Sulistyoningrum, A. S.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Amelia, B.; Haib, J.
Indonesia is the largest clove producer in the world. In 2012, total world clove production is 113,215 tons where nearly 71 % (79,250 tons) comes from Indonesia. Although Indonesia is a major producer of clove in the world, research and publications about cloves in this country are scarce and hence knowledge about characteristics of difference varieties of cloves is very limited. The present study was aimed to compare major and minor constituents in clove oil responsible for their flavor based on origin which are cloves from Toli-Toli and Bali. The clove bud oil was isolated from clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) using steam distillation. The compounds of clove bud oil was analyzed using GC-MS. The major compounds of clove oil were eugenol, caryophyllene, α-humulene and eugenyl acetate with composition 66.37 %, 15.38 %, 1.97 % and 12.99 %, respectively (Toli-Toli) and clove from Bali were 72.34 %, 12.51 %, 2.34 % and 5.33 %, respectively. The unique minor compounds of clove oil from Toli-Toli were (+)-δ-cadinene (0.13 %) and β-caryophylladienol (0.19 %) while in clove oil from Bali were valencene (0.17 %), δ-selinene (0.22 %) and alloaromadendrene (0.24 %). A total of 36 compounds were identified from the clove bud oil Toli-Toli and 38 compounds from the clove bud oil Bali.
Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.
The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.
Full Text Available A sufficiently long spring discharge regime monitoring data set allows for a large number of analyses, to better understand the process of transformation of precipitation into a discharge hydrograph. It is also possible to determine dynamic groundwater volumes in a karst spring catchment area, the water budget equation parameters and the like. It should be noted that a sufficiently long data set is deemed to be a continuous spring discharge time series of more than 30 years. Such time series are rare in Serbia. They are generally much shorter (less than 15 years, and the respective catchment areas therefore fall into the “ungauged” category. In order to extend existing karst spring discharge time series, we developed a model whose outputs, apart from mean monthly spring discharges, include daily real evapotranspiration rates, catchment size and dynamic volume variation during the analytical period. So far the model has solely been used to assess the discharge regime and water budget of karst springs. The present paper aims to demonstrate that the model also yields good results in the case of springs that drain aquifers developed in marbles. Belo Vrelo (“White Spring”, source of the Tolišnica River, which drains marbles and marbleized limestones and dolomites of Čemerno Mountain, was selected for the present case study. [OI-176022
Muhammad Shoaib Amjad
Full Text Available This paper presents the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of the flora in Toli Peer National Park of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Being a remote area, there is a strong dependence by local people on ethnobotanical practices. Thus, we attempted to record the folk uses of the native plants of the area with a view to acknowledging and documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge. The aims of the study were to compile an inventory of the medicinal plants in the study area and to record the methods by which herbal drugs were prepared and administered.Information on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants was collected from 64 local inhabitants and herbalists using open ended and semi-structured questionnaires over the period Aug 2013-Jul 2014. The data were recorded into a synoptic table comprising an ethnobotanical inventory of plants, the parts used, therapeutic indications and modes of application or administration. Different ethnobotanical indices i.e. relative frequencies of citation (RFC, relative importance (RI, use value (UV and informant consensus factor (Fic, were calculated for each of the recorded medicinal plants. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 16 to check the level of association between use value and relative frequency of citation.A total of 121 species of medicinal plants belonging to 57 families and 98 genera were recorded. The study area was dominated by herbaceous species (48% with leaves (41% as the most exploited plant part. The Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (9% each were the dominant families in the study area. Among different methods of preparation, the most frequently used method was decoction (26 species of different plant parts followed by use as juice and powder (24 species each, paste (22 species, chewing (16 species, extract (11 species, infusion (10 species and poultice (8 species. The maximum Informant consensus factor (Fic value was for gastro-intestinal, parasitic and
Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza Faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood
This paper presents the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of the flora in Toli Peer National Park of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Being a remote area, there is a strong dependence by local people on ethnobotanical practices. Thus, we attempted to record the folk uses of the native plants of the area with a view to acknowledging and documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge. The aims of the study were to compile an inventory of the medicinal plants in the study area and to record the methods by which herbal drugs were prepared and administered. Information on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants was collected from 64 local inhabitants and herbalists using open ended and semi-structured questionnaires over the period Aug 2013-Jul 2014. The data were recorded into a synoptic table comprising an ethnobotanical inventory of plants, the parts used, therapeutic indications and modes of application or administration. Different ethnobotanical indices i.e. relative frequencies of citation (RFC), relative importance (RI), use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (Fic), were calculated for each of the recorded medicinal plants. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 16 to check the level of association between use value and relative frequency of citation. A total of 121 species of medicinal plants belonging to 57 families and 98 genera were recorded. The study area was dominated by herbaceous species (48%) with leaves (41%) as the most exploited plant part. The Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (9% each) were the dominant families in the study area. Among different methods of preparation, the most frequently used method was decoction (26 species) of different plant parts followed by use as juice and powder (24 species each), paste (22 species), chewing (16 species), extract (11 species), infusion (10 species) and poultice (8 species). The maximum Informant consensus factor (Fic) value was for gastro-intestinal, parasitic and
Breiter, K.; Žák, Karel
Roč. 2006, - (2007), s. 120-124 ISSN 0514-8057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : basic dyke rock * Teplá-Barrandian Unit * Bohemicum Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2006/2006-str.120-124.pdf
Sadeghi, E [Yasouj University, Physics Department, Yasouj(Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, M [Shiraz Payam Noor University, shiraz(Iran, Islamic Republic of)
Variation of electrical resistivity of Bismuth nano wire versus magnetic field the and temperature are considered. We study the size effect and surface scattering of the carrier in thin wire for systems with ellipsoidal Fermi surfaces. Results are in good agreement with experimental points.
Roč. 61, 3-4 (2016), s. 46-48 ISSN 0036-5351 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : czech history * 19th century * history of journalism * Karel Havlíček Borovský * Ludvík Rittersberg Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)
Läti fotograafia näitus "Private: Contemporary Photo Art in Latvia" Riias 20. augustist 18. oktoobrini 2009, kuraator Alise Tifentāle. Lähemalt Arnis Balčus'i, Gunārs Binde, Zenta Dzividzinskat'i, Roman Korovini, Inta Ruka, Alnis Stakle, Vilnis Vītoliņš'i loomingust
Hubin, Ellen; Deroo, Stéphanie; Schierle, Gabriele Kaminksi; Kaminski, Clemens; Serpell, Louise; Subramaniam, Vinod; van Nuland, Nico; Broersen, Kerensa; Raussens, Vincent; Sarroukh, Rabia
Most Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are late-onset and characterized by the aggregation and deposition of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide in extracellular plaques in the brain. However, a few rare and hereditary Aβ mutations, such as the Italian Glu22-to-Lys (E22K) mutation, guarantee the development
Full Text Available The paper focuses on temporal adverbs toč and tolič the meaning of which is ‘a moment ago’. They are preserved in archaic Croatian dialects and are remnants of the Old-Croatian lexical layer. Besides in the local Croatian idioms, they can also be found in literary works by Croatian authors almost all of whom originate from the areas in which these temporal adverbs are still used. In the introductory part of the paper we discuss temporal adverbs in general, the meaning of the adverbs toč and tolič, list their variants and explain their etymology. The paper also contains information about the geographical spread of these, in many ways interesting, lexemes.
geopolitics with the clash of civilizations scheme and the Orthodox Christian dogmas, is the anonymous Proekt Rossiya (Project Russia) enterprise, which...Popechitel’stvo, (tutelage). But the Bolsheviks took it up soon after they seized power. In 1918 , Bolshevik Commissar of Enlightenment, Ana- toly...Russia no longer borders either on Romania or Poland). • America is also extending missile defenses to Central and Eastern Europe even though no
Rahmadaningsi, W. S. N.; Assegaf, A. H.; Setyonegoro, W.; Paharuddin
The northern arm of Sulawesi potentials to generate earthquake and Tsunami due to the existence of subduction zone in sulawesi sea. It makes the North Donggala as an area with active seismicity. One of the earthquake and Tsunami events occurred is the earthquake and tsunami of Toli-Toli 1996 (M 7.9) causing 9 people are killed and severe damage in Tonggolobibi, Siboang, and Balukang. This earthquake induced tsunami runup of 3.4 m and inundated as far as 400 meters. The aims of this study is to predict runup and inundation area using numerical model and to find out the characteristics of Tsunami wave on straight, bay and cape shape coastal morphology and slopes of coastal. The data in this research consist of are the Etopo2 bathymetry data in data obtained from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Toli-toli’s main earthquakes focal mechanism data 1st January1996 from GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor), the data gained from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data 30 m and land cover data in 1996 from Ministry of environment and forestry . Single fault model is used to predict the high of tsunami run-up and to inundation area along Donggala coastal area. Its reviewed by morphology of coastal area that higher run up shows occurs at coastline type like bay have higher run up compare to area with cape and straight coastline. The result shows that the slopes have negative or contras correlation with Tsunami runup and its inundation area.
Full Text Available Using the interdisciplinary approach to Stevan Mokranjac’s Garlands [Rukoveti] and his successors in the Serbian choral music after World War II, while simultaneously relying on Dubravka Oraić Tolić’s Theory of Citation (1990, I have continued the work of distinguished scholars in the field of Serbian postwar music and their diverse analytical experiences. Whilst critically evaluating the existing analytical interpretations, in this article I have pointed to the alternative solutions and interpretations of the relevant issues of the organisation of the musical flow of Garlands and related formal types in almost all relevant musicotextual segments. Departing from the problems posed by the phenomena of intertextuality and citational procedures as elaborated by Dubravka Oraić Tolić, in this article I focus on their different embodiments as established in the relation between Stevan Mokranjac’s Garlands and garlands and similar forms of the second half of the 20th century; I also specify analytical methods and their creative application on the analysis of individual choral works. During this process, certain different types of the intertexual communication in the garlands written by members of different generations required more precise definition, i.e. additions and redefining of the existing terminology of the theory of citations, and an introduction of new terms. The selected analysed sample incorporates both the works that nowadays constitute the basis of the choral concert repertoire, and the works which are nowadays mostly neglected and not so attractive to performers and music theorists.Analytical issues discussed in this study have repeatedly pointed to the importance of Stevan Mokranjac’s Garlands as a paradigm for the authors of the second half of the 20th century, and repeated the vitality of his creative contributions to Serbian music. This has, in turn, reinforced the common knowledge on the work of Mokranjac as the
Kutz, Russell; Okwumabua, Ogi
The glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes of 19 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains, consisting of 18 swine isolates and 1 human clinical isolate from a geographically varied collection, were analyzed by activity staining on a nondenaturing gel. All seven (100%) of the highly virulent strains tested produced an electrophoretic type (ET) distinct from those of moderately virulent and nonvirulent strains. By PCR and nucleotide sequence determination, the gdh genes of the 19 strains and of 2 highly virulent strains involved in recent Chinese outbreaks yielded a 1,820-bp fragment containing an open reading frame of 1,344 nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 448 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 49 kDa. The nucleotide sequences contained base pair differences, but most were silent. Cluster analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences separated the isolates into three groups. Group I (ETI) consisted of the seven highly virulent isolates and the two Chinese outbreak strains, containing Ala(299)-to-Ser, Glu(305)-to-Lys, and Glu(330)-to-Lys amino acid substitutions compared with groups II and III (ETII). Groups II and III consisted of moderately virulent and nonvirulent strains, which are separated from each other by Tyr(72)-to-Asp and Thr(296)-to-Ala substitutions. Gene exchange studies resulted in the change of ETI to ETII and vice versa. A spectrophotometric activity assay for GDH did not show significant differences between the groups. These results suggest that the GDH ETs and sequence types may serve as useful markers in predicting the pathogenic behavior of strains of this serotype and that the molecular basis for the observed differences in the ETs was amino acid substitutions and not deletion, insertion, or processing uniqueness.
Wang, Yi-Fang; Khan, Michael; van den Berg, Hugo A
Endocrine dynamics spans a wide range of time scales, from rapid responses to physiological challenges to with slow responses that adapt the system to the demands placed on it. We outline a non-linear averaging procedure to extract the slower dynamics in a way that accounts properly for the non-linear dynamics of the faster time scale and is applicable to a hierarchy of more than two time scales, although we restrict our discussion to two scales for the sake of clarity. The procedure is exact if the slow time scale is infinitely slow (the dimensionless ε-quantity is the period of the fast time scale fluctuation times an upper bound to the slow time scale rate of change). However, even for an imperfect separation of time scales we find that this construction provides an excellent approximation for the slow-time dynamics at considerably reduced computational cost. Besides the computation advantage, the averaged equation provided a qualitative insight into the interaction of the time scales. We demonstrate the procedure and its advantages by applying the theory to the model described by Tolić et al. [I.M. Tolić, E. Mosekilde, J. Sturis, Modeling the insulin-glucose feedback system: the significance of pulsatile insulin secretion, J. Theor. Biol. 207 (2000) 361-375.] for ultradian dynamics of the glucose-insulin homeostasis feedback system, extended to include β-cell dynamics. We find that the dynamics of the β-cell mass are dependent not only on the glycemic load (amount of glucose administered to the system), but also on the way this load is applied (i.e. three meals daily versus constant infusion), effects that are lost in the inappropriate methods used by the earlier authors. Furthermore, we find that the loss of the protection against apoptosis conferred by insulin that occurs at elevated levels of insulin has a functional role in keeping the β-cell mass in check without compromising regulatory function. We also find that replenishment of β-cells from a
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.
Bolotaulo, Duer; Metta-Magaña, Alejandro; Fortier, Skye
Using an improved, chromatography-free dipyrrin synthesis, the α,β-unsubstituted dipyrrins [RC(C 4 H 2 N) 2 H] (2) (R = tolyl (2toly l ), p-OMe-C 6 H 4 (2anis), mesityl (2mes), ferrocenyl (2Fc)) were isolated in good to excellent yields. Deprotonation of 2 with Na[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] gives the alkali metal salts [Na(DME) n ][RC(C 4 H 2 N) 2 ] (3) which reacts with UO 2 Cl 2 (THF) 3 to give the uranyl bis(dipyrrinates) UO 2 [RC(C 4 H 2 N) 2 ] 2 (L) (L = THF (4R-THF); DMAP (4R-DMAP)) (R = tolyl, p-OMe-C 6 H 4 , mesityl, ferrocenyl). The THF adducts, 4R-THF, are unstable in aromatic and nonpolar solvents and rapidly decompose to 2 and an intractable uranium-containing solid. On the other hand, the DMAP adducts, 4R-DMAP, are indefinitely stable in solution. The solid-state structures of 4R-THF and 4R-DMAP reveal distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries. In the solid-state, the dipyrrinate ligands exhibit significant distortions including bowing and, in some instances, out-of-plane equatorial N-atom coordination, likely as a consequence of steric crowding and interligand repulsion. The complexes, 4R-DMAP, have been fully characterized by NMR, UV/Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies, and their electrochemical properties have been investigated through cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammograms of 4R-DMAP display several redox features but present a reversible wave at ca. -1.9 V (vs. Fc 0/+ ) attributable to a ligand centred reduction. Fluorescence measurements of all compounds reveal that only the mesityl derivatives 2mes, 3mes, and 4mes fluoresce with modest Stokes shift that ranges from ca. 30-70 nm, with 4mes displaying the greatest relative emission intensity.
Schmidt, Stefan-André; Gukelberger, Ephraim; Hermann, Mario; Fiedler, Florian; Großmann, Benjamin; Hoinkis, Jan; Ghosh, Ashok; Chatterjee, Debashis; Bundschuh, Jochen
Arsenic contamination of groundwater is posing a serious challenge to drinking water supplies on a global scale. In India and Bangladesh, arsenic has caused the most serious public health issue in the world for nearly two decades. The aim of this work was to study an arsenic removal system based on reverse osmosis at pilot scale treating two different water sources from two different locations in the State of Bihar, India. For this purpose two villages, Bind Toli and Ramnagar in the Patna District were selected, both located very close to the river Ganga. The trials were conducted with aerated and non-aerated groundwater. It is the first time that the arsenic removal efficiency for aerated and non-aerated groundwater by reverse osmosis technology in combination with an energy-saving recovery system have been studied. As the principle of reverse osmosis requires a relatively high pressure, its energy demand is naturally high. By using an energy recovery system, this demand can be lowered, leading to an energy demand per liter permeate of 3-4Wh/L only. Due to high iron levels in the groundwater and as a consequence the precipitation of ferric (hydr)oxides, it was necessary to develop a granular media filter for the trials under aeration in order to protect the membrane from clogging. Two different materials, first locally available sand, and second commercially available anthracite were tested in the granular media filter. For the trials with aerated groundwater, total arsenic removal efficiency at both locations was around 99% and the arsenic concentration in permeate was in compliance with the WHO and National Indian Standard of 10μg/L. However, trials under anoxic conditions with non-aerated groundwater could not comply with this standard. Additionally a possible safe discharge of the reverse osmosis concentrate into an abandoned well was studied. It was observed that re-injection of reject water underground may offer a safe disposal option. However, long
Huang, Y. D.
community engagement and enthusiasm, and most importantly staff members dedicated to the area of climate planning have a significant effect on climate mitigation policy adoption. In addition, it supported the claim asserted by Toly (2008) that an emphasis on economic co-benefits perpetuates the principle that economic growth need not be compromised when addressing climate change and weakens our capacity to shift toward a bolder paradigm in what is politically achievable in climate legislation.
Full Text Available In questa sezione centrale di Telling in Time II, Meir Sternberg rivolge la propria riflessione alle questioni sorte dall’incontro tra temporalità e narrazione osservato nella parte iniziale del saggio: strategie retoriche di controllo discorsivo, effetti narrativi, dinamica teleologica della sorpresa, sono tutte problematiche, queste, appartenenti a quella dimensione pragmatica che caratterizza la prospettiva di indagine dell’autore. Il percorso argomentativo dei primi capitoli di queste pagine affronta infatti il discorso sugli effetti narrativi, presente nella storia degli studi letterari fin dalla Poetica aristotelica, a partire da premesse che consentono di gettare nuova luce su di essi: se i concetti aristotelici di «rovesciamento», «riconoscimento» e «sorpresa» sono entrati nelle teorizzazioni novecentesche – Sternberg osserva in particolare i lavori pioneristici di Propp e le implicazioni introdotte nell’esperienza narratologica – in forma pressoché immutata, conservando un ancorag- gio alla realtà narrata più che alle modalità narrative, Telling in Time II propone invece di concepirli in relazione al loro «funzionamento comunicativo» e al cosiddetto «principio di Proteo». Nei capi- toli conclusivi dell’articolo, delineata una tale cornice concettuale, queste dinamiche – cui si aggiungono quelle di «suspense» e «curiosità» – vengono assunte quali fattori invarianti del genere narrativo, posti alla base della rete di rapporti teleologici tra il livello rappresentativo e il livello comunicativo che costituiscono il nucleo essenziale della proposta critica sternberghiana.The central section of Telling in Time II directs the attention to the consequences coming from the meeting between time and narrative considered in the first part of this essay: rhetorical strategies, narratives effects, teleological dynamic of surprise are all questions that belong to the pragmatic dimension of