chaperone SlyD. The chaperone was later cleaved by a specific TEV-protease. In cultures of the yeast P. pastoris and the human cell line Expi293F, the soluble form of destabilase-lysozyme was accumulated in the culture media. For the generated enzymes, we determined the lysozyme, isopeptidase and fibrinolytic activities and tested their general antimicrobial effects. The comparisons of the enzymes generated in the different expression systems revealed that all of the destabilase-lysozymes obtained in the soluble forms possessed equal levels of lysozyme, isopeptidase and fibrinolytic activities that exceeded several to ten times the levels of the same activities of the destabilase-lysozyme renaturated from the inclusion bodies. A similar pattern of the differences in the levels of the general antimicrobial effects was observed for the destabilase-lysozymes generated in the soluble form and as inclusion bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Haplotype diversity generated by ancient recombination-like events in the MHC of Indian rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxiadis, Gaby G M; de Groot, Nanine; Otting, Nel; de Vos-Rouweler, Annemiek J M; Bolijn, Maria J; Heijmans, Corrine M C; de Groot, Natasja G; van der Wiel, Marit K H; Remarque, Edmond J; Vangenot, Christelle; Nunes, José M; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2013-08-01

    The Mamu-A, Mamu-B, and Mamu-DRB genes of the rhesus macaque show several levels of complexity such as allelic heterogeneity (polymorphism), copy number variation, differential segregation of genes/alleles present on a haplotype (diversity) and transcription level differences. A combination of techniques was implemented to screen a large panel of pedigreed Indian rhesus macaques (1,384 individuals representing the offspring of 137 founding animals) for haplotype diversity in an efficient and inexpensive manner. This approach allowed the definition of 140 haplotypes that display a relatively low degree of region variation as reflected by the presence of only 17 A, 18 B and 22 DRB types, respectively, exhibiting a global linkage disequilibrium comparable to that in humans. This finding contrasts with the situation observed in rhesus macaques from other geographic origins and in cynomolgus monkeys from Indonesia. In these latter populations, nearly every haplotype appears to be characterised by a unique A, B and DRB region. In the Indian population, however, a reshuffling of existing segments generated "new" haplotypes. Since the recombination frequency within the core MHC of the Indian rhesus macaques is relatively low, the various haplotypes were most probably produced by recombination events that accumulated over a long evolutionary time span. This idea is in accord with the notion that Indian rhesus macaques experienced a severe reduction in population during the Pleistocene due to a bottleneck caused by geographic changes. Thus, recombination-like processes appear to be a way to expand a diminished genetic repertoire in an isolated and relatively small founder population.

  19. Solvent Vapor Annealing-Mediated Crystallization Directs Charge Generation, Recombination and Extraction in BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Babics, Maxime

    2017-12-19

    Small-molecule (SM) donors that can be solution-processed with fullerene acceptors (e.g., PC61/71BM), or their “nonfullerene” counterparts, are proving particularly promising for the realization of high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In several recent studies, solvent vapor annealing (SVA) protocols have been found to yield significant BHJ device efficiency improvements via structural changes in the active layer morphologies. However, the mechanisms by which active layer morphologies evolve when subjected to SVA treatments, and the structural factors impacting charge generation, carrier transport, recombination and extraction in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors, remain important aspects to be elucidated. In this report, we show that – in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors – selective crystallization promoted by SVA mediates the development of optimized morphologies across the active layers, setting domain sizes and boundaries. Examining BHJ solar cells subjected to various SVA exposure times, with BDT[2F]QdC as the SM donor and PC71BM as the acceptor, we connect those morphological changes to specific carrier effects, showing that crystal growth effectively directs charge generation and recombination. We find that the SM donor-pure domains growing at the expense of a mixed donor-acceptor phase play a determining role, establishing optimum networks with 10-20nm-sized domains during the SVA treatment. Longer SVA times result in highly textured active layers with crystalline domains that can exceed the lengthscale of exciton diffusion, while inducing detrimental vertical morphologies and deep carrier traps. Last, we emphasize the field-dependence charge generation occurring upon SVA-mediated crystallization and link this carrier effect to the mixed phase depletion across the BHJ active layer.

  20. First identification of a recombinant form of hepatitis C virus in Austrian patients by full-genome next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Stelzl

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV intergenotypic recombinant forms have been reported for various HCV genotypes/subtypes in several countries worldwide. In a recent study, four patients living in Austria had been identified to be possibly infected with a recombinant HCV strain. To clarify results and determine the point of recombination, full-genome next-generation sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq v2 300 cycle kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA was performed in the present study. Samples of all of the patients contained the recombinant HCV strain 2k/1b. The point of recombination was found to be within the HCV NS2 gene between nucleotide positions 3189-3200 based on H77 numbering. While three of four patients were male and had migration background from Chechnya (n = 2 and Azerbaijan (n = 1, the forth patient was a female born in Austria. Three of the four patients including the female had intravenous drug abuse as a risk factor for HCV transmission. While sequencing techniques are limited to a few specialized laboratories, a genotyping assay that uses both ends of the HCV genome should be employed to identify patients infected with a recombinant HCV strain. The correct identification of recombinant strains also has an impact considering the tailored choice of anti-HCV treatment.

  1. Generation of meiomaps of genome-wide recombination and chromosome segregation in human oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottolini, Christian S; Capalbo, Antonio; Newnham, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a protocol for the generation of genome-wide maps (meiomaps) of recombination and chromosome segregation for the three products of human female meiosis: the first and second polar bodies (PB1 and PB2) and the corresponding oocyte. PB1 is biopsied and the oocyte is artificially...... activated by exposure to calcium ionophore, after which PB2 is biopsied and collected with the corresponding oocyte. The whole genomes of the polar bodies and oocytes are amplified by multiple displacement amplification and, together with maternal genomic DNA, genotyped for ∼300,000 single......-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genome-wide by microarray. Informative maternal heterozygous SNPs are phased using a haploid PB2 or oocyte as a reference. A simple algorithm is then used to identify the maternal haplotypes for each chromosome, in all of the products of meiosis for each oocyte. This allows mapping...

  2. Generation of Recombinant Schmallenberg Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Yeast and Development of Virus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Lazutka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV, discovered in continental Europe in late 2011, causes mild clinical signs in adult ruminants, including diarrhoea and reduced milk yield. However, fetal infection can lead to severe malformation in newborn offspring. To develop improved reagents for SBV serology, a high-level yeast expression system was employed to produce recombinant SBV nucleocapsid (N protein. Recombinant SBV N protein was investigated as an antigen in SBV-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and used for generation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Yeast-expressed SBV N protein was reactive with anti-SBV IgG-positive cow serum specimens collected from different farms of Lithuania. After immunization of mice with recombinant SBV N protein, four MAbs were generated. The MAbs raised against recombinant SBV N protein reacted with native viral nucleocapsids in SBV-infected BHK cells by immunofluorescence assay. The reactivity of recombinant N protein with SBV-positive cow serum specimens and the ability of the MAbs to recognize virus-infected cells confirm the antigenic similarity between yeast-expressed SBV N protein and native viral nucleocapsids. Our study demonstrates that yeast expression system is suitable for high-level production of recombinant SBV N protein and provides the first evidence on the presence of SBV-specific antibodies in cow serum specimens collected in Lithuania.

  3. Golden GATEway cloning--a combinatorial approach to generate fusion and recombination constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Kirchmaier

    Full Text Available The design and generation of DNA constructs is among the necessary but generally tedious tasks for molecular biologists and, typically, the cloning strategy is restricted by available restriction sites. However, increasingly sophisticated experiments require increasingly complex DNA constructs, with an intricacy that exceeds what is achievable using standard cloning procedures. Many transgenes such as inducible gene cassettes or recombination elements consist of multiple components that often require precise in-frame fusions. Here, we present an efficient protocol that facilitates the generation of these complex constructs. The golden GATEway cloning approach presented here combines two established cloning methods, namely golden Gate cloning and Multisite Gateway(TM cloning. This allows efficient and seamless assembly as well as reuse of predefined DNA elements. The golden Gate cloning procedure follows clear and simple design rules and allows the assembly of multiple fragments with different sizes into one open reading frame. The final product can be directly integrated into the widely used Multisite Gateway(TM cloning system, granting more flexibility when using a transgene in the context of multiple species. This adaptable and streamlined cloning procedure overcomes restrictions of "classical construct generation" and allows focusing on construct design.

  4. Golden GATEway cloning--a combinatorial approach to generate fusion and recombination constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmaier, Stephan; Lust, Katharina; Wittbrodt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The design and generation of DNA constructs is among the necessary but generally tedious tasks for molecular biologists and, typically, the cloning strategy is restricted by available restriction sites. However, increasingly sophisticated experiments require increasingly complex DNA constructs, with an intricacy that exceeds what is achievable using standard cloning procedures. Many transgenes such as inducible gene cassettes or recombination elements consist of multiple components that often require precise in-frame fusions. Here, we present an efficient protocol that facilitates the generation of these complex constructs. The golden GATEway cloning approach presented here combines two established cloning methods, namely golden Gate cloning and Multisite Gateway(TM) cloning. This allows efficient and seamless assembly as well as reuse of predefined DNA elements. The golden Gate cloning procedure follows clear and simple design rules and allows the assembly of multiple fragments with different sizes into one open reading frame. The final product can be directly integrated into the widely used Multisite Gateway(TM) cloning system, granting more flexibility when using a transgene in the context of multiple species. This adaptable and streamlined cloning procedure overcomes restrictions of "classical construct generation" and allows focusing on construct design.

  5. Calcium Signaling and Meiotic Exit at Fertilization in Xenopus Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A.; Stefanov, Vasily E.; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Fukami, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is a universal messenger that mediates egg activation at fertilization in all sexually reproducing species studied. However, signaling pathways leading to calcium generation and the mechanisms of calcium-induced exit from meiotic arrest vary substantially among species. Here, we review the pathways of calcium signaling and the mechanisms of meiotic exit at fertilization in the eggs of the established developmental model, African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We also discuss calcium involvement in the early fertilization-induced events in Xenopus egg, such as membrane depolarization, the increase in intracellular pH, cortical granule exocytosis, cortical contraction, contraction wave, cortical rotation, reformation of the nuclear envelope, sperm chromatin decondensation and sister chromatid segregation. PMID:25322156

  6. Diagnostic potential of recombinant scFv antibodies generated against hemagglutinin protein of influenza A virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali eRajput

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses have been the cause of enormous socio-economic losses worldwide. In order to combat such a notorious pathogen, hemagglutinin protein (HA has been a preferred target for generation of neutralizing-antibodies, as potent therapeutic/ diagnostic agents. In the present study, recombinant anti-HA single chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies were constructed using the phage display technology to aid in diagnosis and treatment of human influenza A virus infections. Spleen cells of mice hyper-immunized with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 virus were used as the source for recombinant antibody (rAb production. The antigen-binding phages were quantified after 6 rounds of bio-panning against A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1-like, or A/Udorn/307/72(H3N2 viruses. The phage yield was maximum for the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, however, considerable cross-reactivity was observed for the other virus strains as well. The HA-specific polyclonal rAb preparation was subjected to selection of single clones for identification of high reactive relatively conserved epitopes. The high affinity rAbs were tested against certain known conserved HA epitopes by peptide ELISA. Three recombinant mAbs showed reactivity with both the H1N1 strains and one (C5 showed binding with all the three viral strains. The C5 antibody was thus used for development of an ELISA test for diagnosis of influenza virus infection. Based on the sample size in the current analysis, the ELISA test demonstrated 83.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Thus, the ELISA, developed in our study, may prove as a cheaper alternative to the presently used real time RT-PCR test for detection of human influenza A viruses in clinical specimens, which will be beneficial, especially in the developing countries. Since, the two antibodies identified in this study are reactive to conserved HA epitopes; these may prove as potential therapeutic agents as well.

  7. Generation and characterization of a novel recombinant scFv antibody specific for Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzuma, Ruramayi M; Liu, Fuquan; Grant, Irene R

    2018-04-07

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, mainly due to consumption and handling of contaminated raw chicken. Rapid detection methods for C. jejuni are vital for monitoring contamination levels in chicken products and reducing human Campylobacteriosis cases. The 'gold standard' culture-based method of Campylobacter detection takes 3-5 days and is too slow to permit effective intervention. Immuno-based methods are faster, but usually necessitate use of animals or hybridoma technology to produce antibodies; making them difficult and expensive to produce. Here, we report the generation and characterization of recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies specific for C. jejuni cells, and evaluation of one scFv antibody for an immunomagnetic separation-quantitative PCR (IMS-qPCR) method to rapidly, sensitively, and specifically detect low numbers of C. jejuni. An scFv antibody phage-display library was constructed using spleen mRNA derived from a rabbit immunized with gamma-irradiated C. jejuni cells. This library was screened by surface biopanning against C. jejuni whole cells. Enriched clones were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two scFv antibodies that strongly and specifically recognized C. jejuni cell were expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis showed that one antibody, scFv80, was expressed as a soluble protein and retained its specific and strong binding to C. jejuni cells. This recombinant monoclonal scFv antibody was purified and used to covalently coat paramagnetic beads to be used for IMS-qPCR. The IMS-qPCR method was able to specifically and sensitively detect C. jejuni in mixed cultures within 3 h.

  8. Golden GATEway Cloning – A Combinatorial Approach to Generate Fusion and Recombination Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittbrodt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The design and generation of DNA constructs is among the necessary but generally tedious tasks for molecular biologists and, typically, the cloning strategy is restricted by available restriction sites. However, increasingly sophisticated experiments require increasingly complex DNA constructs, with an intricacy that exceeds what is achievable using standard cloning procedures. Many transgenes such as inducible gene cassettes or recombination elements consist of multiple components that often require precise in-frame fusions. Here, we present an efficient protocol that facilitates the generation of these complex constructs. The golden GATEway cloning approach presented here combines two established cloning methods, namely golden Gate cloning and Multisite GatewayTM cloning. This allows efficient and seamless assembly as well as reuse of predefined DNA elements. The golden Gate cloning procedure follows clear and simple design rules and allows the assembly of multiple fragments with different sizes into one open reading frame. The final product can be directly integrated into the widely used Multisite GatewayTM cloning system, granting more flexibility when using a transgene in the context of multiple species. This adaptable and streamlined cloning procedure overcomes restrictions of “classical construct generation” and allows focusing on construct design. PMID:24116091

  9. A New Metazoan Recombination Rate Record and Consistently High Recombination Rates in the Honey Bee Genus Apis Accompanied by Frequent Inversions but Not Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Ryan; Miller, Katelyn; Fouks, Bertrand; Rubio Correa, Sara; Collazo, Juan; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Tingek, Salim; Koeniger, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) far exceed the commonly observed 1–2 meiotic recombination events per chromosome and exhibit the highest Metazoan recombination rate (20 cM/Mb) described thus far. However, the reasons for this exceptional rate of recombination are not sufficiently understood. In a comparative study, we report on the newly constructed genomic linkage maps of Apis florea and Apis dorsata that represent the two honey bee lineages without recombination rate estimates so far. Each linkage map was generated de novo, based on SNP genotypes of haploid male offspring of a single female. The A. florea map spans 4,782 cM with 1,279 markers in 16 linkage groups. The A. dorsata map is 5,762 cM long and contains 1,189 markers in 16 linkage groups. Respectively, these map sizes result in average recombination rate estimates of 20.8 and 25.1 cM/Mb. Synteny analyses indicate that frequent intra-chromosomal rearrangements but no translocations among chromosomes accompany the high rates of recombination during the independent evolution of the three major honey bee lineages. Our results imply a common cause for the evolution of very high recombination rates in Apis. Our findings also suggest that frequent homologous recombination during meiosis might increase ectopic recombination and rearrangements within but not between chromosomes. It remains to be investigated whether the resulting inversions may have been important in the evolutionary differentiation between honey bee species. PMID:28173114

  10. Development of a Recombination System for the Generation of Occlusion Positive Genetically Modified Anticarsia Gemmatalis Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Haase

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anticarsia gemmatalis is an important pest in legume crops in South America and it has been successfully controlled using Anticarsia gemmatalis Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV in subtropical climate zones. Nevertheless, in temperate climates its speed of kill is too slow. Taking this into account, genetic modification of AgMNPV could lead to improvements of its biopesticidal properties. Here we report the generation of a two-component system that allows the production of recombinant AgMNPV. This system is based on a parental AgMNPV in which the polyhedrin gene (polh was replaced by a bacterial β-galactosidase (lacZ gene flanked by two target sites for the homing endonuclease I-PpoI. Co-transfection of insect cells with linearized (I-PpoI-digested parental genome and a transfer vector allowed the restitution of polh and the expression of a heterologous gene upon homologous recombination, with a low background of non-recombinant AgMNPV. The system was validated by constructing a recombinant occlusion-positive (polh+ AgMNPV expressing the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp. This recombinant virus infected larvae normally per os and led to the expression of GFP in cell culture as well as in A. gemmatalis larvae. These results demonstrate that the system is an efficient method for the generation of recombinant AgMNPV expressing heterologous genes, which can be used for manifold purposes, including biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications and the production of orally infectious recombinants with improved biopesticidal properties.

  11. Strategies to generate high-titer, high-potency recombinant AAV3 serotype vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 3 (AAV3 vectors were largely ignored previously, owing to their poor transduction efficiency in most cells and tissues examined, our initial observation of the selective tropism of AAV3 serotype vectors for human liver cancer cell lines and primary human hepatocytes has led to renewed interest in this serotype. AAV3 vectors and their variants have recently proven to be extremely efficient in targeting human and nonhuman primate hepatocytes in vitro as well as in vivo. In the present studies, we wished to evaluate the relative contributions of the cis-acting inverted terminal repeats (ITRs from AAV3 (ITR3, as well as the trans-acting Rep proteins from AAV3 (Rep3 in the AAV3 vector production and transduction. To this end, we utilized two helper plasmids: pAAVr2c3, which carries rep2 and cap3 genes, and pAAVr3c3, which carries rep3 and cap3 genes. The combined use of AAV3 ITRs, AAV3 Rep proteins, and AAV3 capsids led to the production of recombinant vectors, AAV3-Rep3/ITR3, with up to approximately two to fourfold higher titers than AAV3-Rep2/ITR2 vectors produced using AAV2 ITRs, AAV2 Rep proteins, and AAV3 capsids. We also observed that the transduction efficiency of Rep3/ITR3 AAV3 vectors was approximately fourfold higher than that of Rep2/ITR2 AAV3 vectors in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The transduction efficiency of Rep3/ITR3 vectors was increased by ∼10-fold, when AAV3 capsids containing mutations in two surface-exposed residues (serine 663 and threonine 492 were used to generate a S663V+T492V double-mutant AAV3 vector. The Rep3/ITR3 AAV3 vectors also transduced human liver tumors in vivo approximately twofold more efficiently than those generated with Rep2/ITR2. Our data suggest that the transduction efficiency of AAV3 vectors can be significantly improved both using homologous Rep proteins and ITRs as well as by capsid optimization. Thus, the combined use of

  12. A meiotic linkage map of the silver fox, aligned and compared to the canine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Oskina, Irina N; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Shepeleva, Darya V; Gulievich, Rimma G; Shikhevich, Svetlana G; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2007-03-01

    A meiotic linkage map is essential for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step toward understanding a cryptic genome. Specific strains of silver fox (a variant of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes), which segregate behavioral and morphological phenotypes, create a need for such a map. One such strain, selected for docility, exhibits friendly dog-like responses to humans, in contrast to another strain selected for aggression. Development of a fox map is facilitated by the known cytogenetic homologies between the dog and fox, and by the availability of high resolution canine genome maps and sequence data. Furthermore, the high genomic sequence identity between dog and fox allows adaptation of canine microsatellites for genotyping and meiotic mapping in foxes. Using 320 such markers, we have constructed the first meiotic linkage map of the fox genome. The resulting sex-averaged map covers 16 fox autosomes and the X chromosome with an average inter-marker distance of 7.5 cM. The total map length corresponds to 1480.2 cM. From comparison of sex-averaged meiotic linkage maps of the fox and dog genomes, suppression of recombination in pericentromeric regions of the metacentric fox chromosomes was apparent, relative to the corresponding segments of acrocentric dog chromosomes. Alignment of the fox meiotic map against the 7.6x canine genome sequence revealed high conservation of marker order between homologous regions of the two species. The fox meiotic map provides a critical tool for genetic studies in foxes and identification of genetic loci and genes implicated in fox domestication.

  13. DNA Delivery by Microinjection for the Generation of Recombinant Mammalian Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenuet, Sebastien; Derouazi, Madiha; Hacker, David; Wurm, Florian

    Gene transfer methods for producing recombinant cell lines are often not very efficient. One reason is that the recombinant DNA is delivered into the cell cytoplasm and only a small fraction reaches the nucleus. This chapter describes a method for microinjecting DNA directly into the nucleus. Direct injection has several advantages including the ability to deliver a defined copy number into the nucleus, the avoidance of DNAses that are present in the cell cytoplasm, and the lack of a need for extensive subcloning to find the recombinant cells. The procedure is described for two cell lines, CHO DG44 and BHK-21, using green fluorescent protein as a reporter gene. However, this method could easily be adapted to other cells lines and using other recombinant genes.

  14. Rapid generation of recombinant Pseudomonas putida secondary metabolite producers using yTREX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Domröse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites represent a rich source of valuable compounds with a variety of applications in medicine or agriculture. Effective exploitation of this wealth of chemicals requires the functional expression of the respective biosynthetic genes in amenable heterologous hosts. We have previously established the TREX system which facilitates the transfer, integration and expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in various bacterial hosts. Here, we describe the yTREX system, a new tool adapted for one-step yeast recombinational cloning of gene clusters. We show that with yTREX, Pseudomonas putida secondary metabolite production strains can rapidly be constructed by random targeting of chromosomal promoters by Tn5 transposition. Feasibility of this approach was corroborated by prodigiosin production after yTREX cloning, transfer and expression of the respective biosynthesis genes from Serratia marcescens. Furthermore, the applicability of the system for effective pathway rerouting by gene cluster adaptation was demonstrated using the violacein biosynthesis gene cluster from Chromobacterium violaceum, producing pathway metabolites violacein, deoxyviolacein, prodeoxyviolacein, and deoxychromoviridans. Clones producing both prodigiosin and violaceins could be readily identified among clones obtained after random chromosomal integration by their strong color-phenotype. Finally, the addition of a promoter-less reporter gene enabled facile detection also of phenazine-producing clones after transfer of the respective phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biosynthesis genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All compounds accumulated to substantial titers in the mg range. We thus corroborate here the suitability of P. putida for the biosynthesis of diverse natural products, and demonstrate that the yTREX system effectively enables the rapid generation of secondary metabolite producing bacteria by activation of heterologous gene clusters, applicable for

  15. Spermatogenesis-specific features of the meiotic program in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane C Shakes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In most sexually reproducing organisms, the fundamental process of meiosis is implemented concurrently with two differentiation programs that occur at different rates and generate distinct cell types, sperm and oocytes. However, little is known about how the meiotic program is influenced by such contrasting developmental programs. Here we present a detailed timeline of late meiotic prophase during spermatogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans using cytological and molecular landmarks to interrelate changes in chromosome dynamics with germ cell cellularization, spindle formation, and cell cycle transitions. This analysis expands our understanding C. elegans spermatogenesis, as it identifies multiple spermatogenesis-specific features of the meiotic program and provides a framework for comparative studies. Post-pachytene chromatin of spermatocytes is distinct from that of oocytes in both composition and morphology. Strikingly, C. elegans spermatogenesis includes a previously undescribed karyosome stage, a common but poorly understood feature of meiosis in many organisms. We find that karyosome formation, in which chromosomes form a constricted mass within an intact nuclear envelope, follows desynapsis, involves a global down-regulation of transcription, and may support the sequential activation of multiple kinases that prepare spermatocytes for meiotic divisions. In spermatocytes, the presence of centrioles alters both the relative timing of meiotic spindle assembly and its ultimate structure. These microtubule differences are accompanied by differences in kinetochores, which connect microtubules to chromosomes. The sperm-specific features of meiosis revealed here illuminate how the underlying molecular machinery required for meiosis is differentially regulated in each sex.

  16. The roles of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ helicase SGS1 in meiotic genome surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Dipak Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ helicase Sgs1 is essential for mitotic and meiotic genome stability. The stage at which Sgs1 acts during meiosis is subject to debate. Cytological experiments showed that a deletion of SGS1 leads to an increase in synapsis initiation complexes and axial associations leading to the proposal that it has an early role in unwinding surplus strand invasion events. Physical studies of recombination intermediates implicate it in the dissolution of double Holliday junctions between sister chromatids.In this work, we observed an increase in meiotic recombination between diverged sequences (homeologous recombination and an increase in unequal sister chromatid events when SGS1 is deleted. The first of these observations is most consistent with an early role of Sgs1 in unwinding inappropriate strand invasion events while the second is consistent with unwinding or dissolution of recombination intermediates in an Mlh1- and Top3-dependent manner. We also provide data that suggest that Sgs1 is involved in the rejection of 'second strand capture' when sequence divergence is present. Finally, we have identified a novel class of tetrads where non-sister spores (pairs of spores where each contains a centromere marker from a different parent are inviable. We propose a model for this unusual pattern of viability based on the inability of sgs1 mutants to untangle intertwined chromosomes. Our data suggest that this role of Sgs1 is not dependent on its interaction with Top3. We propose that in the absence of SGS1 chromosomes may sometimes remain entangled at the end of pre-meiotic replication. This, combined with reciprocal crossing over, could lead to physical destruction of the recombined and entangled chromosomes. We hypothesise that Sgs1, acting in concert with the topoisomerase Top2, resolves these structures.This work provides evidence that Sgs1 interacts with various partner proteins to maintain genome stability throughout

  17. Changes in Chromosome Counts and Patterns in CHO Cell Lines upon Generation of Recombinant Cell Lines and Subcloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vcelar, Sabine; Melcher, Michael; Auer, Norbert; Hrdina, Astrid; Puklowski, Anja; Leisch, Friedrich; Jadhav, Vaibhav; Wenger, Till; Baumann, Martina; Borth, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the number one production system for therapeutic proteins. A pre-requirement for their use in industrial production of biopharmaceuticals is to be clonal, thus originating from a single cell in order to be phenotypically and genomically identical. In the present study it was evaluated whether standard procedures, such as the generation of a recombinant cell line in combination with selection for a specific and stable phenotype (expression of the recombinant product) or subcloning have any impact on karyotype stability or homogeneity in CHO cells. Analyses used were the distribution of chromosome counts per cell as well as chromosome painting to identify specific karyotype patterns within a population. Results indicate that subclones both of the host and the recombinant cell line are of comparable heterogeneity and (in)stability as the original pool. In contrast, the rigorous selection for a stably expressing phenotype generated cell lines with fewer variation and more stable karyotypes, both at the level of the sorted pool and derivative subclones. We conclude that the process of subcloning itself does not contribute to an improved karyotypic homogeneity of a population, while the selection for a specific cell property inherently can provide evolutionary pressure that may lead to improved chromosomal stability as well as to a more homogenous population. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Development of a hydrophobic catalyst for recombining radiolytically generated H2 and O2 in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belapurkar, A.D.; Gupta, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    A catalyst is developed for efficient recombination of H 2 and O 2 in presence of water vapor and without requirement of an external heat source. The catalyst, comprising of finely dispersed platinum on a large area polymeric support, is hydrophobic in nature and is therefore resistant to water poisoning. The exothermicity of H 2 -O 2 reaction results in the rise of catalyst temperature and hence in its high and sustained catalytic activity. In order to prevent its over-heating, the catalyst sheet is sandwiched between the two metallic plates which also help in maintaining the catalyst panel at an isothermal temperature. The performance of this catalyst, evaluated both on bench and pilot plant scale, is found to be long lasting. Due to the flexible nature of this catalyst material, different convenient reactor designs may be envisaged for use in nuclear reactors for recombining radiolytically generated H 2 and O 2 . (author)

  19. Nondisjunction of chromosome 15: Origin and recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A.; Mutirangura, A.; Ledbetter, D.H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Langlois, S. (Univ. of Britisch Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Morris, M.A.; Malcolm, S.

    1993-09-01

    Thirty-two cases of uniparental disomy (UPD), ascertained from Prader-Willi syndrome patients (N=27) and Angelman syndrome patients (N-5), are used to investigate the pattern of recombination associated with nondisjunction of chromosome 15. In addition, the meiotic stage of nondisjunction is inferred by using markers mapping near the centromere. Two basic approaches to the analysis of recombination in specific pairwise intervals along the chromosome. This method shows a significant reduction in recombination for two of five intervals examined. Second, the observed frequency of each recombinant class (i.e., zero, one, two, three, or more observable crossovers) is compared with expected values. This is useful for testing whether the reduction in recombination can be attributed solely to a proportion of cases with no recombination at all (because of asynapsis), with the remaining groups showing normal recombination (or even excess recombination), or whether recombination is uniformly reduced. Analysis of maternal UPD(15) data shows a slight reduction in the multiple-recombinant classes, with a corresponding increase in both the zero- and one-recombinant classes over expected values. The majority, more than 82%, of the extra chromosomes in maternal UPD(15) cases are due to meiotic I nondisjunction events. In contrast, more paternal UPD(15) cases so far examined appear to have a postzygotic origin of the extra paternal chromosome. 33 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  20. MEIOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF ERAGROSTIS TEF AND ERAGROSTIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia. Majumdar, S., Banerjee, S. and Kumar, K. 2004. Meiotic behavior of chromosomes in PMCs and karyotype of Trifolium repens L. from drajeeling Himalaya. Acta Biologica. Cracoviensia Series Botanica 46: 217-220. Mulu Ayele, Dolezel, J., Van Duren, M., Brunner,.

  1. Generation of monoclonal antibodies for the assessment of protein purification by recombinant ribosomal coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni; Sperling-Petersen, Hans Uffe; Mortensen, Kim Kusk

    2005-01-01

    -His is among the fusion proteins used in our previous study for ribosomal coupling of C-terminally His-tagged green fluorescent protein. To assess the efficiency of separation of target protein from ribosomes, by site-specific proteolysis, we required monoclonal antibodies directed against rpL23 and GFP. We......We recently described a conceptually novel method for the purification of recombinant proteins with a propensity to form inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. Recombinant proteins were covalently coupled to the E. coli ribosome by fusing them to ribosomal protein 23 (rpL23......) followed by expression in an rpL23 deficient strain of E. coli. This allowed for the isolation of ribsomes with covalently coupled target proteins which could be efficiently purified by centrifugation after in vitro proteolysis at a specific site incorporated between rpL23 and the target protein. rpL23-GFP...

  2. A general method to modify BACs to generate large recombinant DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Huang, Yue; Tang, Yi; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chih-Chuan

    2005-11-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) has the capacity to clone DNA fragments in excess of 300 kb. It also has the considerable advantages of stable propagation and ease of purification. These features make BAC suitable in genetic research, such as library construction, transgenic mice production, and gene targeting constructs. Homologous recombination in Escherichia coli, a process named recombineering, has made the modification of BACs easy and reliable. We report here a modified recombineering method that can efficiently mediate the fusion of large DNA fragments from two or more different BACs. With the introduction of kanamycin-resistant gene and proposed rare-cutting restriction endonuclease (RCRE) sites into two BACs, a 82.6-kb DNA fragment containing the inverted human alpha-globin genes (theta, alpha1, alpha2, and zeta) from BAC191K2 and the locus control region (LCR) of human beta-globin gene locus (from the BAC186D7) was reconstructed. This approach for combining different BAC DNA fragments should facilitate many kinds of genomic experiments.

  3. Screening strategy to generate cell specific recombination: a case report with the RIP-Cre mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Valeria; Martin, Céline; Dorchies, Emilie; Vallez, Emmanuelle; Dehondt, Hélène; Trabelsi, Mohamed-Sami; Tailleux, Anne; Caron, Sandrine; Staels, Bart

    2015-10-01

    Conditional gene knockout technology is a powerful tool to study the function of a gene in a specific tissue, organ or cell lineage. The most commonly used procedure applies the Cre-LoxP strategy, where the choice of the Cre driver promoter is critical to determine the efficiency and specificity of the system. However, a considered choice of an appropriate promoter does not always protect against the risk of unwanted recombination and the consequent deletion of the gene in other tissues than the desired one(s), due to phenomena of non-specific activation of the Cre transgene. Furthermore, the causes of these phenomena are not completely understood and this can potentially affect every strain of Cre-mice. In our study on the deletion of a same gene in two different tissues, we show that the incidence rate of non-specific recombination in unwanted tissues depends on the Cre driver strain, ranging from 100%, rendering it useless (aP2-Cre strain), to ~5%, which is still compatible with their use (RIP-Cre strain). The use of a simple PCR strategy conceived to detect this occurrence is indispensable when producing a tissue-specific knockout mouse. Therefore, when choosing the Cre-driver promoter, researchers not only have to be careful about its tissue-specificity and timing of activation, but should also include a systematical screening in order to exclude mice in which atypical recombination has occurred and to limit the unnecessary use of laboratory animals in uninterpretable experiments.

  4. The axial element protein HTP-3 promotes cohesin loading and meiotic axis assembly in C. elegans to implement the meiotic program of chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Aaron F; Ling, Lorraine; van Zuylen, Vanessa; Meyer, Barbara J

    2009-08-01

    Faithful transmission of the genome through sexual reproduction requires reduction of genome copy number during meiosis to produce haploid sperm and eggs. Meiosis entails steps absent from mitosis to achieve this goal. When meiosis begins, sisters are held together by sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), mediated by the cohesin complex. Homologs then become linked through crossover recombination. SCC subsequently holds both sisters and homologs together. Separation of homologs and then sisters requires two successive rounds of chromosome segregation and the stepwise removal of Rec8, a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. We show that HTP-3, a known component of the C. elegans axial element (AE), molecularly links these meiotic innovations. We identified HTP-3 in a genetic screen for factors necessary to maintain SCC until meiosis II. Our data show that interdependent loading of HTP-3 and cohesin is a principal step in assembling the meiotic chromosomal axis and in establishing SCC. HTP-3 recruits all known AE components to meiotic chromosomes and promotes cohesin loading, the first known involvement of an AE protein in this process. Furthermore, REC-8 and two paralogs, called COH-3 and COH-4, together mediate meiotic SCC, but they perform specialized functions. REC-8 alone is necessary and sufficient for the persistence of SCC after meiosis I. In htp-3 and rec-8 mutants, sister chromatids segregate away from one another in meiosis I (equational division), rather than segregating randomly, as expected if SCC were completely eliminated. AE assembly fails only when REC-8, COH-3, and COH-4 are simultaneously disrupted. Premature equational sister separation in rec8 mutants of other organisms suggests the involvement of multiple REC-8 paralogs, which may have masked a conserved requirement for cohesin in AE assembly.

  5. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  6. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albariño, César G.; Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies

  7. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albariño, César G., E-mail: calbarino@cdc.gov; Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies.

  8. Analysis of the meiotic segregation in intergeneric hybrids of tilapias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezault, Etienne; Rognon, Xavier; Clota, Frederic; Gharbi, Karim; Baroiller, Jean-Francois; Chevassus, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Tilapia species exhibit a large ecological diversity and an important propensity to interspecific hybridisation. This has been shown in the wild and used in aquaculture. However, despite its important evolutionary implications, few studies have focused on the analysis of hybrid genomes and their meiotic segregation. Intergeneric hybrids between Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron, two species highly differentiated genetically, ecologically, and behaviourally, were produced experimentally. The meiotic segregation of these hybrids was analysed in reciprocal second generation hybrid (F2) and backcross families and compared to the meiosis of both parental species, using a panel of 30 microsatellite markers. Hybrid meioses showed segregation in accordance to Mendelian expectations, independent from sex and the direction of crosses. In addition, we observed a conservation of linkage associations between markers, which suggests a relatively similar genome structure between the two parental species and the apparent lack of postzygotic incompatibility, despite their important divergence. These results provide genomics insights into the relative ease of hybridisation within cichlid species when prezygotic barriers are disrupted. Overall our results support the hypothesis that hybridisation may have played an important role in the evolution and diversification of cichlids.

  9. Identification of a putative Crf splice variant and generation of recombinant antibodies for the specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schütte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a common airborne fungal pathogen for humans. It frequently causes an invasive aspergillosis (IA in immunocompromised patients with poor prognosis. Potent antifungal drugs are very expensive and cause serious adverse effects. Their correct application requires an early and specific diagnosis of IA, which is still not properly achievable. This work aims to a specific detection of A. fumigatus by immunofluorescence and the generation of recombinant antibodies for the detection of A. fumigatus by ELISA. RESULTS: The A. fumigatus antigen Crf2 was isolated from a human patient with proven IA. It is a novel variant of a group of surface proteins (Crf1, Asp f9, Asp f16 which belong to the glycosylhydrolase family. Single chain fragment variables (scFvs were obtained by phage display from a human naive antibody gene library and an immune antibody gene library generated from a macaque immunized with recombinant Crf2. Two different selection strategies were performed and shown to influence the selection of scFvs recognizing the Crf2 antigen in its native conformation. Using these antibodies, Crf2 was localized in growing hyphae of A. fumigatus but not in spores. In addition, the antibodies allowed differentiation between A. fumigatus and related Aspergillus species or Candida albicans by immunofluorescence microscopy. The scFv antibody clones were further characterized for their affinity, the nature of their epitope, their serum stability and their detection limit of Crf2 in human serum. CONCLUSION: Crf2 and the corresponding recombinant antibodies offer a novel approach for the early diagnostics of IA caused by A. fumigatus.

  10. Recombination-driven generation of the largest pathogen repository of antigen variants in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, D Brent; Peng, Duo; Tarleton, Rick L

    2016-09-13

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, depends upon a cell surface-expressed trans-sialidase (ts) to avoid activation of complement-mediated lysis and to enhance intracellular invasion. However these functions alone fail to account for the size of this gene family in T. cruzi, especially considering that most of these genes encode proteins lacking ts enzyme activity. Previous whole genome sequencing of the CL Brener clone of T. cruzi identified ~1400 ts variants, but left many partially assembled sequences unannotated. In the current study we reevaluated the trans-sialidase-like sequences in this reference strain, identifying an additional 1779 full-length and partial ts genes with their important features annotated, and confirming the expression of previously annotated "pseudogenes" and newly annotated ts family members. Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation (MEME) analysis allowed us to generate a model T. cruzi ts (TcTS) based upon the most conserved motif patterns and demonstrated that a common motif order is highly conserved among ts family members. Using a newly developed pipeline for the analysis of recombination within large gene families, we further demonstrate that TcTS family members are undergoing frequent recombination, generating new variants from the thousands of functional and non-functional ts gene segments but retaining the overall structure of the core TcTS family members. The number and variety as well as high recombination frequency of TcTS family members supports strong evolutionary pressure, probably exerted by immune selection, for continued variation in ts sequences in T. cruzi, and thus for a unique immune evasion mechanism for the large ts gene family.

  11. Generation of Nanobodies against SlyD and development of tools to eliminate this bacterial contaminant from recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaozhong; Romão, Ema; Vertommen, Didier; Vincke, Cécile; Morales-Yánez, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Liu, Changxiao; Muyldermans, Serge

    2017-09-01

    The gene for a protein domain, derived from a tumor marker, fused to His tag codons and under control of a T7 promotor was expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein was purified from cell lysates through immobilized metal affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. A contaminating bacterial protein was consistently co-purified, even using stringent washing solutions containing 50 or 100 mM imidazole. Immunization of a dromedary with this contaminated protein preparation, and the subsequent generation and panning of the immune Nanobody library yielded several Nanobodies of which 2/3 were directed against the bacterial contaminant, reflecting the immunodominance of this protein to steer the dromedary immune response. Affinity adsorption of this contaminant using one of our specific Nanobodies followed by mass spectrometry identified the bacterial contaminant as FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (SlyD) from E. coli. This SlyD protein contains in its C-terminal region 14 histidines in a stretch of 31 amino acids, which explains its co-purification on Ni-NTA resin. This protein is most likely present to varying extents in all recombinant protein preparations after immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Using our SlyD-specific Nb 5 we generated an immune-complex that could be removed either by immunocapturing or by size exclusion chromatography. Both methods allow us to prepare a recombinant protein sample where the SlyD contaminant was quantitatively eliminated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient generation of long-distance conditional alleles using recombineering and a dual selection strategy in replicate plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hong-Erh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conditional knockout mice are a useful tool to study the function of gene products in a tissue-specific or inducible manner. Classical approaches to generate targeting vectors for conditional alleles are often limited by the availability of suitable restriction sites. Furthermore, plasmid-based targeting vectors can only cover a few kB of DNA which precludes the generation of targeting vectors where the two loxP sites are placed far apart. These limitations have been overcome in the recent past by using homologous recombination of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs in Escherichia coli to produce large targeting vector containing two different loxP-flanked selection cassettes so that a single targeting event is sufficient to introduce loxP-sites a great distances into the mouse genome. However, the final targeted allele should be free of selection cassettes and screening for correct removal of selection cassettes can be a laborious task. Therefore, we developed a new strategy to rapidly identify ES cells containing the desired allele. Results Using BAC recombineering we generated a single targeting vector which contained two different selection cassettes that were flanked by loxP-loxP sites or by FRT-FRT/loxP sites so that they could be deleted sequentially by Cre- and FLPe-recombinases, respectively. Transfected ES cells were first selected in the presence of both antibiotics in vitro before correctly targeted clones were identified by Southern blot. After transfection of a Cre recombinase expression plasmid ES cell clones were selected on replicate plates to identify those clones which maintained the FRT-FRT/loxP flanked cassette and lost the loxP-loxP flanked cassette. Using this strategy facilitated the identification of ES cell clones containing the desired allele before blastocyst injection. Conclusion The strategy of ES cell cultures in replicate plates proved to be very efficient in identifying ES cells that had

  13. A new culture technique that allows in vitro meiotic prophase development of fetal human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieño-Enríquez, M A; Robles, P; García-Cruz, R; Roig, I; Cabero, L; Martínez, F; Garcia Caldés, M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate meiosis in the human female fetus as a result of the technical difficulties in obtaining samples. Currently, there is no technique for human fetal oocyte culture that permits the maintenance of fetal ovarian tissue in vitro which allows the progression of meiosis in a reproducible and standardized way. Meiotic progression was analyzed following pairing-synapsis and recombination progress. A total of 7119 oocytes were studied and analyzed. The proteins used to evaluate meiotic progression were: REC8, SYCP1, SYCP3 and MLH1, studied by immunofluorescence. Four different sample disaggregating methods were used, two enzymatic (trypsin and collagenase + hyaluronidase) and two mechanical (puncture and ovarian fragments). Two different culture media were used, control media and stem cell factor (SCF)-supplemented media. The oocytes were studied at initial time T0, and then at T7, T14 and T21 days after culture. The mechanical methods increased the total number of oocytes found at the different times of culture and decreased the number of degenerated oocytes. Independently of the disaggregation method used, oocytes cultured with SCF-supplemented media showed a higher proportion of viable oocytes and fewer degenerated cells at all culture timepoints. No evidence of abnormal homologous chromosome synapsis was observed. Meiotic recombination was only observed in oocytes mechanically disaggregated and cultured with supplemented media. The oocytes obtained by mechanical disaggregating methods and cultured with SCF-supplemented media are able to follow pairing-synapsis and recombination, comparable to oocytes in vivo. The culture conditions described herein confirm the methodology as a standardized and reproducible method.

  14. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoko; Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized.

  15. Engineering the Rapid Adenovirus Production and Amplification (RAPA) Cell Line to Expedite the Generation of Recombinant Adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Fan, Jiaming; Liao, Junyi; Zou, Yulong; Song, Dongzhe; Liu, Jianxiang; Cui, Jing; Liu, Feng; Ma, Chao; Hu, Xue; Li, Li; Yu, Yichun; Qu, Xiangyang; Chen, Liqun; Yu, Xinyi; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhao, Chen; Zeng, Zongyue; Zhang, Ruyi; Yan, Shujuan; Wu, Xingye; Shu, Yi; Reid, Russell R; Lee, Michael J; Wolf, Jennifer Moritis; He, Tong-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    While recombinant adenoviruses are among the most widely-used gene delivery vectors and usually propagated in HEK-293 cells, generating recombinant adenoviruses remains time-consuming and labor-intense. We sought to develop a rapid adenovirus production and amplification (RAPA) line by assessing human Ad5 genes (E1A, E1B19K/55K, pTP, DBP, and DNA Pol) and OCT1 for their contributions to adenovirus production. Stable transgene expression in 293T cells was accomplished by using piggyBac system. Transgene expression was determined by qPCR. Adenoviral production was assessed with titering, fluorescent markers and/or luciferase activity. Osteogenic activity was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. Overexpression of both E1A and pTP led to a significant increase in adenovirus amplification, whereas other transgene combinations did not significantly affect adenovirus amplification. When E1A and pTP were stably expressed in 293T cells, the resultant RAPA line showed high efficiency in adenovirus amplification and production. The produced AdBMP9 infected mesenchymal stem cells with highest efficiency and induced most effective osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, adenovirus production efficiency in RAPA cells was dependent on the amount of transfected DNA. Under optimal transfection conditions high-titer adenoviruses were obtained within 5 days of transfection. The RAPA cells are highly efficient for adenovirus production and amplification. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Recombinant Protein Containing B-Cell Epitopes of Different Loxosceles Spider Toxins Generates Neutralizing Antibodies in Immunized Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina de Almeida Lima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Loxoscelism is the most important form of araneism in South America. The treatment of these accidents uses heterologous antivenoms obtained from immunization of production animals with crude loxoscelic venom. Due to the scarcity of this immunogen, new alternatives for its substitution in antivenom production are of medical interest. In the present work, three linear epitopes for Loxosceles astacin-like protease 1 (LALP-1 (SLGRGCTDFGTILHE, ENNTRTIGPFDYDSIMLYGAY, and KLYKCPPVNPYPGGIRPYVNV and two for hyaluronidase (LiHYAL (NGGIPQLGDLKAHLEKSAVDI and ILDKSATGLRIIDWEAWR from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom were identified by SPOT-synthesis technique. One formerly characterized linear epitope (DFSGPYLPSLPTLDA of sphingomyelinase D (SMase D SMase-I from Loxosceles laeta was also chosen to constitute a new recombinant multiepitopic protein. These epitopes were combined with a previously produced chimeric multiepitopic protein (rCpLi composed by linear and conformational B-cell epitopes from SMase D from L. intermedia venom, generating a new recombinant multiepitopic protein derived from loxoscelic toxins (rMEPLox. We demonstrated that rMEPLox is non-toxic and antibodies elicited in rabbits against this antigen present reactivity in ELISA and immunoblot assays with Brazilian L. intermedia, L. laeta, L. gaucho, and L. similis spider venoms. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays showed that anti-rMEPLox antibodies can efficiently neutralize the sphingomyelinase, hyaluronidase, and metalloproteinase activity of L. intermedia venom. This study suggests that this multiepitopic protein can be a suitable candidate for experimental vaccination approaches or for antivenom production against Loxosceles spp. venoms.

  17. Efficient generation of recombinant RNA viruses using targeted recombination-mediated mutagenesis of bacterial artificial chromosomes containing full-length cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Risager, Peter Christian; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    . This strategy allows manipulation of viral cDNA by targeted recombination-mediated mutagenesis within bacteria. Results A new CSFV-BAC (pBeloR26) derived from the Riems vaccine strain has been constructed and subsequently modified in the E2 coding sequence, using the targeted recombination strategy to enable...... rescue of chimeric pestiviruses (vR26_E2gif and vR26_TAV) with potential as new marker vaccine candidates. Sequencing of the BACs revealed a high genetic stability during passages within bacteria. The complete genome sequences of rescued viruses, after extensive passages in mammalian cells showed...... recombination-mediated mutagenesis provides a powerful tool for expediting the construction of novel RNA genomes and should be applicable to the manipulation of other RNA viruses....

  18. Generation of brain tumours in mice by Cre-mediated recombination of neural progenitors in situ with the tamoxifen metabolite endoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Benedykcinska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Targeted cell- or region-specific gene recombination is widely used in the functional analysis of genes implicated in development and disease. In the brain, targeted gene recombination has become a mainstream approach to study neurodegeneration or tumorigenesis. The use of the Cre-loxP system to study tumorigenesis in the adult central nervous system (CNS can be limited, when the promoter (such as GFAP is also transiently expressed during development, which can result in the recombination of progenies of different lineages. Engineering of transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase fused to a mutant of the human oestrogen receptor (ER allows the circumvention of transient developmental Cre expression by inducing recombination in the adult organism. The recombination of loxP sequences occurs only in the presence of tamoxifen. Systemic administration of tamoxifen can, however, exhibit toxicity and might also recombine unwanted cell populations if the promoter driving Cre expression is active at the time of tamoxifen administration. Here, we report that a single site-specific injection of an active derivative of tamoxifen successfully activates Cre recombinase and selectively recombines tumour suppressor genes in neural progenitor cells of the subventricular zone in mice, and we demonstrate its application in a model for the generation of intrinsic brain tumours.

  19. Generation of brain tumours in mice by Cre-mediated recombination of neural progenitors in situ with the tamoxifen metabolite endoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedykcinska, Anna; Ferreira, Andreia; Lau, Joanne; Broni, Jessica; Richard-Loendt, Angela; Henriquez, Nico V; Brandner, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    Targeted cell- or region-specific gene recombination is widely used in the functional analysis of genes implicated in development and disease. In the brain, targeted gene recombination has become a mainstream approach to study neurodegeneration or tumorigenesis. The use of the Cre-loxP system to study tumorigenesis in the adult central nervous system (CNS) can be limited, when the promoter (such as GFAP) is also transiently expressed during development, which can result in the recombination of progenies of different lineages. Engineering of transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase fused to a mutant of the human oestrogen receptor (ER) allows the circumvention of transient developmental Cre expression by inducing recombination in the adult organism. The recombination of loxP sequences occurs only in the presence of tamoxifen. Systemic administration of tamoxifen can, however, exhibit toxicity and might also recombine unwanted cell populations if the promoter driving Cre expression is active at the time of tamoxifen administration. Here, we report that a single site-specific injection of an active derivative of tamoxifen successfully activates Cre recombinase and selectively recombines tumour suppressor genes in neural progenitor cells of the subventricular zone in mice, and we demonstrate its application in a model for the generation of intrinsic brain tumours. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Generating in vivo cloning vectors for parallel cloning of large gene clusters by homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongmin Lee

    Full Text Available A robust method for the in vivo cloning of large gene clusters was developed based on homologous recombination (HR, requiring only the transformation of PCR products into Escherichia coli cells harboring a receiver plasmid. Positive clones were selected by an acquired antibiotic resistance, which was activated by the recruitment of a short ribosome-binding site plus start codon sequence from the PCR products to the upstream position of a silent antibiotic resistance gene in receiver plasmids. This selection was highly stringent and thus the cloning efficiency of the GFPuv gene (size: 0.7 kb was comparable to that of the conventional restriction-ligation method, reaching up to 4.3 × 10(4 positive clones per μg of DNA. When we attempted parallel cloning of GFPuv fusion genes (size: 2.0 kb and carotenoid biosynthesis pathway clusters (sizes: 4 kb, 6 kb, and 10 kb, the cloning efficiency was similarly high regardless of the DNA size, demonstrating that this would be useful for the cloning of large DNA sequences carrying multiple open reading frames. However, restriction analyses of the obtained plasmids showed that the selected cells may contain significant amounts of receiver plasmids without the inserts. To minimize the amount of empty plasmid in the positive selections, the sacB gene encoding a levansucrase was introduced as a counter selection marker in receiver plasmid as it converts sucrose to a toxic levan in the E. coli cells. Consequently, this method yielded completely homogeneous plasmids containing the inserts via the direct transformation of PCR products into E. coli cells.

  1. Charge Carrier Generation, Recombination, and Extraction in Polymer–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Laquai, Frederic

    2016-12-20

    In this chapter we review the basic principles of photocurrent generation in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, discuss the loss channels limiting their efficiency, and present case studies of several polymer–fullerene blends. Using steady-state and transient, optical, and electrooptical techniques, we create a precise picture of the fundamental processes that ultimately govern solar cell efficiency.

  2. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full-genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2010-01-01

    -Gifhorn genome was generated by long RTPCR and then RNA transcripts derived from this amplicon were used to rescue infectious virus. Here, we have now used this full-genome amplification strategy for efficient and robust amplification of three additional pestivirus strains: the vaccine strain C and the virulent...

  3. Meiotic chromosome behaviour and sexual sterility in two Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of meiotic chromosomes and the subsequent behaviour of the meiotic products were investigated in two Nigerian species of Aloe, namely Aloe keayi and Aloe macrocarpa var major with a view to uncovering the cause of their inability to reproduce sexually. The two plant materials used in this study were ...

  4. Meiotic behaviour in three interspecific three-way hybrids between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    development and which can be successfully used in the breeding. Hybrids with high frequency of meiotic abnormalities can seriously compromise seed production, a key trait in assuring adoption of a new apomictic cultivar of Brachiaria for pasture formation. [Adamowski E. V., Pagliarini M. S. and Valle C. B. 2008 Meiotic ...

  5. Flip-Flop HSV-BAC: bacterial artificial chromosome based system for rapid generation of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors using two independent site-specific recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todo Tomoki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV vectors that specifically replicate in and kill tumor cells sparing normal cells are a promising cancer therapy. Traditionally, recombinant HSV vectors have been generated through homologous recombination between the HSV genome and a recombination plasmid, which usually requires laborious screening or selection and can take several months. Recent advances in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology have enabled cloning of the whole HSV genome as a BAC plasmid and subsequent manipulation in E. coli. Thus, we sought a method to generate recombinant oncolytic HSV vectors more easily and quickly using BAC technology. Results We have developed an HSV-BAC system, termed the Flip-Flop HSV-BAC system, for the rapid generation of oncolytic HSV vectors. This system has the following features: (i two site-specific recombinases, Cre and FLPe, are used sequentially to integrate desired sequences and to excise the BAC sequences, respectively; and (ii the size of the HSV-BAC-insert genome exceeds the packaging limit of HSV so only correctly recombined virus grows efficiently. We applied this to the construction of an HSV-BAC plasmid that can be used for the generation of transcriptionally-targeted HSV vectors. BAC sequences were recombined into the UL39 gene of HSV ICP4-deletion mutant d120 to generate M24-BAC virus, from which HSV-BAC plasmid pM24-BAC was isolated. An ICP4 expression cassette driven by an exogenous promoter was re-introduced to pM24-BAC by Cre-mediated recombination and nearly pure preparations of recombinant virus were obtained typically in two weeks. Insertion of the ICP4 coding sequence alone did not restore viral replication and was only minimally better than an ICP4-null construct, whereas insertion of a CMVIE promoter-ICP4 transgene (bM24-CMV efficiently drove viral replication. The levels of bM24-CMV replication in tumor cells varied considerably compared to hrR3 (UL39

  6. Combination of FACS and homologous recombination for the generation of stable and high-expression engineered cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cell line generation requires several months and involves screening of over several hundred cell clones for high productivity before dozens are selected as candidate cell lines. Here, we have designed a new strategy for the generation of stable and high-expression cell lines by combining homologous recombination (HR and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. High expression was indicated by the expression of secreted green fluorescent protein (SEGFP. Parental cell lines with the highest expression of SEGFP were then selected by FACS and identified by stability analysis. Consequently, HR vectors were constructed using the cassette for SEGFP as the HR region. After transfecting the HR vector, the cells with negative SEGFP expression were enriched by FACS. The complete exchange between SEGFP and target gene (TNFR-Fc cassettes was demonstrated by DNA analysis. Compared with the traditional method, by integrating the cassette containing the gene of interest into the pre-selected site, the highest producing cells secreted a more than 8-fold higher titer of target protein. Hence, this new strategy can be applied to isolated stable cell lines with desirable expression of any gene of interest. The stable cell lines can rapidly produce proteins for researching protein structure and function and are even applicable in drug discovery.

  7. Development and Characterization of Recombinant Virus Generated from a New World Zika Virus Infectious Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger-Lucarelli, James; Duggal, Nisha K; Bullard-Feibelman, Kristen; Veselinovic, Milena; Romo, Hannah; Nguyen, Chilinh; Rückert, Claudia; Brault, Aaron C; Bowen, Richard A; Stenglein, Mark; Geiss, Brian J; Ebel, Gregory D

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) is a rapidly expanding global pathogen that has been associated with severe clinical manifestations, including devastating neurological disease in infants. There are currently no molecular clones of a New World ZIKV available that lack significant attenuation, hindering progress toward understanding determinants of transmission and pathogenesis. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel ZIKV reverse genetics system based on a 2015 isolate from Puerto Rico (PRVABC59). We generated a two-plasmid infectious clone system from which infectious virus was rescued that replicates in human and mosquito cells with growth kinetics representative of wild-type ZIKV. Infectious clone-derived virus initiated infection and transmission rates in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes comparable to those of the primary isolate and displayed similar pathogenesis in AG129 mice. This infectious clone system provides a valuable resource to the research community to explore ZIKV molecular biology, vaccine development, antiviral development, diagnostics, vector competence, and disease pathogenesis. ZIKV is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne pathogen that has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital microcephaly in developing fetuses and infants. ZIKV can also be sexually transmitted. The viral molecular determinants of any of these phenotypes are not well understood. There is no reverse genetics system available for the current epidemic virus that will allow researchers to study ZIKV immunity, develop novel vaccines, or develop antiviral drugs. Here we provide a novel infectious clone system generated from a recent ZIKV isolated from a patient infected in Puerto Rico. This infectious clone produces virus with in vitro and in vivo characteristics similar to those of the primary isolate, providing a critical tool to study ZIKV infection and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. The Mouse Cohesin-Associated Protein PDS5B Is Expressed in Testicular Cells and Is Associated with the Meiotic Chromosome Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Hoog

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the first meiotic prophase, the cohesin complex is localized to the chromosome axis and contributes to chromosome organization, pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The PDS5 protein, an accessory factor of the cohesin complex, is known to be a component of meiotic chromosome cores in fungi and to be implicated in meiotic chromosome structure and function. We found by immunoblotting experiments that a mammalian PDS5 protein, PDS5B, is abundantly expressed in mouse testis compared to other tissues. Immunofluorescence labeling experiments revealed that PDS5B is highly expressed in spermatogonia and that most PDS5B is depleted from chromatin as cells enter meiosis. During the first meiotic prophase, PDS5B associates with the axial cores of chromosomes. The axial association of PDS5B was observed also in the absence of synaptonemal complex proteins, such as SYCP1 and SYCP3, suggesting that PDS5B is an integral part of the chromosome axis as defined by the cohesin complex. These results suggest that PDS5B modulates cohesin functions in spermatocytes as well as in spermatogonia, contributing to meiotic chromosome structure and function.

  9. Superresolution microscopy reveals the three-dimensional organization of meiotic chromosome axes in intactCaenorhabditis eleganstissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Simone; Wojcik, Michal; Xu, Ke; Dernburg, Abby F

    2017-06-13

    When cells enter meiosis, their chromosomes reorganize as linear arrays of chromatin loops anchored to a central axis. Meiotic chromosome axes form a platform for the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and play central roles in other meiotic processes, including homologous pairing, recombination, and chromosome segregation. However, little is known about the 3D organization of components within the axes, which include cohesin complexes and additional meiosis-specific proteins. Here, we investigate the molecular organization of meiotic chromosome axes in Caenorhabditis elegans through STORM (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) and PALM (photo-activated localization microscopy) superresolution imaging of intact germ-line tissue. By tagging one axis protein (HIM-3) with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein, we established a spatial reference for other components, which were localized using antibodies against epitope tags inserted by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Using 3D averaging, we determined the position of all known components within synapsed chromosome axes to high spatial precision in three dimensions. We find that meiosis-specific HORMA domain proteins span a gap between cohesin complexes and the central region of the SC, consistent with their essential roles in SC assembly. Our data further suggest that the two different meiotic cohesin complexes are distinctly arranged within the axes: Although cohesin complexes containing the kleisin REC-8 protrude above and below the plane defined by the SC, complexes containing COH-3 or -4 kleisins form a central core, which may physically separate sister chromatids. This organization may help to explain the role of the chromosome axes in promoting interhomolog repair of meiotic double-strand breaks by inhibiting intersister repair.

  10. A robust high throughput platform to generate functional recombinant monoclonal antibodies using rabbit B cells from peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Seeber

    Full Text Available We have developed a robust platform to generate and functionally characterize rabbit-derived antibodies using B cells from peripheral blood. The rapid high throughput procedure generates a diverse set of antibodies, yet requires only few animals to be immunized without the need to sacrifice them. The workflow includes (i the identification and isolation of single B cells from rabbit blood expressing IgG antibodies, (ii an elaborate short term B-cell cultivation to produce sufficient monoclonal antigen specific IgG for comprehensive phenotype screens, (iii the isolation of VH and VL coding regions via PCR from B-cell clones producing antigen specific and functional antibodies followed by the sequence determination, and (iv the recombinant expression and purification of IgG antibodies. The fully integrated and to a large degree automated platform (demonstrated in this paper using IL1RL1 immunized rabbits yielded clonal and very diverse IL1RL1-specific and functional IL1RL1-inhibiting rabbit antibodies. These functional IgGs from individual animals were obtained at a short time range after immunization and could be identified already during primary screening, thus substantially lowering the workload for the subsequent B-cell PCR workflow. Early availability of sequence information permits one to select early-on function- and sequence-diverse antibodies for further characterization. In summary, this powerful technology platform has proven to be an efficient and robust method for the rapid generation of antigen specific and functional monoclonal rabbit antibodies without sacrificing the immunized animal.

  11. Efficient repair of DNA damage induced by heavy ion particles in meiotic prophase I nuclei of Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanami, Takako; Zhang, Yongzhao; Aoki, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Higashitani, Atsushi; Abe, Tomoko; Yoshida, Shigeo; Horiuchi, Saburo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of heavy ion particle irradiation on meiosis and reproductive development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were studied. Meiotic pachytene nuclei are significantly resistant to particle irradiation by the heavy ions carbon and argon, as well as to X-rays, but not ultraviolet (UV), whereas diplotene to diakinesis stage oocytes and early embryonic cells are not. Chromosomal abnormalities appear in mitotic cells and in maturing oocytes irradiated with heavy ion particles during the diplotene to the early diakinesis stages, but not in oocytes irradiated during the pachytene stage. The pachytene nuclei of ced-3 mutants, which are defective in apoptosis, are similarly resistant to ionizing radiation, but pachytene nuclei depleted for Ce-atl-1 (ataxia-telangiectasia like 1) or Ce-rdh-1/rad-51 are more sensitive. Pachytene nuclei thus appear to effectively repair heavy ion-induced DNA damage by the meiotic homologous recombination system. (author)

  12. Roles of CDK and DDK in Genome Duplication and Maintenance: Meiotic Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Wu, Pei-Yun Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Cells reproduce using two types of divisions: mitosis, which generates two daughter cells each with the same genomic content as the mother cell, and meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes of the parent cell by half and gives rise to four gametes. The mechanisms that promote the proper progression of the mitotic and meiotic cycles are highly conserved and controlled. They require the activities of two types of serine-threonine kinases, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK). CDK and DDK are essential for genome duplication and maintenance in both mitotic and meiotic divisions. In this review, we aim to highlight how these kinases cooperate to orchestrate diverse processes during cellular reproduction, focusing on meiosis-specific adaptions of their regulation and functions in DNA metabolism. PMID:28335524

  13. OsSPL regulates meiotic fate acquisition in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijun; Tang, Ding; Zhao, Tingting; Zhang, Fanfan; Liu, Changzhen; Xue, Zhihui; Shi, Wenqing; Du, Guijie; Shen, Yi; Li, Yafei; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2018-04-01

    In angiosperms, the key step in sexual reproduction is successful acquisition of meiotic fate. However, the molecular mechanism determining meiotic fate remains largely unknown. Here, we report that OsSPOROCYTELESS (OsSPL) is critical for meiotic entry in rice (Oryza sativa). We performed a large-scale genetic screen of rice sterile mutants aimed to identify genes regulating meiotic entry and identified OsSPL using map-based cloning. We showed that meiosis-specific callose deposition, chromatin organization, and centromere-specific histone H3 loading were altered in the cells corresponding to pollen mother cells in Osspl anthers. Global transcriptome analysis showed that the enriched differentially expressed genes in Osspl were mainly related to redox status, meiotic process, and parietal cell development. OsSPL might form homodimers and interact with TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factor OsTCP5 via the SPL dimerization and TCP interaction domain. OsSPL also interacts with TPL (TOPLESS) corepressors, OsTPL2 and OsTPL3, via the EAR motif. Our results suggest that the OsSPL-mediated signaling pathway plays a crucial role in rice meiotic entry, which appears to be a conserved regulatory mechanism for meiotic fate acquisition in angiosperms. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Depletion of Key Meiotic Genes and Transcriptome-Wide Abiotic Stress Reprogramming Mark Early Preparatory Events Ahead of Apomeiotic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jubin N.; Kirioukhova, Olga; Pawar, Pallavi; Tayyab, Muhammad; Mateo, Juan L.; Johnston, Amal J.

    2016-01-01

    methylation exclusively in the apomicts. Variability in stress and transcriptional response in a diploid apomict, which is geographically distinct from the triploid apomict, pinpoints both common and independent features of apomixis evolution. Our study provides a molecular frame-work to investigate how the adaptive traits associated with the evolutionary history of apomicts co-adapted with meiotic gene deregulation at early developmental stage, in order to predate meiotic recombination, which otherwise is thought to be favorable in stress and low-fitness conditions. PMID:27833618

  15. Depletion of Key Meiotic Genes and Transcriptome-Wide Abiotic Stress Reprogramming Mark Early Preparatory Events Ahead of Apomeiotic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin N Shah

    2016-10-01

    global DNA methylation exclusively in the apomicts. Variability in stress and transcriptional response in a diploid apomict, which is geographically distinct from the triploid apomict, pinpoints both common and independent features of apomixis evolution. Our study provides a molecular frame-work to investigate how the adaptive traits associated with the evolutionary history of apomicts co-adapted with meiotic gene deregulation at early developmental stage, in order to predate meiotic recombination, which otherwise is thought to be favourable in stress and low-fitness conditions.

  16. Ex-vivo assessment of chronic toxicity of low levels of cadmium on testicular meiotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy-Siraudin, Cendrine [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Perrard, Marie-Hélène [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, UMR 5242 CNRS INRA Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon 1, 46 allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Ghalamoun-Slaimi, Rahma [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Ali, Sazan [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Chaspoul, Florence [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Unité de Chimie-Physique, Faculté de Pharmacie 13005, Marseille (France); Lanteaume, André [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Achard, Vincent [Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Gallice, Philippe [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Unité de Chimie-Physique, Faculté de Pharmacie 13005, Marseille (France); Durand, Philippe [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, UMR 5242 CNRS INRA Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon 1, 46 allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); and others

    2012-08-01

    Using a validated model of culture of rat seminiferous tubules, we assessed the effects of 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L cadmium (Cd) on spermatogenic cells over a 2‐week culture period. With concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L in the culture medium, the Cd concentration in the cells, determined by ICP-MS, increased with concentration in the medium and the day of culture. Flow cytometric analysis enabled us to evaluate changes in the number of Sertoli cells and germ cells during the culture period. The number of Sertoli cells did not appear to be affected by Cd. By contrast, spermatogonia and meiotic cells were decreased by 1 and 10 μg/L Cd in a time and dose dependent manner. Stage distribution of the meiotic prophase I and qualitative study of the synaptonemal complexes (SC) at the pachytene stage were performed by immunocytochemistry with an anti SCP3 antibody. Cd caused a time-and-dose-dependent increase of total abnormalities, of fragmented SC and of asynapsis from concentration of 0.1 μg/L. Additionally, we observed a new SC abnormality, the “motheaten” SC. This abnormality is frequently associated with asynapsis and SC widening which increased with both the Cd concentration and the duration of exposure. This abnormality suggests that Cd disrupts the structure and function of proteins involved in pairing and/or meiotic recombination. These results show that Cd induces dose-and-time-dependent alterations of the meiotic process of spermatogenesis ex-vivo, and that the lowest metal concentration, which induces an adverse effect, may vary with the cell parameter studied. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium induces ex-vivo severe time- and dose-dependent germ cell abnormalities. ► Cadmium at very low concentration (0.1 µg/l) induces synaptonemal complex abnormalities. ► The lowest concentration inducing adverse effect varied with the cell parameter studied. ► Cadmium alters proteins involved in pairing and recombination. ► Cadmium leads to achiasmate univalents and

  17. Generation of large homozygous chromosomal segments by mitotic recombination during lymphomagenesis in F{sub 1} hybrid mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Doo-Pyo; Mori, Nobuko; Umesako, Seiichi; Okumoto, Masaaki [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Kubo, Kihei; Tsugawa, Naomi [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences; Song, Chang-Woo [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported in numerous neoplasms in both human and animals, and has often been observed in chromosomal regions, which contain tumor-suppressor genes. We previously found frequent LOH on chromosomes 4, 12 and 19 in radiation-induced lymphomas from (BALB/cHeA x STS/A)F{sub 1} hybrid mice by allelotype analysis at polymorphic microsatellite loci. In this study, to elucidate the nature of allelic losses, we refined the loss regions on chromosomes 4, 12 and 19 of the tumors from the F{sub 1} mice and then analyzed them cytogenetically. The results represent evidence of a wide range of allelic losses owing to mitotic recombination on chromosomes 4 and 19 in the tumors, possibly reflecting functional losses of putative tumor-suppressor genes. It is suggested that the generation of these large homozygous chromosomal segments probably containing the affected genes is one of the genetic alterations responsible for tumorigenesis. (author)

  18. A novel bromodeoxyuridine-resistant wild boar lung cell line facilitates generation of African swine fever virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Günther M; Giesow, Katrin; Portugal, Raquel

    2014-09-01

    Manipulation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) genomes, in particular those from field strains, is still a challenge. We have shown recently that generation of a green-fluorescent-protein-expressing, thymidine-kinase-negative (TK-) mutant of the low-pathogenic African swine fever virus field strain NHV was supported by a TK- Vero cell line. Since NHV, like other ASFV field strains, does not replicate well in Vero cells, a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)- resistant cell line derived from wild boar lung (WSL) cells, named WSL-Bu, was selected. WSL cells were used because they are suitable for productive replication of NHV and other ASFV field strains. Here, we show that WSL-Bu cells enable positive selection of both TK- and TK+ ASFV recombinants, which allows for novel strategies for construction of ASFV mutants. We further demonstrate for a low-pathogenic ASFV strain that TK expression is required for infectious replication in macrophages infected at low multiplicity and that vaccinia TK fully complements ASFV TK in this respect.

  19. Spontaneous class switch recombination in B cell lymphopoiesis generates aberrant switch junctions and is increased after VDJ rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edry, Efrat; Koralov, Sergei B; Rajewsky, Klaus; Melamed, Doron

    2007-11-15

    Mature B cells replace the mu constant region of the H chain with a downstream isotype in a process of class switch recombination (CSR). Studies suggest that CSR induction is limited to activated mature B cells in the periphery. Recently, we have shown that CSR spontaneously occur in B lymphopoiesis. However, the mechanism and regulation of it have not been defined. In this study, we show that spontaneous CSR occurs at all stages of B cell development and generates aberrant joining of the switch junctions as revealed by: 1) increased load of somatic mutations around the CSR break points, 2) reduced sequence overlaps at the junctions, and 3) excessive switch region deletion. In addition, we found that incidence of spontaneous CSR is increased in cells carrying VDJ rearrangements. Our results reveal major differences between spontaneous CSR in developing B cells and CSR induced in mature B cells upon activation. These differences can be explained by deregulated expression or function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase early in B cell development.

  20. Analysis of meiosis in SUN1 deficient mice reveals a distinct role of SUN2 in mammalian meiotic LINC complex formation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Link

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available LINC complexes are evolutionarily conserved nuclear envelope bridges, composed of SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84 and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne/homology domain proteins. They are crucial for nuclear positioning and nuclear shape determination, and also mediate nuclear envelope (NE attachment of meiotic telomeres, essential for driving homolog synapsis and recombination. In mice, SUN1 and SUN2 are the only SUN domain proteins expressed during meiosis, sharing their localization with meiosis-specific KASH5. Recent studies have shown that loss of SUN1 severely interferes with meiotic processes. Absence of SUN1 provokes defective telomere attachment and causes infertility. Here, we report that meiotic telomere attachment is not entirely lost in mice deficient for SUN1, but numerous telomeres are still attached to the NE through SUN2/KASH5-LINC complexes. In Sun1(-/- meiocytes attached telomeres retained the capacity to form bouquet-like clusters. Furthermore, we could detect significant numbers of late meiotic recombination events in Sun1(-/- mice. Together, this indicates that even in the absence of SUN1 telomere attachment and their movement within the nuclear envelope per se can be functional.

  1. Immune responses to recombinants of the South African vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus generated by using thymidine kinase gene insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, David B; Viljoen, Gerrit J

    2005-04-27

    The South African vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus (type SA-Neethling) is currently being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines of economically important livestock diseases throughout Africa. In this study, the feasibility of using the viral thymidine kinase gene as the site of insertion was investigated and recombinant viruses were evaluated in animal trials. Two separate recombinants were generated and selected for homogeneity expressing either the structural glycoprotein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) or the two structural glycoprotein genes of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Both recombinants incorporate the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a visual marker and the Escherichia coli guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (gpt) gene for dominant positive selection. The LSDV-RVFV recombinant construct (rLSDV-RVFV) protected mice against virulent RVFV challenge. In a small-scale BEFV-challenge cattle trial the rLSDV-BEFV construct failed to fully protect the cattle against virulent challenge, although both a humoral and cellular BEFV-specific immune response was elicited.

  2. Generation of a recombinant rabies Flury LEP virus carrying an additional G gene creates an improved seed virus for inactivated vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lihong; Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Zhai, Hongyue; Hua, Tao; Zhao, Bolin; Kong, Dongni; Yang, Chinglai; Bu, Zhigao

    2011-09-25

    The rabies Flury Low Egg Passage virus (LEP) has been widely used as a seed virus to generate inactive vaccine. Here, we established a reverse genetic system for LEP and generated a recombinant LEP virus (rLEP-G) that carries two identical G genes. This recombinant virus showed similar properties to those of LEP with respect to in vitro growth, neurotropism index, and virulence in mice. rLEP-G produced 4.3-fold more G protein than did LEP in BHK-21 cells. The inactivated vaccine generated from rLEP-G induced significantly higher virus neutralization titers in mice and dogs than those produced in response to LEP-derived vaccine. Our results suggest that rLEP-G is an improved seed virus candidate for inactivated rabies virus vaccine manufacture.

  3. Generation of a recombinant rabies Flury LEP virus carrying an additional G gene creates an improved seed virus for inactivated vaccine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Dongni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rabies Flury Low Egg Passage virus (LEP has been widely used as a seed virus to generate inactive vaccine. Here, we established a reverse genetic system for LEP and generated a recombinant LEP virus (rLEP-G that carries two identical G genes. This recombinant virus showed similar properties to those of LEP with respect to in vitro growth, neurotropism index, and virulence in mice. rLEP-G produced 4.3-fold more G protein than did LEP in BHK-21 cells. The inactivated vaccine generated from rLEP-G induced significantly higher virus neutralization titers in mice and dogs than those produced in response to LEP-derived vaccine. Our results suggest that rLEP-G is an improved seed virus candidate for inactivated rabies virus vaccine manufacture.

  4. Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-02-16

    Feb 16, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 1. Commentary: Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora inversions and duplications. Durgadas P Kasbekar. Volume 31 Issue 1 March 2006 pp 3-4 ...

  5. Commentary: Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-02-16

    Feb 16, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 1. Commentary: Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora inversions and duplications. Durgadas P Kasbekar. Volume 31 Issue 1 March 2006 pp 3-4 ...

  6. Population dynamics of a meiotic/mitotic expansion model for the fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, A.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A model to explain the mutational process and population dynamics of the fragile X syndrome is presented. The mutational mechanism was assumed to be a multi-pathway, multistep process. Expansion of CGG repeats was based on an underlying biological process and was assumed to occur at two time points: meiosis and early embryonic development (mitosis). Meiotic expansion was assumed to occur equally in oogenesis and spermatogenesis, while mitotic expansion was restricted to somatic, or constitutional, alleles of maternal origin. Testable hypotheses were predicted by this meiotic/mitotic model. First, parental origin of mutation is predicted to be associated with the risk of a woman to have a full-mutation child. Second, {open_quotes}contractions{close_quotes} seen in premutation male transmissions are predicted not to be true contractions in repeat size, but a consequence of the lack of mitotic expansion in paternally derived alleles. Third, a portion of full-mutation males should have full-mutation alleles in their sperm, due to the lack of complete selection against the full-mutation female. Fourth, a specific premutation-allele frequency distribution is predicted and differs from that based on models assuming only meiotic expansion. Last, it is predicted that {approximately}65 generations are required to achieve equilibrium, but this depends greatly on the expansion probabilities. 42 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Cytological techniques to study human female meiotic prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Ignasi; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Most of the human aneuploidies have a maternal origin. This feature makes the study of human female meiosis a fundamental topic to understand the reasons leading to this important social problem. Unfortunately, due to sample collection difficulties, not many studies have been performed on human female meiotic prophase. In this chapter we present a comprehensive collection of protocols that allows the study of human female meiotic prophase through different technical approaches using both spread and structurally preserved oocytes.

  8. A rapid method for site-specific mutagenesis and directional subcloning by using the polymerase chain reaction to generate recombinant circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D H; Howard, B H

    1990-02-01

    Site-specific mutagenesis and directional subcloning were accomplished by using the polymerase chain reaction to generate products that can recombine to form circular DNA. This DNA was transfected into E. coli without phosphorylation of primers, restriction enzyme digestion or ligation. Specifically, the polymerase chain reaction was used to generate products that when combined, denatured and reannealed, form double-stranded DNA with discrete, cohesive single-stranded ends. The generation of these cohesive ends of DNA permits the formation of precise, directional DNA joints without dependence on enzyme restriction sites. The primers were designed such that these cohesive single-stranded ends annealed to form circular DNA. The recombinant of interest was generated following only 14 amplification cycles. These recombinant circles of DNA were directly transfected into E. coli. In the mutagenesis protocol, the desired mutant was obtained at 83%-100% efficiency. Unwanted mutations were not detected, indicating a less than 0.025% nucleotide misincorporation frequency. In the directional subcloning protocol, inserts were positioned precisely in the recipient plasmid and were in the correct orientation. One unwanted mutation was detected after sequencing 900 bases, indicating a 0.11% nucleotide misincorporation frequency. Each manipulation, from setting up for the DNA amplification to transfection into E. coli. can easily be accomplished in one day.

  9. Effects of recombinant human prothrombin on thrombin generation in plasma from patients with hemophilia A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K M; Gustafsson, D; Skärby, T; Frison, L; Berntorp, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of FII levels, and their increase, on the hemostatic potential in plasma from hemophilia A and B patients with and without inhibitors. Recombinant human factor (F) II (rhFII) was added ex vivo to plasma from 68 patients with hemophilia A and B, with or without inhibitors. The hemostatic potential as measured by thrombin generation (calibrated automated thrombogram [CAT]) was focused on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) as it has been shown to correlate with the clinical phenotype of bleeding in hemophilia patients and has also been used to guide bypassing therapy in hemophilia patients with inhibitors before elective surgery. The factor eight inhibitor bypassing agent (FEIBA(®) ) was used as a reference to the clinical situation. The study shows that rhFII concentration-dependently increased ETP by a similar magnitude in hemophilia A and B, both with and without inhibitors. Compared with FEIBA, rhFII showed a shallower concentration-response curve. In both types of hemophilia 100 mg L(-1) of rhFII roughly doubled the ETP. A corresponding response was obtained by 0.5 U mL(-1) of FEIBA. These data support the theory that FII is one of the major components responsible for the efficacy of FEIBA. The data also indicate that rhFII may be useful, alone or in combination with other coagulation factors, in some of the conditions for which FEIBA is used today, although more data are needed to substantiate this. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  10. The next generation of sepsis clinical trial designs: what is next after the demise of recombinant human activated protein C?*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, Steven M; Dellinger, R Phillip; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Masur, Henry; Angus, Derek C

    2014-07-01

    The developmental pipeline for novel therapeutics to treat sepsis has diminished to a trickle compared to previous years of sepsis research. While enormous strides have been made in understanding the basic molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiology of sepsis, a long list of novel agents have now been tested in clinical trials without a single immunomodulating therapy showing consistent benefit. The only antisepsis agent to successfully complete a phase III clinical trial was human recumbent activated protein C. This drug was taken off the market after a follow-up placebo-controlled trial (human recombinant activated Protein C Worldwide Evaluation of Severe Sepsis and septic Shock [PROWESS SHOCK]) failed to replicate the favorable results of the initial registration trial performed ten years earlier. We must critically reevaluate our basic approach to the preclinical and clinical evaluation of new sepsis therapies. We selected the major clinical studies that investigated interventional trials with novel therapies to treat sepsis over the last 30 years. Phase II and phase III trials investigating new treatments for sepsis and editorials and critiques of these studies. Selected manuscripts and clinical study reports were analyzed from sepsis trials. Specific shortcomings and potential pit falls in preclinical evaluation and clinical study design and analysis were reviewed and synthesized. After review and discussion, a series of 12 recommendations were generated with suggestions to guide future studies with new treatments for sepsis. We need to improve our ability to define appropriate molecular targets for preclinical development and develop better methods to determine the clinical value of novel sepsis agents. Clinical trials must have realistic sample sizes and meaningful endpoints. Biomarker-driven studies should be considered to categorize specific "at risk" populations most likely to benefit from a new treatment. Innovations in clinical trial design

  11. A Synthetic HIV-1 Subtype C Backbone Generates Comparable PR and RT Resistance Profiles to a Subtype B Backbone in a Recombinant Virus Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaers, David; Van Houtte, Margriet; Winters, Bart; Steegen, Kim; Van Baelen, Kurt; Chi, Ellen; Zhou, Mimi; Steiner, Derek; Bonesteel, Rachelle; Aston, Colin; Stuyver, Lieven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT) fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT) using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample) were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE), p24 and Viral Load (VL) were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS) were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI) to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i) functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii) their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii) they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv) drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT. PMID:21629677

  12. A synthetic HIV-1 subtype C backbone generates comparable PR and RT resistance profiles to a subtype B backbone in a recombinant virus assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nauwelaers

    Full Text Available In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE, p24 and Viral Load (VL were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT.

  13. A synthetic HIV-1 subtype C backbone generates comparable PR and RT resistance profiles to a subtype B backbone in a recombinant virus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaers, David; Van Houtte, Margriet; Winters, Bart; Steegen, Kim; Van Baelen, Kurt; Chi, Ellen; Zhou, Mimi; Steiner, Derek; Bonesteel, Rachelle; Aston, Colin; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT) fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT) using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample) were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE), p24 and Viral Load (VL) were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS) were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI) to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i) functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii) their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii) they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv) drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT.

  14. Meiotic Parthenogenesis in a Root-Knot Nematode Results in Rapid Genomic Homozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingli L.; Thomas, Varghese P.; Williamson, Valerie M.

    2007-01-01

    Many isolates of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne hapla reproduce by facultative meiotic parthenogenesis. Sexual crosses can occur, but, in the absence of males, the diploid state appears to be restored by reuniting sister chromosomes of a single meiosis. We have crossed inbred strains of M. hapla that differ in DNA markers and produced hybrids and F2 lines. Here we show that heterozygous M. hapla females, upon parthenogenetic reproduction, produce progeny that segregate 1:1 for the presence or absence of dominant DNA markers, as would be expected if sister chromosomes are rejoined, rather than the 3:1 ratio typical of a Mendelian cross. Codominant markers also segregate 1:1 and heterozygotes are present at low frequency (parthenogenesis would be expected to result in rapid genomic homozygosity. This type of high negative crossover interference coupled with positive chromatid interference has not been observed in fungal or other animal systems in which it is possible to examine the sister products of a single meiosis and may indicate that meiotic recombination in this nematode has novel features. PMID:17483427

  15. Mammalian CNTD1 is critical for meiotic crossover maturation and deselection of excess precrossover sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J Kim; Sun, Xianfei; Yokoo, Rayka; Villeneuve, Anne M; Cohen, Paula E

    2014-06-09

    Meiotic crossovers (COs) are crucial for ensuring accurate homologous chromosome segregation during meiosis I. Because the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination greatly outnumber eventual COs, this process requires exquisite regulation to narrow down the pool of DSB intermediates that may form COs. In this paper, we identify a cyclin-related protein, CNTD1, as a critical mediator of this process. Disruption of Cntd1 results in failure to localize CO-specific factors MutLγ and HEI10 at designated CO sites and also leads to prolonged high levels of pre-CO intermediates marked by MutSγ and RNF212. These data show that maturation of COs is intimately coupled to deselection of excess pre-CO sites to yield a limited number of COs and that CNTD1 coordinates these processes by regulating the association between the RING finger proteins HEI10 and RNF212 and components of the CO machinery. © 2014 Holloway et al.

  16. Nested Inversion Polymorphisms Predispose Chromosome 22q11.2 to Meiotic Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerel, Wolfram; Hestand, Matthew S; Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; López-Sánchez, Marcos; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Morrow, Bernice E; Breckpot, Jeroen; Devriendt, Koenraad; Vermeesch, Joris R

    2017-10-05

    Inversion polymorphisms between low-copy repeats (LCRs) might predispose chromosomes to meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events and thus lead to genomic disorders. However, for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common genomic disorder, no such inversions have been uncovered as of yet. Using fiber-FISH, we demonstrate that parents transmitting the de novo 3 Mb LCR22A-D 22q11.2 deletion, the reciprocal duplication, and the smaller 1.5 Mb LCR22A-B 22q11.2 deletion carry inversions of LCR22B-D or LCR22C-D. Hence, the inversions predispose chromosome 22q11.2 to meiotic rearrangements and increase the individual risk for transmitting rearrangements. Interestingly, the inversions are nested or flanking rather than coinciding with the deletion or duplication sizes. This finding raises the possibility that inversions are a prerequisite not only for 22q11.2 rearrangements but also for all NAHR-mediated genomic disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Mapping meiotic single-strand DNA reveals a new landscape of DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Buhler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, which are formed by the Spo11 protein, initiate meiotic recombination. Previous DSB-mapping studies have used rad50S or sae2Delta mutants, which are defective in break processing, to accumulate Spo11-linked DSBs, and report large (> or = 50 kb "DSB-hot" regions that are separated by "DSB-cold" domains of similar size. Substantial recombination occurs in some DSB-cold regions, suggesting that DSB patterns are not normal in rad50S or sae2Delta mutants. We therefore developed a novel method to map genome-wide, single-strand DNA (ssDNA-associated DSBs that accumulate in processing-capable, repair-defective dmc1Delta and dmc1Delta rad51Delta mutants. DSBs were observed at known hot spots, but also in most previously identified "DSB-cold" regions, including near centromeres and telomeres. Although approximately 40% of the genome is DSB-cold in rad50S mutants, analysis of meiotic ssDNA from dmc1Delta shows that most of these regions have substantial DSB activity. Southern blot assays of DSBs in selected regions in dmc1Delta, rad50S, and wild-type cells confirm these findings. Thus, DSBs are distributed much more uniformly than was previously believed. Comparisons of DSB signals in dmc1, dmc1 rad51, and dmc1 spo11 mutant strains identify Dmc1 as a critical strand-exchange activity genome-wide, and confirm previous conclusions that Spo11-induced lesions initiate all meiotic recombination.

  18. Target-selective homologous recombination cloning for high-throughput generation of monoclonal antibodies from single plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Isobe, Masaharu

    2011-04-13

    Molecular cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells is one of the most promising technologies for the rapid development of monoclonal antibody drugs. However, the proper insertion of PCR-amplified immunoglobulin genes into expression vectors remains an obstacle to the high-throughput production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. We developed a single-step cloning method, target-selective homologous recombination (TS-HR), in which PCR-amplified immunoglobulin variable genes were selectively inserted into vectors, even in the presence of nonspecifically amplified DNA. TS-HR utilizes Red/ET-mediated homologous recombination with a target-selective vector (TS-vector) with unique homology arms on its termini. Using TS-HR, immunoglobulin variable genes were cloned directly into expression vectors by co-transforming unpurified PCR products and the TS-vector into E. coli. Furthermore, the high cloning specificity of TS-HR allowed plasmids to be extracted from pools of transformed bacteria without screening single colonies for correct clones. We present a one-week protocol for the production of recombinant mouse monoclonal antibodies from large numbers of single plasma cells. The time requirements and limitations of traditional cloning procedures for the production of recombinant immunoglobulins have been significantly reduced with the development of the TS-HR cloning technique. © 2011 Kurosawa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Target-selective homologous recombination cloning for high-throughput generation of monoclonal antibodies from single plasma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobe Masaharu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells is one of the most promising technologies for the rapid development of monoclonal antibody drugs. However, the proper insertion of PCR-amplified immunoglobulin genes into expression vectors remains an obstacle to the high-throughput production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Results We developed a single-step cloning method, target-selective homologous recombination (TS-HR, in which PCR-amplified immunoglobulin variable genes were selectively inserted into vectors, even in the presence of nonspecifically amplified DNA. TS-HR utilizes Red/ET-mediated homologous recombination with a target-selective vector (TS-vector with unique homology arms on its termini. Using TS-HR, immunoglobulin variable genes were cloned directly into expression vectors by co-transforming unpurified PCR products and the TS-vector into E. coli. Furthermore, the high cloning specificity of TS-HR allowed plasmids to be extracted from pools of transformed bacteria without screening single colonies for correct clones. We present a one-week protocol for the production of recombinant mouse monoclonal antibodies from large numbers of single plasma cells. Conclusion The time requirements and limitations of traditional cloning procedures for the production of recombinant immunoglobulins have been significantly reduced with the development of the TS-HR cloning technique.

  20. Meiotic gene conversion mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. Isolation and characterization of PMS1-1 and PMS1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.S.; Game, J.C.; Fogel, S.

    1985-01-01

    The PMS1 mutants, isolated on the basis of sharply elevated meiotic prototroph frequencies for two closely linked HIS4 alleles, display pleiotropic phenotypes in meiotic and mitotic cells. Two isolates carrying recessive mutations in PMS1 were characterized. They identify a function required to maintain low postmeiotic segregation (PMS) frequencies at many heterozygous sites. In addition, they are mitotic mutators. In mutant diploids, spore viability is reduced, and among survivors, gene conversion and postmeiotic segregation frequencies are increased, but reciprocal exchange frequencies are not affected. The conversion event pattern is also dramatically changed in multiply marked regions in PMS1 homozygotes. The PMS1 locus maps near MET4 on chromosome XIV. The PMS1 gene may identify an excision-resynthesis long patch mismatch correction function or a function that facilitates correction tract elongation. The PMS1 gene product may also play an important role in spontaneous mitotic mutation avoidance and correction of mismatches in heteroduplex DNA formed during spontaneous and UV-induced mitotic recombination. Based on meiotic recombination models emphasizing mismatch correction in heteroduplex DNA intermediates, this interpretation is favored, but alternative interpretations involving longer recombination intermediates in the mutants are also considered

  1. Generation of Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies from Immunised Mice and Rabbits via Flow Cytometry and Sorting of Antigen-Specific IgG+ Memory B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale O Starkie

    Full Text Available Single B cell screening strategies, which avoid both hybridoma fusion and combinatorial display, have emerged as important technologies for efficiently sampling the natural antibody repertoire of immunized animals and humans. Having access to a range of methods to interrogate different B cell subsets provides an attractive option to ensure large and diverse panels of high quality antibody are produced. The generation of multiple antibodies and having the ability to find rare B cell clones producing IgG with unique and desirable characteristics facilitates the identification of fit-for-purpose molecules that can be developed into therapeutic agents or research reagents. Here, we describe a multi-parameter flow cytometry single-cell sorting technique for the generation of antigen-specific recombinant monoclonal antibodies from single IgG+ memory B cells. Both mouse splenocytes and rabbit PBMC from immunised animals were used as a source of B cells. Reagents staining both B cells and other unwanted cell types enabled efficient identification of class-switched IgG+ memory B cells. Concurrent staining with antigen labelled separately with two spectrally-distinct fluorophores enabled antigen-specific B cells to be identified, i.e. those which bind to both antigen conjugates (double-positive. These cells were then typically sorted at one cell per well using FACS directly into a 96-well plate containing reverse transcriptase reaction mix. Following production of cDNA, PCR was performed to amplify cognate heavy and light chain variable region genes and generate transcriptionally-active PCR (TAP fragments. These linear expression cassettes were then used directly in a mammalian cell transfection to generate recombinant antibody for further testing. We were able to successfully generate antigen-specific recombinant antibodies from both the rabbit and mouse IgG+ memory B cell subset within one week. This included the generation of an anti-TNFR2 blocking

  2. Generation and evaluation of a LaSota strain-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a bivalent vaccine, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus was generated by using the NDV LaSota strain with insertion of the G gene of aMPV-C. The biological assessments of the recombinant virus, rLS/aMPV-CG, by conducting the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and growth...

  3. Cell-penetrating peptide-driven Cre recombination in porcine primary cells and generation of marker-free pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qianqian; Sun, Zhaolin; Zou, Zhiyuan; Wang, Ming; Li, Qiuyan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2018-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been increasingly used to deliver various molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. However, there are no reports of CPPs being used in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The increased use of transgenic pigs for basic research and biomedical applications depends on the availability of technologies for efficient genetic-modification of PFFs. Here, we report that three CPPs (CPP5, TAT, and R9) can efficiently deliver active Cre recombinase protein into PFFs via an energy-dependent endocytosis pathway. The three CPP-Cre proteins can enter PFFs and subsequently perform recombination with different efficiencies. The recombination efficacy of CPP5-Cre was found to be nearly 90%. The rate-limiting step for CPP-Cre-mediated recombination was the step of endosome escape. HA2 and chloroquine were found to improve the recombination efficiency of TAT-Cre. Furthermore, we successfully obtained marker-free transgenic pigs using TAT-Cre and CPP5-Cre. We provide a framework for the development of CPP-based farm animal transgenic technologies that would be beneficial to agriculture and biomedicine.

  4. The Red Queen theory of recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, F; Wilkins, J F

    2011-03-01

    Recombination hotspots are small chromosomal regions, where meiotic crossover events happen with high frequency. Recombination is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) that requires the intervention of the molecular repair mechanism. The DSB repair mechanism may result in the exchange of homologous chromosomes (crossover) and the conversion of the allelic sequence that breaks into the one that does not break (biased gene conversion). Biased gene conversion results in a transmission advantage for the allele that does not break, thus preventing recombination and rendering recombination hotspots transient. How is it possible that recombination hotspots persist over evolutionary time (maintaining the average chromosomal crossover rate) when they are self-destructive? This fundamental question is known as the recombination hotspot paradox and has attracted much attention in recent years. Yet, that attention has not translated into a fully satisfactory answer. No existing model adequately explains all aspects of the recombination hotspot paradox. Here, we formulate an intragenomic conflict model resulting in Red Queen dynamics that fully accounts for all empirical observations regarding the molecular mechanisms of recombination hotspots, the nonrandom targeting of the recombination machinery to hotspots and the evolutionary dynamics of hotspot turnover. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Meiotic drive impacts expression and evolution of x-linked genes in stalk-eyed flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine A Reinhardt

    Full Text Available Although sex chromosome meiotic drive has been observed in a variety of species for over 50 years, the genes causing drive are only known in a few cases, and none of these cases cause distorted sex-ratios in nature. In stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni, driving X chromosomes are commonly found at frequencies approaching 30% in the wild, but the genetic basis of drive has remained elusive due to reduced recombination between driving and non-driving X chromosomes. Here, we used RNAseq to identify transcripts that are differentially expressed between males carrying either a driving X (XSR or a standard X chromosome (XST, and found hundreds of these, the majority of which are X-linked. Drive-associated transcripts show increased levels of sequence divergence (dN/dS compared to a control set, and are predominantly expressed either in testes or in the gonads of both sexes. Finally, we confirmed that XSR and XST are highly divergent by estimating sequence differentiation between the RNAseq pools. We found that X-linked transcripts were often strongly differentiated (whereas most autosomal transcripts were not, supporting the presence of a relatively large region of recombination suppression on XSR presumably caused by one or more inversions. We have identified a group of genes that are good candidates for further study into the causes and consequences of sex-chromosome drive, and demonstrated that meiotic drive has had a profound effect on sequence evolution and gene expression of X-linked genes in this species.

  6. Variation in Recombination Rate and Its Genetic Determinism in Sheep Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Morgane; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Sarry, Julien; Drouilhet, Laurence; Fabre, Stéphane; Moreno, Carole R; Servin, Bertrand

    2017-10-01

    Recombination is a complex biological process that results from a cascade of multiple events during meiosis. Understanding the genetic determinism of recombination can help to understand if and how these events are interacting. To tackle this question, we studied the patterns of recombination in sheep, using multiple approaches and data sets. We constructed male recombination maps in a dairy breed from the south of France (the Lacaune breed) at a fine scale by combining meiotic recombination rates from a large pedigree genotyped with a 50K SNP array and historical recombination rates from a sample of unrelated individuals genotyped with a 600K SNP array. This analysis revealed recombination patterns in sheep similar to other mammals but also genome regions that have likely been affected by directional and diversifying selection. We estimated the average recombination rate of Lacaune sheep at 1.5 cM/Mb, identified ∼50,000 crossover hotspots on the genome, and found a high correlation between historical and meiotic recombination rate estimates. A genome-wide association study revealed two major loci affecting interindividual variation in recombination rate in Lacaune, including the RNF212 and HEI10 genes and possibly two other loci of smaller effects including the KCNJ15 and FSHR genes. The comparison of these new results to those obtained previously in a distantly related population of domestic sheep (the Soay) revealed that Soay and Lacaune males have a very similar distribution of recombination along the genome. The two data sets were thus combined to create more precise male meiotic recombination maps in Sheep. However, despite their similar recombination maps, Soay and Lacaune males were found to exhibit different heritabilities and QTL effects for interindividual variation in genome-wide recombination rates. This highlights the robustness of recombination patterns to underlying variation in their genetic determinism. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society

  7. The C. elegans DSB-2 protein reveals a regulatory network that controls competence for meiotic DSB formation and promotes crossover assurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rosu

    Full Text Available For most organisms, chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on deliberate induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and repair of a subset of these DSBs as inter-homolog crossovers (COs. However, timing and levels of DSB formation must be tightly controlled to avoid jeopardizing genome integrity. Here we identify the DSB-2 protein, which is required for efficient DSB formation during C. elegans meiosis but is dispensable for later steps of meiotic recombination. DSB-2 localizes to chromatin during the time of DSB formation, and its disappearance coincides with a decline in RAD-51 foci marking early recombination intermediates and precedes appearance of COSA-1 foci marking CO-designated sites. These and other data suggest that DSB-2 and its paralog DSB-1 promote competence for DSB formation. Further, immunofluorescence analyses of wild-type gonads and various meiotic mutants reveal that association of DSB-2 with chromatin is coordinated with multiple distinct aspects of the meiotic program, including the phosphorylation state of nuclear envelope protein SUN-1 and dependence on RAD-50 to load the RAD-51 recombinase at DSB sites. Moreover, association of DSB-2 with chromatin is prolonged in mutants impaired for either DSB formation or formation of downstream CO intermediates. These and other data suggest that association of DSB-2 with chromatin is an indicator of competence for DSB formation, and that cells respond to a deficit of CO-competent recombination intermediates by prolonging the DSB-competent state. In the context of this model, we propose that formation of sufficient CO-competent intermediates engages a negative feedback response that leads to cessation of DSB formation as part of a major coordinated transition in meiotic prophase progression. The proposed negative feedback regulation of DSB formation simultaneously (1 ensures that sufficient DSBs are made to guarantee CO formation and (2 prevents excessive DSB levels that could

  8. Meiotic analysis in induced tetraploids of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Simioni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The meiotic behavior of three tetraploid plants (2n=4x=36 originated from somatic chromosome duplication ofsexually reproducing diploid plants of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated. All the analyzed plants presented abnormalities relatedto polyploidy, such as irregular chromosome segregation, leading to precocious chromosome migration to the poles and micronucleiduring both meiotic divisions. However, the abnormalities observed did not compromise the meiotic products which were characterizedby regular tetrads and satisfactory pollen fertility varying from 61.36 to 64.86%. Chromosomes paired mostly as bivalents indiakinesis but univalents to tetravalents were also observed. These studies contributed to the choice of compatible fertile sexualgenitors to be crossed to natural tetraploid apomicts in the B. decumbens by identifying abnormalities and verifying pollen fertility.Intraespecific crosses should reduce sterility in the hybrids produced in the breeding program of Brachiaria, a problem observedwith the interspecific hybrids produced so far.

  9. Infectious mutants of cassava latent virus generated in vivo from intact recombinant DNA clones containing single copies of the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J; Townsend, R

    1986-08-11

    Intact recombinant DNAs containing single copies of either component of the cassava latent virus genome can elicit infection when mechanically inoculated to host plants in the presence of the appropriate second component. Characterisation of infectious mutant progeny viruses, by analysis of virus-specific supercoiled DNA intermediates, indicates that most if not all of the cloning vector has been deleted, achieved at least in some cases by intermolecular recombination in vivo between DNAs 1 and 2. Significant rearrangements within the intergenic region of DNA 2, predominantly external to the common region, can be tolerated without loss of infectivity suggesting a somewhat passive role in virus multiplication for the sequences in question. Although packaging constraints might impose limits on the amount of DNA within geminate particles, isolation of an infectious coat protein mutant defective in virion production suggests that packaging is not essential for systemic spread of the viral DNA.

  10. Gibberellin Induces Diploid Pollen Formation by Interfering with Meiotic Cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) controls many physiological processes, including cell differentiation, cell elongation, seed germination, and response to abiotic stress. In this study, we report that exogenous treatment of flowering Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with GA specifically affects the process of male meiotic cytokinesis leading to meiotic restitution and the production of diploid (2n) pollen grains. Similar defects in meiotic cell division and reproductive ploidy stability occur in Arabidopsis plants depleted of RGA and GAI, two members of the DELLA family that function as suppressor of GA signaling. Cytological analysis of the double rga-24 gai-t6 mutant revealed that defects in male meiotic cytokinesis are not caused by alterations in meiosis I (MI or meiosis II (MII) chromosome dynamics, but instead result from aberrations in the spatial organization of the phragmoplast-like radial microtubule arrays (RMAs) at the end of meiosis II. In line with a role for GA in the genetic regulation of the male reproductive system, we additionally show that DELLA downstream targets MYB33 and MYB65 are redundantly required for functional RMA biosynthesis and male meiotic cytokinesis. By analyzing the expression of pRGA::GFP-RGA in the wild-type Landsberg erecta background, we demonstrate that the GFP-RGA protein is specifically expressed in the anther cell layers surrounding the meiocytes and microspores, suggesting that appropriate GA signaling in the somatic anther tissue is critical for male meiotic cell wall formation and thus plays an important role in consolidating the male gametophytic ploidy consistency. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Segregation for fertility and meiotic stability in novel Brassica allohexaploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwathi, Margaret W; Gupta, Mehak; Atri, Chaya; Banga, Surinder S; Batley, Jacqueline; Mason, Annaliese S

    2017-04-01

    Allohexaploid Brassica populations reveal ongoing segregation for fertility, while genotype influences fertility and meiotic stability. Creation of a new Brassica allohexaploid species is of interest for the development of a crop type with increased heterosis and adaptability. At present, no naturally occurring, meiotically stable Brassica allohexaploid exists, with little data available on chromosome behaviour and meiotic control in allohexaploid germplasm. In this study, 100 plants from the cross B. carinata × B. rapa (A2 allohexaploid population) and 69 plants from the cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea (H2 allohexaploid population) were assessed for fertility and meiotic behaviour. Estimated pollen viability, self-pollinated seed set, number of seeds on the main shoot, number of pods on the main shoot, seeds per ten pods and plant height were measured for both the A2 and H2 populations and for a set of reference control cultivars. The H2 population had high segregation for pollen viability and meiotic stability, while the A2 population was characterised by low pollen fertility and a high level of chromosome loss. Both populations were taller, but had lower average fertility trait values than the control cultivar samples. The study also characterises fertility and meiotic chromosome behaviour in genotypes and progeny sets in heterozygous allotetraploid Brassica derived lines, and indicates that genotypes of the parents and H1 hybrids are affecting chromosome pairing and fertility phenotypes in the H2 population. The identification and characterisation of factors influencing stability in novel allohexaploid Brassica populations will assist in the development of this as a new crop species for food and agricultural benefit.

  12. Chromosome numbers and meiotic analysis in the pre-breeding of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among the diploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities was low, ranging from 0.82% to 7.93%. In the 27 tetraploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities ranged from 18.41% to 65.83%. The most common meiotic abnormalities were related to irregular chromosome segregation, but chromosome stickiness ...

  13. Simple generation of site-directed point mutations in the Escherichia coli chromosome using Red®/ET® Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kirsten

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introducing point mutations into bacterial chromosomes is important for further progress in studies relying on functional genomics, systems- and synthetic biology, and for metabolic engineering. For many investigations, chromosomal systems are required rather than artificial plasmid based systems. Results Here we describe the introduction of a single point mutation into the Escherichia coli chromosome by site-directed mutagenesis without leaving any selection marker. We used Red®/ET® Recombination in combination with rpsL counter-selection to introduce a single point mutation into the E. coli MG1655 genome, one of the widely used bacterial model strains in systems biology. The method we present is rapid and highly efficient. Since single-stranded synthetic oligonucleotides can be used for recombination, any chromosomal modification can be designed. Conclusion Chromosomal modifications performed by rpsL counter-selection may also be used for other bacteria that contain an rpsL homologue, since Red®/ET® Recombination has been applied to several enteric bacteria before.

  14. [Identification of the meiotic events in grasshopper spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Hao; Zhao, Kai-Qiang; Wang, Ya-Dong; Yang, Meng-Ping; Zhao, Ning-Ning; Yang, Da-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    The grasshoppers are ideal materials to study various meiotic stages of spermatogenesis due to their easy availability, fairly large chromosomes, and fewer numbers of chromosomes. It is easy to make temporary squash preparation of grasshopper testes; however, it is usually difficult for the beginners to differentiate between stages of meiosis. In view of this, we demonstrated the method of identification of meiotic stages by chromosome number and chromosome conformation, taking spermatogonial meiosis of Locusta migratoria manilensis as an example. We described briefly the mitosis of spermatogonia and the spermatogenesis of this species as well.

  15. Intercalated vs Non-Intercalated Morphologies in Donor-Acceptor Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: PBTTT:Fullerene Charge Generation and Recombination Revisited

    KAUST Repository

    Collado Fregoso, Elisa

    2017-08-04

    In this contribution, we study the role of the donor:acceptor interface nanostructure upon charge separation and recombination in organic photovoltaic devices and blend films, using mixtures of PBTTT and two different fullerene derivatives (PC70BM and ICTA) as models for intercalated and non-intercalated morphologies, respectively. Thermodynamic simulations show that while the completely intercalated system exhibits a large free-energy barrier for charge separation, this barrier is significantly lower in the non-intercalated system, and almost vanishes when energetic disorder is included in the model. Despite these differences, both fs-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) and TDCF exhibit extensive first-order losses in that system, suggesting that geminate pairs are the primary product of photoexcitation. In contrast, the system that comprises a combination of fully intercalated polymer:fullerene areas and fullerene aggregated domains (1:4 PBTTT:PC70BM), is the only one that shows slow, second-order recombination of free charges, resulting in devices with an overall higher short circuit current and fill factor. This study therefore provides a novel consideration of the role of the interfacial nanostructure and the nature of bound charges, and their impact upon charge generation and recombination.

  16. Cytoplasmic and Genomic Effects on Meiotic Pairing in Brassica Hybrids and Allotetraploids from Pair Crosses of Three Cultivated Diploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and “fixed heterosis” in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621

  17. Generation, characterization and immunogenicity of a novel chimeric recombinant protein based on Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 and MSP119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mariana Vilela; Françoso, Kátia Sanches; Lima, Luciana Chagas; Camargo, Tarsila Mendes; Machado, Ricardo L D; Costa, Fabio T M; Rénia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Russell, Bruce; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S

    2017-04-25

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed malaria species and the most prevalent species of malaria in America and Asia. Vaccine development against P. vivax is considered a priority in the global program for the eradication of malaria. Earlier studies have characterized the Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1) ectodomain and the C-terminal region (19kDa) of the Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP-1) of P. vivax as immunodominant antigens. Based on this characterization, we designed a chimeric recombinant protein containing both merozoite immunodominant domains (PvAMA1 66 -MSP1 19 ). The recombinant PvAMA1 66 -MSP1 19 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and used to immunize two different mouse strains (BALB/c and C57BL/6) in the presence of the Poly (I:C) as an adjuvant. Immunization with the chimeric protein induced high antibody titers against both proteins in both strains of mice as detected by ELISA. Antisera also recognized the native proteins expressed on the merozoites of mature P. vivax schizonts. Moreover, this antigen was able to induce IFN-gamma-secreting cells in C57BL/6 mice. These findings indicate that this novel yeast recombinant protein containing PvAMA1 66 and PvMSP1 19 is advantageous, because of improved antibody titers and cellular immune response. Therefore, this formulation should be further developed for pre-clinical trials in non-human primates as a potential candidate for a P. vivax vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A dynamic meiotic SUN belt includes the zygotene-stage telomere bouquet and is disrupted in chromosome segregation mutants of maize (Zea mays L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Patrick Murphy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear envelope (NE plays an essential role in meiotic telomere behavior and links the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm during homologous chromosome pairing and recombination in many eukaryotic species. Resident NE proteins including SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84 and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-homology domain proteins are known to interact forming the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC complex that connects chromatin to the cytoskeleton. To investigate the possible cross-kingdom conservation of SUN protein functions in plant meiosis, we immunolocalized maize SUN2 using 3D microscopy of pollen mother cells from maize (Zea mays L., a large-genome plant model with a canonical NE zygotene-stage telomere bouquet. We detected SUN2 at the nuclear periphery and found that it exhibited a distinct belt-like structure that transitioned to a half-belt during the zygotene stage and back to a full belt during and beyond the pachytene stage. The zygotene-stage half-belt SUN structure was shown by 3D immuno-FISH to include the NE-associated telomere cluster that defines the bouquet stage and coincides with homologous chromosome synapsis. Microtubule and filamentous actin staining patterns did not show any obvious belt or a retracted-like structure other than a general enrichment of tubulin staining distributed widely around the nucleus and throughout the cytoplasm. Genetic disruption of the meiotic SUN belt staining patterns with three different meiosis-specific mutants, desynaptic (dy1, asynaptic1 (as1, and divergent spindle1 (dv1 provides additional evidence for the role of the nuclear envelope in meiotic chromosome behavior. Taking into account all of the observations from this study, we propose that the maize SUN belt is directly or indirectly involved in meiotic telomere dynamics, chromosome synapsis, and possibly integration of signals and forces across the meiotic prophase nuclear envelope.

  19. Recombinant HA1 produced in E. coli forms functional oligomers and generates strain-specific SRID potency antibodies for pandemic influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Larkin, Christopher; Verma, Swati; Joshi, Manju B; Fontana, Juan; Steven, Alasdair C; King, Lisa R; Manischewitz, Jody; McCormick, William; Gupta, Rajesh K; Golding, Hana

    2011-08-05

    Vaccine production and initiation of mass vaccination is a key factor in rapid response to new influenza pandemic. During the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, several bottlenecks were identified, including the delayed availability of vaccine potency reagents. Currently, antisera for the single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID) potency assay are generated in sheep immunized repeatedly with HA released and purified after bromelain-treatment of influenza virus grown in eggs. This approach was a major bottleneck for pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) potency reagent development in 2009. Alternative approaches are needed to make HA immunogens for generation of SRID reagents in the shortest possible time. In this study, we found that properly folded recombinant HA1 globular domain (rHA1) from several type A viruses including H1N1pdm09 and two H5N1 viruses could be produced efficiently using a bacterial expression system and subsequent purification. The rHA1 proteins were shown to form functional oligomers of trimers, similar to virus derived HA, and elicited high titer of neutralizing antibodies in rabbits and sheep. Importantly, the immune sera formed precipitation rings with reference antigens in the SRID assay in a dose-dependent manner. The HA contents in multiple H1N1 vaccine products from different manufacturers (and in several lots) as determined with the rHA1-generated sheep sera were similar to the values obtained with a traditionally generated sheep serum from NIBSC. We conclude that bacterially expressed recombinant HA1 proteins can be produced rapidly and used to generate SRID potency reagents shortly after new influenza strains with pandemic potential are identified. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Chromosome number and meiotic behaviour in Brachiaria jubata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. RESEARCH NOTE. Chromosome number and meiotic behaviour in. Brachiaria jubata (Gramineae). ANDREA BEATRIZ ... species, only a few of them present favourable agronomic attributes and are explored. In the genus Brachiaria, the ma- jority of species and accessions are polyploid and ...

  1. Highlights of meiotic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana | Consiglio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meiosis is a fascinating and complex phenomenon and, despite its central role in sexual plant reproduction, little is known on the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We review the progress made in recent years using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for isolating meiotic genes. In particular, emphasis is given on ...

  2. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) .... a Nikon Eclipse E600(Tokyo, Japan) light microscope using. Photo grab 300Z software Fujix TM 300 z sh-3z version 2.1 ..... SAS Institute 2003 SAS/STAT User's Guide, version 9. 1. SAS In- stitute, Cary, USA. Sato S., Peet M. M. and ...

  3. [Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber

    2011-03-01

    The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the species (one female and one male). The metaphase analysis allowed the establishment of the modal haploid number of 1n = 12 bivalent chromosomes. The chromosomic formulae from the haploid bivalent karyotype was integrated by 12 biarmed chromosomes characterized by twelve pairs of metacentric-submetacentric (msm) chromosomes. The meiotic counting gives the idea that diploid chromosome number is integrated by a complement of 2n = 24 biarmed chromosomes. The presence of sex chromosomes from female and male meiotic spreads was not observed. Current results suggest that S. baudinii chromosome structure is well shared among Hylidae family and "B" chromosomes are particular structures that have very important evolutionary consequences in species diversification.

  4. Meiotic faults as a major cause of offspring inviability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel; Zimmerman, Kolea; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The extensive literature on the costs and benefits of sexual reproduction often concludes that increased offspring viability is a benefit of sexual reproduction as compared to parthenogenesis. We show that all comparisons contributing to this conclusion involve cases of meiotic parthenogenesis, t...

  5. The dock-and-lock method combines recombinant engineering with site-specific covalent conjugation to generate multifunctional structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Edmund A; Goldenberg, David M; Chang, Chien-Hsing

    2012-03-21

    Advances in recombinant protein technology have facilitated the production of increasingly complex fusion proteins with multivalent, multifunctional designs for use in various in vitro and in vivo applications. In addition, traditional chemical conjugation remains a primary choice for linking proteins with polyethylene glycol (PEG), biotin, fluorescent markers, drugs, and others. More recently, site-specific conjugation of two or more interactive modules has emerged as a valid approach to expand the existing repertoires produced by either recombinant engineering or chemical conjugation alone, thus advancing the range of potential applications. Five such methods, each involving a specific binding event, are highlighted in this review, with a particular focus on the Dock-and-Lock (DNL) method, which exploits the natural interaction between the dimerization and docking domain (DDD) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the anchoring domain (AD) of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAP). The various enablements of DNL to date include trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent, and hexavalent antibodies of monospecificity or bispecificity; immnocytokines comprising multiple copies of interferon-alpha (IFNα); and site-specific PEGylation. These achievements attest to the power of the DNL platform technology to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents from both proteins and nonproteins for unmet medical needs.

  6. Generation of high-titre virus stocks using BrK.219, a B-cell line infected stably with recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Semra; Hage, Elias; Mynarek, Martin; Ganzenmueller, Tina; Indenbirken, Daniela; Grundhoff, Adam; Schulz, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gamma-2-lymphotropic human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV establishes latency soon after infection in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, it is technically difficult to generate high-titre virus stocks required for infection experiments in tissue culture. Currently used methods of KSHV stock production involve induction of the lytic/productive cycle in PEL cell lines or in adherent cell lines harbouring recombinant KSHV genomes. In this study, the BJAB-derived B-cell line BrK.219, which is infected latently with a recombinant KSHV (rKSHV.219), is used to produce high-titre virus stocks. BrK.219 cells enter the lytic KSHV replication cycle upon cross-linking of B-cell receptors (BCRs) with anti-IgM antibodies without the need for additional, potentially toxic chemical inducers. High cell concentrations can be cultured and induced easily in spinner flasks, saving time and resources. The established protocol allows the generation of KSHV virus stocks with titres of up to 10(6) IU/ml in unconcentrated culture supernatants, representing a 10(3)-10(4)-fold improvement compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Induced mutation and somatic recombination as tools for genetic analysis and breeding of imperfect fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many fungi which are important in Agriculture as plant pathogens or in Biotechnology as producers of organic acids, antibiotics or enzymes, are imperfect fungi. These fungi do not have a sexual stage, which implies that they lack a meiotic recombination mechanism.

    However, many

  8. A dominant, recombination-defective allele of Dmc1 causing male-specific sterility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannister, Laura A.; Pezza, Roberto J.; Donaldson, Janet R.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Schimenti, Kerry J.; Camerini-Otero, R. Daniel; Schimenti, John C.

    2007-01-01

    DMC1 is a meiosis-specific homolog of bacterial RecA and eukaryotic RAD51 that can catalyze homologous DNA strand invasion and D-loop formation in vitro. DMC1-deficient mice and yeast are sterile due to defective meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis. The authors identified a male dominant

  9. A high incidence of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin is not associated with substantial pachytene loss in heterozygous male mice carrying multiple simple robertsonian translocations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Manterola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC. Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., gammaH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR. These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading

  10. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C as a bivalent vaccine in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haixia; Roth, Jason P; Estevez, Carlos N; Zsak, Laszlo; Liu, Bo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2011-11-03

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling both NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. In the present study, an NDV based, LaSota strain recombinant vaccine virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) was generated as a bivalent vaccine using a reverse genetics approach. The recombinant virus, rLS/aMPV-C G was slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintained similar growth dynamics, cytopathic effects, and virus titers in vitro when compared to the parental LaSota virus. Expression of the aMPV G protein in rLS/aMPV-C G-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of turkeys with one dose of rLS/aMPV-C G induced moderate aMPV-C-specific immune responses and comparable NDV-specific serum antibody responses to a LaSota vaccination control. Partial protection against pathogenic aMPV-C challenge and complete protection against velogenic NDV challenge was conferred. These results suggest that the LaSota recombinant virus is a safe and effective vaccine vector and that expression of the aMPV-C G protein alone is not sufficient to provide full protection against an aMPV-C infection. Expression of other immunogenic protein(s) of the aMPV-C virus alone or in conjunction with the G protein may be needed to induce a stronger protective immunity against the aMPV-C disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Signaling-Mediated Regulation of Meiotic Prophase I and Transition During Oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Generation of healthy oocytes requires coordinated regulation of multiple cellular events and signaling pathways. Oocytes undergo a unique developmental growth and differentiation pattern interspersed with long periods of arrest. Oocytes from almost all species arrest in prophase I of oogenesis that allows for long period of growth and differentiation essential for normal oocyte development. Depending on species, oocytes that transit from prophase I to meiosis I also arrest at meiosis I for fairly long periods of time and then undergo a second arrest at meiosis II that is completed upon fertilization. While there are species-specific differences in C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and mammalian oocytes in stages of prophase I, meiosis I, or meiosis II arrest, in all cases cell signaling pathways coordinate the developmental events controlling oocyte growth and differentiation to regulate these crucial phases of transition. In particular, the ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway, cyclic AMP second messengers, and the cell cycle regulators CDK1/cyclin B are key signaling pathways that seem evolutionarily conserved in their control of oocyte growth and meiotic maturation across species. Here, I identify the common themes and differences in the regulation of key meiotic events during oocyte growth and maturation. PMID:28247047

  12. The role of meiotic cohesin REC8 in chromosome segregation in {gamma} irradiation-induced endopolyploid tumour cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina [Latvian Biomedicine Research and Study Centre, Riga, LV-1067 (Latvia); Cragg, Mark S. [Tenovus Laboratory, Cancer Sciences Division, Southampton University School of Medicine, General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Salmina, Kristine [Latvian Biomedicine Research and Study Centre, Riga, LV-1067 (Latvia); Hausmann, Michael [Kirchhoff Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Scherthan, Harry, E-mail: scherth@web.de [Inst. fuer Radiobiologie der Bundeswehr in Verbindung mit der Univ. Ulm, D-80937 Munich (Germany); MPI for Molec. Genetics, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-09-10

    Escape from mitotic catastrophe and generation of endopolyploid tumour cells (ETCs) represents a potential survival strategy of tumour cells in response to genotoxic treatments. ETCs that resume the mitotic cell cycle have reduced ploidy and are often resistant to these treatments. In search for a mechanism for genome reduction, we previously observed that ETCs express meiotic proteins among which REC8 (a meiotic cohesin component) is of particular interest, since it favours reductional cell division in meiosis. In the present investigation, we induced endopolyploidy in p53-dysfunctional human tumour cell lines (Namalwa, WI-L2-NS, HeLa) by gamma irradiation, and analysed the sub-cellular localisation of REC8 in the resulting ETCs. We observed by RT-PCR and Western blot that REC8 is constitutively expressed in these tumour cells, along with SGOL1 and SGOL2, and that REC8 becomes modified after irradiation. REC8 localised to paired sister centromeres in ETCs, the former co-segregating to opposite poles. Furthermore, REC8 localised to the centrosome of interphase ETCs and to the astral poles in anaphase cells where it colocalised with the microtubule-associated protein NuMA. Altogether, our observations indicate that radiation-induced ETCs express features of meiotic cell divisions and that these may facilitate chromosome segregation and genome reduction.

  13. Generation and characterization of recombinant human antibodies specific for native laminin epitopes. Potential application in cancer therapy. Cancer Immunol. Immunother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Laura; Kristensen, Peter; Russell, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    Laminins are specific cellular regulators that directly and indirectly control activities such as cell attachment and migration, differentiation and polarity, proliferation and apoptosis, and protease expression. Considering the centrality of these issues to tumor progression, the generation of h...

  14. Testing the effect of paraquat exposure on genomic recombination rates in queens of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Kurt; Phillips, Matthew; Rueppell, Olav

    2018-04-01

    The rate of genomic recombination displays evolutionary plasticity and can even vary in response to environmental factors. The western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has an extremely high genomic recombination rate but the mechanistic basis for this genome-wide upregulation is not understood. Based on the hypothesis that meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair share common mechanisms in honey bees as in other organisms, we predicted that oxidative stress leads to an increase in recombination rate in honey bees. To test this prediction, we subjected honey bee queens to oxidative stress by paraquat injection and measured the rates of genomic recombination in select genome intervals of offspring produced before and after injection. The evaluation of 26 genome intervals in a total of over 1750 offspring of 11 queens by microsatellite genotyping revealed several significant effects but no overall evidence for a mechanistic link between oxidative stress and increased recombination was found. The results weaken the notion that DNA repair enzymes have a regulatory function in the high rate of meiotic recombination of honey bees, but they do not provide evidence against functional overlap between meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair in honey bees and more mechanistic studies are needed.

  15. Generation of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing the Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoprotein gB or gD as Dual Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry. The NDV LaSota strain, a naturally occurring low-virulence NDV strain, has been routinely used as a live vaccine throughout the world. This chapter describes the generation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain-based recombinant viruses expressing glycoprotein B (gB) or glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV as dual vaccines against ND and ILT using reverse genetics technology.

  16. A novel recombinant Leishmania donovani p45, a partial coding region of methionine aminopeptidase, generates protective immunity by inducing a Th1 stimulatory response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Reema; Kushawaha, Pramod K; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2012-05-01

    The development of a vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge. Identification and proteomic characterization of parasite proteins led to the detection of p45, a member of the methionine aminopeptidase family. To our knowledge the present study is the first known report that describes the molecular and immunological characterization of p45. Recombinant Leishmania donovani p45 (rLdp45) induced cellular responses in cured hamsters and generated Th1-type cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cured/endemic VL patients. Immunization with rLdp45 exerted considerable prophylactic efficacy (∼85%) supported by an increase in mRNA expression of iNOS, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 and decrease in TGF-β and IL-4, indicating its potential as a vaccine candidate against VL. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  18. Random mutagenesis of a recombinant microbial transglutaminase for the generation of thermostable and heat-sensitive variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christian K; Hertel, Thomas C; Pietzsch, Markus

    2008-09-10

    Recombinant microbial transglutaminase (rMTG), an enzyme useful for the cross-linking or the posttranslational modification of (therapeutic) proteins, was optimized by random mutagenesis for the first time. A screening method was developed which, in addition to state-of-the-art procedures, includes a proteolytic activation step of the expressed soluble pro-enzyme. The library of 5,500 clones was screened for variants with increased thermostability and heat-sensitivity, respectively. Mutant enzymes were overproduced, isolated and characterized. After just one round of mutagenesis, nine variants with a single amino acid exchange showed a remarkably increased thermostability at 60 degrees C. The exchange of a serine residue close to the N-terminus against proline resulted in an rMTG mutant (S2P) with 270% increased half-life. Seven variants exhibited an increased heat-sensitivity at 60 degrees C of which one mutant (G25S) retained its specific activity between 10 and 40 degrees C. The mutations responsible for the increased thermostability and the heat-sensitivity were identified and assigned to the three-dimensional (3D) structure. All single point mutations related to changed thermal properties of rMTG are located in the N-terminal domain (i.e. the left side wall of the active site cleft of the front view of the MTG as defined by the literature [Kashiwagi, T., Yokoyama, K., Ishikawa, K., Ono, K., Ejima, D., Matsui, H., Suzuki, E., 2002. Crystal structure of microbial transglutaminase from Streptoverticillium mobaraense. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 44252-44260] showing the importance of this part of the protein.

  19. Recombinant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens xylanase A expressed in Pichia pastoris and generation of xylooligosaccharides from xylans and wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Qi; Huo, Wen-Kang; Xu, Xin; Weng, Xiao-Yan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, BaxA (GenBank: KM624029), which encodes the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens xylanase A (BaxA), was highly expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant xylanase, namely rePBaxA, was purified to homogeneity by using Ni-affinity resin and its molecular weight was 35.0kDa. The optimum temperature and pH of rePBaxA were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The kinetic parameters Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) and maximum reaction rate (V max ) of rePBaxA were 5.41mg/mL and 22.42μmol/min/mL, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography results showed that after 6h of hydrolysis, rePBaxA released xylose-xylohexaose (X1-X6) mixture from beechwood and birchwood xylan, with xylobiose (X2) and xylotriose (X3) as the major products, respectively. The hydrolyates from oat spelt, wheat bran insoluble xylan and pretreated wheat bran by rePBaxA included X2-X6, with X6 having the highest concentration. The mode of action analysis revealed that rePBaxA was an endo-acting xylanase with transglycosylation activity. X2 might be the minimum oligomer hydrolyzed by rePBaxA. The pretreated wheat bran and wheat bran insoluble xylan could be directly hydrolyzed by rePBaxA. This study provided a basis for using agricultural waste by-products as substrates for manufacting value-added probiotics, namely, xylooligosaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation and CRISPR/Cas9 editing of transformed progenitor B cells as a pseudo-physiological system to study DNA repair gene function in V(D)J recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenden Hasse, Hélène; Lescale, Chloé; Bianchi, Joy J; Yu, Wei; Bedora-Faure, Marie; Deriano, Ludovic

    2017-12-01

    Antigen receptor gene assembly is accomplished in developing lymphocytes by the V(D)J recombination reaction, which can be separated into two steps: DNA cleavage by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) nuclease and joining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by components of the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Deficiencies for NHEJ factors can result in immunodeficiency and a propensity to accumulate genomic instability, thus highlighting the importance of identifying all players in this process and deciphering their functions. Bcl2 transgenic v-Abl kinase-transformed pro-B cells provide a pseudo-physiological cellular system to study V(D)J recombination. Treatment of v-Abl/Bcl2 pro-B cells with the Abl kinase inhibitor Imatinib leads to G1 cell cycle arrest, the rapid induction of Rag1/2 gene expression and V(D)J recombination. In this system, the Bcl2 transgene alleviates Imatinib-induced apoptosis enabling the analysis of induced V(D)J recombination. Although powerful, the use of mouse models carrying the Bcl2 transgene for the generation of v-Abl pro-B cell lines is time and money consuming. Here, we describe a method for generating v-Abl/Bcl2 pro-B cell lines from wild type mice and for performing gene knock-out using episomal CRISPR/Cas9 targeting vectors. Using this approach, we generated distinct NHEJ-deficient pro-B cell lines and quantified V(D)J recombination levels in these cells. Furthermore, this methodology can be adapted to generate pro-B cell lines deficient for any gene suspected to play a role in V(D)J recombination, and more generally DSB repair. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SLX-1 is required for maintaining genomic integrity and promoting meiotic noncrossovers in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamune T Saito

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the SLX4 complex, which includes structure-specific nucleases such as XPF, MUS81, and SLX1, plays important roles in the repair of several kinds of DNA damage, the function of SLX1 in the germline remains unknown. Here we characterized the endonuclease activities of the Caenorhabditis elegans SLX-1-HIM-18/SLX-4 complex co-purified from human 293T cells and determined SLX-1 germline function via analysis of slx-1(tm2644 mutants. SLX-1 shows a HIM-18/SLX-4-dependent endonuclease activity toward replication forks, 5'-flaps, and Holliday junctions. slx-1 mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to UV, nitrogen mustard, and camptothecin, but not gamma irradiation. Consistent with a role in DNA repair, recombination intermediates accumulate in both mitotic and meiotic germ cells in slx-1 mutants. Importantly, meiotic crossover distribution, but not crossover frequency, is altered on chromosomes in slx-1 mutants compared to wild type. This alteration is not due to changes in either the levels or distribution of double-strand breaks (DSBs along chromosomes. We propose that SLX-1 is required for repair at stalled or collapsed replication forks, interstrand crosslink repair, and nucleotide excision repair during mitosis. Moreover, we hypothesize that SLX-1 regulates the crossover landscape during meiosis by acting as a noncrossover-promoting factor in a subset of DSBs.

  2. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  3. Pre-meiotic bands and novel meiotic spindle ontogeny in quadrilobed sporocytes of leafy liverworts (Jungermannidae, Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roy C; Lemmon, Betty E

    2009-10-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to study the nucleation and organization of microtubules during meiosis in two species of leafy liverworts, Cephalozia macrostachya and Telaranea longifolia. This is the first such study of sporogenesis in the largest group of liverworts important as living representatives of some of the first land plant lineages. These studies show that cytoplasmic quadrilobing of pre-meiotic sporocytes into future spore domains is initiated by girdling bands of gamma-tubulin and microtubules similar to those recently described in lobed sporocytes of simple thalloid liverworts. However, spindle ontogeny is not like other liverworts studied and is, in fact, probably unique among bryophytes. Following the establishment of quadrilobing, numerous microtubules diverge from the bands and extend into the enlarging lobes. The bands disappear and are replaced by microtubules that arise from gamma-tubulin associated with the nuclear envelope. This microtubule system extends into the four lobes and is gradually reorganized into a quadripolar spindle, each half spindle consisting of a pair of poles straddling opposite cleavage furrows. Chromosomes move on this spindle to the polar cleavage furrows. The reniform daughter nuclei, each curved over a cleavage furrow, immediately enter second meiotic division with spindles now terminating in the lobes. Phragmoplasts that develop in the interzones among the haploid tetrad nuclei guide deposition of cell plates that join with the pre-meiotic furrows resulting in cleavage of the tetrad of spores. These observations document a significant variation in the innovative process of sporogenesis evolved in early land plants.

  4. The cohesion protein SOLO associates with SMC1 and is required for synapsis, recombination, homolog bias and cohesion and pairing of centromeres in Drosophila Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihui Yan

    Full Text Available Cohesion between sister chromatids is mediated by cohesin and is essential for proper meiotic segregation of both sister chromatids and homologs. solo encodes a Drosophila meiosis-specific cohesion protein with no apparent sequence homology to cohesins that is required in male meiosis for centromere cohesion, proper orientation of sister centromeres and centromere enrichment of the cohesin subunit SMC1. In this study, we show that solo is involved in multiple aspects of meiosis in female Drosophila. Null mutations in solo caused the following phenotypes: 1 high frequencies of homolog and sister chromatid nondisjunction (NDJ and sharply reduced frequencies of homolog exchange; 2 reduced transmission of a ring-X chromosome, an indicator of elevated frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE; 3 premature loss of centromere pairing and cohesion during prophase I, as indicated by elevated foci counts of the centromere protein CID; 4 instability of the lateral elements (LEs and central regions of synaptonemal complexes (SCs, as indicated by fragmented and spotty staining of the chromosome core/LE component SMC1 and the transverse filament protein C(3G, respectively, at all stages of pachytene. SOLO and SMC1 are both enriched on centromeres throughout prophase I, co-align along the lateral elements of SCs and reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate from ovarian protein extracts. Our studies demonstrate that SOLO is closely associated with meiotic cohesin and required both for enrichment of cohesin on centromeres and stable assembly of cohesin into chromosome cores. These events underlie and are required for stable cohesion of centromeres, synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and a recombination mechanism that suppresses SCE to preferentially generate homolog crossovers (homolog bias. We propose that SOLO is a subunit of a specialized meiotic cohesin complex that mediates both centromeric and axial arm cohesion and promotes homolog bias as a component of

  5. Evaluation of Protective Potential of Yersinia pestis Outer Membrane Protein Antigens as Possible Candidates for a New-Generation Recombinant Plague Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erova, Tatiana E.; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Telepnev, Maxim V.; Motin, Vladimir L.

    2013-01-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1− strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1− mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1− CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains. PMID:23239803

  6. Generation and biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos; Song, Minxun; Kapczynski, Darrell; Zsak, Laszlo

    2010-02-01

    Genetic variation in length of the G gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication, pathogenicity and immunity is unknown. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for aMPV-C and generated two Colorado (CO) strain-based recombinant viruses containing either the full-length G gene derived from a Canadian goose isolate or a C-terminally truncated G gene of the CO strain. The truncated short G (sG) gene encoded 252 amino acids (aa), which is 333 aa shorter than the full-length G (585 aa). The biological properties of these two recombinant G variants were assessed in Vero cells and in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys. In Vero cells, the short G variant displayed a similar level of growth dynamics and virus titers as the parental aMPV-CO strain, whereas the full-length G variant replicated less efficiently than the sG variant during the first 72 h post-infection. Both of the G variants induced typical cytopathic effects (CPE) that were indistinguishable from those seen with the parental aMPV-CO infection. In SPF turkeys, both of the G variants were attenuated and caused little or no disease signs, but the full-length G variant appeared to grow more readily in tracheal tissue than the sG variant during the first 5 days post-infection. Both G variants were immunogenic and induced a slightly different level of antibody response. These results demonstrated that the large portion (333 aa) of the extracellular domain of the viral attachment protein is not essential for virus viability in vitro and in vivo, but may play a role in enhancing virus attachment specificity and immunity in a natural host. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear delivery of recombinant OCT4 by chitosan nanoparticles for transgene-free generation of protein-induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Salma; Malak, Peter; Correa, Daphne; Rothfuss, Oliver; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2016-06-21

    Protein-based reprogramming of somatic cells is a non-genetic approach for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), whereby reprogramming factors, such as OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, are delivered as functional proteins. The technique is considered safer than transgenic methods, but, unfortunately, most protein-based protocols provide very low reprogramming efficiencies. In this study, we developed exemplarily a nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery system for the reprogramming factor OCT4. To this end, we expressed human OCT4 in Sf9 insect cells using a baculoviral expression system. Recombinant OCT4 showed nuclear localization in Sf9 cells indicating proper protein folding. In comparison to soluble OCT4 protein, encapsulation of OCT4 in nuclear-targeted chitosan NPs strongly stabilized its DNA-binding activity even under cell culture conditions. OCT4-loaded NPs enabled cell treatment with high micromolar concentrations of OCT4 and successfully delivered active OCT4 into human fibroblasts. Chitosan NPs therefore provide a promising tool for the generation of transgene-free iPSCs.

  8. The Effect of Dopant-Free Hole-Transport Polymers on Charge Generation and Recombination in Cesium-Bismuth-Iodide Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huimin; Johansson, Malin B; Johansson, Erik M J

    2018-01-26

    The photovoltaic characteristics of CsBi 3 I 10 -based solar cells with three dopant-free hole-conducting polymers are investigated. The effect on charge generation and charge recombination in the solar cells using the different polymers is studied and the results indicate that the choice of polymer strongly affects the device properties. Interestingly, for the solar cell with poly[[2,3-bis(3-octyloxyphenyl)-5,8-quinoxalinediyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl] (TQ1), the photon-to-current conversion spectrum is highly improved in the red wavelength region, suggesting that the polymer also contributes to the photocurrent generation in this case. This report provides a new direction for further optimization of Bi-halide solar cells by using dopant-free hole-transporting polymers and shows that the energy levels and the interaction between the Bi-halide and the conducting polymers are very important for solar cell performance. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Drosophila transposon insertions as unknowns for structured inquiry recombination mapping exercises in an undergraduate genetics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Jeffrey M; Hughes, Tia M

    2009-06-01

    Structured inquiry approaches, in which students receive a Drosophila strain of unknown genotype to analyze and map the constituent mutations, are a common feature of many genetics teaching laboratories. The required crosses frustrate many students because they are aware that they are participating in a fundamentally trivial exercise, as the map locations of the genes are already established and have been recalculated thousands of times by generations of students. We modified the traditional structured inquiry approach to include a novel research experience for the students in our undergraduate genetics laboratories. Students conducted crosses with Drosophila strains carrying P[lacW] transposon insertions in genes without documented recombination map positions, representing a large number of unique, but equivalent genetic unknowns. Using the eye color phenotypes associated with the inserts as visible markers, it is straightforward to calculate recombination map positions for the interrupted loci. Collectively, our students mapped 95 genetic loci on chromosomes 2 and 3. In most cases, the calculated 95% confidence interval for meiotic map location overlapped with the predicted map position based on cytology. The research experience evoked positive student responses and helped students better understand the nature of scientific research for little additional cost or instructor effort.

  10. Implications of cell cycle disturbances for meiotic aneuploidy: Studies on a mouse model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenlaub-Ritter, U.; Sobek-Klocke, I. [Universitaet Bielefeld (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    The correlation between increased risk of aneuploid offspring with maternal age in the human and some other mammals has been documented by a number of studies in the last decades. With the advent of chromosome banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques using restriction fragment length polymorphisms to identify the origin of extra chromosomes in trisomic conditions, data have accumulated which indicate that most non-disjunction events leading to chromosomally unbalanced gametes and embryos occur during first meiotic division of maturation in the oocyte. Among others, hypotheses relating a reduction in recombination and chiasmata with increased risks for aneuploidy, or such relating hormonal imbalance, alterations in follicular pH or environmental disturbances with aberrations in chromosomal constitution and spindle components have been proposed but the cellular and physiological basis for chromosome malsegregation with increased age still remains elusive. Here we review studies in which the CBA/Ca mouse was used as a model system to analyze spindle structure and formation, chromosome behavior and progression through the cell cycle with regard to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, as well as to age and aneuploidy, respectively, to identify risk factors. The data indicate that disturbances in cell cycle progression are correlated with high risk for aneuploidy in mammalian oocytes. These disturbances may reside in altered protein phosphorylation and gene expression.

  11. A specific family of interspersed repeats (SINEs facilitates meiotic synapsis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Errors during meiosis that affect synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes contribute to aneuploidy and infertility in humans. Despite the clinical relevance of these defects, we know very little about the mechanisms by which homologous chromosomes interact with one another during mammalian meiotic prophase. Further, we remain ignorant of the way in which chromosomal DNA complexes with the meiosis-specific structure that tethers homologs, the synaptonemal complex (SC, and whether specific DNA elements are necessary for this interaction. Results In the present study we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and DNA sequencing to demonstrate that the axial elements of the mammalian SC are markedly enriched for a specific family of interspersed repeats, short interspersed elements (SINEs. Further, we refine the role of the repeats to specific sub-families of SINEs, B1 in mouse and AluY in old world monkey (Macaca mulatta. Conclusions Because B1 and AluY elements are the most actively retrotransposing SINEs in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, our observations imply that they may serve a dual function in axial element binding; i.e., as the anchoring point for the SC but possibly also as a suppressor/regulator of retrotransposition.

  12. Generation and evaluation of recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV challenges in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we generated a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine, which provided a partial protection against aMPV-C challenge in turkeys. To improve the vaccine efficacy,...

  13. Genetically enhanced asynapsis of autosomal chromatin promotes transcriptional dysregulation and meiotic failure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, David; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 1 (2012), s. 91-104 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * meiotic sex chromosome inactivation * autosomal translocation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2012

  14. Meiotic behavior and pollen fertility of five species in the genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fe

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... genus Epimedium are few and only available in hybrid populations (Sheng et al., ... in hybrids (>76.10%) and meiotic abnormalities occurred .... 619-625. Pagliarini MS (2000). Meiotic behavior of economically important plant species: the relationship between fertility and male sterility. Genet. Mol. Biol.

  15. Meiotic behavior and pollen fertility of five species in the genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meiotic behavior and pollen fertility were analysed in five Epimedium species: Epimedium chlorandrum, Epimedium acuminatum, Epimedium davidii, Epimedium ecalcaratum and Epimedium pubescens. Chromosome numbers for five species were 2n = 2x = 12. All examined species displayed stable meiotic process and ...

  16. Meiotic nondisjunction in the mouse: methodology for genetic testing and comparison with other methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L. B.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: genetic method for detecting sex-chromosome nondisjunction; events that can produce nondisjunction in mammals; biological parameters that may maximize induced meiotic ND; comparison with other measures of germline chromosomal damage in mammals; comparison with other methods for detecting meiotic nondisjunction in mammals; and application of the genetic method for detecting nondisjunction. (HLW)

  17. Spore-killing meiotic drive factors in a natural population of the fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Oosterhof, J.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Thijssen, J.A.G.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In fungi, meiotic drive is observed as spore killing. In the secondarily homothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina it is characterized by the abortion of two of the four spores in the ascus. We have identified seven different types of meiotic drive elements (Spore killers). Among 99 isolates from

  18. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, David; Ivánek, Robert; Čapková, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2007), s. 1431-1437 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GA301/06/1334; GA ČR GA301/07/1383 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI 55000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : chromosomal translocations * meiotic X chromosome inactivation * spermatogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.224, year: 2007

  19. Meiotic recombination in sexual diploid and apomictic triploid dandelions (Taraxacum officinale L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarlen, van P.; Dijk, van P.J.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Jong, de J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. Previous studies have demonstrated unexpectedly

  20. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcová, Mária; Faltusová, Barbora; Gergelits, Václav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondřej; Trachtulec, Zdeněk; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosová, Vladana; Chvátalová, Irena; Gregorová, Soňa; Forejt, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2016), e1005906-e1005906 ISSN 1553-7404 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA13-08078S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20728S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Histochine H3 methyltransferase * Crossing-Over * Complex Traits Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.100, year: 2016

  1. Generation of recombinant newcastle disease viruses, expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus, subtype A, or B, for use as bivalent vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, or B, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses, rLS/aMPV-A G and rLS/aMPV-B G, were slightly att...

  2. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  3. Meiotic behavior of wild Caricaceae species potentially suitable for papaya improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelli Narducci da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meiotic behavior and determine the meiotic index and pollen viability of representative plants of the wild species V. goudotiana, V. quercifolia and J. spinosa. Meiotic analysis confirmed that the species are diploid and have 18 chromosomes. Meiosis was partially normal, since some abnormalities, e.g, sticky and lagging chromosomes, precocious segregation, lack of synchrony, and disturbances in the spindle fibers were observed. These abnormalities resulted in post-meiotic products (monads, dyads, triads, and polyads that probably contributed to the meiotic index of 85.7 % (V. goudotiana to 95.9 % (J. spinosa; significant variation was observed in the species V. goudotiana. The pollen viability of 68.0% (V. goudotiana to 96.0 % (J. spinosa was reasonably good in these wild species. Crossings in breeding programs involving V. goudotiana should therefore be carefully planned, since part of the gametes of this species is unviable.

  4. Generation of a tenascin-C-CreER2 knockin mouse line for conditional DNA recombination in renal medullary interstitial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan He

    Full Text Available Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMIC are specialized fibroblast-like cells that exert important functions in maintaining body fluid homeostasis and systemic blood pressure. Here, we generated a RMIC specific tenascin-C promoter driven inducible CreER2 knockin mouse line with an EGFP reporter. Similar as endogenous tenascin-C expression, the reporter EGFP expression in the tenascin-C-CreER2(+/- mice was observed in the inner medulla of the kidney, and co-localized with COX2 but not with AQP2 or AQP1, suggesting selective expression in RMICs. After recombination (tenascin-C-CreER2(+/-/ROSA26-lacZ(+/- mice + tamoxifen, β-gal activity was restricted to the cells in the inner medulla of the kidney, and didn't co-localize with AQP2, consistent with selective Cre recombinase activity in RMICs. Cre activity was not obvious in other major organs or without tamoxifen treatment. This inducible RMIC specific Cre mouse line should therefore provide a novel tool to manipulate genes of interest in RMICs.

  5. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a/GNA in Pichia pastoris: sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Prashant; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2014-08-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast Pichia pastoris. To prevent proteolysis, the Hv1a/GNA fusion expression construct was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to remove a potential Kex2 cleavage site at the C-terminus of the Hv1a peptide. To obtain a high expressing clone of P. pastoris to produce recombinant Hv1a/GNA, a straightforward method was used to produce multi-copy expression plasmids, which does not require multiple integrations to give clones of P. pastoris containing high copy numbers of the introduced gene. Removal of the Kex2 site resulted in increased levels of intact fusion protein expressed in wild-type P. pastoris strains, improving levels of intact recombinant protein recoverable. Incorporation of a C-terminal (His)6 tag enabled single step purification of the fusion protein. These modifications did not affect the insecticidal activity of the recombinant toxin towards lepidopteran larvae. Introduction of multiple expression cassettes increased the amount of secreted recombinant fusion protein in a laboratory scale fermentation by almost tenfold on a per litre of culture basis. Simple modifications in the expression construct can be advantageous for the generation of high expressing P. pastoris strains for production of a recombinant protein, without altering its functional properties.

  6. Generation and Efficacy Evaluation of a Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus Variant Expressing the E2 Protein of Classical Swine Fever Virus in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Yuan, Jin; Cong, Xin; Qin, Hua-Yang; Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Yongfeng; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important infectious disease of pigs caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Pseudorabies (PR), which is caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), is another important infectious disease of pigs and other animals. Coinfections of pigs with PRV and CSFV occur occasionally in the field. The modified live vaccine Bartha-K61 strain has played an important role in the control of PR in many countries, including China. Since late 2011, however, increasing PR outbreaks caused by an emerging PRV variant have been reported in Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine populations on many farms in China. Previously, we generated a gE/gI-deleted PRV (rPRVTJ-delgE) based on this PRV variant, which was shown to be safe and can provide rapid and complete protection against lethal challenge with the PRV variant in pigs. Here, we generated a new recombinant PRV variant expressing the E2 gene of CSFV (rPRVTJ-delgE/gI-E2) and evaluated its immunogenicity and efficacy in pigs. The results showed that rPRVTJ-delgE/gI-E2 was safe for pigs, induced detectable anti-PRV and anti-CSFV neutralizing antibodies, and provided complete protection against the lethal challenge with either the PRV TJ strain or the CSFV Shimen strain. The data indicate that rPRVTJ-delgE/gI-E2 is a promising candidate bivalent vaccine against PRV and CSFV coinfections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. X-ray induction of mitotic and meiotic chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.T.S.

    1980-01-01

    In 1964 six pairs of rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis) were obtained from Australia. The tissues of these animals were used to initiate cell lines. Since this species has a low chromosome number of six pairs, each pair with its own distinctive morphology, it is particularly favorable for cytogenetic research. In cell cultures derived from the corneal endothelial tissues of one animal there emerged a number of haploid cells. The number of haploid cells in the cultures reached as high as 20% of the total mitotic configurations. The in vitro diploid and haploid mixture cell cultures could be a resemblance or a coincidence to the mixture existence of the diploid primary spermatocytes and the haploid secondary spermatocytes (gametes) in the in vivo testicular tissues of the male animals. It would be interesting to compare reactions of the haploid and diploid cell mixture, either in the cultures or in the testes, to x-ray exposure. Two other studies involving x-ray effects on Chinese hamster oocyte maturation and meiotic chromosomes and the x-ray induction of Chinese hamster spermatocyte meiotic chromosome aberrations have been done in this laboratory. A review of these three studies involving diploid and haploid chromosomes may lead to further research in the x-ray induction of chromosome aberrations

  8. The Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Recombination Rate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad M; Huang, Wen; Mackay, Trudy F C; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures proper chromosome segregation in many sexually reproducing organisms. Despite this crucial function, rates of recombination are highly variable within and between taxa, and the genetic basis of this variation remains poorly understood. Here, we exploit natural variation in the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to map genetic variants affecting recombination rate. We used a two-step crossing scheme and visible markers to measure rates of recombination in a 33 cM interval on the X chromosome and in a 20.4 cM interval on chromosome 3R for 205 DGRP lines. Though we cannot exclude that some biases exist due to viability effects associated with the visible markers used in this study, we find ~2-fold variation in recombination rate among lines. Interestingly, we further find that recombination rates are uncorrelated between the two chromosomal intervals. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with recombination rate in each of the two intervals surveyed. We refined our list of candidate variants and genes associated with recombination rate variation and selected twenty genes for functional assessment. We present strong evidence that five genes are likely to contribute to natural variation in recombination rate in D. melanogaster; these genes lie outside the canonical meiotic recombination pathway. We also find a weak effect of Wolbachia infection on recombination rate and we confirm the interchromosomal effect. Our results highlight the magnitude of population variation in recombination rate present in D. melanogaster and implicate new genetic factors mediating natural variation in this quantitative trait.

  9. The Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Recombination Rate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M Hunter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination ensures proper chromosome segregation in many sexually reproducing organisms. Despite this crucial function, rates of recombination are highly variable within and between taxa, and the genetic basis of this variation remains poorly understood. Here, we exploit natural variation in the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP to map genetic variants affecting recombination rate. We used a two-step crossing scheme and visible markers to measure rates of recombination in a 33 cM interval on the X chromosome and in a 20.4 cM interval on chromosome 3R for 205 DGRP lines. Though we cannot exclude that some biases exist due to viability effects associated with the visible markers used in this study, we find ~2-fold variation in recombination rate among lines. Interestingly, we further find that recombination rates are uncorrelated between the two chromosomal intervals. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with recombination rate in each of the two intervals surveyed. We refined our list of candidate variants and genes associated with recombination rate variation and selected twenty genes for functional assessment. We present strong evidence that five genes are likely to contribute to natural variation in recombination rate in D. melanogaster; these genes lie outside the canonical meiotic recombination pathway. We also find a weak effect of Wolbachia infection on recombination rate and we confirm the interchromosomal effect. Our results highlight the magnitude of population variation in recombination rate present in D. melanogaster and implicate new genetic factors mediating natural variation in this quantitative trait.

  10. Indirect Basal Metabolism Estimation in Tailoring Recombinant Human TSH Administration in Patients Affected by Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Hypothesis-Generating Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Barnabei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PurposeRecombinant human TSH (rhTSH is currently used in follow-up of patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. Age, sex, weight, body mass index, body surface area (BSA and renal function are known factors affecting serum TSH peak levels, but the proper rhTSH dose to deliver to single patient remains elusive. In this study, the correlations of basal metabolic rates with serum TSH peak following rhTSH administration were investigated.MethodsWe evaluated 221 patients affected by thyroid cancer that received a standard dose rhTSH. Blood samples were collected at pre-established time points. Data on body weight, height, and BSA were collected. The Mifflin-St Jeor and Fleisch equations were used to assess basal metabolism.ResultsThe median value (range of serum TSH peaks was 142 ± 53 μU/ml. Serum TSH peaks were significantly lower in males than in females (p = 0.04. TSH values also increased with age. Data showed a significant decrease of TSH peak levels at day 3 from the administration of rhTSH when basal metabolic rates increased (p = 0.002 and p = 0.009, respectively. Similar findings were observed at day 5 (p = 0.004 and p = 0.04, respectively. A multivariate analysis of several factors revealed that patients’ basal metabolism (obtained using the Mifflin-St Jeor but not Fleisch equation predicts serum TSH level peak at day 3 (p < 0.001. These results were used to generate a new formula based on Mifflin-StJeor equation which reveals as a promising tool in tailoring rhTSH dose.ConclusionBasal metabolism appears an improving factor in tailoring diagnostic rhTSH dose in patients affected by DTC.

  11. High efficiency recombineering in lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to efficiently generate targeted point mutations in the chromosome without the need for antibiotics, or other means of selection, is a powerful strategy for genome engineering. Although oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering (ssDNA recombineering) has been utilized in Escherichia coli for over a decade, the successful adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to Gram-positive bacteria has not been reported. Here we describe the development and application of ssDNA recombineering in lact...

  12. Population inversion in recombining hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukane, Utaro; Yokota, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu.

    1978-11-01

    The collisional-radiative model is applied to a recombining hydrogen plasma in order to investigate the plasma condition in which the population inversion between the energy levels of hydrogen can be generated. The population inversion is expected in a plasma where the three body recombination has a large contribution to the recombining processes and the effective recombination rate is beyond a certain value for a given electron density and temperature. Calculated results are presented in figures and tables. (author)

  13. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  14. Error-prone ZW pairing and no evidence for meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the chicken germ line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guioli

    Full Text Available In the male mouse the X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine within the small pseudoautosomal region. Genes located on the unsynapsed segments of the X and Y are transcriptionally silenced at pachytene by Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI. The degree to which MSCI is conserved in other vertebrates is currently unclear. In the female chicken the ZW bivalent is thought to undergo a transient phase of full synapsis at pachytene, starting from the homologous ends and spreading through the heterologous regions. It has been proposed that the repair of the ZW DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs is postponed until diplotene and that the ZW bivalent is subject to MSCI, which is independent of its synaptic status. Here we present a distinct model of meiotic pairing and silencing of the ZW pair during chicken oogenesis. We show that, in most oocytes, DNA DSB foci on the ZW are resolved by the end of pachytene and that the ZW desynapses in broad synchrony with the autosomes. We unexpectedly find that ZW pairing is highly error prone, with many oocytes failing to engage in ZW synapsis and crossover formation. Oocytes with unsynapsed Z and W chromosomes nevertheless progress to the diplotene stage, suggesting that a checkpoint does not operate during pachytene in the chicken germ line. Using a combination of epigenetic profiling and RNA-FISH analysis, we find no evidence for MSCI, associated with neither the asynaptic ZW, as described in mammals, nor the synaptic ZW. The lack of conservation of MSCI in the chicken reopens the debate about the evolution of MSCI and its driving forces.

  15. Meiotic messenger RNA and noncoding RNA targets of the RNA-binding protein Translin (TSN) in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Iguchi, Naoko; Yang, Juxiang; Handel, Mary Ann; Hecht, Norman B

    2005-10-01

    In postmeiotic male germ cells, TSN, formerly known as testis brain-RNA binding protein, is found in the cytoplasm and functions as a posttranscriptional regulator of a group of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau. In contrast, in pachytene spermatocytes, TSN is found predominantly in nuclei. Tsn-null males show a reduced sperm count and high levels of apoptosis in meiotic cells, suggesting a critical function for TSN during meiosis. To identify meiotic target RNAs that associate in vivo with TSN, we reversibly cross-linked TSN to RNA in testis extracts from 17-day-old and adult mice and immunoprecipitated the complexes with an affinity-purified TSN antibody. Extracts from Tsn-null mice were used as controls. Cloning and sequencing the immunoprecipitated RNAs, we identified four new TSN target mRNAs, encoding diazepam-binding inhibitor-like 5, arylsulfatase A, a tetratricopeptide repeat structure-containing protein, and ring finger protein 139. In contrast to the population of postmeiotic translationally delayed mRNAs that bind TSN, these four mRNAs are initially expressed in pachytene spermatocytes. In addition, anti-TSN also precipitated a nonprotein-coding RNA (ncRNA), which is abundant in nuclei of pachytene spermatocytes and has a putative polyadenylation signal, but no open reading frame. A second similar ncRNA is adjacent to a GGA repeat, a motif frequently associated with recombination hot spots. RNA gel-shift assays confirm that the four new target mRNAs and the ncRNA specifically bind to TSN in testis extracts. These studies have, for the first time, identified both mRNAs and a ncRNA as TSN targets expressed during meiosis.

  16. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J., E-mail: m.neale@sussex.ac.uk

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  17. Using Micromanipulation to Analyze Control of Vertebrate Meiotic Spindle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takagi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization/depolymerization dynamics of microtubules (MTs have been reported to contribute to control of the size and shape of spindles, but quantitative analysis of how the size and shape correlate with the amount and density of MTs in the spindle remains incomplete. Here, we measured these parameters using 3D microscopy of meiotic spindles that self-organized in Xenopus egg extracts and presented a simple equation describing the relationship among these parameters. To examine the validity of the equation, we cut the spindle into two fragments along the pole-to-pole axis by micromanipulation techniques that rapidly decrease the amount of MTs. The spheroidal shape spontaneously recovered within 5 min, but the size of each fragment remained small. The equation we obtained quantitatively describes how the spindle size correlates with the amount of MTs while maintaining the shape and the MT density.

  18. Does MAX open up a new avenue for meiotic research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Okuda, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    Meiosis is a central event of sexual reproduction. Like somatic cells, germ cells conduct mitosis to increase their cell number, but unlike somatic cells, germ cells switch their cell division mode from mitosis to meiosis at a certain point in gametogenesis. However, the molecular basis of this switch remains elusive. In this review article, we give an overview of the onset of mammalian meiosis, including our recent finding that MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) prevents ectopic and precocious meiosis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and germ cells, respectively. We present a hypothetical model of a MAX-centered molecular network that regulates meiotic entry in mammals and propose that inducible Max knockout ESCs provide an excellent platform for exploring the molecular mechanisms of meiosis initiation, while excluding other aspects of gametogenesis. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  20. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  1. Novel meiotic miRNAs and indications for a role of phasiRNAs in meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eDukowic-Schulze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNA add additional layers to the regulation of gene expression, with siRNAs directing gene silencing at the DNA level by RdDM (RNA-directed DNA methylation, and miRNAs directing post-transcriptional regulation of specific target genes, mostly by mRNA cleavage. We used manually isolated male meiocytes from maize (Zea mays to investigate sRNA and DNA methylation landscapes during zygotene, an early stage of meiosis during which steps of meiotic recombination and synapsis of paired homologous chromosomes take place. We discovered two novel miRNAs from meiocytes, and identified putative target genes. Furthermore, we detected abundant phasiRNAs of 21 nt and 24 nt length. PhasiRNAs are phased small RNAs which occur in 21 nt or 24 nt intervals, at a few hundred loci, specifically in male reproductive tissues in grasses. So far, the function of phasiRNAs remained elusive. Data from isolated meiocytes now revealed elevated DNA methylation at phasiRNA loci, especially in the CHH context, suggesting a role for phasiRNAs in cis DNA methylation. In addition, we consider a role of these phasiRNAs in chromatin remodeling/ dynamics during meiosis. However, this is not well supported yet and will need more additional data. Here, we only lay out the idea due to other relevant literature and our additional observation of a peculiar GC content pattern at phasiRNA loci. Chromatin remodeling is also indicated by the discovery that histone genes were enriched for sRNA of 22 nt length. Taken together, we gained clues that lead us to hypothesize sRNA-driven DNA methylation and possibly chromatin remodeling during male meiosis in the monocot maize which is in line with and extends previous knowledge.

  2. A casein kinase 1 prevents expulsion of the oocyte meiotic spindle into a polar body by regulating cortical contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jonathan R.; McNally, Francis J.

    2017-01-01

    During female meiosis, haploid eggs are generated from diploid oocytes. This reduction in chromosome number occurs through two highly asymmetric cell divisions, resulting in one large egg and two small polar bodies. Unlike mitosis, where an actomyosin contractile ring forms between the sets of segregating chromosomes, the meiotic contractile ring forms on the cortex adjacent to one spindle pole, then ingresses down the length of the spindle to position itself at the exact midpoint between the two sets of segregating chromosomes. Depletion of casein kinase 1 gamma (CSNK-1) in Caenorhabditis elegans led to the formation of large polar bodies that contain all maternal DNA, because the contractile ring ingressed past the spindle midpoint. Depletion of CSNK-1 also resulted in the formation of deep membrane invaginations during meiosis, suggesting an effect on cortical myosin. Both myosin and anillin assemble into dynamic rho-dependent cortical patches that rapidly disassemble in wild-type embryos. CSNK-1 was required for disassembly of both myosin patches and anillin patches. Disassembly of anillin patches was myosin independent, suggesting that CSNK-1 prevents expulsion of the entire meiotic spindle into a polar body by negatively regulating the rho pathway rather than through direct inhibition of myosin. PMID:28701347

  3. Meiotic behavior of Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae-Faboideae species native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Liliana Gressler May

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic behavior in Adesmia DC. is described for the first time. The study encompassed twelve populations of seven Adesmia DC. species native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Populations with 2n = 2x = 20 are A. securigerifolia 9615, A. riograndensis 9590 (subnudae, A. latifolia 1568, 1775, 15025, A. bicolor JB-UFSM, A. incana var. incana 9636, 10288, A. punctata var. hilariana 6885, 10812, and A. tristis 10757. A. incana var. incana 9637 is a tetraploid with 2n = 4x = 40. The material was stained with 1% acetic orcein. The meiotic behavior of the populations studied was considered normal. The meiotic index (MI and the estimates of pollen grain viability were above 95%, except for A. latifolia 1568 (MI = 89%. The present data indicate that these plants are meiotically stable and potentially fertile, apparently with no problems for use in programs of selection, crossing and viable seed production.

  4. Genotyping 1000 yeast strains by next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkening Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The throughput of next-generation sequencing machines has increased dramatically over the last few years; yet the cost and time for library preparation have not changed proportionally, thus representing the main bottleneck for sequencing large numbers of samples. Here we present an economical, high-throughput library preparation method for the Illumina platform, comprising a 96-well based method for DNA isolation for yeast cells, a low-cost DNA shearing alternative, and adapter ligation using heat inactivation of enzymes instead of bead cleanups. Results Up to 384 whole-genome libraries can be prepared from yeast cells in one week using this method, for less than 15 euros per sample. We demonstrate the robustness of this protocol by sequencing over 1000 yeast genomes at ~30x coverage. The sequence information from 768 yeast segregants derived from two divergent S. cerevisiae strains was used to generate a meiotic recombination map at unprecedented resolution. Comparisons to other datasets indicate a high conservation of recombination at a chromosome-wide scale, but differences at the local scale. Additionally, we detected a high degree of aneuploidy (3.6% by examining the sequencing coverage in these segregants. Differences in allele frequency allowed us to attribute instances of aneuploidy to gains of chromosomes during meiosis or mitosis, both of which showed a strong tendency to missegregate specific chromosomes. Conclusions Here we present a high throughput workflow to sequence genomes of large number of yeast strains at a low price. We have used this workflow to obtain recombination and aneuploidy data from hundreds of segregants, which can serve as a foundation for future studies of linkage, recombination, and chromosomal aberrations in yeast and higher eukaryotes.

  5. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. As an exogeneous factor of possible influence, the meiotic effects of two types of radiation (fission neutrons and X-rays) administered at relatively low doses 2 and 3 hours before prometaphase-metaphase II (probably during metaphase-anaphase I), were determined in Rb4Bnr/+-males. (Auth.)

  6. The glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex contributes to tissue factor-independent thrombin generation by recombinant factor VIIa on the activated platelet surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeterings, Cees; de Groot, Philip G.; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Lisman, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is able to activate factor X on an activated platelet, in a tissue factor-independent manner. We hypothesized that, besides the anionic surface, a receptor on the activated platelet surface is involved in this process. Here, we

  7. Replication-defective recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding GM-CSF as a vector system for rapid and facile generation of autologous human tumor cell vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withoff, S; Glazenburg, KL; van Veen, ML; Kraak, MMJ; Hospers, GAP; Storkel, S; de Vries, EGE; Wischut, J; Daemen, T

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the production of recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding murine or human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the capacity of these vectors to transduce murine and human tumor cells ex vivo. High-titer stocks (up to 3 x 10(9) particles/ml) of

  8. Recombinant snake venom prothrombin activators

    OpenAIRE

    L?vgren, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Three prothrombin activators; ecarin, which was originally isolated from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, trocarin from the rough-scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus, and oscutarin from the Taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus, were expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose to obtain recombinant prothrombin activators that could be used to convert prothrombin to thrombin. We have previously reported that recombinant ecarin can efficiently generate thrombin without the need ...

  9. Recombination Rate Heterogeneity within Arabidopsis Disease Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuha; Reinhard, Carsten; Serra, Heïdi; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Underwood, Charles J; Zhao, Xiaohui; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Yelina, Nataliya E; Griffin, Catherine; Jackson, Matthew; Mézard, Christine; McVean, Gil; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Henderson, Ian R

    2016-07-01

    Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and 5. We experimentally mapped 1,439 crossovers within these clusters and observed NBS-LRR gene associated hotspots, which were also detected as historical hotspots via analysis of linkage disequilibrium. However, we also observed NBS-LRR gene coldspots, which in some cases correlate with structural heterozygosity. To study recombination at the fine-scale we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze ~1,000 crossovers within the RESISTANCE TO ALBUGO CANDIDA1 (RAC1) R gene hotspot. This revealed elevated intragenic crossovers, overlapping nucleosome-occupied exons that encode the TIR, NBS and LRR domains. The highest RAC1 recombination frequency was promoter-proximal and overlapped CTT-repeat DNA sequence motifs, which have previously been associated with plant crossover hotspots. Additionally, we show a significant influence of natural genetic variation on NBS-LRR cluster recombination rates, using crosses between Arabidopsis ecotypes. In conclusion, we show that a subset of NBS-LRR genes are strong hotspots, whereas others are coldspots. This reveals a complex recombination landscape in Arabidopsis NBS-LRR genes, which we propose results from varying coevolutionary pressures exerted by host-pathogen relationships, and is influenced by structural heterozygosity.

  10. Recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid-derived 22K- and 20K-human growth hormone generate equivalent diabetogenic effects during chronic infusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, M; Agajanian, T; Finegood, D T; Bergman, R N

    1987-02-01

    Chronic administration of human GH (mol wt, 22,000; 22K-hGH) is known to generate insulin resistance in dogs. However, recent hypotheses claim that diabetogenicity may be attributable to smaller weight contaminants or fragments not found in purified lower weight hGH (mol wt, 20,000; 20K-hGH) also secreted by the pituitary. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic (12-day) low dose (0.02 mg/kg X day) infusion of recombinant DNA-derived methionyl 22K- and 20K-hGH on glucose tolerance in conscious dogs. Minimal model analysis of the frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance tests quantified insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness, the ability of glucose per se to normalize its own concentration. Infusion of 22K-hGH, raising plasma hGH levels to 3.8 +/- 0.6 ng/ml, resulted in an elevation in fasting glucose levels after 2 days of infusion (104 +/- 1 vs. pre-hGH 97 +/- 2 mg/dl; P less than 0.01), but the effect was transient. No change was noted during 20K-hGH treatment (P greater than 0.2). Mildly elevated fasting insulin levels were observed in both 22K- and 20K-hGH-treated dogs (P less than 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). However, despite maintenance of adequate glucose tolerance during both infusions (P greater than 0.07), marked insulin resistance was apparent; insulin sensitivity dropped from 9.7 +/- 2.4 and 11.2 +/- 2.1 X 10(-4) min-1/(microU/ml) in 22K- and 20K-hGH-treated dogs, to 2.5 and 2.8 X 10(-4) min-1/(microU/ml), a drop of 75% (P less than 0.01 and 0.001). Insulin resistance persisted throughout the infusion period, slowly returning to pre-hGH treatment levels in 22K-hGH-treated dogs during recovery. Insulin resistance persisted 3 days after cessation of 20K-hGH treatment (day 15), but returned to pre-hGH levels by day 25. Integrated glucose-stimulated insulin release was enhanced after 2 days of 22K- or 20K-hGH treatment (P less than 0.03 and less than 0.05), but the effect was transient. Maintenance of normal glucose tolerance in the face of

  11. A paternally transmitted complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18 includes eight breakpoints and five insertional translocations (ITs) through three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Barreau, Morgane; Kessler, Ketty; Gourdier, Dominique; Leporrier, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are uncommon and mainly occur de novo. We report here on a familial CCR involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18. The propositus is a boy first referred because of growth delays, hypotonia, and facial anomalies, suggestive of deletion 18q syndrome. However, a cytogenetic family study disclosed a balanced CCR in three generations, which was detailed by FISH using BAC clones, and consisted of eight breakpoints with five insertional translocations (ITs). The propositus had a cryptic 18q deletion and a 6p duplication. Paternal transmission of this CCR was observed through three generations without meiotic recombination. Our investigation allowed us to provide porosities counseling and management of prenatal diagnosis for propositus cousin who carries this particular CCR.

  12. Studying meiosis: a review of FISH and M-FISH techniques used in the analysis of meiotic processes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Bonet, M; Benet, J; Martin, R H

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that chromosome in situ hybridization allows the unequivocal identification of targeted human somatic chromosomes. Different fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques have been developed throughout the years and, following the mitotic studies, meiotic analyses have been performed using these different techniques. The introduction of M-FISH techniques to the analysis of meiotic cells has allowed the study of meiotic processes for every individual human chromosome. In this paper, we review the different FISH and M-FISH techniques that have been used on human meiotic cells in both men and women. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....... panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range variants. This was tested in mink and turned out to be the case. The two vaccines were fully protective and as effective as a conventional commercial vaccine based...

  14. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range variants. This was tested in mink and turned out to be the case. The two vaccines were fully protective and as effective as a conventional commercial vaccine based...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....

  15. A Synthetic HIV-1 Subtype C Backbone Generates Comparable PR and RT Resistance Profiles to a Subtype B Backbone in a Recombinant Virus Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Nauwelaers, David; Van Houtte, Margriet; Winters, Bart; Steegen, Kim; Van Baelen, Kurt; Chi, Ellen; Zhou, Mimi; Steiner, Derek; Bonesteel, Rachelle; Aston, Colin; Stuyver, Lieven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT) fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient sam...

  16. Direct Visualization Reveals Kinetics of Meiotic Chromosome Synapsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Ofer; Dernburg, Abby F

    2015-03-10

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a conserved protein complex that stabilizes interactions along homologous chromosomes (homologs) during meiosis. The SC regulates genetic exchanges between homologs, thereby enabling reductional division and the production of haploid gametes. Here, we directly observe SC assembly (synapsis) by optimizing methods for long-term fluorescence recording in C. elegans. We report that synapsis initiates independently on each chromosome pair at or near pairing centers-specialized regions required for homolog associations. Once initiated, the SC extends rapidly and mostly irreversibly to chromosome ends. Quantitation of SC initiation frequencies and extension rates reveals that initiation is a rate-limiting step in homolog interactions. Eliminating the dynein-driven chromosome movements that accompany synapsis severely retards SC extension, revealing a new role for these conserved motions. This work provides the first opportunity to directly observe and quantify key aspects of meiotic chromosome interactions and will enable future in vivo analysis of germline processes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct Visualization Reveals Kinetics of Meiotic Chromosome Synapsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Rog

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synaptonemal complex (SC is a conserved protein complex that stabilizes interactions along homologous chromosomes (homologs during meiosis. The SC regulates genetic exchanges between homologs, thereby enabling reductional division and the production of haploid gametes. Here, we directly observe SC assembly (synapsis by optimizing methods for long-term fluorescence recording in C. elegans. We report that synapsis initiates independently on each chromosome pair at or near pairing centers—specialized regions required for homolog associations. Once initiated, the SC extends rapidly and mostly irreversibly to chromosome ends. Quantitation of SC initiation frequencies and extension rates reveals that initiation is a rate-limiting step in homolog interactions. Eliminating the dynein-driven chromosome movements that accompany synapsis severely retards SC extension, revealing a new role for these conserved motions. This work provides the first opportunity to directly observe and quantify key aspects of meiotic chromosome interactions and will enable future in vivo analysis of germline processes.

  18. Txndc9 Is Required for Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhua Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Txndc9 (thioredoxin domain containing protein 9 has been shown to be involved in mammalian mitosis; however, its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we initially found that Txndc9 is expressed during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes and higher expression of Txndc9 mRNA and protein occurred in germinal vesicle (GV stage. By using confocal scanning, we observed that Txndc9 localized at both nucleus and cytoplasm, especially at spindle microtubules. Specific depletion of Txndc9 by siRNA in mouse oocyte resulted in decreasing the rate of first polar body extrusion and increasing abnormal spindle assemble. Moreover, knockdown of Txndc9 in germinal vesicle (GV stage oocytes led to higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and lower level of antioxidant glutathione (GSH as compared with control oocytes, which indicated that Txndc9 may be involved in mediating the redox balance. In summary, our results demonstrated that Txndc9 is crucial for mouse oocyte maturation by regulating spindle assembly, polar body extrusion, and redox status.

  19. Induction of congenital malformations in the offspring of male mice treated with X-rays at pre-meiotic and post-meiotic stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, K.M.; Lyon, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    The induction of congenital malformations among the offspring of male mice treated with X-rays at pre-meiotic and post-meiotic stages has been studied in two experiments. Firstly, animals were exposed to varying doses of X-rays and mated at various time intervals, so as to sample spermatozoa, spermatids and spermatogonial stem cells. In the second experiment, only treated spermatogonial stem cells were sampled. One group of males was given a single dose, a second group a fractionated dose and a third group was left unexposed. In the first experiment, induced post-implantation dominant lethality increased with dose, and was highest in week 3, in line with the known greater radiosensitivity of the early spermatid stage. Preimplantation loss also increased with dose and was highest in week 3. There was no clear induction of either pre-implantation or post-implantation loss at spermatogonial stem cell stages. There was a clear induction of congenital malformations at post-meiotic stages. At the two highest doses the early spermatids (15-21 days) appeared more sensitive than spermatozoa, and at this stage the incidence of malformations increased with dose. Expt. 2 showed a statistically significant induction of malformations at both dose levels. The relative sensitivities of male stem cells, post-meiotic stages and mature oocytes to the induction of congenital malformations were reasonably similar to their sensitivities for specific-locus mutations, except that the expected enhancing effect of the fractionation regime used was not seen. (Auth.)

  20. The ATM signaling cascade promotes recombination-dependent pachytene arrest in mouse spermatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Pacheco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most mutations that compromise meiotic recombination or synapsis in mouse spermatocytes result in arrest and apoptosis at the pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase. Two main mechanisms are thought to trigger arrest: one independent of the double-strand breaks (DSBs that initiate meiotic recombination, and another activated by persistent recombination intermediates. Mechanisms underlying the recombination-dependent arrest response are not well understood, so we sought to identify factors involved by examining mutants deficient for TRIP13, a conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the completion of meiotic DSB repair. We find that spermatocytes with a hypomorphic Trip13 mutation (Trip13mod/mod arrest with features characteristic of early pachynema in wild type, namely, fully synapsed chromosomes without incorporation of the histone variant H1t into chromatin. These cells then undergo apoptosis, possibly in response to the arrest or in response to a defect in sex body formation. However, TRIP13-deficient cells that additionally lack the DSB-responsive kinase ATM progress further, reaching an H1t-positive stage (i.e., similar to mid/late pachynema in wild type despite the presence of unrepaired DSBs. TRIP13-deficient spermatocytes also progress to an H1t-positive stage if ATM activity is attenuated by hypomorphic mutations in Mre11 or Nbs1 or by elimination of the ATM-effector kinase CHK2. These mutant backgrounds nonetheless experience an apoptotic block to further spermatogenic progression, most likely caused by failure to form a sex body. DSB numbers are elevated in Mre11 and Nbs1 hypomorphs but not Chk2 mutants, thus delineating genetic requirements for the ATM-dependent negative feedback loop that regulates DSB numbers. The findings demonstrate for the first time that ATM-dependent signaling enforces the normal pachytene response to persistent recombination intermediates. Our work supports the conclusion that recombination defects trigger

  1. The Largest Paracentric Inversion, The Highest Rate Of Recombinant Spermatozoa. Case Report: 46,Xy, Inv(2(Q21.2Q37.3 And Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Yapan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of inversions involving euchromatic regions are at risk of having unbalanced offspring due to meiotic crossover. In carriers, recombination can occur during gametogenesis and cause genetically unbalanced sperm and subsequently unbalanced embryos. Here we present segregation analysis results of an infertile male with 46,XY,inv(2 (q21.2q37.3 using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH on sperm cells. This is the largest paracentric inversion (PAI reported so far in a meiotic segregation analysis study. Sperm FISH revealed 28.0% recombinant spermatozoa rate for chromosome 2, which was the highest rate in PAI carriers in the literature. Our results indicate a clear correlation between the size of the inverted segment and the frequency of the recombinant spermatozoa. The results of the FISH analysis with the information of unbalanced spermatozoa rate can provide accurate counseling on the genetic risk of infertility.

  2. Amplifying recombination genome-wide and reshaping crossover landscapes in Brassicas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pelé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination by crossovers (COs is tightly regulated, limiting its key role in producing genetic diversity. However, while COs are usually restricted in number and not homogenously distributed along chromosomes, we show here how to disrupt these rules in Brassica species by using allotriploid hybrids (AAC, 2n = 3x = 29, resulting from the cross between the allotetraploid rapeseed (B. napus, AACC, 2n = 4x = 38 and one of its diploid progenitors (B. rapa, AA, 2n = 2x = 20. We produced mapping populations from different genotypes of both diploid AA and triploid AAC hybrids, used as female and/or as male. Each population revealed nearly 3,000 COs that we studied with SNP markers well distributed along the A genome (on average 1 SNP per 1.25 Mbp. Compared to the case of diploids, allotriploid hybrids showed 1.7 to 3.4 times more overall COs depending on the sex of meiosis and the genetic background. Most surprisingly, we found that such a rise was always associated with (i dramatic changes in the shape of recombination landscapes and (ii a strong decrease of CO interference. Hybrids carrying an additional C genome exhibited COs all along the A chromosomes, even in the vicinity of centromeres that are deprived of COs in diploids as well as in most studied species. Moreover, in male allotriploid hybrids we found that Class I COs are mostly responsible for the changes of CO rates, landscapes and interference. These results offer the opportunity for geneticists and plant breeders to dramatically enhance the generation of diversity in Brassica species by disrupting the linkage drag coming from limits on number and distribution of COs.

  3. Meiotic behaviour and morpho-phenological variation in cut stock (Matthiola incana L. flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Sepideh Famil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morpho-phenological and meiotic studies were performed in twelve cultivars of Matthiola incana. All of the cultivars were diploid (2n = 2x = 14 with basic chromosome number x = 7. A number of aneuploid PMCs (n + 1 were observed in plants of two cultivars, named ‘Nobel’ (NB and ‘Goddess’ (GD, at the diakinesis stage. Trisomic individuals with the frequency of 20% and 5% and (2n + 1 = 15 somatic chromosomes were observed in seeds obtained from single-flowered plants of the cultivars NB and GD, respectively. An additional chromosome was mostly observed in the form of a chain trivalent or a rod univalent. Various meiotic abnormalities were found in all the cultivars to different degrees. In these cultivars, the percentage of cells with meiotic abnormalities was higher in anaphase I. Cytomixis was observed for the first time in Matthiola incana. ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in morpho-phenological characteristics. ‘Nobel’ differs from the others in all of the vegetative features investigated in this study. All the cultivars studied except ‘Nobel’ and ‘Pacific Crimson’ possessed high pollen fertility (> 90%. Five groups of the cultivars based on morpho-phenological features disagree with the clustering of cultivars based on meiotic traits. It is thought that the various morpho-phenological features observed among the cultivars could be due to their different genetic background and not only to meiotic anomalies.

  4. Homologous chromosome pairing and recombination during meiosis in wild type and synaptic mutants of tomato = Homologe chomosoomparing en recombinatie tijdens de meiose van wild type en synaptische mutanten van de tomaat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, F.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a cytogenetic investigation of meiotic prophase I stages in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between chromosome pairing, and formation of recombination nudules and chiasmata. Tomato was chosen as

  5. Comparative analysis of immune effects in mice model: Clonorchis sinensis cysteine protease generated from recombinant Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhanshuai; Tang, Zeli; Shang, Mei; Zhao, Lu; Zhou, Lina; Kong, Xiangzhan; Lin, Zhipeng; Sun, Hengchang; Chen, Tingjin; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2017-07-01

    Clonorchiasis remains a nonnegligible public health problem in endemic areas. Cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCP) plays indispensable roles in the parasitic physiology and pathology, and has been exploited as a promising drug and vaccine candidate. In recent years, development of spore-based vaccines against multiple pathogens has attracted many investigators' interest. In previous studies, the recombinant Escherichia coli (BL21) and Bacillus subtilis spores expressing CsCP have been successfully constructed, respectively. In this study, the immune effects of CsCP protein purified from recombinant BL21 (rCsCP) and B. subtilis spores presenting CsCP (B.s-CsCP) in Balb/c mice model were conducted with comparative analysis. Levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly increased in sera from both rCsCP and B.s-CsCP intraperitoneally immunized mice. Additionally, recombinant spores expressing abundant fusion CsCP (0.03125 pg/spore) could strongly enhance the immunogenicity of CsCP with significantly higher levels of IgG and isotypes. Compared with rCsCP alone, intraperitoneal administration of mice with spores expressing CsCP achieved a better effect of fighting against C. sinensis infection by slowing down the process of fibrosis. Our results demonstrated that a combination of Th1/Th2 immune responses could be elicited by rCsCP, while spores displaying CsCP prominently induced Th1-biased specific immune responses, and the complex cytokine network maybe mediates protective immune responses against C. sinensis. This work further confirmed that the usage of B. subtilis spores displaying CsCP is an effective way to against C. sinensis.

  6. Production and meiotic pairing behaviour of new hybrids of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Láng, M; Linc, G; Logojan, A; Sutka, J

    2000-12-01

    New winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hybrids produced using cultivated varieties (wheat 'Martonvásári 9 krl'(Mv9 krl) x barley 'Igri', Mv9 krl x 'Osnova', 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas') were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Meiotic analysis of the hybrids Mv9 krl x 'Igri' and 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and their in vitro regenerated progenies with the Feulgen method revealed 1.59 chromosome arm associations per cell in both initial hybrids. The number of chromosome arm associations increased after in vitro culture to 4.72 and 2.67, respectively, in the two combinations. According to the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis, wheat-barley chromosome arm associations made up 3.6% of the total in the initial Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrid and 6.6% and 16.5% of the total in in vitro regenerated progenies of the 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrids, respectively. The demonstration by GISH of wheat-barley chromosome pairing in the hybrids and especially in their in vitro regenerated progenies proves the possibility of producing recombinants between these two genera, and thus of transferring useful characters from barley into wheat. In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants.

  7. Molecular signature of epistatic selection: interrogating genetic interactions in the sex-ratio meiotic drive of Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Bastide, Héloïse; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine; Hospital, Frédéric

    2009-06-01

    Fine scale analyses of signatures of selection allow assessing quantitative aspects of a species' evolutionary genetic history, such as the strength of selection on genes. When several selected loci lie in the same genomic region, their epistatic interactions may also be investigated. Here, we study how the neutral polymorphism pattern was shaped by two close recombining loci that cause 'sex-ratio' meiotic drive in Drosophila simulans, as an example of strong selection with potentially strong epistasis. We compare the polymorphism data observed in a natural population with the results of forward stochastic simulations under several contexts of epistasis between the candidate loci for the drive. We compute the likelihood of different possible scenarios, in order to determine which configuration is most consistent with the data. Our results highlight that fine scale analyses of well-chosen candidate genomic regions provide information-rich data that can be used to investigate the genotype-phenotype-fitness map, which can hardly be studied in genome-wide analyses. We also emphasize that initial conditions and time of observation (here, time after the interruption of a partial selective sweep) are crucial parameters in the interpretation of real data, while these are often overlooked in theoretical studies.

  8. Meiotic behaviour in three interspecific three-way hybrids between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chromosome paired predominantly as multivalents suggesting that genetic recombination and introgression of specific target genes from B. brizantha into B. ruziziensis can be expected. Arrangement of parental genomes in distinct metaphase plates was observed in H27 and H34, which have different male genitors.

  9. Meiotic cohesin REC8 marks the axial elements of rat synaptonemal complexes before cohesins SMC1B and SMC3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijpe, M.; Offenberg, H.H.; Jessberger, R.; Revenkova, E.; Heyting, C.

    2003-01-01

    In meiotic prophase, the sister chromatids of each chromosome develop a common axial element (AE) that is integrated into the synaptonemal complex (SC). We analyzed the incorporation of sister chromatid cohesion proteins (cohesins) and other AE components into AEs. Meiotic cohesin REC8 appeared

  10. Stra8 and its inducer, retinoic acid, regulate meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Ericka L.; Baltus, Andrew E.; Roepers-Gajadien, Hermien L.; Hassold, Terry J.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Page, David C.

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotes, diploid cells give rise to haploid cells via meiosis, a program of two cell divisions preceded by one round of DNA replication. Although key molecular components of the meiotic apparatus are highly conserved among eukaryotes, the mechanisms responsible for initiating the meiotic

  11. Chromosome numbers, meiotic behavior and pollen fertility in a collection of Paspalum nicorae Parodi accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aparecida de Oliveira dos Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome number, meiotic behavior and pollen viability were evaluated in a collection of 53 Paspalumnicorae Parodi accessions, which are part of a breeding project of the species. All accessions are tetraploid, with 2n=4x=40.Despite the invariable chromosome numbers, there was variation among accessions in the frequencies of different chromosomeconfigurations at diakinesis and metaphase I, such as univalents, trivalents and quadrivalents. Other abnormalities asbridges and laggards were also observed at anaphase and telophase I. Meiotic indexes ranged from 82.00 to 99.50% andpollen viability from 88.99 to 95.06%. As the species is pseudogamous apomictic, fertile pollen is necessary for endospermformation. Results show that all plants are meiotically stable and have enough fertile pollen to be used as male parents incontrolled crosses.

  12. Generation of a vector system facilitating cloning of DMBT1 variants and recombinant expression of functional full-length DMBT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    End, Caroline; Lyer, Stefan; Renner, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    Deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) codes for a approximately 340kDa glycoprotein with highly repetitive scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains. DMBT1 was implicated in cancer, defence against viral and bacterial infections, and differentiation of epithelial cells. Recombinant...... expression and purification of DMBT1 is an essential step for systematic standardized functional research and towards the evaluation of its therapeutical potential. So far, DMBT1 is obtained from natural sources such as bronchioalveolar lavage or saliva, resulting in time consuming sample collection, low...... yields, and protein preparations which may substantially vary due to differential processing and genetic polymorphism, all of which impedes functional research on DMBT1. Cloning of DMBT1 cDNAs is hampered because of the size and the 13 highly homologous SRCR exons. In this study, we report on the setup...

  13. Inhibition of homologous recombination repair with Pentoxifylline targets G2 cells generated by radiotherapy and induces major enhancements of the toxicity of cisplatin and melphalan given after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, Lothar

    2006-01-01

    The presentation reviews the modus operandi of the dose modifying drug Pentoxifylline and the dose enhancement factors which can be achieved in different cell types. Preclinical and clinical data show that Pentoxifylline improves the oxygenation of hypoxic tumours and enhances tumour control by irradiation. In vitro experiments demonstrate that Pentoxifylline also operates when oxygen is not limiting and produces dose modifying factors in the region of 1.2 – 2.0. This oxygen independent effect is poorly understood. In p53 mutant cells irradiation induces a G2 block which is abrogated by Pentoxifylline. The enhancement of cell kill observed when Pentoxifylline and irradiation are given together could arise from rapid entry of damaged tumour cells into mitosis and propagation of DNA lesions as the result of curtailment of repair time. Recovery ratios and repair experiments using CFGE after high dose irradiation demonstrate that Pentoxifylline inhibits repair directly and that curtailment of repair time is not the explanation. Use of the repair defective xrs1 and the parental repair competent CHO-K1 cell line shows that Pentoxifylline inhibits homologous recombination repair which operates predominantly in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. When irradiated cells residing in G2 phase are exposed to very low doses of cisplatin at a toxic dose of 5 %. (TC: 0.05) massive toxicity enhancements up to a factor of 80 are observed in melanoma, squamous carcinoma and prostate tumour cell lines. Enhancements of radiotoxicity seen when Pentoxifylline and radiation are applied together are small and do not exceed a factor of 2.0. The capacity of Pentoxifyline to inhibit homologous recombination repair has not as yet been clinically utilized. A suitable application could be in the treatment of cervical carcinoma where irradiation and cisplatin are standard modality. In vitro data also strongly suggest that regimes where irradiation is used in combination with alkylating drugs may

  14. Rec2 Interplay with both Brh2 and Rad51 Balances Recombinational Repair in Ustilago maydis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojic, M.; Zhou, Q.; Lisby, M.

    2006-01-01

    prepared from Escherichia coli cells expressing the proteins, we found that Rec2 interacts physically not only with Rad51 and itself but also with Brh2. Transgenic expression of Brh2 in rec2 mutants can effectively restore radiation resistance, but the frequencies of spontaneous Rad51 focus formation...... missegregation in meiotic products is an indicator of a corrupted process. The results demonstrate that the importance of Rec2 function is not only in stimulating recombination activity but also in ensuring that recombination is properly controlled....

  15. A meiotic study of two translocations and a tertiary trisomic in the mouse (Mus musculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de P.

    1975-01-01

    In this section, the order of the articles has not been closely followed. Each point ends with the number(s) of the article(s) (as given in the contents), where the conclusion is based on.

    1) Cytological meiotic studies of T(2;8)26H and T(1;13)70H heterozygotes and Ts(1

  16. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  17. Bdf1 Bromodomains Are Essential for Meiosis and the Expression of Meiotic-Specific Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encar García-Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomain and Extra-terminal motif (BET proteins play a central role in transcription regulation and chromatin signalling pathways. They are present in unicellular eukaryotes and in this study, the role of the BET protein Bdf1 has been explored in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation of Bdf1 bromodomains revealed defects on both the formation of spores and the meiotic progression, blocking cells at the exit from prophase, before the first meiotic division. This phenotype is associated with a massive deregulation of the transcription of meiotic genes and Bdf1 bromodomains are required for appropriate expression of the key meiotic transcription factor NDT80 and almost all the Ndt80-inducible genes, including APC complex components. Bdf1 notably accumulates on the promoter of Ndt80 and its recruitment is dependent on Bdf1 bromodomains. In addition, the ectopic expression of NDT80 during meiosis partially bypasses this dependency. Finally, purification of Bdf1 partners identified two independent complexes with Bdf2 or the SWR complex, neither of which was required to complete sporulation. Taken together, our results unveil a new role for Bdf1 -working independently from its predominant protein partners Bdf2 and the SWR1 complex-as a regulator of meiosis-specific genes.

  18. Sensitivity of the meiotic stage to hyperthermia during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Katsutoshi; Yamazaki, Mado; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Besshi, Kazuhiko; Morita, Fumio; Kunihara, Toshiki; Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Otoi, Takeshige

    2017-03-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify whether the meiotic stage of porcine oocytes has the highest sensitivity to hyperthermia during in vitro maturation by evaluating meiotic competence and DNA damage. Oocytes were exposed to 41 °C for 12 h at various intervals during 48 h of maturation culture. When the oocytes were exposed to 41 °C from 12 to 24 h of the maturation culture, the proportion of oocytes reaching metaphase II (MII) decreased as compared to the control oocytes cultured at 38.5 °C (P < 0.05). Moreover, the proportions of DNA fragmentation in all oocytes exposed to 41 °C in each culture period after 12 h from the start of maturation culture were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for the control oocytes. When the meiotic stage of oocytes cultured at 38.5 °C between 12 and 24 h was examined, the majority of oocytes remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage at 12 h and approximately half of the oocytes reached metaphase I (MI) at 24 h. These results indicate that the meiotic stage of porcine oocytes having the highest sensitivity to hyperthermia during in vitro maturation is a transition period from the GV stage to the MI stage.

  19. The epigenetic modifications and the anterior to posterior characterization of meiotic entry during mouse oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xia-Fei; Yang, Fan; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Feng, Yan-Ni; Li, Lan; Dyce, Paul W; Shen, Wei; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2017-07-01

    The meiotic initiation of mammalian oogonia is a critical step during the development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) to mature oocytes. In this study, a systematic investigation of epigenetic modifications and DAZL gene expression during oogonia meiotic entry were performed. We found that the expression of DAZL was epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of CpG islands within its promoter region. During meiotic entry, a continuously increasing level of 5hmC, a stable epigenetic marker usually associated with the activation of gene expression, was observed from 11.5 to 16.5 dpc (days post coitum). Meanwhile trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone3 (H3K27me3), usually associated with repression of gene expression, had a sustainable increase from 12.5 to 16.5 dpc. Finally, by equally dividing the ovaries into three regions representing the anterior, the middle, and the posterior of the ovary and performing immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR on the individual regions, we provided further evidences that the meiotic entry and progression of female germ cells is in an anterior to posterior pattern.

  20. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp, Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytes in vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational process. Under the influence of insulin ...

  1. Segregation distortion in chicken and the evolutionary consequences of female meiotic drive in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Erik Gunnar; Albrechtsen, Anders; Van, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    As all four meiotic products give rise to sperm in males, female meiosis result in a single egg in most eukaryotes. Any genetic element with the potential to influence chromosome segregation, so that it is preferentially included in the egg, should therefore gain a transmission advantage; a proce...

  2. Meiotic genes and sexual reproduction in the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fučíková, K.; Pažoutová, Marie; Rindi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2015), s. 419-430 ISSN 0022-3646 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : algal genomes * Chlorophyta * green algae * meiotic genes * sexual reproduction * Trebouxiophyceae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2015

  3. Meiotic behavior and pollen fertility of five species in the genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fe

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... resulted from abnormal cytokinesis. Pollen fertility was correlated with meiotic abnormality. Keywords: Epimedium, meiosis, chromosomal abnormality, pollen fertility. INTRODUCTION. The genus Epimedium, with more than 60 species, is common in the Mediterranean region and the western. Asia (Stearn ...

  4. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp, Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytes in vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational process. Under the influence of insulin ...

  5. Microgravity promotes differentiation and meiotic entry of postnatal mouse male germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pellegrini

    Full Text Available A critical step of spermatogenesis is the entry of mitotic spermatogonia into meiosis. Progresses on these topics are hampered by the lack of an in vitro culture system allowing mouse spermatogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis. Previous studies have shown that mouse pachytene spermatocytes cultured in simulated microgravity (SM undergo a spontaneous meiotic progression. Here we report that mouse mitotic spermatogonia cultured under SM with a rotary cell culture system (RCCS enter into meiosis in the absence of any added exogenous factor or contact with somatic cells. We found that isolated Kit-positive spermatogonia under the RCCS condition enter into the prophase of the first meiotic division (leptotene stage, as monitored by chromosomal organization of the synaptonemal complex 3 protein (Scp3 and up-regulation of several pro-meiotic genes. SM was found to activate the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K pathway and to induce in Kit-positive spermatogonia the last round of DNA replication, typical of the preleptotene stage. A PI3K inhibitor abolished Scp3 induction and meiotic entry stimulated by RCCS conditions. A positive effect of SM on germ cell differentiation was also observed in undifferentiated (Kit-negative spermatogonia, in which RCCS conditions stimulate the expression of Kit and Stra8. In conclusion, SM is an artificial environmental condition which promotes postnatal male germ cell differentiation and might provide a tool to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the switch from mitosis to meiosis in mammals.

  6. Cold-Induced Male Meiotic Restitution in Arabidopsis thaliana Is Not Mediated by GA-DELLA Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Short periods of cold stress induce male meiotic restitution and diploid pollen formation in Arabidopsis thaliana by specifically interfering with male meiotic cytokinesis. Similar alterations in male meiotic cell division and gametophytic ploidy stability occur when gibberellic acid (GA signaling is perturbed in developing anthers. In this study, we found that exogenous application of GA primarily induces second division restitution (SDR-type pollen in Arabidopsis, similar to what cold does. Driven by the close similarity in cellular defects, we tested the hypothesis that cold-induced meiotic restitution is mediated by GA-DELLA signaling. Using a combination of chemical, genetic and cytological approaches, however, we found that both exogenously and endogenously altered GA signaling do not affect the cold sensitivity of male meiotic cytokinesis. Moreover, in vivo localization study using a GFP-tagged version of RGA protein revealed that cold does not affect the expression pattern and abundance of DELLA in Arabidopsis anthers at tetrad stage. Expression study found that transcript of RGA appears enhanced in cold-stressed young flower buds. Since our previous work demonstrated that loss of function of DELLA causes irregular male meiotic cytokinesis, we here conclude that cold-induced meiotic restitution is not mediated by DELLA-dependent GA signaling.

  7. MareyMap Online: A User-Friendly Web Application and Database Service for Estimating Recombination Rates Using Physical and Genetic Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siberchicot, Aurélie; Bessy, Adrien; Guéguen, Laurent; Marais, Gabriel A B

    2017-10-01

    Given the importance of meiotic recombination in biology, there is a need to develop robust methods to estimate meiotic recombination rates. A popular approach, called the Marey map approach, relies on comparing genetic and physical maps of a chromosome to estimate local recombination rates. In the past, we have implemented this approach in an R package called MareyMap, which includes many functionalities useful to get reliable recombination rate estimates in a semi-automated way. MareyMap has been used repeatedly in studies looking at the effect of recombination on genome evolution. Here, we propose a simpler user-friendly web service version of MareyMap, called MareyMap Online, which allows a user to get recombination rates from her/his own data or from a publicly available database that we offer in a few clicks. When the analysis is done, the user is asked whether her/his curated data can be placed in the database and shared with other users, which we hope will make meta-analysis on recombination rates including many species easy in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Apoptosis in mouse fetal and neonatal oocytes during meiotic prophase one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartshorne Geraldine M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vast majority of oocytes formed in the fetal ovary do not survive beyond birth. Possible reasons for their loss include the elimination of non-viable genetic constitutions arising through meiosis, however, the precise relationship between meiotic stages and prenatal apoptosis of oocytes remains elusive. We studied oocytes in mouse fetal and neonatal ovaries, 14.5–21 days post coitum, to examine the relationship between oocyte development and programmed cell death during meiotic prophase I. Results Microspreads of fetal and neonatal ovarian cells underwent immunocytochemistry for meiosis- and apoptosis-related markers. COR-1 (meiosis-specific highlighted axial elements of the synaptonemal complex and allowed definitive identification of the stages of meiotic prophase I. Labelling for cleaved poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1, an inactivated DNA repair protein, indicated apoptosis. The same oocytes were then labelled for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs using TUNEL. 1960 oocytes produced analysable results. Oocytes at all stages of meiotic prophase I stained for cleaved PARP-1 and/or TUNEL, or neither. Oocytes with fragmented (19.8% or compressed (21.2% axial elements showed slight but significant differences in staining for cleaved PARP-1 and TUNEL to those with intact elements. However, fragmentation of axial elements alone was not a good indicator of cell demise. Cleaved PARP-1 and TUNEL staining were not necessarily coincident, showing that TUNEL is not a reliable marker of apoptosis in oocytes. Conclusion Our data indicate that apoptosis can occur throughout meiotic prophase I in mouse fetal and early postnatal oocytes, with greatest incidence at the diplotene stage. Careful selection of appropriate markers for oocyte apoptosis is essential.

  9. Dynamics of response to asynapsis and meiotic silencing in spermatocytes from Robertsonian translocation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Naumova

    Full Text Available Failure of homologous synapsis during meiotic prophase triggers transcriptional repression. Asynapsis of the X and Y chromosomes and their consequent silencing is essential for spermatogenesis. However, asynapsis of portions of autosomes in heterozygous translocation carriers may be detrimental for meiotic progression. In fact, a wide range of phenotypic outcomes from meiotic arrest to normal spermatogenesis have been described and the causes of such a variation remain elusive. To better understand the consequences of asynapsis in male carriers of Robertsonian translocations, we focused on the dynamics of recruitment of markers of asynapsis and meiotic silencing at unsynapsed autosomal trivalents in the spermatocytes of Robertsonian translocation carrier mice. Here we report that the enrichment of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1 and histone γH2AX at unsynapsed trivalents declines during the pachytene stage of meiosis and differs from that observed in the sex body. Furthermore, histone variant H3.3S31, which associates with the sex chromosomes in metaphase I/anaphase I spermatocytes, localizes to autosomes in 12% and 31% of nuclei from carriers of one and three translocations, respectively. These data suggest that the proportion of spermatocytes with markers of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC at trivalents depends on both, the stage of meiosis and the number of translocations. This may explain some of the variability in phenotypic outcomes associated with Robertsonian translocations. In addition our data suggest that the dynamics of response to asynapsis in Robertsonian translocations differs from the response to sex chromosomal asynapsis in the male germ line.

  10. DNMT3L is a regulator of X chromosome compaction and post-meiotic gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha M Zamudio

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the epigenetic regulator DNA methyltransferase 3-Like (DNMT3L, have demonstrated it is an essential regulator of paternal imprinting and early male meiosis. Dnmt3L is also a paternal effect gene, i.e., wild type offspring of heterozygous mutant sires display abnormal phenotypes suggesting the inheritance of aberrant epigenetic marks on the paternal chromosomes. In order to reveal the mechanisms underlying these paternal effects, we have assessed X chromosome meiotic compaction, XY chromosome aneuploidy rates and global transcription in meiotic and haploid germ cells from male mice heterozygous for Dnmt3L. XY bodies from Dnmt3L heterozygous males were significantly longer than those from wild types, and were associated with a three-fold increase in XY bearing sperm. Loss of a Dnmt3L allele resulted in deregulated expression of a large number of both X-linked and autosomal genes within meiotic cells, but more prominently in haploid germ cells. Data demonstrate that similar to embryonic stem cells, DNMT3L is involved in an auto-regulatory loop in germ cells wherein the loss of a Dnmt3L allele resulted in increased transcription from the remaining wild type allele. In contrast, however, within round spermatids, this auto-regulatory loop incorporated the alternative non-coding alternative transcripts. Consistent with the mRNA data, we have localized DNMT3L within spermatids and sperm and shown that the loss of a Dnmt3L allele results in a decreased DNMT3L content within sperm. These data demonstrate previously unrecognised roles for DNMT3L in late meiosis and in the transcriptional regulation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells. These data provide a potential mechanism for some cases of human Klinefelter's and Turner's syndromes.

  11. Indirect Basal Metabolism Estimation in Tailoring Recombinant Human TSH Administration in Patients Affected by Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Hypothesis-Generating Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabei, Agnese; Strigari, Lidia; Persichetti, Agnese; Baldelli, Roberto; Rizza, Laura; Annoscia, Claudia; Lauretta, Rosa; Cigliana, Giovanni; Barba, Maddalena; De Leo, Aurora; Appetecchia, Marialuisa; Torino, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is currently used in follow-up of patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Age, sex, weight, body mass index, body surface area (BSA) and renal function are known factors affecting serum TSH peak levels, but the proper rhTSH dose to deliver to single patient remains elusive. In this study, the correlations of basal metabolic rates with serum TSH peak following rhTSH administration were investigated. We evaluated 221 patients affected by thyroid cancer that received a standard dose rhTSH. Blood samples were collected at pre-established time points. Data on body weight, height, and BSA were collected. The Mifflin-St Jeor and Fleisch equations were used to assess basal metabolism. The median value (range) of serum TSH peaks was 142 ± 53 μU/ml. Serum TSH peaks were significantly lower in males than in females ( p  = 0.04). TSH values also increased with age. Data showed a significant decrease of TSH peak levels at day 3 from the administration of rhTSH when basal metabolic rates increased ( p  = 0.002 and p  = 0.009, respectively). Similar findings were observed at day 5 ( p  = 0.004 and p  = 0.04, respectively). A multivariate analysis of several factors revealed that patients' basal metabolism (obtained using the Mifflin-St Jeor but not Fleisch equation) predicts serum TSH level peak at day 3 ( p  Basal metabolism appears an improving factor in tailoring diagnostic rhTSH dose in patients affected by DTC.

  12. Repeated losses of PRDM9-directed recombination despite the conservation of PRDM9 across vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Zachary; Schumer, Molly; Haba, Yuki; Bashkirova, Lisa; Holland, Chris; Rosenthal, Gil G; Przeworski, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Studies of highly diverged species have revealed two mechanisms by which meiotic recombination is directed to the genome—through PRDM9 binding or by targeting promoter-like features—that lead to dramatically different evolutionary dynamics of hotspots. Here, we identify PRDM9 orthologs from genome and transcriptome data in 225 species. We find the complete PRDM9 ortholog across distantly related vertebrates but, despite this broad conservation, infer a minimum of six partial and three complete losses. Strikingly, taxa carrying the complete ortholog of PRDM9 are precisely those with rapid evolution of its predicted binding affinity, suggesting that all domains are necessary for directing recombination. Indeed, as we show, swordtail fish carrying only a partial but conserved ortholog share recombination properties with PRDM9 knock-outs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24133.001 PMID:28590247

  13. Detection of homologous recombination between yeast artificial chromosomes with overlapping inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, A; Lacatena, R M; Tocchini-Valentini, G P

    1991-03-11

    We have developed a system which facilitates the detection of recombination between Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YAC's) carrying homologous inserts. The system consists of a classical YAC vector, a new YAC vector and two appropriately labelled yeast strains of opposite mating type. The new YAC vector differs in markers from the canonical YAC vector. To test whether homologous recombination takes place, phage lambda DNA was cloned in the two vectors to provide a region of homology. The two constructs were then introduced into yeast strains of opposite mating type in which the endogenous genes for the selective markers present in the vectors are not expressed. Artificial chromosomes obtained by meiotic recombination are detected in the spores resulting from the mating.

  14. Homologous recombination occurs in Entamoeba and is enhanced during growth stress and stage conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nishant; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) has not been demonstrated in the parasitic protists Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba invadens, as no convenient method is available to measure it. However, HR must exist to ensure genome integrity, and possible genetic exchange, especially during stage conversion from trophozoite to cyst. Here we show the up regulation of mitotic and meiotic HR genes in Entamoeba during serum starvation, and encystation. To directly demonstrate HR we use a simple PCR-based method involving inverted repeats, which gives a reliable read out, as the recombination junctions can be determined by sequencing the amplicons. Using this read out, we demonstrate enhanced HR under growth stress in E. histolytica, and during encystation in E. invadens. We also demonstrate recombination between chromosomal inverted repeats. This is the first experimental demonstration of HR in Entamoeba and will help future investigations into this process, and to explore the possibility of meiosis in Entamoeba.

  15. Recombinant protein production technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  16. DNA double-strand breaks, recombination and synapsis: the timing of meiosis differs in grasshoppers and flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Alberto; Santos, Juan L; Page, Jesús; Parra, M Teresa; Calvente, Adela; Cifuentes, Marta; Gómez, Rocío; Lira, Renee; Suja, José A; Rufas, Julio S

    2004-04-01

    The temporal and functional relationships between DNA events of meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation are a matter of discussion within the meiotic field. To analyse this subject in grasshoppers, organisms that have been considered as models for meiotic studies for many years, we have studied the localization of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which marks the sites of double-strand breaks (DSBs), in combination with localization of cohesin SMC3 and recombinase Rad51. We show that the loss of gamma-H2AX staining is spatially and temporally linked to synapsis, and that in grasshoppers the initiation of recombination, produced as a consequence of DSB formation, precedes synapsis. This result supports the idea that grasshoppers display a pairing pathway that is not present in other insects such as Drosophila melanogaster, but is similar to those reported in yeast, mouse and Arabidopsis. In addition, we have observed the presence of gamma-H2AX in the X chromosome from zygotene to late pachytene, indicating that the function of H2AX phosphorylation during grasshopper spermatogenesis is not restricted to the formation of gamma-H2AX foci at DNA DSBs.

  17. Co-culture of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells with Sertoli Cells Promote in vitro Generation of Germ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Miryounesi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Sertoli cells support in vivo germ cell production; but, its exact mechanism has not been well understood. The present study was designed to analyze the effect of Sertoli cells in differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs to germ cells.   Materials and Methods: A fusion construct composed of a Stra8 gene promoter and the coding region of enhanced green fluorescence protein was produced to select differentiated mESCs. To analyze sertoli cells’ effect in differentiation process, mESCs were separated into two groups: the first group was cultured on gelatin with retinoic acid treatment and the second group was co-cultured with sertoli cell feeder without retinoic acid induction. Expressions of pre-meiotic (Stra8, meiotic (Dazl and Sycp3 and post-meiotic (Prm1 genes were evaluated at different differentiation stages (+7, +12 and +18 days of culture. Results: In the first group, expressions of meiotic and post-meiotic genes started 12 and 18 days after induction with retinoic acid, respectively. In the second group, 7 days after co-culturing with Sertoli cells, expression of meiotic and post-meiotic genes was observed. Conclusion: These results show that differentiation process to germ cells is supported by Sertoli cells. Our findings provide a novel effective approach for generation of germ cell in vitro and studying the interaction of germ cells with their niche.

  18. Meiotic crossing-over in nondisjoined chromosomes of children with trisomy 21 and a congenital heart defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, C.M.; Davis, G.E.; Farrer, M.J.; Cullen, L.M.; Coleman, M.M.; Williamson, R.; Wyse, R.K.H.; Palmer, R.; Kessling, A.M. (Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-08-01

    The authors have used DNA polymorphisms to study meiotic crossovers of chromosome 21q in 27 nuclear families. Each family had a child with Down syndrome and a congenital heart defect. Twenty DNA polymorphisms on chromosome 21 were used to determine parental and meiotic origin of nondisjunction and to identify crossovers. Twenty-four cases were of maternal origin, and three were of paternal origin. Twenty-two unequivocal crossover events were identified. Sixteen crossovers were observed in 22 chromosome pairs nondisjoining at the first meiotic division (MI), and six crossovers were observed in five chromosome pairs disjoining at the second meiotic division. Fifty percent of crossover events in MI nondisjunction are detectable by molecular genetic means. Thus, the results suggest that, in this sample, each nondisjoined chromosome 21 pair has been involved in at least one crossover event. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Dynamic maintenance of asymmetric meiotic spindle position through Arp2/3 complex-driven cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kexi; Unruh, Jay R.; Deng, Manqi; Slaughter, Brian D.; Rubinstein, Boris; Li, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Mature mammalian oocytes are poised for the completion of second polar body extrusion upon fertilization by positioning the metaphase spindle in close proximity to an actomyosin-rich cortical cap. Loss of this spindle position asymmetry is often associated with poor oocyte quality and infertility 1–3. Here, we report a novel role for the Arp2/3 actin nucleation complex in the maintenance of asymmetric spindle position in mature mouse oocytes. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to the cortical cap in a Ran GTPase-dependent manner and accounts for the nucleation of the majority of actin filaments in both the cortical cap and a cytoplasmic actin network. Inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity or localization leads to rapid dissociation of the spindle from the cortex. High resolution live imaging and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) analysis reveal that in normal oocytes actin filaments flow continuously away from the Arp2/3-rich cortex, generating a cytoplamic streaming that results in a net pushing force on the spindle toward the actomyosin cap. Arp2/3 inhibition not only diminishes this actin flow and cytoplamic streaming but also enables a reverse streaming driven by myosin-II-based cortical contraction, leading to spindle movement away from the cortex. We conclude that the Arp2/3 complex maintains asymmetric meiotic spindle position by generating an actin polymerization-driven cytoplamic streaming and by suppressing a counteracting force from myosin-II-based contractility. PMID:21874009

  20. Analysis of the Basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea reveals conservation of the core meiotic expression program over half a billion years of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Burns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coprinopsis cinerea (also known as Coprinus cinereus is a multicellular basidiomycete mushroom particularly suited to the study of meiosis due to its synchronous meiotic development and prolonged prophase. We examined the 15-hour meiotic transcriptional program of C. cinerea, encompassing time points prior to haploid nuclear fusion though tetrad formation, using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. As with other organisms, a large proportion (∼20% of genes are differentially regulated during this developmental process, with successive waves of transcription apparent in nine transcriptional clusters, including one enriched for meiotic functions. C. cinerea and the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe diverged ∼500-900 million years ago, permitting a comparison of transcriptional programs across a broad evolutionary time scale. Previous studies of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe compared genes that were induced upon entry into meiosis; inclusion of C. cinerea data indicates that meiotic genes are more conserved in their patterns of induction across species than genes not known to be meiotic. In addition, we found that meiotic genes are significantly more conserved in their transcript profiles than genes not known to be meiotic, which indicates a remarkable conservation of the meiotic process across evolutionarily distant organisms. Overall, meiotic function genes are more conserved in both induction and transcript profile than genes not known to be meiotic. However, of 50 meiotic function genes that were co-induced in all three species, 41 transcript profiles were well-correlated in at least two of the three species, but only a single gene (rad50 exhibited coordinated induction and well-correlated transcript profiles in all three species, indicating that co-induction does not necessarily predict correlated expression or vice versa. Differences may reflect differences in meiotic mechanisms or new roles for paralogs

  1. The relationship of recombination rate, genome structure, and patterns of molecular evolution across angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, George P; Burleigh, J Gordon; Burleigh, Gordon

    2015-09-16

    Although homologous recombination affects the efficacy of selection in populations, the pattern of recombination rate evolution and its effects on genome evolution across plants are largely unknown. Recombination can reduce genome size by enabling the removal of LTR retrotransposons, alter codon usage by GC biased gene conversion, contribute to complex histories of gene duplication and loss through tandem duplication, and enhance purifying selection on genes. Therefore, variation in recombination rate across species may explain some of the variation in genomic architecture as well as rates of molecular evolution. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolution of global meiotic recombination rate in angiosperms and its effects on genome architecture and selection at the molecular level using genetic maps and genome sequences from thirty angiosperm species. Recombination rate is negatively correlated with genome size, which is likely caused by the removal of LTR retrotransposons. After correcting recombination rates for euchromatin content, we also found an association between global recombination rate and average gene family size. This suggests a role for recombination in the preservation of duplicate genes or expansion of gene families. An analysis of the correlation between the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) and recombination rate in 3748 genes indicates that higher recombination rates are associated with an increased efficacy of purifying selection, suggesting that global recombination rates affect variation in rates of molecular evolution across distantly related angiosperm species, not just between populations. We also identified shifts in dN/dS for recombination proteins that are associated with shifts in global recombination rate across our sample of angiosperms. Although our analyses only reveal correlations, not mechanisms, and do not include potential covariates of recombination rate, like effective

  2. Maize AMEIOTIC1 is essential for multiple early meiotic processes and likely required for the initiation of meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, Wojciech P.; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Golubovskaya, Inna N.; Szymaniak, Jessica M.; Shi, Liang; Hamant, Olivier; Zhu, Tong; Harper, Lisa; Sheridan, William F.; Cande, W. Zacheus

    2009-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms that initiate meiosis have been studied in fungi and mammals, but little is known about the mechanisms directing the meiosis transition in other organisms. To elucidate meiosis initiation in plants, we characterized and cloned the ameiotic1 (am1) gene, which affects the transition to meiosis and progression through the early stages of meiotic prophase in maize. We demonstrate that all meiotic processes require am1, including expression of meiosis-specific genes, establish...

  3. Unravelling the genetic base of the meiotic recombination landscapes in two varieties of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedaghat Telgerd, Narges

    2017-01-01

    The button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus, is one of the most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Even though wild isolates of this variety have a broad genetic variation, the traditional and present-day hybrids only have a very narrow genetic base. The button mushroom

  4. Analysis of self-fertilization and meiotic behavior of eleven Brazilian triticale cultivars at two sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Brazilian hexaploid triticale cultivars (2n = 6x = 42, from three breeding programs, were evaluated for theirability of self-fertilization in 2006 and for meiotic behavior, meiotic index and pollen viability at two sowing dates in 2007. Highpotential of self-fertilization was observed, with values up to 89.52 %. Many irregularities were found in the meiotic analysis, suchas the presence of univalents, laggard chromosomes and micronuclei in tetrads, which compromised both meiotic behavior andmeiotic index. At the first sowing date, more suitable for normal plant development, overall mean values of 52.68 % for normal cellsand 64.95 % for meiotic index were observed. At the second sowing date, less appropriate for the crop, overall means of 52.23 %for normal cells and 58.24 % for meiotic index were obtained. Despite all the irregularities, considerable pollen viability wasobserved, reaching overall means of 92.08 % and 91.07 % for the first and second sowing dates, respectively.

  5. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating excess early double-stranded RNA transiently activates protein kinase R and triggers enhanced innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolferstätter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Späth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; Hausmann, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-β in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-β induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral

  6. Correlation between induction of meiotic delay and aneuploidy in male mouse germ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, I.D.; Gassner, P.; Schriever-Schwemmer, G.; Min, Zhou Ru [Institut fuer Sauugetiergenetik, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    No aneuploidy assays are prescribed in any international guidelines for chemical safety testing up to now. The CEC-sponsored Aneuploidy Project has the aim to validate test methods for aneuploidy induction which could be used as screening tests. Furthermore, one of the major goals is to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which aneuploidy is induced. The present paper describes the investigation of meiotic delay and aneuploidy induction with the drug diazepam (DZ), the environmentally important mutagen acrylamide (AA) and the spindle poison colchicine (COL), which is used as a positive control. The time course of events was investigated. It is concluded that the assessment of meiotic delay can be used to preselect chemicals which require evaluation of aneuploidy induction during MMI in male germ cells.

  7. DAF-2 and ERK Couple Nutrient Availability to Meiotic Progression during Caenorhabditis elegans Oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Chen, Jessica; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Drake, Melanie; Shidate, Miri; Kseib, Cedric; Arur, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Coupling the production of mature gametes and fertilized zygotes to favorable nutritional conditions improves reproductive success. In invertebrates, the proliferation of female germ line stem cells is regulated by nutritional status. But, in mammals the number of female germ line stem cells is set early in development, with oocytes progressing through meiosis later in life. Mechanisms that couple later steps of oogenesis to environmental conditions remain largely undefined. We show that in the presence of food, the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor signals through the RAS-ERK pathway to drive meiotic prophase I progression and oogenesis; in the absence of food, the resultant inactivation of insulin-like signaling leads to downregulation of RAS-ERK pathway, and oogenesis is stalled. Thus, the insulin-like signaling pathway couples nutrient sensing to meiotic I progression and oocyte production in C. elegans, ensuring that oocytes are only produced under conditions favorable for the survival of the resulting zygotes. PMID:24120884

  8. der(4)t(Y;4): Three-generation transmission and sperm meiotic segregation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdova, Miluse; Horinova, Vera; Wernerova, Vendula; Skalikova, Romana; Rybar, Roman; Prinosilova, Petra; Oracova, Eva; Rubes, Jiri

    2011-05-01

    We present a family where five members (three males and two females) are carriers of der(4)t(Y;4)(q11.23;p16.3). The adult carriers are phenotypicaly normal and fertile; the boy shows macrocephaly, psychomotor retardation, and atypical autism. The FISH on cultured lymphocytes confirmed that the redundant Yq heterochromatin was attached to the 4p-subtelomeric region maintained on the der(4). Sperm FISH analysis performed in a normospermic der(4) carrier showed a significant distortion of the expected 1:1 ratio of the X- and Y-bearing spermatozoa in favor of the X chromosome and significant lack of Y,der(4)spermatozoa. The overall lack of Y spermatozoa was not balanced even by a relative excess of Y,4 sperm. The analysis of X, Y, 7, 8, 18, and 21 sperm disomy and diploidy did not indicate any interchromosomal effect. The chromosome 4 disomy was significantly increased but still very low to be of considerable reproductive significance. The neurodevelomental phenotype of the boy was probably caused by a gene mutation. The coincidental occurrence of such chromosomal aberration and boy's phenotype might lead to misinterpretation of the causal relationship between these findings. It is necessary to consider the results of chromosomal analysis and clinical records of relatives for provide genetic counseling in such families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Interpopulation hybridization generates meiotically stable rDNA epigenetic variants in allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matyášek, Roman; Dobešová, Eva; Húska, Dalibor; Ježková, Ivana; Soltis, P. S.; Soltis, D.E.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2016), s. 362-377 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-34632S; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10057S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : allopolyploid * chromatin modification * epigenetic variants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  10. [Meiotic abnormalities of oocytes from patients with endometriosis submitted to ovarian stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Ionara Diniz Evangelista Santos; Vieira, Rodolpho Cruz; Ferreira, Elisa Melo; Araújo, Maria Cristina Picinato Medeiros de; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea de Albuquerque Salles

    2008-08-01

    to evaluate the meiotic spindle and the chromosome distribution of in vitro mature oocytes from stimulated cycles of infertile women with endometriosis, and with male and/or tubal infertility factors (Control Group), comparing the rates of in vitro maturation (IVM) between the two groups evaluated. fourteen patients with endometriosis and eight with male and/or tubal infertility factors, submitted to ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmatic sperm injection have been prospectively and consecutively selected, and formed a Study and Control Group, respectively. Immature oocytes (46 and 22, respectively, from the Endometriosis and Control Groups) were submitted to IVM. Oocytes presenting extrusion of the first polar corpuscle were fixed and stained for microtubules and chromatin evaluation through immunofluorescence technique. Statistical analysis has been done by the Fisher's exact test, with statistical significance at pControl Groups, respectively). The chromosome and meiotic spindle organization was observed in 18 and 11 oocytes from the Endometriosis and Control Groups, respectively. In the Endometriosis Group, eight oocytes (44.4%) presented themselves as normal metaphase II (MII), three (16.7%) as abnormal MII, five (27.8%) were in telophase stage I and two (11.1%) underwent parthenogenetic activation. In the Control Group, five oocytes (45.4%) presented themselves as normal MII, three (27.3%) as abnormal MII, one (9.1%) was in telophase stage I and two (18.2%) underwent parthenogenetic activation. There was no significant difference in meiotic anomaly rate between the oocytes in MII from both groups. the present study data did not show significant differences in the IVM or in the meiotic anomalies rate between the IVM oocytes from stimulated cycles of patients with endometriosis, as compared with controls. Nevertheless, they have suggested a delay in the outcome of oocyte meiosis I from patients with endometriosis, shown by the higher proportion of oocytes in

  11. Nup132 modulates meiotic spindle attachment in fission yeast by regulating kinetochore assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui-Ju; Asakawa, Haruhiko; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    During meiosis, the kinetochore undergoes substantial reorganization to establish monopolar spindle attachment. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the KNL1?Spc7-Mis12-Nuf2 (KMN) complex, which constitutes the outer kinetochore, is disassembled during meiotic prophase and is reassembled before meiosis I. Here, we show that the nucleoporin Nup132 is required for timely assembly of the KMN proteins: In the absence of Nup132, Mis12 and Spc7 are precociously assembled at the centromer...

  12. Meiotic genes and sexual reproduction in the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta)

    KAUST Repository

    Fučíková, Karolina

    2015-04-06

    © 2015 Phycological Society of America. Sexual reproduction is widespread in eukaryotes and is well documented in chlorophytan green algae. In this lineage, however, the Trebouxiophyceae represent a striking exception: in contrast to its relatives Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae this group appears to be mostly asexual, as fertilization has been rarely observed. Assessments of sexual reproduction in the Trebouxiophyceae have been based on microscopic observation of gametes fusing. New genomic data offer now the opportunity to check for the presence of meiotic genes, which represent an indirect evidence of a sexual life cycle. Using genomic and transcriptomic data for 12 taxa spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the class, we tried to clarify whether genuine asexuality or cryptic sexuality is the most likely case for the numerous putatively asexual trebouxiophytes. On the basis of these data and a bibliographic review, we conclude that the view of trebouxiophytes as primarily asexual is incorrect. In contrast to the limited number of reports of fertilization, meiotic genes were found in all genomes and transcriptomes examined, even in species presumed asexual. In the taxa examined the totality or majority of the genes were present, Helicosporidium and Auxenochlorella being the only partial exceptions (only four genes present). The evidence of sex provided by the meiotic genes is phylogenetically widespread in the class and indicates that sexual reproduction is not associated with any particular morphological or ecological trait. On the basis of the results, we expect that the existence of the meiotic genes will be documented in all trebouxiophycean genomes that will become available in the future.

  13. Expression of arf tumor suppressor in spermatogonia facilitates meiotic progression in male germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Churchman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian Cdkn2a (Ink4a-Arf locus encodes two tumor suppressor proteins (p16(Ink4a and p19(Arf that respectively enforce the anti-proliferative functions of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb and the p53 transcription factor in response to oncogenic stress. Although p19(Arf is not normally detected in tissues of young adult mice, a notable exception occurs in the male germ line, where Arf is expressed in spermatogonia, but not in meiotic spermatocytes arising from them. Unlike other contexts in which the induction of Arf potently inhibits cell proliferation, expression of p19(Arf in spermatogonia does not interfere with mitotic cell division. Instead, inactivation of Arf triggers germ cell-autonomous, p53-dependent apoptosis of primary spermatocytes in late meiotic prophase, resulting in reduced sperm production. Arf deficiency also causes premature, elevated, and persistent accumulation of the phosphorylated histone variant H2AX, reduces numbers of chromosome-associated complexes of Rad51 and Dmc1 recombinases during meiotic prophase, and yields incompletely synapsed autosomes during pachynema. Inactivation of Ink4a increases the fraction of spermatogonia in S-phase and restores sperm numbers in Ink4a-Arf doubly deficient mice but does not abrogate γ-H2AX accumulation in spermatocytes or p53-dependent apoptosis resulting from Arf inactivation. Thus, as opposed to its canonical role as a tumor suppressor in inducing p53-dependent senescence or apoptosis, Arf expression in spermatogonia instead initiates a salutary feed-forward program that prevents p53-dependent apoptosis, contributing to the survival of meiotic male germ cells.

  14. Lack of sex chromosome specific meiotic silencing in platypus reveals origin of MSCI in therian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daish, Tasman J; Casey, Aaron E; Grutzner, Frank

    2015-12-10

    In therian mammals heteromorphic sex chromosomes are subject to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during meiotic prophase I while the autosomes maintain transcriptional activity. The evolution of this sex chromosome silencing is thought to result in retroposition of genes required in spermatogenesis from the sex chromosomes to autosomes. In birds sex chromosome specific silencing appears to be absent and global transcriptional reductions occur through pachytene and sex chromosome-derived autosomal retrogenes are lacking. Egg laying monotremes are the most basal mammalian lineage, feature a complex and highly differentiated XY sex chromosome system with homology to the avian sex chromosomes, and also lack autosomal retrogenes. In order to delineate the point of origin of sex chromosome specific silencing in mammals we investigated whether MSCI exists in platypus. Our results show that platypus sex chromosomes display only partial or transient colocalisation with a repressive histone variant linked to therian sex chromosome silencing and surprisingly lack a hallmark MSCI epigenetic signature present in other mammals. Remarkably, platypus instead feature an avian like period of general low level transcription through prophase I with the sex chromosomes and the future mammalian X maintaining association with a nucleolus-like structure. Our work demonstrates for the first time that in mammals meiotic silencing of sex chromosomes evolved after the divergence of monotremes presumably as a result of the differentiation of the therian XY sex chromosomes. We provide a novel evolutionary scenario on how the future therian X chromosome commenced the trajectory toward MSCI.

  15. Post-meiotic intra-testicular sperm senescence in a wild vertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Hettyey

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in sperm senescence, both in its underlying mechanisms and evolutionary consequences, because it can impact the evolution of numerous life history traits. Previous studies have documented various types of sperm senescence, but evidence of post-meiotic intra-testicular sperm senescence in wild animals is lacking. To assess such senescence, we studied within-season changes in sperm motility in the common toad (Bufo bufo, where males produce all sperm prior to the breeding season. We found that males exposed to experimentally induced re-hibernation at the start of the breeding season, that is to experimentally lowered metabolic rates, stored sperm of significantly higher motility than males that were kept under seminatural conditions without females throughout the breeding season. This finding indicates that re-hibernation slows normal rates of sperm ageing and constitutes the first evidence to our knowledge of post-meiotic intra-testicular sperm senescence in a wild vertebrate. We also found that in males kept in seminatural conditions, sperm motility was positively related to the number of matings a male achieved. Thus, our results suggest that post-meiotic intra-testicular sperm senescence does not have a genetically fixed rate and may be modulated by temperature and possibly by mating opportunities.

  16. Multiple barriers to recombination between divergent HIV-1 variants revealed by a dual-marker recombination assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Galli, Andrea; Moore, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Recombination is a major force for generating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diversity and produces numerous recombinants circulating in the human population. We previously established a cell-based system using green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) as a reporter to study the mechanisms...... between variants from different groups is further reduced compared with green fluorescent protein, indicating that sequence divergence interferes with recombination efficiency in the gag gene. Compared with identical sequences, we estimate that recombination rates are reduced by 3-fold and by 10- to 13...... of HIV-1 recombination. We now report an improved system capable of detecting recombination using authentic viral sequences. Frameshift mutations were introduced into the gag gene so that parental viruses do not express full-length Gag; however, recombination can generate a progeny virus that expresses...

  17. The cyclin-A CYCA1;2/TAM is required for the meiosis I to meiosis II transition and cooperates with OSD1 for the prophase to first meiotic division transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle d'Erfurth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis halves the chromosome number because its two divisions follow a single round of DNA replication. This process involves two cell transitions, the transition from prophase to the first meiotic division (meiosis I and the unique meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show here that the A-type cyclin CYCA1;2/TAM plays a major role in both transitions in Arabidopsis. A series of tam mutants failed to enter meiosis II and thus produced diploid spores and functional diploid gametes. These diploid gametes had a recombined genotype produced through the single meiosis I division. In addition, by combining the tam-2 mutation with AtSpo11-1 and Atrec8, we obtained plants producing diploid gametes through a mitotic-like division that were genetically identical to their parents. Thus tam alleles displayed phenotypes very similar to that of the previously described osd1 mutant. Combining tam and osd1 mutations leads to a failure in the prophase to meiosis I transition during male meiosis and to the production of tetraploid spores and gametes. This suggests that TAM and OSD1 are involved in the control of both meiotic transitions.

  18. Genesis by meiotic unequal crossover of a de novo deletion that contributes to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnott, P.; Collier, S.; Dyer, P.A.; Harris, R.; Strachan, T.; Costigan, C.

    1990-01-01

    The HLA-linked human steroid 21-hydroxylase gene CYP21B and its closely homologous pseudogene CYP21A are each normally located centromeric to a fourth component of complement (C4) gene, C4B and C4A, respectively, in an organization suggesting tandem duplication of a ca. 30-kilobase DNA unit containing a CYP21 gene and a C4 gene. Such an organization has been considered to facilitate gene deletion and addition events by unequal crossover between the tandem repeats. The authors have identified a steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency patient who has a maternally inherited disease haplotype that carries a de novo deletion of a ca. 30-kilobase repeat unit including the CYP21B gene and associated C4B gene. This disease haplotype appears to have been generated as a result of meiotic unequal crossover between maternal homologous chromosomes. One of the maternal haplotypes is the frequently occurring HLA-DR3,B8,A1 haplotype that normally carries a deletion of a ca. 30-kilobase unit including the CYP21A gene and C4A gene. Haplotypes of this type may possible act as premutations, increasing the susceptibility of developing a 21-hydroxylase deficiency mutation by facilitating unequal chromosome pairing

  19. Containment air circulation for optimal hydrogen recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, N.; Krause, M.

    1997-01-01

    An accepted first-line defense for hydrogen mitigation is to design for the hydrogen to be rapidly mixed with the containment atmosphere and diluted to below flammability concentrations. Then, as hydrogen continues to be produced in the longer term, recombiners can be used to remove hydrogen: recombiners can be located in forced-air ducts or passive recombiners can be distributed within containment and the heat of recombination used to promote local air circulation. However, this principle does not eliminate the possibility of high hydrogen concentrations at locations removed from the recombiners. An improvement on this strategy is to arrange for a specific, buoyancy-driven, overall circulation of the containment atmosphere such that the recombiners can be located within the recirculation flow, immediately downstream of the hydrogen source. This would make the mixing process more predictable and solve the mass-transfer problem associated with distributed recombiners. Ideally, the recombiners would be located just above the hydrogen source so that the heat of recombination would assist the overall circulation. In this way, the hydrogen would be removed as close as possible to the source, thereby minimizing the amount of hydrogen immediately downstream of the source and reducing the hydrogen concentration to acceptable levels at other locations. Such a strategy requires the containment volume to be divided into an upflow path, past the hydrogen source and the recombiner, and a downflow path to complete the circuit. The flow could be generated actively using fans or passively using buoyancy forces arising from the difference in density of gases in the upfiow and downflow paths; the gases in the downflow path being cooled at an elevated heat sink. (author)

  20. Reduced meiotic fitness in hybrids with heterozygosity for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mus terricolor I, II and III are the three chromosomal species which differ in stable autosomal short-arm heterochromatin variations established in ... About one month old first generation pups born in the laboratory were used for .... The X and Y chromosomes showed different degrees of dissociation in all the F1 hybrids ...

  1. Recombinant clotting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe, Steven W

    2008-05-01

    The recombinant era for haemophilia began in the early 1980s with the cloning and subsequent expression of functional proteins for both factors VIII and IX. Efficient production of recombinant clotting factors in mammalian cell culture systems required overcoming significant challenges due to the complex post-translational modifications that were integral to their pro-coagulant function. The quick development and commercialization of recombinant clotting factors was, in part, facilitated by the catastrophic impact of viral contamination of plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates at the time. Since their transition into the clinic, the recombinant versions of both factor VIII and IX have proven to be remarkable facsimiles of their plasma-derived counterparts. The broad adoption of recombinant therapy throughout the developed world has significantly increased the supply of clotting factor concentrates and helped advance aggressive therapeutic interventions such as prophylaxis. The development of recombinant VIIa was a further advance bringing a recombinant option to haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Recombinant DNA technology remains the platform to address ongoing challenges in haemophilia care such as reducing the costs of therapy, increasing the availability to the developing world, and improving the functional properties of these proteins. In turn, the ongoing development of new recombinant clotting factor concentrates is providing alternatives for patients with other inherited bleeding disorders.

  2. Experimental population genetics of meiotic drive systems. I. Pseudo-Y chromosomal drive as a means of eliminating cage populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttle, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental population genetics of Y-chromosome drive in Drosophila melanogaster is approximated by studying the behavior of T(Y;2),SD lines. These exhibit ''pseudo-Y'' drive through the effective coupling of the Y chromosome to the second chromosome meiotic drive locus, segregation distorter (SD). T(Y;2),SD males consequently produce only male offspring. When such lines are allowed to compete against structurally normal SD+ flies in population cages, T(Y;2),SD males increase in frequency according to the dynamics of a simple haploid selection model until the cage population is eliminated as a result of a deficiency in the number of adult females. Cage population extinction generally occurs within about seven generations

  3. Recombinant chromosome 7 in a mosaic 45,X/47,XXX patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Carlos A; Gotway, Garrett; Torgbe, Emmanuel; Iyer, Santha; Dallaire, Stephanie; Appleberry, Taylor; Suterwala, Mohamed; Garcia, Rolando; Valdez, Federico; Patel, Sangeeta; Koduru, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with pericentric inversions are at risk for producing offspring with chromosomal gains and losses, while those carrying paracentric inversions usually produce unviable gametes [Madan, 1995]. In this current study, we present a newborn with dysmorphic features and malformations, whose karyotype showed an abnormal copy of chromomosome 7 described at first as add(7)(q32) as well as mos 45,X/47,XXX. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed an interstitial deletion in the long arm of chromosome 7 involving bands q35 to q36.3 but retaining the 7q subtelomere. The patient's deletion is believed to be due to meiotic recombination in the inversion loop in the phenotypically normal father who seems to carry two paracentric inversions in the long arm of chromosome 7, which was described as rec(7)(7pter- > q35::q36.3- > 7qter)pat. The abnormal copy of chromosome 7 in the father has been described as: der(7)(7pter- > q22.1::q36.3- > q35::q22.1- > q35::q36.3- > 7qter). This is a unique karyotype that to our knowledge has not been previously reported in the literature and predisposes to meiotic recombination that can result in deletions or duplications of 7q35-36. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Recombinant gene expression protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuan, Rocky S

    1997-01-01

    .... A fundamental requirement for successful recombinant gene expression is the design of the cloning vector and the choice of the host organism for expression. Recombinant Gene Expression Protocols grows out of the need for a laboratory manual that provides the reader the background and rationale, as well as the practical protocols for the preparation of...

  5. Plasma membrane events associated with the meiotic divisions in the amphibian oocyte: insights into the evolution of insulin transduction systems and cell signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrill Gene A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin and its plasma membrane receptor constitute an ancient response system critical to cell growth and differentiation. Studies using intact Rana pipiens oocytes have shown that insulin can act at receptors on the oocyte surface to initiate resumption of the first meiotic division. We have reexamined the insulin-induced cascade of electrical and ion transport-related plasma membrane events using both oocytes and intact plasma membranes in order to characterize the insulin receptor-steroid response system associated with the meiotic divisions. Results [125I]Insulin binding (Kd = 54 ± 6 nM at the oocyte plasma membrane activates membrane serine protease(s, followed by the loss of low affinity ouabain binding sites, with a concomitant 3–4 fold increase in high affinity ouabain binding sites. The changes in protease activity and ouabain binding are associated with increased Na+/Ca2+ exchange, increased endocytosis, decreased Na+ conductance resulting in membrane hyperpolarization, increased 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake and a sustained elevation of intracellular pH (pHi. Hyperpolarization is largely due to Na+-channel inactivation and is the main driving force for glucose uptake by the oocyte via Na+/glucose cotransport. The Na+ sym- and antiporter systems are driven by the Na+ free energy gradient generated by Na+/K+-ATPase. Shifts in α and/or β Na+-pump subunits to caveolar (lipid raft membrane regions may activate Na/K-ATPase and contribute to the Na+ free energy gradient and the increase in both Na+/glucose co-transport and pHi. Conclusions Under physiological conditions, resumption of meiosis results from the concerted action of insulin and progesterone at the cell membrane. Insulin inactivates Na+ channels and mobilizes fully functional Na+-pumps, generating a Na+ free energy gradient which serves as the energy source for several membrane anti- and symporter systems.

  6. Gene Expression Analysis of Parthenogenetic Embryonic Development of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Suggests That Aphid Parthenogenesis Evolved from Meiotic Oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Dayalan G.; Abdelhady, Ahmed; Stern, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis) during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity. PMID:25501006

  7. Gene expression analysis of parthenogenetic embryonic development of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggests that aphid parthenogenesis evolved from meiotic oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Dayalan G; Abdelhady, Ahmed; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis) during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity.

  8. Dot1-dependent histone H3K79 methylation promotes the formation of meiotic double-strand breaks in the absence of histone H3K4 methylation in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bani Ismail

    Full Text Available Epigenetic marks such as histone modifications play roles in various chromosome dynamics in mitosis and meiosis. Methylation of histones H3 at positions K4 and K79 is involved in the initiation of recombination and the recombination checkpoint, respectively, during meiosis in the budding yeast. Set1 promotes H3K4 methylation while Dot1 promotes H3K79 methylation. In this study, we carried out detailed analyses of meiosis in mutants of the SET1 and DOT1 genes as well as methylation-defective mutants of histone H3. We confirmed the role of Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation in the formation of double-strand breaks (DSBs in meiosis for the initiation of meiotic recombination, and we showed the involvement of Dot1 (H3K79 methylation in DSB formation in the absence of Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation. In addition, we showed that the histone H3K4 methylation-defective mutants are defective in SC elongation, although they seem to have moderate reduction of DSBs. This suggests that high levels of DSBs mediated by histone H3K4 methylation promote SC elongation.

  9. Aberrant Meiotic Modulation Partially Contributes to the Lower Germination Rate of Pollen Grains in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Low Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongyan; Wu, Huamao; Pan, Xiaoying; Jin, Weiwei; Li, Xuexian

    2017-02-01

    Pollen germination is an essential step towards successful pollination during maize reproduction. How low niutrogen (N) affects pollen germination remains an interesting biological question to be addressed. We found that only low N resulted in a significantly lower germination rate of pollen grains after 4 weeks of low N, phosphorus or potassium treatment in maize production. Importantly, cytological analysis showed 7-fold more micronuclei in male meiocytes under the low N treatment than in the control, indicating that the lower germination rate of pollen grains was partially due to numerous chromosome loss events resulting from preceding meiosis. The appearance of 10 bivalents in the control and low N cells at diakinesis suggested that chromosome pairing and recombination in meiosis I was not affected by low N. Further gene expression analysis revealed dramatic down-regulation of Nuclear Division Cycle 80 (Ndc80) and Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (Rcc1-1) expression and up-regulation of Cell Division Cycle 20 (Cdc20-1) expression, although no significant difference in the expression level of kinetochore foundation proteins Centromeric Histone H3 (Cenh3) and Centromere Protein C (Cenpc) and cohesion regulators Recombination 8 (Rec8) and Shugoshin (Sgo1) was observed. Aberrant modulation of three key meiotic regulators presumably resulted in a high likelihood of erroneous chromosome segregation, as testified by pronounced lagging chromosomes at anaphase I or cell cycle disruption at meiosis II. Thus, we proposed a cytogenetic mechanism whereby low N affects male meiosis and causes a higher chromosome loss frequency and eventually a lower germination rate of pollen grains in a staple crop plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Meiotic HORMA domain proteins prevent untimely centriole disengagement during Caenorhabditis elegans spermatocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvarzstein, Mara; Pattabiraman, Divya; Bembenek, Joshua N; Villeneuve, Anne M

    2013-03-05

    In many species where oocytes lack centrosomes, sperm contribute both genetic material and centriole(s) to the zygote. Correct centriole organization during male meiosis is critical to guarantee a normal bipolar mitotic spindle in the zygote. During Caenorhabditis elegans male meiosis, centrioles normally undergo two rounds of duplication, resulting in haploid sperm each containing a single tightly engaged centriole pair. Here we identify an unanticipated role for C. elegans HORMA (Hop1/Rev7/Mad2) domain proteins HTP-1/2 and HIM-3 in regulating centriole disengagement during spermatocyte meiosis. In him-3 and htp-1 htp-2 mutants, centrioles separate inappropriately during meiosis II, resulting in spermatids with disengaged centrioles. Moreover, extra centrosomes are detected in a subset of zygotes. Together, these data implicate HIM-3 and HTP-1/2 in preventing centriole disengagement during meiosis II. We showed previously that HTP-1/2 prevents premature loss of sister chromatid cohesion during the meiotic divisions by inhibiting removal of meiotic cohesin complexes containing the REC-8 subunit. Worms lacking REC-8, or expressing a mutant separase protein with elevated local concentration at centrosomes and in sperm, likewise exhibit inappropriate centriole separation during spermatocyte meiosis. These observations are consistent with HIM-3 and HTP-1/2 preventing centriole disengagement by inhibiting separase-dependent cohesin removal. Our data suggest that the same specialized meiotic mechanisms that function to prevent premature release of sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis I in C. elegans also function to inhibit centriole separation at meiosis II, thereby ensuring that the zygote inherits the appropriate complement of chromosomes and centrioles.

  11. H3 Thr3 phosphorylation is crucial for meiotic resumption and anaphase onset in oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wei, Haojie; Du, Juan; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Nana; Liu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Dandan; Ma, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Haspin-catalyzed histone H3 threonine 3 (Thr3) phosphorylation facilitates chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) docking at centromeres, regulating indirectly chromosome behavior during somatic mitosis. It is not fully known about the expression and function of H3 with phosphorylated Thr3 (H3T3-P) during meiosis in oocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression and sub-cellular distribution of H3T3-P, as well as its function in mouse oocytes during meiotic division. Western blot analysis revealed that H3T3-P expression was only detected after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and gradually increased to peak level at metaphase I (MI), but sharply decreased at metaphase II (MII). Immunofluorescence showed H3T3-P was only brightly labeled on chromosomes after GVBD, with relatively high concentration across the whole chromosome axis from pro-metaphase I (pro-MI) to MI. Specially, H3T3-P distribution was exclusively limited to the local space between sister centromeres at MII stage. Haspin inhibitor, 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITu), dose- and time-dependently blocked H3T3-P expression in mouse oocytes. H3T3-P inhibition delayed the resumption of meiosis (GVBD) and chromatin condensation. Moreover, the loss of H3T3-P speeded up the meiotic transition to MII of pro-MI oocytes in spite of the presence of non-aligned chromosomes, even reversed MI-arrest induced with Nocodazole. The inhibition of H3T3-P expression distinguishably damaged MAD1 recruitment on centromeres, which indicates the spindle assembly checkpoint was impaired in function, logically explaining the premature onset of anaphase I. Therefore, Haspin-catalyzed histone H3 phosphorylation is essential for chromatin condensation and the following timely transition from meiosis I to meiosis II in mouse oocytes during meiotic division.

  12. The estimation of recombination rates from population genetic data

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Genetic recombination is an important process that generates new combinations of genes on which natural selection can operate. As such, an understanding of recombination in the human genome will provide insight into the evolutionary processes that have shaped our genetic history. The aim of this thesis is to use samples of population genetic data to explore the patterns of variation in the rate of recombination in the human genome. To do this I introduce a novel means of estimating recombinat...

  13. A Mutation in Mtap2 Is Associated with Arrest of Mammalian Spermatocytes before the First Meiotic Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyun Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of evolutionary conservation of meiosis, many of the genes that control mammalian meiosis are still unknown. We report here that the ENU-induced repro4 mutation, identified in a screen to uncover genes that control mouse meiosis, causes failure of spermatocytes to exit meiotic prophase I via the G2/MI transition. Major events of meiotic prophase I occurred normally in affected spermatocytes and known regulators of the meiotic G2/MI transition were present and functional. Deep sequencing of mutant DNA revealed a mutation located in an intron of the Mtap2 gene, encoding microtubule-associated protein 2, and levels of Mtap2 transcript were reduced in mutant testes. This evidence implicates MTAP2 as required directly or indirectly for completion of meiosis and normal spermatogenesis in mammals.

  14. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a southern Brazilian population of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

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    Rosane Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887. Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.

  15. X chromosome control of meiotic chromosome synapsis in mouse inter-subspecific hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Reifová, R.; Gregorová, Soňa; Šimeček, Petr; Gergelits, Václav; Mistrik, M.; Martincová, Iva; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2014), e1004088 ISSN 1553-7404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR Premium Academiae of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11079; GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : hybrid sterility * meiotic asynapsis * chromosome substitution strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.167, year: 2013

  16. Ability to Achieve Meiotic Maturation in the Dog Oocyte is Linked to Glycolysis and Glutamine Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsasen, Nucharin; Wesselowski, Sonya; Carpenter, James W.; Wildt, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that meiotic competence of dog oocytes was tightly linked with donor follicle size and energy metabolism. Oocytes were recovered from small (glycolysis, glucose oxidation, pyruvate uptake, glutamine oxidation and then nuclear status. More oocytes (P 0.05). Glycolytic rate increased (P dog follicles contain a more metabolically-active oocyte with a greater chance of achieving nuclear maturation in vitro. These findings demonstrate a significant role of energy metabolism in promoting dog oocyte maturation, information that will be useful for improving culture systems for rescuing intraovarian genetic material. PMID:22213348

  17. Ascospores of large-spored Metschnikowia species are genuine meiotic products of these yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinoni, G.; Piskur, Jure; Lachance, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The asci of Metschnikowia species normally contain two ascospores (never more), raising the question of whether these spores are true meiotic products. We investigated this problem by crossing genetically-marked strains of the haploid, heterothallic taxa, Metschnikowia hawaiiensis, Metschnikowia...... continentalis var. continentalis, and M. continentalis var. borealis. Asci were dissected and the segregation patterns for various phenotypes analyzed. In all cases (n = 47) both mating types (h(+) and h(-)) were recovered in pairs of sister spores, casting further uncertainty as to whether normal meiosis takes...

  18. Development, upscaling and validation of the purification process for human-cl rhFVIII (Nuwiq®), a new generation recombinant factor VIII produced in a human cell-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winge, Stefan; Yderland, Louise; Kannicht, Christoph; Hermans, Pim; Adema, Simon; Schmidt, Torben; Gilljam, Gustav; Linhult, Martin; Tiemeyer, Maya; Belyanskaya, Larisa; Walter, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    Human-cl rhFVIII (Nuwiq®), a new generation recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII), is the first rFVIII produced in a human cell-line approved by the European Medicines Agency. To describe the development, upscaling and process validation for industrial-scale human-cl rhFVIII purification. The purification process involves one centrifugation, two filtration, five chromatography columns and two dedicated pathogen clearance steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 20 nm nanofiltration). The key purification step uses an affinity resin (VIIISelect) with high specificity for FVIII, removing essentially all host-cell proteins with >80% product recovery. The production-scale multi-step purification process efficiently removes process- and product-related impurities and results in a high-purity rhFVIII product, with an overall yield of ∼50%. Specific activity of the final product was >9000 IU/mg, and the ratio between active FVIII and total FVIII protein present was >0.9. The entire production process is free of animal-derived products. Leaching of potential harmful compounds from chromatography resins and all pathogens tested were below the limit of quantification in the final product. Human-cl rhFVIII can be produced at 500 L bioreactor scale, maintaining high purity and recoveries. The innovative purification process ensures a high-purity and high-quality human-cl rhFVIII product with a high pathogen safety margin. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety and Efficacy of B-domain Deleted Third Generation Recombinant Factor VIII (GreenGene F™) in Korean Patients with Hemophilia A: Data from a Post-marketing Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Ki; Yoo, Ki Young; Lee, Kun Soo; Hwang, Taiju; Choi, Yong Mook; Choi, Eun Jin; Park, Sang Kyu

    2018-01-01

    New B-domain deleted third generation recombinant factor VIII (FVIII; GreenGene F™, beroctocog alfa) was launched in 2010. We determined safety and efficacy of GreenGene F™ during routine clinical practice in patients with hemophilia A over a period of 12 months. From July 2010 to July 2014, a total of 136 hemophilia A patients were enrolled in a post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study. Among them, 134 patients were assessed for drug safety and 114 patients were analyzed for drug efficacy. Patients with differing hemophilia A severities and medical histories were monitored during 12 months of prophylactic and/or on-demand therapy. Among 134 patients evaluated, 85 (63.4%) had severe hemophilia. Ninety-two received a total of 1,266,077 units for prophylaxis, and 42 received 516,491 units for bleeding episodes. Three patients developed inhibitors. In 112 previously treated patients, one patient (0.9%) developed inhibitor after intensive FVIII treatment for surgery. Among 22 previously untreated patients, inhibitors were observed in 2 infants (9.1%). Overall, there were a total of 47 adverse events (other than inhibitors) of all types in 30 patients (22.4%), 11 in 10 patients (7.5%) of which were considered showing serious adverse events (SAEs); most of which were hemorrhages at different sites. None of the SAEs were judged as product related. An excellent/good efficacy rate of 91.3% for hemostasis and 89.4% for hemorrhage prevention was recorded. The results of this PMS study support the use of GreenGene F™ as safe and efficacious in hemorrhage prevention and treatment of hemophilia A. These results are consistent with the findings from previously published GreenGene F™ studies. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. How hot are drosophila hotspots? examining recombination rate variation and associations with nucleotide diversity, divergence, and maternal age in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Manzano-Winkler

    Full Text Available Fine scale meiotic recombination maps have uncovered a large amount of variation in crossover rate across the genomes of many species, and such variation in mammalian and yeast genomes is concentrated to <5kb regions of highly elevated recombination rates (10-100x the background rate called "hotspots." Drosophila exhibit substantial recombination rate heterogeneity across their genome, but evidence for these highly-localized hotspots is lacking. We assayed recombination across a 40Kb region of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosome 2, with one 20kb interval assayed every 5Kb and the adjacent 20kb interval bisected into 10kb pieces. We found that recombination events across the 40kb stretch were relatively evenly distributed across each of the 5kb and 10kb intervals, rather than concentrated in a single 5kb region. This, in combination with other recent work, indicates that the recombination landscape of Drosophila may differ from the punctate recombination pattern observed in many mammals and yeast. Additionally, we found no correlation of average pairwise nucleotide diversity and divergence with recombination rate across the 20kb intervals, nor any effect of maternal age in weeks on recombination rate in our sample.

  1. Recombinant human erythropoietin in sports: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maia de Almeida Bento

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin is an endogenous hormone of glicoproteic nature secreted by the kidneys and is the main regulator of the erythropoiesis. An alteration in its production generates a disturbance in the plasmatic concentration giving rise to several types of pathologies related to the hematopoietic system. The recombinant forms of erythropoietin have indiscriminately been used by athletes, mainly in endurance sports, by increasing the erythrocytes concentration, generating a better delivery of oxygen to the muscle tissue. The administration of recombinant erythropoietin was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and its use considered as doping. This review has the intention to describe the physical, biological and pharmacokinetic properties of the endogenous erythropoietin, as well as its recombinant form, describing also its use in sports and the process of searching methodologies for its detection in doping control.

  2. Hadron correlations from recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Quark recombination is a successful model to describe the hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma. Jet-like dihadron correlations measured at RHIC provide a challenge for this picture. We discuss how correlations between hadrons can arise from correlations between partons before hadronization. An enhancement of correlations through the recombination process, similar to the enhancement of elliptic flow is found. Hot spots from completely or partially quenched jets are a likely source of such parton correlations.

  3. Xenopus laevis Kif18A is a highly processive kinesin required for meiotic spindle integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M. Möckel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The assembly and functionality of the mitotic spindle depends on the coordinated activities of microtubule-associated motor proteins of the dynein and kinesin superfamily. Our current understanding of the function of motor proteins is significantly shaped by studies using Xenopus laevis egg extract as its open structure allows complex experimental manipulations hardly feasible in other model systems. Yet, the Kinesin-8 orthologue of human Kif18A has not been described in Xenopus laevis so far. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Xenopus laevis (Xl Kif18A. Xenopus Kif18A is expressed during oocyte maturation and its depletion from meiotic egg extract results in severe spindle defects. These defects can be rescued by wild-type Kif18A, but not Kif18A lacking motor activity or the C-terminus. Single-molecule microscopy assays revealed that Xl_Kif18A possesses high processivity, which depends on an additional C-terminal microtubule-binding site. Human tissue culture cells depleted of endogenous Kif18A display mitotic defects, which can be rescued by wild-type, but not tail-less Xl_Kif18A. Thus, Xl_Kif18A is the functional orthologue of human Kif18A whose activity is essential for the correct function of meiotic spindles in Xenopus oocytes.

  4. The Nuclear Cap-Binding Complex Mediates Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan M. Decker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, cross walls between individual cells are normally incomplete, making the entire fungal network vulnerable to attack by viruses and selfish DNAs. Accordingly, several genome surveillance mechanisms are maintained to help the fungus combat these repetitive elements. One of these defense mechanisms is called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD, which identifies and silences unpaired genes during meiosis. Utilizing common RNA interference (RNAi proteins, such as Dicer and Argonaute, MSUD targets mRNAs homologous to the unpaired sequence to achieve silencing. In this study, we have identified an additional silencing component, namely the cap-binding complex (CBC. Made up of cap-binding proteins CBP20 and CBP80, CBC associates with the 5′ cap of mRNA transcripts in eukaryotes. The loss of CBC leads to a deficiency in MSUD activity, suggesting its role in mediating silencing. As confirmed in this study, CBC is predominantly nuclear, although it is known to travel in and out of the nucleus to facilitate RNA transport. As seen in animals but not in plants, CBP20’s robust nuclear import depends on CBP80 in Neurospora. CBC interacts with a component (Argonaute of the perinuclear meiotic silencing complex (MSC, directly linking the two cellular factors.

  5. Expression profiling of MAP kinase-mediated meiotic progression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie W Leacock

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The LET-60 (Ras/LIN-45 (Raf/MPK-1 (MAP kinase signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of multiple tissues in Caenorhabditis elegans. For the most part, the identities of the downstream genes that act as the ultimate effectors of MPK-1 signaling have remained elusive. A unique allele of mpk-1, ga111, displays a reversible, temperature-sensitive, tissue-specific defect in progression through meiotic prophase I. We performed gene expression profiling on mpk-1(ga111 animals to identify candidate downstream effectors of MPK-1 signaling in the germ line. This analysis delineated a cohort of genes whose expression requires MPK-1 signaling in germ cells in the pachytene stage of meiosis I. RNA in situ hybridization analysis shows that these genes are expressed in the germ line in an MPK-1-dependent manner and have a spatial expression pattern consistent with the location of activated MPK-1. We found that one MPK-1 signaling-responsive gene encoding a C2H2 zinc finger protein plays a role in meiotic chromosome segregation downstream of MPK-1. Additionally, discovery of genes responsive to MPK-1 signaling permitted us to order MPK-1 signaling relative to several events occurring in pachytene, including EFL-1/DPL-1 gene regulation and X chromosome reactivation. This study highlights the utility of applying global gene expression methods to investigate genes downstream of commonly used signaling pathways in vivo.

  6. The impact of Zearalenone on the meiotic progression and primordial follicle assembly during early oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke-Han; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Yan-Zhong; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Li, Bo; Li, Ya-Peng; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2017-08-15

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by fusarium graminearum. It can cause abnormal reproductive function by acting as an environmental estrogen. Research has traditionally focused on acute and chronic injury on mammalian reproductive capacity after ZEA treatment. Little research has been done studying the effects of ZEA exposure on early oogenesis. In this study, we investigate the effects of ZEA exposure on meiotic entry, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and primordial follicle assembly during murine early oogenesis. The results show that ZEA exposure significantly decreased the percentage of diplotene stage germ cells, and made more germ cells remain at zygotene or pachytene stages. Moreover, the mRNA expression level of meiosis-related genes was significantly reduced after ZEA treatment. ZEA exposure significantly increased DNA-DSBs at the diplotene stage. Meanwhile, DNA damage repair genes such as RAD51 and BRCA1 were activated. Furthermore, maternal exposure to ZEA significantly decreased the number of primordial follicles in newborn mouse ovaries. In conclusion, ZEA exposure impairs mouse female germ cell meiotic progression, DNA-DSBs, and primordial follicle assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochanin a and Daidzein Influence Meiotic Maturation of Pig Oocytes in a Different Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hošková K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of phytoestrogens biochanin A (BIO A; 20, 40, 50μg ml-1 and daidzein (DAI; 10, 20, 40, 50μg ml-1 on the course of meiotic maturation of pig oocytes. After a 24-hour cultivation, a stage of nuclear maturation was achieved and the areas of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs, as an indicator of cumulus expansion, were evaluated. The effects of both contaminants on oocytes were mani - fested from the lowest concentration used. Nuclear maturation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in the case of BIO A. Effects of DAI reached a plateau at a concentration of 20μg ml-1.Possible relationship to limited solubility of DAI was excluded because limits of DAI solubility in culture medium were confirmed at 50 μg ml-1.The cumulus expansion was also influenced in a different manner - reduction of the COC’s area by BIO A was dose-dependent, whereas DAI had the strongest effect on CCs in the lowest and highest concentrations used. Both phytoestrogens negatively influence the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes but there are significant differences in their concrete effects which could relate to the diverse mechanisms of their acting on target cells.

  8. A Meiotic Uv-Sensitive Mutant That Causes Deletion of Duplications in Neurospora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Dorothy; Galeazzi, Donna R.

    1978-01-01

    The meiotic-3 (mei-3) mutant of Neurospora crassa has several effects: (1) When homozygous, it almost completely blocks meiosis and ascospore formation, (2) it is sensitive to UV, (3) its growth is inhibited by histidine and, (4) it increases the instability of nontandem duplications. This was shown for duplications produced by five different rearrangements and was demonstrated by two different criteria. The effects on meiosis and duplication instability are expressed strongly at 25°; the effects on sensitivity to UV and to histidine are expressed strongly at 38.5° but only slightly at 25°. Nevertheless, all four effects were shown to be due to a single gene. mei-3 is not allelic with previously reported UV-sensitive mutants.—Two other results were obtained that are not necessarily due to mei-3: (1) A cross involving mei-3 produced a new unlinked meiotic mutant, mei-4, which is not sensitive to UV or histidine, and (2) a burst of several new mutants occurred in a different mei-3 stock, including a partial revertant of mei-3.—mei-3 has previously been shown to cause frequent complete loss of a terminal duplicate segment, beginning exactly at the original rearrangement breakpoint. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which a UV-sensitive mutant could cause such precise deletions. PMID:17248837

  9. Competition between meiotic and apomictic pathways during ovule and seed development results in clonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsgaard, Diego H; Martínez, Eric J; Quarin, Camilo L

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic and apomictic reproductive pathways develop simultaneously in facultative aposporous species, and compete to form a seed as a final goal. This developmental competition was evaluated in tetraploid genotypes of Paspalum malacophyllum in order to understand the low level of sexuality in facultative apomictic populations. Cyto-embryology on ovules, flow cytometry on seeds and progeny tests by DNA fingerprinting were used to measure the relative incidence of each meiotic or apomictic pathway along four different stages of the plant's life cycle, namely the beginning and end of gametogenesis, seed formation and adult offspring. A high variation in the frequencies of sexual and apomictic pathways occurred at the first two stages. A trend of radical decline in realized sexuality was then observed. Sexual and apomictic seeds were produced, but the efficiency of the sexual pathway dropped drastically, and exclusively clonal offspring remained. Both reproductive pathways are unstable at the beginning of development, and only the apomictic one remains functional. Key factors reducing sexuality are the faster growth and parthenogenetic development in the aposporous pathway, and an (epi)genetically negative background related to the extensive gene de-regulation pattern responsible for apomixis. The effects of inbreeding depression during post-fertilization development may further decrease the frequency of effective sexuality. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. The Phosphatase Dusp7 Drives Meiotic Resumption and Chromosome Alignment in Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Tischer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian oocytes are stored in the ovary, where they are arrested in prophase for prolonged periods. The mechanisms that abrogate the prophase arrest in mammalian oocytes and reinitiate meiosis are not well understood. Here, we identify and characterize an essential pathway for the resumption of meiosis that relies on the protein phosphatase DUSP7. DUSP7-depleted oocytes either fail to resume meiosis or resume meiosis with a significant delay. In the absence of DUSP7, Cdk1/CycB activity drops below the critical level required to reinitiate meiosis, precluding or delaying nuclear envelope breakdown. Our data suggest that DUSP7 drives meiotic resumption by dephosphorylating and thereby inactivating cPKC isoforms. In addition to controlling meiotic resumption, DUSP7 has a second function in chromosome segregation: DUSP7-depleted oocytes that enter meiosis show severe chromosome alignment defects and progress into anaphase prematurely. Altogether, these findings establish the phosphatase DUSP7 as an essential regulator of multiple steps in oocyte meiosis.

  11. Distinct TERB1 Domains Regulate Different Protein Interactions in Meiotic Telomere Movement

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    Jingjing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope (NE and drive the chromosome movement required for the pairing of homologous chromosomes. The meiosis-specific telomere proteins TERB1, TERB2, and MAJIN are required to regulate these events, but their assembly processes are largely unknown. Here, we developed a germ-cell-specific knockout mouse of the canonical telomere-binding protein TRF1 and revealed an essential role for TRF1 in directing the assembly of TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN. Further, we identified a TERB2 binding (T2B domain in TERB1 that is dispensable for the TRF1-TERB1 interaction but is essential for the subsequent TERB1-TERB2 interaction and therefore for telomere attachment to the NE. Meanwhile, cohesin recruitment at telomeres, which is required for efficient telomere movement, is mediated by the MYB-like domain of TERB1, but not by TERB2-MAJIN. Our results reveal distinct protein interactions through various domains of TERB1, which enable the sequential assembly of the meiotic telomere complex for their movements.

  12. Non-Mendelian Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Inheritance and Atypical Meiotic Configurations are Prevalent in Hop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Easterling, Katherine A; Pitra, Nicholi J; Coles, Mark C; Buckler, Edward S; Bass, Hank W; Matthews, Paul D

    2017-11-01

    Hop ( L.) breeding programs seek to exploit genetic resources for bitter flavor, aroma, and disease resistance. However, these efforts have been thwarted by segregation distortion including female-biased sex ratios. To better understand the transmission genetics of hop, we genotyped 4512 worldwide accessions of hop, including cultivars, landraces, and over 100 wild accessions using a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. From the resulting ∼1.2 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), prequalified GBS markers were validated by inferences in population structures and phylogeny. Analysis of pseudo-testcross (Pt) mapping data from F families revealed mixed patterns of Mendelian and non-Mendelian segregation. Three-dimensional (3D) cytogenetic analysis of late meiotic prophase nuclei from two wild and two cultivated hop revealed conspicuous and prevalent occurrences of multiple, atypical, nondisomic chromosome complexes including autosomes. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fixation index (F) analysis to demonstrate selection mapping of genetic loci for key traits including sex, bitter acids, and drought tolerance. Among the possible mechanisms underlying the observed segregation distortion from the genomic data analysis, the cytogenetic analysis points to meiotic chromosome behavior as one of the contributing factors. The findings shed light on long-standing questions on the unusual transmission genetics and phenotypic variation in hop, with major implications for breeding, cultivation, and the natural history of . Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  13. Mouse BRWD1 is critical for spermatid postmeiotic transcription and female meiotic chromosome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabiraman, Shrivatsav; Baumann, Claudia; Guisado, Daniela; Eppig, John J; Schimenti, John C; De La Fuente, Rabindranath

    2015-01-05

    Postmeiotic gene expression is essential for development and maturation of sperm and eggs. We report that the dual bromodomain-containing protein BRWD1, which is essential for both male and female fertility, promotes haploid spermatid-specific transcription but has distinct roles in oocyte meiotic progression. Brwd1 deficiency caused down-regulation of ∼300 mostly spermatid-specific transcripts in testis, including nearly complete elimination of those encoding the protamines and transition proteins, but was not associated with global epigenetic changes in chromatin, which suggests that BRWD1 acts selectively. In females, Brwd1 ablation caused severe chromosome condensation and structural defects associated with abnormal telomere structure but only minor changes in gene expression at the germinal vesicle stage, including more than twofold overexpression of the histone methyltransferase MLL5 and LINE-1 elements transposons. Thus, loss of BRWD1 function interferes with the completion of oogenesis and spermatogenesis through sexually dimorphic mechanisms: it is essential in females for epigenetic control of meiotic chromosome stability and in males for haploid gene transcription during postmeiotic sperm differentiation. © 2015 Pattabiraman et al.

  14. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Cloutier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX. We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities.

  15. The chromosomal basis of meiotic acentrosomal spindle assembly and function in oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Sarah J; Nguyen, Alexandra L; Schindler, Karen; McKim, Kim S

    2017-06-01

    Several aspects of meiosis are impacted by the absence of centrosomes in oocytes. Here, we review four aspects of meiosis I that are significantly affected by the absence of centrosomes in oocyte spindles. One, microtubules tend to assemble around the chromosomes. Two, the organization of these microtubules into a bipolar spindle is directed by the chromosomes. Three, chromosome bi-orientation and attachment to microtubules from the correct pole require modification of the mechanisms used in mitotic cells. Four, chromosome movement to the poles at anaphase cannot rely on polar anchoring of spindle microtubules by centrosomes. Overall, the chromosomes are more active participants during acentrosomal spindle assembly in oocytes, compared to mitotic and male meiotic divisions where centrosomes are present. The chromosomes are endowed with information that can direct the meiotic divisions and dictate their own behavior in oocytes. Processes beyond those known from mitosis appear to be required for their bi-orientation at meiosis I. As mitosis occurs without centrosomes in many systems other than oocytes, including all plants, the concepts discussed here may not be limited to oocytes. The study of meiosis in oocytes has revealed mechanisms that are operating in mitosis and will probably continue to do so.

  16. The rate of nonallelic homologous recombination in males is highly variable, correlated between monozygotic twins and independent of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A L MacArthur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between highly similar duplicated sequences generates chromosomal deletions, duplications and inversions, which can cause diverse genetic disorders. Little is known about interindividual variation in NAHR rates and the factors that influence this. We estimated the rate of deletion at the CMT1A-REP NAHR hotspot in sperm DNA from 34 male donors, including 16 monozygotic (MZ co-twins (8 twin pairs aged 24 to 67 years old. The average NAHR rate was 3.5 × 10(-5 with a seven-fold variation across individuals. Despite good statistical power to detect even a subtle correlation, we observed no relationship between age of unrelated individuals and the rate of NAHR in their sperm, likely reflecting the meiotic-specific origin of these events. We then estimated the heritability of deletion rate by calculating the intraclass correlation (ICC within MZ co-twins, revealing a significant correlation between MZ co-twins (ICC = 0.784, p = 0.0039, with MZ co-twins being significantly more correlated than unrelated pairs. We showed that this heritability cannot be explained by variation in PRDM9, a known regulator of NAHR, or variation within the NAHR hotspot itself. We also did not detect any correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI, smoking status or alcohol intake and rate of NAHR. Our results suggest that other, as yet unidentified, genetic or environmental factors play a significant role in the regulation of NAHR and are responsible for the extensive variation in the population for the probability of fathering a child with a genomic disorder resulting from a pathogenic deletion.

  17. Recombinant human activated protein C (Xigris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; de Jonge, E.; van der Poll, T.

    2002-01-01

    An impaired function of the protein C pathway plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Administration of human recombinant activated protein C (Xigris) may restore the dysfunctional anticoagulant mechanism and prevent amplification and propagation of thrombin generation and formation of

  18. Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Isaac; Charkey, Allen

    1989-01-01

    An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

  19. The molecular chaperone Hsp90α is required for meiotic progression of spermatocytes beyond pachytene in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grad

    Full Text Available The molecular chaperone Hsp90 has been found to be essential for viability in all tested eukaryotes, from the budding yeast to Drosophila. In mammals, two genes encode the two highly similar and functionally largely redundant isoforms Hsp90α and Hsp90β. Although they are co-expressed in most if not all cells, their relative levels vary between tissues and during development. Since mouse embryos lacking Hsp90β die at implantation, and despite the fact that Hsp90 inhibitors being tested as anti-cancer agents are relatively well tolerated, the organismic functions of Hsp90 in mammals remain largely unknown. We have generated mouse lines carrying gene trap insertions in the Hsp90α gene to investigate the global functions of this isoform. Surprisingly, mice without Hsp90α are apparently normal, with one major exception. Mutant male mice, whose Hsp90β levels are unchanged, are sterile because of a complete failure to produce sperm. While the development of the male reproductive system appears to be normal, spermatogenesis arrests specifically at the pachytene stage of meiosis I. Over time, the number of spermatocytes and the levels of the meiotic regulators and Hsp90 interactors Hsp70-2, NASP and Cdc2 are reduced. We speculate that Hsp90α may be required to maintain and to activate these regulators and/or to disassemble the synaptonemal complex that holds homologous chromosomes together. The link between fertility and Hsp90 is further supported by our finding that an Hsp90 inhibitor that can cross the blood-testis barrier can partially phenocopy the genetic defects.

  20. Test tube systems with cutting/recombination operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria); Csuhaj-Varju, E. [Computer and Automation Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Wachtler, F. [Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    We introduce test tube systems based on operations that are closely related to the splicing operations, i.e. we consider the operations of cutting a string at a specific site into two pieces with marking them at the cut ends and of recombining two strings with specifically marked endings. Whereas in the splicing of two strings these strings are cut at specific sites and the cut pieces are recombined immediately in a crosswise way, in CR(cutting/recombination)-schemes cutting can happen independently from recombining the cut pieces. Test tube systems based on these operations of cutting and recombination turn out to have maximal generative power even if only very restricted types of input filters for the test tubes are used for the redistribution of the contents of the test tubes after a period of cuttings and recombinations in the test tubes. 10 refs.

  1. NuMA in rat testis--evidence for roles in proliferative activity and meiotic cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taimen, Pekka; Parvinen, Martti; Osborn, Mary; Kallajoki, Markku

    2004-08-15

    NuMA is a well-characterized organizer of the mitotic spindle, which is believed to play a structural role in interphase nucleus. We studied the expression of NuMA in rat seminiferous epithelium in detail. Different stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium were identified using transillumination. Corresponding areas were microdissected and analysed using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, or immunoblotting. NuMA was expressed in Sertoli cells, proliferating type A and B spermatogonia, and early spermatids but it was absent in late spermatids and mature spermatozoa. Interestingly, NuMA-positive primary spermatocytes lost their nuclear NuMA at the beginning of long-lasting prophase of the first meiotic division. A strong expression was again observed at the end of the prophase and finally, a redistribution of NuMA into pole regions of the meiotic spindle was observed in first and second meiotic divisions. In immunoblotting, a single 250-kDa protein present in all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle was detected. Our results show that NuMA is not essential for the organization of nuclear structure in all cell types and suggest that its presence is more likely connected to the proliferation phase of the cells. They also suggest that NuMA may play an important role in meiotic cell division.

  2. Comparative Meiotic Studies in Triatoma sordida (Stål and T. guasayana Wygodzinsky & Abalos (Reduviidae, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rebagliati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma sordida and T. guasayana are competent Trypanosoma cruzi vectors, with overlapping distribution areas in Argentina. Both species are morphologically similar, and their immature stages are hard to discriminate. Cytogenetic studies in the genus Triatoma reveal scarce karyotypic variations, being 2n= 20 + XY the most frequent diploid number in males. In the present work the meiotic behaviour of different Argentinian populations of T. sordida and T. guasayana has been analyzed; the meiotic karyotype of both species has also been compared. The species differ in total chromosome area and in the relative area of the sex chromosomes. These meiotic karyotypic differences constitute an additional tool for the taxonomic characterization of T. sordida and T. guasayana. The analysis of an interpopulation hybrid of T. sordida (Brazil x Argentina reveals a regular meiotic behaviour, despite the presence of heteromorphic bivalents. Our observations support the hypothesis that karyotype variations through the gain or loss of heterochromatin can not be considered as a primary mechanism of reproductive isolation in Triatoma.

  3. A recombinant rabies virus expressing luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Tan, Y; Dun, C; Guo, X

    2010-01-01

    A recombinant Rabies virus (RV) expressing firefly luciferase (rRV-luc) was generated by an improved reverse genetics system. Its biological properties were compared with those of the parental RV. The rRV-luc grew in BHK-21 cells similarly to RV, but its virulence for mice was weaker as shown by the lower infectious titers in brain. Rising infectious titers of rRV-luc during its passaging in BHK-21 cells indicated a virus adaptation, while the luciferase (luc) expression was stable. These results suggest that the recombinant RV carrying luc gene might prove a useful tool for further analysis of pathogenesis of RV in small animal models.

  4. How did the platypus get its sex chromosome chain? A comparison of meiotic multiples and sex chromosomes in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruetzner, Frank; Ashley, Terry; Rowell, David M; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2006-04-01

    The duck-billed platypus is an extraordinary mammal. Its chromosome complement is no less extraordinary, for it includes a system in which ten sex chromosomes form an extensive meiotic chain in males. Such meiotic multiples are unprecedented in vertebrates but occur sporadically in plant and invertebrate species. In this paper, we review the evolution and formation of meiotic multiples in plants and invertebrates to try to gain insights into the origin of the platypus meiotic multiple. We describe the meiotic hurdles that translocated mammalian chromosomes face, which make longer chains disadvantageous in mammals, and we discuss how sex chromosomes and dosage compensation might have affected the evolution of sex-linked meiotic multiples. We conclude that the evolutionary conservation of the chain in monotremes, the structural properties of the translocated chromosomes and the highly accurate segregation at meiosis make the platypus system remarkably different from meiotic multiples in other species. We discuss alternative evolutionary models, which fall broadly into two categories: either the chain is the result of a sequence of translocation events from an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes (Model I) or the entire chain came into being at once by hybridization of two populations with different chromosomal rearrangements sharing monobrachial homology (Model II).

  5. Molecular analysis of intragenic recombination at the tryptophan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/jgen/092/03/0523-0528. Keywords. mutation; recombination; DNA sequence; primary metabolism; trp-3. Abstract. Fifteen different classically generated and mapped mutations at the tryptophan synthetase locus in Neurospora crassa ...

  6. Gateway Recombinational Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2018-01-02

    The Gateway recombinatorial cloning system was developed for cloning multiple DNA fragments in parallel (e.g., in 96-well formats) in a standardized manner using the same enzymes. Gateway cloning is based on the highly specific integration and excision reactions of bacteriophage λ into and out of the Escherichia coli genome. Because the sites of recombination (" att " sites) are much longer (25-242 bp) than restriction sites, they are extremely unlikely to occur by chance in DNA fragments. Therefore, the same recombination enzyme can be used to robustly clone many different fragments of variable size in parallel reactions. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Synaptonemal Complex Components Are Required for Meiotic Checkpoint Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Tisha; Ashley, Guinevere; Eggleston, Evan; Firestone, Kyra; Bhalla, Needhi

    2016-01-01

    Synapsis involves the assembly of a proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC), between paired homologous chromosomes, and is essential for proper meiotic chromosome segregation. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the synapsis checkpoint selectively removes nuclei with unsynapsed chromosomes by inducing apoptosis. This checkpoint depends on pairing centers (PCs), cis-acting sites that promote pairing and synapsis. We have hypothesized that the stability of homolog pairing at PCs is monitored by this checkpoint. Here, we report that SC components SYP-3, HTP-3, HIM-3, and HTP-1 are required for a functional synapsis checkpoint. Mutation of these components does not abolish PC function, demonstrating they are bona fide checkpoint components. Further, we identify mutant backgrounds in which the instability of homolog pairing at PCs does not correlate with the synapsis checkpoint response. Altogether, these data suggest that, in addition to homolog pairing, SC assembly may be monitored by the synapsis checkpoint. PMID:27605049

  8. Holocentromere identity: from the typical mitotic linear structure to the great plasticity of meiotic holocentromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, André; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    The centromere is the chromosomal site of kinetochore assembly and is responsible for the correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotes. Contrary to monocentrics, holocentric chromosomes lack a primary constriction, what is attributed to a kinetochore activity along almost the entire chromosome length during mitosis. This extended centromere structure imposes a problem during meiosis, since sister holocentromeres are not co-oriented during first meiotic division. Thus, regardless of the relatively conserved somatic chromosome structure of holocentrics, during meiosis holocentric chromosomes show different adaptations to deal with this condition. Recent findings in holocentrics have brought back the discussion of the great centromere plasticity of eukaryotes, from the typical CENH3-based holocentromeres to CENH3-less holocentric organisms. Here, we summarize recent and former findings about centromere/kinetochore adaptations shown by holocentric organisms during mitosis and meiosis and discuss how these adaptations are related to the type of meiosis found.

  9. PLD2 regulates microtubule stability and spindle migration in mouse oocytes during meiotic division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D2 (PLD2 is involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell cycle progression, transcriptional control and vesicle trafficking. There is no evidence about PLD2 function in oocytes during meiosis. Herein, we analyzed PLD2 expression and its relationship with spindle formation and positioning in mouse oocyte meiosis. High protein level of PLD2 was revealed in oocytes by Western blot, which remained consistently stable from prophase I with intact germinal vesicle (GV up to metaphase II (MII stage. Immunofluorescence showed that PLD2 appeared and gathered around the condensed chromosomesafter germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD, and co-localized with spindle from pro-metaphase I (pro-MI to metaphase I (MI and at MII stage. During anaphase I (Ana I to telophase I (Tel I transition, PLD2 was concentrated in the spindle polar area but absent from the midbody. In oocytes incubated with NFOT, an allosteric and catalytic inhibitor to PLD2, the spindle was enlarged and center-positioned, microtubules were resistant to cold-induced depolymerization and, additionally, the meiotic progression was arrested at MI stage. However, spindle migration could not be totally prevented by PLD2 catalytic specific inhibitors, FIPI and 1-butanol, implying at least partially, that PLD2 effect on spindle migration needs non-catalytic domain participation. NFOT-induced defects also resulted in actin-related molecules’ distribution alteration, such as RhoA, phosphatidylinosital 4, 5- biphosphate (PIP2, phosphorylated Colifin and, consequently, unordered F-actin dynamics. Taken together, these data indicate PLD2 is required for the regulation of microtubule dynamics and spindle migration toward the cortex in mammalian oocytes during meiotic progression.

  10. Meiotic development initiation in the fungus Podospora anserina requires the peroxisome receptor export machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaste-Olmos, Fernando; Zirión-Martínez, Claudia; Takano-Rojas, Harumi; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo

    2018-04-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile organelles essential for diverse developmental processes. One such process is the meiotic development of Podospora anserina. In this fungus, absence of the docking peroxin PEX13, the RING-finger complex peroxins, or the PTS2 co-receptor PEX20 blocks sexual development before meiocyte formation. However, this defect is not seen in the absence of the receptors PEX5 and PEX7, or of the docking peroxins PEX14 and PEX14/17. Here we describe the function of the remaining uncharacterized P. anserina peroxins predictably involved in peroxisome matrix protein import. We show that PEX8, as well as the peroxins potentially mediating receptor monoubiquitination (PEX4 and PEX22) and membrane dislocation (PEX1, PEX6 and PEX26) are indeed implicated in peroxisome matrix protein import in this fungus. However, we observed that elimination of PEX4 and PEX22 affects to different extent the import of distinct PEX5 cargoes, suggesting differential ubiquitination-complex requirements for the import of distinct proteins. In addition, we found that elimination of PEX1, PEX6 or PEX26 results in loss of peroxisomes, suggesting that these peroxins restrain peroxisome removal in specific physiological conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that all analyzed peroxins are required for meiocyte formation, and that PEX20 function in this process depends on its potential monoubiquitination target cysteine. Our results suggest that meiotic induction relies on a peroxisome import pathway, which is not dependent on PEX5 or PEX7 but that is driven by an additional cycling receptor. These findings uncover a collection of peroxins implicated in modulating peroxisome activity to facilitate a critical developmental cell fate decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Meiotic Interactors of a Mitotic Gene TAO3 Revealed by Functional Analysis of its Rare Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saumya; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Nitin, Rachana; Raharja-Liu, Pandu; Lin, Gen; Steinmetz, Lars M; Gagneur, Julien; Sinha, Himanshu

    2016-08-09

    Studying the molecular consequences of rare genetic variants has the potential to identify novel and hitherto uncharacterized pathways causally contributing to phenotypic variation. Here, we characterize the functional consequences of a rare coding variant of TAO3, previously reported to contribute significantly to sporulation efficiency variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae During mitosis, the common TAO3 allele interacts with CBK1-a conserved NDR kinase. Both TAO3 and CBK1 are components of the RAM signaling network that regulates cell separation and polarization during mitosis. We demonstrate that the role of the rare allele TAO3(4477C) in meiosis is distinct from its role in mitosis by being independent of ACE2-a RAM network target gene. By quantitatively measuring cell morphological dynamics, and expressing the TAO3(4477C) allele conditionally during sporulation, we show that TAO3 has an early role in meiosis. This early role of TAO3 coincides with entry of cells into meiotic division. Time-resolved transcriptome analyses during early sporulation identified regulators of carbon and lipid metabolic pathways as candidate mediators. We show experimentally that, during sporulation, the TAO3(4477C) allele interacts genetically with ERT1 and PIP2, regulators of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis metabolic pathways, respectively. We thus uncover a meiotic functional role for TAO3, and identify ERT1 and PIP2 as novel regulators of sporulation efficiency. Our results demonstrate that studying the causal effects of genetic variation on the underlying molecular network has the potential to provide a more extensive understanding of the pathways driving a complex trait. Copyright © 2016 Gupta et al.

  12. Comparison of the Genetic Recombination Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Macrophages and T Cells†

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianbo; Rhodes, Terence D.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exhibits a high level of genetic variation generated by frequent mutation and genetic recombination during reverse transcription. We have measured HIV-1 recombination rates in T cells in one round of virus replication. It was recently proposed that HIV-1 recombines far more frequently in macrophages than in T cells. In an attempt to delineate the mechanisms that elevate recombination, we measured HIV-1 recombination rates in macrophages at three dif...

  13. High efficiency of targeted mutagenesis in arabidopsis via meiotic promoter-driven expression of Cas9 endonuclease

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Ayman

    2016-05-28

    Key message: The use of a meiosis I-specific promoter increased the efficiency of targeted mutagenesis and will facilitate the manipulation of homologous recombination. Abstract: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been harnessed for targeted engineering of eukaryotic genomes, including plants; however, CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency varies considerably in different plant tissues and species. In Arabidopsis, the generation of homozygous or bi-allelic mutants in the first (T1) generation is inefficient. Here, we used specific promoters to drive the expression of Cas9 during meiosis to maximize the efficiency of recovering heritable mutants in T1 plants. Our data reveal that the use of a promoter active in meiosis I resulted in high-efficiency (28 %) recovery of targeted mutants in the T1 generation. Moreover, this method enabled efficient simultaneous targeting of three genes for mutagenesis. Taken together, our results show that the use of meiosis-specific promoters will improve methods for functional genomic analysis and studying the molecular underpinnings of homologous recombination. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Caenorhabditis briggsae recombinant inbred line genotypes reveal inter-strain incompatibility and the evolution of recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Ross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  15. Homologous plasmid recombination is elevated in immortally transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, G K; Kurz, B W; Cheng, R Z; Shmookler Reis, R J

    1989-09-01

    The levels of intramolecular plasmid recombination, following transfection of a plasmid substrate for homologous recombination into normal and immortally transformed cells, have been examined by two independent assays. In the first assay, recovered plasmid was tested for DNA rearrangements which regenerate a functional neomycin resistance gene from two overlapping fragments. Following transformation of bacteria, frequencies of recombinationlike events were determined from the ratio of neomycin-resistant (recombinant) colonies to ampicillin-resistant colonies (indicating total plasmid recovery). Such events, yielding predominantly deletions between the directly repeated sequences, were substantially more frequent in five immortal cell lines than in any of three normal diploid cell strains tested. Effects of plasmid replication or interaction with T antigen and of bacterially mediated rejoining of linear molecules generated in mammalian cells were excluded by appropriate controls. The second assay used limited coamplification of a control segment of plasmid DNA, and of the predicted recombinant DNA region, primed by two sets of flanking oligonucleotides. Each amplified band was quantitated by reference to a near-linear standard curve generated concurrently, and recombination frequencies were determined from the ratio of recombinant/control DNA regions. The results confirmed that recombinant DNA structures were generated within human cells at direct repeats in the transfected plasmid and were markedly more abundant in an immortal cell line than in the diploid normal cells from which that line was derived.

  16. In vivo production of recombinant proteins using occluded recombinant AcMNPV-derived baculovirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro-Pardo, Eva; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M

    2017-12-01

    Trichoplusia ni insect larvae infected with vectors derived from the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), are an excellent alternative to insect cells cultured in conventional bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins because productivity and cost-efficiency reasons. However, there is still a lot of work to do to reduce the manual procedures commonly required in this production platform that limit its scalability. To increase the scalability of this platform technology, a current bottleneck to be circumvented in the future is the need of injection for the inoculation of larvae with polyhedrin negative baculovirus vectors (Polh-) because of the lack of oral infectivity of these viruses, which are commonly used for production in insect cell cultures. In this work we have developed a straightforward alternative to obtain orally infective vectors derived from AcMNPV and expressing recombinant proteins that can be administered to the insect larvae (Trichoplusia ni) by feeding, formulated in the insect diet. The approach developed was based on the use of a recombinant polyhedrin protein expressed by a recombinant vector (Polh+), able to co-occlude any recombinant Polh- baculovirus vector expressing a recombinant protein. A second alternative was developed by the generation of a dual vector co-expressing the recombinant polyhedrin protein and the foreign gene of interest to obtain the occluded viruses. Additionally, by the incorporation of a reporter gene into the helper Polh+ vector, it was possible the follow-up visualization of the co-occluded viruses infection in insect larvae and will help to homogenize infection conditions. By using these methodologies, the production of recombinant proteins in per os infected larvae, without manual infection procedures, was very similar in yield to that obtained by manual injection of recombinant Polh- AcMNPV-based vectors expressing the same proteins. However, further analyses will be required for a

  17. Sex recombination, and reproductive fitness: an experimental study using Paramecium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, D.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of sex and recombination on reproductive fitness are measured using five wild stocks of Paramecium primaurelia. Among the wild stocks there were highly significant differences in growth rates. No hybrid had as low a fitness as the least fit parental stock. Recombination produced genotypes of higher fitness than those of either parent only in the cross between the two stocks of lowest fitness. The increase in variance of fitness as a result of recombination was almost exclusively attributable to the generation lines with low fitness. The fitness consequences of sexuality and mate choice were stock specific; some individuals leaving the most descendants by inbreeding, others by outcrossing. For most crosses the short-term advantage of sex, if any, accrue from the fusion of different gametes (hybrid vigor) and not from recombination. Since the homozygous genotype with the highest fitnes left the most progeny by inbreeding (no recombination), the persistence of conjugation in P. primaurelia is paradoxical. (JMT)

  18. Effects of antitopoisomerase drugs on chromosome recombinations and segregation in grasshopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palitti, F. [Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellius (Italy); Motta, S.; Grazioso, C.; Pisano, M.C. [Universita di Catania (Italy)

    1993-12-31

    The role of different cellular functions which are required for the production of euploid cells can be studied through the use of mutants that are defective in the control of both the meiotic and mitotic cell cycle or through the use of compounds which interface with the various cellular targets which have a role in the segregation of chromosomes. The role of the achromatic part of the mitotic apparatus in the production of aneuploidy is well recognized. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the role of the chromatic part, for example, there are observations that disturbances in the normal {open_quotes}metabolism{close_quotes} of the chromosomes (i.e. chromosome condensation, defective DNA repair or recombination) can affect chromosome segregation. Between the processes of both meiosis and mitosis that lead to nuclear division there are, however, important differences.

  19. Male meiosis in Crustacea: synapsis, recombination, epigenetics and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Rocío; Van Damme, Kay; Gosálvez, Jaime; Morán, Eugenio Sánchez; Colbourne, John K

    2016-09-01

    We present the first detailed cytological study of male meiosis in Daphnia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)-an aquatic microcrustacean with a cyclical parthenogenetic life cycle. Using immunostaining of the testes in Daphnia magna for baseline knowledge, we characterized the different stages of meiotic division and spermiogenesis in relation to the distribution of proteins involved in synapsis, early recombination events and sister chromatid cohesion. We also studied post-translational histone modifications in male spermatocytes, in relation to the dynamic chromatin progression of meiosis. Finally, we applied a DNA fragmentation test to measure sperm quality of D. magna, with respect to levels of inbreeding. As a proxy for fertility, this technique may be used to assess the reproductive health of a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems. Daphnia proves to be a model species for comparative studies of meiosis that is poised to improve our understanding of the cytological basis of sexual and asexual reproduction.

  20. Site directed recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  1. Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

  2. Evidence of recombination in intrapatient populations of hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentandreu, Vicente; Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Bracho, María Alma; Valero, Ana; Gosalbes, María José; Ortega, Enrique; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2008-09-18

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in the future. HCV is characterized by a high level of genetic heterogeneity. Although homologous recombination has been demonstrated in many members of the family Flaviviridae, to which HCV belongs, there are only a few studies reporting recombination on natural populations of HCV, suggesting that these events are rare in vivo. Furthermore, these few studies have focused on recombination between different HCV genotypes/subtypes but there are no reports on the extent of intra-genotype or intra-subtype recombination between viral strains infecting the same patient. Given the important implications of recombination for RNA virus evolution, our aim in this study has been to assess the existence and eventually the frequency of intragenic recombination on HCV. For this, we retrospectively have analyzed two regions of the HCV genome (NS5A and E1-E2) in samples from two different groups: (i) patients infected only with HCV (either treated with interferon plus ribavirin or treatment naïve), and (ii) HCV-HIV co-infected patients (with and without treatment against HIV). The complete data set comprised 17712 sequences from 136 serum samples derived from 111 patients. Recombination analyses were performed using 6 different methods implemented in the program RDP3. Recombination events were considered when detected by at least 3 of the 6 methods used and were identified in 10.7% of the amplified samples, distributed throughout all the groups described and the two genomic regions studied. The resulting recombination events were further verified by detailed phylogenetic analyses. The complete experimental procedure was applied to an artificial mixture of relatively closely viral populations and the ensuing analyses failed to reveal artifactual recombination. From these results we conclude that recombination should be considered as a potentially

  3. A Meiotic Drive Element in the Maize Pathogen Fusarium verticillioides Is Located Within a 102 kb Region of Chromosome V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Pyle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides is an agriculturally important fungus because of its association with maize and its propensity to contaminate grain with toxic compounds. Some isolates of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element known as Spore killer (SkK that causes nearly all surviving meiotic progeny from an SkK × Spore killer-susceptible (SkS cross to inherit the SkK allele. SkK has been mapped to chromosome V but the genetic element responsible for meiotic drive has yet to be identified. In this study, we used cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to genotype individual progeny from an SkK × SkS mapping population. We also sequenced the genomes of three progeny from the mapping population to determine their single nucleotide polymorphisms. These techniques allowed us to refine the location of SkK to a contiguous 102 kb interval of chromosome V, herein referred to as the Sk region. Relative to SkS genotypes, SkK genotypes have one extra gene within this region for a total of 42 genes. The additional gene in SkK genotypes, herein named SKC1 for Spore Killer Candidate 1, is the most highly expressed gene from the Sk region during early stages of sexual development. The Sk region also has three hyper-variable regions, the longest of which includes SKC1. The possibility that SKC1, or another gene from the Sk region, is an essential component of meiotic drive and spore killing is discussed.

  4. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  5. Meiotic behaviour and its implication on species inter-relationship in the genus Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mary Lamo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800 and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918. Both groups display varying degree of chromosome associations. Group I species showed the prevalence of bivalents, however occasional quadrivalents besides univalents were also encountered. About 48% of the PMCs analyzed in C. mangga showed 21 bivalents (II meiotic configurations, 32% in C. comosa and 16% in C. haritha. Group II species as expected showed the presence of trivalents besides bivalents, univalents and quadrivalents. About 32% of the PMCs analyzed at MI in C. sylvatica showed 21 trivalents (III meiotic configurations, 24% in C. longa and 8% in C. caesia. Overall, low frequency of multivalent associations as compared to bivalents indicates that Curcuma is an allopolyploid complex. Moreover, x = 21 is too high a basic number, therefore, we suggest that the genus Curcuma has evolved by hybridization of species with different chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 18, resulting in a dibasic amphidiploid species.

  6. Genomic sequence of a mutant strain of Caenorhabditis elegans with an altered recombination pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Marco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The original sequencing and annotation of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome along with recent advances in sequencing technology provide an exceptional opportunity for the genomic analysis of wild-type and mutant strains. Using the Illumina Genome Analyzer, we sequenced the entire genome of Rec-1, a strain that alters the distribution of meiotic crossovers without changing the overall frequency. Rec-1 was derived from ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS-treated strains, one of which had a high level of transposable element mobility. Sequencing of this strain provides an opportunity to examine the consequences on the genome of altering the distribution of meiotic recombination events. Results Using Illumina sequencing and MAQ software, 83% of the base pair sequence reads were aligned to the reference genome available at Wormbase, providing a 21-fold coverage of the genome. Using the software programs MAQ and Slider, we observed 1124 base pair differences between Rec-1 and the reference genome in Wormbase (WS190, and 441 between the mutagenized Rec-1 (BC313 and the wild-type N2 strain (VC2010. The most frequent base-substitution was G:C to A:T, 141 for the entire genome most of which were on chromosomes I or X, 55 and 31 respectively. With this data removed, no obvious pattern in the distribution of the base differences along the chromosomes was apparent. No major chromosomal rearrangements were observed, but additional insertions of transposable elements were detected. There are 11 extra copies of Tc1, and 8 of Tc2 in the Rec-1 genome, most likely the remains of past high-hopper activity in a progenitor strain. Conclusion Our analysis of high-throughput sequencing was able to detect regions of direct repeat sequences, deletions, insertions of transposable elements, and base pair differences. A subset of sequence alterations affecting coding regions were confirmed by an independent approach using oligo array comparative genome

  7. Thelytokous Parthenogenesis in Unmated Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis): Central Fusion and High Recombination Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P.; Allsopp, Michael H.; Gloag, Rosalyn S.; Lim, Julianne; Jordan, Lyndon A.; Beekman, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    The subspecies of honeybee indigenous to the Cape region of South Africa, Apis mellifera capensis, is unique because a high proportion of unmated workers can lay eggs that develop into females via thelytokous parthenogenesis involving central fusion of meiotic products. This ability allows pseudoclonal lineages of workers to establish, which are presently widespread as reproductive parasites within the honeybee populations of South Africa. Successful long-term propagation of a parthenogen requires the maintenance of heterozygosity at the sex locus, which in honeybees must be heterozygous for the expression of female traits. Thus, in successful lineages of parasitic workers, recombination events are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to meiosis in queens of other honeybee subspecies. Here we show that in unmated A. m. capensis queens treated to induce oviposition, no such reduction in recombination occurs, indicating that thelytoky and reduced recombination are not controlled by the same gene. Our virgin queens were able to lay both arrhenotokous male-producing haploid eggs and thelytokous female-producing diploid eggs at the same time, with evidence that they have some voluntary control over which kind of egg was laid. If so, they are able to influence the kind of second-division meiosis that occurs in their eggs post partum. PMID:18716331

  8. iRSpot-EL: identify recombination spots with an ensemble learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Shanyi; Long, Ren; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Coexisting in a DNA system, meiosis and recombination are two indispensible aspects for cell reproduction and growth. With the avalanche of genome sequences emerging in the post-genomic age, it is an urgent challenge to acquire the information of DNA recombination spots because it can timely provide very useful insights into the mechanism of meiotic recombination and the process of genome evolution. To address such a challenge, we have developed a predictor, called IRSPOT-EL: , by fusing different modes of pseudo K-tuple nucleotide composition and mode of dinucleotide-based auto-cross covariance into an ensemble classifier of clustering approach. Five-fold cross tests on a widely used benchmark dataset have indicated that the new predictor remarkably outperforms its existing counterparts. Particularly, far beyond their reach, the new predictor can be easily used to conduct the genome-wide analysis and the results obtained are quite consistent with the experimental map. For the convenience of most experimental scientists, a user-friendly web-server for iRSpot-EL has been established at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/iRSpot-EL/, by which users can easily obtain their desired results without the need to go through the complicated mathematical equations involved. bliu@gordonlifescience.org or bliu@insun.hit.edu.cnSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mismatch Repair during Homologous and Homeologous Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Maria; Fishel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) and mismatch repair (MMR) are inextricably linked. HR pairs homologous chromosomes before meiosis I and is ultimately responsible for generating genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. HR is initiated in meiosis by numerous programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; several hundred in mammals). A characteristic feature of HR is the exchange of DNA strands, which results in the formation of heteroduplex DNA. Mismatched nucleotides arise in heteroduplex DNA because the participating parental chromosomes contain nonidentical sequences. These mismatched nucleotides may be processed by MMR, resulting in nonreciprocal exchange of genetic information (gene conversion). MMR and HR also play prominent roles in mitotic cells during genome duplication; MMR rectifies polymerase misincorporation errors, whereas HR contributes to replication fork maintenance, as well as the repair of spontaneous DSBs and genotoxic lesions that affect both DNA strands. MMR suppresses HR when the heteroduplex DNA contains excessive mismatched nucleotides, termed homeologous recombination. The regulation of homeologous recombination by MMR ensures the accuracy of DSB repair and significantly contributes to species barriers during sexual reproduction. This review discusses the history, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, and the current state of studies on the role of MMR in homologous and homeologous recombination from bacteria to humans. PMID:25731766

  10. Catalytic hydrogen recombination for nuclear containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroll, G.W.; Lau, D.W.P.; Dewit, W.A.; Graham, W.R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Catalytic recombiners appear to be a credible option for hydrogen mitigation in nuclear containments. The passive operation, versatility and ease of back fitting are appealing for existing stations and new designs. Recently, a generation of wet-proofed catalyst materials have been developed at AECL which are highly specific to H 2 -O 2 , are active at ambient temperatures and are being evaluated for containment applications. Two types of catalytic recombiners were evaluated for hydrogen removal in containments based on the AECL catalyst. The first is a catalytic combustor for application in existing air streams such as provided by fans or ventilation systems. The second is an autocatalytic recombiner which uses the enthalpy of reaction to produce natural convective flow over the catalyst elements. Intermediate-scale results obtained in 6 m 3 and 10 m 3 spherical and cylindrical vessels are given to demonstrate self-starting limits, operating limits, removal capacity, scaling parameters, flow resistance, mixing behaviour in the vicinity of an operating recombiner and sensitivity to poisoning, fouling and radiation. (author). 13 refs., 10 figs

  11. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  12. Melatonin protects against maternal obesity-associated oxidative stress and meiotic defects in oocytes via the SIRT3-SOD2-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Longsen; Wang, Haichao; Li, Ling; Li, Xiaoyan; Ge, Juan; Reiter, Russel J; Wang, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    Maternal obesity in humans is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum. Emerging evidence indicates that these defects are likely attributed to factors within the oocyte. Although various molecules and pathways may contribute to impaired oocyte quality, prevention of fertility issues associated with maternal obesity is a challenge. Using mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) as an obesity model, we document spindle disorganization, chromosome misalignment, and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in oocytes from obese mice. Oral administration of melatonin to HFD mice not only reduces ROS generation, but also prevents spindle/chromosome anomalies in oocytes, consequently promoting the developmental potential of early embryos. Consistent with this finding, we find that melatonin supplement during in vitro maturation also markedly attenuates oxidative stress and meiotic defects in HFD oocytes. Finally, by performing morpholino knockdown and acetylation-mimetic mutant overexpression assays, we reveal that melatonin ameliorates maternal obesity-induced defective phenotypes in oocytes through the SIRT3-SOD2-dependent mechanism. In sum, our data uncover the marked beneficial effects of melatonin on oocyte quality from obese females; this opens a new area for optimizing culture system as well as fertility management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  14. The potential of shifting recombination hotspots to increase genetic gain in livestock breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Serap; Battagin, Mara; Johnston, Susan E; Gorjanc, Gregor; Hickey, John M

    2017-07-04

    This study uses simulation to explore and quantify the potential effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain in livestock breeding programs. We simulated three scenarios that differed in the locations of quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) and recombination hotspots in the genome. In scenario 1, QTN were randomly distributed along the chromosomes and recombination was restricted to occur within specific genomic regions (i.e. recombination hotspots). In the other two scenarios, both QTN and recombination hotspots were located in specific regions, but differed in whether the QTN occurred outside of (scenario 2) or inside (scenario 3) recombination hotspots. We split each chromosome into 250, 500 or 1000 regions per chromosome of which 10% were recombination hotspots and/or contained QTN. The breeding program was run for 21 generations of selection, after which recombination hotspot regions were kept the same or were shifted to adjacent regions for a further 80 generations of selection. We evaluated the effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain, genetic variance and genic variance. Our results show that shifting recombination hotspots reduced the decline of genetic and genic variance by releasing standing allelic variation in the form of new allele combinations. This in turn resulted in larger increases in genetic gain. However, the benefit of shifting recombination hotspots for increased genetic gain was only observed when QTN were initially outside recombination hotspots. If QTN were initially inside recombination hotspots then shifting them decreased genetic gain. Shifting recombination hotspots to regions of the genome where recombination had not occurred for 21 generations of selection (i.e. recombination deserts) released more of the standing allelic variation available in each generation and thus increased genetic gain. However, whether and how much increase in genetic gain was achieved by shifting recombination hotspots depended

  15. The chromosome axis controls meiotic events through a hierarchical assembly of HORMA domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumi; Rosenberg, Scott C.; Kugel, Christine L.; Kostow, Nora; Rog, Ofer; Davydov, Vitaliy; Su, Tiffany Y.; Dernburg, Abby F.; Corbett, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Proteins of the HORMA domain family play central but poorly understood roles in chromosome organization and dynamics during meiosis. In C. elegans, four such proteins (HIM-3, HTP-1, HTP-2, and HTP-3) have distinct but overlapping functions. Through combined biochemical, structural, and in vivo analysis, we find that these proteins form hierarchical complexes through binding of their HORMA domains to cognate peptides within their partners’ C-terminal tails, analogous to the “safety belt” binding mechanism of Mad2. These interactions are critical for recruitment of HIM-3, HTP-1, and HTP-2 to chromosome axes. HTP-3, in addition to recruiting the other HORMA domain proteins to the axis, plays an independent role in sister chromatid cohesion and double-strand break formation. Finally, we find that mammalian HORMAD1 binds a peptide motif found both at its own C-terminus and that of HORMAD2, indicating that this mode of intermolecular association is a conserved feature of meiotic chromosome structure in eukaryotes. PMID:25446517

  16. Centromere strength provides the cell biological basis for meiotic drive and karyotype evolution in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmátal, Lukáš; Gabriel, Sofia I; Mitsainas, George P; Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Ventura, Jacint; Searle, Jeremy B; Schultz, Richard M; Lampson, Michael A

    2014-10-06

    Mammalian karyotypes (number and structure of chromosomes) can vary dramatically over short evolutionary time frames. There are examples of massive karyotype conversion, from mostly telocentric (centromere terminal) to mostly metacentric (centromere internal), in 10(2)-10(5) years. These changes typically reflect rapid fixation of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, a common chromosomal rearrangement that joins two telocentric chromosomes at their centromeres to create one metacentric. Fixation of Rb fusions can be explained by meiotic drive: biased chromosome segregation during female meiosis in violation of Mendel's first law. However, there is no mechanistic explanation of why fusions would preferentially segregate to the egg in some populations, leading to fixation and karyotype change, while other populations preferentially eliminate the fusions and maintain a telocentric karyotype. Here we show, using both laboratory models and wild mice, that differences in centromere strength predict the direction of drive. Stronger centromeres, manifested by increased kinetochore protein levels and altered interactions with spindle microtubules, are preferentially retained in the egg. We find that fusions preferentially segregate to the polar body in laboratory mouse strains when the fusion centromeres are weaker than those of telocentrics. Conversely, fusion centromeres are stronger relative to telocentrics in natural house mouse populations that have changed karyotype by accumulating metacentric fusions. Our findings suggest that natural variation in centromere strength explains how the direction of drive can switch between populations. They also provide a cell biological basis of centromere drive and karyotype evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  18. Effects of Mild and Severe Vitamin B Deficiencies on the Meiotic Maturation of Mice Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Tsuji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of vitamin B 1 deficiency on the meiosis maturation of oocytes. Female Crl:CD1 (ICR mice were fed a 20% casein diet (control group or a vitamin B 1 –free diet (test group. The vitamin B 1 concentration in ovary was approximately 30% lower in the test group than in the control group. Oocyte meiosis was not affected by vitamin B 1 deficiency when the deficiency was not accompanied by body weight loss. On the contrary, frequency of abnormal oocyte was increased by vitamin B 1 deficiency when deficiency was accompanied by body weight loss (referred to as severe vitamin B 1 deficiency; frequency of abnormal oocyte, 13.8% vs 43.7%, P  = .0071. The frequency of abnormal oocytes was decreased by refeeding of a vitamin B 1 –containing diet (13.9% vs 22.9%, P  = .503. These results suggest that severe vitamin B 1 deficiency inhibited meiotic maturation of oocytes but did not damage immature oocytes.

  19. Downregulation of surface sodium pumps by endocytosis during meiotic maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalzing, G.; Eckard, P.; Kroener, S.P.; Passow, H.

    1990-01-01

    During meiotic maturation, plasma membranes of Xenopus laevis oocytes completely lose the capacity to transport Na and K and to bind ouabain. To explore whether the downregulation might be due to an internalization of the sodium pump molecules, the intracellular binding of ouabain was determined. Selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane of mature oocytes (eggs) by digitonin almost failed to disclose ouabain binding sites. However, when the eggs were additionally treated with 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to permeabilize inner membranes, all sodium pumps present before maturation were recovered. Phosphorylation by [gamma-32P]ATP combined with SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and autoradiography showed that sodium pumps were greatly reduced in isolated plasma membranes of eggs. According to sucrose gradient fractionation, maturation induced a shift of sodium pumps from the plasma membrane fraction to membranes of lower buoyant density with a protein composition different from that of the plasma membrane. Endocytosed sodium pumps identified on the sucrose gradient from [3H]ouabain bound to the cell surface before maturation could be phosphorylated with inorganic [32P]phosphate. The findings suggest that downregulation of sodium pumps during maturation is brought about by translocation of surface sodium pumps to an intracellular compartment, presumably endosomes. This contrasts the mechanism of downregulation of Na-dependent cotransport systems, the activities of which are reduced as a consequence of a maturation-induced depolarization of the membrane without a removal of the corresponding transporter from the plasma membrane

  20. Double trouble: combined action of meiotic drive and Wolbachia feminization in Eurema butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Peter; Cook, James M; Kageyama, Daisuke; Riegler, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Arthropod sex ratios can be manipulated by a diverse range of selfish genetic elements, including maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria. Feminization by Wolbachia is rare but has been described for Eurema mandarina butterflies. In this species, some phenotypic and functional females, thought to be ZZ genetic males, are infected with a feminizing Wolbachia strain, wFem. Meanwhile, heterogametic WZ females are not infected with wFem. Here, we establish a quantitative PCR assay allowing reliable sexing in three Eurema species. Against expectation, all E. mandarina females, including wFem females, had only one Z chromosome that was paternally inherited. Observation of somatic interphase nuclei confirmed that W chromatin was absent in wFem females, but present in females without wFem. We conclude that the sex bias in wFem lines is due to meiotic drive (MD) that excludes the maternal Z and thus prevents formation of ZZ males. Furthermore, wFem lines may have lost the W chromosome or harbour a dysfunctional version, yet rely on wFem for female development; removal of wFem results in all-male offspring. This is the first study that demonstrates an interaction between MD and Wolbachia feminization, and it highlights endosymbionts as potentially confounding factors in MD of sex chromosomes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic characterization of somatic recombination in Trichoderma pseudokoningii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcellos Fernando Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments via hyphal anastomosis between two strains contrasting for auxotrophic markers of Trichoderma pseudokoningii were conducted to characterize the somatic recombination process in this specie. Four crossings were made and a total of 1052 colonies obtained from conidial suspensions of the heterokaryotic colonies were analyzed. Sixty-eight recombinant colonies, from four growing generations, were analyzed for the auxotrophic markers. Of the 68 colonies analyzed, 58 were stable after four generations and the remainders were unstable, reverting to one of the parentals. Most of the recombinant colonies were unstable through subculture and after four growing generations they showed the leu ino met markers (auxotrophic for leucin, inositol and metionin respectively. The unstable recombinant colonies showed irregular growing borders, sparse sporulation and frequent sector formation. The results suggest the occurrence of recombination mechanisms in the heterokaryon (somatic recombination, different from those described for the parasexual cycle or parameiosis. Therefore, we proposed the ocurrence of nuclei degradation from one parental (non prevalent parental in the heterokaryon and that the resulting chromosomal fragments may be incorporated into whole nuclei of the another parental (prevalent parental. However the parameiosis as originally described cannot be excluded.

  2. Low risk of inhibitor formation in haemophilia A patients following en masse switch in treatment to a third generation full length plasma and albumin-free recombinant factor VIII product (ADVATE®).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bacon, C L

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that development of inhibitors in previously treated patients (PTPs) may be attributable to a switch in factor VIII (FVIII) therapeutic product. Consequently, it is widely recognized that inhibitor development must be assessed in PTPs following the introduction of any new FVIII product. Following a national tender process in 2006, all patients with haemophilia A in Ireland changed their FVIII treatment product en masse to a plasma and albumin-free recombinant full-length FVIII product (ADVATE(®)). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the case records of Irish PTPs to evaluate risk of inhibitor formation following this treatment switch. One hundred and thirteen patients participated in the study. Most patients (89%) had severe haemophilia. Only one of 96 patients with no inhibitor history developed an inhibitor. Prior to the switch in his recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) treatment of choice, this child had only experienced three exposure days (EDs). Consequently, in total he had only received 6 EDs when his inhibitor was first diagnosed. In keeping with this lack of de novo inhibitor development, we observed no evidence of any recurrent inhibitor formation in any of 16 patients with previously documented inhibitors. Similarly, following a previous en masse switch, we have previously reported that changing from a Chinese hamster ovary cell-produced to a baby hamster kidney cell-produced rFVIII was also associated with a low risk of inhibitor formation in PTPs. Our cumulative findings from these two studies clearly emphasizes that the risk of inhibitor development for PTPs following changes in commercial rFVIII product is low, at least in the Irish population.

  3. Cell biology of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules...... as well as the cellular organization of the process of homologous recombination. Herein we review the cell biological aspects of mitotic homologous recombination with a focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells, but will also draw on findings from other experimental systems. Key topics...

  4. Molecular mechanisms of recombination restriction in the envelope gene of the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Simon-Loriere

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pathogens to escape the host's immune response is crucial for the establishment of persistent infections and can influence virulence. Recombination has been observed to contribute to this process by generating novel genetic variants. Although distinctive recombination patterns have been described in many viral pathogens, little is known about the influence of biases in the recombination process itself relative to selective forces acting on newly formed recombinants. Understanding these influences is important for determining how recombination contributes to pathogen genome and proteome evolution. Most previous research on recombination-driven protein evolution has focused on relatively simple proteins, usually in the context of directed evolution experiments. Here, we study recombination in the envelope gene of HIV-1 between primary isolates belonging to subtypes that recombine naturally in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. By characterizing the early steps in the generation of recombinants, we provide novel insights into the evolutionary forces that shape recombination patterns within viral populations. Specifically, we show that the combined effects of mechanistic processes that determine the locations of recombination breakpoints across the HIV-1 envelope gene, and purifying selection acting against dysfunctional recombinants, can explain almost the entire distribution of breakpoints found within this gene in nature. These constraints account for the surprising paucity of recombination breakpoints found in infected individuals within this highly variable gene. Thus, the apparent randomness of HIV evolution via recombination may in fact be relatively more predictable than anticipated. In addition, the dominance of purifying selection in localized areas of the HIV genome defines regions where functional constraints on recombinants appear particularly strong, pointing to vulnerable aspects of HIV biology.

  5. Differences between selection on sex versus recombination in red queen models with diploid hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aneil F

    2009-08-01

    The Red Queen hypothesis argues that parasites generate selection for genetic mixing (sex and recombination) in their hosts. A number of recent papers have examined this hypothesis using models with haploid hosts. In these haploid models, sex and recombination are selectively equivalent. However, sex and recombination are not equivalent in diploids because selection on sex depends on the consequences of segregation as well as recombination. Here I compare how parasites select on modifiers of sexual reproduction and modifiers of recombination rate. Across a wide set of parameters, parasites tend to select against both sex and recombination, though recombination is favored more often than is sex. There is little correspondence between the conditions favoring sex and those favoring recombination, indicating that the direction of selection on sex is often determined by the effects of segregation, not recombination. Moreover, when sex was favored it is usually due to a long-term advantage whereas short-term effects are often responsible for selection favoring recombination. These results strongly indicate that Red Queen models focusing exclusively on the effects of recombination cannot be used to infer the type of selection on sex that is generated by parasites on diploid hosts.

  6. Pulled Polymer Loops as a Model for the Alignment of Meiotic Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen Ting; Frömberg, Daniela; Huang, Wenwen; Delivani, Petrina; Chacón, Mariola; Tolić, Iva M.; Jülicher, Frank; Zaburdaev, Vasily

    2015-11-01

    During recombination, the DNA of parents exchange their genetic information to give rise to a genetically unique offspring. For recombination to occur, homologous chromosomes need to find each other and align with high precision. Fission yeast solves this problem by folding chromosomes in loops and pulling them through the viscous nucleoplasm. We propose a theory of pulled polymer loops to quantify the effect of drag forces on the alignment of chromosomes. We introduce an external force field to the concept of a Brownian bridge and thus solve for the statistics of loop configurations in space.

  7. Unique properties of multiple tandem copies of the M26 recombination hotspot in mitosis and meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Walter W; Recor, Chelsea L; Zakrzewski, Bethany M

    2016-11-15

    The M26 hotspot of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is one of the best-characterized eukaryotic hotspots of recombination. The hotspot requires a seven bp sequence, ATGACGT, that serves as a binding site for the Atf1-Pcr1 transcription factor, which is also required for activity. The M26 hotspot is active in meiosis but not mitosis and is active in some but not all chromosomal contexts and not on a plasmid. A longer palindromic version of M26, ATGACGTCAT, shows significantly greater activity than the seven bp sequence. Here, we tested whether the properties of the seven bp sequence were also true of the longer sequence by placing one, two, or three copies of the sequence into the ade6 gene, where M26 was originally discovered. These constructs were tested for activity when located on a plasmid or on a chromosome in mitosis and meiosis. We found that two copies of the 10bp M26 motif on a chromosome were significantly more active for meiotic recombination than one, but no further increase was observed with three copies. However, three copies of M26 on a chromosome created an Atf1-dependent mitotic recombination hotspot. When located on a plasmid, M26 also appears to behave as a mitotic recombination hotspot; however, this behavior most likely results from Atf1-dependent inter-allelic complementation between the plasmid and chromosomal ade6 alleles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.; Heyting, C.

    2000-01-01

    Sister chromatids are associated from their formation until their disjunction. Cohesion between sister chromatids is provided by protein complexes, of which some components are conserved across the kingdoms and between the mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. Sister chromatid cohesion is intimately

  9. Dissipative Stern-Gerlach recombination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Caldeira, A. O.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining the initial pure state in a usual Stern-Gerlach experiment through the recombination of the two emerging beams is investigated. We have extended the previous work of Englert, Schwinger, and Scully [Found Phys. 18, 1045 (1988)] including the fluctuations of the magnetic field generated by a properly chosen magnet. As a result we obtained an attenuation factor to the possible revival of coherence when the beams are perfectly recombined. When the source of the magnetic field is a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) the attenuation factor can be controlled by external circuits and the spin decoherence directly measured. For the proposed SQUID with dimensions in the scale of microns the attenuation factor has been shown unimportant when compared with the interaction time of the spin with the magnet

  10. Charge exchange recombination x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Namba, Shinichi; Kado, Masataka; Tanaka, Momoko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    A recombining plasma x-ray laser using charge exchange recombination (CXR) is proposed. Fully stripped carbon ions collide with neutral He atoms and become excited hydrogenlike carbon ions, in which the excited levels with n=3 or 4 are mainly populated. We calculate the gain coefficients of the Balmer α and the Lyman β line of the hydrogenlike carbon ions by the use of a collisional-radiative model in which the CXR process is included. The calculated result shows that substantial gain can be generated for the Lyman β and Balmer α lines and that the gain of the Balmer α line can be strongly enhanced by the effect of CXR. We also report a preliminary experiment of this scheme. (author)

  11. Meiotic Progression in Arabidopsis Is Governed by Complex Regulatory Interactions between SMG7, TDM1, and the Meiosis I–Specific Cyclin TAM[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulankova, Petra; Riehs-Kearnan, Nina; Nowack, Moritz K.; Schnittger, Arp; Riha, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Meiosis is a modified cell division that produces four haploid nuclei from a single diploid cell in two rounds of chromosome segregation. Here, we analyze the role of Arabidopsis thaliana SUPPRESSOR WITH MORPHOGENETIC EFFECTS ON GENITALIA7 (SMG7), THREE DIVISION MUTANT1 (TDM1), and TARDY ASYNCHRONOUS MEIOSIS (TAM) in meiotic progression. SMG7 is a conserved nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor that is also, in Arabidopsis, essential for completion of meiosis. Examination of activating CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE A;1 phosophorylation at Thr-161 suggests that the meiotic arrest observed in smg7 mutants is likely caused by a failure to downregulate cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity at the end of the second meiotic division. Genetic analysis indicates that SMG7 and TDM1 act in the same pathway to facilitate exit from meiosis. We further demonstrate that the cyclin TAM is specifically expressed in meiosis I and has both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on progression to meiosis II. TAM knockouts skip the second meiotic division producing unreduced gametes, but inactivation of SMG7 or TDM1 alleviates TAM’s requirement for entry into meiosis II. We propose a model that meiotic progression in Arabidopsis pollen mother cells is driven by a yet to be identified cyclin-CDK activity that is modulated by regulatory interactions between TDM1, SMG7, and TAM. PMID:21119056

  12. Ancestries of a recombining diploid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainudiin, R; Thatte, B; Véber, A

    2016-01-01

    We derive the exact one-step transition probabilities of the number of lineages that are ancestral to a random sample from the current generation of a bi-parental population that is evolving under the discrete Wright-Fisher model with n diploid individuals. Our model allows for a per-generation recombination probability of r . When r = 1, our model is equivalent to Chang's (Adv Appl Probab 31:1002-1038, 1999) model for the karyotic pedigree. When r = 0, our model is equivalent to Kingman's (Stoch Process Appl 13:235-248, 1982) discrete coalescent model for the cytoplasmic tree or sub-karyotic tree containing a DNA locus that is free of intra-locus recombination. When 0 r r . Thus, our family of models indexed by r ∈ [0, 1] connects Kingman's discrete coalescent to Chang's pedigree in a continuous way as r goes from 0 to 1. For large populations, we also study three properties of the ancestral process corresponding to a given r ∈ (0, 1): the time Tn to a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the population, the time Un at which all individuals are either common ancestors of all present day individuals or ancestral to none of them, and the fraction of individuals that are common ancestors at time Un. These results generalize the three main results of Chang's (Adv Appl Probab 31:1002-1038, 1999). When we appropriately rescale time and recombination probability by the population size, our model leads to the continuous time Markov chain called the ancestral recombination graph of Hudson (Theor Popul Biol 23:183-201, 1983) and Griffiths (The two-locus ancestral graph, Institute of Mathematical Statistics 100-117, 1991).

  13. Recombinant DNA technologies for construction of precisely designed transgene constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Masato; Kimura, Minoru; Tanaka, Masafumi; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2009-02-01

    Genetically modified animals have been used as models in broad range of studies including pharmaceutical biology. Designing and construction of transgene constructs are the first indispensable task in generating model animals. In addition to the classical restriction enzyme-based method, still holds some advantages in generating precise constructs, site-specific recombinase-based and homologous recombination-based DNA engineering strategies (e.g. Gateway and Red/ET recombineering, respectively) have been developed and widely used for vector construction or BAC modification. In this review, the three construction methods are described and their applications are discussed such as tandem assemblies of multiple components and modification of large DNA molecules. Combinational use of these E. coli-based recombinant DNA technologies enables the generation of precisely designed vectors useful for desired genome modification for future analyses.

  14. Meiotic behavior of economically important plant species: the relationship between fertility and male sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suely Pagliarini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability which culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. The normal and harmonious course of meiosis ensures gamete viability. The cytologic events of gametogenesis are controlled by a large number of genes that act from premeiotic to postmeiotic mitosis. Mutations in these genes cause anomalies that may impair fertility, and many abnormalities affecting plant fertility or causing total male sterility have been detected during the evaluation of meiotic behavior in some species. Some of these abnormalities have been frequently described in the literature, while others have not been previously reported. The most frequent abnormalities found in the species analyzed were irregular chromosome segregation, cytomixis, chromosome stickiness, mixoploidy, chromosome fragmentation, syncyte formation, abnormal spindles, and failure of cytokinesis. Uncommon abnormalities, such as chromosome elimination during microsporogenesis, were found in one species. Original meiotic mutations affecting different steps of meiosis were also observed in these species, especially in maize, Paspalum and soybean. Some mutants present characteristics that may be exploited successfully in breeding programs because they cause total male sterility.A meiose é um evento de alta estabilidade evolucionária que culmina na redução do número de cromossomos. O curso normal e harmonioso da meiose garante a viabilidade gamética. Os eventos citológicos da gametogênese são controlados por um grande número de genes que atuam desde as mitoses pré-meióticas até as pós-meióticas. Mutações nestes genes causam anomalias que podem afetar a fertilidade. Durante a avaliação do comportamento meiótico em algumas espécies de plantas, muitas anormalidades que afetaram a fertilidade ou causaram total macho-esterilidade foram detectadas. Algumas das anormalidades encontradas já eram descritas na literatura, enquanto outras eram

  15. Measuring Meiotic Crossovers via Multi-Locus Genotyping of Single Pollen Grains in Barley

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dreissig, S.; Fuchs, J.; Cápal, Petr; Kettles, N.; Byrne, E.; Houben, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2015), e0137677 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : RECOMBINATION LANDSCAPE * ARABIDOPSIS * PLANTS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  16. Hadron Correlations and Parton Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2007-02-15

    Parton recombination has been found to be an extremely useful model to understand hadron production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. It is particularly important to explore its connections with hard processes. This article reviews some of the aspects of the quark recombination model and places particular emphasis on hadron correlations.

  17. X chromosome control of meiotic chromosome synapsis in mouse inter-subspecific hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Bhattacharyya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sterility (HS belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2(Mmm allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes.

  18. Two novel porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) recombinants from a natural recombinant and distinct subtypes of PEDV variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; Li, Shuangjie; Zhou, Rongyun; Zhu, Meiqin; He, Shan; Ye, Mengxue; Huang, Yucheng; Li, Shuai; Zhu, Cong; Xia, Pengpeng; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2017-10-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes devastating impact on global pig-breeding industry and current vaccines have become not effective against the circulating PEDV variants since 2011. During the up-to-date investigation of PEDV prevalence in Fujian China 2016, PEDV was identified in vaccinated pig farms suffering severe diarrhea while other common diarrhea-associated pathogens were not detected. Complete genomes of two PEDV representatives (XM1-2 and XM2-4) were determined. Genomic comparison showed that these two viruses share the highest nucleotide identities (99.10% and 98.79%) with the 2011 ZMDZY strain, but only 96.65% and 96.50% nucleotide identities with the attenuated CV777 strain. Amino acid alignment of spike (S) proteins indicated that they have the similar mutation, insertion and deletion pattern as other Chinese PEDV variants but also contain several unique substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 2016 PEDV variants belong to the cluster of recombination strains but form a new branch. Recombination detection suggested that both XM1-2 and XM2-4 are inter-subgroup recombinants with breakpoints within ORF1b. Remarkably, the natural recombinant HNQX-3 isolate serves as a parental virus for both natural recombinants identified in this study. This up-to-date investigation provides the direct evidence that natural recombinants may serve as parental viruses to generate recombined PEDV progenies that are probably associated with the vaccination failure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  20. Nonhomologous recombination between defective poliovirus and coxsackievirus genomes suggests a new model of genetic plasticity for picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2014-08-05

    Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3' end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. Importance: The multiplication of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in poorly immunized human populations can render these viruses pathogenic, causing poliomyelitis outbreaks. Most cVDPVs are intertypic recombinants between a poliovirus (PV) strain and another human enterovirus, such as type 17 coxsackie A viruses (CA17). For further studies of the genetic exchanges

  1. Laboratory studies on insecticide resistance, alcohol tolerance and sex ratio distortion by meiotic drive in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Three approaches to developing a genetic sexing technique for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), are discussed. Laboratory studies in late third instar larvae of the medfly revealed a potential for dieldrin resistance. A programme of sib selection produced the DiR strain, more than 60x resistante to dieldrin with cross-resistance to other cyclodienes, HCH, malathion and permethrin. Adults were not resistant. Crosses showed dieldrin resistance to be monofactorial, subject to a modifying effect from the genetic background on the expression of the homozygote. The 'backcrossing with selection' technique was used to separate dieldrin and malathion resistance but, in the process, resistance to both insecticides was lost after four to eight generations. Attempts to induce male linkage of the R gene by X irradiation were unsuccessful. Further genetic studies on resistance are recommended. With a view to producing an ethanol sensitive strain homozygous for an ADH null mutation (Adh - /Adh - ), pentenol selection of late third instar larvae was carried out, combined with ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) treatments of adults. This produced a maximum of 15x tolerance of pentenol but no associated change in ethanol tolerance. Electrophoresis (PAGE) showed that two major ADH systems were at their most active in late third instar larvae. A gene causing a male distorted sex ratio in the progeny of males carrying it was isolated after X irradiation. The expression of the gene, which appears to be an example of meiotic drive, was enhanced by reducing the ambient temperature of parent flies from 26 deg. C+-2.0 to 18 deg. C+-1.5 during days 2-5 of pupal development. Selection to increase the expression of the gene produced families with less than 20% females but sex ratio tended to revert towards normal in subsequent generations. A potential is seen for producing strains in which sex ratio can be regulated by temperature. (author). 30 refs, 5 figs, 2

  2. Transforming growth factor beta-1 decreases the yield of the second meiotic division of rat pachytene spermatocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabido Odile

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF beta and its receptors are present in both germ cells and somatic cells of the male gonad. However, knock-out strategies for studying spermatogenesis regulation by TGF beta have been disappointing since TGF beta-or TGF beta receptor-null mice do not survive longer than a few weeks. Methods In the present study, we addressed the role of TGF beta-1 on the completion of meiosis by rat pachytene spermatocytes (PS cocultured with Sertoli cells. Identification and counting of meiotic cells were performed by cytology and cytometry. Results Under our culture conditions, some PS differentiated into round spermatids (RS. When TGF beta-1 was added to the culture medium, neither the number of PS or of secondary spermatocytes nor the half-life of RS was modified by the factor. By contrast, the number of RS and the amount of TP1 mRNA were lower in TGF beta-1-treated cultures than in control cultures. Very few metaphase I cells were ever observed both in control and TGF beta-1-treated wells. Higher numbers of metaphase II were present and their number was enhanced by TGF beta-1 treatment. A TGF beta-like bioactivity was detected in control culture media, the concentration of which increased with the time of culture. Conclusion These results indicate that TGF beta-1 did not change greatly, if any, the yield of the first meiotic division but likely enhanced a bottleneck at the level of metaphase II. Taken together, our results suggest strongly that TGF beta participates in an auto/paracrine pathway of regulation of the meiotic differentiation of rat spermatocytes.

  3. Dicer1 depletion in male germ cells leads to infertility due to cumulative meiotic and spermiogenic defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex biological process that requires a highly specialized control of gene expression. In the past decade, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. DICER1, an RNAse III endonuclease, is essential for the biogenesis of several classes of small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs, but is also critical for the degradation of toxic transposable elements. In this study, we investigated to which extent DICER1 is required for germ cell development and the progress of spermatogenesis in mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the selective ablation of Dicer1 at the early onset of male germ cell development leads to infertility, due to multiple cumulative defects at the meiotic and post-meiotic stages culminating with the absence of functional spermatozoa. Alterations were observed in the first spermatogenic wave and include delayed progression of spermatocytes to prophase I and increased apoptosis, resulting in a reduced number of round spermatids. The transition from round to mature spermatozoa was also severely affected, since the few spermatozoa formed in mutant animals were immobile and misshapen, exhibiting morphological defects of the head and flagellum. We also found evidence that the expression of transposable elements of the SINE family is up-regulated in Dicer1-depleted spermatocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DICER1 is dispensable for spermatogonial stem cell renewal and mitotic proliferation, but is required for germ cell differentiation through the meiotic and haploid phases of spermatogenesis.

  4. Casein kinase 1 alpha regulates chromosome congression and separation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo development.

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    Lu Wang

    Full Text Available Casein kinase I alpha (CK1α is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase, generally present in all eukaryotes. In mammals, CK1α regulates the transition from interphase to metaphase in mitosis. However, little is known about its role in meiosis. Here we examined Ck1α mRNA and protein expression, as well as its subcellular localization in mouse oocytes from germinal vesicle to the late 1-cell stage. Our results showed that the expression level of CK1α was increased in metaphase. Immunostaining results showed that CK1α colocalized with condensed chromosomes during oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo development. We used the loss-of-function approach by employing CK1α specific morpholino injection to block the function of CK1α. This functional blocking leads to failure of polar body 1 (PB1 extrusion, chromosome misalignment and MII plate incrassation. We further found that D4476, a specific and efficient CK1 inhibitor, decreased the rate of PB1 extrusion. Moreover, D4476 resulted in giant polar body extrusion, oocyte pro-MI arrest, chromosome congression failure and impairment of embryo developmental potential. In addition, we employed pyrvinium pamoate (PP, an allosteric activator of CK1α, to enhance CK1α activity in oocytes. Supplementation of PP induced oocyte meiotic maturation failure, severe congression abnormalities and misalignment of chromosomes. Taken together, our study for the first time demonstrates that CK1α is required for chromosome alignment and segregation during oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo development.

  5. Analysis of intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination by rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Sandra D.; Tzeng, W.-P.; Chen, M.-H.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether rubella virus (RUB) undergoes intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination, cells were cotransfected with pairs of in vitro transcripts from genomic cDNA plasmid vectors engineered to contain nonoverlapping deletions: the replicative transcript maintained the 5'-proximal nonstructural (NS) ORF (which contained the replicase, making it RNA replication competent), had a deletion in the 3'-proximal structural protein (SP) ORF, and maintained the 3' end of the genome, including the putative 3' cis-acting elements (CSE), while the nonreplicative transcript consisted of the 3' half of the genome including the SP-ORF and 3' CSE. Cotransfection yielded plaque-forming virus that synthesized the standard genomic and subgenomic RNAs and thus was generated by RNA-RNA recombination. Using transcripts tagged with a 3'-terminal deletion, it was found that recombinants contained the 3' end derived from the replicative strand, indicating a cis-preference for initiation of negative-strand synthesis. In cotransfections in which the replicative transcript lacked the 3' CSE, recombination occurred, albeit at lower efficiency, indicating that initiation in trans from the NS-ORF can occur. The 3' CSE was sufficient as a nonreplicative transcript, showing that it can serve as a promoter for negative-strand RNA synthesis. While deletion mutagenesis showed that the presence of the junction untranslated region (J-UTR) between the ORFs appeared to be necessary on both transcripts for recombination in this region of the genome, analysis with transcripts tagged with restriction sites showed that the J-UTR was not a hot spot for recombination compared to neighboring regions in both ORFs. Sequence analysis of recombinants revealed that both precise (homologous) and imprecise recombination (aberrant, homologous resulting in duplications) occurred; however, imprecise recombination only involved the J-UTR or the 3' end of the NS-ORF and the J-UTR (maintaining the NS-ORF), indicating

  6. Genetic and evolutionary correlates of fine-scale recombination rate variation in Drosophila persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-12-01

    Recombination is fundamental to meiosis in many species and generates variation on which natural selection can act, yet fine-scale linkage maps are cumbersome to construct. We generated a fine-scale map of recombination rates across two major chromosomes in Drosophila persimilis using 181 SNP markers spanning two of five major chromosome arms. Using this map, we report significant fine-scale heterogeneity of local recombination rates. However, we also observed "recombinational neighborhoods," where adjacent intervals had similar recombination rates after excluding regions near the centromere and telomere. We further found significant positive associations of fine-scale recombination rate with repetitive element abundance and a 13-bp sequence motif known to associate with human recombination rates. We noted strong crossover interference extending 5-7 Mb from the initial crossover event. Further, we observed that fine-scale recombination rates in D. persimilis are strongly correlated with those obtained from a comparable study of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura. We documented a significant relationship between recombination rates and intron nucleotide sequence diversity within species, but no relationship between recombination rate and intron divergence between species. These results are consistent with selection models (hitchhiking and background selection) rather than mutagenic recombination models for explaining the relationship of recombination with nucleotide diversity within species. Finally, we found significant correlations between recombination rate and GC content, supporting both GC-biased gene conversion (BGC) models and selection-driven codon bias models. Overall, this genome-enabled map of fine-scale recombination rates allowed us to confirm findings of broader-scale studies and identify multiple novel features that merit further investigation.

  7. Comportamiento meiótico de diferentes especies de lulo, Solanum sp Meiotic behavior of lulo species, Solanum sp

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    Nancy Maricela Pareja Ordóñez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis del comportamiento meiótico de las especies de lulo S. hirtum, S. quitoense y S. sessiliflorum, siguiendo la metodología convencional para los estudios de microsporogénesis. Se tomaron botones florales en diferentes estados de desarrollo, fijándolos por 24 horas en una solución de tres partes de etanol por una parte de ácido acético, saturada con trazas de cristales de cloruro férrico. Para la preparación de las placas se siguió la técnica de aplastamiento, se liberaron las células madres del grano de polen y finalmente se hicieron las observaciones bajo microscopía de luz. El análisis mostró que la meiosis se presenta en longitudes de antera que van desde los 2,79 mm hasta los 4,45 mm. La normalidad meiótica fue del 100%, tanto para meiosis I, como para la meiosis II. El índice meiótico en las tres especies fue del 99,98% lo cual indica que son buenos parentales y que pueden utilizarse en programas de cruzamiento. Las tres especies evaluadas tienen igual número de cromosomas (2n=2X=24. La frecuencia de anormalidades durante el proceso meiótico fue baja para S. hirtum, y alta para S. quitoense; sin embargo, la viabilidad polínica fue de gran magnitud (91,2-97,3%.An analysis of meiotic behavior of lulo species S. hirtum, S. quitoense and S. sessiliflorum, following the conventional methodology for studies of microsporogenesis was realized. Flower buds were taken at different stages of development, fixing them for 24 hours in a solution of three parts of ethanol per one part of acetic acid, saturated with traces of ferric chloride crystals. For the preparation of the slides following the technique of squash, releasing pollen mother cells and finally made the observations under light microscopy. The analysis showed that meiosis occurs in anther ranging from 2.79 to 4.45 mm. Meiotic normality was 100% for both meiosis I and II. The meiotic index in all three species was 99,98% indicating that they are

  8. Fast Dissemination of New HIV-1 CRF02/A1 Recombinants in Pakistan.

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    Yue Chen

    Full Text Available A number of HIV-1 subtypes are identified in Pakistan by characterization of partial viral gene sequences. Little is known whether new recombinants are generated and how they disseminate since whole genome sequences for these viruses have not been characterized. Near full-length genome (NFLG sequences were obtained by amplifying two overlapping half genomes or next generation sequencing from 34 HIV-1-infected individuals in Pakistan. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the newly characterized sequences were 16 subtype As, one subtype C, and 17 A/G recombinants. Further analysis showed that all 16 subtype A1 sequences (47%, together with the vast majority of sequences from Pakistan from other studies, formed a tight subcluster (A1a within the subtype A1 clade, suggesting that they were derived from a single introduction. More in-depth analysis of 17 A/G NFLG sequences showed that five shared similar recombination breakpoints as in CRF02 (15% but were phylogenetically distinct from the prototype CRF02 by forming a tight subcluster (CRF02a while 12 (38% were new recombinants between CRF02a and A1a or a divergent A1b viruses. Unique recombination patterns among the majority of the newly characterized recombinants indicated ongoing recombination. Interestingly, recombination breakpoints in these CRF02/A1 recombinants were similar to those in prototype CRF02 viruses, indicating that recombination at these sites more likely generate variable recombinant viruses. The dominance and fast dissemination of new CRF02a/A1 recombinants over prototype CRF02 suggest that these recombinant have more adapted and may become major epidemic strains in Pakistan.

  9. LIN-41 and OMA Ribonucleoprotein Complexes Mediate a Translational Repression-to-Activation Switch Controlling Oocyte Meiotic Maturation and the Oocyte-to-Embryo Transition in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Gearhart, Micah D.; Spike, Caroline A.; Huelgas-Morales, Gabriela; Mews, Makaela; Boag, Peter R.; Beilharz, Traude H.; Greenstein, David

    2017-01-01

    An extended meiotic prophase is a hallmark of oogenesis. Hormonal signaling activates the CDK1/cyclin B kinase to promote oocyte meiotic maturation, which involves nuclear and cytoplasmic events. Nuclear maturation encompasses nuclear envelope breakdown, meiotic spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation. Cytoplasmic maturation involves major changes in oocyte protein translation and cytoplasmic organelles and is poorly understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm release the major sperm protein (MSP) hormone to promote oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. Large translational regulatory ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes containing the RNA-binding proteins OMA-1, OMA-2, and LIN-41 regulate meiotic maturation downstream of MSP signaling. To understand the control of translation during meiotic maturation, we purified LIN-41-containing RNPs and characterized their protein and RNA components. Protein constituents of LIN-41 RNPs include essential RNA-binding proteins, the GLD-2 cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase, the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, and translation initiation factors. RNA sequencing defined messenger RNAs (mRNAs) associated with both LIN-41 and OMA-1, as well as sets of mRNAs associated with either LIN-41 or OMA-1. Genetic and genomic evidence suggests that GLD-2, which is a component of LIN-41 RNPs, stimulates the efficient translation of many LIN-41-associated transcripts. We analyzed the translational regulation of two transcripts specifically associated with LIN-41 which encode the RNA regulators SPN-4 and MEG-1. We found that LIN-41 represses translation of spn-4 and meg-1, whereas OMA-1 and OMA-2 promote their expression. Upon their synthesis, SPN-4 and MEG-1 assemble into LIN-41 RNPs prior to their functions in the embryo. This study defines a translational repression-to-activation switch as a key element of cytoplasmic maturation. PMID:28576864

  10. Recombination-dependent concatemeric viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Piano, Ambra; Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Zecchi, Lisa; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of viral double stranded (ds) DNA replication involves proteins that recruit and load the replisome at the replication origin (ori). Any block in replication fork progression or a programmed barrier may act as a factor for ori-independent remodelling and assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. Then replication initiation becomes dependent on recombination proteins, a process called recombination-dependent replication (RDR). RDR, which is recognized as being important for replication restart and stability in all living organisms, plays an essential role in the replication cycle of many dsDNA viruses. The SPP1 virus, which infects Bacillus subtilis cells, serves as a paradigm to understand the links between replication and recombination in circular dsDNA viruses. SPP1-encoded initiator and replisome assembly proteins control the onset of viral replication and direct the recruitment of host-encoded replisomal components at viral oriL. SPP1 uses replication fork reactivation to switch from ori-dependent θ-type (circle-to-circle) replication to σ-type RDR. Replication fork arrest leads to a double strand break that is processed by viral-encoded factors to generate a D-loop into which a new replisome is assembled, leading to σ-type viral replication. SPP1 RDR proteins are compared with similar proteins encoded by other viruses and their possible in vivo roles are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global transcriptome analysis of two ameiotic1 alleles in maize anthers: defining steps in meiotic entry and progression through prophase I

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    Fernandes John F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental cues to start meiosis occur late in plants. Ameiotic1 (Am1 encodes a plant-specific nuclear protein (AM1 required for meiotic entry and progression through early prophase I. Pollen mother cells (PMCs remain mitotic in most am1 mutants including am1-489, while am1-praI permits meiotic entry but PMCs arrest at the leptotene/zygotene (L/Z transition, defining the roles of AM1 protein in two distinct steps of meiosis. To gain more insights into the roles of AM1 in the transcriptional pre-meiotic and meiotic programs, we report here an in depth analysis of gene expression alterations in carefully staged anthers at 1 mm (meiotic entry and 1.5 mm (L/Z caused by each of these am1 alleles. Results 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm anthers of am1-489 and am1-praI were profiled in comparison to fertile siblings on Agilent® 4 × 44 K microarrays. Both am1-489 and am1-praI anthers are cytologically normal at 1.0 mm and show moderate transcriptome alterations. At the 1.5-mm stage both mutants are aberrant cytologically, and show more drastic transcriptome changes. There are substantially more absolute On/Off and twice as many differentially expressed genes (sterile versus fertile in am1-489 than in am1-praI. At 1.5 mm a total of 4,418 genes are up- or down-regulated in either am1-489 or am1-praI anthers. These are predominantly stage-specific transcripts. Many putative meiosis-related genes were found among them including a small subset of allele-specific, mis-regulated genes specific to the PMCs. Nearly 60% of transcriptome changes in the set of transcripts mis-regulated in both mutants (N = 530 are enriched in PMCs, and only 1% are enriched in the tapetal cell transcriptome. All array data reported herein will be deposited and accessible at MaizeGDB http://www.maizegdb.org/. Conclusions Our analysis of anther transcriptome modulations by two distinct am1 alleles, am1-489 and am1-praI, redefines the role of AM1 as a modulator of expression

  12. Rec8p, a meiotic recombination and sister chromatid cohesion phosphoprotein of the Rad21p family conserved from fision yeast to humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Parisi; M.J. McKay (Michael); M. Molnar; M.A. Thompson (Anne); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); E. van Drunen-Schoenmaker; R. Kanaar (Roland); E. Lehmann; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); J. Kohli

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOur work and that of others defined mitosis-specific (Rad21 subfamily) and meiosis-specific (Rec8 subfamily) proteins involved in sister chromatid cohesion in several eukaryotes, including humans. Mutation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rec8 gene was previously shown to

  13. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV-C challenges in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. Previously we generated a NDV r...

  14. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

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    Colin D Meiklejohn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  15. Platypus chain reaction: directional and ordered meiotic pairing of the multiple sex chromosome chain in Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daish, Tasman; Casey, Aaron; Grützner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Monotremes are phylogenetically and phenotypically unique animals with an unusually complex sex chromosome system that is composed of ten chromosomes in platypus and nine in echidna. These chromosomes are alternately linked (X1Y1, X2Y2, ...) at meiosis via pseudoautosomal regions and segregate to form spermatozoa containing either X or Y chromosomes. The physical and epigenetic mechanisms involved in pairing and assembly of the complex sex chromosome chain in early meiotic prophase I are completely unknown. We have analysed the pairing dynamics of specific sex chromosome pseudoautosomal regions in platypus spermatocytes during prophase of meiosis I. Our data show a highly coordinated pairing process that begins at the terminal Y5 chromosome and completes with the union of sex chromosomes X1Y1. The consistency of this ordered assembly of the chain is remarkable and raises questions about the mechanisms and factors that regulate the differential pairing of sex chromosomes and how this relates to potential meiotic silencing mechanisms and alternate segregation.

  16. Increased variability in nuclear DNA content of testis cells and spermatozoa from mice with irregular meiotic segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meistrich, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Lake, S.; Steinmetz, L.L.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Variability in DNA content of testis cells and sperm from F/sub 1/ hybrids between the laboratory mouse (M. musculus) and the tobacco mouse (M. poschiavinus), has been determined by flow cytometry (FCM). The F/sub 1/ hybrid mouse is known to be heterozygous for seven metacentric chromosomes produced by Robertsonian fusion. Enriched populations of nuclei from late pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids were obtained by velocity sedimentation. These nuclei, as well as epididymal sperm nuclei and spleen cells, were stained by the acriflavine--Feulgen technique for DNA nd measured by FCM. Peaks in the fluorescence intensity frequency distributions resulting from these measurements were analyzed to determine their mean fluorescence intensities and their widths (coefficients of variation). Because mean intensities of corresponding cell types from M. musculus and the F/sub 1/ hybrids were identical, the average DNA contents were taken to be the same. The average coefficients of variation of the peaks of fluorescence from the pachytene, spermatid, and sperm nuclei and spleen cells from M. musculus animals were about 5%. While the peaks of fluorescence from spleen cells and pachytene nuclei from F/sub 1/ hybrids also had average coefficients of variation of 5%, post-meiotic nuclei from spermatids and spermatozoa had coefficients of variation of 8%. From these results we conclude that, these F/sub 1/ hybrids abnormal meiotic segregation causes an increased variability of 6% in the amount of DNA in the spermatozoa.

  17. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S-26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the origin of economically important species

  18. Retinoic Acid signalling and the control of meiotic entry in the human fetal gonad.

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    Andrew J Childs

    Full Text Available The development of mammalian fetal germ cells along oogenic or spermatogenic fate trajectories is dictated by signals from the surrounding gonadal environment. Germ cells in the fetal testis enter mitotic arrest, whilst those in the fetal ovary undergo sex-specific entry into meiosis, the initiation of which is thought to be mediated by selective exposure of fetal ovarian germ cells to mesonephros-derived retinoic acid (RA. Aspects of this model are hard to reconcile with the spatiotemporal pattern of germ cell differentiation in the human fetal ovary, however. We have therefore examined the expression of components of the RA synthesis, metabolism and signalling pathways, and their downstream effectors and inhibitors in germ cells around the time of the initiation of meiosis in the human fetal gonad. Expression of the three RA-synthesising enzymes, ALDH1A1, 2 and 3 in the fetal ovary and testis was equal to or greater than that in the mesonephros at 8-9 weeks gestation, indicating an intrinsic capacity within the gonad to synthesise RA. Using immunohistochemistry to detect RA receptors RARα, β and RXRα, we find germ cells to be the predominant target of RA signalling in the fetal human ovary, but also reveal widespread receptor nuclear localization indicative of signalling in the testis, suggesting that human fetal testicular germ cells are not efficiently shielded from RA by the action of the RA-metabolising enzyme CYP26B1. Consistent with this, expression of CYP26B1 was greater in the human fetal ovary than testis, although the sexually-dimorphic expression patterns of the germ cell-intrinsic regulators of meiotic initiation, STRA8 and NANOS2, appear conserved. Finally, we demonstrate that RA induces a two-fold increase in STRA8 expression in cultures of human fetal testis, but is not sufficient to cause widespread meiosis-associated gene expression. Together, these data indicate that while local production of RA within the fetal ovary may

  19. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  20. Hydrogen recombiner development at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewit, W.A.; Koroll, G.W.; Loesel Sitar, J.; Graham, W.R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Catalytic recombiners have been developed at AECL for the purpose of hydrogen removal in post-accident nuclear containment buildings. The recombiners are based on a particular catalyst designed by AECL which has extraordinary resistance to fouling from water and water vapour and a large thermodynamic range of operation. The catalysts were developed, originally, for the purpose of heavy water manufacturing by way of a catalytic exchange process. Application of these catalyst materials in recombiners for containment applications began in the late 1980's. The first application was a passive recombiner, qualified for use in control of radiolytic hydrogen in the headspace of a pool-type experimental reactor of AECL design in 1988. The passive, or natural convection recombiner concept has continued development to commercial stage for application in power reactor containments. This paper reviews the AECL recombiner development, describes the current model and shows results from tests of full-scale recombiners in the Large Scale Vented Combustion Test Facility at AECL-WL. The AECL recombiner is designed for compactness and ease of engineering into containment. The design is a simple, open-ended rectangular enclosure with catalyst elements arranged inside to promote optimum convective flow driven by heat of recombination at the catalyst surface. Self start, as evidenced by catalyst heating and initiation of flow, is achieved in less than 1% hydrogen, with available oxygen, at room temperature and 100% relative humidity. This low temperature start-up in condensing atmospheres is viewed as the most challenging condition for wet-proofing effectiveness. Cold start-up is a vital performance requirement in containments, such as CANDU, where engineered air-cooling systems are operating and where long-term hydrogen control is required, after containment atmospheres have cooled. Once started, the removal capacity scales linearly with the inlet cross-section area and the partial

  1. Review of Parton Recombination Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, Steffen A

    2006-01-01

    Parton recombination models have been very successful in explaining data taken at RHIC on hadron spectra and emission patterns in Au+Au collisions at transverse momenta above 2 GeV/c, which have exhibited features which could not be understood in the framework of basic perturbative QCD. In this article I will review the current status on recombination models and outline which future challenges need to be addressed by this class of models

  2. Safety and protective efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome recombinant virus vaccines in young pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheije, M.H.; Kroese, M.V.; Linden, van der I.F.A.; Boer-Luijtze, de E.A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recombinants, generated by mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus (LV) isolate, were tested for their safety and protective efficacy as potential PRRSV vaccines in pigs. Recombinant vABV688 contains two amino

  3. Comparative and evolutionary analysis of the bacterial homologous recombination systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a housekeeping process involved in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and generation of genetic variability. Although detailed biochemical studies have described the mechanism of action of its components in model organisms, there is no recent extensive assessment of this knowledge, using comparative genomics and taking advantage of available experimental data on recombination. Using comparative genomics, we assessed the diversity of recombination processes among bacteria, and simulations suggest that we missed very few homologs. The work included the identification of orthologs and the analysis of their evolutionary history and genomic context. Some genes, for proteins such as RecA, the resolvases, and RecR, were found to be nearly ubiquitous, suggesting that the large majority of bacterial genomes are capable of homologous recombination. Yet many genomes show incomplete sets of presynaptic systems, with RecFOR being more frequent than RecBCD/AddAB. There is a significant pattern of co-occurrence between these systems and antirecombinant proteins such as the ones of mismatch repair and SbcB, but no significant association with nonhomologous end joining, which seems rare in bacteria. Surprisingly, a large number of genomes in which homologous recombination has been reported lack many of the enzymes involved in the presynaptic systems. The lack of obvious correlation between the presence of characterized presynaptic genes and experimental data on the frequency of recombination suggests the existence of still-unknown presynaptic mechanisms in bacteria. It also indicates that, at the moment, the assessment of the intrinsic stability or recombination isolation of bacteria in most cases cannot be inferred from the identification of known recombination proteins in the genomes.

  4. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwelu, Ireen E; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F; Kapiga, Saidi H; Essex, M

    2013-01-01

    The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR) of 38 (28-50) sequences per subject). Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84%) subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60%) subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69%) to 36 (82%) over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  5. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireen E Kiwelu

    Full Text Available The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR of 38 (28-50 sequences per subject. Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84% subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60% subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69% to 36 (82% over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  6. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and

  7. Homoeologous Heterozygosity and Recombination in the Fern Pteridium aquilinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R H; Klekowski, E J; Selander, R K

    1979-06-15

    The bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum, which can form completely homozygous zygotes in a single generation of self-fertilization, has a genetic system that allows the storage and release of genetic variability in spite of this homozygosity. Analysis of the distribution of electrophoretically demonstrable genetic markers demonstrates that this system is based on recombination between duplicated, unlinked loci.

  8. Specific deletion of Cdc42 does not affect meiotic spindle organization/migration and homologous chromosome segregation but disrupts polarity establishment and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Jiang, Zong-Zhe; Zhang, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian oocyte maturation is distinguished by highly asymmetric meiotic divisions during which a haploid female gamete is produced and almost all the cytoplasm is maintained in the egg for embryo development. Actin-dependent meiosis I spindle positioning to the cortex induces the formation of a...

  9. Release from Xenopus oocyte prophase I meiotic arrest is independent of a decrease in cAMP levels or PKA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nancy; Courjaret, Raphael; Dib, Maya; Kulkarni, Rashmi P; Machaca, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate oocytes arrest at prophase of meiosis I as a result of high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. In Xenopus, progesterone is believed to release meiotic arrest by inhibiting adenylate cyclase, lowering cAMP levels and repressing PKA. However, the exact timing and extent of the cAMP decrease is unclear, with conflicting reports in the literature. Using various in vivo reporters for cAMP and PKA at the single-cell level in real time, we fail to detect any significant changes in cAMP or PKA in response to progesterone. More interestingly, there was no correlation between the levels of PKA inhibition and the release of meiotic arrest. Furthermore, we devised conditions whereby meiotic arrest could be released in the presence of sustained high levels of cAMP. Consistently, lowering endogenous cAMP levels by >65% for prolonged time periods failed to induce spontaneous maturation. These results argue that the release of oocyte meiotic arrest in Xenopus is independent of a reduction in either cAMP levels or PKA activity, but rather proceeds through a parallel cAMP/PKA-independent pathway. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Inducible protective processes in animal systems XV: Hyperthermia enhances the Ethyl methanesulfonate induced adaptive response in meiotic cells of grasshopper Poecilocerus pictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venu

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: There is a protection against EMS induced anomalies by hyperthermia in in vivo P. pictus. As far as our knowledge is concerned, this is the first report to demonstrate that hyperthermia enhances the EMS induced adaptive response in in vivo meiotic cells.

  11. Statistical Analysis on Detecting Recombination Sites in DNA-β Satellites Associated with Old World Geminiviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Yoshida, Ruriko

    2010-01-01

    Although exchange of genetic information by recombination plays an important role in the evolution of viruses, it is not clear how it generates diversity. Understanding recombination events helps with the study of the evolution of new virus strains or new viruses. Geminiviruses are plant viruses which have ambisense single-stranded circular DNA genomes and are one of the most economically important plant viruses in agricultural production. Small circular single-stranded DNA satellites, termed DNA-β, have recently been found to be associated with some geminivirus infections. In this paper we analyze several DNA-β sequences of geminiviruses for recombination events using phylogenetic and statistical analysis and we find that one strain from ToLCMaB has a recombination pattern and is a recombinant molecule between two strains from two species, PaLCuB-[IN:Chi:05] (major parent) and ToLCB-[IN:CP:04] (minor parent). We propose that this recombination event contributed to the evolution of the strain of ToLCMaB in South India. The Hidden Markov Chain (HMM) method developed by Webb et al. (2009) estimating phylogenetic tree through out the whole alignment provide us a recombination history of these DNA-β strains. It is the first time that this statistic method has been used on DNA-β recombination study and give a clear recombination history of DNA-β recombination. PMID:21423447

  12. Assessing fluctuating evolutionary pressure in yeast and mammal evolutionary rate covariation using bioinformatics of meiotic protein genetic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehipawala, Sunil; Nguyen, A.; Tremberger, G.; Cheung, E.; Holden, T.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2013-09-01

    The evolutionary rate co-variation in meiotic proteins has been reported for yeast and mammal using phylogenic branch lengths which assess retention, duplication and mutation. The bioinformatics of the corresponding DNA sequences could be classified as a diagram of fractal dimension and Shannon entropy. Results from biomedical gene research provide examples on the diagram methodology. The identification of adaptive selection using entropy marker and functional-structural diversity using fractal dimension would support a regression analysis where the coefficient of determination would serve as evolutionary pathway marker for DNA sequences and be an important component in the astrobiology community. Comparisons between biomedical genes such as EEF2 (elongation factor 2 human, mouse, etc), WDR85 in epigenetics, HAR1 in human specificity, clinical trial targeted cancer gene CD47, SIRT6 in spermatogenesis, and HLA-C in mosquito bite immunology demonstrate the diagram classification methodology. Comparisons to the SEPT4-XIAP pair in stem cell apoptosis, testesexpressed taste genes TAS1R3-GNAT3 pair, and amyloid beta APLP1-APLP2 pair with the yeast-mammal DNA sequences for meiotic proteins RAD50-MRE11 pair and NCAPD2-ICK pair have accounted for the observed fluctuating evolutionary pressure systematically. Regression with high R-sq values or a triangular-like cluster pattern for concordant pairs in co-variation among the studied species could serve as evidences for the possible location of common ancestors in the entropy-fractal dimension diagram, consistent with an example of the human-chimp common ancestor study using the FOXP2 regulated genes reported in human fetal brain study. The Deinococcus radiodurans R1 Rad-A could be viewed as an outlier in the RAD50 diagram and also in the free energy versus fractal dimension regression Cook's distance, consistent with a non-Earth source for this radiation resistant bacterium. Convergent and divergent fluctuating evolutionary

  13. Preparative SDS PAGE as an Alternative to His-Tag Purification of Recombinant Amelogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabe, Claire M; Brookes, Steven J; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant protein technology provides an invaluable source of proteins for use in structure-function studies, as immunogens, and in the development of therapeutics. Recombinant proteins are typically engineered with "tags" that allow the protein to be purified from crude host cell extracts using affinity based chromatography techniques. Amelogenin is the principal component of the developing enamel matrix and a frequent focus for biomineralization researchers. Several groups have reported the successful production of recombinant amelogenins but the production of recombinant amelogenin free of any tags, and at single band purity on silver stained SDS PAGE is technically challenging. This is important, as rigorous structure-function research frequently demands a high degree of protein purity and fidelity of protein sequence. Our aim was to generate His-tagged recombinant amelogenin at single band purity on silver stained SDS PAGE for use in functionality studies after His-tag cleavage. An acetic acid extraction technique (previously reported to produce recombinant amelogenin at 95% purity directly from E. coli ) followed by repeated rounds of nickel column affinity chromatography, failed to generate recombinant amelogenin at single band purity. This was because following an initial round of nickel column affinity chromatography, subsequent cleavage of the His-tag was not 100% efficient. A second round of nickel column affinity chromatography, used in attempts to separate the cleaved His-tag free recombinant from uncleaved His-tagged contaminants, was still unsatisfactory as cleaved recombinant amelogenin exhibited significant affinity for the nickel column. To solve this problem, we used preparative SDS PAGE to successfully purify cleaved recombinant amelogenins to single band purity on silver stained SDS PAGE. The resolving power of preparative SDS PAGE was such that His-tag based purification of recombinant amelogenin becomes redundant. We suggest that acetic

  14. Preparative SDS PAGE as an Alternative to His-Tag Purification of Recombinant Amelogenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Gabe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant protein technology provides an invaluable source of proteins for use in structure-function studies, as immunogens, and in the development of therapeutics. Recombinant proteins are typically engineered with “tags” that allow the protein to be purified from crude host cell extracts using affinity based chromatography techniques. Amelogenin is the principal component of the developing enamel matrix and a frequent focus for biomineralization researchers. Several groups have reported the successful production of recombinant amelogenins but the production of recombinant amelogenin free of any tags, and at single band purity on silver stained SDS PAGE is technically challenging. This is important, as rigorous structure-function research frequently demands a high degree of protein purity and fidelity of protein sequence. Our aim was to generate His-tagged recombinant amelogenin at single band purity on silver stained SDS PAGE for use in functionality studies after His-tag cleavage. An acetic acid extraction technique (previously reported to produce recombinant amelogenin at 95% purity directly from E. coli followed by repeated rounds of nickel column affinity chromatography, failed to generate recombinant amelogenin at single band purity. This was because following an initial round of nickel column affinity chromatography, subsequent cleavage of the His-tag was not 100% efficient. A second round of nickel column affinity chromatography, used in attempts to separate the cleaved His-tag free recombinant from uncleaved His-tagged contaminants, was still unsatisfactory as cleaved recombinant amelogenin exhibited significant affinity for the nickel column. To solve this problem, we used preparative SDS PAGE to successfully purify cleaved recombinant amelogenins to single band purity on silver stained SDS PAGE. The resolving power of preparative SDS PAGE was such that His-tag based purification of recombinant amelogenin becomes redundant. We

  15. Dissection of Recombination Attributes for Multiple Maize Populations Using a Common SNP Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Guan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination is a vital characteristic for quantitative trait loci mapping and breeding to enhance the yield potential of maize. However, recombination characteristics in globally used segregating populations have never been evaluated at similar genetic marker densities. This study aimed to divulge the characteristics of recombination events, recombinant chromosomal segments, and recombination frequency for four dissimilar populations. These populations were doubled haploid (DH, recombination inbred line (RIL, intermated B73xMo17 (IBM, and multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC, using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip to provide markers. Our results revealed that the average number of recombination events was 16, 41, 72, and 86 per line in DH, RIL, IBM, and MAGIC populations, respectively. Accordingly, the average length of recombinant chromosomal segments was 84.8, 47.3, 29.2, and 20.4 Mb in DH, RIL, IBM, and MAGIC populations, respectively. Furtherly, the recombination frequency varied in different genomic regions and population types [DH (0–12.7 cM/Mb, RIL (0–15.5 cM/Mb, IBM (0–24.1 cM/Mb, MAGIC (0–42.3 cM/Mb]. Utilizing different sub-sets of lines, the recombination bin number and size were analyzed in each population. Additionally, different sub-sets of markers and lines were employed to estimate the recombination bin number and size via formulas for relationship in these populations. The relationship between recombination events and recombination bin length was also examined. Our results contribute to determining the most suitable number of genetic markers, lines in each population, and population type for successful mapping and breeding.

  16. Electric hydrogen recombiner special tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.

    1975-12-01

    Westinghouse has produced an electric hydrogen recombiner to control hydrogen levels in reactor containments following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The recombiner underwent extensive testing for NRC qualification (see WCAP 7709-L and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4). As a result, WCAP 7709-L and Supplements 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been accepted by the NRC for reference in applications not committed to IEEE-323-1974. Supplement 5 and the next supplement will demonstrate conformance to IEEE-323-1974. This supplement describes additional tests, beyond those necessary to qualify the system, which will be referenced in supplement 6. Each test has demonstrated a considerable margin of safety over required performance. Concurrently, the test results increased the fund of technical information on the electric hydrogen recombiner

  17. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeis, Maelita R., E-mail: sony@sith.itb.ac.id; Berlian, Liska, E-mail: sony@sith.itb.ac.id; Suhandono, Sony, E-mail: sony@sith.itb.ac.id; Prima, Alex, E-mail: sony@sith.itb.ac.id; Komalawati, Eli, E-mail: sony@sith.itb.ac.id; Kristianti, Tati, E-mail: sony@sith.itb.ac.id

    2014-03-24

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation {sup 325}RLDRD{sup 329} and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  18. The ability to achieve meiotic maturation in the dog oocyte is linked to glycolysis and glutamine oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsasen, Nucharin; Wesselowski, Sonya; Carpenter, James W; Wildt, David E

    2012-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that meiotic competence of dog oocytes is tightly linked with donor follicle size and energy metabolism. Oocytes were recovered from small (glycolysis, glucose oxidation, pyruvate uptake, glutamine oxidation, and nuclear status. More oocytes (P  0.05). Glycolytic rate increased (P dog follicles contain a more metabolically active oocyte with a greater chance of achieving nuclear maturation in vitro. These findings demonstrate a significant role for energy metabolism in promoting dog oocyte maturation, information that will be useful for improving culture systems for rescuing intraovarian genetic material. Published 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Nonhomologous Recombination between Defective Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus Genomes Suggests a New Model of Genetic Plasticity for Picornaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3′ end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. PMID:25096874

  20. The effect of a single recombination event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Jensen, Thomas Mailund; Wiuf, Carsten

    We investigate the variance in how visible a single recombination event is in a SNP data set as a function of the type of recombination event and its age. Data is simulated under the coalescent with recombination and inference is by the popular composite likelihood methods. The major determinant...... of the effect of a recombination event is the genealogical type of the event and whether SNP variation is present that can reveal the genealogical consequences of the recombination event. Recombination events that only change some branch lengths in the genealogy have a very small, but detectable, effect....... The more lineages left when the recombination event occurs, the larger effect it has, implying that it is mainly young recombination events that we detect when estimating the rate. If the population is growing, though, more lineages are present back in time and relatively more ancient recombination events...

  1. Guanine nucleotides in the meiotic maturation of starfish oocytes: regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and of Ca(2+ signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Kyozuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Starfish oocytes are arrested at the first prophase of meiosis until they are stimulated by 1-methyladenine (1-MA. The two most immediate responses to the maturation-inducing hormone are the quick release of intracellular Ca(2+ and the accelerated changes of the actin cytoskeleton in the cortex. Compared with the later events of oocyte maturation such as germinal vesicle breakdown, the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events involving Ca(2+ signaling and actin changes are poorly understood. Herein, we have studied the roles of G-proteins in the early stage of meiotic maturation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By microinjecting starfish oocytes with nonhydrolyzable nucleotides that stabilize either active (GTPgammaS or inactive (GDPbetaS forms of G-proteins, we have demonstrated that: i GTPgammaS induces Ca(2+ release that mimics the effect of 1-MA; ii GDPbetaS completely blocks 1-MA-induced Ca(2+; iii GDPbetaS has little effect on the amplitude of the Ca(2+ peak, but significantly expedites the initial Ca(2+ waves induced by InsP(3 photoactivation, iv GDPbetaS induces unexpectedly striking modification of the cortical actin networks, suggesting a link between the cytoskeletal change and the modulation of the Ca(2+ release kinetics; v alteration of cortical actin networks with jasplakinolide, GDPbetaS, or actinase E, all led to significant changes of 1-MA-induced Ca(2+ signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results indicate that G-proteins are implicated in the early events of meiotic maturation and support our previous proposal that the dynamic change of the actin cytoskeleton may play a regulatory role in modulating intracellular Ca(2+ release.

  2. High fat diet induced developmental defects in the mouse: oocyte meiotic aneuploidy and fetal growth retardation/brain defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri M Luzzo

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum including infertility, increased time to pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, fetal loss, congenital abnormalities and neonatal conditions. Furthermore, the proportion of reproductive-aged woman that are obese in the population is increasing sharply. From current studies it is not clear if the origin of the reproductive complications is attributable to problems that arise in the oocyte or the uterine environment.We examined the developmental basis of the reproductive phenotypes in obese animals by employing a high fat diet mouse model of obesity. We analyzed very early embryonic and fetal phenotypes, which can be parsed into three abnormal developmental processes that occur in obese mothers. The first is oocyte meiotic aneuploidy that then leads to early embryonic loss. The second is an abnormal process distinct from meiotic aneuploidy that also leads to early embryonic loss. The third is fetal growth retardation and brain developmental abnormalities, which based on embryo transfer experiments are not due to the obese uterine environment but instead must be from a defect that arises prior to the blastocyst stage.Our results suggest that reproductive complications in obese females are, at least in part, from oocyte maternal effects. This conclusion is consistent with IVF studies where the increased pregnancy failure rate in obese women returns to the normal rate if donor oocytes are used instead of autologous oocytes. We postulate that preconceptional weight gain adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and fetal development. In light of our findings, preconceptional counseling may be indicated as the preferable, earlier target for intervention in obese women desiring pregnancy and healthy outcomes.

  3. Recombinant protein hydrazides: application to site-specific protein PEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Jennifer; Anderson, David; McGregor, Joanne; Cotton, Graham

    2011-06-15

    Here, we describe a novel method for the site-specific C-terminal PEGylation of recombinant proteins. This general approach exploits chemical cleavage of precursor intein-fusion proteins with hydrazine to directly produce recombinant protein hydrazides. This unique functionality within the protein sequence then facilitates site-specific C-terminal modification by hydrazone-forming ligation reactions. This approach was used to generate folded, site-specifically C-terminal PEGylated IFNalpha2b and IFNbeta1b, which retained excellent antiviral activity, demonstrating the utility of this technology in the PEGylation of therapeutic proteins. As this methodology is straightforward to perform, is compatible with disulfide bonds, and is exclusively selective for the protein C-terminus, it shows great potential as general technology for the site-specific engineering and labeling of recombinant proteins.

  4. A network approach to analyzing highly recombinant malaria parasite genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Larremore

    Full Text Available The var genes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum present a challenge to population geneticists due to their extreme diversity, which is generated by high rates of recombination. These genes encode a primary antigen protein called PfEMP1, which is expressed on the surface of infected red blood cells and elicits protective immune responses. Var gene sequences are characterized by pronounced mosaicism, precluding the use of traditional phylogenet