WorldWideScience

Sample records for mediterranean mountain environment

  1. Spatial pattern and temporal variability of runoff processes in Mediterranean Mountain environments - a case study of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzen, V.; Seeger, K.M.; Casper, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain environments like the Central Spanish Pyrenees show a highly variable rainfall-runoff response, mainly explained by the intense intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitation yield. This leads to a highly differentiated moisture status and therefore it is assumed to lead

  2. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  3. Assessing the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on land-cover diversity in a Mediterranean mountain environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués-Bravo, David

    2006-01-01

    in Navarra (northern Spain), a region with a long history of human settlement and distinct management practices, ranging from mountain communities in the Pyrenees to Mediterranean lowland cropland systems. Variance in landscape diversity was divided into environmental- and human-influenced fractions...... specialization, which varies between areas devoted to grazing and forest exploitation in the Pyrenees mountains to lowland Mediterranean croplands, showed a strong correlation (r 2 = 0.40; P ... suggest that human activities have resulted in an increase in land-cover diversity in mountainous areas and have acted to homogenize land cover within the Mediterranean agricultural landscape. In summary, the model that uses the map of 24 classes as dependent variables and includes human and environmental...

  4. Hydrology in a Mediterranean mountain environment, the Vallcebre Research basins (North Eastern Spain). IV. Testing hydrological and erosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart, F.; Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Martinez-Carreras, N.

    2009-07-01

    Three modelling exercises were carried out in the Vallcebre research basins in order to both improve the understanding of the hydrological processes and test the adequate of some models in such Mediterranean mountain conditions. These exercises consisted of i) the analysis of the hydrological role of the agricultural terraces using the TOPMODEL topographic index, ii) the parametrisation of TOPMODEL using internal basin information, and iii) a test of the erosion model KINEROS2 for simulating badlands erosion. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2008-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain biomes are considered endangered due to climate change that affects directly or indirectly different key features (biodiversity, snow cover, glaciers, run-off processes, and water availability). Here, we provide an assessment of temperature, precipitation, and spring...... precipitation changes in Mediterranean mountains under different emission scenarios (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and Atmosphere-Ocean-Coupled General Circulation Models for two periods: 2055 (2040-2069 period) and 2085 (2070-2099). Finally, the future climate trends projected for Mediterranean...... mountains are compared with those trends projected for non-Mediterranean European mountain ranges. The range of projected warming varies between +1.4 degrees C and 5.1 degrees C for 2055 (+1.6 degrees C and +8.3 degrees C for 2085). Climate models also project a reduction of precipitation, mainly during...

  6. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro;

    2008-01-01

    spring (-17% under Alfi and -4.8% under B1 for 2085). On the contrary, non-Mediterranean European mountains will not experience a reduction of annual and spring precipitation. Implications of predicted climate change for both human and physical features are coupled in an integrated framework to gain...

  7. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  8. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  9. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J

    2016-01-01

    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  10. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  11. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) I. 20 years of investigations of hydrological dynamics; Hidrologia de un ambiente Mediterraneo de montana. Las cuencas de Vallcebre (Pirineo Oriental) I. 20 anos de investigaciones hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Solar, M.; Poyatos, R.; Rubio, C.; Muzylo, A.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Delgado, J.; Regues, D.; Catari, G.; Nord, G.; Gallart, F.

    2009-07-01

    Investigations started 20 years ago in the Vallcebre research basins with the objectives of better understanding the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. The Vallcebre basins (0.15-4.17 km{sup 2}) are located in a Mediterranean mountain area of the Pyrenean ranges (1300 m.a.s.l., North Eastern Spain) Average annual precipitations 862{+-} 260 mm and potential evapotranspiration is 823{+-}26mm. Climate is highly seasonal leading to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations in the basins are related to rainfall interception, evapotranspiration, soil moisture spatio-temporal dynamics, runoff response and runoff processes, suspended sediment dynamics and model application both at the plot and basin scales. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. Nitrate in Polluted Mountainous Catchments with Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meixner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of southern California receive some of the highest rates of nitrogen (N deposition in the world (~40 kg ha�1 year�1. These high rates of deposition have translated into consistently high levels of nitrate (NO3� in some streams of the San Bernardino Mountains. However, not all streams are exhibiting these high levels of NO3�. Perennial streams have high NO3� concentrations (~200 [b.mu ]moles l�1 while ephemeral streams do not (~20 [b.mu ]moles l�1. This difference points to groundwater as the source of the NO3� observed in streams. Furthermore, the evidence indicates a differential impact of N deposition on terrestrial and aquatic systems in Mediterranean climates, with aquatic systems being impacted more quickly. The primary reason for this difference involves the asynchrony between the time that atmospheric deposition occurs (summer, the time period of maximum soil NO3� availability and leaching (winter, and the time of maximum plant N demand (spring. Our results indicate that semiarid Mediterranean climate systems behave differently from more humid systems in that, because of this asynchrony, aquatic systems may not be indicative of changes in terrestrial ecosystem response. These differences lead us to the conclusion that the extrapolation of impacts from humid to Mediterranean climates is problematic and the concept of N saturation may need to be revisited for semiarid and seasonally dry systems.

  13. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  14. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...... agronomic and environmental factors. Our objective is to determine the general principles underlying how, in Mediterranean environments, grain protein content (GPC) is affected by these factors and provide a system model with high predictive ability. We initially evaluated the capability of the Delphi...

  15. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  16. Modelling the rate of secondary succession after farmland abandonment in a Mediterranean mountain area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Pueyo, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary succession after farmland abandonment has become a common process in north Mediterranean countries, especially in mountain areas. In this paper a methodology is tested which combines Markov chains and logistic multivariate regression to model secondary succession after farmland abandonment

  17. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) III. Vegetation and water fluxes; Hidrologia de un ambiente Mediterraneo de montana. Las cuencas de Vallcebre (pirineo oriental) III. Vegetacion y flujos de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, P.; Poyatos, R.; Muzylo, A.; Rubio, C. M.; Latron, J.; Delgado, J.; Gallart, F.

    2009-07-01

    The Vallcebre research catchment are located in a Mediterranean mountain area (Pyrenean, range, NE Spain). These catchments were originally covered by Quercus pubescens Willd. and deforested for agricultural use in the past. Nowadays they are covered by mesophyle grasses with spontaneous afforestation by Pinus sylvestris L. In this context, different investigations studying water fluxes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum have been performed. the main objective of these studies is the analysis and modelling of the role of vegetation cover on the catchment water balance in a framework of climate and land use changes. The dynamics of rainfall interception and transpiration by Scots pines and pubescens oaks, are investigated in terms of their dependence on meteorological conditions, on soil moisture and water table depth. (Author) 13 refs.

  18. Engineered barrier environment, Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential nuclear waste repository site will ultimately depend on how well it provides for isolation of the waste. Analysis of isolation capabilities of YM must consider interactions between natural and engineered systems. In addition, environmental conditions are important to EBS design, materials testing, selection, design criteria, and waste-form characterization. Studies of environmental interactions with the EBS, have emphasized processes and changed (not ambient) conditions resulting from interaction with waste, since these are the pertinent conditions for the EBS. The results of these studies indicate that the radioactive heat-of-decay from spent nuclear fuel will play a dominant role in the performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In addition, coupled hydrothermal-geochemical phenomena may significantly affect the performance of natural barriers surrounding the repository. Depending on the thermal-loading management strategy, as well as site conditions, repository heat may either substantially increase the likelihood of water contacting waste packages, with an associated potential increased magnitude of release and transport of radionuclides, or preclude, or at least minimize, these effects for extended periods of time, perhaps as much as hundreds of thousand years.

  19. Role of hedgerows in agrosilvopastoral management of mountain Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsiadis, E.; Ispikoudis, I.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Hedgerows are part of the traditional agrosilvopastoral systems in the Mediterranean region. They are widely distributed all over the mountain areas and constitute important elements of the rural landscape. Their presence is dated back to the ancient times, uninterruptedly continued up to our days. They originate and coexist with agriculture and for this reason they are closely related to human activities. Hedgerows are associated with a great range of ecological, economic and social benefits. They ensure a refuge to a high number of animal and plant species and act as corridors, allowing dispersal and movement of them among habitats. They provide shelter from wind and dust, timber, fruits and other products, forage to domestic and wild animals, aesthetic qualities and protection from soil erosion. Recent studies emphasize their functional role in rural landscapes through the flow of wind, water, nutrients, energy and biota. In this paper, we studied an extensive network of hedgerows bordering cultivated fields in a mountainous village of western Macedonia, in northwestern Greece. The area covered amounts to about 1200 ha and is dominated by farms mainly cultivated with cereals, while vineyards and lucerne crops are also present. Hedgerows have been created and maintained by farmers. Their structure and composition vary greatly. Vegetation consists of trees, spontaneous or planted, shrubs and herbaceous species. In addition to bordering of farms, hedgerows provide several other goods and services. The most important use though is grazing by livestock, especially after cereal harvesting, in the summer and early autumn months. Thereby, they constitute a traditional agrosilvopastoral system. Measurements included type of hedgerows (earth or stone walls), morphology such as length, width, and height as well as vegetative cover and species composition. In addition, the ecological, economic and social roles of them were investigated through interviews with their owners

  20. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    of mountain rivers, but morphological changes of rivers can also affect hydrological properties of floods and the associated risk for societies. This paper provides a review of research in the field of floods in mountain environments and puts the papers of this special issue dedicated to the same topic into context. It also provides insight into innovative studies, methods, or emerging aspects of the relations between environmental changes, geomorphic processes, and the occurrence of floods in mountain rivers.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Environmental Flow Estimation Methods in a Mediterranean Mountain River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Zogaris, Stamatis; Dercas, Nicholas; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-08-01

    The ecological integrity of rivers ultimately depends on flow regime. Flow degradation is especially prominent in Mediterranean systems and assessing environmental flows in modified rivers is difficult, especially in environments with poor hydrologic monitoring and data availability. In many Mediterranean countries, which are characterized by pronounced natural variability and low summer flows, water management actions usually focus on prescribing minimum acceptable flows estimated by hydrologic methods. In this study, a comparative assessment of environmental flow estimation methods is developed in a river with poorly monitored flows and limited understanding of past reference conditions. This assessment incorporates both a hydrologic and a fish habitat simulation effort that takes into consideration hydrologic seasonality in a Greek mountainous river. The results of this study indicate that especially in data scarce regions the utilization of biotic indicators through habitat models, may provide valuable information, beyond that achievable with hydrologic methods, for developing regional environmental flow criteria. Despite the widespread use of the method, challenges in transferability of fish habitat simulation provide undefined levels of uncertainty and may require the concurrent use of different assessment tools and site-specific study.

  2. Summer freezing resistance: a critical filter for plant community assemblies in Mediterranean high mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez Pescador

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessing freezing community response and whether freezing resistance is related to other functional traits is essential for understanding alpine community assemblages, particularly in Mediterranean environments where plants are exposed to freezing temperatures and summer droughts. Thus, we characterized the leaf freezing resistance of 42 plant species in 38 plots at Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain by measuring their ice nucleation temperature, freezing point (FP, and low-temperature damage (LT50, as well as determining their freezing resistance mechanisms (i.e., tolerance or avoidance. The community response to freezing was estimated for each plot as community weighted means (CWMs and functional diversity, and we assessed their relative importance with altitude. We established the relationships between freezing resistance, growth forms, and four key plant functional traits (i.e., plant height, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, and seed mass. There was a wide range of freezing resistance responses and more than in other alpine habitats. At the community level, the CWMs of FP and LT50 responded negatively to altitude, whereas the functional diversity of both traits increased with altitude. The proportion of freezing-tolerant species also increased with altitude. The ranges of FP and LT50 varied among growth forms, and only the leaf dry matter content correlated negatively with freezing-resistance traits. Summer freezing events represent important abiotic filters for assemblies of Mediterranean high mountain communities, as suggested by the CWMs. However, a concomitant summer drought constraint may also explain the high freezing resistance of species that thrive in these areas and the lower functional diversity of freezing resistance traits at lower altitudes. Leaves with high dry matter contents may maintain turgor at lower water potential and enhance drought tolerance in parallel to freezing resistance. This adaptation to drought seems to

  3. Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Ana; López-Vicente, Manuel; Gaspar, Leticia; Palazón, Leticia; Quijano, Laura

    2014-10-15

    Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point (137)Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr(-1) and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr(-1), respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr(-1)), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 (137)Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr(-1). Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Summer Freezing Resistance: A Critical Filter for Plant Community Assemblies in Mediterranean High Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescador, David S; Sierra-Almeida, Ángela; Torres, Pablo J; Escudero, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Assessing freezing community response and whether freezing resistance is related to other functional traits is essential for understanding alpine community assemblages, particularly in Mediterranean environments where plants are exposed to freezing temperatures and summer droughts. Thus, we characterized the leaf freezing resistance of 42 plant species in 38 plots at Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain) by measuring their ice nucleation temperature, freezing point (FP), and low-temperature damage (LT50), as well as determining their freezing resistance mechanisms (i.e., tolerance or avoidance). The community response to freezing was estimated for each plot as community weighted means (CWMs) and functional diversity (FD), and we assessed their relative importance with altitude. We established the relationships between freezing resistance, growth forms, and four key plant functional traits (i.e., plant height, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), and seed mass). There was a wide range of freezing resistance responses and more than in other alpine habitats. At the community level, the CWMs of FP and LT50 responded negatively to altitude, whereas the FD of both traits increased with altitude. The proportion of freezing-tolerant species also increased with altitude. The ranges of FP and LT50 varied among growth forms, and only leaf dry matter content was negatively correlated with freezing-resistance traits. Summer freezing events represent important abiotic filters for assemblies of Mediterranean high mountain communities, as suggested by the CWMs. However, a concomitant summer drought constraint may also explain the high freezing resistance of species that thrive in these areas and the lower FD of freezing resistance traits at lower altitudes. Leaves with high dry matter contents may maintain turgor at lower water potential and enhance drought tolerance in parallel to freezing resistance. This adaptation to drought seems to be a general prerequisite for plants

  5. Medium-term predictions of cumulative runoff in a Mediterranean mountain river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Zacarías; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    It is important to find patterns and hidden connections between data to assess the development of decision-making tools for water management. The climate variability of the Mediterranean environments makes it necessary the establishment of methodological/hydrological frameworks that allow us to limit the uncertainty on the decision for further periods within the year, and thus achieve better resource utilization. For that, a study of different machine learning methods has been applied in a Mediterranean mountainous basin in South Spain, by means of an ensemble classification and regression approach to predict the river flow volumes for further periods on a quarterly scale. The predictions are made within the same hydrological year and under two different time schemes, after three (A-scheme) and six months (B-scheme), testing the further periods. The study was carried out with the longest streamflow time series registered in the basin (43 years), collected at a high mountain gauge station (Narila, 975 metres above sea level) in the Guadalfeo River. This station is located in the upstream part of the river (with an associated 67 km2 contributing area), where there are not significant human alterations of the natural hydrological cycle (withdrawals or discharges) and with a strong influence of the snow regime. The set of selected predictors for the river water volumes includes cumulated runoff, cumulated rainfall and the average of different Climate indexes. The results show that the nature of future periods can be classified accurately in our study case by the methods proposed, classifying correctly more than 90 % of the values during the testing period.

  6. Respuestas ecofisiológicas de plantas en ecosistemas de zonas con clima mediterráneo y ambientes de altamontaña Ecophysiological responses of plants in ecosystems with Mediterranean-like climate and high mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. MARINO CABRERA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una revisión de los estudios en ecofisiología en plantas de zonas con clima tipo mediterráneo, con enfásis en la fotosíntesis frente a los múltiples estrés de estos ambientes. Se hace un acercamiento ecofisiológico al estudio de la distribución de las formas de vida y de las especies, particularmente en la zona central de Chile. Se analiza el efecto del estrés hídrico (sequía, térmico (temperaturas y lumínico (radiación en la fotosíntesis. El estrés hídrico sería un factor determinante en la distribución de árboles siempreverdes y semideciduos en altitudes bajas, mientras que en altitudes intermedias (en el límite arbóreo o mayores, las temperaturas y/o el estrés hídrico junto con el estrés lumínico afectarían a arbustos y cojines. Se discutirá el fenómeno de la fotoinhibición de la fotosíntesis causada por los múltiples estrés que enfrentarían las plantas en zonas de clima tipo mediterráneo, explicando los conceptos teóricos básicos de la emisión de fluorescencia de la clorofila a y la fotoprotección otorgada por las xantofilas. Se proponen hipótesis para explicar como estos múltiples estrés modulan la distribución y los patrones fenológicos estacionales e interanuales en plantas. Se comparan especies filogenéticamente cercanas (e.g., congenéricas y con diferencias interespecíficas en los caracteres fenotípicos que se correlacionan con parámetros del ambiente, que se explican mediante procesos adaptativos y que no son producto de la inercia filogenéticaThis review highlights the studies on plant physiological ecology of Mediterranean-like climate zones, with interest in the photosynthesis and in the multiple stress characteristics of these environments. It incorporates an eco-physiological approach to the study of the distribution of the life forms and species of Mediterranean ecosystems, particularly in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile. It is emphasized the effect of drought

  7. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodrıguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modell

  8. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodriguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modell

  9. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodriguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice

  10. Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana, E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); López-Vicente, Manuel, E-mail: mvicente@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, Leticia, E-mail: leticia.gaspar@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Palazón, Leticia, E-mail: lpalazon@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Quijano, Laura, E-mail: lquijano@eead.cisc.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point {sup 137}Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr{sup −1} and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr{sup −1}, respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr{sup −1}), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 {sup 137}Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr{sup −1}. Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. - Highlights: • Soil erosion threatens long

  11. Mediterranean diet and longevity in Sicily: survey in a Sicani Mountains population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasto, Sonya; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Rizzo, Claudia; Monastero, Roberto; Marchese, Antonio; Caruso, Calogero

    2012-04-01

    Over the past several years, increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet has a beneficial influence on several age-related diseases, showing protective effect on health and longevity. Mediterranean diet refers to dietary patterns found in olive-growing regions of the Mediterranean countries. Previous data reported that in Sicily, Italy, the largest Mediterranean island, there are some mountainous regions where there is a high frequency of male centenarians with respect to the Italian average. The aim of the present study was to characterize centenarians living in one of this region, the Sicani Mountains, located in western Sicily. Present data shows that in this zone there are more centenarians with respect to the Italian average. In fact, in the three villages of the Sicani Mountains, there were 15 people ranging from 100 to 107 years old, of the total population of about 10,000 inhabitants. This centenarian number was more than six-fold higher the national average (15.0 vs. 2.4/10,000); the female/male ratio was 1.5 in the study area, whereas the national ratio is 4.54. Centenarians living in these villages had anthropometric measurements within normal limits and moderate sensory disability without any sign of age-related diseases, including cognitive deterioration and dementia. In addition, their clinical chemistry profile was similar to young controls and far better than that of old controls. Unequivocally, their nutritional assessment showed a high adherence to the Mediterranean nutritional profile, with low glycemic index food consumed. Overall, close adherence to Mediterranean diet seems to play a key role in age-related disease prevention and in attaining longevity.

  12. Integrating Extensive Livestock and Soil Conservation Policies in Mediterranean Mountain Areas for Recovery of Abandoned Lands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. A Long-Term Research Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio

    2016-01-01

    Land abandonment is a global issue with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Abandoned Mediterranean croplands start a process of secondary succession that is initially colonized by grasslands, shrubs and forest. In Mediterranean mountain areas, the process is very slow, so the

  13. Mediterranean Holocene climate, environment and human societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Karin; Gogou, Alexandra.; Izdebski, Adam.; Luterbacher, Juerg.; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Xoplaki, Elena

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the reader to a special issue of articles that explores links and processes behind societal change, climate change and environmental change in a Holocene perspective in the Mediterranean region. All papers are, by purpose, co-authored by scientists representing different disciplines. The cross-cutting theme has been to reach beyond simple explanations of potential climate-society relationships and advance our understanding on how to improve research methods and theories in the field. The thirteen papers in this issue address these questions in three different ways, by i) conceptual/methodological approaches; ii) review papers; and iii) case studies.

  14. Climate change impacts on the fluvial regime in a Mediterranean mountainous area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    The water flow regime in Mediterranean basins is greatly influenced by the high variability of the meteorological patterns, with recurrent drought periods, and the heterogeneity of both terrain physical properties and land uses. These aspects together with the simultaneous demands of water resources for human consumption, irrigation and energy production make it crucial to have a continuous flow series on control points along the river network. In the current context of Global Warming, mountainous semiarid watersheds, where Mediterranean and alpine climates coexist, constitute singular places to evaluate its effects on the river flow regime. Sierra Nevada Mountain area (SN) (southern Spain), with altitudes ranging from 2000 to 3500 m.a.s.l., is a clear example of snow regions in a semiarid environment. Due to its special climate conditions, SN is part of the global climate change observatories network. The aim of this work is to estimate the influence of climate change on the flow regime over several control points along the main channel of the Guadalfeo River (in the South face of SN), by means of analysing the observed trends and focusing in the occurrence of drought period and extreme flood events. For this, the flow regime at three selected points in the river was simulated by using WiMMed, a physically-based hydrological model developed for Mediterranean regions, which includes flow routing calculations. The model was calibrated and validated from observations at a gauge station point, from which the flow series were obtained at upstream. Precipitation and temperature datasets from the reference period (1960-2000) and two different scenarios (A2, B1) for a future period (2046-2100) proposed by the Fourth Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were used as forcing meteorological variables. The comparison was performed over different flow indicator variables: 1) annual mean daily flow; 2) annual maximum daily flow; 3) annual number

  15. Assessing intraspecific variation in effective dispersal along an altitudinal gradient: a test in two Mediterranean high-mountain plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Romero, Carlos; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan J; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Iriondo, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    Plant recruitment depends among other factors on environmental conditions and their variation at different spatial scales. Characterizing dispersal in contrasting environments may thus be necessary to understand natural intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment. Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa are two representative species of cryophilic pastures above the tree line in Mediterranean high mountains. No explicit estimations of dispersal kernels have been made so far for these or other high-mountain plants. Such data could help to predict their dispersal and recruitment patterns in a context of changing environments under ongoing global warming. We used an inverse modelling approach to analyse effective seed dispersal patterns in five populations of both Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa along an altitudinal gradient in Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain). We considered four commonly employed two-dimensional seedling dispersal kernels exponential-power, 2Dt, WALD and log-normal. No single kernel function provided the best fit across all populations, although estimated mean dispersal distances were short (plant taxa and environments to assess the prevalence and magnitude of intraspecific dispersal variation.

  16. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988–1990 and 2009–2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:25878552

  17. Mountain accidents associated with winter northern flows in the Mediterranean Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pascual

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Pyrenees, at the eastern end of the range, is a very popular area. Its highest peak is at 2900 m a.s.l. and there are numerous peaks above 2000 m, with rounded relief and sparse vegetation on the latter height. One of its significant winter climatic features is the sudden entrance of cold air with violent northern winds, drop in temperatures and very low wind chill values. Such advections are established after the passage of a snowy cold front and, consequently, there is abundant transport of both new and existing snow that reduces horizontal visibility. The post-frontal conditions at high altitudes represent a serious threat to humans. The review done shows that the hikers immersed in an environment of low visibility, strong winds and very low temperatures can quickly become disoriented, suffer frostbite and hypothermia and slip on the ice. The characterization of a series of accidents occurred in this geographical area, identified in the press, shows in this paper that the phenomena associated with northern winter advections is an element of danger to be considered in the evaluation of natural hazards in that area. In addition, the multiple character of many of the events suggests that there is high vulnerability to such dangers. The climatological analysis presented suggests that such weather conditions are not uncommon in the winter, although the most serious accidents have been registered under especially strong and cold flows. The conclusions recommend that the weather conditions described, locally called torb, should be known by the visitors to these mountains in the winter, and its appearance should be announced in weather reports, which in turn must be sufficiently disseminated in the areas of greater abundance of tourists and hikers.

  18. Climate change and forest fires in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is a "hot-spot" of climate change and wildfires, where about 50000 fires burn 500000 hectares every year. However, in spite of the growing concerns of the climate change impacts on Mediterranean wildfires, there are aspects of this topic that remain largely to be investigated. The main scientific objective of this study is to investigate the climate-driven changes on fires in a typical Mediterranean environment (Catalonia, NE of Spain). To achieve this goal, the following specific aims have been identified: (1) Analysis of the recent evolution of fires; (2) Evaluation of the climate-fire relationship; (3) Estimation of the impacts of observed and future climate change. First, we examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970-2010. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of this decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions [1]. Secondly, we show that the interannual variability of summer fires is significantly related to antecedent and concurrent climate conditions, highlighting the importance of climate not only in regulating fuel flammability, but also fuel load. On the basis of these results, we develop a simple regression model that produces reliable out-of-sample predictions of the impact of climate variability on summer forest fires [2]. Finally we apply this model to estimate the impacts of observed climate trends on summer fires and the possible fire response to different regional climate change scenarios. We show that a transition toward warmer conditions has already started to occur and it is possible that they continue by mid-century (under the A1B scenario), and that these changes promote

  19. Climate and Geomorphic Risks in High-Mountain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Schneider, Jean

    2010-03-01

    Glacier Hazards, Permafrost Hazards, and Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Mountain Areas: Processes, Assessment, Prevention, Mitigation; Vienna, Austria, 10-13 November 2009; Recent atmospheric warming is profoundly affecting high-mountain environments around the world. Glaciers are thinning and retreating, new and often unstable lakes are forming at glacier margins, other lakes are suddenly draining, and permafrost is degrading. These changes pose serious hazards to people and property in mountain valleys. Several tens of thousands of people were killed by landslides, floods, and debris flows from high-mountain regions during the twentieth century, and there is concern that such events will increase as temperatures warm through the 21st century.

  20. Fast wood decay in a mountain Mediterranean area having Fagus sylvatica forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravolini, Giulia; Egli, Markus; Cherubini, Paolo; Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Deadwood and litter act as important linkages between recent productivity and current community, and ecosystem processes. The increasing interest in the quantity and properties of coarse woody debris (CWD) and litter is relevant both to maintaining biodiversity and to global C dynamics. Mountain and Mediterranean areas, furthermore, are considered to be especially sensitive to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, a need exists to understand more in detail the interplay between soils, forests, deadwood and climate in general and in particular in mountain Mediterranean areas such as the Appenine. Due to the fact that linkages between climate, coarse woody decay and soils in mountain Mediterranean areas are only poorly understood, we aimed at investigating the decay mechanism of Fagus silvatica as a function of altitude and exposure. Furthermore, the effects of exposure on the decay dynamics of dead wood and soils were compared along a altitudinal sequence in an Appenine mountain forest (Majella Mountain). Ten sites, five of which having north and the other 5 having south exposure, were investigated, ranging from 1000 m to 1650 m asl. All sites have a Fagus sylvatica forest. In addition to this, experimental plots were installed at each site. In May 2014 standardised wood blocks (5 x 5 x 2 cm) of local Fagus sylvatica were placed at each site inside PVC tubes ('mesocosms') that was filled with undisturbed soil material. The sampling design foresees that three replicates of such mesocosms per site will be sampled after 8 , 16, 52 and 104 weeks. After 8 weeks three tubes were removed from the sites (sampled soil and dead wood blocks) and the wood blocks analysed for cellulose, lignin and density. At each site, three cores were taken to analyse soil properties. The soil cores were subdivided in 0 - 5, 5 - 10 and 10 - 15 cm depth and measured for organic carbon, carbonates and pH. In addition, the humus forms at each site were determined. Already after 8 weeks

  1. Assessing intraspecific variation in effective dispersal along an altitudinal gradient: a test in two Mediterranean high-mountain plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lara-Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant recruitment depends among other factors on environmental conditions and their variation at different spatial scales. Characterizing dispersal in contrasting environments may thus be necessary to understand natural intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment. Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa are two representative species of cryophilic pastures above the tree line in Mediterranean high mountains. No explicit estimations of dispersal kernels have been made so far for these or other high-mountain plants. Such data could help to predict their dispersal and recruitment patterns in a context of changing environments under ongoing global warming. METHODS: We used an inverse modelling approach to analyse effective seed dispersal patterns in five populations of both Silene ciliata and Armeria caespitosa along an altitudinal gradient in Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain. We considered four commonly employed two-dimensional seedling dispersal kernels exponential-power, 2Dt, WALD and log-normal. KEY RESULTS: No single kernel function provided the best fit across all populations, although estimated mean dispersal distances were short (<1 m in all cases. S. ciliata did not exhibit significant among-population variation in mean dispersal distance, whereas significant differences in mean dispersal distance were found in A. caespitosa. Both S. ciliata and A. caespitosa exhibited among-population variation in the fecundity parameter and lacked significant variation in kernel shape. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the complexity of intraspecific variation in the processes underlying recruitment, showing that effective dispersal kernels can remain relatively invariant across populations within particular species, even if there are strong variations in demographic structure and/or physical environment among populations, while the invariant dispersal assumption may not hold for other species in the same environment

  2. Remote sensing for environmental protection of the eastern Mediterranean rugged mountainous areas, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawlie, M.; Awad, M.; Shaban, A.; Bou Kheir, R.; Abdallah, C.

    Lying along the eastern Mediterranean coast with elevated mountain chains higher than 2500 m straddling its terrain, Lebanon is a country of natural beauty and is thus attracting tourism. However, with a population density exceeding 800/km 2 and a rugged steep sloping land, problems abound in the country calling for holistic-approach studies. Only remote sensing, whose use is new in Lebanon can secure such needed studies within a scientific and pragmatic framework. The paper demonstrates for the concerned themes, the innovative use of remote sensing in such a difficult terrain, giving three examples of major environmental problems in the coastal mountains. Only few studies have so far focused on those mountains, notably application of remote sensing. The rugged mountainous terrain receives considerable rain, but the water is quickly lost running on the steep slopes, or infiltrating through fractures and the karstic conduits into the subsurface. Field investigations are difficult to achieve, therefore, remote sensing helps reveal various surface land features important in reflecting water feeding into the subsurface. Optical, radar and thermal infrared remotely sensed data cover a wide spectrum serving that purpose. A map of preferential groundwater accumulation potential is produced. It can serve for better water exploitation as well as protection. Because the terrain is karstic and rugged, the subsurface water flow is difficult to discern. Any pollution at a certain spot would certainly spread around. This constitutes the second example of environmental problems facing the mountainous areas in Lebanon. An integrated approach using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) gives good results in finding out the likelihood of how pollution, or contaminants, can selectively move in the subsurface. A diagnostic analysis with a GIS-type software acts as a guide producing indicative maps for the above purpose. The third example given deals with the problem

  3. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  4. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  5. The Importance of Environment for the Tourism Sector Of Trnc Within The Context of Environmental Issues of the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Okan SAFAKLI

    2001-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to emphasize the importance and necessity of the environment for the tourism sector of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) within the context of environmental. issues of the Mediterranean region. There are many types of tourism such as sea tourism (sea-sand-sun), ‘congress tourism‘, ‘health tourism‘, ‘yacht tourism‘, ‘cave tourism‘, ‘mountain tourism‘, ‘farm touris’, ‘hunting touris’, ‘golf touris’, ‘caravan touris’, ‘religion tourism’ and ‘history to...

  6. The Importance of Environment for the Tourism Sector Of Trnc Within The Context of Environmental Issues of the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to emphasize the importance and necessity of the environment for the tourism sector of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) within the context of environmental. issues of the Mediterranean region. There are many types of tourism such as sea tourism (sea-sand-sun), ‘congress tourism‘, ‘health tourism‘, ‘yacht tourism‘, ‘cave tourism‘, ‘mountain tourism‘, ‘farm touris’, ‘hunting touris’, ‘golf touris’, ‘caravan touris’, ‘religion tourism’ and ‘history to...

  7. Managing Recreational Trail Environments for Mountain Bike User Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmonds; Hammitt; Quisenberry

    2000-05-01

    / The carrying capacity model is an effective tool for the management of a wildland recreation resource. Within the model are four primary subcapacities, namely, physical capacity, biological capacity, social capacity, and facility capacity; combined, they are essential to the appropriate management of wildland recreation resource environments. This study focuses on environmental factors of recreational environments that are primarily used by mountain bikers. Little research has been conducted on the social carrying capacity of mountain biking environments, relative to the amount of physical and biological capacity research that has been conducted. The objective of this study was to further resource management knowledge of the mountain bike user in order to better incorporate social carrying capacity into the management of bike use environments. An email survey was used to identify such issues as mountain biker preference of soil erosion management techniques and to measure the effect on experience of resultant factors of soil erosion and trail design. Other issues, such as environmental concern, biker perception of other users, and biker commitment, were also measured. A 58% response rate was achieved. Data gathered from bikers in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand (N = 406), highlight some important issues concerning the design and management of wildland recreation environments that are primarily used for mountain biking. For example, bikers were found to significantly prefer water bars above all other tested soil erosion management techniques; trail erosion factors, including the presence of rocks, roots, and gullies, all added to biking experiences on average; trail design factors, such as the presence of turns, bumps, jumps, and obstacles, all added to biking experiences in general. These findings were used to address questions that resource managers should consider when striving to effectively manage wildland recreation areas

  8. Effects of triticale cultivars grown in a Mediterranean environment on biomass yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Motzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticale is a valuable crop in Mediterranean environments because its growth capacity at low temperatures and its precocity make it possible to obtain high biomass yields in early spring. Precocity of triticale is particularly appreciated in Mediterranean environment, where irrigation allows the sowing of a spring–summer corn crop after a winter cereal crop has been harvested for silage.

  9. Different sensitivities of snowpacks to warming in Mediterranean climate mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Gascoin, S.; Herrero, J.; Sproles, E. A.; Pons, M.; Alonso-González, E.; Hanich, L.; Boudhar, A.; Musselman, K. N.; Molotch, N. P.; Sickman, J.; Pomeroy, J.

    2017-07-01

    In this study we quantified the sensitivity of snow to climate warming in selected mountain sites having a Mediterranean climate, including the Pyrenees in Spain and Andorra, the Sierra Nevada in Spain and California (USA), the Atlas in Morocco, and the Andes in Chile. Meteorological observations from high elevations were used to simulate the snow energy and mass balance (SEMB) and calculate its sensitivity to climate. Very different climate sensitivities were evident amongst the various sites. For example, reductions of 9%-19% and 6-28 days in the mean snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow duration, respectively, were found per °C increase. Simulated changes in precipitation (±20%) did not affect the sensitivities. The Andes and Atlas Mountains have a shallow and cold snowpack, and net radiation dominates the SEMB; and explains their relatively low sensitivity to climate warming. The Pyrenees and USA Sierra Nevada have a deeper and warmer snowpack, and sensible heat flux is more important in the SEMB; this explains the much greater sensitivities of these regions. Differences in sensitivity help explain why, in regions where climate models project relatively greater temperature increases and drier conditions by 2050 (such as the Spanish Sierra Nevada and the Moroccan Atlas Mountains), the decline in snow accumulation and duration is similar to other sites (such as the Pyrenees and the USA Sierra Nevada), where models project stable precipitation and more attenuated warming. The snowpack in the Andes (Chile) exhibited the lowest sensitivity to warming, and is expected to undergo only moderate change (a decrease of <12% in mean SWE, and a reduction of < 7 days in snow duration under RCP 4.5). Snow accumulation and duration in the other regions are projected to decrease substantially (a minimum of 40% in mean SWE and 15 days in snow duration) by 2050.

  10. Archaelogy of Arid Environment Points to Management Options for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Chapman; A. Dansie; C. McCombie

    2006-08-29

    As with all planned repositories for spent fuel, the critical period over which Yucca Mountain needs to provide isolation is the first hundreds to thousands of years after the fuel is emplaced, when it is at its most hazardous. Both the original and the proposed new EPA standards highlight the central importance of this performance period by focusing on repository behavior during the first 10,000 years. Archaeology has a lot to tell us about the behavior of materials and structures over this time period. There have been numerous studies of archaeological artifacts in conditions relevant to the groundwater saturated environments that are a feature of most international geological disposal concepts, but relatively few in arid environments like that of the Nevada desert. However, there is much information to be gleaned, not only from classic archaeological areas in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean but also, perhaps surprisingly to some, from Nevada itself. Our recent study evaluated archaeological materials from underground openings and shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain, drawing conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could help to assess design and operational options for the high-level waste repository.

  11. RISICO: an adaptation of FWI to the Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Turco, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The RISICO system provides the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) with daily wildland fire risk forecast maps relevant to the whole national territory since 2003. The structure of RISICO is conceptually similar to the Canadian Fire Weather Index. This index is used almost everywhere in the world and it represents the reference model in EFFIS (European Forest Fire Information System). RISICO can be considered as an evolution and simplification of the FWI index, properly adapted for the Mediterranean environment. RISICO considers vegetation cover and topography as additional input to the system, considering different contributions to the potential fire behaviour due to different vegetation cover, slope and aspect. This allows taking into account different structure of the fuel available from the ground to the crown including important aspect related with the process of fire spread beyond the weather. The aim of this work is to describe the RISICO model and to perform a performance analysis of the overall system, also by comparing it to the Canadian FWI. The performances of the two models are evaluated on the basis of the Burned Area (BA) observed in Italy in the period 2007-2013, provided by National Civil Protection Department. The Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis is used to evaluate and compare the performances of the two models. The results of the analysis show that both the systems provide skilful forecast of the wildland fire risk distribution over the Italian territory. However, the performances of RISICO are always better than FWI concerning the capabilities of correctly identifying areas with higher or lower risk significantly reducing the number of false alert with respect to FWI, making it more reliable to the Mediterranean environment.

  12. Socio-cultural and economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernués

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modelling to, first, identify the perceptions of farmers and other citizens on the most important ecosystem services and, second, to value these in economic terms according to the willingness to pay of the local (residents of the study area and general (region where the study area is located populations. Cultural services (particularly the aesthetic and recreational values of the landscape, supporting services (biodiversity maintenance and some regulating services (particularly fire risk prevention were clearly recognized by both farmers and citizens, with different degrees of importance according to their particular interests and objectives. The prevention of forest fires (≈50% of total willingness to pay was valued by the general population as a key ecosystem service delivered by these agroecosystems, followed by the production of specific quality products linked to the territory (≈20%, biodiversity (≈20% and cultural landscapes (≈10%. The value given by local residents to the last two ecosystem services differed considerably (≈10 and 25% for biodiversity and cultural landscape, respectively. The Total Economic Value of mountain agroecosystems was ≈120 € person(-1 year(-1, three times the current level of support of agro-environmental policies. By targeting and quantifying the environmental objectives of the European agri-environmental policy and compensating farmers for the public goods they deliver, the so-called "green" subsidies may become true Payments for Ecosystems Services.

  13. Socio-cultural and economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernués, Alberto; Rodríguez-Ortega, Tamara; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Alfnes, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modelling) to, first, identify the perceptions of farmers and other citizens on the most important ecosystem services and, second, to value these in economic terms according to the willingness to pay of the local (residents of the study area) and general (region where the study area is located) populations. Cultural services (particularly the aesthetic and recreational values of the landscape), supporting services (biodiversity maintenance) and some regulating services (particularly fire risk prevention) were clearly recognized by both farmers and citizens, with different degrees of importance according to their particular interests and objectives. The prevention of forest fires (≈50% of total willingness to pay) was valued by the general population as a key ecosystem service delivered by these agroecosystems, followed by the production of specific quality products linked to the territory (≈20%), biodiversity (≈20%) and cultural landscapes (≈10%). The value given by local residents to the last two ecosystem services differed considerably (≈10 and 25% for biodiversity and cultural landscape, respectively). The Total Economic Value of mountain agroecosystems was ≈120 € person(-1) year(-1), three times the current level of support of agro-environmental policies. By targeting and quantifying the environmental objectives of the European agri-environmental policy and compensating farmers for the public goods they deliver, the so-called "green" subsidies may become true Payments for Ecosystems Services.

  14. Assessing impact of forest cover change dynamics on high nature value farmland in Mediterranean mountain landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cimini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A general trend of scrub encroachment and natural forest expansion (old-field succession has been occurring in the past fifty years in Mediterranean mountain areas. While this phenomenon enhances a series of ecological processes and environmental services, it may represent a threat for biodiversity conservation when occurring on high nature value (HNV extensive farmland. These open areas, created by traditional farming systems, have been recognized as a critically important European biodiversity resource. Understanding the drivers of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC and their implications on the dynamics of forest and HNV farmland habitats plays a crucial role in biodiversity conservation in protected areas. In this perspective, the case study here presented aims to model recent (1989-2008 LUCC in a National Park of the Central Apennines (Italy and to produce a mid-term forecast (2008-2020. In the past twenty years, 57% of the land uptake by shrubland and 46% by forest has been occurring on former HNV farmland. Mid-term projections (2008-2020 confirm further HNV farmland decline. Localization of HNV farmland habitats vulnerable to change is a valuable decision-making tool to tradeoff in protected areas the conservation of traditional landscapes with the increase of forest and shrubland areas. In this perspective, concrete socio-economical and silvicultural measures are outlined to preserve these socially and economically-fragile open habitats.

  15. A water and sediment budget for a Mediterranean mountainous catchment (Southern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, Jordi; Vericat, Damià; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2016-04-01

    Sediment transport in Mediterranean mountainous catchments is highly variable influenced principally by sediment availability, which in turn is controlled by the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff and land uses. In this paper we present the water and sediment budget of the Ribera Salada, a Mediterranean forest catchment located in the Catalan Pre-Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula). The river drains an area of 224 km2. The data acquisition design is composed by five nested experimental sub-catchments. Each monitoring station registers discharge and suspended sediment transport continuously. Here we present the data obtained between 2012 and 2013, two contrasted hydrological years. These data allows to analyse the contribution of each sub-catchment to the total water and suspended sediment yield of the catchment at multiple temporal scales. Annual water yield in the catchment outlet varied between 15 and 31 hm3 y-1. Maximum peak flow in the outlet of the basin was 60.9 m3 s-1; equivalent to a specific discharge of 0.28 m3 s-1 km2. Results indicate that, hydrologically, the catchment can divided in two areas with contrasted regimes. The upper part of catchment is the wettest zone, where the water yield of each sub-catchment is in directly and positive correlated to its area. In contrast, the bottom of the valley has an ephemeral hydrological regime that only supplies water during important rainfall events. Annual suspended sediment load at the catchment outlet oscillated between 615 and 3415 t y-1, with an average value of 2015 t y-1 (i.e. 9.3 t km-2 y-1). In contrast to the water yield, most of the suspended sediment load (i.e. 80%) is supplied from the driest part of the catchment where sediment availability is greater and there is a greater connectivity between sediment sources and the channel network. The humid part of the catchment only yielded the 20% of the sediment load, where, as in the case of the water yield, sediment yield is directly and

  16. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning Fire for Daxing an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning fire is one of natural fires; its mechanism is very complex and difficult to control. Daxing'an Mountain is the main region that lightning fires occur in China. Research on lightning fires indicates that special fuel, dry-storm weather and high altitude form the lightning fire environment. Lightning fires have close relation with lights. When lightning occurs, especially dry-lightning which brings little precipitation with surface temperature growing and fuel dehydrating, these often lead to l...

  17. Hydrological and erosive response over different Mediterranean micro-environments by rainfall simulation (South of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan

    2010-05-01

    In the Mediterranean eco-geomorphologic system, the hydrological and erosive response has showed a very variable and complex behavior depending on several factors: topography, geology, vegetation pattern, soil properties, land use management, etc. The pluviometry is a key factor due to the great spatial and temporal variability. This research was carried out over different micro-environments representative from five hillslopes localized in the Littoral Bethic Mountains in the south of Spain. The results of several rainfall simulations on micro-plots (0.24 m2) and the differences of the incidence of the vegetation cover in the eco-geomorphologic system from semi-arid, dry-Mediterranean and sub-humid sites are exposed. Before, during and after the experiments runoff, soil moisture and sediment were measured. The results have shown rock fragments disposition on soil surface and vegetation seem to be the main factors that control the hydrological and erosive response at the micro-plot-scale of the experiments. Embedded rock fragments are the most important soil surface property because they reduce the infiltration. Whilst vegetation increases it what is more influential on the hydrological and erosive response of microenvironments at more arid sites. Have been observed that the micro-environment condition plays a more relevant role than the localization in the climatic gradient at micro-plot scale. The final result shows: (i) The field sites analyzed were characterized by soil surface components with a significant number of rock fragments, frequently embedded and thus forming a soil crusting on the surface, which was in a severely degraded state. This, together with not very intensive grazing, is causing difficulties for vegetation recovery 60 years after farming activity was discontinued. (ii) Comparing the extreme conditions along a climate gradient, no reduction in runoff or erosion was observed. (iii) The rock fragments (abundance and distribution) are key factors

  18. Thermal environment analysis of mountainous towns based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚锋; 李百战; 王志浩; 杨玉兰

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor thermal environment prediction and evaluation system was established based on a geographic information system. The system uses digital elevation model data and satellite imagery of mountainous towns. The system can conveniently provide a three-dimensional view of a town as well as predict the urbanization rate and urban heat island intensity. In addition,the system also permits quick inquiry and analysis of the temperature field,moisture field,and wind field tendency and current conditions of towns. The system was tested using the town of Yunyang,Chongqing Municipality,China,as a case study. The system was used to analyze and predict the climate comfort of the entire town and the outdoor thermal environment comfort of certain town districts,squares and streets. The results are in accordance with the measured data. This outdoor thermal environment prediction and evaluation method thus can provide a feasible reference for the general plan of mountainous town and promote the sustainable development of mountainous towns.

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from clover in the Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iride Volpi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducing nitrogen N2-fixing crops into cereal-based crop rotations reduces N-fertiliser use and may mitigate soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O. However, the effect of the cultivation of N2-fixing crops on N2O emissions is still not well understood. N2O from N2-fixing crops can be emitted in two ways: during biological N2 fixation itself and when legume residues are returned to the soil. A field trial was carried out on clover (Trifolium squarrosum Savi to test the role of leguminous crops on N2O emissions in the Mediterranean environment. Monitoring was performed from December 2013 to September 2014. Cumulated N-N2O fluxes were calculated for the growing season (Phase 1 and the post-harvest period (Phase 2 in order to assess the importance of each phase. Our results did not show statistically significant differences between the two phases in term of contribution to the total cumulative N-N2O emissions, in fact Phase 1 and Phase 2 accounted respectively for 43 and 57% of the total.

  20. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) II. Rainfall-runoff relationships and runoff processes; Hidrologia de un ambiente Mediterraneo de montana. Las cuencas de Vallcebre (Pirineo Oriental) II. Relaciones precipitacion-escorrentia y procesos hidrologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latron, J.; Solar, M.; Nord, G.; Llorens, P.; Gallart, F.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrological response and runoff processes have been studied in the Vallcebre research basins (North Eastern Spain) for almost 20 years. Results obtained allowed to build a more complete perceptual model of the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. On a seasonal and monthly scale, there was no simple relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. Monthly rainfall and runoff values revealed the existence of a threshold in the relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. At the event scale, the storm-flow coefficient had a clear seasonal pattern. The effect of the water table position on how rainfall and runoff volumes relate was observed. Examination of soil water potential and water table dynamics during representative floods helped to identify 3 types of characteristic hydrological behaviour during the year. Under dry conditions, runoff was generated essentially as infiltration excess runoff in low permeable areas, whereas saturation excess runoff dominated during wetting-up and wet conditions. During wetting-up transition, saturated areas resulted from the development of scattered perched water tables, whereas in wet conditions they were linked to the rise of the shallow water table. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  2. Wood export varies among decadal, annual, seasonal, and daily scale hydrologic regimes in a large, Mediterranean climate, mountain river watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, A. E.; Pasternack, G. B.; Piégay, H.; Vaughan, M. C.; Lehyan, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics that move wood through and out of watersheds are complex and not yet fully understood. In this study, climatic conditions, hydrologic responses, and watershed processes were explored to better understand variations in wood export using aerial imagery, event-based video monitoring, and field measurements from the 1097 km2 mountainous Mediterranean climate North Yuba River, California, watershed and its reservoir near the downstream outlet. Over a 30-year study period, 1985-2014, volumetric estimates of annual wood export into the reservoir, available for a subset of years, were used to investigate watershed-scale wood export dynamics. Variations in annual peak discharge explained 79% of the variance in interannual wood export, with 84% of total observed wood export (ca. > 10,000 m3 of wood per event) delivered by three discharge events of 19-year, 21.5-year, and 60-year flood recurrence intervals. Continuous video monitoring conducted during snowmelt season periods in 2010 and 2011 yielded wood discharge observations at minima 15% of statistical bankfull flow, while maximum daily discharge explained 55% of observed daily wood piece variation. No statistically significant wood discharge differences were found in snowmelt season observations, likely because of domination of the hydrograph by diurnal pulses within the seasonal cycle. A conceptual model and functional framework are introduced in support of a watershed-scale explanation of wood export, transport, and storage processes applicable to large, Mediterranean-climate, mountain watershed settings.

  3. Restoration of European yew (Taxus baccata L. in Mediterranean mountains: importance of seedling nursery fertilization and post-planting light levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Nicolás Peragón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We studied the influence of nursery fertilization and post-planting light environment on the growth and survival of out-planted two-year-old yew (Taxus baccata seedlings.Area of study: Post-planting performance was assessed at two sites in the Valsain Forest (Central Mountain Range, Segovia, Spain.Materials and Methods: Seedlings were grown using the same seed-lot, container type and fertirrigation schedule. A soluble fertilizer with two contrasting doses resulting in 239 and 376 mg N per seedling was applied during the whole culture period. Seedlings grown under the highest level of fertilization had greater root collar diameter, height, shoot to root ratio, root and shoot mass, and root growth potential before planting. Post-planting performance was assessed at two sites in the Valsain Forest (Central Mountain Range, Segovia, Spain. In each site, seedlings from both fertilization treatments were planted in three plots with contrasting light environment (full sunlight, and under Pinus sylvestris stands with moderate and deep shade conditions. Survival, diameter and height growth were monitored for six years.Main results: Nursery fertilization did not affect survival, but high fertilization enhanced post-planting growth. Survival was highest under deep shade conditions but growth in this microsite was lower than in higher light sites, revealing a trade-off for survival and growth across light levels.Research highlights: The lower fertilization rate used in this study was suitable to produce seedlings with acceptable quality. Planting under shaded conditions (light availability<30% is recommended to maximize the initial success of yew plantations in Mediterranean mountains.Keywords: Taxus baccata; plant quality; field growth; survival; reforestation.

  4. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 sit

  5. Thermal niche for in situ seed germination by Mediterranean mountain streams: model prediction and validation for Rhamnus persicifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porceddu, Marco; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean mountain species face exacting ecological conditions of rainy, cold winters and arid, hot summers, which affect seed germination phenology. In this study, a soil heat sum model was used to predict field emergence of Rhamnus persicifolia, an endemic tree species living at the edge of mountain streams of central eastern Sardinia. Seeds were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10-25 and 25/10 °C) after different periods (up to 3 months) of cold stratification at 5 °C. Base temperatures (Tb), and thermal times for 50 % germination (θ50) were calculated. Seeds were also buried in the soil in two natural populations (Rio Correboi and Rio Olai), both underneath and outside the tree canopy, and exhumed at regular intervals. Soil temperatures were recorded using data loggers and soil heat sum (°Cd) was calculated on the basis of the estimated Tb and soil temperatures. Cold stratification released physiological dormancy (PD), increasing final germination and widening the range of germination temperatures, indicative of a Type 2 non-deep PD. Tb was reduced from 10·5 °C for non-stratified seeds to 2·7 °C for seeds cold stratified for 3 months. The best thermal time model was obtained by fitting probit germination against log °Cd. θ50 was 2·6 log °Cd for untreated seeds and 2·17-2·19 log °Cd for stratified seeds. When θ50 values were integrated with soil heat sum estimates, field emergence was predicted from March to April and confirmed through field observations. Tb and θ50 values facilitated model development of the thermal niche for in situ germination of R. persicifolia. These experimental approaches may be applied to model the natural regeneration patterns of other species growing on Mediterranean mountain waterways and of physiologically dormant species, with overwintering cold stratification requirement and spring germination.

  6. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eig

  7. Runoff controlling factors in various sized catchments in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, A.M.W. de

    2001-01-01

    Understanding land degradation in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment is very difficult because of the contributing factors: precipitation, infiltration vegetation cover and discontinuity of flow and the temporal and spatial levels of resolution at which these factors are acting. Therefore it is s

  8. Linking spatial patterns of soil redistribution traced with 137Cs and soil nutrients in a Mediterranean mountain agroecosystem (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems are prone to soil loss mainly due to the accelerated erosion as a consequence of human induced changes from agriculture and grazing practices over the last centuries and the climatic conditions (i.e. irregular and scarce precipitations and drought periods). Soil erosion leads to soil degradation inducing the loss of soil functions. The progressive decline of soil functions thereof soil quality is associated to a decrease of soil productivity and can threat the sustainability of cultivated soils. The use of fallout 137Cs as a soil movement tracer provides useful data to identify areas where loss and gain of 137Cs occurs and that of soil. This study aims to address soil movement and soil nutrient dynamics closely related to the status of soil degradation. A rain-fed cereal field (1.6 ha) representative of Mediterranean mountain agricultural landscapes (42°25'41''N 1°13'8''W) was selected to examine the effects of soil redistribution processes on the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) and their relationships with soil properties and topographic characteristics. From the hydrological point of view, the field is isolated due to the effect of landscape features and man-made structures. Climate is continental Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and soils are Calcisols. The reference inventories of 137Cs and soil nutrients were established from 21 soil samples collected in nearby undisturbed areas under typical Mediterranean vegetation cover. A total of 156 bulk soil samples (30-50 cm depth) and 156 topsoil samples (5 cm) were collected on a 10 m grid. 137Cs and soil nutrients loss and gain areas were identified by comparing the reference inventories with the values of inventories at the sampling points. A new approach to characterize and measure active (ACF) and stable (SCF) carbon fraction contents by using a dry combustion method based on the oxidation temperature of carbon

  9. An application of excess lead-210 analysis for the study of fine sediment connectivity in a Mediterranean mountain basin with badlands, the Vallcebre research catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Ferrer, Laura; Estrany, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of sediment dynamics in Mediterranean environments is fundamental to basin management, particularly for mountain catchments with badlands, which affect water bodies and freshwater ecosystems. Connectivity has emerged in Environmental and Earth Sciences as an evolution of the sediment delivery concept, providing a useful framework for understanding how sediments are transferred between geomorphic zones of the catchment. This study explores the feasibility of excess lead-210 (210Pbex) to analyse sediment connectivity in a 4-km2 Mediterranean mountain basin with badlands (the Vallcebre research catchments, Eastern Pyrenees) by applying simple 210Pbex mass-balance models for hypothesis generation and experimental testing in the field. Badland surfaces in the basin are weathered by freezing during the winter and are further eroded in summer by the effect of high-intensity storms. The eroded sediments may remain deposited within the catchment streams from months to years. Application of 210Pbex balance models in our basin proposes: (i) a saw-tooth seasonal pattern of badland surface 210Pbex activities (increasing from October to May, and depleted in summer) and (ii) a downstream increase in sediment activity due to fallout lead-210 accumulation in streambed sediment deposits. Both deposited and suspended sediments collected at the Vallcebre catchments showed, in general, low sediment 210Pbex concentrations, illustrating their fresh-rock origin at the badland sites, but also hampering the understanding of sediment 210Pbex patterns due to high measurement uncertainty (particularly for sediments with d50>20µm) and to strong dependence on sediment sampling methodology. Suspended sediment 210Pbex activity reproduced the simulated seasonal activity patterns for the badland surfaces. Contrary to the in-stream transit increases of sediment 210Pbex activity that were predicted by our model simulations, fallout lead-210 concentrations in the suspended sediments decreased

  10. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha-1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  11. Afforestation, subsequent forest fires and provision of hydrological services: a model-based analysis for a Mediterranean mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Naranjo Quintanilla, Paula; Santos, Juliana; Serpa, Dalila; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Rocha, João; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean landscapes have experienced extensive abandonment and reforestation in recent decades, which should have improved the provision of hydrological services, such as flood mitigation, soil erosion protection and water quality regulation. However, these forests are fire-prone, and the post-fire increase in runoff, erosion and sediment exports could negatively affect service provision. This issue was assessed using the SWAT model for a small mountain agroforestry catchment, which was monitored between 2010 and 2014 and where some eucalypt stands burned in 2011 and were subsequently plowed for replanting. The model was calibrated and validated for streamflow, sediment yield and erosion in agricultural fields and the burnt hillslopes, showing that it can be adapted for post-fire simulation. It was then used to perform a decadal assessment of surface runoff, erosion, and sediment exports between 2004 and 2014. Results show that the fire did not noticeably affect flood mitigation but that it increased erosion by 3 orders of magnitude, which subsequently increased sediment yield. Erosion in the burnt forest during this decade was one order of magnitude above that in agricultural fields. SWAT was also used to assess different fire and land-use scenarios during the same period. Results indicate that the impacts of fire were lower without post-fire soil management, and when the fire occurred in pine forests (i.e. before the 1990s) or in shrublands (i.e. before afforestation in the 1930s). These impacts were robust to changes in post-fire weather conditions and to a lower fire frequency (20-year intervals). The results suggest that, in the long term, fire-prone forests might not provide the anticipated soil protection and water quality regulation services in wet Mediterranean regions.

  12. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D; Génova, M; Schmitz, M F; Urrutia, R; Pineda, F D

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R(2) = 0.49, P tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There appears to be a tendency toward recurrent exceptionally dry summers, which could involve a significant change for the Eurosiberian refugee species.

  13. The Neogene Environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Cantrill, D. J.; Francis, J. E.; Roof, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Discontinuous sequences of Neogene marine and non-marine glacigenic sequences, including the Meyer Desert Formation (MDF), occur throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. The upper 85m of the MDF, consisting of interbedded diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones, outcrops in the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at 85° 07'S, 166° 35'E. The location is about 170 km south of the confluence of the Beardmore Glacier with the Ross Ice Shelf and about 500 km north of the South Pole The glacial, fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine facies of the MDF represent a dynamic glacial margin which advanced and retreated on at least four occasions. On at least one occasion, the retreat was sufficiently long for plants and animals to colonize the head of a major fjord which existed in the place of the existing Beardmore Glacier. From the fossils we have identified at least 18 species of plants, 3 species of insects, 2 species of freshwater mollusks, and a species of fish. The plant fossils consist of pollen, seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, and in situ plants. The plants include a cryptogamic flora of mosses and liverworts, conifers, and angiosperms in the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Nothofagaceae, Ranunculaceae, Hippuridaceae, ?Caryophyllaceae, and ?Chenopodiaceae or ?Myrtaceae. The plants grew in a weakly developed soil developed on a complex periglacial environment that included moraines, glacial outwash streams, well-drained gravel ridges, and poorly drained depressions in which peat and marl were being deposited. The fossil assemblage represents a mosaic tundra environment of well- and poorly-drained micro-sites, in which nutrient availability would have been patchily distributed. Antarctica has been essentially in a polar position since the Early Cretaceous and at 85° S receives no sunlight from the middle of March until the end of September. Today, the annual radiation received is about 42% that of Tierra del Fuego at 55° S. During the Neogene

  14. Implementing GIS regression trees for generating the spatial distribution of copper in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Deroin, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals has become a widespread dangerous problem in many parts of the world, including the Mediterranean environments. This is closely related to the increase irrigation by waste waters, to the uncontrolled application of sewage sludge, industrial effluents, pesticides...... coastal area situated in northern Lebanon using a geographic information system (GIS) and regression-tree analysis. The chosen area represents a typical case study of Mediterranean coastal landscape with deteriorating environment. Fifteen environmental parameters (parent material, soil type, p......H, hydraulical conductivity, organic matter, stoniness ratio, soil depth, slope gradient, slope aspect, slope curvature, land cover/use, distance to drainage line, proximity to roads, nearness to cities, and surroundings to waste areas) were generated from satellite imageries, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs...

  15. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes.

  16. Novel MixSIAR fingerprint model implementation in a Mediterranean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizaga, Ivan; Gaspar, Leticia; Blake, William; Palazón, Leticia; Quijano, Laura; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Increased sediment erosion levels can lead to degraded water and food quality, reduced aquatic biodiversity, decrease reservoir capacity and restrict recreational usage but determining soil redistribution and sediment budgets in watersheds is often challenging. One of the methods for making such determinations applies sediment fingerprinting methods by using sediment properties. The fingerprinting procedure tests a range of source material tracer properties to select a subset that can discriminate between the different potential sediment sources. The present study aims to test the feasibility of geochemical and radioisotopic fingerprint properties to apportion sediment sources within the Barués catchment. For this purpose, the new MixSIAR unmixing model was implemented as statistical tool. A total of 98 soil samples from different land cover sources (Mediterranean forest, pine forest scrubland, agricultural and subsoil) were collected in the Barués catchment (23 km2). This new approach divides the catchment into six different sub-catchments to evaluate how the sediment provenance varies along the river and the percentage of its sources and not only the contribution at the end. For this purpose, target sediments were collected at the end of each sub-catchment to introduce the variation along the entire catchment. Geochemistry and radioisotopic activity were analyzed for each sample and introduced as input parameters in the model. Percentage values from the five sources were different along the different subcatchments and the variations of all of them are summarized at the final target sample located at the end of the catchment. This work represents a good approximation to the fine sediment provenance in Mediterranean agricultural catchments and has the potential to be used for water resource control and future soil management. Identifying sediment contribution from different land uses offers considerable potential to prevent environmental degradation and the

  17. Human-climate-environment interactions during the past 4000 years in the Taurus Mountain Range, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Van Loo, Maarten; Poblome, Jeroen; Degryse, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean has been an area of intense human occupation since the early Neolithic. However, contrary to many temperate environments in NW Europe, human pressure on the landscape did not follow a linear trajectory from the Neolithic to the present, but is rather characterised by cycles of land cover expansion and contraction. Here, we provide a synthesis of human-climate-environment interactions in the region of the antique city of Sagalassos in the Taurus mountain range of SW Turkey. The combination of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data, together with geochemical sediment provenancing and spatial modelling techniques, enabled to reconstruct the relative importance of anthropogenic pressure and climatic changes on the environment. The sensitivity of the landscape towards anthropogenic disturbance is strongly controlled by the geomorphic-tectonic setting, as well as by important feedback mechanisms in the soil system. The first major clearing of the landscape in the Iron Age led to a peak in soil erosion, but also to soil exhaustion limiting erosion rates in subsequent periods. Soil erosion and sediment delivery is more limited during the main occupation phases of the Roman Imperial Period. Periods with more favorable climate in the Roman and Mid-Byzantine periods resulted in the occupation of more isolated parts of the territory (i.e. higher up in the mountains), whilst a decrease in human pressure can be observed during the Early Byzantine and Ottoman periods related to less favorable conditions. Such smaller and short-lasting bursts of human occupation did not significanlty impact the environment. Only in the last two hundred years, human pressure reached similar values as those encountered in the classical period.

  18. Bats in a Mediterranean Mountainous Landscape: Does Wind Farm Repowering Induce Changes at Assemblage and Species Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Vincenzo; Battisti, Corrado; Soccini, Christiana

    2016-06-01

    We reported data on flying bat assemblages in a Mediterranean mountain landscape of central Italy on a 5-year time span (2005-2010) where a wind farm repowering has been carried out (from 2009, 17 three-blade turbines substituted an a priori set of one-blade turbines). In 4 yearly based surveys, we calculated a set of univariate metrics at species and assemblage level and also performing a diversity/dominance analysis (k-dominance plots) to evaluate temporal changes. Nine species of bats were present (eight classified at species level, one at genus level). Number of detected taxa, Margalef richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity apparently decreased between 2005-2007 (one-blade turbine period) and 2009-2010 (three-blade turbines period). We showed a weak temporal turnover only between 2007 and 2009. In k-dominance plots, the occurrence curves of the years before the new wind farming activity (2005 and 2007) were lower when compared to the curves related to the 2009 and 2010 years, suggesting an apparent stress at assemblage level in the second period (2009 and 2010). Myotis emarginatus and Pipistrellus pipistrellus significantly changed their relative frequency during the three-blade wind farming activity, supporting the hypothesis that some bats may be sensitive to repowering. Further research is necessary to confirm a possible sensitivity also for locally rare bats (Miniopterus schreibersii and Plecotus sp.).

  19. Thessaloniki Mud Volcano, the Shallowest Gas Hydrate-Bearing Mud Volcano in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Perissoratis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed multibeam survey and the subsequent gravity coring carried out in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean, detected a new active gas hydrate-bearing mud volcano (MV that was named Thessaloniki. It is outlined by the 1315 m bathymetric contour, is 1.67 km2 in area, and has a summit depth of 1260 m. The sea bottom water temperature is 13.7∘C. The gas hydrate crystals generally have the form of flakes or rice, some larger aggregates of them are up to 2 cm across. A pressure core taken at the site contained 3.1 lt. of hydrocarbon gases composed of methane, nearly devoid of propane and butane. The sediment had a gas hydrate occupancy of 0.7% of the core volume. These characteristics place the gas hydrate field at Thessaloniki MV at the upper boundary of the gas hydrate stability zone, prone to dissociation with the slightest increase in sea water temperature, decrease in hydrostatic pressure, or change in the temperature of the advecting fluids.

  20. Bats in a Mediterranean Mountainous Landscape: Does Wind Farm Repowering Induce Changes at Assemblage and Species Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Vincenzo; Battisti, Corrado; Soccini, Christiana

    2016-06-01

    We reported data on flying bat assemblages in a Mediterranean mountain landscape of central Italy on a 5-year time span (2005-2010) where a wind farm repowering has been carried out (from 2009, 17 three-blade turbines substituted an a priori set of one-blade turbines). In 4 yearly based surveys, we calculated a set of univariate metrics at species and assemblage level and also performing a diversity/dominance analysis ( k-dominance plots) to evaluate temporal changes. Nine species of bats were present (eight classified at species level, one at genus level). Number of detected taxa, Margalef richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity apparently decreased between 2005-2007 (one-blade turbine period) and 2009-2010 (three-blade turbines period). We showed a weak temporal turnover only between 2007 and 2009. In k-dominance plots, the occurrence curves of the years before the new wind farming activity (2005 and 2007) were lower when compared to the curves related to the 2009 and 2010 years, suggesting an apparent stress at assemblage level in the second period (2009 and 2010). Myotis emarginatus and Pipistrellus pipistrellus significantly changed their relative frequency during the three-blade wind farming activity, supporting the hypothesis that some bats may be sensitive to repowering. Further research is necessary to confirm a possible sensitivity also for locally rare bats ( Miniopterus schreibersii and Plecotus sp.).

  1. Spatio-temporal variability of the snow cover in different Mediterranean mountain regions from in situ and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, Simon; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Herrero, Javier; Sproles, Eric; Hanich, Lahoucine; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Pons, Marc; Alonso-González, Esteban; Musselman, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The snow cover is an essential water resource in many regions with a Mediterranean climate. In the mountainous areas of these regions, in situ snow measurements are often too sparse to cover the range of spatial variability due to the topography. In contrast, satellite snow products are not sufficient to understand the processes governing the snowpack evolution. The combination of both data sources is useful to understand the effects of climate variability on the snow cover. Here we gathered the data of several high-elevation, snow-observing stations in the Pyrenees (Spain, Andorra), High-Atlas (Morocco), Sierra Nevada (Spain), Sierra Nevada (USA) and the Andes of Norte Chico (Chile) to run a point-scale snowpack energy-balance model. We extracted and gapfilled the MODIS snow product over 2000-2015 around each station to determine the mean snow cover duration as a function of elevation. The results of the energy-balance model highlight the importance of the snow sublimation, which amounts from 10% to 30% of the mean annual solid precipitation in these sites. The MODIS data indicate that the relationship between the snow cover duration and the elevation is almost entirely explained by the distance from of each site to the equator, which further indicates that radiation and humidity are important drivers of the snowpack dynamics. These factors should not be overlooked in the projections of the melt water contribution to runoff under future climate conditions.

  2. Approximation to SOC stocks variations over time affected by land use changes in a Mediterranean mountain agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizaga, Ivan; Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Land use conversion from cropland to natural vegetation can be an effective mechanism to reduce soil C losses and promote soil C recovery affecting the storage of C in soils. Understanding how anthropogenic land use changes lead to implications for soil C storage and how it affects the distribution of total carbon provide information that will support the application of best management practices to restore or maintain soil C. Agricultural abandonment is one of the most important land use changes in recent decades in Mediterranean catchments. This land use change can play a key role on ecosystems functions that, can be particularly relevant in Mediterranean mountain landscapes where soils are fragile and prone to erosion. This research aims to evaluate the effects of land use changes on SOC stocks at catchment scale. To this purpose, a total of 98 soil samples were collected on a 500 m grid in the Barués catchment (23 km2) with elevation ranges between 535 and 964 m.a.s.l and mean slope of 16°. The study area is a Mediterranean mountain ephemeral stream catchment located in the central part of the Ebro Basin in northeast Spain (4699000N 647300E) where in recent decades the abandonment of cultivated areas was the main land use change. The sampling points are distributed proportionally in function of the percentage area occupied by the different land uses to be statistically comparable. The SOC content was measured by dry combustion method with LECO equipment. A soil type map of the catchment and two land use maps were created based on two different scenarios using aerial photography for 1957 and 2010 in order to compare how land use has affected carbon storage in the catchment. Six main soil types were identified named Calcisols, Cambisols, Fluvisols, Leptosols and Regosols. The results show an important decrease (71%) of the cultivated land that in 1957 extended over 13.4 km2 whereas today only occupies 3.8 km2 while forested areas increased from 9.2 km2 in 1957

  3. Rock selection for nesting in Proformica longiseta Collingwood, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in a Mediterranean high mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Fernández Escudero; Tinaut, Alberto; Ruano, Francisca

    1993-06-01

    Proformica longiseta, an ant species endemic to certain high mountains, has been studied with regard to its tendency to nest underneath rocks. This behaviour led us to investigate whether a particular type of rock is selected, and, if so, the advantages to this species of the selection. This study was located at 2400 m above sea-level in the Sierra Nevada mountains (Granada, Spain). To determine the range of rock sizes available, in eight control plots the thicknesses were recorded and also the maximum and minimum diameters of all rocks with surface area of more than 6 cm2. A total of 1724 rocks were recorded, noting among the rock types available those that were used for nesting. Also as a preliminary estimate of the thermal characteristics of the rocks, we recorded the temperatures of the air, soil surface, soil under a rock covering an ant nest, and soil at 30 cm depth. The results indicate that P. longiseta selects flat rocks with a surface area/thickness ratio of 2 5, the thickness being not less than 1.5 cm, the surface area being 50 250 cm2 and volume less than 1000 cm3. This type of rock offers the nests two beneficial but apparently contradictory effects: (1) protection against high temperatures on hot days, and (2) warmth on colder days by absorbing the diffusing solar heat more effectively than the air or soil around the nest.

  4. Comparison between Snow Albedo Obtained from Landsat TM, ETM+ Imagery and the SPOT VEGETATION Albedo Product in a Mediterranean Mountainous Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Albedo plays an important role in snow evolution modeling quantifying the amount of solar radiation absorbed and reflected by the snowpack, especially in mid-latitude regions with semiarid conditions. Satellite remote sensing is the most extensive technique to determine the variability of snow albedo over medium to large areas; however, scale effects from the pixel size of the sensor source may affect the results of snow models, with different impacts depending on the spatial resolution. This work presents the evaluation of snow albedo values retrieved from (1 Landsat images, L (16-day frequency with 30 × 30 m pixel size and (2 SPOT VEGETATION albedo products, SV (10-day frequency with 1 × 1 km pixel size in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in South Spain, a Mediterranean site representative of highly heterogeneous conditions. Daily snow albedo map series were derived from both sources, and used as input for the snow module in the WiMMed (Watershed Integrated Management in Mediterranean Environment hydrological model, which was operational at the study area for snow monitoring for two hydrological years, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, in the Guadalfeo river basin in Sierra Nevada. The results showed similar albedo trends in both data sources, but with different values, the shift between both sources being distributed in space according to the altitude. This difference resulted in lower snow cover fraction values in the SV-simulations that affected the rest of snow variables included in the simulation. This underestimation, mainly due to the effects of mixed pixels composed by both snow and snow-free areas, produced higher divergences from both sources during the melting periods when the evapo-sublimation and melting fluxes are more relevant. Therefore, the selection of the albedo data source in these areas, where snow evapo-sublimation plays a very important role and the presence of snow-free patches is very frequent, can condition the final

  5. Evaposublimation from the snow in the Mediterranean mountains of Sierra Nevada (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-12-01

    In this study we quantify the evaposublimation and the energy balance of the seasonal snowpack in the Mediterranean semiarid region of Sierra Nevada, Spain (37° N). In these kinds of regions, the incidence of this return of water to the atmosphere is particularly important to the hydrology and water availability. The analysis of the evaposublimation from snow allows us to deduct the losses of water expected in the short and medium term and is critical for the efficient planning of this basic and scarce resource. To achieve this, we performed 10 field campaigns from 2009 to 2015, during which detailed measurements of mass fluxes of a controlled volume of snow were recorded using a modified version of an evaporation pan with lysimeter. Meteorological data at the site of the snow control volume were extensively monitored during the tests. With these data, a point energy balance snowmelt model was validated for the area. This model, fed with the complete meteorological data set available at the Refugio Poqueira Station (2500 m a.s.l.), let us estimate that evaposublimation losses for this site can range from 24 to 33 % of total annual ablation. This ratio is very variable throughout the year and between years, depending on the particular occurrence of snowfall and mild weather events, which is generally quite erratic in this semiarid region. Evaposublimation proceeds at maximum rates of up to 0.49 mm h-1, an order of magnitude less than maximum melt rates. However, evaposublimation occurs during 60 % of the time that snow lies, while snowmelt only takes up 10 % of this time. Hence, both processes remain close in magnitude on the annual scale.

  6. Combining remote sensing and GIS climate modelling to estimate daily forest evapotranspiration in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration monitoring allows us to assess the environmental stress on forest and agricultural ecosystems. Nowadays, Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are the main techniques used for calculating evapotranspiration at catchment and regional scales. In this study we present a methodology, based on the energy balance equation (B-method, that combines remote sensing imagery with GIS climate modelling to estimate daily evapotranspiration (ETd for several dates between 2003 and 2005. The three main variables needed to compute ETd were obtained as follows: (i Land surface temperature by means of the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal band, (ii air temperature by means of multiple regression analysis and spatial interpolation from meteorological ground stations data at satellite pass, and (iii net radiation by means of the radiative balance. We calculated ETd using remote sensing data at different spatial and temporal scales (TERRA/AQUA MODIS and Landsat-5 TM/Landsat-7 ETM+ and combining three different approaches to calculate the B parameter. We then compared these estimates with sap flow measurements from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand in a Mediterranean mountain area. This procedure allowed us to better understand the limitations of ETd modelling and how it needs to be improved, especially in heterogeneous forest areas. The method using Landsat data resulted in a good agreement, with a mean RMSE value of about 0.6 mm day−1 and an estimation error of ±30%. The poor agreement obtained using MODIS data reveals that ETd retrieval from coarse resolution remote sensing data is troublesome in these heterogeneous areas, and therefore further research is necessary on this issue.

  7. Plant trait variation along an altitudinal gradient in mediterranean high mountain grasslands: controlling the species turnover effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescador, David S; de Bello, Francesco; Valladares, Fernando; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Assessing changes in plant functional traits along gradients is useful for understanding the assembly of communities and their response to global and local environmental drivers. However, these changes may reflect the effects of species composition (i.e. composition turnover), species abundance (i.e. species interaction), and intra-specific trait variability (i.e. species plasticity). In order to determine the relevance of the latter, trait variation can be assessed under minimal effects of composition turnover. Nine sampling sites were established along an altitudinal gradient in a Mediterranean high mountain grassland community with low composition turnover (Madrid, Spain; 1940 m-2419 m). Nine functional traits were also measured for ten individuals of around ten plant species at each site, for a total of eleven species across all sites. The relative importance of different sources of variability (within/between site and intra-/inter-specific functional diversity) and trait variation at species and community level along the considered gradients were explored. We found a weak individual species response to altitude and other environmental variables although in some cases, individuals were smaller and leaves were thicker at higher elevations. This lack of species response was most likely due to greater within- than between-site species variation. At the community level, inter-specific functional diversity was generally greater than the intra-specific component except for traits linked to leaf element content (leaf carbon content, leaf nitrogen content, δ13C and δ15N). Inter-specific functional diversity decreased with lower altitude for four leaf traits (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, δ13C and δ15N), suggesting trait convergence between species at lower elevations, where water shortage may have a stronger environmental filtering effect than colder temperatures at higher altitudes. Our results suggest that, within a vegetation type encompassing

  8. Characterizing a Century of Climate and Hydrological Variability of a Mediterranean and Mountainous Watersheds: the Durance River Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, T.; Kuentz, A.; Gailhard, J.; Andreassian, V.

    2013-12-01

    Improving the understanding of mountain watersheds hydrological variability is a great scientific issue, for both researchers and water resources managers, such as Electricite de France (Energy and Hydropower Company). The past and current context of climate variability enhances the interest on this topic, since multi-purposes water resources management is highly sensitive to this variability. The Durance River watershed (14000 km2), situated in the French Alps, is a good example of the complexity of this issue. It is characterized by a variety of hydrological processes (from snowy to Mediterranean regimes) and a wide range of anthropogenic influences (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, tourism and water supply), mixing potential causes of changes in its hydrological regimes. As water related stakes are numerous in this watershed, improving knowledge on the hydrological variability of the Durance River appears to be essential. In this presentation, we would like to focus on a methodology we developed to build long-term historical hydrometeorological time-series, based on atmospheric reanalysis (20CR : 20th Century Reanalysis) and historical local observations. This methodology allowed us to generate precipitation, air temperature and streamflow time-series at a daily time-step for a sample of 22 watersheds, for the 1883-2010 period. These long-term streamflow reconstructions have been validated thanks to historical searches that allowed to bring to light ten long historical series of daily streamflows, beginning on the early 20th century. Reconstructions appear to have rather good statistical properties, with good correlation (greater than 0.8) and limited mean and variance bias (less than 5%). Then, these long-term hydrometeorological time-series allowed us to characterize the past variability in terms of available water resources, droughts or hydrological regime. These analyses help water resources managers to better know the range of hydrological

  9. Hydrological processes and their seasonal controls in a small Mediterranean mountain catchment in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gallart

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vallcebre catchments are located in a middle mountain area of the Pyrenean ranges, built up by sedimentary rocks and loamy soils. The vegetation cover is pastures and forests of Pinus sylvestris, mostly occupying former agricultural terraces. Some relatively small, heavily eroded landscapes (badlands occur in the catchments, playing a relevant hydrological and geomorphic role. Annual precipitation is 924 mm and potential (reference evapotranspiration is about 700 mm. Rainfall interception in forests represents about 24% of precipitation; interception rates were similar throughout the seasons because of a compensation between rainfall intensities and atmospheric conditions. Soil moisture showed a temporal pattern characterised by the occurrence of marked deficit periods in summer and also, but less pronounced, in winter. During most of the year, subsurface flows on hillslopes drove the spatial organisation of soil moisture and the occurrence of saturated areas. Nevertheless, this spatial organisation was also controlled by the patterns of vegetation cover. During dry periods, subsurface flow ceased, saturated areas disappeared and the spatial patterns of soil moisture changed. Stream flow from these catchments was dominated by storm flow, and the runoff generating mechanisms showed a clear seasonal pattern, controlled mainly by the soil moisture and the extent of saturated areas. During the dry periods, runoff was produced only on impervious areas and badlands. At the end of the dry periods, some large rainfall events generated significant runoff because of the perched saturation of the shallow soil horizons. Thereafter, runoff generation was dominated by the role of saturated areas. Stream waters in catchments with badlands had very high suspended sediment concentrations. The seasonal pattern of erosion processes in badlands was characterised by physical weathering during winter, regolith breakdown and vigorous hillslope erosion during

  10. Mountain Heavy Rainfall Measurement Experiments in a Subtropical Monsoon Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong-Dao Jou, Ben; Chi-June Jung, Ultimate; Lai, Hsiao-Wei; Feng, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative rainfall measurement experiments have been conducted in Taiwan area for the past 5 years (since 2008), especially over the complex terrain region. In this paper, results from these experiments will be analyzed and discussed, especially those associated with heavy rain events in the summer monsoon season. Observations from s-band polarimetric radar (SPOL of NCAR) and also x-band vertically-pointing radar are analyzed to reveal the high resolution temporal and spatial variation of precipitation structure. May and June, the Meiyu season in the area, are months with subtropical frontal rainfall events. Mesoscale convective systems, i.e., pre-frontal squall lines and frontal convective rainbands, are very active and frequently produce heavy rain events over mountain areas. Accurate quantitative precipitation measurements are needed in order to meet the requirement for landslide and flood early warning purpose. Using ground-based disdrometers and vertically-pointing radar, we have been trying to modify the quantitative precipitation estimation in the mountain region by using coastal operational radar. In this paper, the methodology applied will be presented and the potential of its application will be discussed. *corresponding author: Ben Jong-Dao Jou, jouben43@gmail.com

  11. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  12. Summary report on the geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Rundberg, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    This report gives a detailed description of work at Los Alamos that will help resolve geochemical issues pertinent to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It is necessary to understand the properties and setting of the host tuff because this rock provides the first natural barrier to migration of waste elements from a repository. The geochemistry of tuff is being investigated with particular emphasis on retardation processes. This report addresses the various aspects of sorption by tuff, physical and chemical makeup of tuff, diffusion processes, tuff/groundwater chemistry, waste element chemistry under expected repository conditions, transport processes involved in porous and fracture flow, and geochemical and transport modeling.

  13. Combining remote sensing and GIS climate modelling to estimate daily forest evapotranspiration in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration monitoring allows us to assess the environmental stress on forest and agricultural ecosystems. Nowadays, Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are the main techniques used for calculating evapotranspiration at catchment and regional scales. In this study we present a methodology, based on the energy balance equation (B-method, that combines remote sensing imagery with GIS-based climate modelling to estimate daily evapotranspiration (ETd for several dates between 2003 and 2005. The three main variables needed to compute ETd were obtained as follows: (i Land surface temperature by means of the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal band, (ii air temperature by means of multiple regression analysis and spatial interpolation from meteorological ground stations data at satellite pass, and (iii net radiation by means of the radiative balance. We calculated ETd using remote sensing data at different spatial and temporal scales (Landsat-7 ETM+, Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 60, 120 and 1000 m, respectively and combining three different approaches to calculate the B parameter, which represents an average bulk conductance for the daily-integrated sensible heat flux. We then compared these estimates with sap flow measurements from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand in a Mediterranean mountain area. This procedure allowed us to better understand the limitations of ETd modelling and how it needs to be improved, especially in heterogeneous forest areas. The method using Landsat data resulted in a good agreement, R2 test of 0.89, with a mean RMSE value of about 0.6 mm day−1 and an estimation error of ±30 %. The poor agreement obtained using TERRA/AQUA MODIS, with a mean RMSE value of 1.8 and 2.4 mm day−1 and an estimation error of about ±57 and 50 %, respectively. This

  14. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Before operational use or for decision making, models must be validated, and the degree of trust in model outputs should be quantified. Often, model validation is performed at single locations due to the lack of spatially-distributed data. Since the analysis of parametric model uncertainties can be performed independently of observations, it is a suitable method to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainty of a physically-based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography consisting of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by their hydraulic properties. The analyses performed for all combinations of topographic factors and ground types allowed to quantify the variability of model sensitivity and uncertainty within mountain regions. We found that modeled snow duration considerably influences the mean annual ground temperature (MAGT. The melt-out day of snow (MD is determined by processes determining snow accumulation and melting. Parameters such as the temperature and precipitation lapse rate and the snow correction factor have therefore a great impact on modeled MAGT. Ground albedo changes MAGT from 0.5 to 4°C in dependence of the elevation, the aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter snow cover. Snow albedo and other parameters determining the amount of reflected solar radiation are important, changing MAGT at different depths by more than 1°C. Parameters influencing the turbulent fluxes as the roughness length or the dew temperature are more sensitive at low elevation sites due to higher air temperatures and decreased solar radiation. Modeling the individual terms of the energy

  15. Quantitative Analysis on the Relationship between Population Distribution and Environment Factors in Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the relationship between population distribution and environment factors in mountain area quantitatively.[Method] Taking the contiguous area of Sichuan,Yunnan and Guizhou Province as study object,population density and residential point density were chosen as the indices of population distribution,and the quantitative relationship between population distribution and environment factors (including altitude,topography relief amplitude,land use,road network and river network)...

  16. Paleogenomics in a temperate environment: shotgun sequencing from an extinct Mediterranean caprine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramírez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous endemic mammals, including dwarf elephants, goats, hippos and deers, evolved in isolation in the Mediterranean islands during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Most of them subsequently became extinct during the Holocene. Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies could provide a unique tool for retrieving genomic data from these extinct species, making it possible to study their evolutionary history and the genetic bases underlying their particular, sometimes unique, adaptations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: A DNA extraction of a approximately 6,000 year-old bone sample from an extinct caprine (Myotragus balearicus from the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean, has been subjected to shotgun sequencing with the GS FLX 454 platform. Only 0.27% of the resulting sequences, identified from alignments with the cow genome and comprising 15,832 nucleotides, with an average length of 60 nucleotides, proved to be endogenous. CONCLUSIONS: A phylogenetic tree generated with Myotragus sequences and those from other artiodactyls displays an identical topology to that generated from mitochondrial DNA data. Despite being in an unfavourable thermal environment, which explains the low yield of endogenous sequences, our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain genomic data from extinct species from temperate regions.

  17. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Model evaluation is often performed at few locations due to the lack of spatially distributed data. Since the quantification of model sensitivities and uncertainties can be performed independently from ground truth measurements, these analyses are suitable to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainties of a physically based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography. The setting consists of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by porosity and hydraulic properties. The analyses are performed for a combination of all factors, that allows for quantification of the variability of model sensitivities and uncertainties within a whole modeling domain. We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topography or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be representative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 °C depending on elevation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sensitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sensitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The discretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on modeled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT that cannot be neglected (more than 1 °C for several

  18. Regional survey of radionuclides in the marine environment of the French Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve; Arnaud, Mireille; Duffa, Celine; Charmasson, Sabine; Dimeglio, Yves [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM/ARM c/o Ifremer, CS 20330 Zone Portuaire de Bregaillon, 83507 La Seyne sur Mer Cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) runs a continuous monitoring program of the marine environment as a mandatory task. For the French Mediterranean coast, this monitoring activity focuses on two bio-indicators species: the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the red mullet (Mullus sp.) sampled on a regular basis from natural populations at ten locations along the coast. Radionuclides are measured using direct low-level gamma spectrometry as a routine technique. In addition to this long-lasting monitoring, a broad survey of radionuclide baseline levels is conducted on all compartments of the coastal zone: water, sediments and a large selection of fish species among those most currently fished and marketed. This extended data collection is necessary to fulfill the information requirements of the UE Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and its implementation by member states. This information is also essential for impact assessment of any incident or accident, included from a remote source. Levels of less commonly measured radionuclides like {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and U, Pu isotopes are investigated. Fish sampling relies mostly on scientific stock assessment campaigns. Mussel sampling is complemented by transplanted mussels on 40 specific sites. This regional survey also focuses on two possibly impacted areas: the Rhone river mouth coastal zone, with inputs from nuclear power plants along the river and the Bay of Toulon sheltering Navy harbor of nuclear-powered sub-marines and aircraft-carrier. First results show that the activity levels of artificial radionuclides are very low for most bio-indicator species, in accordance with previous monitoring trends. {sup 137}Cs is the only artificial radionuclide regularly detected by gamma spectrometry in mussel and fish samples at a level below 1 Bg.kg{sup -1} of dry weight. Values of {sup 3}H (organically bound Tritium) in the same samples lies under

  19. Yield and nitrogen fixation potential from white lupine grown in rainfed Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sulas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There is renewed interest in white lupine (Lupinus albus L., which is appreciated for its high protein content, full range of essential amino acids and as N source to rainfed cropping systems. Unfortunately, information on its N2 fixation ability is limited. This study aimed to: (i quantify the N2 fixation ability of white lupine crop at the plot field scale in three different environments of Sardinia (Italy under Mediterranean climate; (ii determine the allocation of the plant-fixed N into different organs; and (iii establish the relationship between fixed N and DM within plant organs. In a 2-year experiment, N2 fixation was estimated using the 15N isotopic dilution method. The productive performances and ability of white lupine to fix N2 widely differed in the three environments; peak values exceeded 300 kg ha−1 of fixed N. There were significant differences in the quantity of fixed N found in each plant organ at physiological maturity with 5, 20, 19 and 57 % of fixed N partitioned to roots, shoots, pod valves and grain, respectively. After grain harvesting, the net N balance ranged from negative values to 160 kg N ha−1. The relationship between fixed N and DM yield indicated 60, 34, 8 and 6 kg of fixed N per t of grain, pod valves, shoots and root, respectively, showing that fixed N preferentially accumulated in seeds at physiological maturity. Due to its high potential for N2 fixation and N benefit, white lupine represents a valuable crop option under rainfed Mediterranean conditions.

  20. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  1. Water and radiation use efficiencies of irrigated biomass sorghum in a Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Garofalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is a crop that can be used for energy production in the bioethanol chain and a greater knowledge of its potential and response to irrigation water levels could help to assess its potential diffusion in Mediterranean areas. A two-year field experiment was carried out in Southern Italy; two irrigation regimes were compared in biomass sorghum, optimal watered (irrigation supplies greater than actual crop evapotranspiration, ETc and stressed watered (about 65% of the optimal one. Growth analysis, soil water content and aboveground dry biomass (ADM yield at harvest were measured and analyzed. Radiation use efficiency (RUE, irrigation (IWUE and water use efficiencies (WUE were also calculated. Seasonal water use ranged from 830 mm in the optimal treatment to 589 mm in the stressed one. Similarly, ADM proved to be statistically different between the two irrigation treatments (34.6 vs 19.8 t of dry matter ha–1. The RUE, calculated as the slope of the first order equation between dry biomass and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation along a crop cycle, showed an average of 2.84±0.65 g MJ–1. No statistical differences for IWUE and WUE were obtained between irrigation regimes (8.22 and 5.87 kg m–3, on average. The two years of experiment influenced IWUE and WUE (both larger in the rainier growing season, but not the RUE. The high RUE and WUE obtained values confirmed that biomass sorghum is a crop with considerable dry matter production efficiency. The experimental results suggest that the introduction of biomass sorghum in the cropping systems of Mediterranean environments as an alternative crop for energy purposes is feasible, but requires an adequate seasonal irrigation water supply (not less than 500 mm.

  2. Close Relationship between the Frangibility of Mountain Eco-Environment and Mountain Disasters: A Case Study of Dong-chuan, Kunming in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuyi; TIAN Bing; LIU Shuzhen

    2007-01-01

    Anatomical details are given in this article, which is performed by investigating the relationship between through the frangibility of mountain eco-environment and the status of irrational land-use in typical region of debris flow in Dongchuan district, Kunming city, yun-nan Province. This analysis is extended to the relationship between vicissitude of mountain disasters and the frangibility of mountain environment. The relatively coupling action of a vicious circle is a evolving characteristic by debris flow sand-gravel there. The eco-security is being faced with serious challenge. The tactics of eco-security has been constructed since 1980s. Thus, the eco-environment can gradually be repaired and optimized to achieve a fine circle.

  3. Impacts of Mining and Urbanization on the Qin-Ba Mountainous Environment, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Qin-Ba Ecological Functional Zone is a component of China’s ecological security pattern designed to protect the regional ecosystem and maintain biodiversity. However, due to the impact of mining and urban encroachment, the plight of a sustainable ecosystem in the Qin-Ba mountainous area is deteriorating. This paper has used a remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS to examine the impacts of mining and urban encroachment on the environment in the Qin-Ba mountainous area. The results indicate that the total mined area in 2013 was 22 km2 and is predicted to escalate. Results also show that the ecosystems in Fengxian County, Shaanxi Province and Baokang County, Hubei Province were most severely affected by mining. Urbanization in the Qin-Ba mountainous area has seen an increase of 85.58 km2 in urban land use from 2010 to 2013. In addition, infrastructure development including airport construction, tourism resorts and real estate development in the Qin-Ba mountainous area has intensified environmental and biodiversity disturbances since large areas of forest have been cleared. Our results should provide insight and assistance to city planners and government officials in making informed decisions.

  4. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  5. Transpiration and Groundwater Uptake Dynamics of Pinus Brutia on a Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Slope during Two Hydrologically Contrasting Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas; Camera, Corrado; Djuma, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    Semi-arid environments tend to have extreme temporal variability in rainfall, resulting in extended periods with little to no precipitation. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. Tree species survive in these environments by developing various adaptation mechanisms to access water. The main objective of this study is to examine the differences of two hydrologically contrasting years on the transpiration and groundwater uptake dynamics of Pinus brutia trees. We selected four trees for sap flow monitoring in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located at 620 m elevation, on the northern foothills of the Troodos mountains in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranges between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. Monitoring started on 1 January 2015 and is ongoing. We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the selected trees for monitoring. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the selected trees. We installed seventeen soil moisture sensors at 12-cm depth and two at 30-cm depth, where the soil was deeper than 24 cm. We randomly installed 28 metric manual rain gauges under the trees' canopy to measure throughfall. For stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used sap flow heat ratio method (HRM) instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia. Hourly meteorological conditions were observed by an automatic meteorological station. Here we present the results of the January to October periods, in order to have comparable results for the two contrasting years. During the wet year of 2015, we measured 439

  6. Forest composition in Mediterranean mountains is projected to shift along the entire elevational gradient under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, Diego; Nogues, David Bravo; Ollero, Helios Sáinz

    2012-01-01

    and an associated decline in communities of temperate or cold-adapted trees during the 21st century. It was predicted that 80–99% of the area that shows a climate suitable for cold–wet-optimum Eurosiberian coniferous and broad-leaved species will be lost. The largest overall changes were predicted for Mediterranean...

  7. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  8. The role of major forest fires on rock physical decay in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtober-Zisu, Nurit; Tessler, Naama; Tsatskin, Alexander; Greenbaum, Noam

    2017-04-01

    value, if accounted to the long run, can be responsible for a high percentage of the total denudation rate and therefore, in the mountainous carbonate slopes of the Mediterranean region, wildland fires may serve as extremely important factors in landscape evolution (Shtober-Zisu et al., 2015). Shtober-Zisu, N., Tessler, N., Tsatskin, A., & Greenbaum, N. (2015). Accelerated weathering of carbonate rocks following the 2010 wildfire on Mount Carmel, Israel. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 24(8): 1154-1167.

  9. Evolution of hydraulic traits in closely related species pairs from Mediterranean and nonMediterranean environments of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Radika; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Ackerly, David D

    2007-01-01

    Chaparral shrubs in California experience cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers characteristic of mediterranean-type climates; by contrast, morphologically similar close relatives in central Mexico experience summer rainfall. A comparison of closely related species pairs was conducted to examine whether evolutionary divergences in plant hydraulic conductivity were associated with contrasting seasonality of precipitation. Six species pairs in Santa Barbara, California and Tehuacan, Mexico were chosen to test for repeated directional divergences across the habitat contrast. Additionally, evolutionary correlations were examined using phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) among a suite of hydraulic traits, including stem- and leaf-specific conductivity, resistance to embolism, wood density, inverse Huber value, and minimum seasonal water potential. Leaf-specific conductivity was generally higher in California, but for most hydraulic traits the species pairs exhibited varied evolutionary trajectories across the climate contrast. A significant correlation was found between divergences in xylem resistance to embolism and minimum seasonal water potential, but no evolutionary trade-off was found between resistance and stem conductivity. Higher leaf-specific conductivity may be adaptive in California, where soil and atmospheric droughts coincide during summer months. This response is consistent with a hydraulic strategy of high leaf water supply under high evaporative demand to prevent excessive drops in water potential.

  10. Foraging strategy quick response to temperature of Messor barbarus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mediterranean environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblas-Miranda, Enrique; Reyes-López, Joaquín

    2008-08-01

    Animals principally forage to try to maximize energy intake per unit of feeding time, developing different foraging strategies. Temperature effects on foraging have been observed in diverse ant species; these effects are limited to the duration of foraging or the number of foragers involved. The harvester ant Messor barbarus L. 1767 has a specialized foraging strategy that consists in the formation of worker trails. Because of the high permeability of their body integument, we presume that the length, shape, and type of foraging trails of M. barbarus must be affected by temperature conditions. From mid-June to mid-August 1999, we tested the effect on these trail characteristics in a Mediterranean forest. We found that thermal stress force ants to use a foraging pattern based on the variation of the workers trail structure. Ants exploit earlier well-known sources using long physical trails, but as temperatures increases throughout the morning, foragers reduce the length of the foraging column gradually, looking for alternative food sources in nonphysical trails. This study shows that animal forage can be highly adaptable and versatile in environments with high daily variations.

  11. Growth and Yield Performance of Five Guar Cultivars in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Sortino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate growth and yield performance of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. in Mediterranean area, main morphological parameters (plant height, dry weight of single plant parts, branch and leaf number, dry biomass accumulation and seed yield response of five varieties of guar (Esser, Malosan, Kinman, Lewis and Santa Cruz were studied. Seed crude protein and fibre content were also determined. Irrigation was applied to ensure that water availability did not limit production. The growing season of guar lasted for 120 days for all the varieties. Average plant height at harvest was about 63 cm (ranging from 56.0 to 70.6 cm. The highest dry weight increment was recorded during 55-70 days after sowing. Malosan, Santa Cruz and Kinman showed the highest individual seed weight (> 30 mg. Above average leaf and branch number were observed in Kinman, Esser and Santa Cruz. The greatest seed protein content was observed in Lewis and Esser (35.6% and 34.7%. High yield and seed quality were obtained in these environments with limited water supply, indicating that guar may represent a valid alternative multipurpose crop for semiarid regions.

  12. Soil properties and environmental tracers: A DEM based assessment in an Australian Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Murphy, D. V.; Li, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Terrain properties vary at the hillslope and catchment scale and play a significant role in the distribution of water and sediment. Of particular interest in recent years has been the role of hillslope and catchment properties in the spatial and temporal distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and the ability to predict SOC from DEM terrain analysis. SOC plays a significant role in soil health and productivity as well as providing a significant store of terrestrial carbon. This study examined SOC concentration along representative pasture transects in a catchment located in southern Western Australia with a Mediterranean climate. Results demonstrate that the majority of SOC (%) is located in the near-surface (300 mm) and is concentrated in the top 0.2 m. There was no relationship found between SOC (or microbial biomass) and topography or topographic derivatives such as wetness and terrain indices from DEMs. Significant relationships were however found between SOC and environmental tracers (137Cs and 210Pbex) down the soil profile. Weak, yet significant, relationships were found between SOC and the environmental tracers along the hillslope transects, suggesting that organic carbon moves along the same pathways as clay particles in soil. An erosion assessment using 137Cs and also a numerical soil erosion and landscape evolution model found low and comparable erosion rates at the site. The results demonstrate that SOC concentration is relatively uniform across the study site and that a transect scale assessment can provide a measure of hillslope and catchment scale SOC in this environment.

  13. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  14. Use of native plants for the remediation of abandoned mine sites in Mediterranean semiarid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, G; Cappai, G; Carucci, A; Tamburini, E

    2015-03-01

    Abandoned tailing dumps from mining industry represent important sources of metal contamination in the surrounding environments. This study evaluates the potential of two Mediterranean native plants, Pistacia lentiscus and Phragmites australis, for phytoremediation of two Sardinian contaminated mine sites. A 6 months study has been conducted at greenhouse-controlled conditions with the aim of investigating the plant capability to tolerate high metal concentrations and to extract or immobilize them within the roots. The possibility to mitigate stress on the plants and improve treatment efficiency by adding compost as amendment was also evaluated. Both species were able to restrict accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn to the root tissues exhibiting a metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil bioavailable fraction higher than two (four in the case of Zn). However, the two species showed different adaptation responses, being the survival of P. australis after 6 months in contaminated soil lower (25 %-58 %) than that observed for P. lentiscus (77 %-100 %). Compost addition resulted in a lower metal uptake in tissues of both plants and a higher survival of P. australis, whilst almost no effect was observed as regard the growth of both species. The two tested species appear to be promising candidates for phytostabilization, P. lentiscus exhibiting a greater adaptability to heavy metal contaminated matrices than P. australis.

  15. Mediterranean hurricanes: large-scale environment and convective and precipitating areas from satellite microwave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Claud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Subsynoptic scale vortices that have been likened to tropical cyclones or polar lows (medicanes are occasionally observed over the Mediterranean Sea. Generated over the sea, they are usually associated with strong winds and heavy precipitation and thus can be highly destructive in islands and costal areas. Only an accurate forecasting of such systems could mitigate these effects. However, at the moment, the predictability of these systems remains limited.

    Due to the scarcity of conventional observations, use is made of NOAA/MetOp satellite observations, for which advantage can be taken of the time coverage differences between the platforms that carry it, to give a very complete temporal description of the disturbances. A combination of AMSU-B (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B/MHS (Microwave Humidity Sounder observations permit to investigate precipitation associated with these systems while coincident AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A observations give insights into the larger synoptic-scale environment in which they occur.

    Three different cases (in terms of intensity, location, trajectory, duration, and periods of the year – May, September and December, respectively were investigated. Throughout these time periods, AMSU-A observations show that the persisting deep outflow of cold air over the sea together with an upper-level trough upstream constituted a favourable environment for the development of medicanes. AMSU-B/MHS based diagnostics show that convection and precipitation areas are large in the early stage of the low, but significantly reduced afterwards. Convection is maximum just after the upper-level trough, located upstream of cold mid-tropospheric air, reached its maximum intensity and acquired a cyclonic orientation.

  16. Water repellence assessment in humid mediterranean carbonated environments: influence of shrubland species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, Gonzalez-Pelayo; Vicente, Andreu; Luis, Rubio Jose; Carla Sofia, Ferreira; Dinis, Ferreira Antonio Jose

    2010-05-01

    The importance of natural or induced (fire) water repellence in terms of water redistribution in the soil profile, reduction in soil infiltration capacity and thus, in runoff magnification, is well established. Hydrophobicity has been identified around the world in different climatic conditions, land covers, soil and vegetation types. Regarding soil and vegetation, many studies are based on coarse acidic soils with pine forest, eucalyptus, deciduous trees, grassland, cropland, chaparral vegetation type, and lately in shrublands. However, few studies are related to shrubland in wet Mediterranean carbonated environments. This work is oriented to the study of soil water repellence in these environments by means of WDPT. The study was carried out in Podentes (Coimbra), central Portugal, on 4 ha of shrubland (mainly Quercus coccifera, Pistacia lentiscus and Arbutus unedo), developed on Umbric leptosol and Calcaric cambisol soil types (WRB). The WDPT was assessed depending on the shrubland type, slope orientation, soil depth (0-2 cm and 2-5 cm) and on different soil fractions ( Q. coccifera ≈ P. lentiscus; and depending on the orientation: NE > SW. Direct relationships were obtained between the soil organic matter content and the log WDPT on almost all the surface soil samples. The soil pH and carbonate content did not display correlation with soil water repellence. The different hydrophobic compounds generated by waxes and resins of the different shrubland types, which could be incorporated to the soil as binding agents, seem to be the explanation for the differences of the WDPT data. The patchy distribution of the vegetation rules the persistence of the natural soil water repellence, restraining water infiltration mainly by micropore flow, being then the soil hydrology controlled by the macropore flow, cracks and root system. Further research into soil organic matter quality in the finer soil aggregates could be necessary to confirm this link between the components

  17. A new approach to evaluating landslide hazard in the mountain glacial environment - mass and hypsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Madison L.; Evans, Stephen G.

    2016-04-01

    The magnitude and frequency of glacial hazards is central to the discussion of the effect of climate change in the mountain glacial environment and has persisted as a research question since the 1990s. We propose a new approach to evaluating mass flow (including landslides) hazard in the glacier environment conditioned by temporal and elevation changes in glacier-ice loss. Using digital topographic data sets and InSAR techniques we investigate the hypsometry of ice loss in a well-defined glacial environment in the southwest Coast Mountains of SW British Columbia (the Mount Meager Volcanic Complex - MMVC). The volume and elevation of major mass movements that have taken place in the MMVC since the 1930s is established and compared to the volume and hypsometry of glacial ice loss in the same time period. In the analysis, the volumes of ice loss and landslides are converted to units of mass. The elevation of a sequence of large-scale mass movements do not suggest a close correlation with the elevation or temporal sequence of greatest ice loss. Instead, the temporal relationship between the mass of ice loss and mass lost from slopes in landslides (including ice, rock, and debris) is suggestive of a steady state. The same approach is then applied to the Cordillera Blanca (Peruvian Andes) where we show that the greatest mass moved from the glacier system by glacier-related mass flows since the 1930s, corresponded generally to the period of greatest ice loss suggesting a decay-based response to recent glacier ice loss. As in the MMVC, the elevation of mass flow events is not correlated with the estimated hypsometry of glacial ice loss; in both regions the largest landslide in the period investigated occurred from a high mountain peak defining a topographic divide and where ice loss was minimal. It thus appears that mountain glacial environments exhibit different landslide responses to glacier ice loss that may be conditioned by the rate of ice loss and strongly influenced

  18. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  19. Assessment of desertification risk in semi-arid Mediterranean environments: the case study of Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladisa, Gaetano; Todorovic, Mladen; Trisorio Liuzzi, Giuliana

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the risk assessment of the areas threatened with desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. The presented approach uses as a reference the ESAs model (Environmental Sensitive Areas to Desertification; Kosmas et al., 1999) which is modified through a set of new indicators which take into account the region-specific environmental characteristics as well as identifiable parameters relevant for planning control measures. These supplementary indicators, comprehending socio-economic and environmental factors, are integrated in the ESAs model and, by using a GIS, applied to Apulia region (Southern Italy). This area represents a typical Mediterranean landscape affected by land degradation and desertification risks. The analyses include the elaboration of the whole set of indices on both the regional and the administrative scales which constitute the principal territorial units for the management of natural resources. The results have demonstrated that the introduction of the new indices has improved substantially the overall evaluation of the desertification risk in the Apulia region. The proposed approach permits not only the identification and refinement of different degrees of sensibility of an area to land degradation, but also the analyses of the factors affecting desertification and their evaluation in terms of spatial and temporal distribution. Moreover, the presented method is conceptually very simple and easy to implement from local to regional and national scale, and can be proposed as a methodology for the definition of priorities in adoption of strategies to mitigate desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Key words: desertification risk, sensitivity areas, Apulia region, Mediterranean environment.

  20. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  1. Assessing the Influence of Summer Organic Fertilization Combined with Nitrogen Inhibitor on a Short Rotation Woody Crop in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Maienza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Directive 91/676/EEC, known as Nitrates Directive, has dictated basic agronomic principles regarding the use of animal manure source as well as livestock and waste waters from small food companies. The use of nitrification inhibitors together with animal effluents as organic fertilizers could be beneficial for nutrient recycling, plant productivity, and greenhouse gas emission and could offer economic advantages as alternative to conventional fertilizers especially in the Mediterranean region. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in plant productivity between bovine effluent treatments with (or without addition of a nitrification inhibitor (3,4 DMPP in a short rotation woody crop system. Results of the field experiment carried out in a Mediterranean dry environment indicated that the proposed strategy could improve tree growth with indirect, beneficial effects for agroforestry systems.

  2. Soil microbial activities in Mediterranean environment as desertification indicators along a pluviometric gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosadova, I.; Zahora, J.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2009-04-01

    In the Mediterranean areas of Southern Spain, unsuitable agricultural practices with adverse environmental conditions (López Bermúdez and Albaladejo, 1990), have led to a permanent degradation and loss of soil fertility. This includes deterioration of the natural plant cover, which protects against erosion by contributing organic matter, the main prerequisite of ecosystem sustainability (Grace et al., 1994). Physico-chemical, microbiological and biochemical soil properties are very responsive and provide immediate and precise information on small changes occurring in soil (Dick and Tabatabai, 1993). There is increasing evidence that such parameters are also sensitive indicators of ecology stress suffered by a soil and its recovery, since microbial activity has a direct influence on the stability and fertility of ecosystems (Smith and Papendick, 1993). One method for recovering degraded soils of such semiarid regions, with their low organic matter content, is to enhance primary productivity and carbon sequestration without any additional nitrogen fertilization and preferably without incorporation of leguminous plants (Martinez Mena et al., 2008). Carbon rich materials can sustain microbial activity and growth, thus enhancing biogeochemical nutrient cycles (Pascual et al., 1997). The present study is focused in the role of physico-chemical and microbial soil properties in Mediterranean environment, in terms of in situ and ex situ microbial transformation of soil carbon and nitrogen, in order to characterise the key soil microbial activities which could strongly affect carbon and nitrogen turnover in soil and hereby soil fertility and soil organic matter "quality". These microbial activities could at unsuitable agricultural practices with adverse environmental conditions induce unfavourable hydrologycal tempo-spatial response. The final results shown modifications in the soil properties studied with the increasing of the aridity. Such changes suppose the soil

  3. PRESERVATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS RELEVANT TO YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Chapman, A. Dansie, C. McCombie

    2006-02-24

    The objective of this study was to evaluate archaeological materials from underground openings or shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain and to draw conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could be of relevance to design and operational aspects of the high-level waste repository. The study has evaluated materials from cultures in the arid regions of the ancient Middle East and compared them with the preservation of ancient materials in dry cave sites in the Great Basin desert area of Nevada. The emphasis has been on materials found in undisturbed underground openings such as caves and un-backfilled tombs. Long-term preservation of such materials in underground openings and the stability of the openings themselves provide useful analogue information that serves as a reference point for considering the operation and evolution of the Yucca Mountain repository. Being able to shed light, by close physical and environmental analogy, on what happens in underground openings over many thousands of years provides valuable underpinning to illustrations of expected system performance and offers pointers towards optimizing repository system and operational design.

  4. Using global Climate Impact Indicators to assess water resource availability in a Mediterranean mountain catchment: the Sierra Nevada study case (Spain) in the SWICCA platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Gulliver, Zacarias; José Polo, María

    2017-04-01

    Climate services provide water resource managements and users with science-based information on the likely impacts associated to the future climate scenarios. Mountainous areas are especially vulnerable to climate variations due to the expected changes in the snow regime, among others; in Mediterranean regions, this shift involves significant effects on the river flow regime and water resource availability and management. The Guadalfeo River Basin is a 1345 km2 mountainous, coastal catchment in southern Spain, ranging from the Mediterranean Sea coastline to the Sierra Nevada mountains to the north (up to 3450 m a.s.l.) within a 40-km distance. The climate variability adds complexity to this abrupt topography and heterogeneous area. The uncertainty associated to snow occurrence and persistence for the next decades poses a challenge for the current and future water resource uses in the area. The development of easy-to-use local climate indicators and derived decision-making variables is key to assess and face the economic impact of the potential changes. The SWICCA (Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation) Platform (http://swicca.climate.copernicus.eu/) has been developed under the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and provides global climate and hydrology indicators on a Pan-European scale. Different case studies are included to assess the platform development and contents, and analyse the indicators' performance from a proof-of-concept approach that includes end-users feedbacks. The Guadalfeo River Basin is one of these case studies. This work presents the work developed so far to analyse and use the SWICCA Climate Impact Indicators (CIIs) related to river flow in this mountainous area, and the first set of local indicators specifically designed to assess selected end-users on the potential impact associated to different climate scenarios. Different CIIs were extracted from the SWICCA interface and tested against the local information

  5. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  6. Barriers to gene flow in the marine environment: insights from two common intertidal limpet species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Pinto, Alexandra; Branco, Madalena S; Alexandrino, Paulo B; Fontaine, Michaël C; Baird, Stuart J E

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were screened for genetic variation through starch gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, respectively. An approach combining clustering algorithms with clinal analyses was used to test for the existence of barriers to gene flow and estimate their geographic location and abruptness. Sharp breaks in the genetic composition of individuals were observed in the transitions between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and across southern Italian shores. An additional break within the Atlantic cluster separates samples from the Alboran Sea and Atlantic African shores from those of the Iberian Atlantic shores. The geographic congruence of the genetic breaks detected in these two limpet species strongly supports the existence of transpecific barriers to gene flow in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic. This leads to testable hypotheses regarding factors restricting gene flow across the study area.

  7. Barriers to gene flow in the marine environment: insights from two common intertidal limpet species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sá-Pinto

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were screened for genetic variation through starch gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, respectively. An approach combining clustering algorithms with clinal analyses was used to test for the existence of barriers to gene flow and estimate their geographic location and abruptness. Sharp breaks in the genetic composition of individuals were observed in the transitions between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and across southern Italian shores. An additional break within the Atlantic cluster separates samples from the Alboran Sea and Atlantic African shores from those of the Iberian Atlantic shores. The geographic congruence of the genetic breaks detected in these two limpet species strongly supports the existence of transpecific barriers to gene flow in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic. This leads to testable hypotheses regarding factors restricting gene flow across the study area.

  8. Effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of plant species on eroded marly terrains in a Mediterranean mountainous climate (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Vincent; Crosaz, Yves; Rey, Freddy

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of plant species can limit soil erosion dynamics in degraded lands. In marly areas in the Southern French Alps, both harsh water erosion and drought conditions in summer due to the Mediterranean mountainous climate prevent the natural implementation and regeneration of vegetation. Soil fertility improvement is sometimes necessary. With the purpose of revegetating such areas, we aimed to evaluate the effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of different native or sub-spontaneous plant species. We conducted two experiments on steep slopes over three growing seasons (2012-2014). The first consisted of planting seedlings (10 species), and the second consisted of seeding (nine species including six used in the first experiment). First we noted that wood chips were able to remain in place even in steep slope conditions. The planting of seedlings showed both an impact of wood chip amendment and differences between species. A positive effect of wood chips was shown with overall improvement of plant survival (increasing by 11 % on average, by up to 50 % for some species). In the seeding experiment, no plants survived after three growing seasons. However, intermediate results for the first and second years showed a positive effect of wood chips on seedling emergence: seeds of four species only sprouted on wood chips, and for the five other species the average emergence rate increased by 50 %.

  9. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Tomohisa; Aydin, Mehmet; Haraguchi, Tomokazu

    2007-10-16

    A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models-GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI)-for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model-RCM-for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant) model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa) fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO₂ concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15% according to the CGCM2, and 28 and 22% according to the RCM

  10. Performances of legume-grass mixtures under different cutting managements in mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Annual forage crops have great importance for sustaining animal production in southern Italy. Knowledge of the performance of legume-grass associations under management similar to systems encountered in farm practice is essential for their effective exploitation of the available environmental resources. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the effects of five cutting managements on the productivity and botanical composition of ten annual fodder crop mixtures in two Mediterranean environments. Ten ternary combinations of one grass (Avena sativa L., oat and Lolium multiflorum Lam., Italian ryegrass, one clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L., berseem; Trifolium incarnatum L., crimson and Trifolium squarrosum L., squarrosum or burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. were compared in a field trial (split-plot design, 3 replicates in two locations (Cagliari and Foggia, Italy during the 2000-2001 growing season. The cutting treatments included a winter grazing simulation (G, a cutting only regime at early (EF or late flowering (F of legumes and a combination of treatments (GEF and GF. Plant density (no. m-2 prior to cutting, dry matter yield (g m-2 and botanical composition (% were evaluated. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable dry matter yields of mixtures among cutting treatments in both localities, with treatment F showing the higher values (787.1 and 415.7 g m-2 for Cagliari and Foggia, respectively. The forage species were able to compete and establish good growth during their initial phase in both localities. However, the botanical composition between the two sites differed considerably after the winter period. Particularly, at Foggia, grass dominance was a permanent feature of all treatments, and all the mixtures contained about 84% of grass. Italian ryegrass was the most representative species under all treatments in both sites. Mixtures with Italian ryegrass, crimson or berseem

  11. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  12. Assessing the Sustainability of the Built Environment in Mountainous Rural Villages in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous rural areas such as those in southwest China are developing rapidly. This requires scientific understanding and a framework for assessing the sustainability of the built environment that is suitable to such areas. At present, no such framework exists. This lack of assessment options has contributed to the unsustainable development of these areas, which has caused a series of environmental, social, and economic problems. This article analyzes existing assessment frameworks, reviews the theory on sustainable rural development as it applies to rural southwest China, and proposes a new assessment framework that is more suitable to this region and others like it. This framework is based on a sustainable development model for rural areas that emphasizes endogenous development; addresses the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability; and takes the natural and social conditions of mountainous rural areas into account. Our study tested its applicability to rural southwest China and its sensitivity to local conditions and found them to be better than those of existing assessment frameworks.

  13. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  14. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-07-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  15. 3D GPR in forensics: Finding a clandestine grave in a mountainous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Alexandre; Lorenzo, Henrique; Rial, Fernando I; Solla, Mercedes

    2011-01-30

    In the present work we show a forensic case study carried out in a mountainous environment. Main objective was to locate a clandestine grave which is around 10-20 years old and contains human remains of one individual and a metallic tool, probably a pick. Survey design started with an experimental burial of a pick at the expected depth (1m) as well as the calculation of synthetic radargrams in order to know if the 250MHz antenna was suitable for its detection and to have a record of the reflection of the pick. Conclusions extracted from the experiments together with rough terrain conditions suggested the use of the 250MHz antenna which allowed a good compromise between target detection and dense grid acquisition of an extensive survey area.

  16. Floristic and vegetation successional processes within landslides in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Carlos; Cardigos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Sérgio Cruz; Zêzere, José Luís

    2017-01-01

    Floristic and vegetation analysis in seven Mediterranean landslides led to the understanding of the successional processes occurring in different landslide disturbed sectors. Our study showed that in landslides that occurred between 1996 and 2010 there is a clear differentiation between the three main landslide sectors (scarp, main body and foot) concerning floristic composition, vegetation structure, floristic richness, successional processes and plant functional type. Additional differences were found between landslide areas and undisturbed agricultural areas adjacent to landslides. In this study 48 floristic relevés were made using a stratified random sampling design. The main landslide body exhibits the highest floristic richness whereas the landslide scarp has the lowest coverage rate and the highest presence of characteristic species from ruderal and strongly perturbed habitats. Finally, the landslide foot shows a late stage in the succession (maquis or pre-forest stage) with a high dominance of vines. We further discuss the importance of landslides as reservoirs of biodiversity especially for Mediterranean orchids.

  17. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Haraguchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models—GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI—for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model—RCM—for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO2 concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15

  18. An analysis of socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountain Villages in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey, with consideration of gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davran, Müge K; Ocak, Sezen; Secer, Arzu

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims to reveal socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountains' villages in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey: with consideration of gender roles. Goat production sector is the most important livelihood activity in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. According to various new regulations of the Ministry of Forestry, goat production in the mountainous villages of Taurus Mountains has been banned for recent year for various reasons such as; the destruction of shoots and branches in trees, forest degradation and erosion. Therefore, goat production is decreasing dramatically in that region. Data were collected in 4 districts of 8 villages in which goat production has been done intensively (two villages in each district) by face to face interview with 52 women and 58 men. Data were analyzed in Statistical Program of Social Science (SPSS). According to our findings, goat production has different affects on the lives of men and women and the sustainability of the sector is dependent on social factors, primarily education.

  19. Impact of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mitchell, P.I. [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, University College, Dublin (Ireland); Vidal-Quadras, A. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    As part of a study aiming to establish the distribution and bioavailability of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, radiocaesium levels were determined in large volume sea water samples and in the sea-grass Posidonia oceanica collected along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results obtained from 1987 to 1991 showed the enhancement of radiocaesium levels in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment after the Chernobyl accident. The well-known {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratio in Chernobyl fresh deposition was used to identify the weapon tests fall-out and Chernobyl deposition components. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs mean concentrations in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean shoreline were 4.8{+-}0.2 and 0.27{+-}0.01 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. {sup 137}Cs concentration incorporated into Mediterranean waters as a consequence of the post-Chernobyl deposition was estimated to be 1.16{+-}0.04 Bq m{sup -3}, which is a 33{+-}2% increase over the previous levels. {sup 137}Cs estimated inventory in the surface water layer (0-50 m) of the Catalan-Balearic basin was 17.4{+-}0.5 TBq for {sup 137}Cs, of which 4.3{+-}0.2 TBq must be attributed to post-Chernobyl deposition, and 1.00{+-}0.04 TBq for {sup 134}Cs. Activation and fission products such as {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 144}Ce, were detected in all samples of Posidonia oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels in the bioindicator were 1.02{+-}0.25 and 0.20{+-}0.03 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, respectively, corresponding to a mean isotopic ratio {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs equal to 0.20{+-}0.04 (1987). {sup 137}Cs activity incorporated by Posidonia oceanica after the Chernobyl deposition over the Mediterranean Sea was estimated as 0.51{+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1}. Therefore, {sup 137}Cs specific activity had increased 100{+-}40% one year after the accident. Low level radioactive liquid effluents from the nuclear power plants located on the southern Catalan

  20. Study on the Countermeasures of Eco-environment Conservation in the Mountainous Areas of Southern Ningxia under New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the implementation of principal functional zoning,further promotion of western development,regional migration,new countryside construction,global warming and so on,the spatial adjustment of regional industry and its structure must be enforced.The spatial adjustment and arrangement of population and economy in the mountainous areas of southern Ningxia could create tremendous opportunity for its eco-environment conservation.Based on analysis on the opportunity and challenge of eco-environment conservati...

  1. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency).

  2. Results from a multicentre international registry of familial Mediterranean fever: impact of environment on the expression of a monogenic disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Seza; Demirkaya, Erkan; Amaryan, Gayane; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Polat, Adem; Woo, Pat; Uziel, Yosef; Modesto, Consuelo; Finetti, Martina; Quartier, Pierre; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman M; Fabio, Giovanna; Gallizzi, Romina; Cantarini, Luca; Frenkel, Joost; Nielsen, Susan; Hofer, Michael; Insalaco, Antonella; Acikel, C; Ozdogan, Huri; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Gattorno, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations of the MEFV gene. We analyse the impact of ethnic, environmental and genetic factors on the severity of disease presentation in a large international registry. Demographic, genetic and clinical data from validated paediatric FMF patients enrolled in the Eurofever registry were analysed. Three subgroups were considered: (i) patients living in the eastern Mediterranean countries; (ii) patients with an eastern Mediterranean ancestry living in western Europe; (iii) Caucasian patients living in western European countries. A score for disease severity at presentation was elaborated. Since November 2009, 346 FMF paediatric patients were enrolled in the Eurofever registry. The genetic and demographic features (ethnicity, age of onset, age at diagnosis) were similar among eastern Mediterranean patients whether they lived in their countries or western European countries. European patients had a lower frequency of the high penetrance M694V mutation and a significant delay of diagnosis (pMediterranean countries had a higher frequency of fever episodes/year and more frequent arthritis, pericarditis, chest pain, abdominal pain and vomiting compared to the other two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables independently associated with severity of disease presentation were country of residence, presence of M694V mutation and positive family history. Eastern Mediterranean FMF patients have a milder disease phenotype once they migrate to Europe, reflecting the effect of environment on the expression of a monogenic disease.

  3. Naval Response to a Changed Security Environment: Maritime Security in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Slovenia, Spain, Serbia and Montenegro , Syria, Turkey, and Tunisia, plus the Gaza Strip Sea surface 965,000 sq. miles or 2,500,000 km2 Length (east–west...joint task force commander, Vice Admiral Roberto Cesaretti, 8 4 N A V A L W A R C O L L E G E R E V I E W T:\\Academic\\NWC Review\\NWC Review Summer 2007...noncombatant escorts had been conducted through the Strait of Gibraltar. Roberto Cesaretti, “Com- bating Terrorism in the Mediterranean,” NATO Review

  4. Mixed layer warming-deepening in the Mediterranean Sea and its effect on the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Irene; Boero, Ferdinando; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Zambianchi, Enrico; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at investigating the evolution of the ocean mixed layer in the Mediterranean Sea and linking it to the occurrence of mass mortalities of benthic invertebrates. The temporal evolution of selected parameters describing the mixed layer and the seasonal thermocline is provided for the whole Mediterranean Sea for spring, summer and autumn and for the period 1945-2011. For this analysis all temperature profiles collected in the basin with bottles, Mechanical Bathy-Thermographs (MBT), eXpendable Bathy-Thermographs (XBT), and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) have been used (166,990). These data have been extracted from three public sources: the MEDAR-MEDATLAS, the World Ocean Database 2013 and the MFS-VOS program. Five different methods for estimating the mixed layer depth are compared using temperature profiles collected at the DYFAMED station in the Ligurian Sea and one method, the so-called three-segment method, has been selected for a systematic analysis of the evolution of the uppermost part of the whole Mediterranean Sea. This method approximates the upper water column with three segments representing mixed layer, thermocline and deep layer and has shown to be the most suitable method for capturing the mixed layer depth for most shapes of temperature profiles. Mass mortalities events of benthic invertebrates have been identified by an extensive search of all data bases in ISI Web of Knowledge considering studies published from 1945 to 2011. Studies reporting the geographical coordinates, the timing of the events, the species involved and the depth at which signs of stress occurred have been considered. Results show a general increase of thickness and temperature of the mixed layer, deepening and cooling of the thermocline base in summer and autumn. Possible impacts of these changes are mass mortalities events of benthic invertebrates that have been documented since 1983 mainly in summer and autumn. It is also shown that most mass mortalities

  5. Post-fire environments are favourable for plant functioning of seeder and resprouter Mediterranean shrubs, even under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Antonio; Moreno, José M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how drought affects seeder and resprouter plants during post-fire regeneration is important for the anticipation of Mediterranean vegetation vulnerability in a context of increasing drought and fire caused by climate change. A Mediterranean shrubland was subjected to various drought treatments (including 45% rainfall reduction, 7 months drought yr(-1) ), before and after experimental burning, by means of a rainout-shelter system with an irrigation facility. Predawn shoot water potential (Ψpd ), relative growth rate (RGR), specific leaf area (SLA) and bulk leaf carbon isotopic composition (δ(13) C) were monitored in the main woody species during the first 3 yr after fire. Cistus ladanifer seedlings showed higher Ψpd , RGR and SLA, and lower δ(13) C, than unburned plants during the first two post-fire years. Seedlings under drought maintained relatively high Ψpd , but suffered a decrease in Ψpd and RGR, and an increase in δ(13) C, relative to control treatments. Erica arborea, E. scoparia and Phillyrea angustifolia resprouts had higher Ψpd and RGR than unburned plants during the first post-fire year. Resprouters were largely unaffected by drought. Overall, despite marked differences between the two functional groups, post-fire environments were favourable for plant functioning of both seeder and resprouter shrubs, even under the most severe drought conditions implemented. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Analysis of the environments of seven Mediterranean tropical-like storms using an axisymmetric, nonhydrostatic, cloud resolving model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical-like storms on the Mediterranean Sea are occasionally observed on satellite images, often with a clear eye surrounded by an axysimmetric cloud structure. These storms sometimes attain hurricane intensity and can severely affect coastal lands. A deep, cut-off, cold-core low is usually observed at mid-upper tropospheric levels in association with the development of these tropical-like systems. In this study we attempt to apply some tools previously used in studies of tropical hurricanes to characterise the environments in which seven known Mediterranean events developed. In particular, an axisymmetric, nonhydrostatic, cloud resolving model is applied to simulate the tropical-like storm genesis and evolution. Results are compared to surface observations when landfall occurred and with satellite microwave derived wind speed measurements over the sea. Finally, sensitivities of the numerical simulations to different factors (e.g. sea surface temperature, vertical humidity profile and size of the initial precursor of the storm are examined.

  7. Impacts of agricultural innovation and transformation of the mountainous hinterland in the Mediterranean: An example from Southern Spain (Costa Granadina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drescher, A. W.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1985 and 1989 and in 1994 an agroecologicaI research was carried out at the Mediterranean coast of Andalucía (Southern Spain. Comparison of aerial photos of 1950 and 1978, interviews with farmers and field work made clear that the landscape is subject to enormous changes. The innovation of agricultural practices cause manifold ecological consequences. Main results are: The traditional land use pattern was replaced by market oriented agricultural practices. The changes of the land use pattern occurred very quickly starting in the early eighty's, not reaching their peak up to now. Main feature of the development is the destruction of the landscape by ecologically non - adapted methods of terracing steep slopes, which were formerly protected by traditional terraces. Heterogeneous development of the higher Alpujarra and the coastal plains with respect to the emigration and immigration pattern is threatening the interaction between both areas, especially the water management. The coastal plains are entirely dependent on the water resources of the Sierra Nevada and upper Alpujarra. Dryland farming has been abandoned nearly completely.

    Una investigación agroecológica se llevó a cabo entre 1985 y 1989, y en 1994, en la costa mediterránea de Andalucía (Sur de España. La comparación de fotografías aéreas de 1950 y 1978, las entrevistas a agricultores y el trabajo de campo revelan que el paisaje ha sufrido grandes cambios. Las innovaciones en las prácticas agrícolas han tenido múltiples consecuencias ecológicas. Los principales resultados son: El uso tradicional de la tierra ha sido sustituido por prácticas agrícolas orientadas al mercado. Los cambios en las pautas de uso del suelo han sido muy rápidos, iniciándose a comienzos de la década de los ochenta y no alcanzando el máximo hasta hoy. El rasgo principal del desarrollo ha sido la destrucción del paisaje mediante métodos ecológicamente inapropiados de construcci

  8. Temporal dynamics of plant succession in abandoned field in Mediterranean mountain areas: farming terraces and sloping fields (Iberian System, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Cropland abandonment is an important problem in mountain areas worldwide. This process represents the change from an agricultural management to an abandoned land in which a complex plant succession process occurs, with important hydromorphological effects, and consequences in water resources availability and soil erosion. Literature indicates that plant succession depends on multiple natural factors (soil properties, topography, climate, lithology, and distance to natural covers…) and anthropogenic factors (age of abandonment, management of each field during the cultivation period and after the abandonment…). Despite the advances, much is unknown about the vegetation succession, due to the complexity of ecological and social conditions in which land abandonment occurs. Recently, it is shown that only local factors can explain the heterogeneity of the process (Burel and Baudry, 2002; Jouba and Alados, 2012). In this work, we analyze the diversity of vegetation cover in abandonment fields in Cameros Viejo (Iberian System, Spain), related to the different field patterns (terraces and sloping fields) and the age of abandonment. Agricultural lands were delimited using aerial photographs from 1956 and 1978. The current land cover was obtained from SIOSE (Information System of Land Occupation in Spain). According to our cartography, cultivated land occupied as much as 15,491 ha (39% of the area), remaining abandoned 14,505 ha by 1978. Farming terraces occupied 55.9% of the abandoned area, and 44.1% as sloping fields. On the other hand, our cartography highlights the complexity of current land cover of abandoned fields in a landscape matrix of scrubland. Our results suggest that ecological succession is faster in farming terraces than in sloping fields, mostly until scrubland phase is attained. They also suggest that current land cover is better explained by the physical conditions of each field than by the abandonment age. Acknowledgement This research was supported

  9. The Impact of Mining Activity upon the Aquatic Environment in the Southern Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIGISMUND DUMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Apuseni Mountains, mining activities have taken place since Antiquity, leaving their marks upon the natural environment, the aquatic one inclusively. If the traditional technologies had a low impact upon the aquatic environment, the ones in the modern period have affected it up to the “dead water” level. It is about the disorganization of the hydrographical basins and especially about aggressive pollution of surface waters with some of the most toxic chemical substances such as cyanides, as well as by an increase in the contents of metallic ions, chlorides, sulphides, sulphates, suspensions and fixed residuum. The decrease in pH, and implicitly the acidification of waters, is also remarkable. It must be mentioned that no systematic studies of the impact of mining activities upon the aquatic environment have been conducted in the area in the last years. In these conditions, the data about water quality have been taken over from the studies conducted by author between 1996 and 1998. The cause of the lack of concern in the field is no other but the cease in ore valorization activities in the majority of the mining objectives in the area. As none of the tailings settling ponds has guard canals, the direct pluvial waters and the ones drained from the slopes transport tailings with noxes which they subsequently discharge in the local pluvial network. In these conditions, both the quality of the mine waters which run freely into the emissary and of the ones that flow from the waste dumps remain mainly in the qualitative parameters analyzed and presented in the study.

  10. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  11. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-10

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  12. Depositional environments of Laborcita Formation (Wolfcampian), northern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fly, S.H. III

    1986-03-01

    Depositional environments that change dramatically over short lateral distances are represented by exposures of the Laborcita Formation. A siliclastic source area lay to the east and southeast, in the Pedernal Mountains. To the west, a shallow marine sea filled the orogrande basin. Alternating cycles of marine and nonmarine sedimentation resulted from fan-delta lobe shifting and eustatic sea level movements. In clear-water areas not affected by fan-deltaic sedimentation, deposits become increasingly calcareous. Various carbonate facies resulted from organisms adapting to changing environmental conditions. Mud-cracked algal mats, digitate algal stromatolites, and small phylloid red algal mounds and rhodoliths indicate deposition in shallow-water subtidal to supratidal settings. Large buildups (20 m thick) of phylloid green algae associated with abundant submarine cement occurred in a position near the edge of the narrow shelf. Widespread skeletal detritus beds overlie and extend hundreds of meters away from the massive buildups. Influx of terrigenous mud and silt in advance of a prograding fan-delta system terminated growth of the buildups. The next transgression is represented by a carbonate grainstone exhibiting characteristics of shallow-water marine, storm-dominated shelf bars. The shelf bars migrated in a northwest-southeast direction.

  13. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. II. Grain growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Araus, J.L.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas, grain growth of temperate cereals often progresses under the harmful influence of drought and high temperature. Genotypic responses are mediated by the specific occurrence of these constraints, thus causing genotype by environment (G × E) interaction. Field experiments were c

  14. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. I. Individual grain weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Sombrero, A.; Lafarga, A.; Igartua, E.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type environments, grain weight of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is influenced by the presence of terminal abiotic stresses such as drought or elevated temperature. The relative importance of these climatic constraints acting together prior to and after anthesis, as well as the specif

  15. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Ferrise, Roberto; Rodríguez, A

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of crops to climate change has to be addressed locally due to the variability of soil, climate and the specific socio-economic settings influencing farm management decisions. Adaptation of rainfed cropping systems in the Mediterranean is especially challenging due to the projected...... decline in precipitation in the coming decades, which will increase the risk of droughts. Methods that can help explore uncertainties in climate projections and crop modelling, such as impact response surfaces (IRSs) and ensemble modelling, can then be valuable for identifying effective adaptations. Here...... on the "According to Our Current Knowledge" (AOCK) concept, which has been formalized here. Adaptations were based on changes in cultivars and management regarding phenology, vernalization, sowing date and irrigation. The effects of adaptation options under changed precipitation (P), temperature (T), [CO2] and soil...

  16. Blending Pan-European and local hydrological models for water resource assessment in Mediterranean areas: lessons learnt from a mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Saénz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Pimentel, Rafael; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    Global hydrological models provide scientists and technicians with distributed data over medium to large areas from which assessment of water resource planning and use can be easily performed. However, scale conflicts between global models' spatial resolution and the local significant spatial scales in heterogeneous areas usually pose a constraint for the direct use and application of these models' results. The SWICCA (Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation) Platform developed under the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) offers a wide range of both climate and hydrological indicators obtained on a global scale with different time and spatial resolutions. Among the different study cases supporting the SWICCA demonstration of local impact assessment, the Sierra Nevada study case (South Spain) is a representative example of mountainous coastal catchments in the Mediterranean region. This work shows the lessons learnt during the study case development to derive local impact indicator tailored to suit the local end-users of water resource in this snow-dominated area. Different approaches were followed to select the most accurate method to downscale the global data and variables to the local level in a highly abrupt topography, in a sequential step approach. 1) SWICCA global climate variable downscaling followed by river flow simulation from a local hydrological model in selected control points in the catchment, together with 2) SWICCA global river flow values downscaling to the control points followed by corrections with local transfer functions were both tested against the available local river flow series of observations during the reference period. This test was performed for the different models and the available spatial resolutions included in the SWICCA platform. From the results, the second option, that is, the use of SWICCA river flow variables, performed the best approximations, once the local transfer functions were applied to the

  17. Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban-rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, G.; Vizzari, M.; Pollino, M.; Fichera, C. R.; Zoccali, P.; Di Fazio, S.

    2012-12-01

    The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning. In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a) to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) transformations and dynamics that occurred over the period 1955-2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy), an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b) to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c) to examine the relationship between urban-rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d) to investigate the evolution of urban-rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes. Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha) were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes. Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban-rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1) kernel density analysis of settlements; (2) analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method; (3) analysis of composition and

  18. Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban-rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Modica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning.

    In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC transformations and dynamics occurred over the period 1955–2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy, an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c to examine the relationship between urban-rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d to investigate the evolution of urban-rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes.

    Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes.

    Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban-rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1 kernel density analysis of settlements; (2 analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method

  19. A PCR based method to detect Russula spp. in soil samples and Limodorum abortivum roots in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Larriba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Orchidaceaehas the largest number of species of any family in the plant kingdom. This family is subject to a high risk of extinction in natural environments, such as natural parks and protected areas. Recent studies have shown the prevalence of many species of orchids to be linked to fungal soil diversity, due to their myco-heterotrophic behaviour. Plant communities determine fungal soil diversity, and both generate optimal conditions for orchid development. Area of study: The work was carried out in n the two most important natural parks in Alicante (Font Roja and Sierra Mariola, in South-eastern of Spain. Material and Methods: We designed a molecular tool to monitor the presence of Russula spp. in soil and orchids roots, combined with phytosociological methods. Main results: Using a PCR-based method, we detected the presence in the soil and Limodorum abortivum orchid roots of the mycorrhizal fungi Russula spp. The species with highest coverage was Quercus rotundifolia in areas where the orchid was present. Research highlights: We present a useful tool based on PCR to detect the presence of Russula spp. in a natural environment. These results are consistent with those obtained in different studies that linked the presence of the mycorrhizal fungi Russula spp. in roots of the species Limodorum and the interaction between these fungal species and Quercus ilex trees in Mediterranean forest environments.

  20. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  1. Analysis of soil water repellency under different eco-geomorphological conditions in Mediterranean environments (South of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Donaire, Virginia; Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose D.

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a soil property that reduces its water affinity. Although it has been frequently related to wildfires, different studies in recent decades have shown that repellent soils are not rare, and they are widely spread around the world under various climatic, soil and vegetation conditions, on burned and unburned soils. The research described here was carried out in two Mediterranean rangelands containing similar Mediterranean tree and shrub species but differing in soil conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of vegetal species, pH, soil organic matter (SOM), soil water content (SWC) and prescribed fire over SWR. In June 2011, two samples from the first 5 cm of soil, one up and one downslope from plants, were collected under the dominant species of the two study areas (Nerja -NE- and Almogía -AL-), in a north-facing hillslope . In NE the selected species were Pinus halepensis (Ph), Cistus clusii (Cc), Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro), Thymus vulgaris (Tv) and Stipa tenacissima (St). In addition samples were collected in bare soil (Bs, at least 1.5m far away from the nearest shrub), under burned shrubs (Bsc) and in burned bare soil (Bbs). A controlled fire was conducted in April 2011. In AL the selected species were Quercus suber (Qs), Cistus monspeliensis (Cm) and Cistus albidus (Ca). The results indicate: i) SWR is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean environments, in acid as well as in alkaline soils, but with a great variability in every study area depending on the vegetal species (Ro and Qs) were those more repellent to water; ii) OM seems to be a more influential factor over soil water repellency than acidity, which only was found a controlling factor for alkaline soils; iii climate and vegetation type, influencing SOM leading to hydrophobic conditions, are more key factors controlling SWR than bedrock characteristics; iv) SWC threshold for water repellency to be disappeared were not clearly stated independently of

  2. Lithology rules badland distribution and typology in a montane Mediterranean environment (upper Llobregat basin, Catalan Pre-Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Badlands (i.e. highly dissected areas carved in soft bedrock with little or no vegetation) are pervasive in a wide range of environmental conditions across the Mediterranean region, including semiarid, sub-humid and humid environments, and represent hotspots of erosion and sediment production at the regional scale. On montane (cold sub-humid and humid) Mediterranean landscapes, harsh thermal conditions on north-facing slopes favors intense bedrock weathering and impose serious constraints for plant colonization, which has generally been argued to explain preferential distribution of badlands on shady aspects. We study the distribution and typology of badlands in the upper Llobregat basin (500 km2, 700-2400 m.a.s.l. elevation, 700-900 mm annual rainfall, 8-11°C mean temp.). We mapped regional badlands by manually digitizing affected areas on recent (2012) high resolution (50 cm pixel) ortophotos. Badlands extend over about 200 ha in the upper Llobregat basin and are developed on Paleocene continental lutites (Garumnian Facies, Tremp Formation) and Eocene marine marls (Sagnari, Armancies and Vallfogona Formations). While badlands on Eocene marls showed a preferential distribution on north-facing shady slopes, badland occurrence on the highly unstable smectite-rich Garumnian lutites did not reveal clear aspect trends. In addition, elevation, which broadly controls winter temperatures in the region, did not show a clear influence on badland distribution. A principal component analysis was applied to study badland type using general geomorphological and vegetation metrics (i.e. badland size, slope, aspect, elevation gradient, connection to the regional drainage network, vegetation greenness) derived from a high resolution digital elevation model (5 m pixel) and pan-sharpened Landsat 8 MSAVI imagery (15 m pixel). Lithology was found to largely impact badland type, with Garumnian lutite badlands showing lower slope gradients (20°-30° average slope) than badlands on

  3. Invasive symbiont bearing (and other) foraminifera altering the community structure of eastern Mediterranean rocky reefs environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Perelis Grossowicz, Lydia; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2015-04-01

    The rocky reefs of the Israeli eastern Mediterranean shelf constitute a highly diverse marine ecosystem rich in macroalgae and calcareous organisms. The benthic foraminiferal community living in this ecosystem is rapidly changing due to massive invasion of symbiont bearing foraminifera (SBF) as well as other foraminiferal species of tropical origin. This trend facilitated by the ongoing increase in temperature enables more tropical species to adjust to the eastern Mediterranean habitats. In order to document the status of the benthic foraminiferal community structure rocky reefs at Akhziv (AK) and Carmel Head (CH), northern Israel were sampled by scuba diving. Different macroalgae species, including invasive ones, accommodating the live epiphytic benthic foraminifera were sampled twice a year at AK and in each season at CH in three depth intervals between 5-20 m, during 2013-4. The numerical abundance of the group ranges between 170-3500 #/10cc (wet macroalgae volume) without any significant difference in standing stocks within regions, water depths or macroalgae preference. In total 77 benthic foraminiferal species were identified 71 in CH and only 43 at AK. Species richness per site varied between 3 and 42 with higher values at CH. 25% of all species were aliens, mostly Lessepsian, that comprise on average 70% - 84% of the numerical abundance of AK and CH respectively. Cluster analysis using benthic foraminifera relative abundance data did not correlate with the different macroalgae species, water depths or seasonality, indicating that the foraminiferal community in the two regions is quite homogenous. Amphistegina lobifera a Lessepsian migrant is by far the most common species on the Israeli rocky reefs occurring in all samples and comprising 18-93% of the foraminiferal community. Heterostegina depressa behaves similarly to A. lobifera though it occurs in lower numbers. Pararotalia calcariformata, a recently arriving SBF occupies mainly shallow water sites at CH

  4. Implications of climate change for evaporation from bare soils in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet; Yano, Tomohisa; Evrendilek, Fatih; Uygur, Veli

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict quantitative changes in evaporation from bare soils in the Mediterranean climate region of Turkey in response to the projections of a regional climate model developed in Japan (hereafter RCM). Daily RCM data for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETr) and soil evaporation were obtained for the periods of 1994--2003 and 2070--2079. Potential evaporation (Ep) from bare soils was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation with a surface resistance of zero. Simulation of actual soil evaporation (Ea) was carried out using Aydin model (Aydin et al., Ecological Modelling 182:91-105, 2005) combined with Aydin and Uygur (2006, A model for estimating soil water potential of bare fields. In Proceedings of the 18th International Soil Meeting (ISM) on Soils Sustaining Life on Earth, Managing Soil and Technology, Sanliurfa, 477-480pp.) model of predicting soil water potential at the top surface layer of a bare soil, after performances of Aydin model (R2 = 94.0%) and Aydin and Uygur model (R2 = 97.6) were tested. The latter model is based on the relations among potential soil evaporation, hydraulic diffusivity, and soil wetness, with some simplified assumptions. Input parameters of the model are simple and easily obtainable such as climatic parameters used to compute the potential soil evaporation, average diffusivity for the drying soil, and volumetric water content at field capacity. The combination of Aydin and Aydin and Uygur models appeared to be useful in estimating water potential of soils and Ea from bare soils, with only a few parameters. Unlike ETr and Ep projected to increase by 92 and 69 mm (equivalent to 8.0 and 7.3% increases) due to the elevated evaporative demand of the atmosphere, respectively, Ea from bare soils is projected to reduce by 50 mm (equivalent to a 16.5% decrease) in response to a decrease in rainfall by 46% in the Mediterranean region of Turkey by the 2070s predicted by RCM, and consequently

  5. Sorghum Biomass Production for Energy Purpose Using Treated Urban Wastewater and Different Fertilization in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim at enhancing the sustainability of biomass production in the Mediterranean area, this paper analyzes, for the first time, the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench biomass for bioenergy production using urban treated wastewaters and bio-fertilization. For this purpose, the effects on biomass production of three different fertilizations (no-nitrogen control, biofertilizer, and mineral ammonium nitrate, four levels of constructed wetland (CW wastewater restitutions (0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc and three harvesting dates (at full plant maturity, at the initial senescence stage, and at the post-senescence stage were evaluated in a two year trial. For bio-fertilization, a commercial product based on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was used. Mineral nitrogen (N fertilization significantly increased dry biomass (+22.8% in the first year and +16.8% in the second year compared to the control (95.9 and 188.2 g·plant−1, respectively. The lowest and highest biomass production, in 2008 and 2009, was found at 0% (67.1 and 118.2 g·plant−1 and 100% (139.2 and 297.4 g·plant−1 ETc restitutions. In both years, the first harvest gave the highest biomass yield (124.3 g·plant−1 in the first year and 321.3 g·plant−1 in the second, followed by the second and the third one. The results showed that in Mediterranean areas, constructed wetlands treated wastewaters, when complying with the European restrictions for their use in agriculture, may represent an important tool to enhance and stabilize the biomass of energy crops by recycling scarce quality water and nutrients otherwise lost in the environment.

  6. Airborne Laser Scanning of Forest Stem Volume in a Mountainous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Schadauer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Airborne laser scanning (ALS is an active remote sensing technique that uses the time-of-flight measurement principle to capture the three-dimensional structure of the earth’s surface with pulsed lasers that transmit nanosecond-long laser pulses with a high pulse repetition frequency. Over forested areas most of the laser pulses are reflected by the leaves and branches of the trees, but a certain fraction of the laser pulses reaches the forest floor through small gaps in the canopy. Thus it is possible to reconstruct both the three-dimensional structure of the forest canopy and the terrain surface. For the retrieval of quantitative forest parameters such as stem volume or biomass it is necessary to use models that combine ALS with inventory data. One approach is to use multiplicative regression models that are trained with local inventory data. This method has been widely applied over boreal forest regions, but so far little experience exists with applying this method for mapping alpine forest. In this study the transferability of this approach to a 128 km2 large mountainous region in Vorarlberg, Austria, was evaluated. For the calibration of the model, inventory data as operationally collected by Austrian foresters were used. Despite these inventory data are based on variable sample plot sizes, they could be used for mapping stem volume for the entire alpine study area. The coefficient of determination R2 was 0.85 and the root mean square error (RMSE 90.9 m3ha-1 (relative error of 21.4% which is comparable to results of ALS studies conducted over topographically less complex environments. Due to the increasing availability, ALS data could become an operational part of Austrian’s forest inventories.

  7. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chlorinated pesticides in the bodies of dolphins of the French Mediterranean coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Wafo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorinated pesticides including lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor-epoxide, endosulfan I, dieldrin,and endrin were determinated in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 26, and 2 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates (n = 2,stranded on the French Mediterranean coasts. Studies are carried out on the lung, the muscle, the kidney, the liver, and the blubber. The concentrationsof all the analysed compounds were detected to variable levels in each tissue and organ. In blubber, dieldrin is generally the mostabundant coumpound (215.3 ± 290.3 ng g-1 lw, followed by endrin (207.7 ± 217.5 ng g-1 lw, heptachlor-epoxid (106.6 ± 107.1 ng g-1 lw, endosulfanI (46.6 ± 32.8 ng g-1 lw, lindane (16.6 ± 12.1 ng g-1 lw, aldrin (11.9 ± 8.4 ng g-1 lw and heptachlor (6.7 ± 4.2 ng g-1 lw. These valuesare comparable to those previously obtained by other authors during the years 1990.

  9. Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

  10. Temporally variable environments maintain more beta-diversity in Mediterranean landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Beatriz; Ferrer, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    We examined the relationships between different environmental factors and the alpha and beta-diversity of terrestrial vertebrates (birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles) in a Mediterranean region at the landscape level. We investigated whether the mechanisms underlying alpha and beta-diversity patterns are influenced by energy availability, habitat heterogeneity and temporal variability and if the drivers of the diversity patterns differed between both components of diversity. We defined alpha-diversity as synonym of species richness whereas beta-diversity was measured as distinctiveness. We evaluated a total of 13 different predictors using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) analysis. Habitat spatial heterogeneity increased alpha-diversity, but contrastingly, it did not significantly affect beta-diversity among sites. Disturbed landscapes may show higher habitat spatial variation and higher alpha-diversity due to the contribution of highly generalist species that are wide-distributed and do not differ in composition (beta-diversity) among different sites within the region. Contrastingly, higher beta-diversity levels were negatively related to more stable sites in terms of temporal environmental variation. This negative relationship between environmental stability and beta-diversity levels is explained in terms of species adaptation to the local environmental conditions. Our study highlights the importance of temporal environmental variability in maintaining beta-diversity patterns under highly variable environmental conditions.

  11. Forest Fire Severity Assessment Using ALS Data in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luis Montealegre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean pine forests in Spain experience wildland fire events with different frequencies, intensities, and severities which result in diverse socio-ecological consequences. In order to predict fire severity, spectral indices derived from remotely sensed images have been used extensively. Such spectral indices are usually used in combination with ground sampling to relate detected radiometric changes to actual fire effects. However, the potential of the tridimensional information captured by Airborne Laser Scanners (ALS to severity mapping has been less explored. With the objective of addressing this question, in this paper, explanatory variables extracted from ALS point clouds are related to field estimations of the Composite Burn Index collected in four fires located in Aragón (Spain. Logistic regression models were developed and statistically tested and validated to map fire severity with up to 85.5% accuracy. The canopy relief ratio and the percentage of all returns above one meter height were the most significant variables and were therefore used to create a continuous map of severity levels.

  12. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  13. Quartz grain surface analysis for paleoenvironmental reconstruction in Western Iberia mountain environments (Serra da Estrela, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Woronko, Barbara; Schaefer, Carlos; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the genesis and paleoenvironmental significance of relict slope deposits in Serra da Estrela, Central Portugal and is part of a wider sedimentological and dating approach. The aim is to identify what microstructures indicate frost weathering, witch mechanisms are responsible for their development and the effectiveness of frost weathering across an altitudinal profile. Our goals are to contribute to the better understanding of the morphogenetical significance of the different types of slope deposits, clarifying the role of cold environment processes and develop a chronological framework for the Late Quaternary evolution of the slope environment of the mountains of Western Iberia. Quartz grains, 0.5 mm in diameter, were collected from samples from stratified, head and debris-flow deposits. Cailleux (1942) analysis, with modifications from Gozdzik (1980), was performed allowing assessing frosting and rounding, as well as the effects of later frost weathering in vertical profiles from slope deposits. Grains were also analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) following Mahaney (2002). The effects of frost weathering comprise several microstructures such as breakage blocks, conchoidal fractures and fresh surfaces. Breakage blocks microstructures are the most common. Two types of frost weathering were distinguished: weathering of the P type is mainly initiated on convex fragments of grains as the result of ice segregation, and F type is linked to the volumetric expansion of ice and usually observed within concave linear microstructures. The frost action index (FAI) was estimated from the rate of microstructures from frost weathering. FAI varies between 0 and 3. The values of the sediments from the slope deposits vary between 1.2 and 2.05. This approach was for the first time applied on slope deposits from Serra da Estrela. There is a clear correlation between deposits in weathering type. Samples that display intensive physical weathering in

  14. Occurrence of soil erosion after repeated experimental fires in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J.; Andreu, V.; Gimeno-García, E.; González, O.; Rubio, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    In the Mediterranean area, forest fires have become a first-order environmental problem. Increased fire frequency progressively reduces ecosystem recovery periods. The fire season, usually followed by torrential rains in autumn, intensifies erosion processes and increases desertification risk. In this work, the effect of repeated experimental fires on soil response to water erosion is studied in the Permanent Field Station of La Concordia, Valencia, Spain. In nine 80 m 2 plots (20 m long × 4 m wide), all runoff and sediment produced were measured after each rainfall event. In 1995, two fire treatments with the addition of different biomass amounts were applied. Three plots were burned with high fire intensity, three with moderate intensity, and three were unburned to be used as control. In 2003, the plots with the fire treatments were burned again with low fire intensities. During the 8-year interval between fires, plots remained undisturbed, allowing regeneration of the vegetation-soil system. Results obtained during the first 5 months after both fire experiments show the high vulnerability of the soil to erosion after a repeated fire. For the burned plots, runoff rates increased three times more than those of 1995, and soil losses increased almost twice. The highest sediment yield (514 g m - 2 ) was measured in 2003, in the plots of the moderate fire intensity treatment, which yielded only 231 g m - 2 of sediment during the corresponding period in 1995. Runoff yield from the control plots did not show significant temporal changes, while soil losses decreased from 5 g m - 2 in the first post-fire period to 0.7 g m - 2 in the second one.

  15. A Review of Soil Erosion Models with Special Reference to the needs of Humid Tropical Mountainous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Avwunudiogba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Humid tropical mountainous environments (HTMEs are generally considered sensitive ecological regions because anthropogenic disturbance often accelerate hillslope processes such as runoff, erosion, and sediment flux. Reducing accelerated erosion is necessary for the maintenance of the integrity, stability and sustainability of HTMEs. Soil erosion models (SOMs are potential tools for predicting soil erosion, sediment flux, and thedesign and assessment of effectiveness of conservation management practices in HTMEs. Within this context, this study provides a critical review of the available SOMs with afocus on their applicability in HTMEs. The review indicates that because most SOMs have been developed for “flat agricultural lands” in temperate regions, to be useful inconservation planning in HTMEs models should be calibrated for local conditions. For humid tropical mountainous regions, lumped parameter models (LPMs linked toGeographical Information Systems (GIS are more practicable for conservation planning than sophisticated distributed parameter models (DPMs. This is due to the less stringent data requirements and ease to which land managers can implement LPMs, an essential consideration within the physical and socioeconomic context of HTMEs.Keywords:Soil erosion models; Humid tropics, Mountainous environments; Conservation planning

  16. Formation of minor moraines in high-mountain environments independent of a primary climatic driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Closely-spaced minor moraines allow observations of moraine formation and ice-marginal fluctuations on short timescales, helping to better understand glacier retreat and predict its geomorphological effects (e.g. Sharp, 1984; Boulton, 1986; Bradwell, 2004; Lukas, 2012). Some minor moraines can be classified as annual moraines given sufficient chronological control, which implies a seasonal climatic driver of minor ice-front fluctuations. This leads to annual moraines being utilised as very specific and short-term records of glacier fluctuations and climate change. However, such research is sparse in high-mountain settings (Hewitt, 1967; Ono, 1985; Beedle et al., 2009; Lukas, 2012). This study presents the detailed sedimentological results of minor moraines at two high-mountain settings in the Alps. Minor moraines at Schwarzensteinkees, Austria, formed as push moraines in two groups, separated by a flat area and sloping zone with scattered boulders and flutings. The existence of a former proglacial lake, evident from ground-penetrating radar surveys and geomorphological relationships, appears to have exerted the primary control on minor moraine formation. Minor moraines at Silvrettagletscher, Switzerland, exist primarily on reverse bedrock slopes. The presence of these bedrock slopes, and in some areas medial moraines emerging beyond the ice front, appear to exert the primary controls on minor moraine formation. These findings show that climate may only play a small role in minor moraine formation at these study sites, echoing similar findings from another glacier in the Alps (Lukas, 2012). These two glaciers and valleys are differentiated primarily by geometry, sedimentation, and mechanisms of minor moraine formation. Despite these crucial differences, valley geometry and pre-existing geomorphology play a large, if not dominant, role in minor moraine formation and are at odds with a primarily-climatic control of minor moraine formation in lowland settings. This

  17. Effects of Soil Erosion on Ecohydrology of Constructed Slopes From Opencast Coal Mining in a Mediterranean-Continental Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M.; Nicolau, J.; Espigares, T.; Merino, L.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous works have revealed strong links between hydrological processes, soil moisture, and the structure and function of biological communities. Nevertheless, the influence of soil erosion on soil-water-plant interactions has been poorly documented, particularly on constructed slopes, wherein soil erosion has a key role for restoration success. The main objective of this work is to investigate the eco-hydrological implications of soil erosion on constructed slopes from the opencast coal mining in a Mediterranean-Continental environment: the Teruel coalfield (Spain). Water deficit is the main limiting factor for revegetation success in Mediterranean-Continental environments. Soil moisture in these artificial systems is controlled by feedback mechanisms between soil erosion and vegetation. Our hypothesis states that a major effect of soil erosion on plant communities deals with the increase of the climatic water deficit. Thus, the mechanisms involved are as follows: the crust formation, the reduction of soil superficial roughness and the efficient overland flow evacuation by means of rill network. The final result is a net reduction of water availability for plants through the increase of run-off and the decrease of infiltration and re- infiltration processes at slope scale. Moreover, the lack of vegetation development leads to increase run-off and soil erosion. This work has been carried out in five constructed slopes which were reclaimed with similar treatments and substrata, but differ in vegetation cover and erosion (from 0 up to 120 t/ha/year). These differences are mainly triggered by different amounts of run-on coming from external sources as mining tracks and banks. During 2005- 06 hydrological year, we monitored run-off and sediment yield as well as soil moisture and vegetation traits (cover, biomass, water potential) on these slopes. Our results reinforce the general hypothesis. In this way, on the least eroded slopes, biological control of hydrological

  18. Sustainable Land Management's potential for climate change adaptation in Mediterranean environments: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Joris P. C.; de Vente, Joris

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has strong implications for many essential ecosystem services, such as provision of drinking and irrigation water, soil erosion and flood control. Especially large impacts are expected in the Mediterranean, already characterised by frequent floods and droughts. The projected higher frequency of extreme weather events under climate change will lead to an increase of plant water stress, reservoir inflow and sediment yield. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices are increasingly promoted as climate change adaptation strategy and to increase resilience against extreme events. However, there is surprisingly little known about their impacts and trade-offs on ecosystem services at regional scales. The aim of this research is to provide insight in the potential of SLM for climate change adaptation, focusing on catchment-scale impacts on soil and water resources. We applied a spatially distributed hydrological model (SPHY), coupled with an erosion model (MUSLE) to the Segura River catchment (15,978 km2) in SE Spain. We run the model for three periods: one reference (1981-2000) and two future scenarios (2031-2050 and 2081-2100). Climate input data for the future scenarios were based on output from 9 Regional Climate Models and for different emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Realistic scenarios of SLM practices were developed based on a local stakeholder consultation process. The evaluated SLM scenarios focussed on reduced tillage and organic amendments under tree and cereal crops, covering 24% and 15% of the catchment, respectively. In the reference scenario, implementation of SLM at the field-scale led to an increase of the infiltration capacity of the soil and a reduction of surface runoff up to 29%, eventually reducing catchment-scale reservoir inflow by 6%. This led to a reduction of field-scale sediment yield of more than 50% and a reduced catchment-scale sediment flux to reservoirs of 5%. SLM was able to fully mitigate the effect of climate

  19. Irrigation treatments, water use efficiency and crop sustainability in cereal-forage rotations in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems based on crop rotation are beneficial to crop sustainability and productivity. Wheat-forage rotations combined with irrigation are the agronomic techniques best able to exploit Mediterranean environmental conditions. This paper describes a long-term field trial to ascertain the effect of combined irrigation and durum wheat-forage rotations on crop yield and soil chemical properties. The two forage crops: annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and perennial lucerne were carried out through 1991-2008 under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The experiments were used to highlight the effect of irrigation and wheat-forage crop rotations on water use efficiency (WUE and sustainability of organic matter (OM in topsoil. Irrigation increased the dry matter (DM of annual binary mixture and lucerne by 49.1% and 66.9%, respectively. Continuous wheat rotation reduced seed yield (SY, stability of production, and crude protein (CP characteristics of kernel and OM in topsoil. The yearly gain in wheat after forage crops was 0.04 t (ha yr-1 under rainfed and 0.07 t (ha yr-1 under irrigation treatments. The CP and soil OM of wheat forage crops rotations, compared with those of continuous wheat under rainfed and irrigated was a 0.8 and 0.5 % increase in CP and 5.1 and 4.4 in OM, respectively. The rotations of annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and lucerne meadow under both irrigated treatments increased the OM over continuous wheat (9.3 % and 8.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and 12.5 and 9.5 lucerne meadow under rainfed and irrigation, respectively. Irrigation reduced the impact of weather on crop growing, reducing water use efficiency (mean over rotations for DM production (15.5 in meadow and 17.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture [L water (kg DM-1] and wheat SY. However, the agronomic benefits achieved by forage crops in topsoil are exhausted after three years of continuous wheat rotation.

  20. Characterisation of acid mine drainage in a high rainfall mountain environment, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Hugh; Weber, Paul; Lindsay, Phil; Craw, Dave; Pope, James

    2011-07-01

    The Stockton coal mine lies at 700-1100 m above sea level in a mountainous orographic precipitation zone on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand. Rainfall exceeds 6000 mm/year and arrives with frequent flood events that can deliver > 200 mm/day. Streams vary in discharges by up to two orders of magnitude over a time scale of hours. Pyritic waste rock at the mine interacts chemically with even the most intense rainfall, and almost all runoff is acidic to some degree. In the most intense rain event recorded in this study (> 10 mm/hour), dilution of acid mine drainage (AMD) occurred and pH rose from 3 to >5 over several hours, with stream discharge at a monitoring point rising from 100 cumecs. However, most rain events of similar magnitude are less intense, longer duration, and only raise AMD pH to ~4 with similar high discharges. Results presented here for Stockton confirm that it is the intensity of rain events on the hourly scale, rather than the total amount of rainwater delivered to the site, that governs the amount and composition of AMD generated during flood events. Stream discharge loads of dissolved iron and aluminium range from ~20 to 1000 kg/hour. Dissolved sulfate and acidity loads are typically ~500 kg/hour but can exceed 20 tonnes/hour in rain events. First flush effects observable elsewhere around the world involving peak metal loads following dry periods or seasonal changes are not obvious at Stockton due to the high and variable rainfall environment. Dissolved Fe concentrations may be limited in runoff waters by precipitation of jarosite and schwertmannite, especially when rainfall is sufficiently intense to raise pH to 4 or higher. These minerals are widespread in the exposed waste rock on site. Likewise, precipitation of alunite may occur as pH rises in rain events, but no field evidence for this has been observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. UAV based 3D digital surface model to estimate paleolandscape in high mountainous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, János; Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs; Deák, Márton; Nagy, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Our method to present current state of a peat bog was focused on the possible use of a UAV-system and later Structure-from-motion algorithms as processing technique. The peat bog site is located on the Vinderel Plateau, Farcǎu Massif, Maramures Mountains (Romania). The peat bog (1530 m a.s.l., N47°54'11", E24°26'37") lies below Rugasu ridge (c. 1820 m a.s.l.) and the locality serves as a conservation area for fallen down coniferous trees. Peat deposits were formed in a landslide concavity on the western slope of Farcǎu Massif. Nowadays the site is surrounded by a completely deforested landscape, and Farcǎu Massif lies above the depressed treeline. The peat bog has an extraordinary geomorphological situation, because a gully reached the bog and drained the water. In the recent past sedimentological and dendrochronological researches have been initiated. However, an accurate 3D digital surface model also needed for a complex paleoenvironmental research. Last autumn the bog and its surroundings were finally surveyed by a multirotor UAV developed in-house based on an open-source flight management unit and its firmware. During this survey a lightweight action camera (mainly to decrease payload weight) was used to take aerial photographs. While our quadcopter is capable to fly automatically on a predefined flight route, several over- and sidelapping flight lines were generated prior to the actual survey on the ground using a control software running on a notebook. Despite those precautions, limited number of batteries and severe weather affected our final flights, resulting a reduced surveyed area around peat bog. Later, during the processing we looked for a reliable tool which powerful enough to process more than 500 photos taken during flights. After testing several software Agisoft PhotoScan was used to create 3D point cloud and mesh about bog and its environment. Due to large number of photographs PhotoScan had to be configured for network processing to get

  2. Analysing the role of abandoned agricultural terraces on flood generation in a set of small Mediterranean mountain research catchments (Vallcebre, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The Vallcebre research catchments are located in NE Spain, in a middle mountain area with a Mediterranean sub-humid climate. Most of the bedrock consists of continental red lutites that are easily weathered into loamy soils. This area was intensely used for agriculture in the past when most of the sunny gentle hillslopes were terraced. The land was progressively abandoned since the mid-20th Century and most of the fields were converted to meadows or were spontaneously forested. Early studies carried out in the terraced Cal Parisa catchment demonstrated the occurrence of two types of frequently saturated areas, ones situated in downslope locations with high topographic index values, and the others located in the inner parts of many terraces, where the shallow water table usually outcrops due to the topographical modifications linked to terrace construction. Both the increased extent of saturated areas and the role of a man-made elementary drainage system designed for depleting water from the terraces suggested that terraced areas would induce an enhanced hydrological response during rainfall events when compared with non-terraced hillslopes. The response of 3 sub-catchments, of increasing area and decreasing percentage of terraced area, during a set of major events collected during over 15 years has been analysed. The results show that storm runoff depths were roughly proportional to precipitations above 30 mm although the smallest catchment (Cal Parisa), with the highest percentage of terraces, was able to completely buffer rainfall events of 60 mm in one hour without any runoff when antecedent conditions were dry. Runoff coefficients depended on antecedent conditions and peak discharges were weakly linked to rainfall intensities. Peak lag times, peak runoff rates and recession coefficients were similar in the 3 catchments; the first variable values were in the range between Hortonian and saturation overland flow and the two last ones were in the range of

  3. Climate change impacts on wheat production in a Mediterranean environment in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Asseng, S.

    2006-01-01

    The environment in which crops will be grown in the future will change. CO2 concentrations [CO2] and temperatures (T) will probably increase and a decline of winter rainfall is predicted for south-west Australia. To be able to adapt crop systems to a changing climate it is important to know how diff

  4. Physiological Traits Associated with Wheat Yield Potential and Performance under Water-Stress in a Mediterranean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Alejandro; Yáñez, Alejandra; Matus, Iván A.; Tapia, Gerardo; Castillo, Dalma; Sanchez-Jardón, Laura; Araus, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Different physiological traits have been proposed as key traits associated with yield potential as well as performance under water stress. The aim of this paper is to examine the genotypic variability of leaf chlorophyll, stem water-soluble carbohydrate content and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), and their relationship with grain yield (GY) and other agronomical traits, under contrasting water conditions in a Mediterranean environment. The study was performed on a large collection of 384 wheat genotypes grown under water stress (WS, rainfed), mild water stress (MWS, deficit irrigation), and full irrigation (FI). The average GY of two growing seasons was 2.4, 4.8, and 8.9 Mg ha−1 under WS, MWS, and FI, respectively. Chlorophyll content at anthesis was positively correlated with GY (except under FI in 2011) and the agronomical components kernels per spike (KS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW). The WSC content at anthesis (WSCCa) was negatively correlated with spikes per square meter (SM2), but positively correlated with KS and TKW under WS and FI conditions. As a consequence, the relationships between WSCCa with GY were low or not significant. Therefore, selecting for high stem WSC would not necessary lead to genotypes of GY potential. The relationship between Δ13C and GY was positive under FI and MWS but negative under severe WS (in 2011), indicating higher water use under yield potential and MWS conditions. PMID:27458470

  5. Water harvesting for improved water productivity in dry environments of the Mediterranean region case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, A.; Kuzucu, M.; Çelik, I.

    2014-01-01

    (negarim) under a typical arid environment in Turkey as a case study. In the negarim case study, we analysed rainfall, runoff, catchment area, soil water storage and crop evapotranspiration. The microcatchment area (36 m2) included five surface treatment methods (natural, plastic cover, stone cover, hay......Low rainfall, water scarcity and land degradation severely intimidate the production capacities of the rangelands in the arid environments. Water harvesting focuses on improving the productive use of rainwater on the local scale (field to subcatchment scale) before the runoff water leaves...... the geographical unit in question. The aim is to mitigate the effects of temporal water shortages to cover both domestic and agricultural needs. This paper provides a review on water harvesting techniques focusing on microcatchment methods, and information on performance of a small-basin water harvesting system...

  6. Early Cretaceous Shallow-Water Platform Carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains, Central Taurides - South Turkey: Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Cemile; Taslı, Kemal; Koç, Hayati

    2016-10-01

    The study area comprises southern non-metamorphic part of the Bolkar Mountains which are situated in southern Turkey, eastern part of the Central Taurides. The studied five outcrops form geologically parts of the tectonostratigraphic units called as allochthonous Aladag Unit and autochthonous Geyikdagi Unit. The aim of this study is to describe microfacies and depositional environments of the Bolkar Mountains Early Cretaceous shallow- water platform carbonates. The Lower Cretaceous is represented by continuous thick- bedded to massive dolomite sequence ranging from 100 to 150 meters thick, which only contains locally laminated limestone intercalations in the Yüğlük section and thick to very thick-bedded uniform limestones ranging from approximately 50 to 120 meters, consist of mainly laminated- fenestral mudstone, peloidal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, bioclastic packstone- wackestone, benthic foraminiferal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, ostracod-fenestral wackestone-mudstone, dasycladacean algal packstone-wackestone and ooidal grainstone microfacies. Based on a combination sedimantological data, facies/microfacies and micropaleontological (predominantly dasycladacean algae and diverse benthic foraminifera) analysis, it is concluded that Early Cretaceous platform carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains reflect a tidally affected tidal-flat and restricted lagoon settings. During the Berriasian- Valanginian unfavourable facies for benthic foraminifera and dolomitization were predominate. In the Hauterivian-early Aptian, the effect of dolomitization largely disappeared and inner platform conditions still prevailed showing alternations of peritidal and lagoon facies, going from peritidal plains (representing various sub-environments including supratidal, intertidal area, tidal-intertidal ponds and ooid bars) dominated by ostracod and miliolids, to dasycladacean algae-rich restricted lagoons-subtidal. These environments show a transition in the vertical and

  7. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Lovelli; Nicola Moretti; Teodoro Di Tommaso; Luigi Todaro; Antonio Sergio De Franchi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality) of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) have been...

  8. Rain, Rain, Go Away, Come Again Another Day. Weather Preferences of Summer Tourists in Mountain Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Steiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate are important factors for travel decision-making and overall tourist satisfaction. As central motivators for destination choice, they directly and indirectly influence demand patterns and can be a resource and limitation for tourism at the same time. In this paper, results of an in-situ survey of mountain summer tourists (n = 733 in the Alps in Southern Germany are presented. Respondents rated ‘rain’ as the most important aspect of weather during their holiday. During a 7-day holiday, 2.1 days of continuous rain are accepted, and 3.1 days of days with thunderstorms. The ideal temperature range is between 21 and 25 °C, thus lying 4–7 degrees lower than for beach tourism. Temperatures below 15 °C and above 30 °C are perceived as unacceptable. Statistically significant differences were found for several tourist types: Older tourists are more sensitive to heat, tourists with sports activities are more tolerant to cool temperatures, first-time visitors are more sensitive to rain and families with children prefer higher temperatures. From the results, some implications for mountain destinations arise: mountain destinations could be promoted as a heat refuge, and attracting sports tourists might be a promising way to reduce weather sensitivity; however, some variety of well-promoted weather independent attractions seems to be mandatory.

  9. Reliability of on-site greywater treatment systems in Mediterranean and arid environments - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfiya, Y; Gross, A; Sklarz, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-01

    On-site greywater (GW) treatment and reuse is gaining popularity. However, a main point of concern is that inadequate treatment of such water may lead to negative environmental and health effects. Maintenance of single-family home GW systems is usually performed by home owners with limited professional support. Therefore, unless GW systems are reliable, environmental and public health might be compromised. This study is aimed at investigating the reliability of on-site recirculated vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) in 20 single-family homes. In order to ensure reliability, the failure-tree approach was adopted during the design and construction of the systems. The performance of the systems was monitored for 1.5 years, by evaluating treated GW flow and quality, and by recording all malfunctions and maintenance work. Only 39 failures occurred during this period, of which four caused irrigation with impaired quality GW, while the rest led to no irrigation. The mean time between failures (MTBF) was 305 days; two out of the 20 systems suffered from seven malfunctions (each), while nine systems did not fail at all. Thus, it can be postulated that if on-site GW treatment systems are designed with the right controls, and if scheduled (basic and relatively infrequent) maintenance is performed, GW reuse can be safe to the environment and human health.

  10. Interpreting genotype‐by‐environment interaction for biomass production in hybrid poplars under short‐rotation coppice in Mediterranean environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sixto, Hortensia; Gil, Paula M; Ciria, Pilar; Camps, Francesc; Cañellas, Isabel; Voltas, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    ...‐rotation coppice poplar plantations. Hybrid poplars are grown for biomass production under a wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions, but their adaptive performance in Mediterranean areas remains poorly characterized...

  11. Combined agro-ecological strategies for adaptation of organic horticultural systems to climate change in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Diacono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity and related agro-ecological measures could play a crucial role in the agro-ecosystems adaptation to climate changes, thus sustaining crop production. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability (and the best combination of agro-ecological techniques as potential resilience strategies in organic horticultural systems in a Mediterranean environment. A long-term experimental device called MITIORG (Long-term climatic change adaptation in organic farming: synergistic combination of hydraulic arrangement, crop rotations, agro-ecological service crops and agronomic techniques is set-up at Metaponto (MT, testing the following agro-ecological measures as well as organic and conservation farming best practices: i hydraulic arrangement by a kind of ridge-furrow system; ii cash crop rotations; iii agro-ecological service crops (ASC introduction; iv ASC termination techniques (green manure vs roller crimper; and v organic fertilisation. The research here reported was carried out during the 2014-2015 season in the MITIORG device, on a rotation of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. crops. A detailed description of the scientific cognitive process that led to setup of the device, its components explanation, as well as preliminary yield results are reported. The outcomes suggest that organic vegetable cropping systems, designed following agro-ecological principles, are able to sustain yield of cash crops in rotation, in spite of changes in temperature and rainfall of the study site. Experimental data available in the next years will allow a deeper integrated analysis of the manifold effects of agro-ecological measures on horticultural systems.

  12. Land use and wind direction drive hybridization between cultivated poplar and native species in a Mediterranean floodplain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffetti, Donatella; Travaglini, Davide; Labriola, Mariaceleste; Buonamici, Anna; Bottalico, Francesca; Materassi, Alessandro; Fasano, Gianni; Nocentini, Susanna; Vettori, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Deforestation and intensive land use management with plantations of fast-growing tree species, like Populus spp., may endanger native trees not only by eliminating or reducing their habitats, but also by diminishing their species integrity via hybridization and introgression. The genus Populus has persistent natural hybrids because clonal and sexual reproduction is common. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of land use management of poplar plantations on the spatial genetic structure and species composition in poplar stands. Specifically, we studied the potential breeding between natural and cultivated poplar populations in the Mediterranean environment to gain insight into spontaneous hybridization events between exotic and native poplars; we also used a GIS-based model to evaluate the potential threats related to an intensive land use management. Two study areas, both near to poplar plantations (P.×euramericana), were designated in the native mixed stands of P. alba, P. nigra and P.×canescens within protected areas. We found that the spatial genetic structure differed between the two stands and their differences depended on their environmental features. We detected a hybridization event with P.×canescens that was made possible by the synchrony of flowering between the poplar plantation and P.×canescens and facilitated by the wind intensity and direction favoring the spread of pollen. Taken together, our results indicate that natural and artificial barriers are crucial to mitigate the threats, and so they should be explicitly considered in land use planning. For example, our results suggest the importance of conserving rows of trees and shrubs along rivers and in agricultural landscapes. In sum, it is necessary to understand, evaluate, and monitor the spread of exotic species and genetic material to ensure effective land use management and mitigation of their impact on native tree populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Evapotranspiration from pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Mirco; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of evapotranspiration (ET) experiments carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily) in a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) made of a combination of vegetated (Phragmites australis) and unvegetated sub-surface flow beds. Domestic wastewater from a conventional wastewater treatment plant was used to fill the beds. Microclimate data was gathered from an automatic weather station close to the experimental plant. From June to November 2009 and from April to November 2010, ET values were measured as the amount of water needed to restore the initial volume in the beds after a certain period. Cumulative reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) was similar to the cumulative ET measured in the beds without vegetation (ET(con)), while the Phragmites ET (ET (phr) ) was significantly higher underlining the effect of the vegetation. The plant coefficient of P. australis (K(p)) was very high (up to 8.5 in August 2009) compared to the typical K(c) for agricultural crops suggesting that the wetland environment was subjected to strong "clothesline" and "oasis" effects. According to the FAO 56 approach, K(p) shows different patterns and values in relation to growth stages correlating significantly to stem density, plant height and total leaves. The mean Water Use Efficiency (WUE) value of P. australis was quite low, about 2.27 g L(-1), probably due to the unlimited water availability and the lack of the plant's physiological adaptations to water conservation. The results provide useful and valid information for estimating ET rates in small-scale constructed wetlands since ET is a relevant issue in arid and semiarid regions. In these areas CW feasibility for wastewater treatment and reuse should also be carefully evaluated for macrophytes in relation to their WUE values.

  14. Soil carbon dynamics during secondary succession in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Novara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clarifying which factors cause an increase or decrease in soil organic carbon (SOC after agricultural abandonment requires integration of data on the temporal dynamics of the plant community and SOC. A chronosequence of abandoned vineyards was studied on a volcanic island (Pantelleria, Italy. Vegetation in the abandoned fields was initially dominated by annual and perennial herbs, then by Hyparrhenia hirta (L. Stapf, and finally by woody communities. As a consequence, the dominant photosynthetic pathway changed from C3 to C4 and then back to C3.

    Conversion of a plant community dominated by one photosynthetic pathway to another changes the 13C/12C ratio of inputs to soil organic carbon (SOC. Using the time since abandonment and the shift in belowground δ13C of SOC relative to the aboveground δ13C plant community, we estimated SOC turnover rate.

    SOC content (g kg−1 increased linearly (R2 = 0.79 and 0.73 for 0–15 and 15–30 cm soil depth with the age of abandonment, increasing from 12 g kg−1 in cultivated vineyards to as high as 26 g kg−1 in the last stage of the succession.

    δ13C increased in the bulk soil and its three fractions during succession, but only for soil fractions the effects of soil depth and its interaction with succession age were significant. Polynomial curves described the change in δ13C over the chronosequence for both depths. δ13C in the bulk soil had increased from −28 to −24‰ by 30 yr after abandonment for both depths but then decreased to −26‰ at 60 yr after abandonment (corresponding with maturity of the woody plant community. Overall, the results indicate that abandoned vineyards on volcanic soil in a semi-arid environment are C sinks and that C storage in these soils is closely related to plant succession.

  15. Temporal patterns of glacial lake evolution in high-mountain environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Emmer, Adam; Viani, Cristina; Huggel, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Lakes forming at the front of retreating glaciers are characteristic features of high-mountain areas in a warming climate. Typically, lakes shift from the proglacial phase (lake is in direct contact with glacier) to a glacier-detached (no direct contact) and finally to a non-glacial phase (lake catchment is completely deglaciated) of lake evolution. Apart from changing glacier-lake interactions, each stage is characterized by particular features of lake growth, and by the lake's susceptibility to sudden drainage (lake outburst flood). While this concept appears to be valid globally, some mountain areas are rich in dynamically evolving proglacial lakes, while in others most lakes have already shifted to the glacier-detached or even non-glacial phase. In the present contribution we (i) explore and quantify the history of glacial lake formation and evolution over the past up to 70 years; (ii) assess the current situation of selected contrasting mountain areas (eastern and western European Alps, southern and northern Pamir, Cordillera Blanca); and (iii) link the patterns of lake evolution to the prevailing topographic and glaciological characteristics in order to improve the understanding of high-mountain geoenvironmental change. In the eastern Alps we identify only very few lakes in the proglacial stage. While many lakes appeared and dynamically evolved until the 1980s between 2550 m and 2800 m asl, most of them have lost glacier contact until the 2000s, whereas very few new proglacial lakes appeared at the same time. Even though a similar trend is observed in the higher western Alps, a more dynamic glacial lake evolution is observed there. The arid southern Pamir is characterized by a high number of proglacial lakes, mainly around 4500 m asl. There is strong evidence that glacial lake evolution is, after a highly dynamic phase between the 1970s and approx. 2000, decelerating. Few proglacial lakes exist in the higher and more humid, heavily glacierized northern Pamir

  16. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning-groundfire for Daxing anling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ground fire is an igniting phenomenon that is difficult to control and lightning is the main cause of ground fire. The mechanism of lightning-ground fire is very complex. Daxing'anling Mountains forest region is the place that lighting-groundfire occurs more often and regularly. Our study on lightning-groundfire of this zone in 2002 shows: much more soil near the surface and the ground fuel is the matter preconditions of lightning-groundfire, and the weather conditions hasten the occurrence of lightning...

  17. Microbial activity in the subterranean environment of Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Carpa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Six cave material samples from Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains, were microbiologically andenzymologically analyzed. The microbiological analyses consisted in determining the presence ofoligotrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, nitrate and nitrite bacteria, denitrifiers and determining thepresence of micromycetes. In order to form a complete image on the microbial processes from this habitat,the bacteriological analyses were completed with quantitative and qualitative enzymological analyses. At allthe six samples of cave material the next quantitative enzymatic activities were performed: actual andpotential dehydrogenase, catalase and phosphatase. Only regarding the intensity of the processesdifferences were noticed. The qualitative enzymatic activities: amylase, dextranase, saccharase, maltaseand levanase, were not present at studied samples.

  18. CO(2) partial pressure and calcite saturation in springs - useful data for identifying infiltration areas in mountainous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke; Brandstätter, Jennifer; Glück, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Mountainous regions such as the Central European Alps host considerable karstified or fractured groundwater bodies, which meet many of the demands concerning drinking water supply, hydropower or agriculture. Alpine hydrogeologists are required to describe the dynamics in fractured aquifers in order to assess potential impacts of human activities on water budget and quality. Delineation of catchment areas by means of stable isotopes and hydrochemical data is a well established method in alpine hydrogeology. To achieve reliable results, time series of (at least) one year and spatial and temporal close-meshed data are necessary. In reality, test sites in mountainous regions are often inaccessible due to the danger of avalanches in winter. The aim of our work was to assess a method based on the processes within the carbonic acid system to delineate infiltration areas by means of single datasets consisting of the main hydrochemical parameters of each spring. In three geologically different mountainous environments we managed to classify the investigated springs into four groups. (1) High PCO2 combined with slight super-saturation in calcite, indicating relatively low infiltration areas. (2) Low PCO2 near atmospheric conditions in combination with calcite saturation, which is indicative of relatively high infiltration areas and a fractured aquifer which is not covered by topsoil layers. (3) High PCO2 in combination with sub-saturation in calcite, representing a shallow aquifer with a significant influence of the topsoil layer. (4) The fourth group of waters is characterized by low PCO2 and sub-saturation in calcite, which is interpreted as evidence for a shallow aquifer without significant influence of any hard rock aquifer or topsoil layer. This study shows that CO2-partial pressure can be an ideal natural tracer to estimate the elevation of infiltration areas, especially in non-karstified fractured groundwater bodies.

  19. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Jalilian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  20. Yishui snow mountain Rainbow Valley business street space environment planning design and research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭彦艳

    2015-01-01

    Yishui snow mountain Rainbow Valley is a tourist area of Linyi in Yishui, because Yishui beautiful scenery, a variety of tourism resources, tourism and commercial street is an important breakthrough in its development, to create a local cultural tourism based on the set of economic, culture, leisure, entertainment, which integrates comprehensive commercial street. This topic design follow the “taking culture made the street, taking history made the street, to the situation raises the street”. In the area of history culture as the foundation, the extraction of excellent design element is applied to the design of this project, join the history context elements, inheriting excellent historical culture, the rainbow door, snow capped mountains seventy-two king into the landscape design, reflect the local cultural characteristics of Yishui. The commercial street full of human feelings, the commercial street built with Yishui local characteristics and street full of personality. In the process of construction of commercial street, commercial street, the endowment of regional cultural resources, highlighting its cultural positioning, highlight the small town of Yishui regional culture, build a rich with Yishui town of local cultural characteristics and style commercial street.

  1. Feasibility of GPS use to locate wild ungulates in high mountain environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girard, I.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fix success and accuracy of GPS (Global Positioning System telemetry both depend on the number of visible satellites and their geometry. Due to the topography of the mountain environment the efficiency of GPS is compromised, field tests were conducted to analyze how it can affect fix success and rate of 3D locations (≥ 4 visible satellites as regards slope orientation, using pooled data from GPS collars in solved- and differential-mode. Ten test sites were defined in the periphery of the Vanoise National Park. Fixes were simultaneously recorded at the bottom and top of cliffs facing each of the 4 main orientations or at the bottom of valleys oriented £-W and N-S and at a reference site (open field. Fix success and rate of 3D locations were significantly negatively correlated with an increasing obstruction level. Cliff orientation affected both fix success (significantly higher for cliffs facing the North and rate of 3D locations (significantly higher for cliffs facing the South.

    [fr]
    Dans la télémétrie par GPS (Global Positioning System, la fixation d'un point et la précision se montrent conditionnées par le nombre de satellites visibles et la géométrie. Les montagnes provoquant des obstructions topographiques qui réduisent la fiabilité du GPS, nous avons effectué des essais de terrain pour analyser comment l'exposition du versant peut affecter la fixation d'un point ou le taux de localisation 3D (4 satellites visibles ou plus. Pour cela nous avons utilisé un ensemble de données GPS. Nous avons marqué 10 points de référence en périphérie du Parc National de la Vanoise. Puis nous avons enregistré simultanément des points fixes en fond de vallée et en haut des falaises exposées aux quatre directions principales ou au fond des vallées orientées E-W et N-S ainsi que dans un point de référence (champ ouvert. La fixation d'un point ainsi que le taux de localisation en 3D montraient significativement une corr

  2. Ceratonia siliqua (carob) trees as natural habitat and source of infection by Cryptococcus gattii in the Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, María Francisca; Hagen, Ferry; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Mellado, Axelle; Morera, Neus; Linares, Carlos; García, David F; Peñataro, Joaquín S; Boekhout, Teun; Sánchez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recent Cryptococcus gattii infections in humans and animals, including several outbreaks in goats, were the basis of this environmental survey in six provinces of Spain. A total of 479 samples from 20 tree species were studied. Cryptococcus gattii was found for the first time in autochthonous Mediterranean trees in Spain. Fourteen isolates of this pathogen were obtained from seven trees of three different species: 12 from carob (Ceratonia siliqua), one from Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus halepensis) and another from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). All C. gattii isolates were genotype AFLP4/VGI and mating type alpha, and were found to be genetically identical with C. gattii strains isolated from humans and animals in Spain. This supports the hypothesis that these trees may be a natural source for infection of humans and mammals in the Mediterranean area.

  3. Incorporating wind availability into land use regression modelling of air quality in mountainous high-density urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Urban air quality serves as an important function of the quality of urban life. Land use regression (LUR) modelling of air quality is essential for conducting health impacts assessment but more challenging in mountainous high-density urban scenario due to the complexities of the urban environment. In this study, a total of 21 LUR models are developed for seven kinds of air pollutants (gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2 and particulate air pollutants PM2.5, PM10) with reference to three different time periods (summertime, wintertime and annual average of 5-year long-term hourly monitoring data from local air quality monitoring network) in Hong Kong. Under the mountainous high-density urban scenario, we improved the traditional LUR modelling method by incorporating wind availability information into LUR modelling based on surface geomorphometrical analysis. As a result, 269 independent variables were examined to develop the LUR models by using the "ADDRESS" independent variable selection method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR). Cross validation has been performed for each resultant model. The results show that wind-related variables are included in most of the resultant models as statistically significant independent variables. Compared with the traditional method, a maximum increase of 20% was achieved in the prediction performance of annual averaged NO2 concentration level by incorporating wind-related variables into LUR model development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the Microbial Community Composition at Yucca Mountain and Laboratory Test Nuclear Repository Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J; Carrillo, C; Dias, V

    2002-10-09

    The microbiological community structure within a proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV was determined. Microbial growth from collected rock was detected using simulated ground water as a growth medium, with or without amendment of a carbon source. Grown isolates were identified by 16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis. A more complete compositional analysis of the microbial community located at the proposed nuclear waste repository site was performed using environmental DNA isolation and subsequent identification of amplified 16s rDNA genes. Concurrently, a series of corrosion testing tanks that simulate the evolution of anticipated environmental conditions within the proposed repository have been subjected to the same type of analyses.

  5. Geology and depositional environments of the Guadalupian rocks of the northern Del Norte Mountains, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudine, S.F.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Rohr, D.M.; Grant, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Guadalupian rocks of the northern Del Norte Mountains were deposited in a foreland basin between land of the Marathon orogen and a carbonate shoal established on the geanticline separating the foreland basin from the Delaware basin. Deposition was alternately influenced by coarse clastic input from the orogen and carbonate shoal, which interrupted shallow basinal siltstone depletion. Relatively deeper-water deposition is characterized by carbonate input from the shoal, and relatively shallow-water deposition is characterized by sandstone input from the orogen. Deposition was in five general transgressive-regressive packages that include (1) the Road Canyon Formation and the first siltstone member and first sandstone member of the Word Formation, (2) the second siltstone member, Appel Ranch Member, and limy sandy siltstone member of the Word Formation, (3) the Vidrio Formation, (4) the lower and part of the middle members of the Altuda Formation, and (5) part of the middle and upper members of the Altuda Formation.

  6. Accuracy of snow depth estimation in mountain and prairie environments by an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Phillip; Schirmer, Michael; Pomeroy, John; Helgason, Warren

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying the spatial distribution of snow is crucial to predict and assess its water resource potential and understand land-atmosphere interactions. High-resolution remote sensing of snow depth has been limited to terrestrial and airborne laser scanning and more recently with application of structure from motion (SfM) techniques to airborne (manned and unmanned) imagery. In this study, photography from a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to generate digital surface models (DSMs) and orthomosaics for snow cover at a cultivated agricultural Canadian prairie and a sparsely vegetated Rocky Mountain alpine ridgetop site using SfM. The accuracy and repeatability of this method to quantify snow depth, changes in depth and its spatial variability was assessed for different terrain types over time. Root mean square errors in snow depth estimation from differencing snow-covered and non-snow-covered DSMs were 8.8 cm for a short prairie grain stubble surface, 13.7 cm for a tall prairie grain stubble surface and 8.5 cm for an alpine mountain surface. This technique provided useful information on maximum snow accumulation and snow-covered area depletion at all sites, while temporal changes in snow depth could also be quantified at the alpine site due to the deeper snowpack and consequent higher signal-to-noise ratio. The application of SfM to UAV photographs returns meaningful information in areas with mean snow depth > 30 cm, but the direct observation of snow depth depletion of shallow snowpacks with this method is not feasible. Accuracy varied with surface characteristics, sunlight and wind speed during the flight, with the most consistent performance found for wind speeds < 10 m s-1, clear skies, high sun angles and surfaces with negligible vegetation cover.

  7. Estimating the population density of Iberian wild goat Capra pyrenaica and mouflon Ovis aries in a Mediterranean forest environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Tinoco Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To manage and conserve wild populations effectively, a good understating of population density is critical. During 2010, the density of Iberian wild goat Capra pyrenaica and mouflon Ovis aries were estimated.Area of study: The area is situated in Muela de Cortes Game Reservation (Spain, a Mediterranean forest plateau, after a mange Sarcoptes scabiei outbreak that affected both species. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, sex ratio and productivity of the Iberian wild goat and mouflon. Field work was conducted during spring (after parturition and autumn (during rut by walking along itineraries, using a Distance Sampling approach. Main results: Based on DS, the best relative fit of model and adjustment term for Iberian wild goat was hazard-rate cosine, based on the lowest AIC score. The average density for Iberian wild goat was 4 km-2 (95% CI: 2,3 – 6,9 (after parturition and 3,6 km-2 (95% CI: 2 – 6.6 (during rut. Average estimation was 1,422 goats (95% CI: 813 – 2,487 after parturition and 1,308 during rut (95% CI: 725 – 2,362. Mouflon best relative fit of model and adjustment term was uniform cosine after parturition, based on the lowest AIC score. The best relative fit of model and adjustment term for mouflon was hazard-rate cosine, based on the lowest AIC score. The average density was 6.8 mouflon km-2 (95% CI: 4.7 – 9,9 after parturition and 7,4 mouflon km-2 (95% CI: 4,4 – 12,5 during rut. Average estimation was 2,440 mouflon after parturition (95% CI: 1,673 – 3,558 and 2,678 during rut (95% CI: 1,589 – 4,515. Research highlights: The area represents one of the largest continental free-living populations of mouflon in Europe and a relevant area for Iberian wild goat, where it has survived for centuries and spread into the East Iberia. This study suggests that the survey methods used are suitable and sustainable with available field personnel for quantifying changes in wild goat and mouflon populations

  8. Do existing classification systems capture mountain snowpack heterogeneity? Accounting for spatial variability in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, C.; Godsey, S.; Harpold, A. A.; Link, T. E.; Rajagopal, S.; Larsen, L.

    2016-12-01

    Spatial patterns of snow accumulation and melt control water and nutrient fluxes from mountain landscapes and determine the dynamics of resource availability for nearby human and ecological communities. Because seasonal snowpack is sensitive to changes in regional climate, there is a growing need for a snowpack classification system that (1) recognizes salient processes, (2) captures the variance of the system, (3) recognizes temporal and/or spatial change, and (4) has application to predicting snowmelt runoff regimes. Previous classification systems have focused on textural and stratigraphic snow characteristics or climatological observations to map broad geographic classes (e.g. maritime, continental, ephemeral, etc.). While these approaches have revealed general patterns, they may not capture the spatial heterogeneity of snowpack characteristics that are common across high relief terrain. Here, we use 1 km resolution gridded outputs from a physically based, spatially-distributed energy- and mass-balance snow model (SNODAS) to produce a snow classification system for the western U.S. and Great Plains. To meet the outlined criterion, we initially explored the ability of a large number of metrics (13) to characterize the amount, timing, and melt-rate of snowpack. Principal components analysis and pairwise correlations were used to identify a subset of metrics (6) that captured the variance of the system but also contributed unique information. K-means was used to delineate 12 process-based groups that reveal both climatic and orographic influences on snowpack accumulation, timing, and melt rate. The important effects of elevation-mediated processes in our classification system suggest a greater spatial diversity in snowpack patterns than suggested by previous characterizations (e.g. maritime-to-continental). Application of the system from the early 2000's to present reveals that interannual temporal and spatial variability have been greatest in the Columbia Plateau

  9. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at four depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid raitos: Most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at <100{degrees}C. The vapor-filled inclusions provide evidence that a separate vapor phase was present in the fluid during crystallization. Studies of these vapor-filled inclusions on the microscope crushing stage were interpreted in an earlier paper as indicating trapping of an air-water-CO{sub 2} vapor phase at ``<100{degrees}C``. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface.

  10. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at fourth depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid ratios: most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at <100{degrees}C. The vapor-filled inclusions provide evidence that a separate vapor phase was present in the fluid during crystallization. Studies of these vapor-filled inclusions on the microscope crushing stage were interpreted in an earlier paper as indicating trapping of an air-water-CO{sub 2} vapor phase at {open_quotes}100{degrees}C{close_quotes}. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface.

  11. An automatic approach for rice mapping in temperate region using time series of MODIS imagery: first results for Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, M.; Nelson, A.; Manfrom, G.; Brivio, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    vegetation index seasonal trend. Tests conducted in European Mediterranean environment demonstrated that our approach is able to provide accurate rice map (User Accuracy > 80%) when compared to available Corine Land Cover land use map (1:100.000 scale, MMU 25 ha). Map accuracy in term of omission and commission error has been analyzed in north of Italy where about 60 % of total European riceis produced. For this study area thematic cartography at 1:10.000scale allowed to analyze the type of commission errors and evaluate the entity of omission errors in relation to low resolution bias and/or algorithm performance. Pareto boundary method has been used to assess the level of accuracy of the method respect a maximum achievable accuracy with medium resolution MODIS data. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperform the method developed for tropical and sub-tropical environment.

  12. Building and Running the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Model in a Quality Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Kalinich; K.P. Lee; J.A. McNeish

    2005-01-09

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to support the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository. The TSPA model forecasts repository performance over a 20,000-year simulation period. It has a high degree of complexity due to the complexity of its underlying process and abstraction models. This is reflected in the size of the model (a 27,000 element GoldSim file), its use of dynamic-linked libraries (14 DLLs), the number and size of its input files (659 files totaling 4.7 GB), and the number of model input parameters (2541 input database entries). TSPA model development and subsequent simulations with the final version of the model were performed to a set of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. Due to the complexity of the model, comments on previous TSPAs, and the number of analysts involved (22 analysts in seven cities across four time zones), additional controls for the entire life-cycle of the TSPA model, including management, physical, model change, and input controls were developed and documented. These controls did not replace the QA. procedures, rather they provided guidance for implementing the requirements of the QA procedures with the specific intent of ensuring that the model development process and the simulations performed with the final version of the model had sufficient checking, traceability, and transparency. Management controls were developed to ensure that only management-approved changes were implemented into the TSPA model and that only management-approved model runs were performed. Physical controls were developed to track the use of prototype software and preliminary input files, and to ensure that only qualified software and inputs were used in the final version of the TSPA model. In addition, a system was developed to name, file, and track development versions of the TSPA model as well as simulations performed with the final version of the model.

  13. Atmospheric radiation environment analyses based-on CCD camera at various mountain altitudes and underground sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cavoli Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discriminate secondary atmospheric particles and identify muons by measuring the natural radiative environment in atmospheric and underground locations. A CCD camera has been used as a cosmic ray sensor. The Low Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel (LSBB, France gives the access to a unique low-noise scientific environment deep enough to ensure the screening from the neutron and proton radiative components. Analyses of the charge levels in pixels of the CCD camera induced by radiation events and cartographies of the charge events versus the hit pixel are proposed.

  14. Aquatic molluscs in high mountain lakes of the Eastern Alps (Austria): Species-environment relationships and specific colonization behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STURM Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lakes represent essential stages for aquatic species on their way colonizing habitats of more elevated regions.Despite extensive biological and chemical study,only little has been reported about the species number and density of freshwater molluscs in these waters.The article presented here elucidates the dispersal of aquatic gastropods and bivalves in 12 mountain lakes that are commonly situated in the Eastern Alps,Austria.Molluscs were recorded at 120 sample points,where a total of 13 species (8 gastropods and 5 bivalves) could be determined.Species distribution data as well as results from contemporarily conducted physico-chemical factor recording were subject to weighted average analysis.In addition,a global marginality coefficient indicating the particularity of a habitat inhabited by a focal species as well as a global tolerance coefficient expressing the width of a niche occupied by this species were computed.Species-environment relationships exhibited that species number and specific density decrease with increasing geographic altitude,declining water temperature,and decreasing amount of submerged vegetation.Whilst waters of the montane altitude level are partly charcterized by high number of mollusc species (>10),lakes of the subalpine altitude level commonly bear 1 or 2 species with <<1 ind./m2.As proposed by the results of statistics,9 of the 13 mollusc species are characterized by a pronounced behaviour as specialists with respect to most environmental factors.The four remaining species,Pisidium casertanum,Galba truncatula,Radix labiata,and Radix balthica,act as generalists which increases their pioneering role in the long-term occupation of the Central-alpine region.

  15. Effects of permafrost thaw on carbon emissions under aerobic and anaerobic environments in the Great Hing'an Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Jiaoyue; Mao, Rong; Song, Yanyu

    2014-07-15

    The carbon (C) pool of permafrost peatland is very important for the global C cycle. Little is known about how permafrost thaw could influence C emissions in the Great Hing'an Mountains of China. Through aerobic and anaerobic incubation experiments, we studied the effects of permafrost thaw on CH4 and CO2 emissions. The rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured at -10, 0 and 10°C. Although there were still C emissions below 0°C, rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions significantly increased with permafrost thaw under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The C release under aerobic conditions was greater than under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that permafrost thaw and resulting soil environment change should be important influences on C emissions. However, CH4 stored in permafrost soils could affect accurate estimation of CH4 emissions from microbial degradation. Calculated Q10 values in the permafrost soils were significantly higher than values in active-layer soils under aerobic conditions. Our results highlight that permafrost soils have greater potential decomposability than soils of the active layer, and such carbon decomposition would be more responsive to the aerobic environment.

  16. Adaptive Radiation in Mediterranean Cistus (Cistaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Beatriz; Lledó, María Dolores; Vargas, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiation in Mediterranean plants is poorly understood. The white-flowered Cistus lineage consists of 12 species primarily distributed in Mediterranean habitats and is herein subject to analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a “total evidence” analysis combining nuclear (ncpGS, ITS) and plastid (trnL-trnF, trnK-matK, trnS-trnG, rbcL) DNA sequences and using MP and BI to test the hypothesis of radiation as suggested by previous phylogenetic results. One of the five well-supported lineages of the Cistus-Halimium complex, the white-flowered Cistus lineage, comprises the higher number of species (12) and is monophyletic. Molecular dating estimates a Mid Pleistocene (1.04±0.25 Ma) diversification of the white-flowered lineage into two groups (C. clusii and C. salviifolius lineages), which display asymmetric characteristics: number of species (2 vs. 10), leaf morphologies (linear vs. linear to ovate), floral characteristics (small, three-sepalled vs. small to large, three- or five-sepalled flowers) and ecological attributes (low-land vs. low-land to mountain environments). A positive phenotype-environment correlation has been detected by historical reconstructions of morphological traits (leaf shape, leaf labdanum content and leaf pubescence). Ecological evidence indicates that modifications of leaf shape and size, coupled with differences in labdanum secretion and pubescence density, appear to be related to success of new species in different Mediterranean habitats. Conclusions/Significance The observation that radiation in the Cistus salviifolius lineage has been accompanied by the emergence of divergent leaf traits (such as shape, pubescence and labdanum secretion) in different environments suggets that radiation in the group has been adaptive. Here we argued that the diverse ecological conditions of Mediterranean habitats played a key role in directing the evolution of alternative leaf strategies in this plant group. Key

  17. Adaptive radiation in mediterranean cistus (cistaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Guzmán

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiation in Mediterranean plants is poorly understood. The white-flowered Cistus lineage consists of 12 species primarily distributed in Mediterranean habitats and is herein subject to analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a "total evidence" analysis combining nuclear (ncpGS, ITS and plastid (trnL-trnF, trnK-matK, trnS-trnG, rbcL DNA sequences and using MP and BI to test the hypothesis of radiation as suggested by previous phylogenetic results. One of the five well-supported lineages of the Cistus-Halimium complex, the white-flowered Cistus lineage, comprises the higher number of species (12 and is monophyletic. Molecular dating estimates a Mid Pleistocene (1.04+/-0.25 Ma diversification of the white-flowered lineage into two groups (C. clusii and C. salviifolius lineages, which display asymmetric characteristics: number of species (2 vs. 10, leaf morphologies (linear vs. linear to ovate, floral characteristics (small, three-sepalled vs. small to large, three- or five-sepalled flowers and ecological attributes (low-land vs. low-land to mountain environments. A positive phenotype-environment correlation has been detected by historical reconstructions of morphological traits (leaf shape, leaf labdanum content and leaf pubescence. Ecological evidence indicates that modifications of leaf shape and size, coupled with differences in labdanum secretion and pubescence density, appear to be related to success of new species in different Mediterranean habitats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observation that radiation in the Cistus salviifolius lineage has been accompanied by the emergence of divergent leaf traits (such as shape, pubescence and labdanum secretion in different environments suggets that radiation in the group has been adaptive. Here we argued that the diverse ecological conditions of Mediterranean habitats played a key role in directing the evolution of alternative leaf strategies in this plant group

  18. Differences of granitic weathering at the northern and southern feet of Dabie Mountains, Central China: Implication for tectonic and climatic environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Haijin(续海金); MA; Changqian(马昌前); LIU; Fan(刘凡); YANG; Kunguang(杨坤光)

    2003-01-01

    Two weathering profiles of Yanshanian granites on the southern and northern feet of the Dabie Mountains were investigated. The results showed that, on the southern foot of the Dabie Mountains, the weathering profile of the Sikongshan biotite monzonitic granite was eroded with remarkable loss of alkila, calcium and silicon, and richness of aluminium during hydrolysis process and in acidic mediums. Feldspar and biotite, major rock-forming minerals, were altered to illite→(vermiculite→1.4 nm transition minerals) →kaolinite→halloysite. However, on the northern foot of the Dabie Mountains, the Hepeng biotite orthogranite weathering profile was stable, without silicon depletion, but with remarkably enriched iron and noncrystalline during oxidizing process and in feebly acidic-neutral mediums. The major rock-forming minerals such as feldspar and biotite in the Hepeng weathering profile were weathered to smectites and halloysite→noncrystalline. The above results reveal that weathering differences of the granites between southern and northern feet of the Dabie Mountains may be related to climatic environments and tectonic movements. The southern foot, in hot and rainy environments, was uplifted by tectonics and was intensively leached. The soils in the southern slope were under acidic conditions. In contrast, the northern foot was slightly leached in hot and droughty environments, and the soils were under feebly acidic-neutral conditions.

  19. Hydrogeological studies in high mountains karst environment: the example of Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Mónica; Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sanchez, Montserrat; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very vulnerable to contamination due their high infiltration coefficient, elevated hydraulic conductivity, high speed of circulation, and very low self-purification capacities. The functioning of that type of aquifer is quite complicated by the high heterogeneity and anisotropy of the karst and the presence of three different types of porosity. It is necessary to understand the functioning of a karst aquifer in order to protect and manage them properly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop working methods to establish the aquifer hydrodynamics, especially in high mountain areas with many methodological constrains (e. g. difficulty to access). The Picos de Europa karst aquifer, located in theNational Park of Picos de Europa (North Spain), presents a high environmental, geomorphological and hydrogeological value; it is included in the "Spanish geological contexts with global relevance" by the Law of Natural Heritage and Biodiversity of Spain, being considered as a Global Geosite by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain. In addition, the karst massif is included in several figures of environmental protection, both at global and national levels. Hydrogeological and geomorphological research is developed together in this area under the GEOCAVE project (MAGRAMA-580/12 OAPN) and the "Investigación hidrogeológica en las masas de agua subterránea 012.014 Picos de Europa-Panes y 012.018 Alto Deva-Alto Cares. (IGME-73.3.00.41.00/2013)". The aim of this study is to characterize the hydrodynamics of the karst aquifer, considering the snow as an important component of the aquifer recharge. The proposed methodology includes the installation of an integrated pressure sensor and data logger for level and temperature measurement in two karst spring related to two groundwater bodies (GWB) with 86 and 14 km2 extension. The store of data to regular intervals with punctual values of discharge measures has provided, at least, an annual series of data in

  20. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  1. Soil water effect on crop growth, leaf gas exchange, water and radiation use efficiency of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel in semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Scordia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great effort has been placed to identify the most suited bioenergy crop under different environments and management practices, however, there is still need to find new genetic resources for constrained areas. For instance, South Mediterranean area is strongly affected by prolonged drought, high vapour pressure deficit (VPD and extremely high temperatures during summertime. In the present work we investigated the soil water effect on crop growth and leaf gas exchange of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel, a perennial, rhizomatous, herbaceous grass. Furthermore, the net increase of biomass production per unit light intercepted [radiation use efficiency (RUE] and per unit water transpired [water use efficiency (WUE] was also studied. To this end a field trial was carried out imposing three levels of soil water availability (I100, I50 and I0, corresponding to 100%, 50% and 0% of ETm restutition under a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Leaf area index (LAI, stem height, biomass dry matter yield, CO2 assimilation rate, and transpiration rate resulted significantly affected by measurement time and irrigation treatment, with the highest values in I100 and the lowest in I0. RUE was the highest in I100 followed by I50 and I0; on the other hand, WUE was higher in I0 than I50 and I100. At LAI values greater than 2.0, 85% photosynthetically active radiation was intercepted by the Saccharum stand, irrespective of the irrigation treatment. Saccharum spontaneum spp. aegyptiacum is a potential species for biomass production in environment characterized by drought stress, high temperatures and high VPD, as those of Southern Europe and similar semi-arid areas.

  2. Preliminary analysis of potential chemical environments inside failed waste containers at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colten-Bradley, V. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States); Walton, J.C. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Prediction of radionuclide release rates for high-level waste requires estimates of the rates of waste form alteration and formation of secondary minerals inside the failed canister. Unsaturated repository sites may promote development of a variety of chemical environments related to two phase (liquid/vapor) transport and temperature gradients caused by radiogenic decay. A mass balance (shell balance) approach is used to estimate the effects of dripping water, evaporation, and condensation on the waste canister and the presence of saline water inside the failed waste canister. The simplified calculations predict large variability of water chemistry over spatial scales of a few centimeters. The effects of the predicted aqueous chemistry on waste form alteration, secondary mineral formation, and radionuclide solubility are examined.

  3. Understanding karst environments by thermo-hygrometric monitoring: preliminary results from the Cesi Mountain karst system (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Di Matteo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of karst systems is of paramount importance for the protection and valorisation of these environments. A multidisciplinary study is presented to investigate the possible interconnection between karst features of a karst area located in the south-western part of the Martani chain (Cesi Mountain, Central Italy. This hydrogeological structure contributes to recharge a deep regional aquifer. The latter feeds the high discharge and salinity Stifone springs. In the southwestern part of Martani chain, seven caves have been mapped, five of which are hosted in the Calcare Massiccio Formation. The analysis of thermo-hygrometric data collected since Autumn 2014 into the caves and those from external meteorological stations, showed the timing of the airflow inversion occurring on late winter/early spring and summer/ early autumn. Despite the complexity of the morphology of caves and of conceptual models of airflow pattern, these data seem to indicate that the monitored small caves could be interconnected to a considerably wider cave system. Data here presented coupled with the knowledge on hydrogeological and geological-structural setting of the limestone massif are useful to drive future speleological explorations, aiming to discover new large cavities and to better understand the water recharge process.

  4. Fruška gora mountainous environments - assessing the impact of geological setting and land use on soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, it has been found that in the last decades the surface of the vulnerable land and land affected by degradation is increasing and that unsustainable land management is one of the key drivers of land degradation. In order to assess the effect that these changes have on biodiversity and ecosystem services, and to carry out the appropriate planning and management actions for conserving the environment it is essential to identify and quantify changes caused by land degradation. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of geological setting i.e. type of bedrock, and land use on soil physico-chemical properties in vulnerable mountainous areas of Fruškagora. For the purpose of this study the total of 30 soil samples at 0-20 cm depth were collected at four locations on the Fruškagora Mt. Geological setting was serpentinite and marl and land cover was forest and meadow. Following soil properties were determined: pH, redox potential (Eh, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, concentrations of available cations Ca, Mg, K, Na, contents of organic carbon (Corg and nitrogen (N. The correlation between the obtained parameters was tested with two-way ANOVA and Principal Component Analyses (PCA. All of the obtained results indicate that the soil physico-chemical properties depend on geological setting and that rock composition has to be taken into consideration during land management. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176006 i br. 173011

  5. Susceptibility of Alloy 22 to Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Yucca Mountain Relevant Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estill, J C; King, K J; Fix, D V; Spurlock, D G; Hust, G A; Gordon, S R; McCright, R D; Rebak, R B; Gordon, G M

    2002-01-30

    In its current design, the high level nuclear waste containers will include an external layer of Alloy 22 (Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W-3Fe). Since over their life-time the containers may be exposed to multi-ionic aqueous environments, a potential degradation mode of the outer layer could be environmental assisted cracking (EAC). The objective of the current research work was to quantify the susceptibility of Alloy 22 to EAC in a several environmental conditions including solution composition, temperature and electrochemical potential. The susceptibility to EAC was evaluated using the constant deformation technique, the compact specimen--low cycle fatigue method and the slow strain rate test (SSRT). The alloy was tested in the wrought mill annealed (MA) and in the as-welded conditions. Results show that Alloy 22 was extremely resistant to EAC in a wide range of environmental conditions. Using SSRT, Alloy 22 was found susceptible to EAC in one electrolyte at one temperature and at one electrochemical potential.

  6. QTLs for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross 'Arta' × ¤H. spontaneum¤ 41-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Backes, G.

    2003-01-01

    ). The linkage map extended to 890 cM. Agronomic traits such as grain yield, biological yield, days to heading, plant height, cold tolerance and others were evaluated at the ICARDA research stations Tel Hadya and Breda during the years 1996-97 and 1997-98. QTLs for agronomic traits related to drought resistance...... were localized. For the most-important character 'plant height under drought stress', QTLs on 2H, 3H and 7H were detected. The 'plant height' QTLs, specially the one on 3H, showed pleiotropic effects on traits such as days to heading, grain yield and biological yield. QTLs were also identified...... for other traits associated with adaptation to the Mediterranean environment such as cold tolerance, days to heading and tiller number. The identification of QTLs for agronomic traits is a first step to analyze and to dissect complex characters such as adaptation to drought tolerance....

  7. URJC GB dataset: Community-based seed bank of Mediterranean high-mountain and semi-arid plant species at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Patricia; Iriondo, José María

    2014-01-01

    The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos was created in 2008 and currently holds 235 accessions and 96 species. This bank focuses on the conservation of wild-plant communities and aims to conserve ex situ a representative sample of the plant biodiversity present in a habitat, emphasizing priority ecosystems identified by the Habitats Directive. It is also used to store plant material for research and teaching purposes. The collection consists of three subcollections, two representative of typical habitats in the center of the Iberian Peninsula: high-mountain pastures (psicroxerophylous pastures) and semi-arid habitats (gypsophylic steppes), and a third representative of the genus Lupinus. The high-mountain subcollection currently holds 153 accessions (63 species), the semi-arid subcollection has 76 accessions (29 species,) and the Lupinus subcollection has 6 accessions (4 species). All accessions are stored in a freezer at -18 °C in Kilner jars with silica gel. The Germplasm Bank of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos follows a quality control protocol which describes the workflow performed with seeds from seed collection to storage. All collectors are members of research groups with great experience in species identification. Herbarium specimens associated with seed accessions are preserved and 63% of the records have been georreferenced with GPS and radio points. The dataset provides unique information concerning the location of populations of plant species that form part of the psicroxerophylous pastures and gypsophylic steppes of Central Spain as well as populations of genus Lupinus in the Iberian Peninsula. It also provides relevant information concerning mean seed weight and seed germination values under specific incubation conditions. This dataset has already been used by researchers of the Area of Biodiversity and Conservation of URJC as a source of information for the design and implementation of experimental designs in these plant communities. Since

  8. Assessment of Vegetation Indices Derived by UAV Imagery for Durum Wheat Phenotyping under a Water Limited and Heat Stressed Mediterranean Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratzis, Angelos C; Skarlatos, Dimitrios P; Menexes, George C; Vamvakousis, Vasileios F; Katsiotis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest for using Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI) derived by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery as a fast and cost-efficient tool for plant phenotyping. The development of such tools is of paramount importance to continue progress through plant breeding, especially in the Mediterranean basin, where climate change is expected to further increase yield uncertainty. In the present study, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI) derived from UAV imagery were calculated for two consecutive years in a set of twenty durum wheat varieties grown under a water limited and heat stressed environment. Statistically significant differences between genotypes were observed for SVIs. GNDVI explained more variability than NDVI and SR, when recorded at booting. GNDVI was significantly correlated with grain yield when recorded at booting and anthesis during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively, while NDVI was correlated to grain yield when recorded at booting, but only for the 1st year. These results suggest that GNDVI has a better discriminating efficiency and can be a better predictor of yield when recorded at early reproductive stages. The predictive ability of SVIs was affected by plant phenology. Correlations of grain yield with SVIs were stronger as the correlations of SVIs with heading were weaker or not significant. NDVIs recorded at the experimental site were significantly correlated with grain yield of the same set of genotypes grown in other environments. Both positive and negative correlations were observed indicating that the environmental conditions during grain filling can affect the sign of the correlations. These findings highlight the potential use of SVIs derived by UAV imagery for durum wheat phenotyping under low yielding Mediterranean conditions.

  9. Experimentally Based Model to Size the Geometry of a New OWC Device, with Reference to the Mediterranean Sea Wave Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This note presents the Seabreath wave energy converter, basically a multi-chamber floating oscillating water column device, and the lumped model used to size its chambers, the ducts and the turbine. The model is based on extensive testing carried out in the wave flume of the University of Padova using fixed and floating models with a dummy power take off and indirect measurement of the produced power. A map with the available energy in the Mediterranean Sea is also proposed, showing possible ideal application sites. The Seabreath is finally dimensioned for a quarter scale test application in the Adriatic Sea, with a 3 kW turbine, and a capacity factor of 40%.

  10. Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, R. H.; di Castri, F.

    The Mediterranean basin, California, Chile, the western Cape of South Africa, and southern Australia share a Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. These five regions have differing patterns of human settlement, but similarities in natural vegetation and some faunal assemblages. These likenesses are enhanced with time by an increasing level of biotic exchange among the regions. An initiative of a subcommittee of SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), which realized that the integrity of many natural ecosystems is being threatened by the ingress of invasive species, this book uniquely documents the introduced floras and faunas, especially plants, buds, and mammals, in these five regions of Mediterranean climate, and aims to increase our understanding of the ecology of biological invasions. In doing so, it points a way to more effectively manage the biota of these regions.

  11. Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Evaluación de Leguminosas y Hierbas Forrajeras Perennes en Seis Medioambientes Mediterráneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Real

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L. for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rainfall distribution varied from moderately to highly winter dominant with long term average annual rainfall ranging from 318 to 655 mm. The entries were rated for productivity and persistence over 3 yr. The 12 entries identified as the most promising for winter, summer, or all-year round production included Bituminaria bituminosa (L. C.H. Stirt. var. albomarginata; Cichorium intybus L.; Cullen australasicum (Schltdl. J.W. Grimes; Dorycnium hirsutum (L. Ser.; Kennedia prostrata R. Br.; Lotononis bainesii Baker, Lotus pedunculatus Cav.; L. corniculatus L.; L. cytisoides L.; Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.; Medicago sativa subsp. caerulea (Less. ex Ledeb. Schmalh., and M. sativa subsp. falcata (L. Arcang. These entries maintained production and persisted for the period of the evaluation, with the exception of C. intybus and L. corniculatus that declined in persistence over time. The potential role of these species in extensive grazing systems in Mediterranean climatic zones, their attributes and limitations, and current progress in developing them as useful forage plants was discussed.Existe una escasez de leguminosas y hierbas perennes herbáceas además de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. tolerantes a sequía para ambientes con clima mediterráneo como los que se encuentran en el Sur de Australia, el Mediterráneo y Chile. Por lo tanto, una colección de 174 leguminosas perennes y hierbas correspondientes a 103 especies y 32 géneros fue evaluada por su adaptaci

  12. Assessing transhumance corridors on high mountain environments by least cost path analysis: the case of yak herds in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Maaz Maqsood; Frate, Ludovico; Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2017-09-07

    Mountain environments in the world host highly specialized flora and fauna which are vulnerable because of land use and climate change. Transhumance and other land use traditional practices are present in most of the mountains of the world, and management tools able to cope with new socioeconomic settings and environmental changes are urgently needed. During past centuries, yak (Bos grunniens) herding in Northern Pakistan involved the migration of herds to high mountain international rangelands, but the recent establishment of international borders breaks the traditional transhumance paths, promoting several ecological problems. In this paper, we propose the use of least cost path (LCP) algorithm to identify the most efficient corridors of transhumance for yak herds on northern high altitudes of Pakistan. Specifically, LCP was implemented to identify the critical grazing areas and the connecting zones to be accounted in a new management plan for the yaks in the region. The LCP analysis showed that some grazing areas are connected with several paths, whereas other areas are connected to a lesser extent. The analyses identified a set of best minimum cost paths able to guarantee local connectivity. We also delineated several medium and low efficient paths that could play a crucial role for maintaining regional connectivity which is essential for reducing the isolation of herds and the consequent inbreeding problems. The analytical framework implemented in this study allowed to (1) provide valuable information concerning the movement of yak herds in Gilgit-Baltistan, (2) identify potential corridors that are able to promote herd movement between villages and high mountain rangelands, and (3) identify critical areas for the connectivity of yaks by ranking of the potential corridors according to their length and permeability. The analysis would be extended to other transhumant herds and high mountain areas that are facing sociopolitical transformations and environmental

  13. Estimation of Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients of Tendone Vineyards Using Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vanino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable management of water resources plays a key role in Mediterranean viticulture, characterized by scarcity and competition of available water. This study focuses on estimating the evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of table grapes vineyards trained on overhead “tendone” systems in the Apulia region (Italy. Maximum vineyard transpiration was estimated by adopting the “direct” methodology for ETp proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization in Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, with crop parameters estimated from Landsat 8 and RapidEye satellite data in combination with ground-based meteorological data. The modeling results of two growing seasons (2013 and 2014 indicated that canopy growth, seasonal and 10-day sums evapotranspiration values were strictly related to thermal requirements and rainfall events. The estimated values of mean seasonal daily evapotranspiration ranged between 4.2 and 4.1 mm·d−1, while midseason estimated values of crop coefficients ranged from 0.88 to 0.93 in 2013, and 1.02 to 1.04 in 2014, respectively. The experimental evapotranspiration values calculated represent the maximum value in absence of stress, so the resulting crop coefficients should be used with some caution. It is concluded that the retrieval of crop parameters and evapotranspiration derived from remotely-sensed data could be helpful for downscaling to the field the local weather conditions and agronomic practices and thus may be the basis for supporting grape growers and irrigation managers.

  14. Acorn selection by the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus: a semi-controlled experiment in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Nóbrega, Filomena; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Teixeira, Generosa; Rebelo, Rui

    2013-09-01

    Fruits are highly important food resources for mammals in Mediterranean Europe, and due to the dominance of oaks (Quercus sp.), acorns are among those used by a vast array of species, including rodents. The metabolic yield of acorn intake may determine a selection pattern: preference for fat, carbohydrate, and consequently energy-rich fruits; or avoidance of fruits containing high concentrations of secondary chemical compounds (e.g., tannic acid). We studied the acorn feeding selection pattern of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting a mixed oak woodland, southwest Portugal, using an experiment conducted in an open-air enclosure. We tested which variables associated with the wood mouse (e.g., sex) and acorns (e.g., size and nutrient content) from three oak species (holm Q. rotundifolia, Portuguese Q. faginea and cork Q. suber oak) could be constraining acorn consumption. Our results indicate that wood mice are selecting acorns of the most common oak species (Q. suber), probably due to their previous familiarization with the fruit due to its dominance in the ecosystem but probably also because its chemical characteristics (sugar contents). Rodent gender and acorn morphology (width) are also influential, with females more prone to consume acorns with smaller width, probably due to handling limitation. This selective behaviour may have consequences for dispersion and natural regeneration of the different oak species.

  15. [Native plant resources to optimize the performances of forest rehabilitation in Mediterranean and tropical environment: some examples of nursing plant species that improve the soil mycorrhizal potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, Robin; Ramanankierana, Heriniaina; Hafidi, Mohamed; Baohanta, Rondro; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Bâ, Amadou; Galiana, Antoine; Bally, René; Lebrun, Michel; Prin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The overexploitation of natural resources, resulting in an increased need for arable lands by local populations, causes a serious dysfunction in the soil's biological functioning (mineral deficiency, salt stress, etc.). This dysfunction, worsened by the climatic conditions (drought), requires the implementation of ecological engineering strategies allowing the rehabilitation of degraded areas through the restoration of essential ecological services. The first symptoms of weathering processes of soil quality in tropical and Mediterranean environments result in an alteration of the plant cover structure with, in particular, the pauperization of plant species diversity and abundance. This degradation is accompanied by a weakening of soils and an increase of the impact of erosion on the surface layer resulting in reduced fertility of soils in terms of their physicochemical characteristics as well as their biological ones (e.g., soil microbes). Among the microbial components particularly sensitive to erosion, symbiotic microorganisms (rhizobia, Frankia, mycorrhizal fungi) are known to be key components in the main terrestrial biogeochemical cycles (C, N and P). Many studies have shown the importance of the management of these symbiotic microorganisms in rehabilitation and revegetation strategies of degraded environments, but also in improving the productivity of agrosystems. In particular, the selection of symbionts and their inoculation into the soil were strongly encouraged in recent decades. These inoculants were selected not only for their impact on the plant, but also for their ability to persist in the soil at the expense of the residual native microflora. The performance of this technique was thus evaluated on the plant cover, but its impact on soil microbial characteristics was totally ignored. The role of microbial diversity on productivity and stability (resistance, resilience, etc.) of eco- and agrosystems has been identified relatively recently and has led

  16. Urban environment adherence to the Mediterranean diet and prevalence of asthma symptoms among 10- to 12-year-old children: The Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulou, Dimitra; Priftis, Kostas N; Yannakoulia, Mary; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Yfanti, Konstantina; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed several associations between asthma symptoms and environmental and dietary factors, but the potential environment- diet interactions on asthma incidence have rarely been investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the interrelationships between urban/rural environment, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, the Mediterranean diet, and childhood asthma. A cross-sectional survey was performed and 1125 (529 boys), 10- to 12-year-old children were selected from 18 schools located in urban Athens area (n = 700) and from 10 schools located in rural areas of Ilia and Viotia (n = 425), Greece. Children and their parents completed standardized questionnaires, which evaluated, among others, environmental factors and dietary habits. Asthma was defined according to Phase II of the International Study on Allergies and Asthma in Childhood criteria. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean and Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents (KIDMED) score. Living in urban areas was associated with higher odds of ever had asthma symptoms by 1.78 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.54) when compared with rural areas. In contrast, 1-unit increase in the KIDMED score was associated with 16% lower likelihood of having asthma symptoms (95% CI, 0.77-0.91), after adjusting for various confounders. When stratifying the analysis by area of living it was observed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower likelihood of asthma in both urban and rural areas (urban, odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.73-0.91; rural, OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00). Urban environment seems to increase the likelihood of childhood asthma, whereas adherence to the healthy Mediterranean dietary pattern could mediate the aforementioned association and confers significant protection.

  17. Copepod response to ocean acidification in a low nutrient-low chlorophyll environment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervoudaki, S.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Moutsopoulos, T.; Protopapa, M.; Marro, S.; Gazeau, F.

    2017-02-01

    In order to identify how ocean acidification will influence biological interactions and fluxes among planktonic organisms and across trophic levels, a large-scale mesocosm experiment was performed in the oligotrophic Northwestern Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the European MedSeA project. Nine mesocosms were deployed in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, France) in summer 2012. Six mesocosms were subjected to different levels of CO2 partial pressures (pCO2; 550, 650, 750, 850, 1000 and 1250 μatm) covering the range of atmospheric pCO2 anticipated for the end of this century depending on future emission scenarios, and the last three mesocosms were unaltered (ambient pCO2 of ∼450 μatm). During this 21-day experiment, we monitored copepod egg and naupliar stocks, estimated copepod (Acartia clausi and Centropages typicus) feeding rates and determined the abundance and taxonomic composition of the mesozooplankton community at the start and at the completion of the experiment. This community was clearly dominated by copepods and its final composition slightly varied between mesocosms most likely due to natural and experimental variability that cannot be related to CO2 conditions. The abundances of eggs and nauplii as well as feeding rates of A. clausi and C. typicus on diatoms, dinoflagellates and ciliates showed no significant differences among CO2 levels. The above findings suggest that the experimental set-up especially for the specific trophic conditions and the short duration of the experiment did not provide the information on the effect of acidification that was expected. The acidification might have an effect on planktonic communities and even worsen the problems imposed by food limitation, therefore on this short time scale experiment and under the extreme ologotrophic conditions the signal that dominates was the food limitation.

  18. Human disturbances, habitat characteristics and social environment generate sex-specific responses in vigilance of Mediterranean mouflon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, Stéphanie; Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%), not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8%) whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of reserves in managing

  19. Human disturbances, habitat characteristics and social environment generate sex-specific responses in vigilance of Mediterranean mouflon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Benoist

    Full Text Available In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp. in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%, not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8% whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of

  20. Low contribution of internal metabolism to carbon dioxide emissions along lotic and lentic environments of a Mediterranean fluvial network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gener, Lluís.; Schiller, Daniel; Marcé, Rafael; Arroita, Maite; Casas-Ruiz, Joan Pere; Staehr, Peter Anton; Acuña, Vicenç; Sabater, Sergi; Obrador, Biel

    2016-12-01

    Inland waters are significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. CO2 supersaturation and subsequent CO2 emissions from inland waters can be driven by internal metabolism, external inputs of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) derived from the catchment, and other processes (e.g., internal geochemical reactions of calcite precipitation or photochemical mineralization of organic solutes). However, the sensitivity of the magnitude and sources of CO2 emissions to fluvial network hydromorphological alterations is still poorly understood. Here we investigated both the magnitude and sources of CO2 emissions from lotic (i.e., running waters) and lentic (i.e., stagnant waters associated to small dams) waterbodies of a Mediterranean fluvial network by computing segment-scale mass balances of CO2. Our results showed that sources other than internal metabolism sustained most (82%) of the CO2 emissions from the studied fluvial network. The magnitude and sources of CO2 emissions in lotic waterbodies were highly dependent on hydrology, with higher emissions dominated by DIC inputs derived from the catchment during high flows and lower emissions partially fueled by CO2 produced biologically within the river during low flows. In contrast, CO2 emissions in lentic waterbodies were low, relatively stable over the time and the space, and dominated by DIC inputs from the catchment regardless of the different hydrological situations. Overall, our results stress the sensitivity of fluvial networks to human activities and climate change and particularly highlight the role of hydromorphological conditions on modulating the magnitude and sources of CO2 emissions from fluvial networks.

  1. Contribution of legumes to the availability of soil nitrogen and its uptake by wheat in Mediterranean environments of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Espinoza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and partitioning of N is determined by its availability and demand during the various phenological stages of the crop. In two experiments conducted in rainfed areas of the Mediterranean climate region of central Chile, legume-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. rotations were compared to oat (Avena sativa L.-wheat systems (with and without applications of N fertilizer. The objective was to assess the contribution of legumes to the availability of soil N and N uptake by the wheat crop following grain legumes. N mineralization and uptake, N use efficiency (NUE, and N uptake efficiency (NUpE by wheat were evaluated at different phenological stages in 2010. Synchronization existed between accumulated soil N mineralization and N uptake by the wheat. N uptake by wheat was higher in Experiment II (Andean foothill than in Experiment I (interior dryland. Grain yields after legumes ranged 60-110% and 72-103% of yields in the fertilized cereal rotation (oat-wheat in Experiments I and II, respectively. There was high correlation between soil N availability vs. grain yield (R² = 0.84 and 0.64 and N uptake vs. grain yield (R² = 0.55 and 0.64 for Experiments I and II, respectively. Rotations with lupine (Lupinus spp. and field peas (Pisum sativum L. showed high NUE and NUpE in Experiment I, and Experiment II in pea. The lowest NUE was after oats with N fertilizers. It is concluded that wheat cultivated in both agro-ecological areas after grain legumes or green manure was more efficient in N uptake and use than cereal, especially when the latter was fertilized.

  2. Effects of maquis clearing on the properties of the soil and on the near-surface hydrological processes in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pirastru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hillslopes covered with maquis in the semi-arid Mediterranean environment have been cleared in recent decades. There is little information on what effect this has on the hydrology of the soil. We compared the hydraulic properties of the soil and the subsurface hydrological dynamics on two adjacent sites on a hillslope. One site was covered with maquis, the other with grass. The grass started to grow some 10 years ago, after the maquis had been cleared and the soil had been ploughed. Our study found that the hydraulic properties and the hydrological dynamics of the maquis and the grassed soil differed greatly. The grassed soil had less organic matter and higher apparent density than did the soil covered in maquis. Moreover, the maquis soil retained more water than the grassed soil in the tension range from saturation to 50 cm of water. Infiltration tests performed in summer and in winter indicated that the field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs of the maquis soil was higher than that of the grassy soil. However the data showed that the Kfs of the two soils changed with the season. In the maquis soil the Kfs increased from summer to winter. This was assumed to be due to water flowing more efficiently through wet soil. By contrast, in the grassy soil the Kfs decreased from summer to winter. This was because the desiccation cracks closed in the wet soil. As result, the influence of the land use change was clear from the Kfs measurements in winter, but less so from those in the summer. Changes in land use altered the dynamics of the infiltration, subsurface drainage and soil water storage of the soil. The maquis soil profile never saturated completely, and only short-lived, event based perched water tables were observed. By contrast, soil saturation and a shallow water table were observed in the grass covered site throughout the wet season. The differences were assumed to be due to the high canopy interception of the maquis cover, and to

  3. Understand mountain studies from earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Sichuan earthquake on 12 May was the most devastating one to hit China over the past 60 years or so. As the affected were mostly mountainous areas, serious damages were caused by various secondary disasters ranging from mountain collapse to the formation of quake lakes. This leaves Prof. DENG Wei, director-general of the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, much to think about, and he is calling for strengthening studies on mountain science.

  4. QTLs for barley yield adaptation to Mediterranean environments in the ‘Nure’ × ‘Tremois’ biparental population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tondelli, A.; Francia, E.; Visioni, A.; Comadran, J.; Mastrangelo, A.M.; Akar, T.; Al-Yassina, A.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Stanca, A.M.; Romagosa, I.; Pecchioni, N.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-environment trials represent a highly valuable tool for the identification of the genetic bases of crop yield potential and stress adaptation. A Diversity Array Technology®-based barley map has been developed in the ‘Nure’ × ‘Tremois’ biparental Doubled Haploid population, harbouring the genom

  5. Global security in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sánchez Mateos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the WEU, NATO and specially the European Union (in the framework of the Barcelona process initiated security dialogues with countries East and South of the Mediterranean Basin. Those processes are far to achieve significant progress. Some arguments help to explain the present situation: on the one hand, European countries and organizations lack clear strategic goals and consistent policies. On the other, difficulties to create a security dialogue in the Mediterranean, which is a precondition to generateboth a common language and security culture, are the result of differences between the European and the Arab security cultures. Nevertheless, the geopolitical environment, the Euro-Mediterranean process itself and the development of the European Union demanda strategic revision on how to implement the objectives of the Barcelona Declaration, reformulating the idea of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership towards a new concept of shared security that integrates Southern interests and concerns.

  6. A framework for assessing hydrological regime sensitivity to climate change in a convective rainfall environment: a case study of two medium-sized eastern Mediterranean catchments, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peleg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modeling framework is formulated and applied to assess the sensitivity of the hydrological regime of two catchments in a convective rainfall environment with respect to projected climate change. The study uses likely rainfall scenarios with high spatiotemporal resolution that are dependent on projected changes in the driving regional meteorological synoptic systems. The framework was applied to a case study in two medium-sized Mediterranean catchments in Israel, affected by convective rainfall, by combining the HiReS-WG rainfall generator and the SAC-SMA hydrological model. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime was examined for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios, comparing the historical (beginning of the 21st century and future (mid-21st-century periods from three general circulation model simulations available from CMIP5. Focusing on changes in the occurrence frequency of regional synoptic systems and their impact on rainfall and streamflow patterns, we find that the mean annual rainfall over the catchments is projected to be reduced by 15% (outer range 2–23% and 18% (7–25% for the RCP4.5 sand RCP8.5 emission scenarios, respectively. The mean annual streamflow volumes are projected to be reduced by 45% (10–60% and 47% (16–66%. The average events' streamflow volumes for a given event rainfall depth are projected to be lower by a factor of 1.4–2.1. Moreover, the streamflow season in these ephemeral streams is projected to be shorter by 22% and 26–28% for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The amplification in reduction of streamflow volumes relative to rainfall amounts is related to the projected reduction in soil moisture, as a result of fewer rainfall events and longer dry spells between rainfall events during the wet season. The dominant factors for the projected reduction in rainfall amount were the reduction in occurrence of wet synoptic systems and the shortening of the wet synoptic systems

  7. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Codianni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  8. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  9. Fluctuation of Picea timber line and paleo-environment on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains during the late Holocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; KONG Zhaochen; YAN Shun; YANG Zhenjing; NI Jian

    2006-01-01

    As a good indicator of Holocene climate,the fluctuation of alpine timberline is a synthetical result of impacts of many environmental factors during geological and historical periods and modern times. As the dominant tree species of mountainous conifer forests on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang, the distribution of Picea schrenkiana and its population size are sensitive to climatic change. The typical natural profile of Huashuwozi and the nearby Xiaoxigou archaeological profile, located in Quanzijie Township, Jimusaer County in Xinjiang, were chosen to analyze and compare the relative high-resolution pollen records,and to measure 14C dating and SEM (scanning electron microscope) microstructure for charcoal fragments contained in Xiaoxigou profile's cultural layers.The results show that in these two profiles, the high percentages of Picea (more than 20% and 35%, respectively) appeared in the stratum of the same period (2000-1300 a BP), which corresponds to the charcoal fragment's age of Picea schrenkiana contained in Xiaoxigou cultural layers. These results convincingly revealed that during the period of 2000 -1300 a BP, the timberline for Picea schrenkiana on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang declined by about 330m compared with the present.

  10. First data on the environment and climate change within the Zhom-Bolok volcanic field (Eastern Sayan Mountains) in the Middle-Late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, E. V.; Shchetnikov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Sharova, O. G.; Kulagina, N. V.; Letunova, P. P.; Ivanov, E. V.; Kraynov, M. A.; Kerber, E. V.; Filinov, I. A.; Levina, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers the results of comprehensive lithological, biostratigraphic, and geochemical investigation of sediments in Khara-Nur Lake (Eastern Sayan Mountains) situated in the area of the greatest Holocene eruptions in the Central Asia Region. The age of the basal sediment layer is estimated at 6881 ± 53 years. The local natural environment and climate have undergone great changes since that time. The Holocene volcanic events did not exert a catastrophic impact on the regional landscape, but they caused dramatic changes in the local vegetation. The well-defined correlation of the regional events with the well-known records of the natural environment in the Northern Hemisphere is indicative of the decisive influence of global atmospheric circulation on restructuring the landscape and climate system in the Zhom-Bolok Region in the Middle-Late Holocene.

  11. Erosion in Mediterranean landscapes: Changes and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Beguería, Santiago

    2013-09-01

    Intense erosion processes are widespread in the Mediterranean region, and include sheet wash erosion, rilling, gullying, shallow landsliding, and the development of large and active badlands in both subhumid and semi-arid areas. This review analyses the main environmental and human features related to soil erosion processes, and the main factors that explain the extreme variability of factors influencing soil erosion, particularly recent land use changes. The importance of erosion in the Mediterranean is related to the long history of human activity in a region characterized by low levels of annual precipitation, the occurrence of intense rainstorms and long-lasting droughts, high evapotranspiration, the presence of steep slopes and the occurrence of recent tectonic activity, together with the recurrent use of fire, overgrazing and farming. These factors have resulted in a complex landscape in which intensification and abandonment, wealth and poverty can co-exist. The changing conditions of national and international markets and the evolution of population pressure are now the main drivers explaining land use changes, including farmland abandonment in mountain areas, the expansion of some subsidized crops to marginal lands, and the development of new terraces affected by landslides and intense soil erosion during extreme rainstorm events. The occurrence of human-related forest fires affecting thousands of hectares each year is a significant problem in both the northern and southern areas of the Mediterranean basin. Here, we highlight the rise of new scientific challenges in controlling the negative consequences of soil erosion in the Mediterranean region: 1) to reduce the effects and extent of forest fires, and restructure the spatial organization of abandoned landscapes; 2) to provide guidance for making the EU agricultural policy more adapted to the complexity and fragility of Mediterranean environments; 3) to develop field methods and models to improve the

  12. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Quebrajo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1 to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N fertilizer; and (2 evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha−1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm−1 (field 1 and 3221 ± 531 kg ha−1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm−1 (field 2 were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10−4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10−4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis.

  13. An approach to precise nitrogen management using hand-held crop sensor measurements and winter wheat yield mapping in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-03-06

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha(-1) and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm(-1) (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha(-1) and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm(-1) (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with r(xy) = 0.64 and p sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis.

  14. Pre-collisional geodynamics of the Mediterranean Sea: the Mediterranean Ridge and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chaumillon

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Mediterranean Sea consists of a series of small-sized and almost geographically disconnected oceanic or continental crust rooted marine basins. It is also an area almost totally surrounded by mountain ranges, which chiefly belong to the alpine realm. This overall geodynamic setting results from a long term convergence between the two major, African and European, plates. Previous collisions have led to the edification of surrounding chains, while subduction and new-collisional processes tend to create new extensional back-arc basins and wide tectonized accretionary prisms. In this paper we briefly outline the most recent and almost land-locked back-arc basin that has developed in the Mediterranean,i.e., the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Mediterranean Ridge, which may be regarded as a collisional sedimentary wedge predating a future mountain chain.

  15. 陇山地区早期地理环境的复原研究%A recovery research on the Long Mountains' geographic environment in Tang Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永莉

    2011-01-01

    Aim To recover the early geographic environment of the Long Mountain. Methods Field study, history documents analysis and the theories of the humanistic geography were used. Results Peoples's enviroment perception and cultural expression to the Long Mountain in Tang Dynasty were influenced by the objective enviroment, the peoples' subjective mood, the society history, and so on. Conclusion Compared with the central area, the climate and enviroment of the Long Mountain changed slowly, its dividing function wasn't as intense as the people had described.%目的 复原陇山地区早期的地理环境.方法 在野外考察及大量查阅有关资料的基础上,运用比较方法和现代人本主义地理学相关理论进行探讨.结果 早期中原人士对陇山地区的环境感知与文化重构深受区域地理环境与人们的主观情绪、社会背景等主客观因素的影响.结论 唐代陇山及其以西地区的气候、地貌基本呈现为自东向西逐渐恶化的缓慢态势,陇山的地理分界功能并不像唐代中原文人所描述的那样强烈.

  16. Microbialites in the shallow-water marine environments of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian biotic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakociński, Michał; Racki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Microbial carbonates, consisting of abundant girvanellid oncoids, are described from cephalopod-crinoid and crinoid-brachiopod coquinas (rudstones) occurring in the lowermost Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. A Girvanella-bearing horizon (consist with numerous girvanellid oncoids) has been recognised at the Psie Górki section, and represents the northern slope succession of the drowned Dyminy Reef. This occurrence of microbialites in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian event is interpreted as the result of opportunistic cyanobacteria blooms, which, as 'disaster forms', colonised empty shallow-water ecological niches during the survival phase following the Frasnian metazoan reef collapse, due to collapsed activity of epifaunal, grazing, and/or burrowing animals. The anachronistic lithofacies at Psie Górki is linked with catastrophic mass mortality of the cephalopod and crinoid-brachiopod communities during the heavy storm events. This mass occurrence of girvanellid oncoids, along with Frutexites-like microbial shrubs and, at least partly, common micritisation of some skeletal grains, records an overall increase in microbial activity in eutrophic normal marine environments. Microbial communities in the Holy Cross Mountains are not very diverse, being mainly represented by girvanellid oncoids, and stand in contrast to the very rich microbial communities known from the Guilin area (China), Canning Basin (Australia) and the Timan-northern Ural area (Russia). The association from Poland is similar to more diverse microbial communities represented by oncoids, trombolites and stromatolites, well known from the Canadian Alberta basin.

  17. Application of 2-D geoelectrical resistivity tomography for mountain permafrost detection in sporadic permafrost environments: Experiences from Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Mountain permafrost covers some 2000 km² of the Austrian Alps which is less than 2.5% of the national territory. Delineating the altitudinal lower limit of permafrost in the mountains of Austria is difficult due the complex topography, the rather sparseness of field verification data and the lack of long-term permafrost monitoring data. Such monitoring data should cover different slope aspects, different elevations, different substrates and different mountain regions of Austria. In this study it was attempted to delineate the lower limit of permafrost at two study sites in the Tauern Range, Austria, applying two-dimensional geoelectrical resistivity tomography (ERT). In addition, multi-annual ground temperature data collected by miniature temperature datalogger (MDT) were used to validate the results. At the study site Hochreichart (maximum elevation 2416 m asl), located in the Seckauer Tauern Range, 14 ERT profiles (lengths 48-196 m; electrode spacing 2, 2.5 or 4 m) were measured at elevations between 1805 and 2416 m asl. Measurements were carried out at two cirques (Reichart, Schöneben) and at the summit plateau of Hochreichart. Results at this site indicate that permafrost lenses are detectable at elevations down to c.1900 m asl at radiation-sheltered sites. Furthermore, at the summit plateau permafrost only occurs as rather small lenses. The ERT-based permafrost pattern is generally confirmed by the MTD data with negative mean annual ground temperature values at only a few monitoring sites. However, the possibility of air-filled cavities causing higher resistive zones faking permafrost existence cannot be excluded because coarse-grained sediments (i.e. relict rock glaciers and autochthonous block fields) are widespread at this study site. At the second study site Kögele Cirque (maximum elevation 3030 m asl) located in the Schober Mountains 12 ERT profiles (lengths 48 m; electrode spacing 2 m) were measured at elevations between 2631 and 2740 m asl. Spatially

  18. Development of a Three Dimensional Wireless Sensor Network for Terrain-Climate Research in Remote Mountainous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.; Robinson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Developing sensor networks that are robust enough to perform in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks compared to human-dominated areas. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. We aim to overcome these challenges by developing a three-dimensional sensor network arrayed across a topoclimatic gradient (1100-1800 meters) in a wilderness area in central Idaho. Development of this sensor array builds upon advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies coupled with experiences of the multidisciplinary investigators in conducting research in remote mountainous locations. The proposed gradient monitoring network will provide near real-time data from a three-dimensional (3-D) array of sensors measuring biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The network will monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, tree stem growth and leaf wetness at time intervals ranging from seconds to days. The long-term goal of this project is to realize a transformative integration of smart sensor networks adaptively communicating data in real-time to ultimately achieve a 3-D visualization of ecosystem processes within remote mountainous regions. Process models will be the interface between the visualization platforms and the sensor network. This will allow us to better predict how non-human dominated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems function and respond to climate dynamics. Access to the data will be ensured as part of the Northwest Knowledge Network being developed at the University of Idaho, through ongoing Idaho NSF-funded cyber infrastructure initiatives, and existing data management systems funded by NSF, such as

  19. Characteristics of suspended sediment and river discharge during the beginning of snowmelt in volcanically active mountainous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Ros, Faizah Che; Chalov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    To better understand instream suspended sediment delivery and transformation processes, we conducted field measurements and laboratory experiments to study the natural function of spatial and temporal variation, sediment particles, stable isotopes, particle size, and aspect ratio from tributary to mainstream flows of the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River catchment at the beginning of and during snowmelt. The Sukhaya Elizovskaya River is located in the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and is surrounded by active volcanic territory. The study area has a range of hydrological features that determine the extreme amounts of washed sediments. Sediment transported to the river channels in volcanic mountainous terrain is believed to be strongly influenced by climate conditions, particularly when heavy precipitation and warmer climate trigger mudflows in association with the melting snow. The high porosity of the channel bottom material also leads to interactions with the surface water, causing temporal variability in the daily fluctuations in water and sediment flow. Field measurements revealed that suspended sediment behaviour and fluxes decreased along the mainstream Sukhaya Elizovskaya River from inflows from a tributary catchment located in the volcanic mountain range. In laboratory experiments, water samples collected from tributaries were mixed with those from the mainstream flow of the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River to examine the cause of debris flow and characteristics of suspended sediment in the mainstream. These findings and the geological conditions of the tributary catchments studied led us to conclude that halloysite minerals likely comprise the majority of suspended sediments and play a significant role in phosphate adsorption. The experimental results were upscaled and verified using field measurements. Our results indicate that the characteristics of suspended sediment and river discharge in the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River can be attributed primarily to the beginning of

  20. Evaluating the performance of different predictor strategies in regression-based downscaling with a focus on glacierized mountain environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Marlis; Nemec, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    This study presents first steps towards verifying the hypothesis that uncertainty in global and regional glacier mass simulations can be reduced considerably by reducing the uncertainty in the high-resolution atmospheric input data. To this aim, we systematically explore the potential of different predictor strategies for improving the performance of regression-based downscaling approaches. The investigated local-scale target variables are precipitation, air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and global radiation, all at a daily time scale. Observations of these target variables are assessed from three sites in geo-environmentally and climatologically very distinct settings, all within highly complex topography and in the close proximity to mountain glaciers: (1) the Vernagtbach station in the Northern European Alps (VERNAGT), (2) the Artesonraju measuring site in the tropical South American Andes (ARTESON), and (3) the Brewster measuring site in the Southern Alps of New Zealand (BREWSTER). As the large-scale predictors, ERA interim reanalysis data are used. In the applied downscaling model training and evaluation procedures, particular emphasis is put on appropriately accounting for the pitfalls of limited and/or patchy observation records that are usually the only (if at all) available data from the glacierized mountain sites. Generalized linear models and beta regression are investigated as alternatives to ordinary least squares regression for the non-Gaussian target variables. By analyzing results for the three different sites, five predictands and for different times of the year, we look for systematic improvements in the downscaling models' skill specifically obtained by (i) using predictor data at the optimum scale rather than the minimum scale of the reanalysis data, (ii) identifying the optimum predictor allocation in the vertical, and (iii) considering multiple (variable, level and/or grid point) predictor options combined with state

  1. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  2. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  3. Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and post-timber-harvesting erosion response in a mountain environment of Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of forest management on the occurrence of accelerated soil erosion by water. The study site is located in a mountainous area of the Italian Central Apennines. Here, forest harvesting is a widespread forestry activity and is mainly performed on the moderate to steep slopes of the highlands. Through modeling operations based on data on soil properties and direct monitoring of changes in the post-forest-harvesting soil surface level at the hillslope scale, we show that the observed site became prone to soil erosion after human intervention. Indeed, the measured mean soil erosion rate of 49 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for the harvested watershed is about 21 times higher than the rate measured in its neighboring undisturbed forested watershed (2.3 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The erosive response is greatly aggravated by exposing the just-harvested forest, with very limited herbaceous plant cover, to the aggressive attack of the heaviest annual rainfall without adopting any conservation practices. The erosivity of the storms during the first four months of field measurements was 1571 MJ mm h- 1 ha- 1 in total (i.e., from September to December 2008). At the end of the experiment (16 months), 18.8%, 26.1% and 55.1% of the erosion monitoring sites in the harvested watershed recorded variations equal or greater than 0-5, 5-10 and > 10 mm, respectively. This study also provides a quantification of Italian forestland surfaces with the same pedo-lithological characteristics exploited for wood supply. Within a period of ten years (2002-2011), about 9891 ha of coppice forest changes were identified and their potential soil erosion rates modeled.

  4. Geologic uncertainty in a regulatory environment: An example from the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautman, C. A.; Treadway, A. H.

    1991-11-01

    Regulatory geologists are concerned with predicting the performance of sites proposed for waste disposal or for remediation of existing pollution problems. Geologic modeling of these sites requires large-scale expansion of knowledge obtained from very limited sampling. This expansion induces considerable uncertainty into the geologic models of rock properties that are required for modeling the predicted performance of the site. One method for assessing this uncertainty is through nonparametric geostatistical simulation. Simulation can produce a series of equiprobable models of a rock property of interest. Each model honors measured values at sampled locations, and each can be constructed to emulate both the univariate histogram and the spatial covariance structure of the measured data. Computing a performance model for a number of geologic simulations allows evaluation of the effects of geologic uncertainty. A site may be judged acceptable if the number of failures to meet a particular performance criterion produced by these computations is sufficiently low. A site that produces too many failures may be either unacceptable or simply inadequately described. The simulation approach to addressing geologic uncertainty is being applied to the potential high-level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A. Preliminary geologic models of unsaturated permeability have been created that reproduce observed statistical properties reasonably well. A spread of unsaturated groundwater travel times has been computed that reflects the variability of those geologic models. Regions within the simulated models exhibiting the greatest variability among multiple runs are candidates for obtaining the greatest reduction in uncertainty through additional site characterization.

  5. Environment-friendly reduction of flood risk and infrastructure damage in a mountain river: Case study of the Czarny Dunajec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuś, Paweł; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Zawiejska, Joanna; Amirowicz, Antoni; Oglęcki, Paweł

    2016-11-01

    Migration of a mountain river channel may cause erosional risk to infrastructure or settlements on the valley floor. Following a flood of 2010, a cutbank in one of the bends of the main channel of the Czarny Dunajec, Polish Carpathians, approached a local road by 50 m. To arrest the erosion of the laterally migrating channel, water authorities planned construction of a ditch cutting the forested neck of the bend, reinforcement of the ditch banks, and damming the main channel with a boulder groyne. In order to avoid channelization of the highly valued, multithread river reach that would deteriorate its ecological status and cause increased flood risk to downstream reaches, an alternative approach to prevent bank erosion was proposed. The new scheme, applied in 2011, included opening of the inlets to inactive side braids located by the neck of the bend of the main channel. This solution reestablished the flow in the steeper low-flow channels, allowing us to expect a cutoff and abandonment of the main channel during subsequent floods. Gravelly deflectors were constructed directly below the inlets to the reactivated side channels to divert the flow into the channels and prevent the water from entering the main channel. Hydraulic measurements performed before and after the implementation of the scheme confirmed that it enabled shifting the main water current, with the highest average velocity and bed shear stress, from the braid closest to the road to the most distant braid. Similar surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities indicated that flow reactivation in the side channels was beneficial for these groups of river biota, increasing their abundance and taxonomic richness in the reach. Not only was the implemented solution significantly less expensive, but it also enhanced ecological functions of the multithread channel and the variability of physical habitat conditions and maintained the role of the reach as a wood debris trap. However, avulsion of the

  6. The age and tectonic environment of the rhyolitic rocks on the western side of Wuyi Mountain, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU LiangShu; DENG Ping; YU JinHai; WANG YanBin; JIANG ShaoYong

    2008-01-01

    During the geological survey of the metamorphic rocks in Xingning-Wuhua region on the western side of Wuyi Mountain, South China, we discovered the Neoproterozoic rhyolite and rhyolitic greywacke for the first time that outcrop in the Proterozoic metamorphic rocks near Jingnan Town of Xingning County,eastern Guangdong Province. A systematic research on petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of rhyolitic rocks was conducted to understand their tectonic setting and formation age. The Jingnan rhyolite is interbedded with a coeval greywacke, with a total thickness of 60 m; both rhyolite and greywacke display a similar folding and metamorphic pattern. Meta-rhyolite consists of groundmass and phenocrystals including sanidine, orthoclase, and quartz with distinct undulose extinction; the groundmass has been re-crystallized into fine-grain feldspar, quartz and sericite aggregation.Meta-greywacke is composed of crystallinoclastic grains (sanidine, orthoclase, quartz and oligoclase)and clay groundmass. Zircon grains used for the SHRIMP U-Pb analysis are light brown-colored and euhedral or sub-euhedral. Dating data suggest two age groups; eight grains of magma-type zircon with an idiomorphic form yield an age of 972±8 Ma, and the other seven weakly corroded grains of zircon with euhedral to subeuhedral shape construct an average age of 1097±11 Ma, which were captured from older rocks by an uplifting magma, implying that a late Mesoproterozoic basement exists in the Nanling region. In addition, one Paleoproterozoic age, 2035±11 Ma, is obtained from a rounded detrital zircon,indicating that a Paleoproterozoic thermal event took place in the South China. Geochemically, the Jingnan rhyolitic rocks are characterized by high K2O content, intermediate Al2O3 content, with the ACNK value 0.98-1.11, and belonging to high-K alkaline series. They are rich in ∑REE, Rb, Th and Ce,depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Ti, P and Nb-Ta, and with moderate negative Eu and Sr anomalies. These features

  7. The age and tectonic environment of the rhyolitic rocks on the western side of Wuyi Mountain,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During the geological survey of the metamorphic rocks in Xingning-Wuhua region on the western side of Wuyi Mountain, South China, we discovered the Neoproterozoic rhyolite and rhyolitic greywacke for the first time that outcrop in the Proterozoic metamorphic rocks near Jingnan Town of Xingning County, eastern Guangdong Province. A systematic research on petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of rhyolitic rocks was conducted to understand their tectonic setting and formation age. The Jingnan rhyolite is interbedded with a coeval greywacke, with a total thickness of 60 m; both rhyolite and greywacke display a similar folding and metamorphic pattern. Meta-rhyolite consists of groundmass and phenocrystals including sanidine, orthoclase, and quartz with distinct undulose extinction; the groundmass has been recrystallized into fine-grain feldspar, quartz and sericite aggregation. Meta-greywacke is composed of crystallinoclastic grains (sanidine, orthoclase, quartz and oligoclase) and clay groundmass. Zircon grains used for the SHRIMP U-Pb analysis are light brown-colored and euhedral or subeuhedral. Dating data suggest two age groups; eight grains of magmatype zircon with an idiomorphic form yield an age of 972±8 Ma, and the other seven weakly corroded grains of zircon with euhedral to subeuhedral shape construct an average age of 1097±11 Ma, which were captured from older rocks by an uplifting magma, implying that a late Mesoproterozoic basement exists in the Nanling region. In addition, one Paleoproterozoic age, 2035±11 Ma, is obtained from a rounded detrital zircon, indicating that a Paleoproterozoic thermal event took place in the South China. Geochemically, the Jingnan rhyolitic rocks are characterized by high K2O content, intermediate Al2O3 content, with the ACNK value 0.98―1.11, and belonging to high-K alkaline series. They are rich in ΣREE, Rb, Th and Ce, depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Ti, P and Nb-Ta, and with moderate negative Eu and Sr anomalies. These

  8. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  9. Benign Adjusting Effects of Long Tunnel on Environment and Slope Hazards: taking Erlang Mountain Tunnel as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Quancai; WANG Lansheng; ZENG Lin; CHEN Yong

    2006-01-01

    The 21st century shall be a century of accelerated development of tunnel construction in China. But until now, what have been frequently stated in reports about influence of tunnels on environment are basically negative. In fact, this is not true. Tunnels, especially those extend across sensitive areas do exert some positive functions on improving environment and preventing local slope hazards. These positive effects, being new phenomena, are found and put forward by the authors after a series of careful observations have been carried out and in-depth analysis performed the first time. Meanwhile, it is a positive evaluation that the authors made upon tunnels. Many important phenomena and data are cited as evidence and their causative factors are analyzed in this paper as well.

  10. MOUNTAINS UNITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Dovbenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain region work in specific conditions. They have original traditions, a special nature of learning and work. Indeed, because of a remote location mountain village school becomes the center for a cultural and spiritual life. Of course, it is related to a present social and economic situation in the country and a slow progress of society. Therefore, we need to look at mountain school with a broader angle, help it in comprehensive development of an individual and ensure an availability of quality education for children living in mountainous areas. Here we should talk about learning as well as laying the foundations for a life success. The international research project Mountain School. Status. Problems. Prospects for Development. Is established to help solve these problems. Precarpathian National University is an active member of the project.

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  12. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down through ...

  13. Sedimentary environments of the Cenozoic sedimentary debris found in the moraines of the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica and its climatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Aimin; LIU Xiaohan; LEE Jong Ik; LI Xiaoli; HUANG Feixin

    2004-01-01

    During the field work of the 1998~1999's and 1999~2000's Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHNARE) in the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica, some Cenozoic sedimentary debris are found in two terminal moraine banks over the blue ice near Harding Mount in the center of this region. All the debris are of characteristics of glaciogenic diamicton and belong to the products of the glacial movements of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. In this paper, the authors make a detailed study on the sedimentary environments of the sedimentary debris through petrologic, sedimentological, mineralogical, and geo-chemical methods. Characteristics of their sedimentary textures and structures, grain size distributions, quartz grains' surface textures and features, together with their geo-chemical compositions all show that these sedimentary rocks are a kind of subglacial lodgement tills which are deposited in the ice sheet frontal area by reactions of glacial movements and glaciogenic melt water. Their palaeoenvironmental implications in revealing the retreat history of East Antarctic Ice Sheet are discussed. The authors draw the conclusion from current study that the glacial frontal of the East Antarctica Ice Sheet might have been retreated to this area during the Pliocene Epoch, which represents a warm climate event accompanied by a large-scale ice sheet retreat in Antarctica at that time.

  14. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  15. 无人机在高原山地环境下航摄轨迹的规划%Trajectory Planning of UAV in Plateaus,Mountainous Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书捷

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory of UAV must be planned when UAV is about to shooting the punctate,linear,planar multi-ple targets in the undulating environment such as plateau and mountainous terrain. Overall trajectory planning is divided into two phases:global planning stages,namely to plan global shortest route for multiple targets;local planning stages,re-planning the route between the destination points which do not meet the requirements in order to avoid the terrain threat,and ultimately get the best route trajectory. Ant colony algorithm and A∗algorithm were used in global planning and local planning. The results of the simulation show the effectiveness and efficiency of the trajectory planning method.%在高原、山地地形起伏较大的环境下,无人机对点状、线状、面状多个目标拍摄时的轨迹需要进行最优化规划。总体航迹规划分为两个阶段:全局规划阶段,即对多个目标进行全局最短路线规划;局部规划阶段,即为躲避地形威胁,对最短路线中,目标点之间不符合要求的路线进行重规划,最终得到最优的路线轨迹。分别采用蚁群算法和A∗算法进行全局规划和局部规划,仿真结果表明了本文轨迹规划方法的有效性及高效性。

  16. Changes in climate-growth relationships and IADF formation over time of pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Olivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean basin has experienced an increase in the mean annual temperature, a decrease in the mean annual precipitation, and an increase in the frequency of severe drought periods during the second half of the 20th century. However, winter and spring precipitation has increased and summer precipitation has decreased in the western Mediterranean region. Aim of the study: The objectives of the present study were: i to compare changes in climate-growth relationships over time for Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Spain ii to quantify the presence of intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs on the three species, and iii to define the associated climatic variables. Area of study: 26 sampling sites (8 P. halepensis sites, 8 P. pinaster sites and 10 P. sylvestris sites were selected in their distribution area in Spain. Main results: Precipitation is the main factor influencing growth and IADF occurrence in the three species. Wet periods during previous winter and spring induced higher growth rates on P. halepensis and P. pinaster, while P. sylvestris was mostly influenced by summer precipitation. However, the influence of these climatic variables on the growth of these species changed over the studied period. The increase of winter and spring precipitation combined with increasingly harsh summer climatic conditions in the second half of the 20th century may have enhanced the importance of precipitation at the beginning of the growing season on the growth of species subject to higher summer drought stress (P. halepensis and P. pinaster and increased IADF occurrence. Research highlights: Besides reflecting changes in the environmental conditions during the growing season, the inclusion of IADF detection in chronologies adds new information to ring-width chronologies, thereby improving its quality.

  17. Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry: a model for estimating microbial communities in repository drifts at Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Darren M.; Ehrhorn, Thomas F.; Horn, Joanne

    2003-05-01

    Geochemical and microbiological modeling was performed to evaluate the potential quantities and impact of microorganisms on the geochemistry of the area adjacent to and within nuclear waste packages in the proposed repository drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The microbial growth results from the introduction of water, ground support, and waste package materials into the deep unsaturated rock. The simulations, which spanned 1 million years, were accomplished using a newly developed computer code, Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING). MING uses environmental thresholds for limiting microbial growth to temperatures below 120 °C and above relative humidities of 90% in repository drifts. Once these thresholds are met, MING expands upon a mass balance and thermodynamic approach proposed by McKinley et al. [FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 20 (1997) 545] by using kinetic rates to supply constituents from design materials and constituent fluxes including solubilized rock components into the drift to perform two separate mass balance calculations as a function of time. The first (nutrient limit) assesses the available nutrients (C, N, P and S) and calculates how many microorganisms can be produced based on a microorganism stoichiometry of C 160(H 280O 80)N 30P 2S. The second (energy limit) calculates the energy available from optimally combined redox couples for the temperature and pH at that time. This optimization maximizes those reactions that produce >15 kJ/mol (limit on useable energy) using an iterative linear optimization technique. The final available energy value is converted to microbial mass at a rate of 1 kg of biomass (dry weight) for every 64 MJ of energy. These two values (nutrient limit and energy limit) are then compared and the smaller value represents the number of microorganisms that can be produced over a specified time. MING can also be adapted to investigate other problems of interest as the model can be used in saturated and

  18. Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING): A Model for Estimating Microbial Communities in Repository Drifts at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Jolley; T.F. Ehrhorn; J. Horn

    2002-03-19

    Geochemical and microbiological modeling was performed to evaluate the potential quantities and impact of microorganisms on the geochemistry of the area adjacent to and within nuclear waste packages in the proposed repository drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The microbial growth results from the introduction of water, ground support, and waste package materials into the deep unsaturated rock. The simulations, which spanned one million years, were accomplished using a newly developed computer code, Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING). MING uses environmental thresholds for limiting microbial growth to temperatures below 120 C and above relative humidities of 90 percent in repository drifts. Once these thresholds are met, MING expands upon a mass balance and thermodynamic approach proposed by McKinley and others (1997), by using kinetic rates to supply constituents from design materials and constituent fluxes including solubilized rock components into the drift, to perform two separate mass-balance calculations as a function of time. The first (nutrient limit) assesses the available nutrients (C, N, P and S) and calculates how many microorganisms can be produced based on a microorganism stoichiometry of C{sub 160}(H{sub 280}O{sub 80})N{sub 30}P{sub 2}S. The second (energy limit) calculates the energy available from optimally combined redox couples for the temperature, and pH at that time. This optimization maximizes those reactions that produce > 15kJ/mol (limit on useable energy) using an iterative linear optimization technique. The final available energy value is converted to microbial mass at a rate of 1 kg of biomass (dry weight) for every 64 MJ of energy. These two values (nutrient limit and energy limit) are then compared and the smaller value represents the number of microorganisms that can be produced over a specified time. MING can also be adapted to investigate other problems of interest as the model can be used in saturated

  19. Successful Female Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANSIYIN

    2004-01-01

    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  20. 天山东部冰芯pH值和电导率的大气环境空间差异%The pH value and electrical conductivity of atmospheric environment from ice cores in the Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志文; 张明军; 李忠勤; 王飞腾; 王文彬

    2009-01-01

    Electrical Conductivity Measurement (ECM) from ice core is a representative index for atmospheric environmental change. The pH value and ECM from three shallow ice cores (each 3.85 m, 231 ice samples total) on Glacier No.1 at the headwater of Urumqi River, Gla-cier No.48 in Kuitun area, and Miaoergou Glacier in Hami area in the eastern Tianshan Mountains, western China, were measured and analyzed for atmospheric environment re-cords research. Ice core record shows that the changing trend of pH and ECM in three sites in recent years is different: ECM in Kuitun increases with the ice depth change, but ECM in Hami and Urumqi Glacier No.1 ice cores show a decreasing trend. Average ECM value in Hami is much larger than other two sites, just as the dust concentration and ions concentra-tion are also very high in this site. ECM records in all three sites are mainly affected by aerosol mineral dust of Central Asia, and correlative coefficients of ECM and mineral ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ are all significantly high. The pH value and ECM are also significantly high correlative coefficients in the eastern Tianshan Mountains. Comparison between the eastern Tianshan Mountains and other sites in western China, and Polar Regions, shows that the difference of ECM can very well reflect the spatial difference of worldwide atmospheric environment.

  1. Setting up an atmospheric-hydrologic model for seasonal forecasts of water flow into dams in a mountainous semi-arid environment (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Zittis, Georgios; Hadjinicolaou, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited rainfall concentrated in the winter months and long dry summers, storage and management of water resources is of paramount importance in Cyprus. For water storage purposes, the Cyprus Water Development Department is responsible for the operation of 56 large dams total volume of 310 Mm3) and 51 smaller reservoirs (total volume of 17 Mm3) over the island. Climate change is also expected to heavily affect Cyprus water resources with a 1.5%-12% decrease in mean annual rainfall (Camera et al., 2016) projected for the period 2020-2050, relative to 1980-2010. This will make reliable seasonal water inflow forecasts even more important for water managers. The overall aim of this study is to set-up the widely used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with its hydrologic extension (WRF-hydro), for seasonal forecasts of water inflow in dams located in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus. The specific objectives of this study are: i) the calibration and evaluation of WRF-Hydro for the simulation of stream flows, in the Troodos Mountains, for past rainfall seasons; ii) a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters; iii) a comparison of the application of the atmospheric-hydrologic modelling chain versus the use of climate observations as forcing. The hydrologic model is run in its off-line version with daily forcing over a 1-km grid, while the overland and channel routing is performed on a 100-m grid with a time-step of 6 seconds. Model outputs are exported on a daily base. First, WRF-Hydro is calibrated and validated over two 1-year periods (October-September), using a 1-km gridded observational precipitation dataset (Camera et al., 2014) as input. For the calibration and validation periods, years with annual rainfall close to the long-term average and with the presence of extreme rainfall and flow events were selected. A sensitivity analysis is performed, for the following parameters: partitioning of rainfall into runoff and infiltration (REFKDT), the

  2. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  3. Reproducing under a warming climate: long winter flowering and extended flower longevity in the only Mediterranean and maritime Primula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, G; Buonanno, M; De Micco, V

    2015-03-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, general expectations of species migration and evolution of adaptive traits should always be confirmed with species-specific studies. Within this framework, some species can be used as study systems to predict possible consequences of global warming also on other relatives. Unlike its mountain congeneric, Primula palinuri Petagn. has endured all the climatic fluctuations since the Pleistocene, while surviving on Mediterranean coastal cliffs. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible evolution of reproductive biological and ecological traits in P. palinuri adaptation to a warmer environment. Data showed that flowering starts in mid-winter; single flowers remain open for over a month, changing from pendulous to erect. The number of insects visiting flowers of P. palinuri increases during the flowering season, and pollination reduces flower longevity. Overall, the best pollen performances, in terms of viability and germinability, occur at winter temperatures, while pollinator activity prolongs flowering until spring. Moreover, extended longevity of single flowers optimises reproductive success. Both phenotypic plasticity and selective processes might have occurred in P. palinuri. However, we found that reproductive traits of the only Mediterranean Primula remain more associated with cold mountain habitats than warm coastal cliffs. Given the rapid trend of climate warming, migration and new adaptive processes in P. palinuri are unlikely. Response to past climate warming of P. palinuri provides useful indications for future scenarios in other Primula species.

  4. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...

  5. Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains are located within the boundaries of Antu County, Fusong County and Changbai County of Jilin City of Jilin Province. They cover a total area of more than 200,000 hectares and is one of the largest nature preserves in China. There are abundant species of living things, such as Dongbei Tiger, sika, sable and

  6. Remote sensing techniques for high mountain environment analysis; Utilizzo di tecniche di telerilevamento per lo studio dell`ambiente in alta montagna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoninetti, Massimo; Pepe, Monica [CNR, Milan (Italy). Istituto di Ricerca sul Rischio Sismico

    1997-05-01

    Mountain air and water pollution can seriously affect the health of people, animal and plant species. It is very important to understand and calculate the scale of different pollution phenomena. They can start in mountain areas and be exported from them or these areas can be influenced by air and water pollution from far away. In the framework of the Italian EV-K2-CNR Project (High Mountain Scientific and Technologic Researches) a Geographic Information System has been planned to modelling the effects of the interactions between the meteoric waters and the soils (geochemical characteristics, morphology and so on) in the Khumbu Valley, Nepal. The collision between India and Eurasia at the southern margin of Tibet appears to be responsible for the active tectonics throughout much of eastern Asia. The study area, which corresponds to the Phung-Chu / Arun region in the Tibetan Himalayas, has been analysed by photo interpretation of different remotely sensed images.

  7. Mediterranean “regionalism"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the Mediterranean ‘region’ has been contested both theoretically and empirically time and again. But, what are its current meanings if any? What do the never-ending internal divisions between and within countries in this imagined space tell us about the state of the Mediterranean t...

  8. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF AIRBORNE PESTICIDES IN THE ALPINE ENVIRONMENT OF A DECLINING CALIFORNIA AMPHIBIAN, THE MOUNTAIN YELLOW-LEGGED FROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of...

  9. The long-term effects on aggregate stability (AS) from a forest fire of varying intensity in a Mediterranean environment (1994-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires can affect many soil properties and this fact is deeply connected with fire severity, intensity, soil type and many others factors. Aggregate stability (AS) indicates the soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. AS is one of the factors that strongly affect on soil erodibility and infiltration. This property can be used as an indicator of the state of the soil structure and physical stability. The aim of this study is to analyze the soil AS of a determined area that suffered a wildfire in 1994 and compare them with a control area with the same characteristics. The study area is located in the Cadiretes Massif, in the northernmost zone of the Catalan Coastal Ranges, northeast Spain, at an altitude of around 190 - 250 m.a.m.s.l. The Cadiretes Massif is predominantly granite, although soils developed over Paleozoic metamorphic rocks such as schist and slates can also be found. In some areas metamorphic features underlie this relief. The massif is covered by dense Mediterranean vegetation, e.g. Quercus suber, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, and in some places Pinus pinaster plantations are found. This area receives about 700 - 800 mm of annual rainfall, with a fairly marked seasonal variability. The maximum is registered in autumn. Summer temperatures often surpass 25°C, while in winter temperatures are generally mild. The predominant soil type in Cadiretes is classified as a Lithic Xerept, with a 15 cm deep sandy-loam A horizon. In the control forest area, this horizon is protected by a 3 cm deep O horizon of moder humus. Three areas with different burnt intensity were identified in 1994 and they are the same plots that were chosen to sample in 2012. The 4 plots (Low intensity, Medium Intensity, High Intensity and Control) had the same orientation (S) and slope (5%). The TDI (Ten Drop Impact) test, that simulates rainfall impact on aggregates, was used to measure AS in the laboratory. Twenty samples were collected per plot. Ten

  10. Role of Within‐individual Variation in Capitulum Size and Achene Mass in the Adaptation of the Annual Centaurea eriophora to Varying Water Supply in a Mediterranean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUIZ DE CLAVIJO, E.

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the adaptive value of variation in capitulum size and achene mass, plants of Centaurea eriophora were studied in a glasshouse and in a natural population. C. eriophora plants consist of a basal leaf rosette from which an erect stem grows, with lateral branches of various orders ending in capitula of different orders. Primary, secondary and tertiary capitula are comparable in size and they produce similar numbers of achenes, which are similar in weight (large achenes). These capitula are formed during April, May and early June, and constitute the normal or primary flowering. Following ripening of tertiary capitula, leaves senesce, but, later during June and the first half of July, a secondary flowering of a variable number of smaller capitula may occur if wet conditions persist for longer than usual. Plants that have almost senesced develop small lateral branches 1–2 cm long bearing a few small leaves and ending in a capitulum about half the diameter of capitula from the primary flowering period. The number of achenes produced in these capitula (small achenes) and their weight are 70 and 30 % less, respectively, than those of capitula formed during primary flowering. These reductions appear to result from restricted availability of resources. Large and small achenes have similar dispersal characteristics and possess similar germination potential. However, large achenes produce seedlings that are capable of emerging from greater burial depths, providing the resulting plants with a potential advantage. The normal flowering period coincides with the optimum time of year for flowering and fruiting in the south of Spain, and only if rainfall lasts longer than usual does secondary flowering occur. Secondary flowering extends the normal flowering and fruiting periods, thereby providing a supplementary crop of smaller, yet viable, fruits. It can be considered to be an adaptive response to the unpredictable Mediterranean climate, optimizing the use of available

  11. Towards a better understanding of the origins, chemical composition and aging of oxygenated organic aerosols: case study of a Mediterranean industrialized environment, Marseille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. El Haddad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the FORMES summer 2008 experiment, an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS was deployed at an urban background site in Marseille to investigate the sources and aging of organic aerosols (OA. France's second largest city and the largest port in the Mediterranean, Marseille, provides a locale that is influenced by significant urban industrialized emissions and an active photochemistry with very high ozone concentrations. Particle mass spectra were analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF2 and the results were in very good agreement with previous apportionments obtained using a chemical mass balance (CMB approach coupled to organic markers and metals (El Haddad et al., 2011a. AMS/PMF2 was able to identify for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the organic aerosol emitted by industrial processes. Even with significant industries in the region, industrial OA was estimated to contribute only ~ 5% of the total OA mass. Both source apportionment techniques suggest that oxygenated OA (OOA constitutes the major fraction, contributing ~ 80% of OA mass. A novel approach combining AMS/PMF2 data with 14C measurements was applied to identify and quantify the fossil and non-fossil precursors of this fraction and to explicitly assess the related uncertainties. Results show with high statistical confidence that, despite extensive urban and industrial emissions, OOA is overwhelmingly non-fossil, formed via the oxidation of biogenic precursors, including monoterpenes. AMS/PMF2 results strongly suggest that the variability observed in the OOA chemical composition is mainly driven in our case by the aerosol photochemical age. This paper presents the impact of photochemistry on the increase of OOA oxygenation levels, formation of humic-like substances (HULIS and the evolution of α-pinene SOA (secondary OA components.

  12. Limited impact of ocean acidification on phytoplankton community structure and carbon export in an oligotrophic environment: Results from two short-term mesocosm studies in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, F.; Sallon, A.; Pitta, P.; Tsiola, A.; Maugendre, L.; Giani, M.; Celussi, M.; Pedrotti, M. L.; Marro, S.; Guieu, C.

    2017-02-01

    Modifications in the strength of the biological pump as a consequence of ocean acidification, whether positive or negative, have the potential to impact atmospheric CO2 and therefore climate. So far, most plankton community perturbation studies have been performed in nutrient-rich areas although there are some indications that CO2-dependent growth could differ in nutrient-replete vs. -limited regions and with different community compositions. Two in situ mesocosm experiments were performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea during two seasons with contrasted environmental conditions: summer oligotrophic stratified waters in the Bay of Calvi vs. winter mesotrophic well-mixed waters in the Bay of Villefranche. Nine mesocosms were deployed for 20 and 12 d, respectively, and subjected to seven CO2 levels (3 controls, 6 elevated levels). Both phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by pico- and nano-phytoplankton cells. Although haptophyceae and dinoflagellates benefited from short-term CO2 enrichment in summer, their response remained small with no consequences on organic matter export due to strong environmental constraints (nutrient availability). In winter, most of the plankton growth and associated nutrient consumption occurred during the 4-day acidification period (before the experimental phase). During the remaining experimental period, characterized by low nutrient availability, plankton growth was minimal and no clear CO2-dependency was found for any of the tested parameters. While there is a strong confidence on the absence of significant effect of short-term CO2 addition under oligotrophic conditions, more investigations are needed to assess the response of plankton communities in winter when vertical mixing and weather conditions are major factors controlling plankton dynamics.

  13. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  14. The Mediterranean blind: less light, better vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coch, H.; Serra, R.; Isalgue, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Escola d`Arquitectura de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-09-01

    The mediterranean blind is one of the most efficient and sophisticated technical system to allow natural illumination in building. A simple solution permits good visual conditions with low heat gains and high ventilation. This solution shows how in architecture, simple designs following thoroughly understood principles can achieve far more suitable environment results than high-tech solution applied without criteria. (Author)

  15. Modelling global change impacts on soil carbon contents of agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact of climate change on soil organic C (SOC) stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral environments, different models have been applied worldwide at local or regional scales, such as as RothC (Francaviglia et al., 2012) or CENTURY (Alvaro-Fuentes et al., 2012). However, some of these models may require a high number of input parameters or can underestimate the effect of soil depth. CarboSOIL (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013) is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) under a range of climate and/or land use change scenarios. CarboSOIL has been successfully applied in different Mediterranean areas ,e.g. Southern Spain (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2014), Northern Egypt (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014) and Italy (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). In this study, CarboSOIL was applied in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park. This area covers 385 km2 and is located within Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain) and has a semiarid Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) is savanna-like open woodland ecosystem characterized by silvopastoral uses, being an ancient human modified Mediterranean landscape (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara 2013). The most representative soils in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols. These soils are characterized by low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, together with low organic matter (OM) content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). The model was applied at different soil depths: 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015) considering land use and climate changes scenarios based on available global climate models (IPPC, 2007). A

  16. Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Jones, R A C

    2011-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, 10 field experiments were done at Kununurra, Carnarvon or Medina in Western Australia (WA) which have tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean climates, respectively. These experiments investigated the effectiveness of cultural control measures in limiting ZYMV spread in pumpkin, and single-gene resistance in commercial cultivars of pumpkin, zucchini and cucumber. Melon aphids (Aphis gossypii) colonised field experiments at Kununurra; migrant green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) visited but did not colonise at Carnarvon and Medina. Cultural control measures that diminished ZYMV spread in pumpkin included manipulation of planting date to avoid exposing young plants to peak aphid vector populations, deploying tall non-host barriers (millet, Pennisetum glaucum) to protect against incoming aphid vectors and planting upwind of infection sources. Clustering of ZYMV-infected pumpkin plants was greater without a 25m wide non-host barrier between the infection source and the pumpkin plants than when one was present, and downwind compared with upwind of an infection source. Host resistance gene zym was effective against ZYMV isolate Knx-1 from Kununurra in five cultivars of cucumber. In zucchini, host resistance gene Zym delayed spread of infection (partial resistance) in 2 of 14 cultivars but otherwise did not diminish final ZYMV incidence. Zucchini cultivars carrying Zym often developed severe fruit symptoms (8/14), and only the two cultivars in which spread was delayed and one that was tolerant produced sufficiently high marketable yields to be recommended when ZYMV epidemics are anticipated. In three pumpkin cultivars with Zym, this gene was effective against isolate Cvn-1 from Carnarvon under low inoculum pressure, but not against isolate Knx-1 under high inoculum pressure, although symptoms were milder and marketable yields greater in them than in cultivars without Zym. These findings allowed additional cultural control recommendations to be added

  17. Rare and endangered plant species of the Chinese Altai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina; V.OLONOVA

    2010-01-01

    Altai (also named Altay in China) Mountain Country (Mountain System) is a unique natural region,located on the border between different floristic regimes of the Boreal and ancient Mediterranean sub-kingdoms,where distribution of plant species is actually limited. It is known to have sufficient endemic floral biodiversity in the Northern Asia. Many plants of Altai Mountain System need effective care and proper conservation measures for their survival and longer-term protection. Important Plant Area identified as the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature),specified criteria attract global attention for protection of floral biodiversity across the world. The records of 71 plant species from the Chinese Altai Mountains attributed to the criterion A and the dark conifer forests of Chinese Altai Mountains satisfied the criterion C,which may help qualify to fulfill the national obligation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  18. Internal structure and depositional environment of Late Carboniferous mounds from the San Emiliano Formation, Cármenes Syncline, Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Well-exposed mounds are common in limestone of the Late Carboniferous San Emiliano Formation, Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain). They occur as obvious primary topographic features. Careful study of the mound intervals and surrounding strata revealed the internal structures of mounds and the factors controlling their growth. The substrate (2–3 m) of the mounds consists of greyish to reddish, bedded oolitic and oncolithic packstone and grainstone. Crinoids, fragments of the alga Epimastopor...

  19. The impact on the landscape, environment and society of new productive chains in a mountain area: strategies, analysis and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rainis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zootechnical farms enhance the preservation and valorization of the environmental value of the surroundings in marginal areas, such as the mountains of Friuli Venezia Giulia. An important tool for relaunching mountain animal husbandry can be the promotion of an appropriate policy to maintain and develop local food chains, supporting typical products, tightly related to the peculiarity of the agro-ecosystem. The aim of the chain Carne della Montagna Friulana-Carne di Qualità is to create a cooperation among primary producers, transformation companies, sellers and research institutes, in order to develop innovative pathways throughout the production of meat in Carnia (UD. The project was designed in 2007/08 but it was operative from 2010, with a first batch of animals. The stakeholders subscribed a chain agreement, adopting production guidelines and a commercial trademark. Since the meat is not yet ready, the present paper is, in part, an analysis of the preliminary modification of the operative context and, in part, a previsional examination of the possible effect of the activation of this production chain on the area. The results investigated economic, social, landscape, technical and technological (related to food safety elements. It can be observed, by an introductive evaluation, that this productive circuit may valorize the resources of this mountain area and can enhance zootechnics in mountain areas. The guidelines allow a vertical integration throughout the production path, coordinating all the operators. This type of production can be considered a niche product, related to the territory, with the maximum guarantee for the consumers. The environmental worthiness is the recovering and the improving of these marginal, agricultural areas. Actually, an overall evaluation can be done only from the summer of 2011, when data such as the organoleptic and qualitative characteristics, selling prices, level of appreciation by the customers and

  20. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H. spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, S; Baum, M; Ceccarelli, S; Goodchild, A; El-Haramein, F Jaby; Jahoor, A; Backes, G

    2005-02-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore, difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between a Hordeum vulgare cultivar ('Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields are higher, rather than in dry environments where straw quality is already relatively good.

  1. HUTAN DALAM KEHIDUPAN MASYARAKAT HATAM DI LINGKUNGAN CAGAR ALAM PEGUNUNGAN ARFAK (Forest In Hatam Community Live On Arfak Mountains Natural Reserve Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Trida Salosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pegunungan Arfak adalah suatu wilayah dengan keunikan tersendiri di wilayah Propinsi Papua Barat. Wilayah ini didominasi oleh gunung-gunung yang tinggi dan ekosistemnya adalah ekosistem daerah pegunungan dan alpin, serta mengingat keunikan flora, fauna dan lingkungannya, maka wilayah ini ditetapkan sebagai Cagar AlamPegunungan Arfak. Wilayah Pegunungan Arfak ditempati oleh suku besar Arfak yang salah satu sub sukunya adalah sub suku Hatam. Hutan merupakan bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Hatam. Terbentuknya kabupaten-kabupaten pemekaran secara tidak langsung akan berakibat terhadap kelestarian jenis yang ada di cagar alam. Analisis SWOT yang digunakan dalam studi ini dimaksudkan untuk merumuskan strategi-strategi yang memungkinkan untuk mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat dan menjaga kelestarian cagar alam. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kampung Anggra dan Apui di Distrik Minyambouw pada bulan Juni 2013. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa hutan sangat berperan dalam kehidupan masyarakat terutama dalam mengaplikasi nilai budaya dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Strategi yang tepat untuk menjaga kelestarian hutan dan mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat diharapkan agar didasarkan pada kearifan masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan hutan. ABSTRACT Arfak Mountains is a region with its own uniqueness in the Province of West Papua. This region is dominated by high mountains with particularities of flora and fauna in ecosystems of mountain and alpine. Therefore, it is designated as a Natural Reservation of Arfak Mountains. Arfak Mountains region is occupied by a large tribe of Arfak which is Hatam is one of its sub-tribe. Forests are part of Hatam people's lives. Establishment of districts expansion will indirectly result in the preservation of species in natural reservation. SWOT analysis used in this study is intended to look at the potential strategies in accomodating people interest and preserving the natural reservation. The study was conducted in villages of

  2. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  3. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't use genetic tests as the sole method of diagnosing familial Mediterranean fever. There's no cure ... may be options, though these treatments are considered experimental. Other medications include rilonacept (Arcalyst) and anakinra (Kineret). ...

  4. 兰州南北两山生态环境建设决策支持模式初探%A New Decision Support Model Applied to Ecological Environment Construction in the Southern and Northern Mountains of Lanzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹振良; 肖洪浪; 邹松兵; 陆志翔; 许宝荣; 王万鹏; 钟芳

    2013-01-01

    Artificially ecological environment construction is the necessary approach to greening Lanzhou Cit-y due to fragile natural environment. This paper proposed a decision support model which was comprised of "decision support system" and "expert's knowledge". Based on introduction of the decision support model, we developed a decision support system for ecological environment construction in the southern and northern mountains of Lanzhou City. Through discussing the experimental results of the decision support system, a water conservancy scheme for ecological environment construction in the southern and northern mountains of Lanzhou City was presented as below: (1) Collecting rainwater for environmental construction in the area where the average annual rainfall exceeds 400 mm; (2) Operating irrigation in the area where the average annual rainfall is below 400 mm, and the irrigation amount equals to 200 mm rainfall. Furthermore, a planning map for ecological environment construction in the southern and northern mountains of Lanzhou City is demonstrated to assist decision makers.%兰州南北两山生态环境脆弱,自然状态下无法达到城市发展的绿化要求,必须进行生态环境建设.针对生态环境建设的决策困境,提出构建“决策支持系统+专家知识”的决策支持模式.在详细阐述此决策支持模式的基础上,以兰州南北两山作为研究案例,建立了兰州南北两山生态环境建设决策支持系统,通过该系统的试验结果讨论,最终给出兰州南北两山生态环境建设的两项用水措施建议,即:①在多年平均降雨量大于400 mm的区域进行人工集雨;②在多年平均降雨量小于400 mm的区域进行人工灌溉(灌溉量相当于200 mm降雨).最后结合专家知识形成兰州南北两山生态环境建设规划图,供决策者参考.

  5. A Discussion of the Interactive Relationship between Population and Environment in Guizhou Karst Mountainous Area%贵州喀斯特山区人口与环境互动关系探析1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴荣

    2014-01-01

    The configuration of karst mountainous area is complex, and the population in such area quality is low. The way of life is backward. These are reasons of the formidable ecological environment and complex ecological environmental problems. The article, based on relationship between society and environment,dis-cuss interactive relationship between population and the fragile environment in Guizhou karst mountainous area. It alse explore the methods and measures to resolve contradiction between Population and the environ-ment,in order to promote the regional economic development and social sustainable development.%贵州喀斯特山区地势崎岖、地质地貌情况复杂,闭塞的环境导致当地人口接受教育的机会少,人口素质偏低,依山靠山的生产生活方式原始粗放,从而导致这一区域自然生态环境恶劣,生态环境问题多且复杂。文章以人地关系为基础,探讨山区人口与脆弱、敏感的生存环境之间相互影响,相互制约的关系,以及解决这一特定区域人口与环境矛盾的方法与措施,以期促进该区域经济发展及社会的可持续发展。

  6. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam.

  7. Evolution Forecast of Rich Aluminum Soil in Wuyi Mountain Area Under Warming Environment%在升温环境下武夷山地区富铝土演化预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Rich aluminum soil is the main soil type in China tropical and subtropical area ,different water hot status and different ratio decided that soil had different physico-chemical nature.Rich aluminum soil evolution of Wuyi Mountain area was forecasted under warming environment ,it was conducive to exploit the soil resources ,and had great and far-reaching significance for the protection of world natural and cultural heritage of Wuyi Mountain.By field practice investigation and indoor test analysis ,we got physico-chemical nature data of Wuyi Mountain aluminum soil.By finishing related meteorological information about years average temperature of Nanping and Wuyishan City ,compared with organic matter content and pH value of rich aluminum soil-a layer at different time stage ,evolution situation of Wuyi Mountain aluminum soil was forecasted under warming environment. The results were as following:①temperature around Wuyi Mountain area had warming trend;②soil organic matter content were declining in red ,yellow red,brown of yellow red,and yellow. The pH value was increasing to weak acid direction;③red soil,yellow-red soil and yellow soil of Wuyi Mountain area would separately evolute to latosol red soil ,red soil and yellow soil;④latosol red soil would appear.%富铝土是我国热带、亚热带地区主要的土壤类型,不同的水热状况及其配比不同,决定土壤具有不同的理化性质,对在升温环境下武夷山地区富铝土演化进行预测,有利于更好地开发利用该地土壤资源,对于保护武夷山世界自然和文化遗产有着重要而深远的意义。通过对武夷山富铝土的野外实习考察与室内试验分析,得到武夷山富铝土的理化性质数据,并通过整理南平市、武夷山市的年平均气温的相关气象资料,在对比不同时间阶段富铝土A层的有机质含量和pH值的基础上,预测在升温环境下武夷山富铝土的演化情况,结果表明:①武

  8. RESEARCH ON WATERSHED VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT RESPONDED TO CATASTROPHIC MOUNTAIN ENVIRONMENT%灾变山地环境影响下小流域脆弱性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦; 第宝锋; Constantine A.Stamatopoulos; 宋微曦; 王雅潞

    2015-01-01

    Small watershed is a regional unit which has relatively intact natural ecological processes.Watershed vulnerability assessment has an extremely significant impact on the reasonable utilization of regional resource and sustainable development.Large-scale evaluation considering natural,social and even other factors is one of the difficulties encountered in current watershed vulnerability assessment study.The 8.0 Ms Wenchuan Earthquake has caused Severe damage to the mountains of southwest China.Because of the earthquake,the mountain areas have been facing with debris-flow hazard and landslides more frequently and the mountain environment has been increasingly vulnerable.Secondary mountain disasters have seriously affected regional economic and social development and would constant influence on the production and daily life of local people in a long time.Therefore,it is of great essentiality to enrich small watershed vulnerability assessment,especially to coordinate the relationship among natural and social factors and the effects of catastrophic mountain environment.And it is also highly important for mountainous watershed disaster prevention,mitigation and regional sustainable development.Longmen Mountain of Pengzhou city,the case area in this study,is situated in the core impacted region and the characteristics of post-earthquake secondary mountain disaster are more obvious.The study area was divided into 77 small watersheds by GIS technology and remote sensing image with high resolution.With the comprehensive consideration of natural,social factors and disaster events,the evaluation index system of small watershed vulnerability was constructed with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).And the evaluation of small watershed vulnerability was conducted from the aspects of disaster degree and social vulnerability in the combination of small watershed and grid as unit by the overlay tools of GIS.In the end,the degree of small watersheds vulnerability is classified into

  9. Organic matter recycling in a beach environment influenced by sunscreen products and increased inorganic nutrient supply (Sturla, Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Covazzi Harriague, Anabella; Trielli, Francesca

    2011-04-01

    The beaches are sites where the human influence may be strong and the beach ecosystems have often shown a high sensibility to environmental alterations. These zones may be affected by a large series of anthropogenic-derived pressures, such as unbalanced inorganic nutrient input, that may cause anomalous development of primary production, altering the structure of the trophic webs. Furthermore, the utilisation of cosmetic sunscreen products is reaching unexpected levels, thus assuming a potentially important as well as unknown role in the contamination of marine environments. The present study was planned to test the response of the beach ecosystem to increases in inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and to the input of a widely used cosmetic sunscreen product. A short-term laboratory experiment was carried out on microsystems consisting of sediments and seawater from the swash zone of a Ligurian city beach (Sturla). The processes related to organic matter (OM) recycling and some microbial food web components (bacteria and micro-autotrophic organisms) were analysed. The multivariate statistical analysis of the results showed that the increase in inorganic nutrients and sunscreen caused only a transient alteration in the OM recycling processes in the seawater. The sedimentary processes, instead, were different in the different systems, although starting from the same condition. In the sediment, surprisingly, an increase in inorganic nutrients did not lead to an increase in the primary biomass nor to significantly higher bacterial abundance, while the sunscreen caused increased OM recycling, especially devoted to protein and lipid mobilisation, supporting a growing bacterial and autotrophic community by reducing the bottom-up pressure. Additional toxicity tests performed on protozoa highlighted that, while the inorganic nutrients seemed to show no effects, sunscreen decreased the protozoan viability, thus likely favouring microautotrophic and bacterial

  10. Dust specific extinction cross-sections over the Eastern Mediterranean using the BSC-DREAM model and sun photometer data: the case of urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gerasopoulos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements, from a MFR sun photometer operating in Athens, were compared with columnar dust loading estimations, from the BSC-DREAM model, during identified dust events, in order to extract the typical specific extinction cross-section for dust over the area. The selected urban environment of Athens provided us with the opportunity to investigate the mixing of dust and urban pollution and to estimate the contribution of the latter. The specific extinction cross-section for dust at 500 nm was found to be equal to σ500*=0.64±0.04 m2 g, typical for medium to large distances from dust sources, with weak wavelength dependence in the visible and near infrared band (0.4–0.9 μm. The model showed a tendency to underpredict AOD levels for increasing values of the Ångström exponent, indicative of fine particles of anthropogenic origin inside the boundary layer. On average we found an AOD under-prediction of 10–15% for Ångström exponents in the range of 0 to 1 and 30–40% in the range of 1 to 2. Additionally, modelled surface concentrations were evaluated against surface PM10 measurements. Model values were lower than measured surface concentrations by 30% which, in conjunction with large scatter, indicated that the effect of the boundary layer anthropogenic contribution to columnar dust loadings is amplified near the ground.

  11. Interrogating the Mediterranean 'Migration Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This Forum aims to uncover the socio-politics of the ‘migration crisis’ in the Mediterranean. The contributions explore the idea of the ‘migration crisis’ or ‘refugee crisis’ in the Mediterranean from the starting point that as scholars of the Mediterranean we can do two things: one, we can look at

  12. Conservation scenarios for olive farming on sloping land in de Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.

    2007-01-01

    The future of olive farming on sloping land in the Mediterranean is uncertain. Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems (SMOPS) that have been sustainable for ages have in a relatively short time frame witnessed major changes. Although remnants of many of these traditional landscapes still

  13. Conservation scenarios for olive farming on sloping land in de Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.

    2007-01-01

    The future of olive farming on sloping land in the Mediterranean is uncertain. Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems (SMOPS) that have been sustainable for ages have in a relatively short time frame witnessed major changes. Although remnants of many of these traditional landscapes still e

  14. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are ide...

  15. Mediterranean diet: from a healthy diet to a sustainable dietary pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro eDernini

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean Diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identif...

  16. Eco_environment of Settlement and Ecologic Construction Program in Changdu Hengduan Mountains Area, Tibet%西藏昌都横断山区聚落生态环境与生态建设方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邵权; 陈国阶

    2001-01-01

    Settlement is a highly concentrated area of energy, matter, fundand information in human ecosystem, and a relatively stable function unity of complex ecosystem which is formed by the influence and action of nature, society and economy through long time. Ecologic construction of settlement is a kind of practice for controling, rehabilitating and rebuilding the eco_environment of settlement based on principles of settlement ecology. On the eco_ environment of settlements in Changdu Hengduan Mountains Area, there are these major problems of the primary environment and the secondary environment, such as the varied local diseases and natural focal diseases, the intense relation between population and land resulting from the low benefit on resources utilization, the sandy and pebbly desertification in grassland, the negative evolution of vegetation and the debris flow. Based on a case study of Raojin settlement of Zuogong County, authors set forth the planning case which incorporates the prevention and control of local diseases, the resources utilization and the harnessing of environment into the ecologic construction of settlement through the construction of infrastructures for the improvement of eco_environment in the area.%在对聚落生态建设进行理论阐述的基础上,针对昌都横断山区聚落的现实状况,分析其原生环境与次生环境问题,并以左贡县绕金聚落为例,阐述地方病防治、资源合理利用与环境治理相结合的聚落生态建设案例,以此作为昌都横断山区聚落生态建设的示范,为改善该区域生态环境服务。

  17. Petrography and geochemistry of modern river sediments in an equatorial environment (Rwenzori Mountains and Albertine rift, Uganda) - Implications for weathering and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In hot-humid equatorial climate chemical weathering may be so strong that provenance signatures may be largely lost and even detritus derived from crystalline basement rocks reduced to quartzose sand. We tested this hypothesis in western Uganda, where stable plateau areas contrast with the active tectonic setting of the Albertine Rift (western branch of the East African Rift System, EARS), culminating in the strongly exhumed fault block of the > 5000 m high Rwenzori Mountains. In this setting, sediments derived from similar types of basement rocks including gneiss, schist, amphibolite, metasediments and granites can be traced from rapidly eroding high-altitude areas to low-altitude areas undergoing prolonged weathering. Sand and mud carried by 51 rivers overall in these two contrasting landscapes were sampled to study how and to what extent detrital modes are modified by the selective loss of unstable detrital minerals. Sediments generated in the high-relief Rwenzori Mountains show abundant feldspar (up to 32%) and rock fragments (up to 52%), which together with low SiO2/Al2O3 ratio and composition close to the Upper Continental Crust (UCC standard) reflect erosion in weathering-limited conditions. In the central Rwenzoris, low Th/Sc and Zr/Sc ratios, weak negative Eu anomaly, lower LaN/YbN values, and heavy-mineral assemblages with hornblende and epidote reflect the lithology of source rocks in the Buganda-Toro-Greenstone Belt. In contrast, sediments produced on the low-relief plateau have quartz content up to 98% and higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratio. Systematic loss of mobile elements is indicated by high chemical weathering indices CIA, PIA and WIP. However, provenance from metamorphic basement rocks is still indicated by heavy-mineral assemblages dominated by epidote and amphibole, whereas provenance from granitic rocks is revealed by high Th/Sc and Zr/Sc ratio, negative Eu anomaly and higher LaN/YbN values. We conclude that first-cycle sediments generated in high

  18. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    tugal. G. Parrnlla is at Instituto EspaWol Oceanografia , Fig. 2A. [Adapted from (36)] (C) The maximum observed velocity of outflow currents in the eastern...its sur- Oceanografia Fisica del Estrecho de Gibraltar, J. of Mediterranean water that we observed at the roundings (34) and retains its chemical L

  19. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The X-chromosome has valuable characteristics for population genetic studies. In order to investigate the genetics of the human Mediterranean populations further, we developed a 25 X-chromosome SNP-multiplex typing system. The system was based on PCR multiplex amplification and subsequent multipl...

  20. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  1. Aggregate Development and Organic Matter Storage in Mediterranean Mountain Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.M.POCH; M.ANT(U)NEZ

    2010-01-01

    Soil aggregation and organic matter of soils from the pre-Pyrenean range in Catalonia (NE Spain) were studied, in order to assess their quality as carbon sinks and also to select the best soil management practices to preserve their quality.Aggregate stability, organic carbon and micromorphology were investigated. The highest amount of organic carbon was found in alluvial, deep soils (228 Mg C ha-1), and the lowest was in a shallow, stony soil with a low plant cover (78 Mg C ha-1). Subsurface horizons of degraded soils under pastures were the ones with smaller and less-stable aggregates.Fresh residues of organic matter (OM) were found mostly in interaggregate spaces. Within the aggregates there were some organic remains that were beginning to decompose, and also impregnative nodules of amorphous OM. Although OM was evenly distributed among the aggregate fractions, the larger blocky peels had more specific surface, contained less decomposed OM and had a lower organic/mineral interphase than smaller crumb aggregates, which were also more stable.Soil carbon storage was affected primarily by the OM inputs in the surface horizons. In order to store organic carbon over the mid- and long-term periods, the mechanisms favouring structuration through biological activity and creating small aggregates with intrapedal stable microporosities seemed to be the most effective.

  2. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  3. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  4. Potencialidade das leguminosas forrageiras anuais como fonte de azoto em agricultura biológica Potential nitrogen supply of annual forage legumes for organic farming in a mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Perdigão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A reduzida investigação, à escala mundial, sobre a utilização de novas espécies de leguminosas forrageiras em condições mediterrânicas como fonte de N, conduziu-nos ao presente estudo, que teve como objectivos avaliar a produção de matéria seca (MS, quantificar o N acumulado e determinar o potencial de fornecimento de N por diferentes plantas como culturas intercalares em duas datas de sementeira diferentes. Foram utilizadas 6 leguminosas forrageiras: trevo balansa, trevo glandulífero, trevo vesiculoso, trevo encarnado, serradela vulgar e tremocilha; uma gramínea: azevém; uma consociação de azevém com trevo balansa e a vegetação espontânea. As sementeiras realizaram-se em Setembro e Outubro de 2007. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para a 2ª data de sementeira, para todas as variáveis. A serradela foi responsável pela maior produção de MS (7179 kg ha-1. O trevo balansa obteve o maior teor de N (26,85 g kg-1 e o maior potencial de fornecimento de N através da biomassa aérea (124 kg N ha-1.The need of information about new species of annual forage legumes as green manure crops for Mediterranean environments, led us to this study with the objective of evaluating the nitrogen replacement value of these crops. We evaluated the effects of six forage legumes: balansa clover, crimson clover, gland clover, arrowleaf clover, french serradella and yellow lupine; one grass (ryegrass; one mixture (ryegrass with balansa clover e one control treatment (semi-natural vegetation in two different sowing dates: September e October 2007. Results on dry matter yield, nitrogen concentration e nitrogen uptake were obtained for these treatments in 2007/08. In most treatments the better results of dry matter yield, nitrogen concentration e nitrogen uptake/supply were found on the second sowing date. The french serradella had the highest yield of dry matter (7179 kg ha-1. Balansa clover had the highest value of nitrogen concentration (26

  5. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  6. There are many Mediterranean diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, A; Truswell, A S

    2001-01-01

    Interest in Mediterranean diet began 30 years ago, when Ancel Keys published the results of the famous Seven Countries Study, Since 1945, almost 1.3 million people have come to Australia from Mediterranean countries as new settlers. There are 18 countries with coasts on the Mediterranean sea: Spain, southern France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. This study from which this report derives aims to investigate the influence of the food habits of immigrants from Mediterranean countries on Australian food intake. Here we look at the 'traditional' food habits of the above Mediterranean countries as told by 102 people we interviewed in Sydney, who came from 18 Mediterranean countries to Sydney. Most of the informants were women, their age ranged from 35 to 55 years. The interview was open-ended and held in the informant's home. It usually lasted around 1 1/2 hours. The interview had three parts. Personal information was obtained, questions relating to the food habits of these people back in their original Mediterranean countries and how their food intake and habits have changed in Australia were also asked. From the interviews, we have obtained a broad picture of 'traditional' food habits in different Mediterranean countries. The interview data was checked with books of recipes for the different countries. While there were similarities between the countries, there are also important differences in the food habits of the Mediterranean countries. Neighbouring countries' food habits are closer than those on opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that these food habits can be put into four groups. The data here refer to food habits in Mediterranean countries 20 or 30 years ago, as they were recovering from the Second World War. There is no single ideal Mediterranean diet. Nutritionists who use the concept should qualify the individual country and the time in

  7. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions familial Mediterranean fever familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  9. Local models for rainstorm-induced hazard analysis on Mediterranean river-torrential geomorphological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Diodato

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Damaging hydrogeomorphological events are defined as one or more simultaneous phenomena (e.g. accelerated erosions, landslides, flash floods and river floods, occurring in a spatially and temporal random way and triggered by rainfall with different intensity and extent. The storm rainfall values are highly dependent on weather condition and relief. However, the impact of rainstorms in Mediterranean mountain environments depend mainly on climatic fluctuations in the short and long term, especially in rainfall quantity. An algorithm for the characterisation of this impact, called Rainfall Hazard Index (RHI, is developed with a less expensive methodology. In RHI modelling, we assume that the river-torrential system has adapted to the natural hydrological regime, and a sudden fluctuation in this regime, especially those exceeding thresholds for an acceptable range of flexibility, may have disastrous consequences for the mountain environment. RHI integrate two rainfall variables based upon storm depth current and historical data, both of a fixed duration, and a one-dimensionless parameter representative of the degree ecosystem flexibility. The approach was applied to a test site in the Benevento river-torrential landscape, Campania (Southern Italy. So, a database including data from 27 events which have occurred during an 77-year period (1926-2002 was compared with Benevento-station RHI(24h, for a qualitative validation. Trends in RHIx for annual maximum storms of duration 1, 3 and 24h were also examined. Little change is observed at the 3- and 24-h duration of a storm, but a significant increase results in hazard of a short and intense storm (RHIx(1h, in agreement with a reduction in return period for extreme rainfall events.

  10. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  11. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Corona, Piermaria; Badalamenti, Emilio; Pasta, Salvatore; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Secondary grasslands are one of the most common vegetation types worldwide. In Europe, and in the Mediterranean basin, human activities have transformed many woodlands into secondary grasslands. Despite their recognized role in the global carbon cycle, very few data are available for estimating the biomass of Mediterranean grasslands. We developed linear regression models in order to predict the biomass of two native Mediterranean grasses (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Hyparrhenia hirta) and ...

  12. Being a Child in an Industrial Contemporaneous Environment. Examples from the Mining Mountains of Cartagena-La Unión (Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González Vergara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss various aspects of childhood in an industrial environment, focusing particularly the phenomenon of child labor. We will draw examples from one of the most important industrial mining complex of contemporary Spain, the mining area in Cartagena-La Union, where child labor was widespread. We will complete this vision of childhood with the examples available in the mining songs, which reflect many aspects of childhood.

  13. Measurements of sub-3 nm particles using a particle size magnifier in different environments: from clean mountain top to polluted megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontkanen, Jenni; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Ahonen, Lauri; Kangasluoma, Juha; Manninen, Hanna E.; Hakala, Jani; Rose, Clémence; Sellegri, Karine; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Lin; Qi, Ximeng; Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Yu, Huan; Lee, Shanhu; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of sub-3 nm aerosol particles is technically challenging. Therefore, there is a lack of knowledge about the concentrations of atmospheric sub-3 nm particles and their variation in different environments. In this study, the concentrations of ˜ 1-3 nm particles measured with a particle size magnifier (PSM) were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. In boreal forest, measured particle concentrations were clearly higher in summer than in winter, suggesting the importance of biogenic precursor vapors in this environment. At all sites, sub-3 nm particle concentrations had daytime maxima, which are likely linked to the photochemical production of precursor vapors and the emissions of precursor vapors or particles from different sources. When comparing ion concentrations to the total sub-3 nm particle concentrations, electrically neutral particles were observed to dominate in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Generally, the concentrations of sub-3 nm particles seem to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the level of the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles. The results also indicate that the formation of the smallest particles and their subsequent growth to larger sizes are two separate processes, and therefore studying the concentration of sub-3 nm particles separately in different size ranges is essential.

  14. Rock magnetic investigation of loess deposits in the Eastern Qingling Mountains (central China) and its implications for the environment of early humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Weiguo; Hu, Pengxiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Han, Zhiyong; Wang, Shejiang; Li, Baoguo

    2016-11-01

    The Luonan Basin, located in the transitional zone between temperate and subtropical China, is an important locality for human evolution during the early to middle Pleistocene. The loess deposits in the Luonan Basin contain numerous in situ lithic artefacts; the deposits also constitute suitable material for dating the artefacts and are potentially useful for reconstructing the climatic fluctuations which is important for studying the adaptation and occupation of the area by early humans. We carried out a combined rock magnetic and geochemical investigation of a loess sequence from the Liuwan Palaeolithic site in the Luonan Basin. The results indicate a mixture of magnetic minerals, including magnetite/maghemite and hematite/goethite. Magnetic susceptibility was used as a palaeoclimate proxy on the Chinese Loess Plateau; however, its application to the Luonan Basin may be problematic because the provenance of the loess parent material, as well as the depositional environment, differs from that of the Chinese Loess Plateau. We found that rock magnetic parameters related to the grain size of magnetic minerals, such as SIRM/χ and χARM/SIRM, are better palaeoclimatic indicators than magnetic susceptibility. Overall, the magnetic results, together with the results of bulk grain-size and chemical index of alteration, indicate that the interglacial environment of early humans in Luonan Basin was warmer and more humid than the coeval environment of the Chinese Loess Plateau.

  15. Ecological rather than geographical isolation dominates Quaternary formation of Mediterranean Cistus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Vargas, P

    2010-04-01

    The lack of a comparative approach makes it impossible to determine the main factors influencing colonization and evolution in plants. Here we conducted the first comparative study of a characteristic Mediterranean lineage (white-flowered Cistus) taking advantage of its well-known phylogenetic relationships. A two-scale approach was applied to address the hypothesis of higher levels of isolation in mountain than in lowland species. First, a time-calibrated phylogeny using plastid sequences of Cistaceae suggested that the origin of Cistus species postdated both the refilling of the Mediterranean Sea (5.59-5.33 Ma) and the onset of the Mediterranean climate (3.2 Ma). Two hundred and sixty-three additional, plastid sequences from 111 populations showed different numbers of haplotypes in C. laurifolius (7), C. monspeliensis (2) and C. salviifolius (7). Although haplotype sharing among disjunct populations was observed in all species, phylogeographic analyses revealed haplotype lineages exclusive to Europe or Africa only in the mountain species (C. laurifolius). Isolation by either geographical distance or sea barriers was not significantly supported for the lowland species (C. monspeliensis; C. ladanifer from a previous study). The same is true for the less habitat-specific species of the lineage (C. salviifolius). Comparative phylogeography of the Cistus species leads us to interpret a general pattern of active colonization surpassing Mediterranean barriers. In contrast, ecological conditions (precipitation, temperature, soils) appear to have determined the distribution of the Cistus species of Mediterranean mountains. This study further provides molecular evidence for multiple colonization patterns in the course of successful adaptation of Cistus species to Mediterranean habitats.

  16. Subgrid snow depth coefficient of variation within complex mountainous terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Sexstone, Graham A.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Christopher A. Hiemstra

    2016-01-01

    Given the substantial variability of snow in complex mountainous terrain, a considerable challenge of coarse scale modeling applications is accurately representing the subgrid variability of snowpack properties. The snow depth coefficient of variation (CVds) is a useful metric for characterizing subgrid snow distributions but has not been well defined by a parameterization for mountainous environments. This study utilizes lidar-derived snow depth datasets from mountainous terrain in Colorado,...

  17. 长白山圆池泥炭沼泽演变及环境信息记录%The Evolution and Environment Archives of Yuanchi Peat Mires in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 史彩奎; 王健; 马小凡; 吕宪国; 王国平

    2012-01-01

    通过分析长白山圆池泥炭剖面总有机碳含量、总正构烷烃含量、奇偶优势指数、(C23+C25)含量和2C31/(C27+C29)比值,讨论了泥炭发育不同时期植物输入情况,同时结合210Pb测年建立的年代序列来探讨该区的气候变化规律.研究结果显示,约1400年前,气候干冷,圆池尚没有出现沼泽化;1400年开始,气候稍暖,少量植物输入,圆池开始沼泽化;约从1860年至今,气候逐步转暖,大量植物输入,圆池沼泽化速度加快.%Peatl mire is formed by decayed wetland plants, which were accumulated for a long time. It is a good geological archive to get information about surrounding environment, thus, it could preserve the high resolution informations that from deposition layers. Plant species and growth are controlled by climate change, so, organic compounds in peat could reflect vegetation succession of plants' residue and then reveal the characteristics of climate and development of peat mires. Peat mires are important ecosystem and distributed widely in the Changbai Mountains, but they have received less attention than other ecosystems because away from industrial area. So it was less affected by human activities. Above those reasons, peat mires in Changbai Mountains are ideal area to gain information about environmental change. The study discussed the vegetation succession of peatlands in different development periods by analyzing total organic carbon content, normal al-kanes content, odd-even predominance index, content of (C23+C25) value of 2C31/(C27+C29) in peat profiles, of Yuanchi peatland in Changbai Mountains. Meanwhile, the history of climate change in this area was discussed by combining with 210Pb dating. It turned out that, in about 1400, the lake in Yuanchi was not in a palustrine process, due to the cold and dried climate; then the temperature was slightly warm, it began a palustrine process with less vegetation inputting; so far, in 1860, climate became wanner gradually

  18. TERENO-MED: Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Friesen, Jan; Kallioras, Andreas; Bogena, Heye; Devaraju, Anusuriya; Vereecken, Harry; Teutsch, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Centres and jointly operated with local partners across the Mediterranean region. In a number of Mediterranean mesoscale hydrological catchments TERENO-MED will investigate the long-term effects of global change on the quality and the dynamics of water resources in human-influenced environments under water scarcity. The Helmholtz Centres UFZ (overall coordinator) and FZJ have therefore initiated the set-up of a network of global change observatories in 5-10 Mediterranean river catchments. The TERENO-MED observatories will: - investigate societally relevant water problems in the context of 'typical' Mediterranean environments, - provide long-term and quality-controlled data available to the scientific community, - be operated and maintained through local research institutes and universities, - establish common monitoring platforms and foster synergies between research organizations, - provide solutions to pressing local and regional water problems by building partnerships between scientific partners and regional authorities.

  19. Comparison of extreme precipitation characteristics between the Ore Mountains and the Vosges Mountains (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minářová, Jana; Müller, Miloslav; Clappier, Alain; Kašpar, Marek

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the characteristics of extreme precipitation events (EPEs) not only helps in mitigating the hazards associated with it but will also reduce the risks by improved planning based on the detailed information, and provide basis for better engineering decisions which can withstand the recurring and likely more frequent events predicted in future in the context of global climate change. In this study, extremity, temporal and spatial characteristics, and synoptic situation of the 54 EPEs that occurred during 1960-2013 were compared between two low mountain ranges situated in Central Europe: the Ore Mountains (OM) and Vosges Mountains (VG). The EPEs were defined using the Weather Extremity Index, which quantifies the extremity, duration, and spatial extent of events. Comparative analysis of EPE characteristics showed that in both regions the EPEs were mostly short (lasted 1-2 days) and their seasonal occurrence significantly depended on the synoptic situation and duration of EPEs; the low was related to summer short EPEs, while zonal circulation to winter long EPEs. The EPEs were generally related to lows in OM and to troughs in VG. The lows often moved to OM from the Mediterranean area, i.e. along the Vb track. However, five EPEs in VG occurred during a low with Vb track significantly deflected westwards. The EPEs in VG affected smaller area as compared to that in OM. The comparison of EPEs between the two low mountain ranges is first of its kind and contributes to the understanding of EPE characteristics in the regions.

  20. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  1. MOUNTAIN TOURISM INTERCONNECTIONS. VARIATION OF MOUNTAIN TOURIST FLOW IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George CHEIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism, in addition to one of the most common types of tourism, is generated by a complex of factors and at the same time, triggers a series of processes involving tourism phenomenon, especially the environment where it is taking place. This paper aims to discuss some of these causal factors, and the relationship between this type of tourism and the tourist area itself (1. By using SPSS analytical methods , it can be practically demonstrated the impact of mountain tourist flow in spas (2 and mountain resorts (3 in Suceava county.

  2. Did the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake/tsunami trigger synchronous giant turbidity currents in the Mediterranean Sea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polonia, A.; Vaiani, S.C.; De Lange, G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073930962

    2016-01-01

    In the Ionian Sea, one of the most seismically active regions in the Mediterranean, subduction is commonly associated with uplift of coastal mountains, enhanced erosion, and seismic activity along the Calabrian Arc and Hellenic Arc, thus potentially resulting in repetitive mass failures. Some of the

  3. Did the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake/tsunami trigger synchronous giant turbidity currents in the Mediterranean Sea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polonia, A.; Vaiani, S.C.; De Lange, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Ionian Sea, one of the most seismically active regions in the Mediterranean, subduction is commonly associated with uplift of coastal mountains, enhanced erosion, and seismic activity along the Calabrian Arc and Hellenic Arc, thus potentially resulting in repetitive mass failures. Some of the

  4. 喀喇昆仑西部龙山组沉积环境及构造背景%Sedimentary environment and structural setting of Middle-Lower Jurassic Longshan Formation in the west of Kunlun Mountains of Gela, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振兴; 侯明才; 王约; 张杰; 康孔跃; 杜涛; 杨伟; 史俊波

    2013-01-01

    出露于新疆喀喇昆仑西部阿格勒达板沟伊力克附近的侏罗系龙山组,具丰富的沉积构造及清晰的沉积序列,是研究侏罗系沉积环境及构造演化进程的良好载体.通过对其岩石学、沉积学特征的研究,显示喀喇昆仑西部龙山组为海陆过渡环境的混合潮坪沉积产物;通过碎屑矿物的物源分析,揭示其物源来自再旋回的造山带;区域构造背景研究显示在早—中侏罗世,本区开始了由海向陆的转换进程.%The Jurassic Longshan Formation outcropping in the Agelendaba groove in the western Kunlun Mountains of Gela in Xinjiang is rich in sedimentary structures and clear sedimentary sequences. It is a good carrier to study the Jurassic sedimentary environment and tectonic evolution process. The research on the petrology and sedimentology characteristics shows that there are the mixed tidal flat deposition products in Longshan Formation. The analysis of the paralic environment detrital minerals provenance reveals that the sediments comes from the orogenic belts of the recyclings of and the study of the regional tectonic background show indicates that this area began the process of conversion from sea to land in the Early-Middle Jurassic.

  5. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  6. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  7. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Albayrak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects males and females. FMF gene is on the short arm of chromosome 16. It is most often found in Jews, Arabs, Turks, and Armenians. Amyloidosis is charecterized by the deposition of a particular protein between the cells in the tissue. It is a potentially serious complication of FMF. The kidney is a prime target for the amyloid. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 260-267

  8. Two decision-support tools for assessing the potential effects of energy development on hydrologic resources as part of the Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area interactive energy atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Joshua I.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Ignizio, Drew A.; Babel, Nils C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey project—Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA)—has developed a set of virtual tools in the form of an online interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The interactive energy atlas currently (2014) consists of three components: (1) a series of interactive maps; (2) downloadable geospatial datasets; and (3) decison-support tools, including two maps related to hydrologic resources discussed in this report. The hydrologic-resource maps can be used to examine the potential effects of energy development on hydrologic resources with respect to (1) groundwater vulnerability, by using the depth to water, recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer (DRASTIC) model, and (2) landscape erosion potential, by using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). The DRASTIC aquifer vulnerability index value for the two-State area ranges from 48 to 199. Higher values, indicating greater relative aquifer vulnerability, are centered in south-central Colorado, areas in southeastern New Mexico, and along riparian corridors in both States—all areas where the water table is relatively close to the land surface and the aquifer is more susceptible to surface influences. As calculated by the RUSLE model, potential mean annual erosion, as soil loss in units of tons per acre per year, ranges from 0 to 12,576 over the two-State area. The RUSLE model calculated low erosion potential over most of Colorado and New Mexico, with predictions of highest erosion potential largely confined to areas of mountains or escarpments. An example is presented of how a fully interactive RUSLE model could be further used as a decision-support tool to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of energy development on a

  9. A 500 year early summer temperature reconstruction for the western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be severely affected by modern climate change. Strong temperature increase and precipitation decrease is expected for large regions, resulting in a northward extension of arid conditions. Information of past temperature changes which could contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often carry strong temperature information but they are critically in their application as climate proxies because of the influence by the change of atmopsheric CO2-concentration due to the fossil fuel burning effect. These changes are recorded in the chronologies by a remarkable downward trend over the last approximately 150 years and are routinely corrected. However, these correction values do not account for a plant physiological response to higher pCO2, a factor which is especially important in high mountain environments. We tested the influence of different correction models on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 years) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean. A negative trend in the carbon isotope ratios during the last 150 years is still visible after correcting for changes of atmospheric CO2-concentration indicating that plant physiological responses to increased CO2 levels significantly influence the δ13C tree-ring values. Carbon isotope series corrected for both, increase in atmospheric CO2 and plant physiological response, show stronger correlations with climate parameters, especially summer temperature, and better mirror increasing temperatures in the climate data. Carbon isotope records from trees at cooler and wetter sites show generally lower δ13C-values and are more sensitive to temperature at the beginning of the vegetation period. δ13C records from drier and warmer sites are

  10. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  11. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  12. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  13. Study on impact of human activities for natural environment in Changbai Mountain of typical area%人类活动对长白山典型区域自然环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建军; 张洪岩; 王野乔; 乔志和; 候光雷

    2011-01-01

    以1977年MSS、1993年TM和2007年TM三个时期遥感影像为数据基础,借助遥感和GIS技术以及景观生态学分析方法,对长白山30年来土地利用/覆被和景观格局动态时空规律进行了定量分析,并探讨了人类活动对其产生的影响程度.结果表明:建设用地、耕地、未利用地、其他植被和林地在30年里都发生了很大的变化.1977-1993年间,林地和水域呈现减少趋势,耕地、建设用地、未利用地和其他植被呈明显增加趋势;1993-2007年林地和耕地面积呈减少趋势,其他土地覆被类型还呈增加趋势.建设用地、未利用地和其他植被一直处于增加状态,虽然1993年之后增加趋势有所减慢,但是其范围蔓延到更高海拔地区.在景观水平上和类型水平上都发生了很大变化,景观破碎化严重,人类活动对研究区土地覆被变化带来了很大的负面效应,并且在短时期内很难恢复.%The main purpose of this paper is to analyze quantitatively in the land use/cover change and landscape patterns of Changbai Mountain region in the past 30 years, observe the characteristics and evolution,investigate the relationships between the human activities of the two countries and LUCC and landscape patterns,reveal the law of its dynamic evolution and ecological-environmental benefits from a macroscopic point of view, and provide scientific basis for environmental and ecological protection and the sustainable use of natural resources. In this paper,the surrounding area of Changbai Mountain Centrum around 7 854 km2 was chosen as an study area on LUCC and its ecological environment effect. Based on remote sensing data of MSS in 1977 and TM in 1993 and 2007 of the area,the LUCC and landscape pattern changes in the past 30 years were analyzed through remote sensing and GIS technology combining with the methods of Landscape ecology. Studied the date of three periods of land use and landscape patterns in Changbai Mountain region

  14. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  15. 40 CFR 81.274 - Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain Counties Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.274 Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  16. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate...

  17. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate...

  18. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  19. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  20. Soil erosion and degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group (SEDER) approach and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pulido, Manuel; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Taguas, Tani; Úbeda, Xavier; Brevik, Eric C.; Tarolli, Paolo; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Parras Alcantara, Luis; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    -215. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.036 Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A., & Tarolli, P. (2016). Soil water erosion on mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena, 141, 1-21. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.02.010 Prosdocimi, M., Jordán, A., Tarolli, P., Keesstra, S., Novara, A., & Cerdà, A. (2016). The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in mediterranean vineyards. Science of the Total Environment, 547, 323-330. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076 Prosdocimi, M., Tarolli, P., & Cerdà, A. (2016). Mulching practices for reducing soil water erosion: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 161, 191-203. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.08.006 Romero-Díaz, A., Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D., Robledano-Aymerich, F., Brevik, E. C., & Cerdà, A. (2017). Ecosystem responses to land abandonment in western mediterranean mountains. Catena, 149, 824-835. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.08.013

  1. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuseppe Suaria; Carlo G Avio; Annabella Mineo; Gwendolyn L Lattin; Marcello G Magaldi; Genuario Belmonte; Charles J Moore; Francesco Regoli; Stefano Aliani

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown...

  2. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  3. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.; Poole, Alan; Gill, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

  4. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.

    2016-06-01

    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  5. [Origin, components and mechanisms of action of the Mediterranean diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiaga, Inés; Echeverría, Guadalupe; Dussaillant, Catalina; Rigotti, Attilio

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a healthy dietary pattern. It includes a great variety of foods, which are eaten in moderation and within a positive social environment. The generic term "Mediterranean diet" was born after the "Seven Countries Study" led by Ancel Keys around 1960. This dietary pattern is characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, white meats and olive oil. It also includes moderate consumption of fermented dairy products, low intake of red meat and drinking wine with moderation during meals. Nutritionally, this diet is low in saturated fats and animal protein, high in antioxidants, fiber and monounsaturated fats, and exhibits an adequate omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid balance. The main bioactive compounds, which explain the health benefits of this dietary pattern, are antioxidants, fiber, monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and probiotics. This diet is not exclusively confined to the Mediterranean Basin. Central Chile has a Mediterranean climate and our agriculture and culinary traditions are similar to those found in Mediterranean countries. Therefore, it is fundamental to increase awareness about the richness of our natural produce as well as our culinary culture, which may bring many health benefits and improve the quality of life in our population.

  6. EVALUATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS FOR MEDITERRANEAN SUBCATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  7. Mountain Warfare and Cold Weather Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    EQUIPMENT POSTURE ............... C-1 Appendix D ARMY COMPATIBLE HEATERS AND TENTS ................................................ D-1 Appendix E...required for personal hygiene , vehicle maintenance, medical care, and pack animals, however, priorities must be set for water consumption and...MEDICAL SUPPORT CONSIDERATIONS 6-87. In a cold, mountainous environment, personal hygiene is difficult to maintain due to limited water. The potential

  8. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  9. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2004 - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2004 data layer includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  10. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2000 - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2000 data layers includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  11. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2003 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2003 data layer includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  12. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2001 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2001 data layers includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  13. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2000 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2000 data layers includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  14. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2001 - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2001 data layers includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  15. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2004 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2004 data layer includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  16. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2003 - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2003 data layer includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  17. Venomous snakebite in mountainous terrain: prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jeff J; Agazzi, Giancelso; Svajda, Dario; Morgan, Arthur J; Ferrandis, Silvia; Norris, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    The prevention and management of venomous snakebite in the world's mountains present unique challenges. This paper presents a series of practical, clinically sound recommendations for management of venomous snakebite in a mountain environment. The authors performed an extensive review of current literature using search engines and manual searches. They then fused the abundant knowledge of snakebite with the realities of remote first aid and mountain rescue to develop recommendations. A summary is provided of the world's most troublesome mountain snakes and the mechanisms of toxicity from their bites. Preventive measures are described. Expected symptoms and signs are reviewed in lay and medical terms. A review of currently recommended first-aid measures and advanced medical management for physicians, paramedics, and other clinicians is included. Venomous snakebites in mountainous environments present unique challenges for management. This paper offers practical recommendations for managing such cases and summarizes the approach to first aid and advanced management in 2 algorithms.

  18. THE MEDITERRANEAN TOURISTIC PHENOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available At the beggining of the XXI century has started to record a series of tedentiangs în the planof Spanish touristic sector, translated trough the reduction of tourism participating în PIB including of thecontribution of international tourism. This changes from the plan of the demand and offer from the last decade iscoincideing with a scenario where the touristic offer is seeing marked more and more by the accelerated processof urbanizeing from the Mediterranean area, Blaeares and Canaris. The natural and cultural enviorment qualityis essentialy the main atraction of this areas. The itinerarys are wishing to offer a exclusive alternating to thelocals of valorification of the turistic potential of the regions and to offer new turistic products.

  19. Conservation scenarios for olive farming on sloping land in de Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Fleskens, L

    2007-01-01

    The future of olive farming on sloping land in the Mediterranean is uncertain. Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems (SMOPS) that have been sustainable for ages have in a relatively short time frame witnessed major changes. Although remnants of many of these traditional landscapes still exist today, the general trend is different. Demographic changes of the rural population, integration in the market economy with its competitive character, and technological innovation have drastica...

  20. Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bouillon

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a systematic account of the hydrozoan species collected up to now in the Mediterranean Sea. All species are described, illustrated and information on morphology and distribution is given for all of them. This work is the most complete fauna of hydrozoans made in the Mediterranean. The fauna includes planktonic hydromedusae, benthic polyps stages and the siphonophores. The Hydrozoa are taken as an example of inconspicuous taxa whose knowledge has greatly progressed in the last decades due to the scientific research of some specialists in the Mediterranean area. The number of species recorded in the Mediterranean almost doubled in the last thirty years and the number of new records is still increasing. The 457 species recorded in this study represents the 12% of the world known species. The fauna is completed with classification keys and a glossary of terms with the main purpose of facilitating the identification of all Meditrranean hydrozoan species

  1. Transplantation experiments with Mediterranean gorgonians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Branches of gorgonians belonging to four different Mediterranean species (Eunicella singularis (Esper), Paramuricea clavata (Risso), Corallium rubrum (Linnaeus) and Lophogorgia ceratophyta (Linnaeus)) were transplanted to different habitats by means of three different methods, and survival and growt

  2. Response of arid ecosystems to the Holocene climate variability along west and central Mediterranean gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouadi, Sahbi; Combourieu Nebout, Nathalie; Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Decadal to millennial climate variability is a common feature recorded by environmental series. However interconnections between climate forcing (i.e. insolation, thermohaline circulation) and large atmospheric circulation patterns (i.e. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation, Monsoon) still remain poorly understood considering their respective impacts on the global climate mechanisms. In the Mediterranean area, joint climatic influences from high temperate and low subtropical latitudes result in a high sensitivity of ecosystems to climate changes and especially to extreme events. Several vegetation records illustrate millennial changes in Mediterranean. Nevertheless notable discrepancies in the environmental response arise between Mediterranean edges (east vs west, north vs south). The new paleoenvironmental record from Sebkha Boujmel (33°N, southern Tunisia) covers the last 8kyr and exhibits eight humid/arid fluctuations with cyclic expansion of the desert, related to Middle and Late Holocene rapid climate changes (RCC) occurring at a centennial scale. Sebkha Boujmel record is replaced in the wider context of west Mediterranean and northern hemisphere. Asynchronies and disparity of the Mediterranean RCC occurrence documents north-south and west-east climate gradients in the west Mediterranean and pinpoint Sebkha Boujmel as the single vegetation record tracing as many climate events during the last 8kyr. Indeed the high sensitivity of arid environments triggers the prompt reaction of the southern Tunisian vegetation to Holocene RCC however tenuous. Pattern of RCC geographical occurrence in west and central Mediterranean is interpreted in the light of climate forcings involved for the Holocene centennial variability.

  3. Identification, measurement and interpretation of tree rings in woody species from mediterranean climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Paolo; Gartner, Barbara L; Tognetti, Roberto; Bräker, Otto U; Schoch, Werner; Innes, John L

    2003-02-01

    We review the literature dealing with mediterranean climate, vegetation, phenology and ecophysiology relevant to the understanding of tree-ring formation in mediterranean regions. Tree rings have been used extensively in temperate regions to reconstruct responses of forests to past environmental changes. In mediterranean regions, studies of tree rings are scarce, despite their potential for understanding and predicting the effects of global change on important ecological processes such as desertification. In mediterranean regions, due to the great spatio-temporal variability of mediterranean environmental conditions, tree rings are sometimes not formed. Often, clear seasonality is lacking, and vegetation activity is not always associated with regular dormancy periods. We present examples of tree-ring morphology of five species (Arbutus unedo, Fraxinus ornus, Quercus cerris, Q. ilex, Q. pubescens) sampled in Tuscany, Italy, focusing on the difficulties we encountered during the dating. We present an interpretation of anomalies found in the wood structure and, more generally, of cambial activity in such environments. Furthermore, we propose a classification of tree-ring formation in mediterranean environments. Mediterranean tree rings can be dated and used for dendrochronological purposes, but great care should be taken in selecting sampling sites, species and sample trees.

  4. Outdoor thermal environmental research of the mountainous city by GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The study of urban outdoor thermal environment was carried out in one of the mountainous cities by using geography information system(GIS) technique which is connected with predicting and evaluating models for the outdoor thermal environment, monitoring data and simulating data. A prediction and evaluation system were set up.A typical mountainous city, i. e. , Yunyang city in Chongqing in China, was taken as an example, its urbanization trend and population growth was predicted and evaluated. The heat island intensity and its trend were simulated, the temperature field, velocity field and the humidity field were analyzed. The results show that GIS is an effective tool to deal with the outdoor thermal environment, especially for the mountainous cities with special geographical particularities. GIS can be used in the environmental management and the city planning especially for the mountainous cities.

  5. Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal

    2017-04-01

    absorption and dispersion and a stochastic model is constructed for ground-based acoustic signals in mountain environments.

  6. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Timeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document details all of the major events having occurred at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from it's establishment on May 2, 1942 up through the document's release...

  7. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  9. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  10. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Diversity of the Mountain Flora of Central Asia with Emphasis on Alkaloid-Producing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimjan Tayjanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of Central Asia with 70 large and small mountain ranges represent species-rich plant biodiversity hotspots. Major mountains include Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Tien Shan, Pamir-Alai and Kopet Dag. Because a range of altitudinal belts exists, the region is characterized by high biological diversity at ecosystem, species and population levels. In addition, the contact between Asian and Mediterranean flora in Central Asia has created unique plant communities. More than 8100 plant species have been recorded for the territory of Central Asia; about 5000–6000 of them grow in the mountains. The aim of this review is to summarize all the available data from 1930 to date on alkaloid-containing plants of the Central Asian mountains. In Saur 301 of a total of 661 species, in Tarbagatai 487 out of 1195, in Dzungarian Alatau 699 out of 1080, in Tien Shan 1177 out of 3251, in Pamir-Alai 1165 out of 3422 and in Kopet Dag 438 out of 1942 species produce alkaloids. The review also tabulates the individual alkaloids which were detected in the plants from the Central Asian mountains. Quite a large number of the mountain plants produce neurotoxic and cytotoxic alkaloids, indicating that a strong chemical defense is needed under the adverse environmental conditions of these mountains with presumably high pressure from herbivores.

  13. DANGERS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountaineering and everything that is connected with it is a sport with con¬tro¬lled risk. Mountaineers, alpinists, climbers, cavers and all the others who visit and sojourn in mountains are faced with many risks and dangers, which are caused by na¬ture and also by their own mistakes. The dangers in the mountains, like dangers in any other environment, are mainly predictable, so it is best to deal with them with good esti¬mation, knowledge and skill. One has to be aware of his surroundings – the moun¬tain, to respect it and to know what is dangerous and how much it is dangerous at any moment. The organization of the mountaineering expeditions and leadership per¬haps re¬present the highest level of security control. To develop skills for organizing and lead¬ing a group means to ensure the safety of the entire group – to work pre¬ven¬ti¬ve¬ly at the level of the entire group, not only at the level of an individual. The success of the enti¬re group as well as safety depends on the organization and leadership.

  14. Adaptive radiation in mediterranean cistus (cistaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guzmán, Beatriz; Lledó, María Dolores; Vargas, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive radiation in Mediterranean plants is poorly understood. The white-flowered Cistus lineage consists of 12 species primarily distributed in Mediterranean habitats and is herein subject to analysis...

  15. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  16. Natural Resources - Food Nexus: Food-related Environmental Footprints in the Mediterranean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo eLacirignola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN and Global Footprint Network were used to analyse the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges e.g. land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon and water footprints of consumption and unfavourable national virtual water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterised by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW. In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy and inputs (fertilisers. Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the

  17. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    economy are quite scarce. There is, therefore, a real need to fill the gap of empirical data on the social-economical impacts of geotourism, and on the relationship between the geotourist products developed by the scientific community and the expectations of the public and the tourist sector. The collaboration with social scientists (economists, sociologists) will help to fulfill this objective. - Environmental education: During the last years, a lot of work has been done on the assessment of geoheritage and the selection of sites worthy of promotion and/or protection but few attempts have addressed the question of using geoheritage to communicate on more general issues such as the dynamics and sensitivity of mountain environments or the impacts of climate change on mountain areas. It is, therefore, necessary to develop communication and learning methods - in particular by using new communication technologies - to improve environmental education based on geoheritage site promotion for several kinds of publics, in particular tourists (to improve their awareness of the sensitivity of mountain environments) and scholars. These three research objectives will be fulfilled by the development of common research, in particular cross-border case studies, and by the elaboration of specific courses for Ph.D. and master students. Collaboration with existing mountain networks (scientific, nature parks, etc.) is expected.

  18. Big Data Are All the Rage—For Mountains, Too

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Gleeson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Big data. For some, it is a vaguely apocalyptic term; for others, it represents a new era of understanding our environment and ourselves. Today, big data are being harnessed in ever more innovative ways that simply were not possible when we only had small sets of data to work with. Although mountain system research does not yet produce the vast quantities of data that are now common to other fields, there are nevertheless many data that, if pooled, could provide new insights into how mountain socioecological systems function. As the Mountain Research Initiative's Concerted Efforts progress, it becomes clear that it is time for the mountain research community to harness the lessons and power of at least “medium data” to develop a stronger, evidence-based understanding of both the generalities and the specificities of mountain systems.

  19. Mercury in the open Mediterranean: evidence of contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, S R; Fowler, S W

    1985-05-01

    In relation to the previously observed higher Hg concentrations in the tissues of certain Mediterranean fish (e.g. mackerel and tuna) compared with the same species in the Atlantic, the evidence for anomolously high Hg contamination of the Mediterranean has been examined. Four aspects have been addressed: the reliability of analytical measurements; the paucity of data on Hg in the Mediterranean and other oceanic areas; the actual levels of Hg in truly open-ocean waters; and ecological factors which may play a role in the enrichment of Hg in Mediterranean fish. Recent evidence suggests that former measurements of Hg in sea water are inadequate, and overestimate the concentrations of Hg in oceanic waters. Even today, intercalibration studies suggest that there are serious problems in the determination of Hg at the levels present in open oceans. A comparison of the most recent reliable data indicates that Mediterranean open-ocean waters are not enriched in Hg relative to the North Atlantic or other open-ocean areas. Similarly, no evidence exists for Hg anomalies in deep-ocean sediments in the Mediterranean, although it is apparent that localised coastal anomalies do occur as a result of natural and anthropogenic Hg sources. Generally, there is a severe lack of data on total Hg concentrations in truly open-ocean environments, and virtually no data on alkyl forms of Hg. Geographic comparisons of Hg in plankton and small pelagic fish do not indicate the presence of higher Hg concentrations in the Mediterranean Sea compared with oceanic regimes. Since these lower trophic species serve as a source of food for larger predaceous fish, e.g. tuna, the origin of the high Hg content in top-level predators is difficult to explain by evoking solely food chain relationships. In trying to resolve the question of why high Hg concentrations are found in certain Mediterranean fish, future studies should include an examination of the alkyl as well as inorganic forms of Hg, and

  20. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  1. Mediterranean water resources in a global change scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; López-Moreno, J. Ignacio; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Lasanta–Martínez, Teodoro; Beguería, Santiago

    2011-04-01

    Mediterranean areas of both southern Europe and North Africa are subject to dramatic changes that will affect the sustainability, quantity, quality, and management of water resources. Most climate models forecast an increase in temperature and a decrease in precipitation at the end of the 21st century. This will enhance stress on natural forests and shrubs, and will result in more water consumption, evapotranspiration, and probably interception, which will affect the surface water balance and the partitioning of precipitation between evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater flow. As a consequence, soil water content will decline, saturation conditions will be increasingly rare and restricted to periods in winter and spring, and snow accumulation and melting will change, especially in the mid-mountain areas. Future land management will be characterized by forest and shrub expansion in most Mediterranean mountain areas, as a consequence of farmland and grazing abandonment, with increasing human pressure localized only in some places (ski resort and urbanized of valley floors). In the lowlands, particularly in the coastal fringe, increasing water demand will occur as a consequence of expansion of irrigated lands, as well as the growth of urban and industrial areas, and tourist resorts. Future scenarios for water resources in the Mediterranean region suggest (1) a progressive decline in the average streamflow (already observed in many rivers since the 1980s), including a decline in the frequency and magnitude of the most frequent floods due to the expansion of forests; (2) changes in important river regime characteristics, including an earlier decline in high flows from snowmelt in spring, an intensification of low flows in summer, and more irregular discharges in winter; (3) changes in reservoir inputs and management, including lower available discharges from dams to meet the water demand from irrigated and urban areas. Most reservoirs in mountain areas will be

  2. Influence of land use and climate on recent forest expansion: a case study in the Eurosiberian–Mediterranean limit of north-west Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Martinez, J.M.; Suarez-Seoane, S.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Luis Calabuig, de E.

    2014-01-01

    1.In Mediterranean mountainous areas, forests have expanded in recent decades because traditional management practices have been abandoned or reduced. However, understanding the ecological mechanisms behind landscape change is a complex undertaking because the influence of land use may be reinforced

  3. Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Della, Athena; Giusti, Maria Elena; De Pasquale, Caterina; Lenzarini, Cinzia; Censorii, Elena; Gonzales-Tejero, Maria Reyes; Sanchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Ramiro-Gutierrez, Jose M; Skoula, Melpomeni; Johnson, Chris; Sarpaki, Anaya; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Jorhi, Said; El-Demerdash, Mohamed; El-Zayat, Mustafa; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-08-01

    The use of local Mediterranean food plants is at the brink of disappearance. Even though there is relatively abundant information on inventories of wild edible taxa, there is also a crucial need to understand how these plants are consumed and when and how these consumption phenomena change over time and place around the Mediterranean. Additionally, it is important to study such knowledge systems and find innovative ways of infusing them to the future Mediterranean generations. During the years 2003-2006 a circum-Mediterranean ethnobotanical field survey for wild food plants was conducted in selected study sites in seven Mediterranean areas (European Union-funded RUBIA Project). Structured and semi-structured questionnaires have been administered to indigenous people and 294 wild food plant taxa were documented in the survey. A comparative analysis of the data was undertaken showing that the quantity and quality of traditional knowledge varies among the several study areas and is closely related to the traditions, environment and cultural heritage of each country. More similarities of wild edible popular use were revealed between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Mediterranean.

  4. Mediterranean diet: from a healthy diet to a sustainable dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eDernini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the Mediterranean Diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  5. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences - life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today's challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  6. Extra-Mediterranean glacial refugia in a Mediterranean faunal element: the phylogeography of the chalk-hill blue Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Gero; Kosuch, Joachim; Hochkirch, Axel; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Most warm-adapted Central European species are thought to have survived ice ages exclusively in Mediterranean refugia. During recent years, this point of view has been questioned. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that extra-Mediterranean refugia also played a role in warm-adapted insect species and selected the chalk-hill blue, Polyommatus coridon. We sequenced two mitochondrial loci (COI, CR) in 150 individuals from 30 populations covering nearly the complete range. Minimum spanning networks and other statistical analyses concordantly revealed four genetic lineages with strong phylogeographic signal: a western group in Italy, France and western/central Germany, an eastern lineage in the Balkan Peninsula, the Carpathian Basin and eastern Central Europe, an Alpine group with populations in the Alps and southern Germany and a Pyrenean group. Our results are generally consistent with previous analyses for P. coridon based on allozymes and DNA sequences, but provide additional insights. We propose that these four lineages have evolved during allopatry in different glacial refugia, two in typical Mediterranean refugia (Apennines and Balkan Peninsulas), but two in extra-Mediterranean areas south of the Alps and Pyrenees. This supports survival of warm-adapted organisms in these regions in close geographic proximity to the refugia of high mountain species.

  7. Comparison between Sardinia and Malta: the Mediterranean diet revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Gerber, Mariette

    2005-10-01

    The Mediterranean diet is often characterized in terms of food items only. In this paper, the comparison of meals, in-between meals snack consumption and total daily food intake is presented between Sardinia and Malta in terms of structure, social environment and hours, together with their changes. Data were collected in 2001 in Sardinia and 2002 in Malta. A structured qualitative questionnaire, articulated around four main themes: food supply, transformation, preparation and consumption habits, was administered by face-to-face interviews with the help of a local person. Inquiries were carried out over two generations with 30 'mother-daughter' couples in each island. We highlighted some Mediterranean characteristics in Sardinia by showing striking contrasts between Sardinian and Maltese food habits such as meal preparation times, both breakfast and main meal structures, total daily food intake profiles, mealtimes and commensality in the mothers' generation. Some of these characteristics were also maintained in the daughters' generation. This investigation has presented evidence that beyond foods, meal pattern, structure and commensal rituals appeared as fundamental aspects of Sardo-Mediterranean food habits, which are important to consider when trying to maintain or implement the Mediterranean dietary model.

  8. Thermal history and petroleum systems of the east Mediterranean realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Samer Bou; Nader, Fadi H.; Littke, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean Levant basin is a frontier basin that has gained a lot of industrial and academic interest in the last decade due to the huge gas discoveries that have been reported in its southern part. The reported gas in Miocene reservoirs has been assumed to be derived from biogenic sources, although little data has been published so far. The thickness of the sedimentary column and the presence of direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) observed in the seismic data suggest the presence of promising prospective thermogenic petroleum systems in deeper intervals in the Levant Basin and along its margins. The east Mediterranean contains several structural elements dividing the area into different realms that reacted differently to the successive tectonic events that have shaped the area and thus resulted in different thermal and burial histories. We will present source rock data collected within the last few years from several organic matter rich intervals in the east Mediterranean and discuss their depositional environment and petroleum generation potential, as well as the potential petroleum systems in each compartment of the study area. This is based on numerical thermal and burial history models of several east Mediterranean realms including the Levant basin, its eastern and western margins, and the Eratosthenes Seamount. Additionally, we will present some results of sensitivity analysis in the poorly calibrated parts of the study area.

  9. Benthic contributions to Adriatic and Mediterranean biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Lazzari, Paolo; Spagnoli, Federico; Bolzon, Giorgio; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2017-04-01

    The 3D biogeochemical BFM-OGSTM implementation currently exploited operationally in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Services Mediterranean Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (CMEMS-Med-MFC; Lazzari et al., 2010) has been complemented with a benthic component. The approach followed that of (Capet et al 2016) and involved a vertically integrated benthic module accounting for the effect of environmental bottom conditions on diagenetic rates (aerobic mineralization, denitrification, nitrification) through transfer functions as well as the effect of waves and bottom currents on sediment deposition and resuspension. A balanced climatological year is simulated for various values of the resuspension parameters, using specifically calibrated transfer functions for the Adriatic Sea and generic formulations for the rest of the Mediterranean basin. The results serves the mapping of distinct provinces of the Adriatic Sea based on the benthic contributions biogeochemical budgets and the seasonal variability of benthic-pelagic fluxes. The differences with the non-benthic reference simulation are highlighted in details regarding the Adriatic, and more generally for the entire Mediterranean Sea. Lazzari, P., Teruzzi, A., Salon, S., Campagna, S., Calonaci, C., Colella, S., Tonani, M., Crise, A. (2010). Pre-operational short-term forecasts for Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry. Ocean Science, 6(1), 25-39. Capet, A., Meysman, F. J., Akoumianaki, I., Soetaert, K., & Grégoire, M. (2016). Integrating sediment biogeochemistry into 3D oceanic models: A study of benthic-pelagic coupling in the Black Sea. Ocean Modelling, 101, 83-100.

  10. A Study of the Exploitation of Mountainous region of the Yao nationality and its influence on ecological environment in Guangxi since the Song Dynasty%论宋代以来广西瑶族的山地开发及其对生态环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维宽

    2012-01-01

    The Yao nationality distributed extensively among the mountainous region through migrating frequently since the Song Dynasty,and they transformed mobile cultivation into fixed cultivation gradually.They made a living through planting coarse food crops such as Chinese yam,taro,millet,beans,and economic crops such as cotton and ramie,which remade the primordial ecological environment of mountainous region preliminarily.Along with the introduce of maize and artificial planting of China fir,tung oil tree,tea-oil tree,new ecological system substituted primordial ecological system gradually,the ecological landscape of mountainous region was rebuilt in Guangxi.Because of the effect of spontaneous ecological idea,the Yao nationality combined their own existence with ecological protection in course of exploiting mountainous region in Guangxi.%广西是中国瑶族人口的集中分布地,占全国瑶族人口的60%。但广西并不是瑶族的起源地,今天的分布格局是唐宋以来不断迁徙形成的。广西瑶族的祖先可以追溯到秦汉时期的长沙武陵蛮,又称黔中蛮或五溪蛮。随后不断南迁,南朝时到达今湘南粤北地区。隋唐时期,广西东北部已分布着较多莫瑶(1)。宋代瑶族在广西的分布更为广泛,宋人范成大记载了桂北瑶族的分布情况,他说:"瑶本五溪瓠之后,其壤接广右者,静

  11. Mountain saved. is a mountain earned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, K.

    The Anaconda Copper Company boasted that the smokestack on its Washee smelter mill was the world's tallest. It also was probably the world's deadliest. Mysterious livestock deaths began occurring in 1906. They seemed to concentrate in the path of the prevailing westerly winds, carrying the Washee's smelter smoke plume toward Mt. Haggin. As evidence mounted that the deaths were connected to particulate fallout from the smelter (largely oxides of zinc, arsenic, lead, and copper), there were rumblings of lawsuits against Anaconda. The company felt threatened, but did not possess the technology to cure the situation. To protect itself, Anaconda purchased all the lands that were affected by fallout from the smelter smokestack. The result was the formation of the 154,000-acre Mt. Haggin Ranch. Today, the Anaconda Copper Company uses sophisticated pollution abatement equipment, and it is possible to see the healing that has taken place in recent years. The ranch includes rugged mountain peaks and ridges, high mountain valleys, and rolling foothills. A fisherman's paradise, the area also contains 20 mountain lakes, numerous ponds, and over 60 miles of trout streams. The Conservancy has been working to save Mt. Haggin since 1969. Negotiations have involved not only the fee owner--Mt. Haggin Livestock, Inc.--but also parties holding grazing and timber contracts, a variety of public agencies, and the Anaconda Company, which still holds some rights over the portion of the property not yet purchased by the Conservancy. The Conservancy assists in preserving lands like Mt. Haggin by handling the financial and legal aspects of land purchases. The Conservancy is allocating property to two ultimate recipients: the U.S. Forest Service and the montana Department of Fish and Game.

  12. Approach to Mountain Hazards in Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dongtao; TU Jianjun; CUI Peng; LU Ruren

    2004-01-01

    Tibet is located at the southwest boundary of China. It is the main body of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest and the youngest plateau in the world. Owing to complicated geology, Nco-tectonic movements, geomorphology, climate and plateau environment, various mountain hazards, such as debris flow, flash flood, landslide, collapse, snow avalanche and snow drifts, are widely distributed along the Jinsha River (the upper reaches of the Yangtze River), the Nu River and the Lancang River in the east, and the Yarlungzangbo River, the Pumqu River and the Poiqu River in the south and southeast of Tibet. The distribution area of mountain hazards in Tibet is about 589,000 km2, 49.3% of its total territory. In comparison to other mountain regions in China, mountain hazards in Tibet break out unexpectedly with tremendously large scale and endanger the traffic lines, cities and towns, farmland,grassland, mountain environment, and make more dangers to the neighboring countries, such as Nepal,India, Myanmar and Bhutan. To mitigate mountain hazards, some suggestions are proposed in this paper,such as strengthening scientific research, enhancing joint studies, hazards mitigation planning, hazards warning and forecasting, controlling the most disastrous hazards and forbidding unreasonable human exploring activities in mountain areas.

  13. Mediterranean detachment zones : thermicity vs heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Loic; Huet, Benjamin; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Jolivet, Laurent; Burov, Evgenii

    2017-04-01

    Even if the seminal comprehensive descriptions of Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCCs) in the American Cordillera mentionned lower plates constituted of gneiss and intruded by granites (e. g. Snake Range, Whipple Mountains), the actual definition of MCCs : « Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes appear to be bodies from the middle crust that have been dragged out from beneath fracturing and extending upper crustal rocks, and exposed beneath shallow-dipping (normal slip) faults of large areal extent » {as in Lister & Davis, 1989, Journal of Structural Geology, v. 11, pp. 65-94} refers to rocks exhumed from the middle crust whatever their thermal history. The fundamental property of this middle crust resides in its ability fo flow lateraly toward the forming dome, to accommodate stretching of the upper plate and preserve a relatively flat moho. Even though thermal reequilibration can induce weakening of the lower crust, a similar strength profile can also be inherited from pre-extension evolution of the continental crust and promote development of the original structure of MCCs : their detachment. In order to unravel the rheological meaning of detachments, we propose here a review of extensional shear zones described as detachments in the Mediterranean realm, and establish a three end-members typology with « hot MCCs » as one end-member, and two cold MCC end-members with a weak middle crust due to stacking of high pressure metapelitic nappes or a strong upper crust responsible for the strength contrast exaggeration between the upper and lower crust. New fully coupled thermo-mechanical modeling experiments together with a review of comparable published results allow to test this three end-member typology and determine the critical strength constrast for the perennial development of a detachment zone. A 1000 ratio between the strength at the brittle-ductile transition and the strength at the base of the crust seems a boundary value between localized extensional modes

  14. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  15. Mediterranean diet and diabetes: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-04-04

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed.

  16. Human impact on the vegetation of limestone cliffs in the northern Swiss Jura mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Cliffs provide unique habitats for many specialised organisms, including chamaephytes and slowly growing trees. Drought, high temperature amplitude, scarcity of nutrients and high insolation are general characteristics of exposed limestone cliff faces. The vegetation of limestone cliffs in the Swiss Jura mountains consists of plants of arctic-alpine, continental and Mediterranean origin. Several populations exhibit relicts from post- or interglacial warm or cold climatic per...

  17. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  18. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  19. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  20. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  1. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  2. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-05-27

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  3. Genomic scanning using AFLP to detect loci under selection in the moss Funaria hygrometrica along a climate gradient in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, M; Werner, O; McDaniel, S F; Goffinet, B; Ros, R M

    2016-03-01

    The common cord moss Funaria hygrometrica has a worldwide distribution and thrives in a wide variety of environments. Here, we studied the genetic diversity in F. hygrometrica along an abiotic gradient in the Mediterranean high mountain of Sierra Nevada (Spain) using a genome scan method. Eighty-four samples from 17 locations from 24 to 2700 m were fingerprinted based on their amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) banding pattern. Using PCA and Bayesian inference we found that the genetic diversity was structured in three or four clusters, respectively. Using a genome scan method we identified 13 outlier loci, which showed a signature of positive selection. Partial Mantel tests were performed between the Euclidean distance matrices of geographic and climatic variables, versus the pair-wise genetic distance of the AFLP dataset and AFLP-positive outliers dataset. AFLP-positive outlier data were significantly correlated with the gradient of the climatic variables, suggesting adaptive variation among populations of F. hygrometrica along the Sierra Nevada Mountains. We highlight the additional analyses necessary to identify the nature of these loci, and their biological role in the adaptation process.

  4. Relevant magnetic and soil parameters as potential indicators of soil conservation status of Mediterranean agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Débora C.; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2014-09-01

    The main sources of magnetic minerals in soils unaffected by anthropogenic pollution are iron oxides and hydroxides derived from parent materials through soil formation processes. Soil magnetic minerals can be used as indicators of environmental factors including soil forming processes, degree of pedogenesis, weathering processes and biological activities. In this study measurements of magnetic susceptibility are used to detect the presence and the concentration of soil magnetic minerals in topsoil and bulk samples in a small cultivated field, which forms a hydrological unit that can be considered to be representative of the rainfed agroecosystems of Mediterranean mountain environments. Additional magnetic studies such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and thermomagnetic measurements are used to identify and characterize the magnetic mineralogy of soil minerals. The objectives were to analyse the spatial variability of the magnetic parameters to assess whether topographic factors, soil redistribution processes, and soil properties such as soil texture, organic matter and carbonate contents analysed in this study, are related to the spatial distribution pattern of magnetic properties. The medians of mass specific magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf) were 36.0 and 31.1 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 in bulk and topsoil samples respectively. High correlation coefficients were found between the χlf in topsoil and bulk core samples (r = 0.951, p < 0.01). In addition, volumetric magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the field (κis) and values varied from 13.3 to 64.0 × 10-5 SI. High correlation coefficients were found between χlf in topsoil measured in the laboratory and volumetric magnetic susceptibility field measurements (r = 0.894, p < 0.01). The results obtained from magnetic studies such as IRM, ARM and thermomagnetic measurements show the presence of magnetite, which is the predominant magnetic carrier

  5. Sediment reworking rates in deep sediments of the Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsanti, M., E-mail: mattia.barsanti@enea.it [ENEA, Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Delbono, I., E-mail: ivana.delbono@enea.it [ENEA, Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Schirone, A., E-mail: antonio.schirone@enea.it [ENEA, Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Langone, L., E-mail: leonardo.langone@bo.ismar.cnr.it [CNR, ISMAR Istituto di Scienze Marine, U.O.S. Bologna (Italy); Miserocchi, S., E-mail: stefano.miserocchi@bo.ismar.cnr.it [CNR, ISMAR Istituto di Scienze Marine, U.O.S. Bologna (Italy); Salvi, S., E-mail: stefano.salvi@enea.it [ENEA, Research Centre Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Delfanti, R., E-mail: roberta.delfanti@enea.it [ENEA, Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Different pelagic areas of the Mediterranean Sea have been investigated in order to quantify physical and biological mixing processes in deep sea sediments. Herein, results of eleven sediment cores sampled at different deep areas (> 2000 m) of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea are presented. {sup 210}Pb{sub xs} and {sup 137}Cs vertical profiles, together with {sup 14}C dating, are used to identify the main processes characterising the different areas and, finally, controlling mixing depths (SML) and bioturbation coefficients (D{sub b}). Radionuclide vertical profiles and inventories indicate that bioturbation processes are the dominant processes responsible for sediment reworking in deep sea environments. Results show significant differences in sediment mixing depths and bioturbation coefficients among areas of the Mediterranean Sea characterised by different trophic regimes. In particular, in the Oran Rise area, where the Almeria-Oran Front induces frequent phytoplankton blooms, we calculate the highest values of sediment mixing layers (13 cm) and bioturbation coefficients (0.187 cm{sup 2} yr{sup -1}), and the highest values of {sup 210}Pb{sub xs} and {sup 137}Cs inventories. Intermediate values of SML and D{sub b} ({approx} 6 cm and {approx} 0.040 cm{sup 2} yr{sup -1}, respectively) characterise the mesothrophic Algero-Balearic basin, while in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea mixing parameters (SML of 3 cm and D{sub b} of 0.011 cm{sup 2} yr{sup -1}) are similar to those calculated for the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean (SML of 2 cm and D{sub b} of {approx} 0.005 cm{sup 2} yr{sup -1}). - Research highlights: {yields} Physical and biological mixing processes in the Mediterranean Sea are investigated. {yields} Results of 11 sediment cores in deep areas of the Mediterranean Sea are shown. {yields} {sup 210}Pb{sub xs} and {sup 137}Cs vertical profiles are analysed. {yields} New data on {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs inventories of Mediterranean deep sediments are

  6. Mountains in the third millennium - a decade of droughts and water scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.; Shaban, A.; Belete, T.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts and water scarcity have touched the Alps, Mediterranean and East African mountain chains more intensively since the beginning of the third millennium and pose a major challenge for water management. The year 2011 has been no exception, with the lowest river levels on record over the past 50 years even for alpine rivers. Although considerable climate fluctuations and persistent droughts have occurred in the past, it is quite remarkable that the five hottest summers over the past 500 years in Europe and the Alps have all been concentrated after 2002, falling far outside their normal historical distribution. In most mountain chains drought phenomena are persistent over large areas and over a variety of scales. The hydrological consequences, such as decreased rain- and snowfall, drying of springs, decreased river and groundwater discharge, lowering of lake levels and excessive evaporation etc. are considerable. Seasonality has been considerably affected, with the summer extending well into the spring and autumn. Mountain-fed rivers have experienced unusually low discharge over the last 10 years, with a decreasing trend both in summer and winter discharge. These hydrological changes have multiple impacts on availability of drinking water and the energy sector, decreasing hydroelectric production and availability of cooling water for the nuclear industry and negatively effecting river navigation, irrigation agriculture as well as winter tourism in mountains. Despite these naturally-induced shortcomings, adaptation has not always been rational. In some cases, maladaptation has led to overexploitation of water resources during drought conditions, exasperating water scarcity. For example, for the tourism sector in the Alps, water demand for drinking water and artificial snow making lies far above the available resources during the winter season for numerous resorts. This has long term environmental and socio-economic impacts such as destruction of wetlands

  7. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  8. Xiuhua Mountain Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    XIUHUA Mountain Museum,a building nestled amongthe hills,is the first private museum of the Tujiaethnicity.Its name is an amalgamation of the names ofthe couple who run it,Gong Daoxiu and her husband ChenChuhua.According to Chen,the reason that he put his wife’s

  9. Groundwater level responses to precipitation variability in Mediterranean insular aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Garcia, Celso; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the largest and most important sources of fresh water on many regions under Mediterranean climate conditions, which are exposed to large precipitation variability that includes frequent meteorological drought episodes, and present high evapotranspiration rates and water demand during the dry season. The dependence on groundwater increases in those areas with predominant permeable lithologies, contributing to aquifer recharge and the abundance of ephemeral streams. The increasing pressure of tourism on water resources in many Mediterranean coastal areas, and uncertainty related to future precipitation and water availability, make it urgent to understand the spatio-temporal response of groundwater bodies to precipitation variability, if sustainable use of the resource is to be achieved. We present an assessment of the response of aquifers to precipitation variability based on correlations between the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at various time scales and the Standardized Groundwater Index (SGI) across a Mediterranean island. We detected three main responses of aquifers to accumulated precipitation anomalies: (i) at short time scales of the SPI (24 months). The differing responses were mainly explained by differences in lithology and the percentage of highly permeable rock strata in the aquifer recharge areas. We also identified differences in the months and seasons when aquifer storages are more dependent on precipitation; these were related to climate seasonality and the degree of aquifer exploitation or underground water extraction. The recharge of some aquifers, especially in mountainous areas, is related to precipitation variability within a limited spatial extent, whereas for aquifers located in the plains, precipitation variability influence much larger areas; the topography and geological structure of the island explain these differences. Results indicate large spatial variability in the response of aquifers to precipitation in

  10. Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Castellanos, D; Estrada, F; Jiménez-Munt, I; Gorini, C; Fernàndez, M; Vergés, J; De Vicente, R

    2009-12-10

    The Mediterranean Sea became disconnected from the world's oceans and mostly desiccated by evaporation about 5.6 million years ago during the Messinian salinity crisis. The Atlantic waters found a way through the present Gibraltar Strait and rapidly refilled the Mediterranean 5.33 million years ago in an event known as the Zanclean flood. The nature, abruptness and evolution of this flood remain poorly constrained. Borehole and seismic data show incisions over 250 m deep on both sides of the Gibraltar Strait that have previously been attributed to fluvial erosion during the desiccation. Here we show the continuity of this 200-km-long channel across the strait and explain its morphology as the result of erosion by the flooding waters, adopting an incision model validated in mountain rivers. This model in turn allows us to estimate the duration of the flood. Although the available data are limited, our findings suggest that the feedback between water flow and incision in the early stages of flooding imply discharges of about 10(8) m(3) s(-1) (three orders of magnitude larger than the present Amazon River) and incision rates above 0.4 m per day. Although the flood started at low water discharges that may have lasted for up to several thousand years, our results suggest that 90 per cent of the water was transferred in a short period ranging from a few months to two years. This extremely abrupt flood may have involved peak rates of sea level rise in the Mediterranean of more than ten metres per day.

  11. The mountain Cer: Potentials for tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwest of Serbia in the meridians directions an elongated mountain range of Cer with Iverak and Vlašić stretches itself. On the north it goes down to Mačva and Posavina, on the west to Podrinje, on the east to the valley of Kolubara, on the south to the basins and valleys of Jadar and upper Kolubara, which separate it from the mountains of Valjevo and Podrinje area. Cer mountain offers extremely good condition for development of eco-tourism. The variety of relief with gorgeous see-sites, natural rarities, convenient bio-climatic conditions, significant water resources, forest complexes, medieval fortresses, cultural-historic monuments, richness of flora and fauna, preserved rural environment, traditions and customs of local population, were all neglected as strategic factors in the development of tourism. This mountain’s potentials are quite satisfactory for the needs of eco-tourism, similar to the National Park of Fruška Gora, but it has lacked an adequate ecotourist strategy so far. This study aims to pointing to the potential and possibilities of ecotourist valorization of this mountain.

  12. Union for the Mediterranean: projects to prevent the water crisis; L'Union pour la Mediterranee: des projets pour eviter la crise de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thivet, G. [Centre d' Activites Regionales du Plan d' Action pour la Mediterranee (PAM), du Programme des Nations Unies pour l' Environnement (PNUE), Sophia-Antipolis - 06 - Valbonne (France); Guettier, P. [Ministere de l' Ecologie de l' Energie, du Developpement Durable et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, Dir. Generale de l' Amenagement, du Logement et de la Nature, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    In the Mediterranean water remains a rare, fragile and unevenly distributed resource. Global warming has implications for theses resources with an increase in extreme hydrological phenomena (drought and flooding). In this framework, at the Cairo conference in November 2006, the Euro-Mediterranean Environment Ministers broadly agreed on the need for improved coordination of the existing initiatives in order to promote real effectiveness, in particular the Mediterranean Action Plan and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. These actions are presented and discussed. The schedule is detailed. (A.L.B.)

  13. The Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, including two Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.; Spanier, E.; Ferguson, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven species of Scyphomedusae are reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Two of these, Rhopilema nomadica spec. nov. and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, are Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean.

  14. Evolution and vitality of seagrasses in a Mediterranean lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrat, Lila; Fernandez, C; Pasqualini, V; Pergent, G; Pergent-Martini, C

    2003-08-01

    Despite their registration on the list of the Ramsar convention sites, the Mediterranean lagoons rarely beneficiate of an effective protection, and are particularly sensitive to environmental quality. A control of these wetlands needs the creation of an inventory of knowledge for the concerned environment. In this perspective, the seagrass beds were followed up in the coastal lagoon of Urbino (Corse, France) since 1990. A cartographic study was carried out by remote sensing of aerial photography. Temporal evolution of the seagrass beds (Cymodocea nodosa principally) allows to determine the vitality of these structures. A comparison of the surface areas occupied by Cymodocea nodosa, between 1990 and 1999, did not allow seeing any significant evolution. However, some variations appear like biotopes all more fragile and coveted as the Mediterranean coastal fringe is straight and is the privileged site of appear in the localization of the beds, due to the modification of environmental conditions in the lagoon.

  15. Species Diversity and Life-Form Patterns in Steppe Vegetation along a 3000 m Altitudinal Gradient in the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdavi, Parastoo; Akhani, Hossein; Van der Maarel, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity pattern and life-form spectra were studied along a 3,000 m altitudinal gradient from a semi-desert area to the alpine peak of Tochal Mountain. The gradient is located on the southern slopes of Central Alborz with a Mediterranean continental climate. DCA ordination was applied to 1,069 r

  16. Species diversity and life-form patterns in steppe vegetation along a 3000 m altitudinal gradient in the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdavi, Parastoo; Akhani, Hossein; Van der Maarel, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity pattern and life-form spectra were studied along a 3,000 m altitudinal gradient from a semi-desert area to the alpine peak of Tochal Mountain. The gradient is located on the southern slopes of Central Alborz with a Mediterranean continental climate. DCA ordination was applied to 1,069 r

  17. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean sclerophyllou

  18. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean

  19. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean sclerophyllou

  20. The Mediterranean is getting saltier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borghini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea have been getting saltier and warmer for at least the past 40 yr at rates of about 0.015 and 0.04 °C per decade. Here we show that two processes contribute to these increases in temperature and salinity. On interannual time scales, deep water formation events in severe winters transmit increasingly salty intermediate waters into the deep water. The second process is a steady downward flux of heat and salt through the halocline-thermocline that connects the Levantine Intermediate Water with the deep water. We illustrate these two processes with observations from repeat surveys of the western Mediterranean basin we have made over the past 10 yr.

  1. Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Alfredo; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Widmer, Alex; Escudero, Adrian; Iriondo, José María

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In mountain plant populations, local adaptation has been described as one of the main responses to climate warming, allowing plants to persist under stressful conditions. This is especially the case for marginal populations at their lowest elevation, as they are highly vulnerable. Adequate levels of genetic diversity are required for selection to take place, while high levels of altitudinal gene flow are seen as a major limiting factor potentially precluding local adaptation processes. Thus, a compromise between genetic diversity and gene flow seems necessary to guarantee persistence under oncoming conditions. It is therefore critical to determine if gene flow occurs preferentially between mountains at similar altitudinal belts, promoting local adaptation at the lowest populations, or conversely along altitude within each mountain. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to unravel genetic diversity and population structure, inbreeding and gene flow of populations at two nearby altitudinal gradients of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean high-mountain cushion plant. Key Results Genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients were similar in all populations. Substantial gene flow was found both along altitudinal gradients and horizontally within each elevation belt, although greater values were obtained along altitudinal gradients. Gene flow may be responsible for the homogeneous levels of genetic diversity found among populations. Bayesian cluster analyses also suggested that shifts along altitudinal gradients are the most plausible scenario. Conclusions Past population shifts associated with glaciations and interglacial periods in temperate mountains may partially explain current distributions of genetic diversity and population structure. In spite of the predominance of gene flow along the altitudinal gradients, local genetic differentiation of one of the lower populations together with the detection of one outlier locus might support the existence

  2. Clowning, Location, and Mediterranean Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Publicover, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores the ways in which early modern clowns disturb both spatial and generic decorum within early modern drama, and examines the ideological implications of these disturbances. With a particular focus on plays set in the Mediterranean, it demonstrates how clown-figures, through a variety of techniques, refocus attention on the performance space even at moments when plays seem most concerned with the real geographical locations they present. The essay ends by considering the impa...

  3. Characterization of Mediterranean Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of motile prokaryotes that are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and cosmopolitan in distribution. In this study, we collected magnetotactic bacteria from the Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable diversity of morphotypes was observed, including muiticellular types that seemed to differ from those previously found in North and South America. Another interesting organism was one with magnetosomes arranged in a six-stranded bundle which occupied one third of the cell width. The magnetosome bundle was evident even under optic microscopy. These cells were connected together and swam as a linear entire unit. Magnetosomes did not always align up to form a straight linear chain. A chain composed of rectangle magnetosomes bent at a position with an oval crystal. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the crystal at the pivotal position suggested uncompleted formation of the crystal. This is the first report of Mediterranean magnetotactic bacteria, which should be useful for studies of biogeochemical cycling and geohistory of the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  5. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  6. Four new tree-ring chronologies from old black pine forests of Sandıras Mountain (Mugla, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Doğan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandıras Mountain is located in southwest of Gölgeli Mountain, which lies parallel to border of Aegean and Mediterranean Regions, in Southwestern Anatolia. This mountainous area is one of the natural distribution areas of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. and has the oldest black pine communities in Turkey. Monumental black pine stands and the large number of individual monumental trees can be observed between the 1200 and 2000 m elevations of the mountain (especially north slope of the mountain. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a dendrochronological research on old black pine trees of Sandıras Mountain. Four new tree-ring chronologies were built from upper and lower elevations of south and north slopes of the mountain. The shortest and the longest chronologies were 241 and 820 years-long (obtained from upper elevation of the north slope, respectively. In this research, we record the most sensitive black pine trees (mean sensitivity value is 0.27 of Turkey from the north slope of Sandıras Mountain.

  7. Tectonic and petrologic evolution of the Western Mediterranean: the double polarity subduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Vergés, Jaume; Fernàndez, Manel; Torné, Montserrat; Casciello, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The geochemical composition of the mantle beneath the Mediterranean area is extremely heterogeneous. This feature results in volcanic products whose geochemical features in some cases do not correspond to the geodynamic environment in which they are sampled and that is observed at present day. The subduction-related models that have been developed during the last decades to explain the evolution of the Western Mediterranean are mainly based on geologic and seismologic evidences, as well as petrography and age of exhumation of the metamorphic units that compose the inner parts of the different arcs. Except few cases, most of these models are poorly constrained from a petrologic point of view. Usually the volcanic activity that affected the Mediterranean area since Oligocene has been only used as a corollary, and not as a key constrain. This choice is strictly related to the great geochemical variability of the volcanic products erupted in the Western Mediterranean, due to events of long-term recycling affecting the mantle beneath the Mediterranean since the Variscan Orogeny, together with depletion episodes due to partial melting. We consider an evolutionary scenario for the Western Mediterranean based on a double polarity subduction model according to which two opposite slabs separated by a transform fault of the original Jurassic rift operated beneath the Western and Central Mediterranean. Our aim has been to reconstruct the evolution of the Western Mediterranean since the Oligocene considering the volcanic activity that affected this area since ~30 Ma and supporting the double polarity subduction model with the petrology of the erupted rocks.

  8. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  9. Isotopic values of plants in relation to water availability in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Danin, Avinoam

    2010-04-01

    Plant C and N isotope values often correlate with rainfall on global and regional scales. This study examines the relationship between plant isotopic values and rainfall in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The results indicate significant correlations between both C and N isotope values and rainfall in C(3) plant communities. This significant relationship is maintained when plant communities are divided by plant life forms. Furthermore, a seasonal increase in C isotope values is observed during the dry season while N isotope values remain stable across the wet and dry seasons. Finally, the isotopic pattern in plants originating from desert environments differs from those from Mediterranean environments because some desert plants obtain most of their water from secondary sources, namely water channeled by local topographic features rather than direct rainfall. From these results it can be concluded that water availability is the primary factor controlling C and N isotope variability in plant communities in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  10. A numerical analysis of a deep Mediterranean lee cyclone: sensitivity to mesoscale potential vorticity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, K.; Ivančan-Picek, B.

    2009-03-01

    A 12-15 November 2004 cyclone on the lee side of the Atlas Mountains and the related occurrence of severe bora along the eastern Adriatic coast are numerically analyzed using the MM5 mesoscale model. Motivated by the fact that sub-synoptic scales are more sensitive to initialization errors and dominate forecast error growth, this study is designed in order to assess the sensitivity of the mesoscale forecast to the intensity of mesoscale potential vorticity (PV) anomalies. Five sensitivity simulations are performed after subtracting the selected anomalies from the initial conditions, allowing for the analysis of the cyclone intensity and track, and additionally, the associated severe bora in the Adriatic. The results of the ensemble show that the cyclone is highly sensitive to the exact details of the upper-level dynamic forcing. The spread of cyclone intensities is the greatest in the mature phase of the cyclone lifecycle, due to different cyclone advection speeds towards the Mediterranean. However, the cyclone tracks diffluence appears to be the greatest during the cyclone movement out of the Atlas lee, prior to the mature stage of cyclone development, most likely due to the predominant upper-level steering control and its influence on the thermal anomaly creation in the mountain lee. Furthermore, it is quantitatively shown that the southern Adriatic bora is more sensitive to cyclone presence in the Mediterranean then bora in the northern Adriatic, due to unequal influence of the cyclone on the cross-mountain pressure gradient formation. The orographically induced pressure perturbation is strongly correlated with bora in the northern and to a lesser extent in the southern Adriatic, implying the existence of additional controlling mechanisms to bora in the southern part of the basin. In addition, it is shown that the bora intensity in the southern Adriatic is highly sensitive to the precise sub-synoptic pressure distribution in the cyclone itself, indicating a

  11. The Mediterranean Sea Mollusks - a school shell collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Delia

    2017-04-01

    School: 1. "Ana Aslan" Technical College, Street Decebal 1, Cluj-Napoca, Romania 2. Orthodox Theological Seminary, Avram Iancu Square No.18, Cluj-Napoca, Romania The aim of the present project is to develop the students awareness of human activities impact on mollusks population in the Mediterranean Sea. Students have studied about the Geography of the Mediterranean Sea and they have the theoretical knowledge related to the its specific flora and fauna. One of the main fears related to the Mediterranean Sea is the loss of marine and coastal biodiversity due to biological disturbance, climate change and human activities. Out of all reasons, the human impact is considered to be the major cause of habitat loss, degradation and extinction. Regarding the Phylum Mollusca a major threat is represented by unregulated fisheries and shell traffic. In order to enable the students possibility to observe the great diversity of the Phylum Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea, a school shell collection was made. The shells were brought by the students and they had to mention if the shells were bought, received as a souvenir or picked from their environment. Further, the students learned how to prepare the shells for the collection. The next step involved the shell classification and by this activity the students learned how to use the IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature database to identify the threatened species, as well as the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) for a correct identification of the species. As Romania romania bordering the Black Sea, the students had the opportunity to identify the mollusks species common for both the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. The objectives of this study were to highlight the human-environment relation and the interconnection between environment conditions and life quality, to develop the students research, exploration and investigation skills, to be able to identify the causes of species extinction and methods

  12. Integrated and Participatory Research Approaches towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; David Thomas; Pittaya Sruamsiri

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mountainous regions cover about 27 per cent of the world's land surface and are home to some 22 per cent of the global population (UNEP 2002). A much greater number of people depend on mountain environments for a wide range of services, including clean water, energy, timber,biodiversity, recreation, and protection from environmental hazards, such as landslides and floods.

  13. Evaluating and adapting the Mediterranean diet for non-Mediterranean populations: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2013-09-01

    This review outlines the limitations of current techniques for evaluating the Mediterranean diet in Mediterranean versus non-Mediterranean populations. Differences between the two populations with regard to the foods that are available, food processing and preparation techniques, and eating and lifestyle habits may influence the implementation and effects of a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean regions. For example, the composition of food groups may vary significantly, due to differences in the specific foods within a food group and to differences in aspects of food production and preparation. Notable differences between the diets of Mediterranean versus non-Mediterranean populations include the source of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil versus meat), the amount of vegetables consumed and their manner of preparation, the source of alcohol (wine versus other) and the pattern of intake, and the types of meat and dairy products consumed. Lifestyle factors such as meal patterns and exposure to sunlight may also act as confounding factors when the overall benefits of a Mediterranean diet are assessed. Improving the calculation of Mediterranean diet scores and measuring plasma nutrient levels may help mitigate the effects of confounders. These considerations could have important health implications when a Mediterranean diet is implemented by non-Mediterranean populations.

  14. HENDUAN MOUNTAINS A Dazzling World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Indian Continent drifted northward and eventually collideawith the Euro-Asian Continent,pushing up the piece of land weknow today as the Himalayas and Henduan Mountains.Located where Qinghai,Tibet,Yunnan and Sichuan all meet.Asia,including the Nujiang,Jinshajiang and Lancanjiang.In the mountains,rivers Wave a drop of about 2,500 meters.Late last year,we drove into the mountainous area,covering adistance of some 1,000 km.

  15. Key issues for mountain areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Martin F; Jansky, Libor; Iatsenia, Andrei A

    2004-01-01

    ... and livelihood opportunities . . . ... Safdar Parvez and Stephen F. Rasmussen 86 6 Mountain tourism and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity... Wendy Brewer Lama and Nikhat Sattar 11...

  16. A Breath of Mountain Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are everywhere,and rivers flow in almost every valley.This is the Qinling Mountains,a major eastto-west range in southern Shaanxi Province,bordering Hubei and Henan provinces.Because of its huge forest coverage,the Qinling Mountains are also known as one of the lungs of China.Expectations for travelling are changing in China as the lifestyle of city dwellers has become fast-paced and demanding.That provides the Qirding Mountain area a great opportunity to develop leisure tourism.

  17. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-08-24

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on

  18. High-resolution neodymium characterization along the Mediterranean margins and modelling of ɛNd distribution in the Mediterranean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, Mohamed; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Arsouze, Thomas; Révillon, Sidonie; Beuvier, Jonathan; Jeandel, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    An extensive compilation of published neodymium (Nd) concentrations and isotopic compositions (Nd IC) was realized in order to establish a new database and a map (using a high-resolution geological map of the area) of the distribution of these parameters for all the Mediterranean margins. Data were extracted from different kinds of samples: river solid discharge deposited on the shelf, sedimentary material collected on the margin or geological material outcropping above or close to a margin. Additional analyses of surface sediments were done in order to improve this data set in key areas (e.g. Sicilian strait). The Mediterranean margin Nd isotopic signatures vary from non-radiogenic values around the Gulf of Lion, (ɛNd values ˜ -11) to radiogenic values around the Aegean and the Levantine sub-basins up to +6. Using a high-resolution regional oceanic model (1/12° of horizontal-resolution), ɛNd distribution was simulated for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. The high resolution of the model provides a unique opportunity to represent a realistic thermohaline circulation in the basin and thus apprehend the processes governing the Nd isotope distribution in the marine environment. Results are consistent with the preceding conclusions on boundary exchange (BE) as an important process in the Nd oceanic cycle. Nevertheless this approach simulates a too-radiogenic value in the Mediterranean Sea; this bias will likely be corrected once the dust and river inputs will be included in the model. This work highlights that a significant interannual variability of ɛNd distribution in seawater could occur. In particular, important hydrological events such as the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT), associated with deep water formed in the Aegean sub-basin, could induce a shift in ɛNd at deep/intermediate depths that could be noticeable in the eastern part of the basin. This underlines that the temporal and geographical variations of ɛNd could represent an interesting

  19. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  20. From desert to deluge in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Some time between five and six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea became isolated from the Atlantic Ocean. In consequence some areas dried out -- hence the title of Kenneth Hsü’s book The Mediterranean was a Desert 1 -- and large salty lakes recharged by rivers flowing through deep canyons rep

  1. Improving evapotranspiration estimates in Mediterranean drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, Laura; Leuning, Ray; Villagarcia, Luis

    2013-01-01

    measurements from eddy covariance systems located in two functionally different sparsely vegetated drylands sites: a littoral Mediterranean semiarid steppe and a dry-subhumid Mediterranean montane site. The method providing the best results in both areas was fdrying (mean absolute error of 0.17 mm day−1) which...

  2. Microplastic sampling in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares; Sosthenes, Bahati; Syberg, Kristian

    The extent of microplastic pollution in the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea is not yet known, although on Northwestern part has been previously studied. Plastic samples were collected at 7 transects during a 10 day expedition from Sicily (Italy) to Malaga (Spain) in September 2014. A 330 µM mesh....... This is the first study to assess plastic pollution levels in SW Mediterranean Sea....

  3. RTE, at the heart of the Euro market - mediterranean of the electric power; RTE, au coeur du marche euro - mediterraneen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the mediterranean electric power activity: the global environment, a panorama of the sector organization, the international cooperation and exchanges, the today context, the perspectives and the RTE place in North africa. (A.L.B.)

  4. The terrestrial ecosystem program for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostler, W.K.; O`Farrell, T.P.

    1994-06-01

    DOE has implemented a program to monitor and mitigate impacts associated with site Characterization Activities at Yucca Mountain on the environment. This program has a sound experimental and statistical base. Monitoring data has been collected for parts of the program since 1989. There have been numerous changes in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Program since 1989 that reflect changes in the design and locations of Site Characterization Activities. There have also been changes made in the mitigation techniques implemented to protect important environmental resources based on results from the research efforts at Yucca Mountain. These changes have strengthened DOE efforts to ensure protection of the environmental during Site Characterization. DOE,has developed and implemented an integrated environmental program that protects the biotic environment and will restore environmental quality at Yucca Mountain.

  5. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  6. Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Stüben, D.; Varnavas, S. P.

    1999-08-01

    Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea results from the collision of the African and European plates, with the subduction of the oceanic part of the African plate below Europe. High heat flows in the resulting volcanic arcs and back-arc extensional areas have set-up hydrothermal convection systems. Most of the known hydrothermal sites are in shallow coastal waters, <200 m depth, so that much of the reported fluid venting is of the gasohydrothermal type. The hydrothermal liquids are of varying salinities, both because of phase separation as a result of seawater boiling at the low pressures and because of significant inputs of rainfall into the hydrothermal reservoirs at some sites. The major component of the vented gas is carbon dioxide, with significant quantities of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, methane and hydrogen also being released. Acid leaching of the underlying rocks leads to the mobilisation of heavy metals, many of which are deposited sub-surface although there is a conspicuous enrichment of metals in surficial sediments in venting areas. Massive polymetalic sulphides have been reported from some sites. No extant vent-specific fauna have been described from Mediterranean sites. There is a reduced diversity of fauna within the sediments at the vents. In contrast, a high diversity of epifauna has been reported and the vent sites are areas of settlement for exotic thermophilic species. Large numbers of novel prokaryotes, especially hyperthermophilic crenarchaeota, have been isolated from Mediterranean hydrothermal vents. However, their distribution in the subsurface biosphere and their role in the biogeochemistry of the sites has yet to be studied.

  7. Indications of low macrobenthic activity in the deep sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Basso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and budget of organic matter from the oligotrophic surface waters of the eastern Mediterranean to the deep waters are poorly known, and little information is available on past and present macrobenthic activity on the sea floor. Evidence of macrobenthic activity can be direct, through recovery of living organisms or their autochthonous skeletal remains, or indirect, through bioturbation and trace fossils. The evidence of biological activity in deep eastern Mediterranean sediments has been evaluated and compared through 210Pb profiles from box-cores and study of dredge samples from sites on Medina Rise (1374 m water depth, the Messina Abyssal Plain (4135 m and several sites along the Mediterranean Ridge, SW and S of Crete (1783 to 3655 m. All these sites are remote from the continental shelves, so the biological benthic activity is expected to depend primarily on primary production from surface waters. The results show that present-day macrobenthos and trace fossils are generally scarce, especially at depths > 2500 m. This observation is supported by surface sediment 210Pb excess distributions that show a surface mixed layer (SML 2500 m. The historical layer of some box-cores and the Pleistocene hardgrounds collected in the Cleft area (Mediterranean Ridge do, however, record a macrobenthic activity that is apparently more intense than at present, which may be related to higher primary production of the Pleistocene glacial intervals. In contrast with most areas of the present-day deep eastern Mediterranean which depend on surface primary production based on photosynthesis, a relatively dense and diversified macrobenthic community based on chemosynthesis has been recognised at depths > 1100 m on the Napoli Dome mud volcano in the Olimpi area, and on the Kazan and other mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountains.

  8. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  9. Biomass burning contributions to urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reche, C.; Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Hillamo, R.; Teinilä, K.; Saarnio, K.; Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Mohr, C.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    Mean annual biomass burning contributions to the bulk particulate matter (PM X) load were quantified in a southern-European urban environment (Barcelona, Spain) with special attention to typical Mediterranean winter and summer conditions. In spite of the complexity of the local air pollution cocktai

  10. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain