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Sample records for mediterranean hypersaline stream

  1. Novel active kinetoplastids associated with hypersaline anoxic basins in the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea

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    Edgcomb, V. P.; Orsi, W.; Breiner, H.-W.; Stock, A.; Filker, S.; Yakimov, M. M.; Stoeck, T.

    2011-10-01

    The combination of nearly saturated salt concentration and corresponding high density, high hydrostatic pressure, absence of light, anoxia, and a sharp chemocline make the deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea some of the most polyextreme habitats on Earth. Using kinetoplastid-specific primers, we detected kinetoplastid flagellates in some of the harshest deep-sea environments known to date, including some whose small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences are not closely related to cultured representatives. Kinetoplastids, including presumably novel representatives appear to be specialists of halocline environments in the Eastern Mediterranean, and to comprise a significant fraction of the protist communities in the brines and haloclines of several basins. Fluorescent in situ hybridization data indicate a novel 'unidentified' sequence clade of kinetoplastids related to bodonids represents as much as 10% of the total protist community in the Discovery Basin halocline. Different kinetoplastid groups are unevenly represented in the different basins and habitats we sampled, which we discuss as a result of environmental selection.

  2. Methanogenic diversity and activity in hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Parkes, R John; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. The Napoli mud volcano, situated in the brine-impacted Olimpi Area of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, emits mainly biogenic methane particularly at the centre of the mud volcano. Temperature gradients support the suggestion that Napoli is a cold mud volcano with moderate fluid flow rates. Biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses were carried out to assess the methanogenic activity rates, pathways and diversity in the hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was the only significant methanogenic pathway in the shallow sediments (0-40 cm) but was also measured throughout the sediment core, confirming that methylotrophic methanogens could be well adapted to hypersaline environments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway below 50 cm; however, low rates of acetoclastic methanogenesis were also present, even in sediment layers with the highest salinity, showing that these methanogens can thrive in this extreme environment. PCR-DGGE and methyl coenzyme M reductase gene libraries detected sequences affiliated with anaerobic methanotrophs (mainly ANME-1) as well as Methanococcoides methanogens. Results show that the hypersaline conditions in the centre of the Napoli mud volcano influence active biogenic methane fluxes and methanogenic/methylotrophic diversity. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The exploration of eastern Mediterranean deep hypersaline anoxic basins with MODUS: a significant example of technology spin-off from the Geostar Program

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    C. Corselli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant example of technological spin-off from the GEOSTAR project is represented by the special-purpose instrumented module, based on the deep-sea ROV MODUS, which was developed in the framework of the EU-sponsored project BIODEEP. The goal to be achieved has been defined as the exploration, through real-time video images, measurements and accurate video-guided sampling, of the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the eastern Mediterranean Sea at water depths well exceeding 3000 meters. Due to their peculiar characteristics, these basins are one of the most extreme environments on Earth and represent a site of utmost interest for their geochemical and microbial resources. The paper presents the strategies and the main results achieved during the two cruises carried out within the BIODEEP project.

  4. Weak Concordance between Fish and Macroinvertebrates in Mediterranean Streams

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    Larsen, Stefano; Mancini, Laura; Pace, Giorgio; Scalici, Massimiliano; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although anthropogenic degradation of riverine systems stimulated a multi-taxon bioassessment of their ecological integrity in EU countries, specific responses of different taxonomic groups to human pressure are poorly investigated in Mediterranean rivers. Here, we assess if richness and composition of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages show concordant variation along a gradient of anthropogenic pressure in 31 reaches across 13 wadeable streams in central Italy. Fish and invertebrate taxonomic richness was not correlated across sites. However, Mantel test showed that the two groups were significantly, albeit weakly, correlated even after statistically controlling for the effect of environmental variables and site proximity. Variance partitioning with partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that the assemblages of the two groups were influenced by different set of environmental drivers: invertebrates were influenced by water organic content, channel and substratum features, while fish were related to stream temperature (mirroring elevation) and local land-use. Variance partitioning revealed the importance of biotic interactions between the two groups as a possible mechanisms determining concordance. Although significant, the congruence between the groups was weak, indicating that they should not be used as surrogate of each other for environmental assessments in these Mediterranean catchments. Indeed, both richness and patterns in nestedness (i.e. where depauperate locations host only a subset of taxa found in richer locations) appeared influenced by different environmental drivers suggesting that the observed concordance did not result from a co-loss of taxa along similar environmental gradients. As fish and macroinvertebrates appeared sensitive to different environmental factors, we argue that monitoring programmes should consider a multi-assemblage assessment, as also required by the Water Framework Directive. PMID:23251432

  5. Establishing physico-chemical reference conditions in Mediterranean streams according to the European Water Framework Directive.

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    Sánchez-Montoya, María del Mar; Arce, Maria Isabel; Vidal-Abarca, María Rosario; Suárez, María Luisa; Prat, Narcís; Gómez, Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Type-specific physico-chemical reference conditions are required for the assessment of ecological status in the Water Framework Directive context, similarly to the biological and hydro-morphological elements. This directive emphasises that natural variability of quality elements in high status (reference condition) needs to be quantified. Mediterranean streams often present a marked seasonal pattern in hydrological, biological and geochemical processes which could affect physico-chemical reference conditions. This study establishes general physico-chemical reference conditions (oxygenation, nutrient, salinity and acidification conditions) for different Mediterranean stream types. 116 potential reference sites located in 23 Mediterranean catchments in Spain were sampled in spring, summer and autumn in 2003. All sites were subjected to a screening method for the selection of reference sites in Mediterranean streams (Mediterranean Reference Criteria) and classified using a pre-established stream typology that establishes five different stream types (temporary streams, evaporite-calcareous at medium altitude, siliceous headwaters, calcareous headwaters and large watercourses). Reference conditions (reference value and reference threshold equivalents to high-good class boundary) were calculated using two different methods according to the availability of reference sites: the reference site 75th percentile approach of all reference sites and the 25th percentile of the population approach. The majority of the studied potential reference sites (76 out of 116) were selected as reference sites. Regarding type-specific reference conditions, only siliceous headwaters could be considered different from the rest of stream types because lower conductivity and pH. All reference stream types presented seasonal differences as regards some parameters, except for temporary streams due to the high natural variation of this stream type. For those parameters which presented seasonal

  6. Pesticide load dynamics during stormwater flow events in Mediterranean coastal streams: Alexander stream case study.

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    Topaz, Tom; Egozi, Roey; Eshel, Gil; Chefetz, Benny

    2018-06-01

    Cultivated land is a major source of pesticides, which are transported with the runoff water and eroded soil during rainfall events and pollute riverine and estuarine environments. Common ecotoxicological assessments of riverine systems are mainly based on water sampling and analysis of only the dissolved phase, and address a single pesticide's toxicological impact under laboratory conditions. A clear overview of mixtures of pesticides in the adsorbed and dissolved phases is missing, and therefore the full ecotoxicological impact is not fully addressed. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify pesticide concentrations in both suspended sediment and dissolved phases, to provide a better understanding of pesticide-load dynamics during storm events in coastal streams in a Mediterranean climate. High-resolution sampling campaigns of seven flood events were conducted during two rainy seasons in Alexander stream, Israel. Samples of suspended sediments were separated from the solution and both media were analyzed separately for 250 pesticides. A total of 63 pesticides were detected; 18 and 16 pesticides were found solely in the suspended sediments and solution, respectively. Significant differences were observed among the pesticide groups: only 7% of herbicide, 20% of fungicide and 42% of insecticide load was transported with the suspended sediments. However, in both dissolved and adsorbed phases, a mix of pesticides was found which were graded from "mobile" to "non-mobile" with varied distribution coefficients. Diuron, and tebuconazole were frequently found in large quantities in both phases. Whereas insecticide and fungicide transport is likely governed by application time and method, the governing factor for herbicide load was the magnitude of the stream discharge. The results show a complex dynamic of pesticide load affected by excessive use of pesticides, which should be taken into consideration when designing projects to monitor riverine and estuarine

  7. Nutrient Flux from Mediterranean Coastal Streams: Carpinteria Valley, California

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    Robinson, T. H.; Leydecker, A.; Melack, J. M.; Keller, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Along the southern California coast, near Santa Barbara, California, we are measuring nutrient export from specific land uses and developing a model to predict nutrient export at a watershed scale. The area is characterized by a Mediterranean-like climate and short steep catchments producing flashy runoff. The six land uses include chaparral, avocado orchards, greenhouse agriculture, open-field nurseries, and residential and commercial development. Sampling sites are located on defined drainages or storm drains that collect runoff from relatively homogeneous areas representing each land use. Stream water samples are taken once a week during the rainy season, every two weeks during the dry season and every one to four hours during storms. Samples are analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, total dissolved nitrogen and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus. Intensive sampling at the thirteen sites of the study was conducted throughout Water Year (WY) 2002 and 2003. We determine discharge from measurements of stage derived from pressure transducers at all sampling sites. This information is then converted to flux at a high temporal resolution. Wet and dry season sampling has shown that nitrate baseflow concentrations vary over three orders of magnitude, from a few micromoles per liter in undeveloped catchments, to a few 100 æmol/L in agricultural and urban watersheds, to 1000 æmol/L where intensive "greenhouse" agriculture dominates. Nitrate loading ranged from a few moles per hectare per storm at undeveloped and residential sites to hundreds at the greenhouse site. Phosphate concentrations show a similar, but smaller, variation from 1 to 100 æmol/L, although the loading is comparable at 1-100 moles/ha-storm. Stormflow concentrations fluctuate with the storm hydrograph: phosphate increases with flow, while nitrate typically decreases due to dilution from runoff probably from impervious surfaces. Nitrate export patterns indicate a marked difference between land use

  8. Population and family structure of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a Mediterranean stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Manuel; Sanz, Nuria; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    differentiation. In the present study, we compared population structure v. family relationships of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) along a Mediterranean stream (Pyrenees) by using eight microsatellite loci. Results showed low levels of genetic (FST) differentiation between collections in a 6.5-km transect along...... with limited dispersal of younger brown trout from spawning redds. Family relationships provided evidence, however, for movement of adult trout over distances of a few kilometres that probably contributed to the low observed differentiation. Dispersal of adult Mediterranean trout contrasts with the clustering...

  9. Combined effects of hydrologic alteration and cyprinid fish in mediating biogeochemical processes in a Mediterranean stream.

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    Rubio-Gracia, Francesc; Almeida, David; Bonet, Berta; Casals, Frederic; Espinosa, Carmen; Flecker, Alexander S; García-Berthou, Emili; Martí, Eugènia; Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Zamora, Lluis; Guasch, Helena

    2017-12-01

    Flow regimes are important drivers of both stream community and biogeochemical processes. However, the interplay between community and biogeochemical responses under different flow regimes in streams is less understood. In this study, we investigated the structural and functional responses of periphyton and macroinvertebrates to different densities of the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis, Cyprinidae) in two stream reaches differing in flow regime. The study was conducted in Llémena Stream, a small calcareous Mediterranean stream with high nutrient levels. We selected a reach with permanent flow (permanent reach) and another subjected to flow regulation (regulated reach) with periods of flow intermittency. At each reach, we used in situ cages to generate 3 levels of fish density. Cages with 10 barbels were used to simulate high fish density (>7indm -2 ); cages with open sides were used as controls (i.e. exposed to actual fish densities of each stream reach) thus having low fish density; and those with no fish were used to simulate the disappearance of fish that occurs with stream drying. Differences in fish density did not cause significant changes in periphyton biomass and macroinvertebrate density. However, phosphate uptake by periphyton was enhanced in treatments lacking fish in the regulated reach with intermittent flow but not in the permanent reach, suggesting that hydrologic alteration hampers the ability of biotic communities to compensate for the absence of fish. This study indicates that fish density can mediate the effects of anthropogenic alterations such as flow intermittence derived from hydrologic regulation on stream benthic communities and associated biogeochemical processes, at least in eutrophic streams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Human-Nature Relationship in Mediterranean Streams: Integrating Different Types of Knowledge to Improve Water Management

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    Carla Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The social and ecological systems of Mediterranean streams are intrinsically linked as a result of long human occupation. In this region, these links vary greatly across small distances due to geomorphology, resulting in great diversity across space, which poses particular challenges for understanding and managing these systems. This demands (i interdisciplinary integration of knowledge that focuses on the social-ecological interactions, while according due consideration to the whole; and also (ii transdisciplinary integration, integrating lay and expert knowledge to understand local specificities. To address these needs - a focus on interactions and local knowledge - the research presented here studies the human-nature relationship in Mediterranean streams. Its main objective is to improve understanding of Mediterranean streams, but it also provides practical inputs to enhance local-level management. The study adopts an applied approach from the perspective of natural resources management. A case study was developed conducting field work on streams within the Natura 2000 site of Monfurado, Portugal - a mainly privately owned area with conflicting land uses between conservation and farming. Rivers and streams in Portugal are considered to be in very bad condition, particularly with regard to water quality. The experimental design was based, from a critical realism perspective of inter- and trans-disciplinarity, on the complementarities between methodologies from (i the social sciences: value survey and analysis of discourse; and (ii the natural sciences: biomonitoring and integrity biotic indexes. Results characterized the connected systems from both ecological and social points of view. They also characterized the relationship between both dimensions. We concluded that well-established riparian vegetation cover of streams is a key structural element of the human-nature relationship in the Mediterranean streams of Monfurado at several levels

  11. Effects of land use intensification on fish assemblages in Mediterranean climate streams

    OpenAIRE

    Matono, Paula; Sousa, Dárcio; Ilheu, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Southern Portugal is experiencing a rapid change in land use due to the spread of intensive farming systems, namely olive production systems, which can cause strong negative environmental impacts and affect the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to identify the main environmental disturbances related with olive grove intensification on Mediterranean climate streams in southern Portugal, and to evaluate their effects on fish assemblage structure and integrity. Twenty ...

  12. A biological tool to assess flow connectivity in reference temporary streams from the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, N., E-mail: ncid@ub.edu [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Verkaik, I. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); García-Roger, E.M. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València (Spain); Rieradevall, M.; Bonada, N. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Sánchez-Montoya, M.M. [Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”—University of Murcia (Spain); Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin (Germany); Gómez, R.; Suárez, M.L.; Vidal-Abarca, M.R. [Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”—University of Murcia (Spain); Demartini, D.; Buffagni, A.; Erba, S. [Instituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque (CNR-IRSA) (Italy); Karaouzas, I.; Skoulikidis, N. [Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR) (Greece); Prat, N. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-01-01

    Many streams in the Mediterranean Basin have temporary flow regimes. While timing for seasonal drought is predictable, they undergo strong inter-annual variability in flow intensity. This high hydrological variability and associated ecological responses challenge the ecological status assessment of temporary streams, particularly when setting reference conditions. This study examined the effects of flow connectivity in aquatic macroinvertebrates from seven reference temporary streams across the Mediterranean Basin where hydrological variability and flow conditions are well studied. We tested for the effect of flow cessation on two streamflow indices and on community composition, and, by performing random forest and classification tree analyses we identified important biological predictors for classifying the aquatic state either as flowing or disconnected pools. Flow cessation was critical for one of the streamflow indices studied and for community composition. Macroinvertebrate families found to be important for classifying the aquatic state were Hydrophilidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae, Planorbiidae, Heptageniidae and Gerridae. For biological traits, trait categories associated to feeding habits, food, locomotion and substrate relation were the most important and provided more accurate predictions compared to taxonomy. A combination of selected metrics and associated thresholds based on the most important biological predictors (i.e. Bio-AS Tool) were proposed in order to assess the aquatic state in reference temporary streams, especially in the absence of hydrological data. Although further development is needed, the tool can be of particular interest for monitoring, restoration, and conservation purposes, representing an important step towards an adequate management of temporary rivers not only in the Mediterranean Basin but also in other regions vulnerable to the effects of climate change. - Highlights: • The effect of flow connectivity on macroinvertebrate

  13. Discharge modulates stream metabolism dependence on fine particulate organic carbon in a Mediterranean WWTP-influenced stream

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    Drummond, J. D.; Bernal, S.; Meredith, W.; Schumer, R.; Martí Roca, E.

    2017-12-01

    Waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents constitute point source inputs of fine sediment, nutrients, carbon, and microbes to stream ecosystems. A range of responses to these inputs may be observed in recipient streams, including increases in respiration rates, which augment CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Yet, little is known about which fractions of organic carbon (OC) contribute the most to stream metabolism in WWTP-influenced streams. Fine particulate OC (POC) represents ca. 40% of the total mass of OC in river networks, and is generally more labile than dissolved OC. Therefore, POC inputs from WWTPs could contribute disproportionately to higher rates of heterotrophic metabolism by stream microbial communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of POC inputs from a WWTP effluent on the metabolism of a Mediterranean stream over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. We hypothesized that POC inputs would have a positive effect on respiration rates, and that the response to POC availability would be larger during low flows when the dilution capacity of the recipient stream is negligible. We focused on the easily resuspended fine sediment near the sediment-water interface (top 3 cm), as this region is a known hot spot for biogeochemical processes. For one year, samples of resuspended sediment were collected bimonthly at 7 sites from 0 to 800 m downstream of the WWTP point source. We measured total POC, organic matter (OM) content (%), and the associated metabolic activity of the resuspended sediment using the resazurin-resorufin smart tracer system as a proxy for aerobic ecosystem respiration. Resuspended sediment showed no difference in total POC over the year, while the OM content increased with decreasing discharge. This result together with the decreasing trend of total POC observed downstream of the point source during autumn after a long dry period, suggests that the WWTP effluent was the main contributor to stream POC. Furthermore

  14. Heterotrophic Protists in Hypersaline Microbial Mats and Deep Hypersaline Basin Water Columns

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    Joan M. Bernhard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although hypersaline environments pose challenges to life because of the low water content (water activity, many such habitats appear to support eukaryotic microbes. This contribution presents brief reviews of our current knowledge on eukaryotes of water-column haloclines and brines from Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins (DHABs of the Eastern Mediterranean, as well as shallow-water hypersaline microbial mats in solar salterns of Guerrero Negro, Mexico and benthic microbialite communities from Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. New data on eukaryotic diversity from Shark Bay microbialites indicates eukaryotes are more diverse than previously reported. Although this comparison shows that eukaryotic communities in hypersaline habitats with varying physicochemical characteristics are unique, several groups are commonly found, including diverse alveolates, strameonopiles, and fungi, as well as radiolaria. Many eukaryote sequences (SSU in both regions also have no close homologues in public databases, suggesting that these environments host unique microbial eukaryote assemblages with the potential to enhance our understanding of the capacity of eukaryotes to adapt to hypersaline conditions.

  15. Ecological profiles of caddisfly larvae in Mediterranean streams: implications for bioassessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonada, N.; Zamora-Munoz, C.; Rieradevall, M.; Prat, N.

    2004-01-01

    Caddisflies are a well represented group with high species diversity in Mediterranean climate rivers. Although they are widely used in water quality assessment, little is known of the ecological profiles of families or species. We present a simple score for ecological profiles which measures intolerance to water quality. The ecological profiles of caddisflies are diverse and the degree of tolerance at the family level is related to species diversity and the tolerance of individual species to water quality. Comparisons with the scores used in the biotic index IBMWP show general agreement between the degree of intolerance of a family and its score in the IBMWP, with few exceptions. Studies on tolerance are required to elucidate the autecology of taxa, and to develop biological indices, especially in areas with high species diversity. - Capsule: Ecological profiles of caddisfly larvae in Mediterranean streams using water quality variables

  16. Outbreaks of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in redtail barbs Barbus haasi in a Mediterranean stream during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceda-Veiga, A; Salvadó, H; Vinyoles, D; De Sostoa, A

    2009-09-01

    In 2008, inland waterways in Catalonia (northeast Iberian Peninsula, Spain) experienced one of the worst droughts recorded in this region in recent decades. During this period, an epizootic of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was detected for the first time in a Mediterranean stream, with 21% prevalence in a population of redtail barbs Barbus haasi. Environmental features and the fish population in this stream were compared during 2007-2009. Fish density and the average fish size were reduced significantly after the outbreak of I. multifiliis in this population. During 2008, parasitized fish were significantly larger than nonparasitized fish. In addition, a significant, positive correlation was found between parasite load and fish size. The origin of I. multifiliis is unknown, but an introduced species detected in April 2007 may have carried it. The combination of stress to the redtail barbs due to suboptimal conditions and favorable environmental conditions for parasite multiplication (e.g., suitable water temperature and low water flow) could have enhanced fish susceptibility to the parasite in April 2008. Further studies are needed to establish the incidence of freshwater fish diseases in Mediterranean watersheds, and water management policies should be reviewed to improve the conservation of native fish fauna.

  17. Diatom responses to sewage inputs and hydrological alteration in Mediterranean streams.

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    Tornés, Elisabet; Mor, Jordi-René; Mandaric, Ladislav; Sabater, Sergi

    2018-03-22

    We analyzed the conjoint effects of sewage inputs and hydrological alteration on the occurrence of teratological forms and on the assemblage composition of stream benthic diatoms. The study was performed in 11 Mediterranean streams which received treated or untreated urban sewage (Impact sites, I), whose composition and morphological anomalies were compared to upstream unaffected (Control, C) sites. The impact sites had high concentrations of ammonium, phosphorus, and pharmaceutical compounds (antibiotics, analgesics, and anti-inflammatories), particularly in those receiving untreated sewage. Impact sites had a higher proportion of teratological forms as well as a prevalence of diatom taxa tolerant to pollution. The differences in the diatom assemblage composition between the paired C and I sites were the largest in the impacted sites that received untreated sewage inputs as well as in the systems with lower dilution capacity. In these sites, the diatom assemblage was composed by a few pollution-tolerant species. Mediterranean river systems facing hydrological stress are highly sensitive to chemical contamination, leading to the homogenization of their diatom assemblages. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrogen concentrations in a small Mediterranean stream: 1. Nitrate 2. Ammonium

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    A. Butturini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of storm frequency as well as the groundwater and hyporheic inputs on nitrate (NO3-N and ammonium (NH4-N levels in stream water were studied in a small perennial Mediterranean catchment, Riera Major, in northeast Spain. NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 1.9 mg l-1. Discharge explained 47% of the annual NO3-N concentration variance, but this percentage increased to 97% when single floods were analysed. The rate of change in nitrate concentration with respect to flow, ΔNO3-N/ΔQ, ranged widely from 0 to 20 μg NO3-N s l-2. The ΔNO3-N/ΔQ values fitted to a non linear model with respect to the storm flow magnitude (ΔQ (r2=0.48, d.f.=22, P3-N/ΔQ occurred at intermediate ΔQ values, whereas low ΔNO3-N/ΔQ values occurred during severe storms (ΔQ > 400 l s-1. N3-N concentrations exhibit anticlockwise hysteresis patterns with changing flow and the patterns observed for autumnal and winter storms indicated that groundwater was the main N3-N source for stream and hyporheic water. At baseflow, NO3-N concentration in groundwater was higher (t=4.75, d.f.=29, P>0.001 and co-varied with concentrations in the stream (r=0.91, d.f.=28, P3-N concentration in hyporheic water was identical to that in stream water. The role of the hyporheic zone as source or sink for ammonium was studied hyporheic was studied comparing its concentrations in stream and hyporheic zone before and after a major storm occurred in October 1994 that removed particulate organic matter stored in sediments. Results showed high ammonium concentrations (75±28 s.d. μg NH4-N l-1 before the storm flow in the hyporheic zone. After the storm, the ammonium concentration in the hyporheic dropped by 80% (13.6±8 μg N4-N l-1 and approached to the level found in stream water (11±8 μg NH4-N l-1 indicating that indisturbed hyporheic sediments act as a source for ammonium. After the storm, the ammonium concentrations in the stream, hyporheic and groundwater zones were very

  19. Effects of Land Use Intensification on Fish Assemblages in Mediterranean Climate Streams

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    Matono, P.; Sousa, D.; Ilhéu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Southern Portugal is experiencing a rapid change in land use due to the spread of intensive farming systems, namely olive production systems, which can cause strong negative environmental impacts and affect the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to identify the main environmental disturbances related with olive grove intensification on Mediterranean-climate streams in southern Portugal, and to evaluate their effects on fish assemblage structure and integrity. Twenty-six stream sites within the direct influence of traditional, intensive, and hyper-intensive olive groves were sampled. Human-induced disturbances were analyzed along the olive grove intensity gradient. The integrity of fish assemblages was evaluated by comparison with an independent set of least disturbed reference sites, considering metrics and guilds, based on multivariate analyses. Along the gradient of olive grove intensification, the study observed overall increases in human disturbance variables and physicochemical parameters, especially organic/nutrient enrichment, sediment load, and riparian degradation. Animal load measured the impact of livestock production. This variable showed an opposite pattern, since traditional olive groves are often combined with high livestock production and are used as grazing pasture by the cattle, unlike more intensive olive groves. Stream sites influenced by olive groves were dominated by non-native and tolerant fish species, while reference sites presented higher fish richness, density and were mainly occupied by native and intolerant species. Fish assemblage structure in olive grove sites was significantly different from the reference set, although significant differences between olive grove types were not observed. Bray-Curtis similarities between olive grove sites and references showed a decreasing trend in fish assemblage integrity along the olive grove intensification gradient. Olive production, even in traditional groves, led to

  20. Ecology of Hypersaline Microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, S.

    by microorganisms. A prime example is the Dead Sea, a lake in which the 37 concentration of divalent cations (about 1.9 M Mg+2 and 0.4 M Ca+2) exceeds that of monovalent cations (1.6 M Na+ and 0.14 M K+) and of which the pH is relatively low (around 6.0). Even... such a hostile environment periodically supports dense microbial blooms (Oren, 1988). The two largest and best-studied hypersaline lakes are the Great Salt Lake in the Western United States and the Dead Sea, in the Middle East. The Great Salt Lake...

  1. Impact of urban and industrial sewage discharges on the trophic ecology of two wild native cyprinids in a Mediterranean stream

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    Sergi Vargas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean Rivers have experienced a long-history of anthropogenic impacts. Water pollution is still one of the major threats to freshwater biota despite the marked investments in sewage treatment plants (STPs in recent decades. This is attributed, in part, to the reduced water flow of these systems due to climate and water abstractions, coupled to some illegal spills and agricultural run-off. The present study examined the potential effects of the effluents from urban and industrial STPs on the trophic ecology of the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis and the Ebro chub (Squalius laietanus in a small Mediterranean stream. Fish were collected in summer 2012 and their gut contents were compared between three reference and three polluted sites and related to the water quality. In all sampling sites, the composition of prey consumed by both fish species was compatible with ommivory, including macro-invertebrates, plants and detritus. However, the two fish species ingested a higher richness and diversity prey in the baseline compared to the polluted sites. These differences were also mirrored in the taxonomic composition of preys consumed, reflecting the replacement of sensitive species with tolerant ones along a pollution gradient. Specifically, fish diet was dominated in reference sites by water beetles and plant matter, whereas two typical representatives of polluted waters, snails and chironomids, were the predominant prey type downstream the STPs inputs. No major differences in richness, diversity and taxonomic composition were observed in the prey consumed within polluted or reference sites. Our results are consistent with the generalist trophic ecology of native cyprinids in Mediterranean rivers, and suggest a similar trophic position for B. meridionalis and S. laietanus. However, differences in the taxonomic composition of prey consumed between polluted and reference sites suggest that STP inputs may have altered the energy fluxes

  2. Meso-scale resolution for the definition of environmental flow standards in Mediterranean streams

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    Vezza, Paolo; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Comoglio, Claudio; Spairani, Michele; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Sapounidis, Argyris

    2013-04-01

    high sensitivity/specificity values, indicating substantial predictions with low cross-classification errors. In addition, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was over 0.81 in all cases, indicating from good to excellent model performance. Finally, examples of model applications in regulated sites were also presented in order to quantify the available habitat under specific environmental conditions and to define environmental flow standards. The meso-scale approach showed its potential in modelling habitat for fish and the presented statistical techniques can be considered a promising tool for river restoration and ecological management of Mediterranean streams.

  3. Influence of urbanization pattern on stream flow of a peri-urban catchment under Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Coelho, Celeste A. O.

    2015-04-01

    The demand for better life quality and lower living costs created a great pressure on peri-urban areas, leading to significant land-use changes. The complexity of mixed land-use patterns, however, presents a challenge to understand the hydrological pathways and streamflow response involved in such changes. This study assesses the impact of a actively changing Portuguese peri-urban area on catchment hydrology. It focuses on quantifying streamflow delivery from contributing areas, of different land-use arrangement and the seasonal influence of the Mediterranean climate on stream discharge. The study focuses on Ribeira dos Covões a small (6 km2) peri-urban catchment on the outskirts of Coimbra, one of the main cities in central Portugal. Between 1958 and 2012 the urban area of the catchment expanded from 8% to 40%, mostly at the expense of agriculture (down from 48% to 4%), with woodland now accounting for the remaining 56% of the catchment area. The urban area comprises contrasting urban settings, associated with older discontinuous arrangement of buildings and urban structures and low population density (80% woodland and highest (29% on sandstone; 18% on limestone) in the most urbanized (49-53% urban) sub-catchments. Percentage impermeable surface seems to control streamflow particularly during dry periods. Winter runoff was 2-4 times higher than total river flow in the summer dry season in highly urbanized areas, but was 21-fold higher in winter in the least urbanized sub-catchment, denoting greater flow connectivity enhanced by increased soil moisture. Although impermeable surfaces are prone to generate overland flow, the proximity to the stream network is an important parameter determining their hydrological impacts. During the monitoring period, the enlargement of 2% of the urban area at downslope locations in the Covões sub-catchment, led to a 6% increase in the runoff coefficient. In contrast, the urban area increase from 9 to 25% mainly in upslope parts of

  4. Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Calmet, D.; Fernandez, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  5. Losing water in temporary streams on a Mediterranean island: Effects of climate and land-cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Celso; Amengual, Arnau; Homar, Víctor; Zamora, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Temporary streams are unique, sensitive and threatened fluvial systems. They periodically dry up and contribute to biodiversity by supporting different species. In Mediterranean regions, human pressures and climate change increase the duration of the dry period for the streams. We analysed the annual and seasonal trends on streamflow data from 14 gauging stations on temporary streams on the island of Mallorca. We used a Mann-Kendall trend test on data from 1977 to 2009 (33 years) to identify trends in discharge, number of days with water, accumulated precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), and land cover change. Results show a general decreasing trend of streamflow during spring and summer, with flows reduced between 4 and 17% in some basins. Although the inter-annual variability is high for both seasons, the decrease in annual precipitation, the increase in temperature, and the effects of colonization and growth of forests explain the reduction in the number of days with running water. Correlation and elasticity analyses show that precipitation is the main driver for streamflow reduction, but the increase in temperature and land-cover changes also play a significant role in the decreasing of flows. These seasonal changes especially affect the headwaters of the basins, which are located in a mountainous area. The Kendall regional test, applied to the 12 basins considered in the Tramuntana range, reveals a significant decreasing annual trend in the number of days with measured flow. The forest expansion and the warmer conditions cause a higher vegetation water demand, increasing the real evapotranspiration and, consequently, reducing the runoff and thus increasing the losses in the water balance. In addition, the increase in the number of days during which channels and parafluvial habitats are disconnected negatively affects the aquatic habitat. This paper provides the first evidence of a consistent long-term reduction in flow in temporary streams in the

  6. Wastewater treatment plant effluents change abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in mediterranean urban stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbt, Stephanie N; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Blesa, Alba; Martí, Eugènia; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2015-01-01

    Streams affected by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are hotspots of nitrification. We analyzed the influence of WWTP inputs on the abundance, distribution, and composition of epilithic ammonia-oxidizing (AO) assemblages in five Mediterranean urban streams by qPCR and amoA gene cloning and sequencing of both archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). The effluents significantly modified stream chemical parameters, and changes in longitudinal profiles of both NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) indicated stimulated nitrification activity. WWTP effluents were an allocthonous source of both AOA, essentially from the Nitrosotalea cluster, and mostly of AOB, mainly Nitrosomonas oligotropha, Nitrosomonas communis, and Nitrosospira spp. changing the relative abundance and the natural composition of AO assemblages. Under natural conditions, Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus AOA dominated AO assemblages, and AOB were barely detected. After the WWTP perturbation, epilithic AOB increased by orders of magnitude whereas AOA did not show quantitative changes but a shift in population composition to dominance of Nitrosotalea spp. The foraneous AOB successfully settled in downstream biofilms and probably carried out most of the nitrification activity. Nitrosotalea were only observed downstream and only in biofilms exposed to either darkness or low irradiance. In addition to other potential environmental limitations for AOA distribution, this result suggests in situ photosensitivity as previously reported for Nitrosotalea under laboratory conditions.

  7. Biogeomorphic responses to flow regulation and fine sediment supply in Mediterranean streams (the Guadalete River, southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González del Tánago, M.; Bejarano, M. D.; García de Jalón, D.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Geomorphic responses to damming are primarily determined by the magnitude of sediment transport and sediment supply alteration and by the resulting change in the balance between the two. The former change is caused by alterations in the flow regime that are caused by reservoir operations. Flow regime changes also affect the distribution and amount of riparian vegetation that, in turn, also may enhance geomorphic responses. The latter change is caused by sediment trapping in reservoirs and by the magnitude of sediment supply from watersheds that are downstream from the dam. We examined the bio-geomorphic responses to flow regulation along a Mediterranean stream located in an agricultural area of southern Spain where there is significant fine sediment erosion from adjacent hillsides. We measured changes in active channel width and riparian corridor features during the last fifty years, based on field work and aerial photographs surveys from 1956, 1984 and 2004. We assessed the hydrological alteration and sediment delivery trends linked to dam operation and land use changes. Channel narrowing of nearly 75% and 30% reduction in total corridor area, together with average accretion rates of 0.045 m y-1 and vegetation encroachment with a 305% increase of mature forest occurred between 1956 and 2004. Causal linkages were attributed to the strong reduction of peak flows and transport capacity of flows, together with land-use changes that likely promoted increased fine sediment delivery. Vegetation overgrowth favored by increased summer flows could contribute to the narrowing and aggradation processes. Our results differ from channel responses to damming in Mediterranean regions dominated by steep gradient gravel bed rivers, and highlight the relevance of topography and land-use affecting the sediment regime downstream from the dams. We argue for a more holistic approach of water resources and land-use management at the catchment scale in order to understand the synergistic

  8. The effect of water salinity on wood breakdown in semiarid Mediterranean streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Rosa; Asencio, Antonia Dolores; Picón, José María; Del Campo, Rubén; Arce, María Isabel; Del Mar Sánchez-Montoya, María; Suárez, María Luisa; Vidal-Abarca, María Rosario

    2016-01-15

    Saline streams occur naturally and they are distributed worldwide, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, but human activities have also increased their number in many parts of the world. Little attention has been paid to assess increasing salt effects on organic matter decomposition. The objectives of this study were to analyse wood breakdown rates and how salinity affects them in 14 streams that exemplify a natural salinity gradient. We also analysed the effect of this gradient on changes in wood chemical composition, fungal biomass and microbial activity. Our results showed low breakdown rates (0.0010-0.0032 d(-1)), but they fell within the same range as those reported in freshwater streams when a similar woody substrate was used. However, salinity had a negative effect on the breakdown rates and fungal biomass along the salinity gradient, and led to noticeable changes in wood composition. Water salinity did not affect microbial activity estimated using hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate. Variation in breakdown rates and fungal biomass across streams was mediated mainly by salinity, and later by stream discharge. Despite the role of fungi in stick breakdown, the potential wood abrasion by salts must be analysed in detail to accurately understand the effect of increasing salinity on organic matter breakdown. Finally, our results indicate that increased salinity worldwide by human activities or by the global warming would imply organic matter breakdown and mineralisation slowing down, even in natural saline streams. However, because many variables are implicated, the final effect of climatic change on organic matter decomposition in streams is difficult to predict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Riparian Bird Communities as Indicators of Human Impacts Along Mediterranean Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Sorace, Alberto; Mancini, Laura

    2010-02-01

    Riparian areas link aquatic and terrestrial habitats, supporting species-rich bird communities, which integrate both terrestrial and aquatic processes. For this reason, inclusion of riparian birds in stream bioassessment could add to the information currently provided by existing programs that monitor aquatic organisms. To assess if bird community metrics could indicate stream conditions, we sampled breeding birds in the riparian zone of 37 reaches in 5 streams draining watersheds representing a gradient of agricultural intensity in central Italy. As a more direct indicator of water quality, stream macroinvertebrates were also sampled for computation of the Italian Extended Biotic Index (IBE). An anthropogenic index was calculated within 1 km of sampled reaches based on satellite-derived land-use classifications. Predictive models of macroinvertebrate integrity based on land-use and avian metrics were compared using an information-theoretic approach (AIC). We also determined if stream quality related to the detection of riverine species. Apparent bird species diversity and richness peaked at intermediate levels of land-use modification, but increased with IBE values. Water quality did not relate to the detection of riverine species as a guild, but two species, the dipper Cinclus cinclus and the grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea, were only observed in reaches with the highest IBE values. Small-bodied insectivorous birds and arboreal species were detected more often in reaches with better water quality and in less modified landscapes. In contrast, larger and granivorous species were more common in disturbed reaches. According to the information-theoretic approach, the best model for predicting water quality included the anthropogenic index, bird species diversity, and an index summarizing the trophic structure of the bird community. We conclude that, in combination with landscape-level information, the diversity and trophic structure of riparian bird communities could

  10. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffagni, Andrea; Tenchini, Roberta; Cazzola, Marcello; Erba, Stefania; Balestrini, Raffaella; Belfiore, Carlo; Pagnotta, Romano

    2016-09-15

    We hypothesized that reach-scale, bank and channel modification would impact benthic communities in temporary rivers of Sardinia, when pollution and water abstraction are not relevant. A range of variables were considered, which include both artificial structures/alterations and natural features observed in a stream reach. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were used to assess the effects of the explanatory variables on invertebrate assemblages and five groups, characterized by different habitat modification and/or features, were recognized. Four node variables determined the splits in the MRT analysis: channel reinforcement, tree-related bank and channel habitats, channel modification and bank modification. Continuity of trees in the river corridor diverged among MRT groups and significant differences among groups include presence of alders, extent of channel shading and substrate diversity. Also, the percentage of in-stream organic substrates, in particular CPOM/Xylal, showed highly significant differences among groups. For practical applications, thresholds for the extent of channel reinforcement (40%) and modification (10%) and for bank alteration (≈30%) were provided, that can be used to guide the implementation of restoration measures. In moderately altered river reaches, a significant extent of tree-related habitats (≈5%) can noticeably mitigate the effects of morphological alteration on aquatic invertebrates. The outcomes highlight the importance of riparian zone management as an opportune, achievable prospect in the restoration of Mediterranean temporary streams. The impact of bank and channel modification on ecological status (sensu WFD) was investigated and the tested benthic metrics, especially those based on abundance data, showed legible differences among MRT groups. Finally, bank and channel modification appears to be a potential threat for the conservation of a few Sardo-Corsican endemic species. The introduction of management criteria that

  11. Thermal niche for in situ seed germination by Mediterranean mountain streams: model prediction and validation for Rhamnus persicifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porceddu, Marco; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean mountain species face exacting ecological conditions of rainy, cold winters and arid, hot summers, which affect seed germination phenology. In this study, a soil heat sum model was used to predict field emergence of Rhamnus persicifolia, an endemic tree species living at the edge of mountain streams of central eastern Sardinia. Seeds were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10-25 and 25/10 °C) after different periods (up to 3 months) of cold stratification at 5 °C. Base temperatures (Tb), and thermal times for 50 % germination (θ50) were calculated. Seeds were also buried in the soil in two natural populations (Rio Correboi and Rio Olai), both underneath and outside the tree canopy, and exhumed at regular intervals. Soil temperatures were recorded using data loggers and soil heat sum (°Cd) was calculated on the basis of the estimated Tb and soil temperatures. Cold stratification released physiological dormancy (PD), increasing final germination and widening the range of germination temperatures, indicative of a Type 2 non-deep PD. Tb was reduced from 10·5 °C for non-stratified seeds to 2·7 °C for seeds cold stratified for 3 months. The best thermal time model was obtained by fitting probit germination against log °Cd. θ50 was 2·6 log °Cd for untreated seeds and 2·17-2·19 log °Cd for stratified seeds. When θ50 values were integrated with soil heat sum estimates, field emergence was predicted from March to April and confirmed through field observations. Tb and θ50 values facilitated model development of the thermal niche for in situ germination of R. persicifolia. These experimental approaches may be applied to model the natural regeneration patterns of other species growing on Mediterranean mountain waterways and of physiologically dormant species, with overwintering cold stratification requirement and spring germination.

  12. Riparian woodland encroachment following flow regulation: a comparative study of Mediterranean and Boreal streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Bejarano M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Water development accompanying mankind development has turned rivers into endangered ecosystems. Improving the understanding of ecological responses to river management actions is a key issue for assuring sustainable water management. However, few studies have been published where ecological metrics have been quantified in response to various degrees of flow alteration. In this work, changes in natural distribution of trees and shrubs within the riparian corridor (as indicator of the ecological status of the fluvial ecosystem were quantified at multiple sites along a flow alteration gradient (as indicator of impact along two regulated river reaches, one Boreal and the other Mediterranean, each downstream of a dam. Based on the obtained relationships we evaluated differences in response trends related to local physico-climatic factors of the two biomes and regarding to differing life-forms. Woody vegetation establishment patterns represented objective indicators of ecological responses to flow alteration. We found different responses between life-forms. Both trees and shrubs migrated downwards to the channel after dam closure, but shrubs were most impacted under higher degrees of flow alteration in terms of lateral movement. In addition, our results show clear longitudinal recovery trends of natural patterns of tree and shrub distribution corresponding to a decrease in intensity of hydrologic alteration in the Boreal river. However, vegetation encroachment persisted along the entire Mediterranean study reach. This may result from a relatively low gradient of decrease of hydrologic alteration with distance from the dam, coupled with other overlapping pressures and the mediating effect of physico-climatic characteristics on vegetation responses.

  13. Structure and dynamics of a benthic trophic web in a Mediterranean seasonal stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Elena Vannucchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the results of a study conducted on the benthic macroinvertebrate community of a Southern Spain seasonal stream over a year. We constructed the food web focusing on the benthic fauna and we studied the ecology and dynamics of the community in terms of trophic resources. The benthic trophic web was composed by 35 families; these were not all present at the same time, but were incorporating and disappearing throughout the study period. Connectance between trophospecies varied from 0.24 to 0.59. The functional feeding group (FFG composition of the community turned out to be fairly constant with time with a predominance of scrapers and collector-gatherers. Furthermore, data obtained from the Bray-Curtis measure and the niche overlap study, evidence the stability of the stream from a trophic point of view. Rather widespread is omnivory that plays an important role in the survival of some families. We compared the results of the trophic web study with those of other temporary streams of the same region of Southern Spain.

  14. Phytosociological and ecological structure of Mediterranean enclaves along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Fergan; Kilinc, Mahmut; Korkmaz, Hasan; Kutbay, Hamdi Guray; Yalcin, Erkan; Bilgin, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study phytosociological structure of Mediterranean enclaves which occured along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black sea region was investigated. Pinus brutia var. brutia and Quercus coccifera are the most widespread communities in the study area. Pinus pinea, Arbutus andrachne, Arbutus unedo, Fontanesia philliraeoides subsp. philliraeoides and Olea europaea L. var sylvestris have a restricted distribution in inner parts of Black sea region as compared to P. brutia and Q. coccifera. The following associations were described in the study area. Siderito dichotomae -Quercetum cocciferae, Spiraeo crenatae-Oleetum sylvestns ass. nov, Cotino coggyreae- Arbutetum andrachnes, Buxo sempervirenti-Arbutetum unedonis ass. nov, Paliuro spinae-christi-Fontanesietum philliraeoidis, Querco infectoriae-Pinetum brutiae and Crucianello ponticae-Pinetum pinae. The highest species diversity was found in Crucienello ponticae- Pinetum pinae, while the lowest species diversity was found in Spiraeo crenatae-Oleetum sylvestris. Evenness values were much similar to each other among all of the associations. According to CA Paliurus spinae-christi-Fontanesietum philliraeoidis, Spiraeo crenatae- Oleetum sylvestris and Crucienello ponticae-Pinetum pinae occured in the negative zone. The other four associations occured in the positive zone.

  15. Thermal niche for in situ seed germination by Mediterranean mountain streams: model prediction and validation for Rhamnus persicifolia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porceddu, Marco; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Mediterranean mountain species face exacting ecological conditions of rainy, cold winters and arid, hot summers, which affect seed germination phenology. In this study, a soil heat sum model was used to predict field emergence of Rhamnus persicifolia, an endemic tree species living at the edge of mountain streams of central eastern Sardinia. Methods Seeds were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C) after different periods (up to 3 months) of cold stratification at 5 °C. Base temperatures (Tb), and thermal times for 50 % germination (θ50) were calculated. Seeds were also buried in the soil in two natural populations (Rio Correboi and Rio Olai), both underneath and outside the tree canopy, and exhumed at regular intervals. Soil temperatures were recorded using data loggers and soil heat sum (°Cd) was calculated on the basis of the estimated Tb and soil temperatures. Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy (PD), increasing final germination and widening the range of germination temperatures, indicative of a Type 2 non-deep PD. Tb was reduced from 10·5 °C for non-stratified seeds to 2·7 °C for seeds cold stratified for 3 months. The best thermal time model was obtained by fitting probit germination against log °Cd. θ50 was 2·6 log °Cd for untreated seeds and 2·17–2·19 log °Cd for stratified seeds. When θ50 values were integrated with soil heat sum estimates, field emergence was predicted from March to April and confirmed through field observations. Conclusions Tb and θ50 values facilitated model development of the thermal niche for in situ germination of R. persicifolia. These experimental approaches may be applied to model the natural regeneration patterns of other species growing on Mediterranean mountain waterways and of physiologically dormant species, with overwintering cold stratification requirement and spring germination. PMID:24201139

  16. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  17. Hydrological modeling of stream flow in small Mediterranean dams and impact of climate change : case study of wadi Rmel catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habaieb, Hamadi; Hermassi, Taoufik; Moncef Masmoudi, Mohamed; Ben Mechlia, Nétij

    2015-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by a semi-arid climate with an irregular and high spatial variability of rainfall. This situation is expected to aggravate under the expected increase of temperature and modification of rainfall regime predicted by most climate models for the Mediterranean region. Water is a major limiting factor for agriculture in Tunisia and mobilization of surface water resources is approaching its maximum. Dams are installed on almost all large watersheds and concerned also medium size and small ones. Hydrological functioning of such structures and their capacity to satisfy user's demand under the changing climate will be addressed using simple models and results will be discussed in this paper. The small catchment of Wadi Rmel is considered here for methodological development. This watershed (675 Km2) is situated in North-East Tunisia with average annual rainfall of 420 mm and was equipped in 1998 with a small dam. Data on rainfall collected at 12 rainfall stations during the period 1908 - 2012 are analyzed and used to build a coherent series of monthly rainfalls and spatially averaged on the watershed by the Thiessen method. In a second step, rainfall-runoff modeling was used to estimate runoff and water budget of the dam. Tow rainfall-runoff models GR2M and SWAT were considered and evaluated when using i) the rainfall observed at the dam and ii) the average rainfall on the watershed. The observed and simulated level in the dam were compared for both models and situations. Results showed that taking into account the spatial distribution of rainfall improved the simulation of stream flows and that SWAT model performs better than GR2M. The use of such models to make prediction of stream flow using downscaled climatic data from GCM will be discussed. Analysis of the results considering tow standardized sets of future greenhouse gas emissions used by the General Circulation Models for the IPCC 5th approximation RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 and three future

  18. Hypersaline Microbial Mat Lipid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotopic abundances are powerful tools for studies of contemporary microbial ecosystems. Knowledge of the relationship of biomarkers to microbial physiology and community structure creates important links for understanding the nature of early organisms and paleoenvironments. Our recent work has focused on the hypersaline microbial mats in evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, sulfur oxidizing and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface. The delta C-13 of cyanobacterial biomarkers such as the monomethylalkanes and hopanoids are consistent with the delta C-13 measured for bulk mat (-10%o), while a GNS biomarker, wax esters (WXE), suggests a more depleted delta C-13 for GNS biomass (-16%o). This isotopic relationship is different than that observed in mats at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YSNP) where GNS appear to grow photoheterotrophic ally. WXE abundance, while relatively low, is most pronounced in an anaerobic zone just below the cyanobacterial layer. The WXE isotope composition at GN suggests that these bacteria utilize photoautotrophy incorporating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway using H2S or H2.

  19. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...

  20. Pressure retarded osmosis from hypersaline sources - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajraktari, Niada; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Madsen, Henrik T.

    2017-01-01

    for commercialization. The scope of this paper is to review the existing knowledge on the use of hypersaline waters in the salinity gradient process, pressure retarded osmosis. Although only few papers have had the specific aim of investigating hypersaline waters, concentrated solutions have been used in many papers...

  1. Investigations of Methane Production in Hypersaline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reports of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, as well as the findings of hypersaline paleo-environments on that planet, have underscored the need to evaluate the importance of biological (as opposed to geological) trace gas production and consumption. Methane in the atmosphere of Mars may be an indication of life but might also be a consequence of geologic activity and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter. Hypersaline environments have now been reported to be extremely likely in several locations in our solar system, including: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Modern hypersaline microbial mat communities, (thought to be analogous to those present on the early Earth at a period of time when Mars was experiencing very similar environmental conditions), have been shown to produce methane. However, very little is known about the physical and/or biological controls imposed upon the rates at which methane, and other important trace gases, are produced and consumed in these environments. We describe here the results of our investigations of methane production in hypersaline environments, including field sites in Chile, Baja California Mexico, California, USA and the United Arab Emirates. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas produced both in the sediments underlying microbial mats, as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico, in Chile, and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. The carbon isotopic (d13C) composition of the methane in the bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of values, (ca. -75 per mille ca. -25 per mille). The hydrogen isotopic composition of the methane (d2H) ranged from -60 to -30per mille and -450 to -350per mille. These isotopic values are outside of the range of values normally considered to be biogenic, however incubations of the sediments in contact with these gas bubbles reveals that the methane is indeed being

  2. Water planning in a mixed land use Mediterranean area: point-source abstraction and pollution scenarios by a numerical model of varying stream-aquifer regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingxuan; Fouché, Olivier; Zavattero, Elodie; Ma, Qiang; Delestre, Olivier; Gourbesville, Philippe

    2018-02-22

    Integrated hydrodynamic modelling is an efficient approach for making semi-quantitative scenarios reliable enough for groundwater management, provided that the numerical simulations are from a validated model. The model set-up, however, involves many inputs due to the complexity of both the hydrological system and the land use. The case study of a Mediterranean alluvial unconfined aquifer in the lower Var valley (Southern France) is useful to test a method to estimate lacking data on water abstraction by small farms in urban context. With this estimation of the undocumented pumping volumes, and after calibration of the exchange parameters of the stream-aquifer system with the help of a river model, the groundwater flow model shows a high goodness of fit with the measured potentiometric levels. The consistency between simulated results and real behaviour of the system, with regard to the observed effects of lowering weirs and previously published hydrochemistry data, confirms reliability of the groundwater flow model. On the other hand, accuracy of the transport model output may be influenced by many parameters, many of which are not derived from field measurements. In this case study, for which river-aquifer feeding is the main control, the partition coefficient between direct recharge and runoff does not show a significant effect on the transport model output, and therefore, uncertainty of the hydrological terms such as evapotranspiration and runoff is not a first-rank issue to the pollution propagation. The simulation of pollution scenarios with the model returns expected pessimistic outputs, with regard to hazard management. The model is now ready to be used in a decision support system by the local water supply managers.

  3. On the origins of hypersaline groundwater in the Nile Delta Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, Joeri; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Kooi, Henk; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-04-01

    The fresh groundwater resources in the Nile Delta, Egypt, are of eminent socio-economic importance. These resources are under major stress due to population growth, the anticipated sea level rise and increased groundwater extraction rates, making fresh water availability the most challenging issue in this area. Up till now, numerous groundwater studies mainly focused on sea water intrusion on the top 100m of the groundwater system and assumed salinities not exceeding that of Mediterranean sea water, as there was no knowledge on groundwater in the deeper coastal parts of the Quaternary Nile Delta aquifer (that ranges up to 1000m depth). Recently, however, the Egyptian Research Institute for Groundwater (RIGW) collected salinity measurements and found a widespread occurrence of "hypersaline" groundwater: groundwater with salinities largely exceeding that of sea water at 600m depth (Nofal et al., 2015). This hypersaline groundwater greatly influences flow patterns and the fresh water potential of the aquifer. This research focuses on the origins of the hypersaline groundwater and the possible processes causing its transport. We consider all relevant salinization processes in the Nile Delta aquifer, over a time domain of up to 2.5 million years, which is the time span in which the aquifer got deposited. The following hypotheses were investigated with a combination of analytical solutions and numerical modelling: upward salt transport due to a) molecular diffusion, b) thermal buoyancy, c) consolidation-induced advection and dispersion, or downward transport due to d) composition buoyancy (salt inversion). We conclude that hypotheses a) and b) can be rejected, but c) and d) are both possible with the available information. An enhanced chemical analysis is suggested for further research, to determine the origins of this hypersaline water. This information in combination with the conclusions drawn in this research will give more insight in the potential amount of non

  4. An Updated View of the Microbial Diversity in Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-03-02

    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are marine extreme habitats, firstly discovered in the 1970s of the last century, located in several oceanographic regions, including the Mediterranean and Red Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. These basins are filled with brines that do not mix with the overlying seawater, due to a density difference. Brine and seawater result separated by a thick interface acting as a trap for particulate and cells. Some microbiological studies focused on seawater-brine interfaces of DHABs, showing that microbial populations are differentially distributed according to the gradient of salinity, oxygen, and nutrients occurring in such transition zones. Moreover, DHABs’ brines were intensively studied showing that specific bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic populations thrive there. In the last few years, cultivation and “omics”-based approaches have been used with samples collected from DHABs around the world, allowing clarifying metabolic processes of paramount ecological importance and pointing out the high biotechnological potential of the inhabiting extremophiles.

  5. Bacterial Dormancy Is More Prevalent in Freshwater than Hypersaline Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanderud, Zachary T.; Vert, Joshua C.; Lennon, Jay T.; Magnusson, Tylan W.; Breakwell, Donald P.; Harker, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria employ a diverse array of strategies to survive under extreme environmental conditions but maintaining these adaptations comes at an energetic cost. If energy reserves drop too low, extremophiles may enter a dormant state to persist. We estimated bacterial dormancy and identified the environmental variables influencing our activity proxy in 10 hypersaline and freshwater lakes across the Western United States. Using ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios as an indicator for bacterial activity, we found that the proportion of the community exhibiting dormancy was 16% lower in hypersaline than freshwater lakes. Based on our indicator variable multiple regression results, saltier conditions in both freshwater and hypersaline lakes increased activity, suggesting that salinity was a robust environmental filter structuring bacterial activity in lake ecosystems. To a lesser degree, higher total phosphorus concentrations reduced dormancy in all lakes. Thus, even under extreme conditions, the competition for resources exerted pressure on activity. Within the compositionally distinct and less diverse hypersaline communities, abundant taxa were disproportionately active and localized in families Microbacteriaceae (Actinobacteria), Nitriliruptoraceae (Actinobacteria), and Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria). Our results are consistent with the view that hypersaline communities are able to capitalize on a seemingly more extreme, yet highly selective, set of conditions and finds that extremophiles may need dormancy less often to thrive and survive. PMID:27375575

  6. Uranium Geochemistry in Hypersaline Soda Lakes in Eastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, B. S.; Bennett, P.; Puntsag, T.

    2007-12-01

    Extremely high concentrations of uranium were discovered in water samples from hypersaline soda lakes in eastern Mongolia. The origin and fate of uranium in these lakes was examined using geochemical analyses and modeling, using samples collected from five lakes, six wells and one stream. Samples were analyzed for strontium and uranium isotopes, cations and trace metals, anions, alkalinity, and unstable field parameters. The lakes are small, shallow (chlorine to bromine ratios implying groundwater discharges to lake water and is subsequently evaporated. Evaporation is intense with lake waters having average chlorine concentrations 300 times that of well waters. Uranium in well samples is higher than typical for shallow groundwaters (7-101ppb) suggesting discharging groundwater as a probable source of uranium in lake water. Concentrations of uranium in lake water ranges from 57-14,900ppb making these lakes possibly the highest naturally occurring uranium concentration reported. Lake water alkalinity is strongly correlated to uranium abundance suggesting uranium is complexed with carbonate as the aqueous species UO2CO3. Consequently, the extremely high alkalinity of the most alkaline lake (pH = 9.8, 1288.8 meq alk/L) also has the highest uranium concentrations. Stable strontium isotopes were used to assess the degree of water rock interactions and the presence of 90Sr was checked for to test the possibility of input of nuclear fallout. 90Sr was not detected in lake water samples suggesting the high uranium is of natural origins. A large difference in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was found between groundwater and lake water samples. Groundwater samples displayed large variation in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.70612-0.709776) whereas lake water samples averaged a high radiogenic ratio (0.709432). The large variation in the strontium isotopes in groundwater samples suggests varying degrees of water rock interactions, however the least radiogenic samples likely are derived from

  7. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  8. Ophiuroids discovered in the middle triassic hypersaline environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz A Salamon

    Full Text Available Echinoderms have long been considered to be one of the animal phyla that is strictly marine. However, there is growing evidence that some recent species may live in either brackish or hypersaline environments. Surprisingly, discoveries of fossil echinoderms in non-(openmarine paleoenvironments are lacking. In Wojkowice Quarry (Southern Poland, sediments of lowermost part of the Middle Triassic are exposed. In limestone layer with cellular structures and pseudomorphs after gypsum, two dense accumulations of articulated ophiuroids (Aspiduriella similis (Eck were documented. The sediments with ophiuroids were formed in environment of increased salinity waters as suggested by paleontological, sedimentological, petrographical and geochemical data. Discovery of Triassic hypersaline ophiuroids invalidates the paleontological assumption that fossil echinoderms are indicators of fully marine conditions. Thus caution needs to be taken when using fossil echinoderms in paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  9. New Abundant Microbial Groups in Aquatic Hypersaline Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ghai, Rohit; Pa?i?, Lejla; Fern?ndez, Ana Beatriz; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; McMahon, Katherine D.; Papke, R. Thane; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Rodriguez-Brito, Beltran; Rohwer, Forest; S?nchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio; Rodr?guez-Valera, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    We describe the microbiota of two hypersaline saltern ponds, one of intermediate salinity (19%) and a NaCl saturated crystallizer pond (37%) using pyrosequencing. The analyses of these metagenomes (nearly 784 Mb) reaffirmed the vast dominance of Haloquadratum walsbyi but also revealed novel, abundant and previously unsuspected microbial groups. We describe for the first time, a group of low GC Actinobacteria, related to freshwater Actinobacteria, abundant in low and intermediate salinities. M...

  10. Differences in stream flow in relation to changes in land cover: a comparative study in two sub-Mediterranean mountain catchments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lana-Renault, N.; Latron, J.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Serrano-Muela, P.; Regüés, D.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The stream flow response of two neighboring catchments in the central Spanish Pyrenees was compared for 26 rainstorms covering both catchments: one catchment (2.84 km2) was extensively used for agriculture in the past, and the other (0.92 km2) is covered by dense natural forest. Their similarity in

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Microbial Biodiversity at Hypersaline Microbial Mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulecal, Y.; Unsal, N.; Temel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hypersaline environments, such as hypersaline lakes are interesting sources with considerable potential for the isolation of extremophile microorganisms adapted to severe conditions. Biodiversity in such lakes (Dead Sea, the Great Salt Lake, the Solar Lake, the Soda Lake) varies due to differences in environmental conditions and specific lake characteristics such as local climate, lake size, water depth and lake water salt composition (Kamekura 1998; Sorokin et al. 2004). In this study area, Acigol Lake is an alkaline (pH:9), hypersaline lake located at Southwest Anatolia in Turkey. The aim of study was to determine the Archaea and Bacteria in microbial mats of hypersaline lacustrine environments. In conclusion, diagnostic biosignatures for methanogens and other archaeal groups within hypersaline microbial mats were identified through genomic DNA and lipid analyses.

  12. Biodiversity of the Hypersaline Urmia Lake National Park (NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urmia Lake, with a surface area between 4000 to 6000 km2, is a hypersaline lake located in northwest Iran. It is the saltiest large lake in the world that supports life. Urmia Lake National Park is the home of an almost endemic crustacean species known as the brine shrimp, Artemia urmiana. Other forms of life include several species of algae, bacteria, microfungi, plants, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals. As a consequence of this unique biodiversity, this lake has been selected as one of the 59 biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This paper provides a comprehensive species checklist that needs to be updated by additional research in the future.

  13. Evaluation of karstic aquifers contribution to streams by the statistical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Six stream gauging stations on different streams in the western Mediterranean region of Turkey are selected. Recession periods of the streams are simulated by exponential and quadratic recession curve models. Recession coefficient series of the stream gauging stations are statistically investigated. The comparison of ...

  14. Differences in lateral gene transfer in hypersaline versus thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew E; Spear, John R; Oren, Aharon; House, Christopher H

    2011-07-08

    The role of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of microorganisms is only beginning to be understood. While most LGT events occur between closely related individuals, inter-phylum and inter-domain LGT events are not uncommon. These distant transfer events offer potentially greater fitness advantages and it is for this reason that these "long distance" LGT events may have significantly impacted the evolution of microbes. One mechanism driving distant LGT events is microbial transformation. Theoretically, transformative events can occur between any two species provided that the DNA of one enters the habitat of the other. Two categories of microorganisms that are well-known for LGT are the thermophiles and halophiles. We identified potential inter-class LGT events into both a thermophilic class of Archaea (Thermoprotei) and a halophilic class of Archaea (Halobacteria). We then categorized these LGT genes as originating in thermophiles and halophiles respectively. While more than 68% of transfer events into Thermoprotei taxa originated in other thermophiles, less than 11% of transfer events into Halobacteria taxa originated in other halophiles. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental difference between LGT in thermophiles and halophiles. We theorize that the difference lies in the different natures of the environments. While DNA degrades rapidly in thermal environments due to temperature-driven denaturization, hypersaline environments are adept at preserving DNA. Furthermore, most hypersaline environments, as topographical minima, are natural collectors of cellular debris. Thus halophiles would in theory be exposed to a greater diversity and quantity of extracellular DNA than thermophiles.

  15. Methanogenesis in hypersaline environments -Analogs for Ancient Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; Chanton, Jeff; Kelley, Cheryl; Tazaz, Amanda; Poole, Jennifer; García Maldonado, José Q.; López Cortés, Alejandro

    The recent findings of evidence of large bodies of hypersaline water which existed in the past on Mars have underscored the need to investigate those environments for evidence of past, as well as extant, life. Methane, a key biomarker gas, has been reported in the atmosphere of Mars, and is known to be produced by microbial mats which are present in most hypersaline environments on Earth. Modern microbial mat communities are thought to be extant analogues of communities which were present early in Earth's geologic history, when environmental condition on Earth and Mars were similar. Because methane may be an indication of life (biogenic methane) but might also be a consequence of geologic activity (abiotic methane) and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter (thermogenic methane), the stable isotopic composition of methane (both carbon and hydrogen) will be a key criterion for determining whether or not the methane on Mars is biologically produced, and if so, how recently (i.e., biogenic vs. thermogenic methane). The goals of our study are: a) to document the range of the stable isotopic composition of methane (both carbon and hydrogen) in hypersaline environments, and b) to understand the role of biology in generating that stable isotopic composition. Our results will help provide a framework for the interpretation of methane stable isotopic data from Mars. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas present in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. These bubbles are present both in sediments underlying microbial mats (including one site where methane constitutes nearly 40% by volume of the bubbles), as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats; layers of evaporitic minerals in some areas trap gas containing high concentrations of methane. The carbon isotopic (δ 13 C) composition of the methane in collected bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of

  16. Differences in lateral gene transfer in hypersaline versus thermal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    House Christopher H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of lateral gene transfer (LGT in the evolution of microorganisms is only beginning to be understood. While most LGT events occur between closely related individuals, inter-phylum and inter-domain LGT events are not uncommon. These distant transfer events offer potentially greater fitness advantages and it is for this reason that these "long distance" LGT events may have significantly impacted the evolution of microbes. One mechanism driving distant LGT events is microbial transformation. Theoretically, transformative events can occur between any two species provided that the DNA of one enters the habitat of the other. Two categories of microorganisms that are well-known for LGT are the thermophiles and halophiles. Results We identified potential inter-class LGT events into both a thermophilic class of Archaea (Thermoprotei and a halophilic class of Archaea (Halobacteria. We then categorized these LGT genes as originating in thermophiles and halophiles respectively. While more than 68% of transfer events into Thermoprotei taxa originated in other thermophiles, less than 11% of transfer events into Halobacteria taxa originated in other halophiles. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is a fundamental difference between LGT in thermophiles and halophiles. We theorize that the difference lies in the different natures of the environments. While DNA degrades rapidly in thermal environments due to temperature-driven denaturization, hypersaline environments are adept at preserving DNA. Furthermore, most hypersaline environments, as topographical minima, are natural collectors of cellular debris. Thus halophiles would in theory be exposed to a greater diversity and quantity of extracellular DNA than thermophiles.

  17. MILLIMETER-SCALE GENETIC GRADIENTS AND COMMUNITY-LEVEL MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE IN A HYPERSALINE MICROBIAL MAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, Marsha W; Kunin, Victor; Raes, Jeroen; Harris, J. Kirk; Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Mering, Christian von; Bebout, Brad M.; Pace, Norman R.; Bork, Peer; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-04-30

    To investigate the extent of genetic stratification in structured microbial communities, we compared the metagenomes of 10 successive layers of a phylogenetically complex hypersaline mat from Guerrero Negro, Mexico. We found pronounced millimeter-scale genetic gradients that are consistent with the physicochemical profile of the mat. Despite these gradients, all layers displayed near identical and acid-shifted isoelectric point profiles due to a molecular convergence of amino acid usage indicating that hypersalinity enforces an overriding selective pressure on the mat community.

  18. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  19. Lipid Biomarkers for a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda; Orphan, Victoria; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra; Kubo, Mike; Summons, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The use of lipid biomarkers and their carbon isotopic compositions are valuable tools for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. Various lipids associated with specific microbial groups can serve as biomarkers for establishing organism source and function in contemporary microbial ecosystems (membrane lipids), and by analogy, potential relevance to ancient organic-rich sedimentary rocks (geolipids). As witnessed by the stromatolite record, benthic microbial mats grew in shallow water lagoonal environments. Our recent work has focused on lipid biomarker analysis of a potential analogue for such ancient mats growing in a set of hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The aerobic, surface layer of this mat (0 to 1 mm) contained a variety of ester-bound fatty acids (FA) representing a diverse bacterial population including cyanobacteria, sulphate reducers (SRB) and heterotrophs. Biomarkers for microeukaryotes detected in this layer included sterols, C-20 polyunsaturated FA and a highly branched isoprenoid, diagnostic for diatoms. Cyanobacteria were also indicated by the presence of a diagnostic set of mid-chain methylalkanes. C-28, to C-34 wax esters (WXE) present in relatively small amounts in the upper 3 mm of the mat are considered biomarkers for green non-sulphur bacteria. Ether-bound isoprenoids were also identified although in considerably lower abundance than ester-bound FA (approx. 1:l0). These complex ether lipids included archatol, hydroxyarchaeol and a C-40 tetraether, all in small amounts. After ether cleavage with boron tribromide, the major recovered isoprenyl was a C-30:1. This C(sub 30;1) yelded squalane after hydrogenation, a known geobiomarker for hypersaline environments in ancient oils and sediments. In this mat, it represents the dominant Archaeal population. The carbon isotopic composition of biomarker lipids were generally depleted relative to the bulk organic material (delta C-13 TOC -10%). Most

  20. Evaluation of karstic aquifers contribution to streams by the statistical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on different streams in the western Mediterranean region of Turkey are selected. Recession peri- ods of the streams are simulated by exponential and quadratic recession curve models. Recession coefficient series of the stream gauging stations are statistically investigated. The comparison of various statistical parameters ...

  1. Field observations of hypersaline runoff through a shallow estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Taleb; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates a rare situation at the Mond River Estuary in the Persian Gulf, in which the classical estuarine density gradient coincides with hypersaline runoff entering from saline soils upstream of the estuary after severe precipitation. This builds a unique estuarine setting, where two salt water masses, one originating from the coastal ocean and the other being discharged from upstream confine a range of almost freshwater in the middle of estuary. This "freshwater lens estuary" (FLE) situation includes two saltwater sources with opposing senses of estuarine circulation. Therefore, the tidal damping by the strong river flood can occur, especially during neap tide when high Unsteadiness number (∼0.04) signified ebb oriented condition which was induced by straining residual lateral circulation near the FLE mouth. Transition from well-mixed to weak strain induced periodic stratification regimes indicated the importance of the spring-neap tidal variations. Close to the mouth, a 13.66-day periodic tidal asymmetry from the triad K1-O1-M2 (ebb-dominance during spring tide and flood-dominance in neap tide) was overcome by higher harmonics.

  2. Microbial stratification and microbially catalyzed processes along a hypersaline chemocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, A.; Joye, S. B.; Teske, A.

    2017-12-01

    Orca Basin is the largest deep hypersaline anoxic basin in the world, covering over 400 km2. Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, this body of water reaches depths of 200 meters and is 8 times denser (and more saline) than the overlying seawater. The sharp pycnocline prevents any significant vertical mixing and serves as a particle trap for sinking organic matter. These rapid changes in salinity, oxygen, organic matter, and other geochemical parameters present unique conditions for the microbial communities present. We collected samples in 10m intervals throughout the chemocline. After filtering the water, we used high-throughput bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the changing microbial community along the Orca Basin chemocline. The results reveal a dominance of microbial taxa whose biogeochemical function is entirely unknown. We then used metagenomic sequencing and reconstructed genomes for select samples, revealing the potential dominant metabolic processes in the Orca Basin chemocline. Understanding how these unique geochemical conditions shape microbial communities and metabolic capabilities will have implications for the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and the consequences of expanding oxygen minimum zones.

  3. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G.; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH. PMID:26074731

  4. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yendi E. Navarro-Noya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5, indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances clearly clustered the communities by pH.

  5. Mechanisms of fenthion activation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to hypersaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavado, Ramon; Rimoldi, John M.; Schlenk, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in rainbow trout have shown that acclimation to hypersaline environments enhances the toxicity to thioether organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. In order to determine the role of biotransformation in this process, the metabolism of the thioether organophosphate biocide, fenthion was evaluated in microsomes from gills, liver and olfactory tissues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to freshwater and 17 per mille salinity. Hypersalinity acclimation increased the formation of fenoxon and fenoxon sulfoxide from fenthion in liver microsomes from rainbow trout, but not in gills or in olfactory tissues. NADPH-dependent and independent hydrolysis was observed in all tissues, but only NADPH-dependent fenthion cleavage was differentially modulated by hypersalinity in liver (inhibited) and gills (induced). Enantiomers of fenthion sulfoxide (65% and 35% R- and S-fenthion sulfoxide, respectively) were formed in liver and gills. The predominant pathway of fenthion activation in freshwater appears to be initiated through initial formation of fenoxon which may be subsequently converted to the most toxic metabolite fenoxon R-sulfoxide. However, in hypersaline conditions both fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxide formation may precede fenoxon sulfoxide formation. Stereochemical evaluation of sulfoxide formation, cytochrome P450 inhibition studies with ketoconazole and immunoblots indicated that CYP3A27 was primarily involved in the enhancement of fenthion activation in hypersaline-acclimated fish with limited contribution of FMO to initial sulfoxidation

  6. Evaporite-hydrocarbon relationships: The case of the Laminite-reef-evaporite system in the Messinian of the Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouchy, J.M. (Museum d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France))

    1988-08-01

    The peripheral Messinian evaporitic basins of the Mediterranean frequently show the association between pre-evaporitic laminites, carbonate complexes (red algae, corals, and stromatolites), and evaporites which constitute a sedimentary system, including potential source rocks, reservoirs, and a cover. The pre-evaporitic laminites (mainly diatomites and carbonates) characterize two different highly productive hydrodynamic systems which follow one another: (1) coastal upwellings during lower Messinian high sea level (transgressive phase), and (2) restriction (semiclosed or land-locked basins) related to closure from the Atlantic and subsequent lower sea level (regressive phase). Preservation of the organic matter results from periodic water stratification: local O{sub 2} minimum intermediary layer and anoxic bottom conditions mainly related to hypersalinity. Extensive carbonate complexes overlie the shores and the high areas - biogenic buildups (mainly red algae and poorly diversified corals) and bioclastic accumulations locally overlapped by a stromatolitic blanket. Diagenesis and dissolution-karstification during drawdown periods (hypersaline episodes) increase the primary porosity. The evaporites constitute an efficient cover. One major property of hypersaline environments is their high primary production whose traces are identified in the Messinian series as organic-rich layers (marine or hypersaline-adapted flora and fauna) and calcareous or gypsified stromatolites. Stratified waters or reducing conditions in the pore waters favor preservation of organic matter. The evaporitic conditions greatly influence the reservoir properties, increasing porosity or destroying it by interstitial precipitation.

  7. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  8. The genus Eurotium - members of indigenous fungal community in hypersaline waters of salterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butinar, Lorena; Zalar, Polona; Frisvad, Jens C; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2005-01-01

    Six different species of the known teleomorphic food-borne xerophilic genus Eurotium were repeatedly isolated in a mycodiversity study of hypersaline waters. At salinities above 17% NaCl, E. amstelodami was detected most consistently, followed by E. repens and E. herbariorum, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and a potentially new species, "Eurotium halotolerans", were detected only occasionally at lower salinities. The qualitative secondary metabolite profiles produced by Eurotium spp. from salterns were not different from those of Eurotium spp. from foods and other habitats. Spatiotemporal frequency of occurrence and in vitro determined adaptive ability of propagules to survive prolonged exposure to hypersaline conditions indicate that E. amstelodami, E. herbariorum, and E. repens contribute to the indigenous fungal community in hypersaline water environments, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and "E. halotolerans" are only temporal inhabitants of brine at lower salinities.

  9. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: Advancements, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D

    2018-04-01

    This review is aimed to report the possibility to utilize microbial fuel cells for the treatment of saline and hypersaline solutions. An introduction to the issues related with the biological treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewater is reported, discussing the limitation that characterizes classical aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and the possibility to be applied in the presence of high salinity, is discussed before reviewing the most recent advancements in the development of MFCs operating in saline and hypersaline conditions, with their different and interesting applications. Specifically, the research performed in the last 5years will be the main focus of this review. Finally, the future perspectives for this technology, together with the most urgent research needs, are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Geo- and Biogeochemical Processes in a Heliothermal Hypersaline Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Moran, James J.; Resch, Charles T.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Cory, Alexandra B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2016-03-17

    Water chemical variations were investigated over three annual hydrologic cycles in hypersaline, heliothermal, meromictic Hot Lake in north-central Washington State, USA. The lake, originally studied by Anderson (1958), contains diverse biota with dramatic zonation related to salinity and redox state. Water samples were collected at 10 cm depth intervals through the shallow lake (2.4 m) at a consistent location during 2012-2014, with comprehensive monitoring performed in 2013. Inorganic salt species, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved carbon forms (DOC, DIC), oxygen, sulfide, and methane were analyzed in lake water samples. Depth sonde measurements of pH and temperature were also performed to track their seasonal variations. A bathymetric survey of the lake was conducted to enable lake water volume and solute inventory calculations. Sediment cores were collected at low water and analyzed by x-ray diffraction to investigate sediment mineralogy. The primary dissolved salt in Hot Lake water was Mg2+-SO42- while sediments were dominated by gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). Lake water concentrations increased with depth to reach saturation with epsomite that was exposed at lake bottom. At maximum volume in spring, Hot Lake exhibited a relatively dilute mixolimnion containing phyto- and zooplankton; a lower saline metalimnion with stratified oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthetic microbiologic communities; and a stable, hypersaline monimolimnion, separated from above layers by a chemocline, containing high levels of sulfide and methane. The thickness of the mixolimnion regulates a heliothermal effect which creates temperatures in excess of 60 oC in the underlying metalimnion and monimolimnion. The mixolimnion was dynamic and actively mixed. It displayed large pH variations, in-situ calcium carbonate precipitation, and large evaporative volume losses. The depletion of this ephemeral layer by fall allowed deeper mixing into the volume-stable lower mixolimnion, more rapid heat

  11. Diversity and stratification of archaea in a hypersaline microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles E; Spear, John R; Harris, J Kirk; Pace, Norman R

    2009-04-01

    The Guerrero Negro (GN) hypersaline microbial mats have become one focus for biogeochemical studies of stratified ecosystems. The GN mats are found beneath several of a series of ponds of increasing salinity that make up a solar saltern fed from Pacific Ocean water pumped from the Laguna Ojo de Liebre near GN, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Molecular surveys of the laminated photosynthetic microbial mat below the fourth pond in the series identified an enormous diversity of bacteria in the mat, but archaea have received little attention. To determine the bulk contribution of archaeal phylotypes to the pond 4 study site, we determined the phylogenetic distribution of archaeal rRNA gene sequences in PCR libraries based on nominally universal primers. The ratios of bacterial/archaeal/eukaryotic rRNA genes, 90%/9%/1%, suggest that the archaeal contribution to the metabolic activities of the mat may be significant. To explore the distribution of archaea in the mat, sequences derived using archaeon-specific PCR primers were surveyed in 10 strata of the 6-cm-thick mat. The diversity of archaea overall was substantial albeit less than the diversity observed previously for bacteria. Archaeal diversity, mainly euryarchaeotes, was highest in the uppermost 2 to 3 mm of the mat and decreased rapidly with depth, where crenarchaeotes dominated. Only 3% of the sequences were specifically related to known organisms including methanogens. While some mat archaeal clades corresponded with known chemical gradients, others did not, which is likely explained by heretofore-unrecognized gradients. Some clades did not segregate by depth in the mat, indicating broad metabolic repertoires, undersampling, or both.

  12. Methanogens in hypersaline environments and their substrates for methane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, J. A.; Kelley, C. A.; Chanton, J.; Tazaz, A.; Bebout, B.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of our study was to determine the dominant substrates being used by methanogens in salt ponds in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. These are extreme environments that have been used as analogs for ancient life, terrestrial and extraterrestrial. Microbial mat and/or sediments from the ponds, amended either with site water only (controls) or with site water and various substrates, were incubated in N2 flushed serum vials. We hypothesized that trimethylamine, a degradation product of the osmoregulant glycine betaine, would be a dominant substrate in all ponds, as has been previously reported. Additionally we incubated with methanol, dimethylsulfide, monomethylamine, bicarbonate, and acetate, all reported to be substrates of great importance in other hypersaline environments. Concentrations of methane in the vial headspaces were monitored through time to obtain methane production rates. As expected, trimethylamine stimulated methane production over the controls in all incubations. Dimethylsulfide and methanol also stimulated methane production; the former increased methane production in the lowest salinity pond (55 ppt salinity) and the latter at one of the highest salinity ponds (184 ppt salinity). In addition to methane production data, stable carbon isotopic values of the methane in methane-rich bubbles collected at the sites as well as in the particulate organic carbon (POC) of the microbial mat/sediment were obtained. Fractionation factors, a measure of the isotopic differences between methane and substrate, can help indicate dominant substrates. Published fractionation factors differ depending on the substrate used and increase in the following order of use by methanogens: acetate, dimethylsulfide, CO2 reduction/trimethylamine and methanol. Since trimethylamine was used as a substrate at all of these sites, high fractionation factors in the range of 1.05 to 1.07 (the published range for trimethylamine) were expected. However, the apparent

  13. Two novel Aspergillus species from hypersaline soils of The National Park of Lake Urmia, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arzanlou, M.; Samadi, R.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Two novel Aspergillus species, one belonging to the section Terrei and the other to section Flavipedes, were isolated from hypersaline soils of The National Park of Lake Urmia (Iran) and are here described as Aspergillus iranicus and Aspergillus urmiensis. A polyphasic taxonomic approach comprising...

  14. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline

  15. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  16. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, C.D.; Ghai, R.; Rodriguez-valera, F.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tringe, S.G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  17. A Modeling Comparison of Methanogenesis from Noncompetitive vs Competitive Substrates in a Simulated Hypersaline Microbial Mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, K. L.; Potter, C.; Hoehler, T.

    2005-12-01

    The well-documented assumption about methanogens that co-occur in hypersaline mat communities with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is that they rely entirely on non-competitive substrates for methanogenesis. The reason for this is that during sulfate reduction, sulfur-reducing bacteria efficiently utilize H2, leaving a concentration too low for methanogenesis. Early results from recent work on a hypersaline microbial mat from salt evaporation ponds of Guerrero Negro, Baja, Mexico cast doubt that methanogenesis only occurs via non-competitive substrates, because it shows an excess of H2 in the mat rather than a paucity. We explore the use of our simulation model of the microbial biogeochemistry of a hypersaline mat (named MBGC) to compare methane production rates in a 1 cm thick mat when the methanogens use competitive substrates versus noncompetitive substrates. In the `non-competitive substrate' version of the model, methanogens rely exclusively on methylated amines that are accumulated as compatible solutes in cyanobacteria and released after lysis. In contrast, the `competitive substrate' models examine methanogen use of substrates (such as H2 + acetate) with different SRB population sizes (from absent to low). The comparison of these models of methane and sulfide biogeochemistry of a hypersaline mat has both ecological and geobiological significance, as one hypothesis of Archean microbial mats is that they existed in a low sulfate environment.

  18. Brackish to hypersaline lake dolostones of the Mississippian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carys; Kearsey, Timothy; Davies, Sarah; Millward, David; Marshall, John

    2016-04-01

    , and 9% of all dolostone beds in the Norham Core are pedogenically altered. The isotopic composition of dolomite beds is δ18O -3.6‰ to -1.7‰ and δ13C -2.6‰ to 1.6‰ which is consistent with a brackish as opposed to marine origin. The dolostones are categorised by their sedimentary composition: Facies 1: Cemented siltstone and sandstone; Facies 2: Homogeneous micrite to micro-crystaline dolomite, within a clay matrix; Facies 3: Bedded dolomite and siltstone; Facies 4: Mixed calcite and dolomite; Facies 5: Dolomite with gypsum and anhydrite. Formation processes are diverse, and include diagenetic cementation (Facies 1), deposition in saline (brackish) lakes (Facies 2), deposition in saline lakes with clastic sediment input (Facies 3), lagoonal to shallow-marine carbonate deposition (Facies 4), and hypersaline lake to sabkha environments (Facies 5). 60% of the beds are facies 2 or 3 and their sedimentology, fauna, ichnofauna and isotopic composition indicate a brackish-water origin. Other Mississippian dolostones from around the world also contain a fairly restricted fauna and have been interpreted as brackish water deposits. The mechanism of dolomite formation under these conditions is discussed. These dolostones provided extensive coastal lakes that may have been an important habitat for tetrapods and other transitional groups during the Mississippian.

  19. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down ...

  20. The Mediterranean alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccaria, P.; Minca, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of Italian and French Mediterranean studies from a postcolonial and geographical perspective. It claims that the relationship between contemporary Mediterranean geographies and mainstream European modernities has been overlooked by the Mediterraneanist literature, a

  1. Hypersaline waters - a potential source of foodborne toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butinar, Lorena; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of hypersaline environments have revealed the dominant presence of melanized yeast-like fungi and related Cladosporium spp. In this study, we focused on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and their teleomorphic forms. From oligotrophic and eutrophic hypersaline waters around ......, marine salt used for consumption can be a potential source of food-borne fungi and their byproducts. For example, ochratoxin-A-producing species Penicillium nordicum was recovered from brine, salt and salted meat products....... herbariorum, as they were quite evenly distributed among the sampled sites, and Aspergillus candidus, which was abundant, but more locally distributed. These species and their byproducts can accumulate downstream following evaporation of brine, and they can become entrapped in the salt crystals. Consequently...

  2. Geophysical Investigations of Hypersaline Subglacial Water Systems in the Canadian Arctic: A Planetary Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, A.; Sharp, M. J.; Blankenship, D. D.; Skidmore, M. L.; Grima, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Young, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Robotic exploration and remote sensing of the solar system have identified the presence of liquid water beneath ice on several planetary bodies, with evidence for elevated salinity in certain cases. Subglacial water systems beneath Earth's glaciers and ice sheets may provide terrestrial analogs for microbial habitats in such extreme environments, especially those with higher salinity. Geological data suggest that several ice caps and glaciers in the eastern Canadian High Arctic are partially underlain by evaporite-rich sedimentary rocks, and subglacial weathering of these rocks is potentially conducive to the formation of hypersaline subglacial waters. Here, we combine airborne geophysical data with geological constraints to identify and characterize hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath ice caps in Canada's Queen Elizabeth Islands. High relative bedrock reflectivity and specularity anomalies that are apparent in radio-echo sounding data indicate multiple locations where subglacial water is present in areas where modeled ice temperatures at the glacier bed are well below the pressure melting point. This suggests that these water systems are hypersaline, with solute concentrations that significantly depress the freezing point of water. From combined interpretations of geological and airborne-magnetic data, we define the geological context within which these systems have developed, and identify possible solute-sources for the inferred brine-rich water systems. We also derive subglacial hydraulic potential gradients using airborne laser altimetry and ice thickness data, and apply water routing models to derive subglacial drainage pathways. These allow us to identify marine-terminating glaciers where outflow of the brine-rich waters may be anticipated. These hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath Canadian Arctic ice caps and glaciers may represent robust microbial habitats, and potential analogs for brines that may exist beneath ice masses on planetary

  3. Diversity and Distribution in Hypersaline Microbial Mats of Bacteria Related to Chloroflexus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nübel, Ulrich; Bateson, Mary M.; Madigan, Michael T.; Kühl, Michael; Ward, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria containing bacteriochlorophylls c and a were enriched from hypersaline microbial mats. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these organisms form a previously undescribed lineage distantly related to Chloroflexus spp. We developed and tested a set of PCR primers for the specific amplification of 16S rRNA genes from filamentous phototrophic bacteria within the kingdom of “green nonsulfur bacteria.” PCR products recovered from microbial mats in a salter...

  4. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A.; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relativel...

  5. Extremely 'vanadiphilic' multiply metal-resistant and halophilic aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, strains EG13 and EG8, from hypersaline springs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csotonyi, J T; Maltman, C; Swiderski, J; Stackebrandt, E; Yurkov, V

    2015-01-01

    Two pinkish peach-colored strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria, EG13 and EG8, were isolated from a saline spring effluent stream in west central Manitoba, Canada. The strains possessed bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into a typical purple bacterial light-harvesting complex 1 (870 nm) and reaction center (801 nm). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated 100% identity among the isolates and 99% similarity to Roseovarius tolerans EL-172(T). The strains were physiologically well adapted to high salinity (0-22%), fluctuating pH (7-12) and temperature (7-40 °C) of the exposed hypersaline stream of East German Creek. EG8 and EG13 were also highly resistant to the toxic metal(loid) oxyanions tellurite, selenite and metavanadate (≥1000 μg/ml each). Most intriguingly, growth and pigment production of EG13 on glutamate minimal medium was stimulated by 1000-10000 μg/ml of sodium metavanadate compared to metal-free conditions. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic properties such as pigment composition and morphology indicate close relatedness to Roseovarius genus.

  6. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. A case for the protection of saline and hypersaline environments: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Varun G; Mormile, Melanie R

    2017-08-01

    Saline and hypersaline environments are known for their unique geochemical properties, microbial populations and aesthetic appeal. Microbial activities and a spectrum of diversity seen in hypersaline environments are distinct with many novel species being identified and reported on a regular basis. Many distinguishing characteristics about the adaptation, morphology, evolutionary history, and potential environmental and biotechnological applications of these organisms are continually investigated. An abundance of interdisciplinary activities and opportunities exist to explore and understand the importance of these environments that potentially hold promising solutions for current and future global issues. Therefore, it is critical to conserve these unique environments and limit the damage inflicted by anthropogenic influences. Increased salinization due to water diversions, undesired freshening, extensive mineral extraction, sewage effluents, pollution due to agricultural runoff and industrial processes, urbanization, and global climate change are factors negatively affecting hypersaline lakes and their surrounding environments. If these harmful effects continue to proceed at the current or even accelerated rates, irrevocable consequences for these environments will occur, resulting in the loss of potential opportunities to gain new knowledge of the biogeochemistry as well as beneficial microbial populations closely associated with these unique and interesting environments. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Moran, James J.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C.

    2017-03-21

    Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence upon metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements.

  9. Microbial Diversity in a Hypersaline Sulfate Lake: A Terrestrial Analog of Ancient Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pontefract

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life can persist under severe osmotic stress and low water activity in hypersaline environments. On Mars, evidence for the past presence of saline bodies of water is prevalent and resulted in the widespread deposition of sulfate and chloride salts. Here we investigate Spotted Lake (British Columbia, Canada, a hypersaline lake with extreme (>3 M levels of sulfate salts as an exemplar of the conditions thought to be associated with ancient Mars. We provide the first characterization of microbial structure in Spotted Lake sediments through metagenomic sequencing, and report a bacteria-dominated community with abundant Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, as well as diverse extremophiles. Microbial abundance and functional comparisons reveal similarities to Ace Lake, a meromictic Antarctic lake with anoxic and sulfidic bottom waters. Our analysis suggests that hypersaline-associated species occupy niches characterized foremost by differential abundance of Archaea, uncharacterized Bacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Potential biosignatures in this environment are discussed, specifically the likelihood of a strong sulfur isotopic fractionation record within the sediments due to the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria. With its high sulfate levels and seasonal freeze-thaw cycles, Spotted Lake is an analog for ancient paleolakes on Mars in which sulfate salt deposits may have offered periodically habitable environments, and could have concentrated and preserved organic materials or their biomarkers over geologic time.

  10. Microbial community structure and diversity within hypersaline Keke Salt Lake environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Jing; Long, Qifu; Chen, Laisheng; Liu, Deli; Zhu, Derui

    2017-11-01

    Keke Salt Lake is located in the Qaidamu Basin of China. It is a unique magnesium sulfate-subtype hypersaline lake that exhibits a halite domain ecosystem, yet its microbial diversity has remained unstudied. Here, the microbial community structure and diversity was investigated via high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA genes. A high diversity of operational taxonomic units was detected for Bacteria and Archaea (734 and 747, respectively), comprising 21 phyla, 43 classes, and 201 genera of Bacteria and 4 phyla, 4 classes, and 39 genera of Archaea. Salt-saturated samples were dominated by the bacterial genera Bacillus (51.52%-58.35% relative abundance), Lactococcus (9.52%-10.51%), and Oceanobacillus (8.82%-9.88%) within the Firmicutes phylum (74.81%-80.99%), contrasting with other hypersaline lakes. The dominant Archaea belonged to the Halobacteriaceae family, and in particular, the genera (with an abundance of >10% of communities) Halonotius, Halorubellus, Halapricum, Halorubrum, and Natronomonas. Additionally, we report the presence of Nanohaloarchaeota and Woesearchaeota in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lakes, which has not been previously documented. Total salinity (especially Mg 2+ , Cl - , Na + , and K + ) mostly correlated with taxonomic distribution across samples. These results expand our understanding of microbial resource utilization within hypersaline lakes and the potential adaptations of dominant microorganisms that allow them to inhabit such environments.

  11. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Moran, James J.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms; however, little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of 34 abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence on metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements. PMID:28334407

  12. Identification and characterization of bacteria in a selenium-contaminated hypersaline evaporation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M P; Amini, A; Dojka, M A; Pickering, I J; Dawson, S C; Pace, N R; Terry , N

    2001-09-01

    Solar evaporation ponds are commonly used to reduce the volume of seleniferous agricultural drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. These hypersaline ponds pose an environmental health hazard because they are heavily contaminated with selenium (Se), mainly in the form of selenate. Se in the ponds may be removed by microbial Se volatilization, a bioremediation process whereby toxic, bioavailable selenate is converted to relatively nontoxic dimethylselenide gas. In order to identify microbes that may be used for Se bioremediation, a 16S ribosomal DNA phylogenetic analysis of an aerobic hypersaline pond in the San Joaquin Valley showed that a previously unaffiliated group of uncultured bacteria (belonging to the order Cytophagales) was dominant, followed by a group of cultured gamma-Proteobacteria which was closely related to Halomonas species. Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of selenate-treated bacterial isolates showed that they accumulated a mixture of predominantly selenate and a selenomethionine-like species, consistent with the idea that selenate was assimilated via the S assimilation pathway. One of these bacterial isolates (Halomonas-like strain MPD-51) was the best candidate for the bioremediation of hypersaline evaporation ponds contaminated with high Se concentrations because it tolerated 2 M selenate and 32.5% NaCl, grew rapidly in media containing selenate, and accumulated and volatilized Se at high rates (1.65 microg of Se g of protein(-1) x h(-1)), compared to other cultured bacterial isolates.

  13. The density-driven circulation of the coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamena, Gerry G; Martins, Flávio; Ridd, Peter V

    2016-04-15

    The coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in the dry season, was investigated for the first time using a 3D baroclinic model. In the shallow coastal embayments, salinity increases to c.a. 1‰ above typical offshore salinity (~35.4‰). This salinity increase is due to high evaporation rates and negligible freshwater input. The hypersalinity drifts longshore north-westward due to south-easterly trade winds and may eventually pass capes or headlands, e.g. Cape Cleveland, where the water is considerably deeper (c.a. 15m). Here, a pronounced thermohaline circulation is predicted to occur which flushes the hypersalinity offshore at velocities of up to 0.08m/s. Flushing time of the coastal embayments is around 2-3weeks. During the dry season early summer, the thermohaline circulation reduces and therefore, flushing times are predicted to be slight longer due to the reduced onshore-offshore density gradient compared to that in the dry season winter period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stream systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves

    2006-01-01

    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  15. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  16. Comparative Analysis Of Results Obtained From 3 Indexes SEQ-Eau IBD IPS Used To Assess Water Quality Of The Berdawni A Mediterranean Stream At The Beqaa Region - Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanadi Ismal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Lebanon for water managers the quality of water is apprehended under the only aspect of the physicochemical quality. This analysis presents some operational limit because of specific information which it brings in space and time. In this context It appeared interesting to us to carry out a study specilaized to evaluate the trophic quality of Berdawni principal affluents on right bank of Litani Mediterranean Eastern Lebanon and to take into account parallel to the chemical analyses of water and with the application of the index SEQ-Eau MEDD amp France water agency 2003 the diatomic study of the communities of Berdawni and to analyze the various results got from the calculation of 2 biological indices I.B.D.AFNOR 2000 and I.P.S. Cemagref 1982. The comparison of the indications provided by these 3 indexes clarifies divergences sometimes important in the analysis of the quality of fesh water and made it possible to discuss the limits of their applications.

  17. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.7·10(9)m(3) water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial Community Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Amendments in Freshwater, Marine, and Hypersaline Water-Containing Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:23872573

  19. Prokaryotic diversity in one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, M M; Vieira, R P; Cardoso, A M; Nascimento, A P A; Silveira, C B; Riva, T C; Gonzalez, A S M; Paranhos, R; Albano, R M; Ventosa, A; Martins, O B

    2008-07-01

    Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota. In lagoon water, we found some clones related to Methanomicrobia and Methanothermococcus groups, while in the saline pond water members related to the genus Haloarcula were detected. Bacterial community was dominated by clones related to Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Synechococcus in lagoon water, while Salinibacter ruber relatives dominated in saline pond. We also detected the presence of Alpha-proteobacteria, Pseudomonas-like bacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Only representatives of the genus Ralstonia were cosmopolitan, being observed in both systems. The detection of a substantial number of clones related to uncultured archaea and bacteria suggest that the hypersaline waters of Araruama harbor a pool of novel prokaryotic phylotypes, distinct from those observed in other similar systems. We also observed clones related to halophilic genera of cyanobacteria that are specific for each habitat studied. Additionally, two bacterioplankton molecular markers with ecological relevance were analyzed, one is linked to nitrogen fixation (nifH) and the other is linked to carbon fixation by bacterial photosynthesis, the protochlorophyllide genes, revealing a specific genetic distribution in this ecosystem. This is the first study of the biogeography and community structure of microbial assemblages in Brazilian tropical hypersaline environments. This work is directed towards a better understanding of the free-living prokaryotic diversity adapted to life in hypersaline waters.

  20. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  1. [Number of bacteria and features of their activity in hypersaline reservoirs of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, E G

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of bacteria, their biomass production, and heterotrophic assimilation of CO2 by bacterioplankton were studied in the Crimean hypersaline water reservoirs from May to October of 1974. The total incidence of bacteria in the natural brine of these reservoirs varied from 20 to 70 x 10(6) cells per 1 ml. Such a high bacterial number may be caused by the combined action of water evaporation which increased the concentration of bacterial cells and active growth of microflora. Low values of bacterial production and heterotrophic CO2 assimilation should be attributed to weak activity of microflora in the reservoirs.

  2. Diversity and distribution in hypersaline microbial mats of bacteria related to Chloroflexus spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, Ulrich; Bateson, Mary M.; Madigan, Michael T.

    2001-01-01

    primers for the specific amplification of 16S rRNA genes from filamentous phototrophic bacteria within the kingdom of "green nonsulfur bacteria." PCR products recovered from microbial mats in a saltern in Guerrero Negro, Mexico, were subjected to cloning or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis......Filamentous bacteria containing bacteriochlorophylls c and a were enriched from hypersaline microbial mats. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these organisms form a previously undescribed lineage distantly related to Chloroflexus spp. We developed and tested a set of PCR...

  3. Halo(natronoarchaea isolated from hypersaline lakes utilize cellulose and chitin as growth substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Y Sorokin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, extremely halophilic euryarchaeota were considered mostly as aerobic heterotrophs utilizing simple organic compounds as growth substrates. Almost nothing is known on the ability of these prokaryotes to utilize complex polysaccharides as cellulose, xylan and chitin. Although few haloarchaeal cellulases and chitinases were recently characterized, the analysis of currently available haloarchaeal genomes deciphered numerous genes encoding glycosidases (GHs of various families including endoglucanases and chitinases. However, all these haloarchaea were isolated and cultivated on simple substrates and their ability to grow on polysaccharides in situ or in vitro is unknown. This study examines several halo(natronoarchaeal strains from geographically distant hypersaline lakes for the ability to grow on insoluble polymers as a sole growth substrate in salt-saturated mineral media. Some of them belonged to known taxa, while other represented novel phylogenetic lineages within the class Halobacteria. All isolates produced extracellular extremely salt tolerant cellulases or chitinases, either cell-free or cell-bound. Obtained results demonstrate a presence of diverse population of haloarchaeal cellulo/chitinotrophs in hypersaline habitats indicating that euryarchaea participate in aerobic mineralization of recalcitrant organic polymers in salt-saturated environments.

  4. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND AUTECOLOGY OF SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladka, G V; Romanovskaya, V A; Tashyreva, H O; Tashyrev, O B

    2015-01-01

    Multi-resistant to extreme factors spore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus are isolated from hypersaline environments of the Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel). Phylogenetic analysis showed distinction of dominating extremophilic culturable species in studied regions. In Crimean environments they are B. mojavensis and B. simplex, in the Dead Sea ecosystem--B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. simplex. Isolates are simultaneously halotolerant and resistant to UV radiation. Strains isolated from the Dead Sea and the Crimea environments were resistant to UV: LD90 and LD99.99 made 100-170 J/m2 and 750-1500 J/m2 respectively. Spores showed higher UV-resistance (LD99.99-2500 J/m2) than the vegetative cells. However the number of spores made 0.02-0.007% of the whole cell population, and should not significantly affect the UV LD99.99 value. Isolates of both environments were halotolerant in the range of 0.1-10% NaCl and thermotolerant in the range of 20-50 °C, and didn't grow at 15 °C. Survival strategy of spore-forming bacteria from hypersaline environments under high UV radiation level can be performed by spore formation which minimize cell damage as well as efficient DNA-repair systems that remove damages.

  5. Geobiological Comparisons of Preservation Potential within Hypersaline Mineral-Microbe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, S. M.; Celestian, A. J.; Vaishampayan, P.; Seuylemezian, A.; Mahseredjian, T.; Baxter, B.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations is to show comparative measurements between known biological sources of biomarkers and biosignatures and how they can be independently verified, within instrumentation limits, by laboratory investigations analogous to future surface missions to Mars and Europa. Precipitated hypersaline mineralogy can provide a biotic record of microbial activity and habitation within evaporating lake systems. The extent of microbial preservation is a direct relationship between the magnitudes of aqueous activity post-precipitation, original or in-situ biological habitats, dissolution events due to chemical weathering, and organic matter degradation due to UV exposure and desiccation. Chemical biomarkers and physical biosignatures to be quantified and correlated based from preserved DNA as the most sensitive biomarker to more recalcitrant biomarkers such as lipids and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). Moreover the timing of cell movement during nutrient cycling within specific evaporite minerals can be associated to the formation of physical biosignatures as a function of already active and abundant biomarkers allowing for relative timelines of biogenic actions (e.g., nutrient cycling, cell division) to be correlated together. Our investigation has compared hypersaline biotic activity within different photosynthetic and chemosynthetic settings to quantify preservation and detection profiles given measured DNA as the source validation standard and micron-scale Raman measurements for specific paleoenvironmental mineral sampling.

  6. Mollusc-Microbe Mutualisms Extend the Potential for Life in Hypersaline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Carole S.

    2003-11-01

    Metazoans in extreme environments have evolved mutualisms with microbes that extend the physical and chemical capabilities of both partners. Some of the best examples are bivalve molluscs in evaporite and hypersaline settings. Mollusc tissue is developmentally and evolutionarily amenable to housing vast numbers of symbiotic microbes. Documented benefits to the host are nutritional. Multiple postulated benefits to the microbes are related to optimizing metabolic performance at interfaces, where heterogeneity and steep gradients that cannot be negotiated by microbes can be spanned by larger metazoan hosts. A small cockle, Fragum erugatum, and its photosymbiotic microbes provide a remarkable example of a mutualistic partnership in the hypersaline reaches of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Lucinid bivalves and their endosymbiotic chemolithotrophic bacteria provide examples in which hosts span oxic/anoxic interfaces on behalf of their symbionts at sites of seafloor venting. Multiple lines of evidence underscore the antiquity of mutualisms and suggest that they may have played a significant role in life's first experiments above the prokaryotic grade of complexity. The study of metazoan-microbe mutualisms and their signatures in extreme environments in the geologic record will provide a significant augmentation to microbial models in paleobiology and astrobiology. There are strong potential links between mutualisms and the early history of life on Earth, the persistence of life in extreme environments at times of global crisis and mass extinction, and the possibilities for life elsewhere in the universe.

  7. Two Fixed Ratio Dilutions for Soil Salinity Monitoring in Hypersaline Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Juan; Weindorf, David C.; Castañeda, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Highly soluble salts are undesirable in agriculture because they reduce yields or the quality of most cash crops and can leak to surface or sub-surface waters. In some cases salinity can be associated with unique history, rarity, or special habitats protected by environmental laws. Yet in considering the measurement of soil salinity for long-term monitoring purposes, adequate methods are required. Both saturated paste extracts, intended for agriculture, and direct surface and/or porewater salinity measurement, used in inundated wetlands, are unsuited for hypersaline wetlands that often are only occasionally inundated. For these cases, we propose the use of 1:5 soil/water (weight/weight) extracts as the standard for expressing the electrical conductivity (EC) of such soils and for further salt determinations. We also propose checking for ion-pairing with a 1:10 or more diluted extract in hypersaline soils. As an illustration, we apply the two-dilutions approach to a set of 359 soil samples from saline wetlands ranging in ECe from 2.3 dS m-1 to 183.0 dS m-1. This easy procedure will be useful in survey campaigns and in the monitoring of soil salt content. PMID:26001130

  8. Viruses Occur Incorporated in Biogenic High-Mg Calcite from Hypersaline Microbial Mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, Rutger; Gautret, Pascale; Bettarel, Yvan; Roques, Cécile; Marlière, Christian; Ramonda, Michel; Nguyen Thanh, Thuy; Tran Quang, Huy; Bouvier, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Using three different microscopy techniques (epifluorescence, electronic and atomic force microscopy), we showed that high-Mg calcite grains in calcifying microbial mats from the hypersaline lake “La Salada de Chiprana”, Spain, contain viruses with a diameter of 50–80 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis revealed that they contain nitrogen and phosphorus in a molar ratio of ~9, which is typical for viruses. Nucleic acid staining revealed that they contain DNA or RNA. As characteristic for hypersaline environments, the concentrations of free and attached viruses were high (>1010 viruses per g of mat). In addition, we showed that acid treatment (dissolution of calcite) resulted in release of viruses into suspension and estimated that there were ~15 × 109 viruses per g of calcite. We suggest that virus-mineral interactions are one of the possible ways for the formation of nano-sized structures often described as “nanobacteria” and that viruses may play a role in initiating calcification. PMID:26115121

  9. High Variability Is a Defining Component of Mediterranean-Climate Rivers and Their Biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Cid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability in flow as a result of seasonal precipitation patterns is a defining element of streams and rivers in Mediterranean-climate regions of the world and strongly influences the biota of these unique systems. Mediterranean-climate areas include the Mediterranean Basin and parts of Australia, California, Chile, and South Africa. Mediterranean streams and rivers can experience wet winters and consequent floods to severe droughts, when intermittency in otherwise perennial systems can occur. Inter-annual variation in precipitation can include multi-year droughts or consecutive wet years. Spatial variation in patterns of precipitation (rain vs. snow combined with topographic variability lead to spatial variability in hydrologic patterns that influence populations and communities. Mediterranean streams and rivers are global biodiversity hotspots and are particularly vulnerable to human impacts. Biomonitoring, conservation efforts, and management responses to climate change require approaches that account for spatial and temporal variability (including both intra- and inter-annual. The importance of long-term data sets for understanding and managing these systems highlights the need for sustained and coordinated research efforts in Mediterranean-climate streams and rivers.

  10. Heterotrophic denitrification at extremely high salt and pH by haloalkaliphilic Gammaproteobacteria from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapovalova, A.A.; Khijniak, T.V.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Sorokin, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe denitrification at extremely high salt and pH in sediments from hypersaline alkaline soda lakes and soda soils. Experiments with sediment slurries demonstrated the presence of acetate-utilizing denitrifying populations active at in situ conditions. Anaerobic enrichment

  11. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Sivash, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Yvonne I.; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding

  12. The Outer Membrane Protein OmpW Enhanced V. cholerae Growth in Hypersaline Conditions by Transporting Carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic marine bacteria are found in environments and food sources with high salt concentrations, which the bacteria must effectively manage for their survival. Several mechanisms, such as the transport of ions and compatible solutes as well as changes in aerobic and anaerobic respiration, confer salt tolerance to bacteria. In this study, we found that the outer membrane protein OmpW was related to salt stress in Vibrio cholerae and that ompW gene transcription and expression were up-regulated in cultures containing high NaCl concentrations. Deletion of ompW resulted in reduced V. cholerae growth in hypersaline culture conditions. Supplements of the compatible solutes betaine, L-carnitine, or L-lysine enhanced the growth of V. cholerae in hypersaline media. Supplements of betaine or L-lysine had the same growth enhancement effect on the ompW-deletion mutant cultured in hypersaline media, whereas L-carnitine supplementation did not restore mutant growth. In addition, the uptake of L-carnitine was decreased in the ompW-deletion mutant. Our study showed that among the multiplex factors that enhance the hypersaline tolerance of V. cholerae, OmpW also plays a role by transporting L-carnitine.

  13. Halanaeroarchaeum sulfurireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., the first obligately anaerobic sulfur-respiring haloarchaeon, isolated from a hypersaline lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Yakimov, Mikhail M.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichments with acetate as electron donor and carbon source, and elemental sulfur as electron acceptor at 4 M NaCl using anaerobic sediments and brines from several hypersaline lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in isolation in pure culture of four strains of obligately

  14. Sulphur-containing compounds in sulphur-rich crude oils from hypersaline lake sediments and their geochemical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Guoying, S.; Jiamo, F.; Brassell, S.C.; Gowar, A.P.; Eglinton, G.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenck, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sulphur-rich commercial crude oils have been studied, which contain sulphur as high as up to 4 —12 %. These samples were collected from Tertiary hypersaline lake sediments of the Jianghan Basin, Hubei Province at different depths, but above the oil generation threshold (2200m). FPD-GC and

  15. Mediterranean California, Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.

  16. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people of Mediterranean origin — including Sephardic Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and Turks. But it may affect ... attacks, you'll likely feel normal. Symptom-free periods may be as short as a few days ...

  17. Microbial Mediated Mineralization in the Extreme Hypersaline Sabkha Environment of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, T.; McKenzie, J.; Warthmann, R.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2005-12-01

    Studies of microbes living in extreme environments provide important information about microbial metabolisms, survival strategies and production of biominerals. Knowledge of these geobiological processes and the ultimate product can be used to better reconstruct the evolution of life during the early Earth, when skeletal fossils are absent. Our study focuses on a well-documented extreme hypersaline environment, the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi (UAE), which is among the rare geological settings where primary dolomite is forming today. The origin of dolomite still remains one of the most debated subjects in sedimentary geology. Although microbial mediation is proposed as a solution for this controversy, the relationship between microbial activity and dolomite precipitation in the sabkha environment has not been fully evaluated. The goal of this study is to investigate this microbial dolomite factor combining sedimentological, geochemical and microbiological approaches. Preliminary results indicate the existence of a new dolomite facies consisting of dolomite spheres enveloped in a biofilm. This association is evidence supporting the microbial hypothesis of dolomite formation. Together with other evaporite minerals, the spheres grow in situ accumulating between 10 and 40 cm depth below the sabkha surface in an organic carbon-rich sediment. The co-existence of dolomite with gypsum leads us to hypothesize a link between the C and S cycles under hypersaline conditions. We propose that formation of significant amounts of gypsum within the zone of dolomite precipitation could be related to the recycling of S compounds during microbial metabolism, such as a combination of sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation, which could lead to the retention of S in the system. Additionally, the EPS included within the biofilm is widely recognized as an important organic component involved in the precipitation of carbonates. EDS/SEM studies of the biofilm encompassing the dolomite

  18. Diverse methane concentrations in anoxic brines and underlying sediments, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisiddaiah, S. M.

    2000-10-01

    Elevated methane (CH 4) concentrations (128-2692×10 3 nM) occur in the hypersaline anoxic brine pools of Bannock and Urania Basins, eastern Mediterranean Sea, compared to low concentrations (17-80×10 3 nM) in the sediments below the anoxic brines. The CH 4 enrichment in the brines might be due to the long residence time of the brine in the Basin. An attempt is made to determine the sources for the enriched dissolved CH 4 by considering the influence of hydrothermal activity, the occurrence of sapropel layers (biogenic) and dissolution of gas hydrates. Furthermore, it is suggested that the enriched CH 4 in Bannock and Urania Basins is diffused and mixed with the overlying waters by local upward transport mechanisms that selectively move CH 4 upward in these Basins.

  19. Biomonitoring of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbington, Rachel; Chadd, Richard; Cid, Núria; Csabai, Zoltán; Miliša, Marko; Morais, Manuela; Munné, Antoni; Pařil, Petr; Pešić, Vladimir; Tziortzis, Iakovos; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M.; Datry, Thibault

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are common across Europe and dominate some Mediterranean river networks. In all climate zones, IRES support high biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. As dynamic ecosystems that transition between flowing, pool, and dry states, IRES are

  20. SAR Imagery Applied to the Monitoring of Hyper-Saline Deposits: Death Valley Example (CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasne, Yannick; Paillou, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony; Chapman, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at understanding the influence of salinity on the dielectric constant of soils and then on the backscattering coeff cients recorded by airborne/spaceborne SAR systems. Based on dielectric measurements performed over hyper-saline deposits in Death Valley (CA), as well as laboratory electromagnetic characterization of salts and water mixtures, we used the dielectric constants as input parameters of analytical IEM simulations to model both the amplitude and phase behaviors of SAR signal at C, and L-bands. Our analytical simulations allow to reproduce specif c copolar signatures recorded in SAR data, corresponding to the Cottonball Basin saltpan. We also propose the copolar backscattering ratio and phase difference as indicators of moistened and salt-affected soils. More precisely, we show that these copolar indicators should allow to monitor the seasonal variations of the dielectric properties of saline deposits.

  1. Use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to Measure Hypersaline Bidirectional Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey measures the exchange of flow between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah, as part of a monitoring program. Turbidity and bidirectional flow through the breach in the causeway that divides the lake into two parts makes it difficult to measure discharge with conventional streamflow techniques. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be used to more accurately define the angles of flow and the location of the interface between the layers of flow. Because of the high salinity levels measured in Great Salt Lake (60-280 parts per thousand), special methods had to be developed to adjust ADCP-computed discharges for the increased speed of sound in hypersaline waters and for water entrained at the interface between flow layers.

  2. Scenario of Methane and Gas Hydrate occurrences in different geological settings in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisiddaiah, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    An attempt is made here to unravel the various types of methane occurrences in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. First part devotes on the occurrence of methane in anoxic brines, in sea water and in the underlying sediments, while the next half concentrates on the significance of methane in the natural gas hydrates with in the sediments under special P-T conditions from mud volcanoes of Anaximander Mountain Ranges and Mediterranean Ridges as reported by various researchers. Very high methane concentrations (128-2692 mM) occur in the hypersaline anoxic brine pools of Bannock and Urania, within the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, compared to its concentrations (17 to 80 m M) in the sediment cores below the anoxic brines. Besides, in the underlying sediments bit higher range in methane (10-158 nM) values occur, compared to low methane (1.47-7.14 nM) concentrations in the overlying water column and the basins surrounding Crete Island. The methane enrichment in the brines might be due to the long residence time of brine in the basin, and to its high stability toward mixing with overlying seawater. Possible sources for this methane enrichment could be a deep source of hydrothermal activities, prevalence of gas hydrate horizons and occurrence of sapropels. Gas hydrate research had reached an astounding position in the earth sciences. The present day situation of natural gases for the entire world caused an alarming strategy to search for new clean fuel energy, such as the one sequestered in the gas hydrates. In this context an attempt is made here to review the significance of gas hydrate occurrences in the eastern Mediterraneans mainly from Anaximander Mountain Range mud volcanoes (which are characterized by a concentric zonal distribution of gas hydrates) and mud volcanoes in Mediterranean Ridges which might be the future sites for gas hydrate exploration.

  3. Recent studies in microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Zhereppa Fathepure

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many hypersaline environments are often contaminated with petroleum compounds. Among these, oil and natural gas production sites all over the world and hundreds of kilometers of coastlines in the more arid regions of Gulf countries are of major concern due to the extent and magnitude of contamination. Because conventional microbiological processes do not function well at elevated salinities, bioremediation of hypersaline environments can only be accomplished using high salt-tolerant microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum compounds. In the last two decades, there have been many reports on the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in moderate to high salinity environments. Numerous microorganisms belonging to the domain Bacteria and Archaea have been isolated and their phylogeny and metabolic capacity to degrade a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in varying salinities have been demonstrated. This article focuses on our growing understanding of bacteria and archaea responsible for the degradation of hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions in moderate to high salinity conditions. Even though organisms belonging to various genera have been shown to degrade hydrocarbons, members of the genera Halomonas Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Haloferax, Haloarcula, and Halobacterium dominate the published literature. Despite rapid advances in understanding microbial taxa that degrade hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions, not much is known about organisms that carry out similar processes in anaerobic conditions. Also, information on molecular mechanisms and pathways of hydrocarbon degradation in high salinity is scarce and only recently there have been a few reports describing genes, enzymes and breakdown steps for some hydrocarbons. These limited studies have clearly revealed that degradation of oxygenated and non-oxygenated hydrocarbons by halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms occur by pathways similar to those found in non-halophiles.

  4. Modeling of membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline oily wastewater by artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendashteh, Ali Reza; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.; Chaibakhsh, Naz; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hypersaline oily wastewater was treated in a membrane bioreactor. → The effects of salinity and organic loading rate were evaluated. → The system was modeled by neural network and optimized by genetic algorithm. → The model prediction agrees well with experimental values. → The model can be used to obtain effluent characteristics less than discharge limits. - Abstract: A membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) treating hypersaline oily wastewater was modeled by artificial neural network (ANN). The MSBR operated at different total dissolved solids (TDSs) (35,000; 50,000; 100,000; 150,000; 200,000; 250,000 mg/L), various organic loading rates (OLRs) (0.281, 0.563, 1.124, 2.248, and 3.372 kg COD/(m 3 day)) and cyclic time (12, 24, and 48 h). A feed-forward neural network trained by batch back propagation algorithm was employed to model the MSBR. A set of 193 operational data from the wastewater treatment with the MSBR was used to train the network. The training, validating and testing procedures for the effluent COD, total organic carbon (TOC) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations were successful and a good correlation was observed between the measured and predicted values. The results showed that at OLR of 2.44 kg COD/(m 3 day), TDS of 78,000 mg/L and reaction time (RT) of 40 h, the average removal rate of COD was 98%. In these conditions, the average effluent COD concentration was less than 100 mg/L and met the discharge limits.

  5. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrates community in a hypersaline estuary (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlinda Railly Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The estuarine community of benthic macroinvertebrates spatially varies in response to changes in environmental variables in these ecosystems. Understanding this variability helps our understanding the mechanisms structuring these communities. Aim Assess the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a hypersaline estuary, and to relate to environmental variables that influence the community structure along the estuary. Methods The study was conducted at Tubarão river estuary in May 2015. We sampled two estuarine areas (upper and lower, and in each zone were sampled six points composed of two replicas, one sampled in sandy bottom and the other in muddy bottom. Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates and estuarine environmental variables were collected. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were determined by Distance-based Linear Models analysis. The contribution of individual species to the dissimilarity between the areas and substrate types were determined by analysis of the percentage of similarity. Results The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate community differed between the upper and lower areas, although it was similar between the muddy and sandy bottoms. The variation in the benthic community between areas was mainly related to the influence of salinity in the upper area. In the lower area, the variation of the macroinvertebrates was related to salinity, associated with other variables in the sandy (temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and muddy (temperature, total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen substrates. Taxa which contributed most to the dissimilarity between the upper and lower areas were Nereididae (17.89%, Anomalocardia brasiliana (15% and Cirratulidae (10.43%. Conclusions Salinity was the main driver of the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the upper area of the estuary, although in the lower area a set of

  6. Extremophile microbiomes in acidic and hypersaline river sediments of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shipeng; Peiffer, Stefan; Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Oldham, Carolyn; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Näb, Olga; Lillicrap, Adam; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the microbial community compositions in two sediment samples from the acidic (pH ∼3) and hypersaline (>4.5% NaCl) surface waters, which are widespread in Western Australia. In West Dalyup River, large amounts of NaCl, Fe(II) and sulfate are brought by the groundwater into the surface run-off. The presence of K-jarosite and schwertmannite minerals in the river sediments suggested the occurrence of microbial Fe(II) oxidation because chemical oxidation is greatly reduced at low pH. 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses revealed that sequences affiliated with an uncultured archaeal lineage named Aplasma, which has the genomic potential for Fe(II) oxidation, were dominant in both sediment samples. The acidophilic heterotrophs Acidiphilium and Acidocella were identified as the dominant bacterial groups. Acidiphilium strain AusYE3-1 obtained from the river sediment tolerated up to 6% NaCl at pH 3 under oxic conditions and cells of strain AusYE3-1 reduced the effects of high salt content by forming filamentous structure clumping as aggregates. Neither growth nor Fe(III) reduction by strain AusYE3-1 was observed in anoxic salt-containing medium. The detection of Aplasma group as potential Fe(II) oxidizers and the inhibited Fe(III)-reducing capacity of Acidiphilium contributes to our understanding of the microbial ecology of acidic hypersaline environments. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exploiting the aerobic endospore-forming bacterial diversity in saline and hypersaline environments for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Couto, Camila Rattes; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Azevedo Jurelevicius, Diogo; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-10-28

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules with great applicability in the food, pharmaceutical and oil industries. Endospore-forming bacteria, which survive for long periods in harsh environments, are described as biosurfactant producers. Although the ubiquity of endospore-forming bacteria in saline and hypersaline environments is well known, studies on the diversity of the endospore-forming and biosurfactant-producing bacterial genera/species in these habitats are underrepresented. In this study, the structure of endospore-forming bacterial communities in sediment/mud samples from Vermelha Lagoon, Massambaba, Dois Rios and Abraão Beaches (saline environments), as well as the Praia Seca salterns (hypersaline environments) was determined via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial strains were isolated from these environmental samples and further identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains presenting emulsification values higher than 30 % were grouped via BOX-PCR, and the culture supernatants of representative strains were subjected to high temperatures and to the presence of up to 20 % NaCl to test their emulsifying activities in these extreme conditions. Mass spectrometry analysis was used to demonstrate the presence of surfactin. A diverse endospore-forming bacterial community was observed in all environments. The 110 bacterial strains isolated from these environmental samples were molecularly identified as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Thalassobacillus, Halobacillus, Paenibacillus, Fictibacillus and Paenisporosarcina. Fifty-two strains showed emulsification values of at least 30%, and they were grouped into 18 BOX groups. The stability of the emulsification values varied when the culture supernatants of representative strains were subjected to high temperatures and to the presence of up to 20% NaCl. The presence of surfactin was demonstrated in one of the most promising strains. The environments studied can harbor endospore

  8. Interrogating the Mediterranean 'Migration Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This Forum aims to uncover the socio-politics of the ‘migration crisis’ in the Mediterranean. The contributions explore the idea of the ‘migration crisis’ or ‘refugee crisis’ in the Mediterranean from the starting point that as scholars of the Mediterranean we can do two things: one, we can look at

  9. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  10. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  11. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...

  12. Focused transhepatic electroporation mediated by hypersaline infusion through the portal vein in rat model. Preliminary results on differential conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pañella Clara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spread hepatic tumours are not suitable for treatment either by surgery or conventional ablation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of selectively increasing the healthy hepatic conductivity by the hypersaline infusion (HI through the portal vein. We hypothesize this will allow simultaneous safe treatment of all nodules by irreversible electroporation (IRE when applied in a transhepatic fashion.

  13. Mechanisms of selenomethionine developmental toxicity and the impacts of combined hypersaline conditions on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsco, Allison; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-06-17

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that can cause embryotoxicty at levels 7-30 times above essential concentrations. Exposure to hypersaline conditions and 50 μM selenomethionine (SeMet) decreased embryo hatch and depleted glutathione in Japanese medaka embryos without affecting Se accumulation. To better understand the impacts of nonchemical stressors on developmental toxicity of Se in fish, several adverse outcome pathways were evaluated in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). We treated medaka embryos at 12 h post fertilization with 50 μM SeMet for 12 hours in freshwater or in 13 ppth hypersalinity and evaluated the contributions of oxidative stress, the unfolded protein response and apoptosis to reduced hatch. Exposure to SeMet and hypersalinity decreased embryo hatch to 3.7% ± 1.95, and induced teratogenesis in 100% ± 0 of hatched embryos. In contrast, treatments of freshwater, saltwater, and SeMet in freshwater resulted in 89.8% ± 3.91-86.7% ± 3.87 hatch, and no significant increase in deformities. We found no significant differences in lipid peroxidation, indicating that oxidative stress may not be responsible for the observed toxicity in embryos at this time point (24 h). Although significant changes in apoptosis were not observed, we witnessed up to 100 fold increases in transcripts of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP) and trends toward increasing downstream signals, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and ATF6 indicating potential contributions of the unfolded protein response to the effects of SeMet and hypersaline conditions. These data indicate that multiple adverse outcome pathways may be responsible for the developmental toxicity of Se and salinity, and these pathways may be time dependent.

  14. The modulation of leaf metabolism plays a role in salt tolerance of Cymodocea nodosa exposed to hypersaline stress in mesocosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia ePiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By the proteomic approach we tested the physiological responses of the euryhaline seagrass Cymodocea nodosa to deliberate manipulation of salinity in a mesocosm system. Plants were subjected to a chronic hypersaline condition (43 psu to compare their proteins expression and plant photochemistry responses after 15 and 30 days of exposure with those of plants cultured under normal/ambient saline conditions (37 psu. Results showed a general decline in the expression level of leaf proteins in hypersaline stressed plants, with more intense reductions on the long-lasting exposure. Specifically, the carbon-fixing enzyme RuBisCo displayed a lower expression level in stressed plants relative to controls; while contrarily, the key enzymes involve in the regulation of glycolisis, the cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phopsphate dehydrogenase, the enolase 2 and triose-phosphate isomerase, showed significant higher expression levels. Responses that suggest a shift of the carbon metabolism in stressed plants. Hypersaline stress also induced a significant alteration of the photosynthetic physiology of the C. nodosa by means of the down-regulation of structural proteins and enzymes of both PSII and PSI; however we found an over-expression of the cytochrome b559 alpha subunit of the PSII initial complex, which is a receptor for the PSII core proteins involved in biogenesis or repair processes and therefore potentially involved in the absence of effects at the photochemical level of stressed plants. As expected hypersalinity also affects the vacuolar metabolism increasing the leaf cell turgor pressure and enhancing the up-take of Na+ by the over-expression of the tonoplast specific intrinsic protein pyrophosphate-energized inorganic pyrophosphatase (H(+-PPase that is coupled with the Na+/H+-antiporter. The modulation of carbon metabolism and the enhancement of vacuole capacity in Na+ sequestration and osmolarity changes are discussed in relation to salt tolerance of C

  15. Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol to Drying of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Samset, B. H.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Sillmann, J.; Voulgarakis, A.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Iverson, T.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Olivié, D.; Richardson, T.; Stjern, C.; Takemura, T.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, radiative balance and thus, the hydrological cycle. Many studies have reported that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the mid-20th century, and investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare observed Mediterranean precipitation trends during 1951-2010 with responses to individual forcing in a set of state-of-the-art global climate models. Our analyses suggest that nearly one-third (30%) of the observed precipitation decrease may be attributable to black carbon forcing. The remainder is most strongly linked to forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs), with scattering sulfate aerosols having negligible impacts. Black carbon caused an enhanced positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like sea level pressure (SLP) pattern, characterized by higher SLP at mid-latitudes and lower SLP at high-latitudes. This SLP change diverted the jet stream and storm tracks further northward, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in Northern Europe. The results from this study suggest that future black carbon emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems, and economy in the Mediterranean region.

  16. Potentially mobile of heavy metals on the surface sediments in tropical hyper-saline and positive estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS A. RAMOS E SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estuarine sediments represent important pools of trace metals, released from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Fluctuations in the water column physicochemical conditions, on the other hand, may transfer metals from solid to liquid compartment and resulting in contamination of the surrounding environment. The present research was carried out to evaluate the weakly bounded heavy metal levels in tropical hyper-saline and positive estuaries, in order to quantify its potentially availability. The monitoring includes five metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and cover nine estuaries in Rio Grande do Norte state/Brazil, including four hypersaline and five true estuaries. 50 surface sediment samples were collected in each estuary. At the same time, organic matter concentrations were evaluated in order to help explaining possible local variations in heavy metal levels. Organic matter results (0.7% - 7.3% suggest the positive Potengi estuary as the most critical environmental quality situation. On the other hand, according to heavy metals levels, both Conchas and Potengi estuaries registered the higher concentrations of Cr. The highest concentrations were observed in the hyper-saline estuaries, with the exception of the Zn. The present study revealed that the watershed occupation has significantly influenced the heavy metal concentrations in the estuaries.

  17. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  18. Cyclic heliothermal behaviour of the shallow, hypersaline Lake Hayward, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jeffrey V.; Rosen, Michael R.; Coshell, Lee; Woodbury, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Lake Hayward is one of only about 30 hypersaline lakes worldwide that is meromictic and heliothermal and as such behaves as a natural salt gradient solar pond. Lake Hayward acts as a local groundwater sink, resulting in seasonally variable hypersaline lake water with total dissolved solids (TDS) in the upper layer (mixolimnion) ranging between 56 kg m−3 and 207 kg m−3 and the deeper layer (monimolimnion) from 153 kg m−3 to 211 kg m−3. This is up to six times the salinity of seawater and thus has the highest salinity of all eleven lakes in the Yalgorup National Park lake system. A program of continuously recorded water temperature profiles has shown that salinity stratification initiated by direct rainfall onto the lake’s surface and local runoff into the lake results in the onset of heliothermal conditions within hours of rainfall onset.The lake alternates between being fully mixed and becoming thermally and chemically stratified several times during the annual cycle, with the longest extended periods of heliothermal behaviour lasting 23 and 22 weeks in the winters of 1992 and 1993 respectively. The objective was to quantify the heat budgets of the cyclical heliothermal behaviour of Lake Hayward.During the period of temperature profile logging, the maximum recorded temperature of the monimolimnion was 42.6 °C at which time the temperature of the mixolimnion was 29.4 °C.The heat budget of two closed heliothermal cycles initiated by two rainfall events of 50 mm and 52 mm in 1993 were analysed. The cycles prevailed for 11 and 20 days respectively and the heat budget showed net heat accumulations of 34.2 MJ m−3 and 15.4 MJ m−3, respectively. The corresponding efficiencies of lake heat gain to incident solar energy were 0.17 and 0.18 respectively. Typically, artificial salinity gradient solar ponds (SGSP) have a solar radiation capture efficiencies ranging from 0.10 up to 0.30. Results from Lake Hayward have

  19. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2011-10-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relatively neutral in pH (7.2 to 7.4) and high in salt, at 12% and 20 % (w/v) salinity for Himalatt and Sidi Ameur Lakes, respectively, with dominant ions of sodium and chloride. The community compositions of microbes from all three domains (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) were surveyed through the use of 16S and 18S ribosomal gene amplification and clone library clustering using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) in conjunction with DNA sequencing and analysis. A high level of microbial diversity, particularly among the bacteria of the Himalatt Salt Lake and archaea of Sidi Ameur Lake, was found within these environments. Representatives from all known halophilic bacterial phyla as well as 6 different genera of halophilic archaea were identified. Moreover, several apparently novel phylotypes among both archaea and bacteria were revealed.

  20. Egg banks in hypersaline lakes of the South-East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatello, Salvatore; Belmonte, Genuario

    2009-01-01

    The cyst banks of 6 coastal hypersaline lakes of South-East Europe have been investigated. The study concerned the bottom sediments of Khersonesskoe and Koyashskoe lakes in the Crimea (Ukraine), Nartë saltworks (Albania), Vecchia Salina at Torre Colimena (Apulia, Italy), Pantano Grande and Pantano Roveto at Vendicari (Sicily, Italy). A total of 19 cyst types were recognised. The cyst banks of lakes were found to be well separated in the representation derived from a statistical multivariate data analysis. For all the lakes examined a comparison was possible between the resting community in sediments (cyst bank) and the active one in the water. The cyst banks contained more species than those recorded over a multi-year sampling effort in the water column. The study of cyst hatching, performed on 5 cyst types under lab conditions, demonstrated that cysts do not hatch under the same conditions. Furthermore, each cyst type shows a wide range of preferential hatching conditions, which allow us to confirm the ecological generalism of salt lake species. PMID:19292906

  1. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  2. Archaeal populations in hypersaline sediments underlying orange microbial mats in the Napoli mud volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the "active" archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano.

  3. Archaeal Populations in Hypersaline Sediments Underlying Orange Microbial Mats in the Napoli Mud Volcano▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the “active” archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano. PMID:21335391

  4. Comparison of chitinolytic enzymes from an alkaline, hypersaline lake and an estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCleir, Gary R; Buchan, Alison; Maurer, John; Moran, Mary Ann; Hollibaugh, James T

    2007-01-01

    We examined the genetic and physiological characteristics of chitin degrading enzymes expressed by fosmids cloned from two strains of chitinolytic gammaproteobacteria isolated from alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, California; and from a metagenomic library derived from an estuarine bacterial community (Dean Creek, Sapelo Island, GA, USA). The Mono Lake chitinolytic enzymes presented unique adaptations in terms of halo- and alkalitolerance. The sequence from one of the Mono Lake isolates (strain 12A) was a conventional family 18 glycosyl hydrolase; however, the expressed protein had a novel secondary activity peak at pH 10. We obtained a novel family 20 glycosyl hydrolase sequence from Mono Lake strain AI21. The activity of the expressed protein had a pH optimum of 10, several pH units higher than any other enzyme currently assigned to this family, and the enzyme retained 80% of its activity at pH 11. The enzyme was also halotolerant, retaining activity in salt solutions of up to 225 g l(-1). Sequence analysis indicated a molecular weight of approximately 90 kDa for the protein, and that it contained two active sites. Culture supernatant contained two chitinolytic proteins, 45 and 31 kDa, suggesting possible post-expression modification of the gene product. In contrast, the sequence found in the estuarine metagenomic library and the functional characteristics of the protein expressed from it were those of a conventional family 18 glycosyl hydrolase.

  5. Patterns of metal distribution in hypersaline microbialites during early diagenesis: Implications for the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforna, M C; Daye, M; Philippot, P; Somogyi, A; van Zuilen, M A; Medjoubi, K; Gérard, E; Jamme, F; Dupraz, C; Braissant, O; Glunk, C; Visscher, P T

    2017-03-01

    The use of metals as biosignatures in the fossil stromatolite record requires understanding of the processes controlling the initial metal(loid) incorporation and diagenetic preservation in living microbialites. Here, we report the distribution of metals and the organic fraction within the lithifying microbialite of the hypersaline Big Pond Lake (Bahamas). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence, confocal, and biphoton microscopies at different scales (cm-μm) in combination with traditional geochemical analyses, we show that the initial cation sorption at the surface of an active microbialite is governed by passive binding to the organic matrix, resulting in a homogeneous metal distribution. During early diagenesis, the metabolic activity in deeper microbialite layers slows down and the distribution of the metals becomes progressively heterogeneous, resulting from remobilization and concentration as metal(loid)-enriched sulfides, which are aligned with the lamination of the microbialite. In addition, we were able to identify globules containing significant Mn, Cu, Zn, and As enrichments potentially produced through microbial activity. The similarity of the metal(loid) distributions observed in the Big Pond microbialite to those observed in the Archean stromatolites of Tumbiana provides the foundation for a conceptual model of the evolution of the metal distribution through initial growth, early diagenesis, and fossilization of a microbialite, with a potential application to the fossil record. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sustainable Hypersaline Microbial Fuel Cells: Inexpensive Recyclable Polymer Supports for Carbon Nanotube Conductive Paint Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Shivel, Nelson D; Sifat, Iram; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-05-09

    Microbial fuel cells are an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, but to be commercially viable and sustainable, the electrode materials must be inexpensive, recyclable, and reliable. In this study, recyclable polymeric supports were explored for the development of anode electrodes to be applied in single-chamber microbial fuel cells operated in field under hypersaline conditions. The support was covered with a carbon nanotube (CNT) based conductive paint, and biofilms were able to colonize the electrodes. The single-chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes delivered a reproducible power output after 15 days of operation to achieve 12±1 mW m -2 at a current density of 69±7 mA m -2 . The decrease of the performance in long-term experiments was mostly related to inorganic precipitates on the cathode electrode and did not affect the performance of the anode, as shown by experiments in which the cathode was replaced and the fuel cell performance was regenerated. The results of these studies show the feasibility of polymeric supports coated with CNT-based paint for microbial fuel cell applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Primary and heterotrophic productivity relate to multikingdom diversity in a hypersaline mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Brislawn, Colin J.; Dana, Karl; Flores-Wentz, Tobias; Cory, Alexandra B.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Moran, James J.

    2017-10-01

    Benthic microbial ecosystems are widespread yet knowledge gaps still remain on the relationships between the diversity of species across kingdoms and productivity. Here, we ask two fundamental questions: 1) How does species diversity relate to the rates of primary and heterotrophic productivity? 2) How do diel variations in light-energy inputs influence productivity and microbiome diversity? To answer these questions, microbial mats from a magnesium sulfate hypersaline Lake were used to establish microcosms. Both the number and relatedness between bacterial and eukaryotic taxa in the microbiome were assayed via amplicon based sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes over two diel cycles. These results correlated with biomass productivity obtained from substrate-specific 13C stable isotope incorporation that enabled comparisons between primary and heterotrophic productivity. Both bacterial and eukaryotic species richness and evenness were related only to the rates of 13C labeled glucose and acetate biomass incorporation. Interestingly, measures of these heterotrophic relationships changed from positive and negative correlations depending on carbon derived from glucose and acetate, respectively. Bacterial and eukaryotic diversity of this ecosystem is also controlled, in part, energy constraints imposed by changing irradiance over a diel cycle.

  8. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  9. Temporal acclimation of Microchloropsis gaditana CCMP526 in response to hypersalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikaichamy, Anbarasu; Deore, Pranali; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Coppel, Ross; Bulach, Dieter; Beardall, John; Noronha, Santosh

    2018-04-01

    Evaporation from culture ponds and raceways can subject algae to hypersalinity stress, and this is exacerbated by global warming. We investigated the effect of salinity on a marine microalga, Microchloropsis gaditana, which is of industrial significance because of its high lipid-accumulating capability. Both short-term (hours) and medium-term (days) effects of salinity were studied across various salinities (37.5, 55, 70 and 100 PSU). Salinity above 55 PSU suppressed cell growth and specific growth rate was significantly reduced at 100 PSU. Photosynthesis (F v /F m , rETR max and I k ) was severely affected at high salinity conditions. Total carbohydrate per cell increased ∼1.7-fold after 24 h, which is consistent with previous findings that salinity induces osmolyte production to counter osmotic shock. In addition, accumulation of lipid increased by ∼4.6-fold in response to salinity. Our findings indicate a possible mechanism of acclimation to salinity, opening up new frontiers for osmolytes in pharmacological and cosmetics applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moers, M.E.C.; Larter, S.R. (The University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom))

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analyzed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterize various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass (Halodule uninervis), and mangrove (Avicennia marine) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr BP. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose, and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria (Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other [open quotes]minor[close quotes] saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Familial Mediterranean fever Familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  12. Mediterranean Environmental Acoustic Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This fact , coupled with the continued operatir%._l interest there, makes the issuance of an up-date to the Atie .7orthwhile. (U) In order to serve the...characteristics from wind conditions has long interested wave theoreticians and forecasters. These specialists have developed various graphs, tables, and...the Mediterranean. Under the proper environmental conditions, micro- scopic and larger protozoans, crustaceans, and jellyfishes responsible for

  13. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  14. Seasonal and geographic distribution of luminous bacteria in the eastern mediterranean sea and the gulf of elat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetinson, T; Shilo, M

    1979-06-01

    Luminous bacteria in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba-Elat have different distribution patterns. In the Mediterranean Sea, Beneckea harveyi is present all year round, with different subtypes alternating in summer and winter; Photobacterium fischeri was only present during the winter. In the Gulf of Elat, P. leiognathi is present throughout the water column in similar densities during the entire year. This constancy in distribution is presumably due to the near-constancy in water temperature. In summer, Photobacterium leiognathi is replaced by B. harveyi in coastal surface waters. In the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon, only B. harveyi types are present. P. fischeri, a major component of the Mediterranean Sea winter communities, is absent from the lagoon. Luminous Beneckea strains show a great diversity in properties, e.g. temperature range for growth, sensitivity to infection by phages, sensitivity to attack by Bdellovibrio strains, and differences in tolerance to high-salinity shock. Therefore, subdivision of the taxonomic cluster of B. harveyi into subtypes is indicated. The composition of the luminous bacteria communities may serve as indicators of different marine water bodies. The symbiotic luminous bacteria of the light organ of the common Gulf of Elat fish, Photoblepharon palbebratus steinitzi, is different from any of the types described.

  15. Physiological characteristics underlying the distribution patterns of luminous bacteria in the mediterranean sea and the gulf of elat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, M; Yetinson, T

    1979-10-01

    Physiological characteristics of luminous bacteria isolated from the Mediterranean and Gulf of Elat were compared to determine their relationship to the specific seasonal and geographic distribution patterns of these bacteria. The effects of temperature on growth rate and yield, relative sensitivity to photooxidation, resistance to high salt concentration (8%), and ability to grow in nutrient-poor conditions appear to control these patterns. The winter appearance of Photobacterium fischeri and the succession of winter and summer types of Beneckea harveyi in the eastern Mediterranean are explained by different temperature requirements for growth. Sensitivity to photooxidation explains the disappearance of P. leiognathi, present in the main body of the Gulf of Elat throughout the year, from the shallow coastal strip. B. harveyi is present in this coastal strip which is higher in nutrients and in productivity than the open waters. Competition experiments between B. harveyi and P. leiognathi in batch and continuous culture indicate that the oligotrophic P. leiognathi is outcompeted by B. harveyi in rich and even in relatively poor media. The distribution pattern found in the Bardawil hypersaline lagoon is explained by selection of salinity-resistant mutants of B. harveyi from the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  17. Exploration of microbial diversity and community structure of Lonar Lake: the only hypersaline meteorite crater lake within basalt rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj ePaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonar Lake is a hypersaline and hyperalkaline soda lake and the only meteorite impact crater in the world created in the basalt rocks. Although culture-dependent studies have been reported, the comprehensive understanding of microbial community composition and structure of Lonar Lake remain obscure. In the present study, microbial community structure associated with Lonar Lake sediment and water samples was investigated using high throughput sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed the existence of diverse, yet near consistent community composition. The predominance of bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (30% followed by Actinobacteria (24%, Firmicutes (11% and Cyanobacteria (5% was observed. Bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes (1.12%, BD1-5 (0.5%, Nitrospirae (0.41% and Verrucomicrobia (0.28% were detected as relatively minor populations in Lonar Lake ecosystem. Within Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria represented the most abundant population (21-47% among all the sediments and as a minor population in water samples. Bacterial members Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were present significantly higher (p≥0.05 in sediment samples, whereas members of Actinobacteria, Candidate_division_TM7 and Cyanobacteria (p≥0.05 were significantly abundant in water samples. It was noted that compared to other hypersaline soda lakes, Lonar Lake samples formed one distinct cluster, suggesting a different microbial community composition and structure. The present study reports for the first time the different composition of indigenous microbial communities between the sediment and water samples of Lonar Lake. Having better insight of community structure of this Lake ecosystem could be useful in understanding the microbial role in the geochemical cycle for future functional exploration of the unique hypersaline Lonar Lake.

  18. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  19. Microbial Mg-carbonate Precipitation and Early Diagenetic Dolomite Crust Formation at Hypersaline Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Perri, E.; Vögeli, N.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary dolomite rocks are commonly considered to be primarily a replacement product of the calcium carbonate components comprising the original limestone, a process known as secondary replacement dolomitization. Although numerous dolomite formations in the geologic record are composed of fine-grained crystals of micritic dolomite, an alternative process, i.e., direct precipitation, is often excluded because of the absence of visible or geochemical indicators supporting primary precipitation. We present a study of a modern coastal hypersaline lagoon, Brejo do Espinho, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which is located in a special climatic regime where a well-defined seasonal cycle of wet and dry conditions occur. The direct precipitation of modern high-Mg calcite and Ca-dolomite mud from the lagoonal waters under low-temperature hypersaline conditions is associated with the activity of microbial organisms living in this restricted environment. The mud undergoes an early diagenetic transformation into a 100% dolomite crust on the margins of the lagoon. The biomineralization process, characterized by the variations of the physico-chemical conditions in this environment during the annual hydrologic cycle, is integrated with isotopic analysis to define the early diagenetic processes responsible for the formation of both dolomitic mud and crust. The carbon isotope values indicate a contribution of respired organic carbon, which is greater for the crust (δ13C = -9.5‰ VPDB) than mud (δ13C = -1.2‰ VPDB). The oxygen isotope values reflect a moderate degree of evaporation during mud formation (δ18O = 1.1‰ VPDB), whereas it is greatly enhanced during early diagenetic crust formation (δ18O = 4.2‰ VPDB). The clumped isotope formation temperatures derived for the Brejo do Espinho mud is 34°C and 32°C for the crust. These temperatures are consistent with the upper range of measured values during the dry season when the lagoon experiences the most hypersaline

  20. Assessment of the trophic state of a hypersaline-carbonatic environment: Vermelha Lagoon (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Laut

    Full Text Available Vermelha Lagoon is a hypersaline shallow transitional ecosystem in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. This lagoon is located in the protected area of Massambaba, between the cities of Araruama and Saquarema (Brazil, and displays two quite uncommon particularities: it exhibits carbonate sedimentation and displays the development of Holocene stromatolites. Due to both particularities, the salt industry and property speculation have been, increasingly, generating anthropic pressures on this ecosystem. This study aims to apply a multiproxy approach to evaluate the trophic state of Vermelha Lagoon based on physicochemical parameters and geochemical data for the quantification and qualification of organic matter (OM, namely total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS, total phosphorus (TP and biopolymeric carbon (BPC, including carbohydrates (CHO, lipids (LIP and proteins (PTN. The CHO/TOC ratio values suggest that OM supplied to the sediment is of autochthonous origin and results, essentially, from microbial activity. The cluster analyses allowed the identification of four regions in Vermelha Lagoon. The Region I included stations located in shallow areas of the eastern sector of Vermelha lagoon affected by the impact of the artificial channel of connection with Araruama Lagoon. The Region II, under the influence of salt pans, is characterized by the highest values of BPC, namely CHO promoted by microbiological activity. The Region III include stations spread through the lagoon with high values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of TP. Stromatolites and microbial mattes growth was observed in some stations of this sector. Region IV, where the highest values of TOC and TS were found, represents depocenters of organic matter, located in general in depressed areas. Results of this work evidences that the Vermelha Lagoon is an eutrophic but alkaline and well oxygenated environment (at both water column and surface sediment where the autotrophic

  1. Mathematical simulation of the diel O, S, and C biogeochemistry of a hypersaline microbial mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, K.; Potter, C.

    2003-12-01

    The creation of a mathematical simulation model of photosynthetic microbial mats is an important step in our understanding of key biogeochemical cycles that may have altered the atmospheres of early Earth and of other terrestrial planets. A modeling investigation is presented here as a tool to utilize and integrate empirical results from research on hypersaline mats from Baja California, Mexico into a computational system that can be used to simulate biospheric inputs of trace gases to the atmosphere. An early version of our model calculates fluxes and cycling of oxygen, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via abiotic components and via the major bacterial guilds: cyanobacteria (CYA), sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB), purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and colorless sulfur bacteria (CSB). We used generalized monod-type equations that incorporate substrate and energy limits upon maximum rates of metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and sulfate reduction. We ran a simulation using temperature and irradiance inputs from data collected from a microbial mat in Guerrero Negro in Baja Mexico. Model oxygen, sulfide, and DIC results compared well with data collected in the field mats. A divergence from the field data was an initial large negative DIC flux early in the morning and little flux into the mat thereafter in the simulation. We hypothesize that this divergence will be reduced or eliminated if the salinity of the water surrounding the mat were used as an environmental input and as a limit to photosynthesis rates. Salinity levels, organic carbon, methane, methanogens and green nonsulfur bacteria will be added to this model before it is incorporated into a global model to simulate geological time scales.

  2. Rhodococcus sovatensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the hypersaline and heliothermal Lake Ursu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Táncsics, András; Máthé, István; Benedek, Tibor; Tóth, Erika M; Atasayar, Ewelina; Spröer, Cathrin; Márialigeti, Károly; Felföldi, Tamás; Kriszt, Balázs

    2017-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, mesophilic bacterium, designated H004T, was isolated from a water sample of the hypersaline and heliothermal Lake Ursu, Sovata, Romania. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain H004T formed a distinct phyletic lineage within the genus Rhodococcus. It shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Rhodococcus yunnanensis YIM 70056T (98.80 %), followed by Rhodococcus fascians LMG 3623T (98.73 %), Rhodococcus cercidiphylli YIM 65003T (98.73 %), Rhodococcus cerastii C5T (98.58 %) and Rhodococcus kyotonensis DS472T (98.53 %). The alkB-based phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that this strain constitutes a highly unique lineage within the genus. Chemotaxonomic characteristics, including the predominant fatty acids acids C15 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C19 : 1ω11c/C19 : 1ω9c and C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, the major quinone MK-8(H2), the presence of mycolic acids and cell-wall chemotype IV were also consistent with the properties of members of the genus Rhodococcus. The DNA G+C content of strain H004T was 65.4 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization analyses with the closest relatives, in combination with the alkB-based phylogenetic analysis, as well as the chemotaxonomic and physiological data, demonstrated that isolate H004T represents a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus, for which the name Rhodococcus sovatensissp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H004T (=DSM 102881T=NCAIM B.02632T).

  3. Stage susceptibility of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to selenomethionine and hypersaline developmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsco, Allison; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of seleniferous soils can lead to selenium contamination of waterways. Although selenium is an essential micronutrient, bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of proteinaceous selenomethionine (SeMet) can result in embryo toxicity. Furthermore, as the climate changes, the salinity of spawning grounds in water-restrained estuaries is increasing. Although a small increase in salinity may not directly impact adult fish, it may alter the detoxification strategies of developing organisms. Previous research indicates that hypersalinity may potentiate SeMet embryo toxicity at an early developmental stage. However, embryonic development is a complex, spatiotemporal process with a constantly shifting cellular microenvironment. To generate thresholds and an adverse outcome pathway for the interactions between selenium and salinity, we sought to identify windows of susceptibility for lethality and deformities in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryos were treated in freshwater or saltwater for 24 h with 0.5 µM, 5 µM, and 50 µM SeMet at 6 different developmental stages (9, 17, 25, 29, 34, and 38). Survival, hatch, deformities (total, type, and severity), and days to hatch were quantified. Selenium embryo tissue measurements were performed. Selenomethionine exposures of 5 µM and 50 µM significantly decreased survival and hatch at all stages. However, SeMet uptake was stage-dependent and increased with stage. Stage 17 (early neurulation) was identified as the most susceptible stage for lethality and deformities. Selenomethionine in saltwater caused significantly greater toxicity than freshwater at stage 25 (early organogenesis), suggesting a role for liver and osmoregulatory organogenesis in toxicity. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Microbial communities inhabiting hypersaline microbial mats from the Abu Dhabi sabkha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza; Dutton, Kirsten; Paul, Andreas; van der Land, Cees; Sherry, Angela; Lokier, Stephen; Head, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Microbial mats are organo-sedimentary structures that are typically found in areas with extreme environmental conditions. Since these ecosystems are considered to be representative of the oldest forms of life on Earth, the study of microbial mats can inform our understanding of the development of life early in the history of our planet. In this study, we used hypersaline microbial mats from the Abu Dhabi sabkha (coastal salt flats). Cores of microbial mats (ca. 90 mm depth) were collected within an intertidal region. The cores were sliced into layers 2-3 mm thick and genomic DNA was extracted from each layer. A fragment of the 16S rRNA encoding gene was amplified in all DNA extracts, using barcoded primers, and the amplicons sequenced with the Ion Torrent platform to investigate the composition of the microbial communities down the depth of the cores. Preliminary results revealed a high proportion of Archaea (15.5-40.8% abundance) in all layers, with Halobacteria appearing to be more significant in the first 40 mm (0.4-10.3% of the total microbial community). Members of the Deltaproteobacteria were dominant in almost all layers of the microbial mat (≤ 48.6% relative abundance); however this dominance was not reflected in the first 8 mm, where the abundance was less than 2%. Chloroflexi and Anaerolinea, representing 93% of bacterial abundance, dominated the first 8 mm depth and decreased at greater depth (≤ 3% relative abundance). Cyanobacteria were found only in the top 10 mm, with unexpected low abundance (≤ 3% of the total number of reads). These results show a vertical zonation of microbial communities and processes in the microbial mats. Further analyses are underway to investigate if these patterns are repeated at other sites along a transect of the sabkha, and to relate the microbial composition to the physical-chemical conditions of the sites.

  5. Fermentation couples Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing bacteria to Cyanobacteria in hypersaline microbial mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Z Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Past studies of hydrogen cycling in hypersaline microbial mats have shown an active nighttime cycle, with production largely from Cyanobacteria and consumption from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. However, the mechanisms and magnitude of hydrogen cycling have not been extensively studied. Two mats types near Guerrero Negro, Mexico -- permanently submerged Microcoleus microbial mats (GN-S, and intertidal Lyngbya microbial mats (GN-I -- were used in microcosm diel manipulation experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, molybdate, ammonium addition, and physical disruption to understand the processes responsible for hydrogen cycling between mat microbes. Across microcosms, H2 production occurred under dark anoxic conditions with simultaneous production of a suite of organic acids. H2 production was not significantly affected by inhibition of nitrogen fixation, but rather appears to result from constitutive fermentation of photosynthetic storage products by oxygenic phototrophs. Comparison to accumulated glycogen and to CO2 flux indicated that, in the GN-I mat, fermentation released almost all of the carbon fixed via photosynthesis during the preceding day, primarily as organic acids. Across mats, although oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs were detected, cyanobacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenase transcripts predominated. Molybdate inhibition experiments indicated that SRBs from a wide distribution of dsrA phylotypes were responsible for H2 consumption. Incubation with 13C-acetate and nanoSIMS (secondary ion mass-spectrometry indicated higher uptake in both Chloroflexi and SRBs relative to other filamentous bacteria. These manipulations and diel incubations confirm that Cyanobacteria were the main fermenters in Guerrero Negro mats and that the net flux of nighttime fermentation byproducts (not only hydrogen was largely regulated by the interplay between Cyanobacteria, SRBs, and Chloroflexi.

  6. Microbial diversity of the hypersaline and lithium-rich Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferburg, Götz; Gröning, Janosch A D; Schmidt, Nadja; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Erquicia, Juan Carlos; Schlömann, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Salar de Uyuni, situated in the Southwest of the Bolivian Altiplano, is the largest salt flat on Earth. Brines of this athalassohaline hypersaline environment are rich in lithium and boron. Due to the ever- increasing commodity demand, the industrial exploitation of brines for metal recovery from the world's biggest lithium reservoir is likely to increase substantially in the near future. Studies on the composition of halophilic microbial communities in brines of the salar have not been published yet. Here we report for the first time on the prokaryotic diversity of four brine habitats across the salar. The brine is characterized by salinity values between 132 and 177 PSU, slightly acidic to near-neutral pH and lithium and boron concentrations of up to 2.0 and 1.4g/L, respectively. Community analysis was performed after sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes employing the Illumina MiSeq technology. The mothur software package was used for sequence processing and data analysis. Metagenomic analysis revealed the occurrence of an exclusively archaeal community comprising 26 halobacterial genera including only recently identified genera like Halapricum, Halorubellus and Salinarchaeum. Despite the high diversity of the halobacteria-dominated community in sample P3 (Shannon-Weaver index H'=3.12 at 3% OTU cutoff) almost 40% of the Halobacteriaceae-assigned sequences could not be classified on the genus level under stringent filtering conditions. Even if the limited taxonomic resolution of the V3-V4 region for halobacteria is considered, it seems likely to discover new, hitherto undescribed genera of the family halobacteriaceae in this particular habitat of Salar de Uyuni in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of Chloroflexus respiration to oxygen cycling in a hypersaline microbial mat from Lake Chiprana, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polerecky, Lubos; Bachar, Ami; Schoon, Raphaela

    2007-01-01

    in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) regions to study this coupling in more detail. Using this novel approach, we separately quantified the activity of the major players in the oxygen cycle in a hypersaline microbial mat: gross photosynthesis of cyanobacteria, NIR light-dependent respiration...... of Chloroflexus-like bacteria (CLB) and respiration of aerobic heterotrophs. Illumination by VIS light induced oxygen production in the top 1 mm of the mat. In this zone CLB were found responsible for all respiration, while the contribution of the aerobic heterotrophs was negligible. Additional illumination...

  8. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  9. Stream hydrological fragmentation drives bacterioplankton community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fazi

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean intermittent streams, the hydrological fragmentation in summer and the successive water flow re-convergence in autumn allow exploring how local processes shape the microbial community within the same habitat. The objectives of this study were to determine how bacterial community composition responded to hydrological fragmentation in summer, and to evaluate whether the seasonal shifts in community composition predominate over the effects of episodic habitat fragmentation. The bacterial community was assessed along the intermittent stream Fuirosos (Spain, at different levels of phylogenetic resolution by in situ hybridization, fingerprinting, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The hydrological fragmentation of the stream network strongly altered the biogeochemical conditions with the depletion of oxidized solutes and caused changes in dissolved organic carbon characteristics. In the isolated ponds, beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased their abundance with a gradual reduction of the alpha-diversity as pond isolation time increased. Moreover, fingerprinting analysis clearly showed a shift in community composition between summer and autumn. In the context of a seasonal shift, the temporary stream fragmentation simultaneously reduced the microbial dispersion and affected local environmental conditions (shift in redox regime and quality of the dissolved organic matter tightly shaping the bacterioplankton community composition.

  10. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  11. Stream corridor management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Wehnes

    1989-01-01

    The quality of streams and stream habitat for aquatic life and terrestrial animals in the central hardwood forest can be maintained or enhanced through careful protection, management, and re-establishment of streamside forests.

  12. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  13. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  14. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  15. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  16. The concept of an estuary: A definition that incorporates systems which can become closed to the ocean and hypersaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ian C.; Chuwen, Benjamin M.; Hoeksema, Steeg D.; Elliott, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The majority of the definitions of estuaries have been based on the characteristics of estuaries in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. As previously pointed out ( Day, 1980), such definitions do not take into account such features as periodic closure of their mouths and hypersaline conditions during dry periods, which characterise many estuaries in southern Africa and south-western Australia. There is also ambiguity as to whether an estuary sensu stricto must be fed by a river. The following definition was developed to encompass the main characteristics of all estuaries: An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of water that is either permanently or periodically open to the sea and which receives at least periodic discharge from a river(s), and thus, while its salinity is typically less than that of natural sea water and varies temporally and along its length, it can become hypersaline in regions when evaporative water loss is high and freshwater and tidal inputs are negligible. Estuaries are thus regarded as unique ecosystems, which, in the case of fishes, for example, are occupied by species that collectively represent a particular suite of guilds.

  17. Sodium toxicity and pathology associated with exposure of waterfowl to hypersaline playa lakes of southeast New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Dubielzig, R.D.; Dein, F.J.; Baeten, L.A.; Moore, M.K.; Jehl, J.R.; Wesenberg, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cause of mortality was studied in waterfowl in hypersaline playa lakes of southeast New Mexico during spring and fall migration. Mortality was not common in wild ducks resting on the playas during good weather. However, when birds remained on the lakes for prolonged periods of time, such as during experimental trials and stormy weather, a heavy layer of salt precipitated on their feathers. Sodium toxicity was the cause of death for all experimental mallards housed on playa water and for 50% of the wild waterfowl found moribund or dead during the spring of 1995. Gross lesions included heavy salt precipitation on the feathers, ocular lens opacities, deeply congested brains, and dilated, thin-walled, fluid-filled cloacae. Microscopic lesions in the more severely affected birds included liquefaction of ocular lens cortex with lens fiber swelling and multifocal to diffuse ulcerative conjunctivitis with severe granulocytic inflammation, edema, and granulocytic vasculitis resulting in thrombosis. Inflammation similar to that seen in the conjunctiva occasionally involved the mucosa of the mouth, pharynx, nasal turbinates, cloaca, and bursa. Transcorneal movement of water in response to the hypersaline conditions on the playa lakes or direct contact with salt crystals could induce anterior segment dehydration of the aqueous humor and increased osmotic pressure on the lens, leading to cataract formation.

  18. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMirete

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes involved in salt resistance from the microbial communities of brines and the rhizosphere from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain Escherichia coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. As a result, eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation as a glycerol and a proton pump, whereas others encoded for proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also exhibited salt resistance in this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species where these genes can operate. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment.

  19. Evolution of meteoroid streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babadzhanov, P.B.; Obrubov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    A meteoroid stream generally considered to be an elliptical ring of relatively small thickness is described. Such shape is attributable to meteoroid streams in an early stage of their evolution. Differences in planetary perturbations influencing the meteoroid particles ejected from the parent body from various points in its orbit at different velocities and time can result in a significant thickening of the stream. Our studies on the evolution of the short-period meteoroid streams have shown that these streams can produce several couples of showers active in different seasons of the year. (author). 5 figs., 7 tabs., 53 res

  20. Biological Characterization of Microenvironments in a Hypersaline Cold Spring Mars Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley M. Sapers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While many habitable niches on Earth are characterized by permanently cold conditions, little is known about the spatial structure of seasonal communities and the importance of substrate-cell associations in terrestrial cyroenvironments. Here we use the 16S rRNA gene as a marker for genetic diversity to compare two visually distinct but spatially integrated surface microbial mats on Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian high arctic, proximal to a perennial saline spring. This is the first study to describe the bacterial diversity in microbial mats on Axel Heiberg Island. The hypersaline springs on Axel Heiberg represent a unique analog to putative subsurface aquifers on Mars. The Martian subsurface represents the longest-lived potentially habitable environment on Mars and a better understanding of the microbial communities on Earth that thrive in analog conditions will help direct future life detection missions. The microbial mats sampled on Axel Heiberg are only visible during the summer months in seasonal flood plains formed by melt water and run-off from the proximal spring. Targeted-amplicon sequencing revealed that not only does the bacterial composition of the two mat communities differ substantially from the sediment community of the proximal cold spring, but that the mat communities are distinct from any other microbial community in proximity to the Arctic springs studied to date. All samples are dominated by Gammaproteobacteria: Thiotichales is dominant within the spring samples while Alteromonadales comprises a significant component of the mat communities. The two mat samples differ in their Thiotichales:Alteromonadales ratio and contribution of Bacteroidetes to overall diversity. The red mats have a greater proportion of Alteromonadales and Bacteroidetes reads. The distinct bacterial composition of the mat bacterial communities suggests that the spring communities are not sourced from the surface, and that seasonal melt events create

  1. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dafni Vavourakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first ‘metagenomic snapshots’ of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter and Rhodobaca and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a

  2. Lanthanide behavior in hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico - an environment with halophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumiline, K.; López-Cortés, A.; Grajeda-Muñoz, M.; Shumilin, E.; Sapozhnikov, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lanthanides are known, in some cases, to be sensitive to changes in water column or sediment chemistry, a fact that allows them to be used as environmental fingerprints. Nevertheless, the behavior of these elements in hypersaline environments is insufficiently understood, especially in those colonized by bacteria, archaea and eukarya halophiles. Extreme environments like the mentioned exist in the artificially-controlled ponds of the 'Exportadora de Sal' salt-producing enterprise located in Guerrero Negro (Baja California, Mexico). Sediment cores from various ponds were collected, subsampled and measured by ICP-MS and INAA. This allowed differencing the behavior of lanthanides and trace elements under a water column salinity gradient along the evaporation sequence of ponds. Sediment profiles (30 mm long), obtained in Pond 5, dominated by Ca and Mg precipitation and at the same time rich in organic matter due to bacterial mat presence, showed highs and lows of the shale-normalized patterns along different in-core depths. Two groups of elements could be distinguished with similar trends: set A (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and set B (Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu). The first 'group A' had two prominent peaks at 15 mm and around 22 mm, whereas the 'group B' showed only slight increase at 15 mm and none at 22 mm. Microscopic analyses of prokaryotic cells of a stratified mat in Pond 5 (collected in 2004) showed filamentous bacteria and cyanobacteria with a cell abundance and morphotype richness maxima of prokaryotic cells in a chemocline from 3 mm to 7 mm depth which co-exists nine morphotypes of aerobic and anaerobic prokaryotes Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Leptolyngbya, Cyanothece, Geitlerinema, Spirulina, Chloroflexus, Beggiatoa, Chromatium and Thioploca. Below the 7 mm depth, oxygenic photosynthesis depletes and sulfur reducing compounds increase. The highs of the shale-normalized lanthanide contents of the 'group A' (at 15 mm depth) seem to correlate with the

  3. Amino Acid Coding Bias of the Hypersaline Dead Sea on an Environmental Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. E.; Fitz-Gibbon, S.; Bodaker, I.; Beja, O.; Oren, A.; House, C.

    2008-12-01

    relatively diverse hypersaline environment to one in which only the most extreme of hyperhalophiles could cope. It also suggests that the amino acid composition of the microbial community of an environment can serve as a proxy for salinity and potentially other environmental factors as well.

  4. Anaerobic halo- alkaliphilic bacterial community of athalassic, hypersaline Mono lake and Owens Lake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Detkova, Ekaterina N.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-02-01

    The bacterial diversity of microbial extremophiles from the meromictic, hypersaline Mono Lake and a small evaporite pool in Owens Lake of California was studied. In spite of these regions had differing mineral background and different concentrations of NaCl in water they contain the same halo- alkaliphiles anaerobic bacterial community. Three new species of bacteria were detected in this community: primary anaerobe, dissipotrophic saccharolytic spirochete Spirochaeta americana strain AspG1T, primary anaerobe which is proteolytic Tindallia californiensis strain APOT, and secondary anaerobe, hydrogen using Desulfonatronum thiodismutans strain MLF1T, which is sulfate- reducer with chemo-litho-autotrophic metabolism. All of these bacteria are obligate alkaliphiles and dependent upon Na+ ions and CO32- ions in growth mediums. It is interesting that closest relationships for two of these species were isolates from samples of equatorial African soda Magadi lake: Spirochaeta americana AspG1T has 99.4% similarity on 16S rDNA- analyses with Spirochaeta alkalica Z- 7491T, and Tindallia californiensis APOT has 99.1% similarity with Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T. But result of DNA-DNA- hybridization demonstrated less then 50% similarity between Spirochaeta americana AspG1T and Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491T. Percent of homology between Tindallia californiensis APOT and Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T is only 55%. The sulfate-reducer from the alkalic anaerobic community of Magadi lake Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans Z-7935T was phylogenetically distant from this sulfate-reducer in Mono lake, but genetically closer (99.7% similarity) to the sulfate-reducer, isolated from Central Asian alkalic lake Khadyn in Siberia Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951T. The study of key enzymes (hydrogenase and CO- hydrogenase) in Tindallia californiensis APOT and Desulfonatronum thiodismutans MLF1T showed the presence of high activity of both the enzymes in first and only hydrogenase in second

  5. Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Abbas, B.; Suhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related

  6. Metagenomic Insights into the Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity of the Prokaryotic Community Dwelling in Hypersaline Soils from the Odiel Saltmarshes (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Vera-Gargallo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypersaline environments encompass aquatic and terrestrial habitats. While only a limited number of studies on the microbial diversity of saline soils have been carried out, hypersaline lakes and marine salterns have been thoroughly investigated, resulting in an aquatic-biased knowledge about life in hypersaline environments. To improve our understanding of the assemblage of microbes thriving in saline soils, we assessed the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community of two hypersaline soils (with electrical conductivities of ~24 and 55 dS/m from the Odiel saltmarshes (Spain by metagenomics. Comparative analysis of these soil databases with available datasets from salterns ponds allowed further identification of unique and shared traits of microbial communities dwelling in these habitats. Saline soils harbored a more diverse prokaryotic community and, in contrast to their aquatic counterparts, contained sequences related to both known halophiles and groups without known halophilic or halotolerant representatives, which reflects the physical heterogeneity of the soil matrix. Our results suggest that Haloquadratum and certain Balneolaeota members may preferentially thrive in aquatic or terrestrial habitats, respectively, while haloarchaea, nanohaloarchaea and Salinibacter may be similarly adapted to both environments. We reconstructed 4 draft genomes related to Bacteroidetes, Balneolaeota and Halobacteria and appraised their metabolism, osmoadaptation strategies and ecology. This study greatly improves the current understanding of saline soils microbiota.

  7. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  8. Expression of Key Ion Transporters in the Gill and Esophageal-Gastrointestinal Tract of Euryhaline Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus Acclimated to Fresh Water, Seawater and Hypersaline Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Lui, Eei Yin; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Ip, Yuen Kwong; Lin, Qingsong; Lam, Toong Jin; Lam, Siew Hong

    2014-01-01

    The ability of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia to tolerate extreme environmental salinities makes it an excellent model for investigating iono-regulation. This study aimed to characterize and fill important information gap of the expression levels of key ion transporters for Na+ and Cl− in the gill and esophageal-gastrointestinal tract of Mozambique tilapia acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt), seawater (30 ppt) and hypersaline (70 ppt) environments. Among the seven genes studied, it was found that nkcc2, nkcc1a, cftr, nka-α1 and nka-α3, were more responsive to salinity challenge than nkcc1b and ncc within the investigated tissues. The ncc expression was restricted to gills of freshwater-acclimated fish while nkcc2 expression was restricted to intestinal segments irrespective of salinity challenge. Among the tissues investigated, gill and posterior intestine were found to be highly responsive to salinity changes, followed by anterior and middle intestine. Both esophagus and stomach displayed significant up-regulation of nka-α1 and nka-α3, but not nkcc isoforms and cftr, in hypersaline-acclimated fish suggesting a response to hypersalinity challenge and involvement of other forms of transporters in iono-regulation. Changes in gene expression levels were partly corroborated by immunohistochemical localization of transport proteins. Apical expression of Ncc was found in Nka-immunoreactive cells in freshwater-acclimated gills while Nkcc co-localized with Nka-immunoreactive cells expressing Cftr apically in seawater- and hypersaline-acclimated gills. In the intestine, Nkcc-stained apical brush border was found in Nka-immunoreactive cells at greater levels under hypersaline conditions. These findings provided new insights into the responsiveness of these genes and tissues under hypersalinity challenge, specifically the posterior intestine being vital for salt absorption and iono-osmoregulation in the Mozambique tilapia; its ability to survive in hypersalinity may be in

  9. Qibla in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Piniés, Mònica

    Orientation toward Mecca has been compulsory for Muslims in all time periods and in all places. In fact, mosques were built in such a way as to help believers to pray toward the right direction. Nevertheless, the alignment of the sacred buildings was not always exact, and many did not actually face the Kaaba. There are many reasons for this "mistake", the main one being that at the time of the construction of the most important mosques, the astronomical and geographical knowledge needed to make accurate calculations was lacking. In the Mediterranean area, the scholars who were most involved in this task were the fuqahā' (experts in Islamic jurisprudence) who were sometimes well versed in astronomical knowledge or, at least, were skilled in the practice of popular astronomy. The combination of astronomy and religion, mixed with the political and topographical conditions, produces a unique area of study which remains controversial today.

  10. Deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    Full Text Available Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest biome of the global biosphere, but knowledge of their biodiversity is still scant. The Mediterranean basin has been proposed as a hot spot of terrestrial and coastal marine biodiversity but has been supposed to be impoverished of deep-sea species richness. We summarized all available information on benthic biodiversity (Prokaryotes, Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Macrofauna, and Megafauna in different deep-sea ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea (200 to more than 4,000 m depth, including open slopes, deep basins, canyons, cold seeps, seamounts, deep-water corals and deep-hypersaline anoxic basins and analyzed overall longitudinal and bathymetric patterns. We show that in contrast to what was expected from the sharp decrease in organic carbon fluxes and reduced faunal abundance, the deep-sea biodiversity of both the eastern and the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea is similarly high. All of the biodiversity components, except Bacteria and Archaea, displayed a decreasing pattern with increasing water depth, but to a different extent for each component. Unlike patterns observed for faunal abundance, highest negative values of the slopes of the biodiversity patterns were observed for Meiofauna, followed by Macrofauna and Megafauna. Comparison of the biodiversity associated with open slopes, deep basins, canyons, and deep-water corals showed that the deep basins were the least diverse. Rarefaction curves allowed us to estimate the expected number of species for each benthic component in different bathymetric ranges. A large fraction of exclusive species was associated with each specific habitat or ecosystem. Thus, each deep-sea ecosystem contributes significantly to overall biodiversity. From theoretical extrapolations we estimate that the overall deep-sea Mediterranean biodiversity (excluding prokaryotes reaches approximately 2805 species of which about 66% is still undiscovered. Among the biotic components

  11. Mineral nutrients in mediterranean ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Day, JA

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available ' classifications of plant forms and formations, categories implicitly based on their intuitive views of convergence. Because of the striking similarities in plant form among the small, widely-separated Mediterranean ecosystems (Figure 1), biogeographical concepts...

  12. Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bouillon

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a systematic account of the hydrozoan species collected up to now in the Mediterranean Sea. All species are described, illustrated and information on morphology and distribution is given for all of them. This work is the most complete fauna of hydrozoans made in the Mediterranean. The fauna includes planktonic hydromedusae, benthic polyps stages and the siphonophores. The Hydrozoa are taken as an example of inconspicuous taxa whose knowledge has greatly progressed in the last decades due to the scientific research of some specialists in the Mediterranean area. The number of species recorded in the Mediterranean almost doubled in the last thirty years and the number of new records is still increasing. The 457 species recorded in this study represents the 12% of the world known species. The fauna is completed with classification keys and a glossary of terms with the main purpose of facilitating the identification of all Meditrranean hydrozoan species

  13. Global security in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sánchez Mateos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the WEU, NATO and specially the European Union (in the framework of the Barcelona process initiated security dialogues with countries East and South of the Mediterranean Basin. Those processes are far to achieve significant progress. Some arguments help to explain the present situation: on the one hand, European countries and organizations lack clear strategic goals and consistent policies. On the other, difficulties to create a security dialogue in the Mediterranean, which is a precondition to generateboth a common language and security culture, are the result of differences between the European and the Arab security cultures. Nevertheless, the geopolitical environment, the Euro-Mediterranean process itself and the development of the European Union demanda strategic revision on how to implement the objectives of the Barcelona Declaration, reformulating the idea of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership towards a new concept of shared security that integrates Southern interests and concerns.

  14. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  15. Functional Role of Native and Invasive Filter-Feeders, and the Effect of Parasites: Learning from Hypersaline Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Sánchez

    Full Text Available Filter-feeding organisms are often keystone species with a major influence on the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Studies of filtering rates in such taxa are therefore vital in order to understand ecosystem functioning and the impact of natural and anthropogenic stressors such as parasites, climate warming and invasive species. Brine shrimps Artemia spp. are the dominant grazers in hypersaline systems and are a good example of such keystone taxa. Hypersaline ecosystems are relatively simplified environments compared with much more complex freshwater and marine ecosystems, making them suitable model systems to address these questions. The aim of this study was to compare feeding rates at different salinities and temperatures between clonal A. parthenogenetica (native to Eurasia and Africa and the invasive American brine shrimp A. franciscana, which is excluding native Artemia from many localities. We considered how differences observed in laboratory experiments upscale at the ecosystem level across both spatial and temporal scales (as indicated by chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity. In laboratory experiments, feeding rates increased at higher temperatures and salinities in both Artemia species and sexes, whilst A. franciscana consistently fed at higher rates. A field study of temporal dynamics revealed significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a in sites occupied by A. parthenogenetica, supporting our experimental findings. Artemia parthenogenetica density and biomass were negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration at the spatial scale. We also tested the effect of cestode parasites, which are highly prevalent in native Artemia but much rarer in the invasive species. The cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides and Anomotaenia tringae decreased feeding rates in native Artemia, whilst Confluaria podicipina had no significant effect. Total parasite prevalence was positively correlated with turbidity. Overall, parasites are

  16. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2017-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoir • Reservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  17. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  18. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  19. Dynamics of meteor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babadjanov, P.B.; Obrubov, YU.U.

    1987-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of meteor streams are generally assumed to be formed due to the decay of comets. The most effective process of the release of solid particles from a cometary nucleus is their ejection by sublimating gases when the comet approaches the Sun. The results of investigation of the Geminids and Quadrantids meteor stream evolution show that under the influence of planetary perturbations, the stream may originally be flat but then thicken depending on the variation range of orbital inclinations. Eventually, due to planetary perturbations, a meteor stream may take such a shape as to cause the start of several active showers at different solar longitudes

  20. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column

  1. Lipid Biomarkers for Methanogens in Hypersaline Cyanobacterial Mats for Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Summons, Roger E.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of sediments from the vicinity of active methane seeps have uncovered a particular suite of lipid biomarker patterns that characterize methane consuming archaea and their syntrophic, sulfate reducing partners. These isoprenoid biomarkers, largely identified by their anomalously light carbon isotopic signatures, have been a topic of intense research activity and are recorded in numerous methane-rich environments from Holocene to Cenozoic. This phenomenon has implications for depleted kerogens at 2.7 Ga on early Earth (Hinrichs 2002). In contrast, the lipid biosignatures of methane producing archaea are not readily identified through distinct isotopic labels and have received comparably little attention in analyses of archaea in environmental samples. Indeed, environmental analyses generally detect only free archaeal lipids, not the intact, polar molecules found in the membrane of living organisms. As part of the Ames NAI, the 'Early Microbial Ecosystem Research Group' (EMERG) is working to understand microbial processes in the hypersaline cyanobacterial mats growing in the salt evaporation ponds of the Exportadora de Sal at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The aim of this study was to develop methods by which we could identify the organisms responsible for methane generation in this environment. While the ester-bound fatty acids, hopanoids and wax esters provide a means to identify most of the bacterial components of these mats, the archaea which Ere evidently present through genomic assays and the fact of intense methane production (Hoehler et al. 200l), have not been identified through their corresponding lipid signatures. Archaeal core lipids present a number of analytical challenges. The core lipids of methanogens comprise C20, C40 and sometimes C25 isoprenoid chains, linked through ether bonds to glycerol. As well as archaeal (C20), sn-2- and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol are associated particularly with methylotrophic methanogens. Recently, we have

  2. Effect of salinity on the concentrations of radioisotopes in the aquatic environment of a hypersaline coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled A; Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Elnimr, Tarek; Badran, Hussein M

    2014-06-01

    Research of the effect of salinity on the fate of radionuclides has been focused on seas or estuarine systems while there is almost no information on marine environments with a salinity higher than that of sea water. The hypersaline Bardawil lagoon is a concentration basin, with evaporation exceeding precipitation. This study presents the characteristics of some environmental factors including salinity and their influence on the distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in different compartments of the lagoon. The concentrations of (238)U, (234)Th, (228)Ra and (137)Cs in sediments show some degree of dependency on the water's salinity. Migration of these radionuclides in the lagoon's sediments must take place from high salinity to low-salinity regions. Cluster analysis revealed the data structure for sediment by separating (137)Cs and (40)K from (232)Th, (226)Ra, and (234)Th and for sand by separating (40)K from the other radioisotopes.

  3. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Macro and Microelements Drive Diversity and Composition of Prokaryotic and Fungal Communities in Hypersaline Sediments and Saline-Alkaline Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Ding, Xiaowei; Tang, Xiaofei; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Wenjun; Yan, Qingyun; Liu, Zhenghua

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental factors on microbial communities is critical for microbial ecology, but it remains challenging. In this study, we examined the diversity (alpha diversity) and community compositions (beta diversity) of prokaryotes and fungi in hypersaline sediments and salinized soils from northern China. Environmental variables were highly correlated, but they differed significantly between the sediments and saline soils. The compositions of prokaryotic and fungal communities in the hypersaline sediments were different from those in adjacent saline-alkaline soils, indicating a habitat-specific microbial distribution pattern. The macroelements (S, P, K, Mg, and Fe) and Ca were, respectively, correlated closely with the alpha diversity of prokaryotes and fungi, while the macronutrients (e.g., Na, S, P, and Ca) were correlated with the prokaryotic and fungal beta-diversity ( P ≤ 0.05). And, the nine microelements (e.g., Al, Ba, Co, Hg, and Mn) and micronutrients (Ba, Cd, and Sr) individually shaped the alpha diversity of prokaryotes and fungi, while the six microelements (e.g., As, Ba, Cr, and Ge) and only the trace elements (Cr and Cu), respectively, influenced the beta diversity of prokaryotes and fungi ( P analysis (VPA) showed that environmental variables jointly explained 55.49% and 32.27% of the total variation for the prokaryotic and fungal communities, respectively. Together, our findings demonstrate that the diversity and community composition of the prokaryotes and fungi were driven by different macro and microelements in saline habitats, and that geochemical elements could more widely regulate the diversity and community composition of prokaryotes than these of fungi.

  5. Focused Transhepatic Electroporation Mediated by Hypersaline Infusion through the Portal Vein in Rat Model. Preliminary Results on Differential Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pañella, Clara; Castellví, Quim; Moll, Xavier; Quesada, Rita; Villanueva, Alberto; Iglesias, Mar; Naranjo, Dolores; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Andaluz, Anna; Grande, Luís; Ivorra, Antoni; Burdío, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Spread hepatic tumours are not suitable for treatment either by surgery or conventional ablation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of selectively increasing the healthy hepatic conductivity by the hypersaline infusion (HI) through the portal vein. We hypothesize this will allow simultaneous safe treatment of all nodules by irreversible electroporation (IRE) when applied in a transhepatic fashion. Sprague Dawley (Group A, n = 10) and Athymic rats with implanted hepatic tumour (Group B, n = 8) were employed. HI was performed (NaCl 20%, 3.8 mL/Kg) by trans-splenic puncture. Deionized serum (40 mL/Kg) and furosemide (2 mL/Kg) were simultaneously infused through the jugular vein to compensate hypernatremia. Changes in conductivity were monitored in the hepatic and tumour tissue. The period in which hepatic conductivity was higher than tumour conductivity was defined as the therapeutic window (TW). Animals were monitored during 1-month follow-up. The animals were sacrificed and selective samples were used for histological analysis. The overall survival rate was 82.4% after the HI protocol. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 2.7 and 3.5 times higher than the baseline value, in group A and B, respectively. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 1.4 times higher than tumour tissue in group B creating a TW to implement selective IRE. HI through the portal vein is safe when the hypersaline overload is compensated with deionized serum and it may provide a TW for focused IRE treatment on tumour nodules.

  6. Community Structure and Activity of a Highly Dynamic and Nutrient-Limited Hypersaline Microbial Mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Thani, Roda

    2014-03-21

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1–L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%–42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%–97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods.

  7. Macro and Microelements Drive Diversity and Composition of Prokaryotic and Fungal Communities in Hypersaline Sediments and Saline–Alkaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihui Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of environmental factors on microbial communities is critical for microbial ecology, but it remains challenging. In this study, we examined the diversity (alpha diversity and community compositions (beta diversity of prokaryotes and fungi in hypersaline sediments and salinized soils from northern China. Environmental variables were highly correlated, but they differed significantly between the sediments and saline soils. The compositions of prokaryotic and fungal communities in the hypersaline sediments were different from those in adjacent saline–alkaline soils, indicating a habitat-specific microbial distribution pattern. The macroelements (S, P, K, Mg, and Fe and Ca were, respectively, correlated closely with the alpha diversity of prokaryotes and fungi, while the macronutrients (e.g., Na, S, P, and Ca were correlated with the prokaryotic and fungal beta-diversity (P ≤ 0.05. And, the nine microelements (e.g., Al, Ba, Co, Hg, and Mn and micronutrients (Ba, Cd, and Sr individually shaped the alpha diversity of prokaryotes and fungi, while the six microelements (e.g., As, Ba, Cr, and Ge and only the trace elements (Cr and Cu, respectively, influenced the beta diversity of prokaryotes and fungi (P < 0.05. Variation-partitioning analysis (VPA showed that environmental variables jointly explained 55.49% and 32.27% of the total variation for the prokaryotic and fungal communities, respectively. Together, our findings demonstrate that the diversity and community composition of the prokaryotes and fungi were driven by different macro and microelements in saline habitats, and that geochemical elements could more widely regulate the diversity and community composition of prokaryotes than these of fungi.

  8. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda Al-Thani

    Full Text Available The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4 in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively, the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging, oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor, and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1. Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria. Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3, evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4 was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer. Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%, whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%. Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods.

  9. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    KATSANEVAKIS, S.; ACAR, Ü.; AMMAR, I.; BALCI, B. A.; BEKAS, P.; BELMONTE, M.; CHINTIROGLOU, C. C.; CONSOLI, P.; DIMIZA, M.; FRYGANIOTIS, K.; GEROVASILEIOU, V.; GNISCI, V.; GÜLŞAHIN, N.; HOFFMAN, R.; ISSARIS, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf) (Greece); the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore); the mantis shrimp Clorid...

  11. LHCb trigger streams optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, D.; Kazeev, N.; Neychev, R.; Panin, A.; Trofimov, I.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Vesterinen, M.

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment stores around 1011 collision events per year. A typical physics analysis deals with a final sample of up to 107 events. Event preselection algorithms (lines) are used for data reduction. Since the data are stored in a format that requires sequential access, the lines are grouped into several output file streams, in order to increase the efficiency of user analysis jobs that read these data. The scheme efficiency heavily depends on the stream composition. By putting similar lines together and balancing the stream sizes it is possible to reduce the overhead. We present a method for finding an optimal stream composition. The method is applied to a part of the LHCb data (Turbo stream) on the stage where it is prepared for user physics analysis. This results in an expected improvement of 15% in the speed of user analysis jobs, and will be applied on data to be recorded in 2017.

  12. Asteroid/meteorite streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    The independent discovery of the same three streams (named alpha, beta, and gamma) among 139 Earth approaching asteroids and among 89 meteorite producing fireballs presents the possibility of matching specific meteorites to specific asteroids, or at least to asteroids in the same stream and, therefore, presumably of the same composition. Although perhaps of limited practical value, the three meteorites with known orbits are all ordinary chondrites. To identify, in general, the taxonomic type of the parent asteroid, however, would be of great scientific interest since these most abundant meteorite types cannot be unambiguously spectrally matched to an asteroid type. The H5 Pribram meteorite and asteroid 4486 (unclassified) are not part of a stream, but travel in fairly similar orbits. The LL5 Innisfree meteorite is orbitally similar to asteroid 1989DA (unclassified), and both are members of a fourth stream (delta) defined by five meteorite-dropping fireballs and this one asteroid. The H5 Lost City meteorite is orbitally similar to 1980AA (S type), which is a member of stream gamma defined by four asteroids and four fireballs. Another asteroid in this stream is classified as an S type, another is QU, and the fourth is unclassified. This stream suggests that ordinary chondrites should be associated with S (and/or Q) asteroids. Two of the known four V type asteroids belong to another stream, beta, defined by five asteroids and four meteorite-dropping (but unrecovered) fireballs, making it the most probable source of the eucrites. The final stream, alpha, defined by five asteroids and three fireballs is of unknown composition since no meteorites have been recovered and only one asteroid has an ambiguous classification of QRS. If this stream, or any other as yet undiscovered ones, were found to be composed of a more practical material (e.g., water or metalrich), then recovery of the associated meteorites would provide an opportunity for in-hand analysis of a potential

  13. A comprehensive evaluation of the crustacean assemblages in southern Iberian Mediterranean wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Gilbert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Mediterranean wetlands were recognized as biodiversity hotspots, most of them are nowadays threatened by human activities that have led to habitat loss and degradation. A total of 36 wetlands were monitored to assess species richness of branchiopods and copepods by using accumulation curves and non-parametric estimators. Three different types of wetlands were identified: i temporary freshwaters-subsaline-hyposaline (TFSH; ii permanent freshwaters-subsaline-hyposaline (PFSH; and iii mesosaline-hypersaline (MH wetlands (including temporary and permanent ones. A total of 60 species were recorded; they belong to seven different orders. A large number (37% of rare species (present in only one wetland were found while only 11% of the total species were common (i.e., present in more than 20% of wetlands. Species richness was related to wetland typology, with the largest number of species observed in TFSH, followed by MH and by PFSH wetlands. We have found that rare species are mainly present in temporary wetlands, the most vulnerable to hydrological changes; hence, these types of wetlands represent unique sites deserving conservation. 

  14. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece.

  15. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  16. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  17. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  18. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  19. Diversity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large-subunit genes in the MgCl2-dominated deep hypersaline anoxic basin discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, PWJJ

    Partial sequences of the form I (cbbL) and form II (cbbM) of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large subunit genes were obtained from the brine and interface of the MgCl2-dominated deep hypersaline anoxic basin Discovery. CbbL and cbbM genes were found in both brine and

  20. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...... in Europe. We report on a survey of the use of streaming media in the academic community in Europe, an open source content delivery network, and a portal for announcing live streaming events to the global academic community....

  1. Wadeable Streams Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of small streams throughout the U.S. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked with the states to conduct the assessment in 2004-2005. Data for each parameter sampled in the Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) are available for downloading in a series of files as comma separated values (*.csv). Each *.csv data file has a companion text file (*.txt) that lists a dataset label and individual descriptions for each variable. Users should view the *.txt files first to help guide their understanding and use of the data.

  2. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  3. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  4. Acoustic streaming in microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribler, Peter Muller

    This thesis presents studies of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic channels, which is a steady flow of the fluid initiated by the interactions of an oscillating acoustic standing wave and the rigid walls of the microchannel. The studies present analysis of the acoustic resonance......, the acoustic streaming flow, and the forces on suspended microparticles. The work is motivated by the application of particle focusing by acoustic radiation forces in medical, environmental and food sciences. Here acoustic streaming is most often unwanted, because it limits the focusability of particles...... oscillating plates. Furthermore, under general thermodynamic conditions, we derive the time-dependent first- and second-order equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The coupling from fluid equations to particle motion is achieved through the expressions for the streaming-induced drag...

  5. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  6. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  7. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  8. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  9. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  10. DNR 24K Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  11. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  12. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  13. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  14. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  15. Collaborative Media Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Kahmann, Verena

    2008-01-01

    Mit Hilfe der IP-Technologie erbrachte Multimedia-Dienste wie IPTV oder Video-on-Demand sind zur Zeit ein gefragtes Thema. Technisch werden solche Dienste unter dem Begriff "Streaming" eingeordnet. Ein Server sendet Mediendaten kontinuierlich an Empfänger, welche die Daten sofort weiterverarbeiten und anzeigen. Über einen Rückkanal hat der Kunde die Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme auf die Wiedergabe. Eine Weiterentwicklung dieser Streaming-Dienste ist die Möglichkeit, gemeinsam mit anderen dens...

  16. Android Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    ad hoc network established between devices that are in range of each other. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Android, video, streaming, ad hoc 16. SECURITY ...Android PowerManager wake lock settings. Flag Value CPU Screen Keyboard PARTIAL_WAKE_LOCK Ona Off Off SCREEN_DIM_WAKE_LOCK On Dim Off... stock ROM and modifying it as described in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking on Android Devices (15) allowed the video streaming to work properly over an ad hoc

  17. Solar wind stream evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    Highlights of the recent progress in understanding the problem of high speed stream evolution with increasing heliocentric distance are reviewed. Crucial to this understanding are the measurements made in the inner solar system by Helios and the outer solar system by Pioneers 10 and 11. When coupled with observations at 1 AU these measurements allow a testing of current theoretical models of stream evolution. 21 references

  18. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  19. Controls on the pH of hyper-saline lakes - A lesson from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rotem; Gavrieli, Ittai; Ganor, Jiwchar; Lazar, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    The pH of aqueous environments is determined by the dominant buffer systems of the water, defined operationally as total alkalinity (TA). The major buffer systems in the modern ocean are carbonic and boric acids of which the species bicarbonate, carbonate and borate make up about 77%, 19% and 4% of the TA, respectively. During the course of seawater evaporation (e.g. lagoons) the residual brine loses considerable portion of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and carbonate alkalinity (CA) already at the early stages of evaporation. DIC and CA decrease due to massive precipitation of CaCO3, while total boron (TB) increases conservatively, turning borate to the dominant alkalinity species in marine derived brines. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (KB‧) in saline and hypersaline waters, using the Dead Sea (DS) as a case study. We explain the DS low pH (∼6.3) and the effect of the boric and carbonic acid pK‧-s on the behavior of the brine's buffer system, including the pH increase that results from brine dilution. The KB‧ in DS was estimated from TB, TA, DIC and pH data measured in this study and early empirical data on artificial DS brines containing just carbonic acid. The KB‧ value was corroborated by Pitzer ion interaction model calculations using PHREEQC thermodynamic code applied to the chemical composition of the DS. Our results show that KB‧ increases considerably with the brine's ionic strength, reaching in the DS to a factor of 100 higher than in ;mean; seawater. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses of other natural brines it is suggested that brines' composition is a major factor in determining the KB‧ value and in turn the pH of such brines. We show that the higher the proportion of divalent cations in the brine the higher the dissociation constants of the weak acids (presumably due to formation of complexes). The low pH of the Dead Sea is accordingly explained by its extremely

  20. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  1. Natronospira proteinivora gen. nov., sp. nov, an extremely salt-tolerant, alkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium from hypersaline soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kublanov, Ilya V; Khijniak, Tatiana V

    2017-08-01

    Brine samples from Kulunda Steppe soda lakes (Altai, Russia) were inoculated into a hypersaline alkaline mineral medium with β-keratin (chicken feather) as a substrate. The micro-organisms dominating the enrichment culture were isolated by limiting serial dilution on the same medium with casein as a substrate. The cells of strain BSker1T were motile, curved rods. The strain was an obligately aerobic heterotroph utilizing proteins and peptides as growth substrates. The isolate was an obligate alkaliphile with a pH range for growth from pH 8.5 to 10.25 (optimum at pH 9.5), and it was extremely salt tolerant, growing with between 1 and 4.5 M total Na+ (optimally at 2-2.5 M). BSker1T had a unique composition of polar lipid fatty acids, dominated by two C17 species. The membrane polar lipids included multiple unidentified phospholipids and two aminolipids. According to phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the isolate forms a novel branch within the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae (class Gammaproteobacteria) with the highest sequence similarity to the members of this family being 91 %. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain BSker1T (=JCM 31341T=UNIQEM U1008T) is proposed to be classified as a representative of a novel genus and species, Natronospira proteinivora gen. nov., sp. nov.

  2. Competition for inorganic carbon between oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs in a hypersaline microbial mat, Guerrero Negro, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Niko; Hoehler, Tori M; Polerecky, Lubos; Buehring, Benjamin; Thamdrup, Bo

    2013-05-01

    While most oxygenic phototrophs harvest light only in the visible range (400-700 nm, VIS), anoxygenic phototrophs can harvest near infrared light (> 700 nm, NIR). To study interactions between the photosynthetic guilds we used microsensors to measure oxygen and gross oxygenic photosynthesis (gOP) in a hypersaline microbial mat under full (VIS + NIR) and VIS illumination. Under normal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations (2 mM), volumetric rates of gOP were reduced up to 65% and areal rates by 16-31% at full compared with VIS illumination. This effect was enhanced (reduction up to 100% in volumetric, 50% in areal rates of gOP) when DIC was lowered to 1 mM, but diminished at 10 mM DIC or lowered pH. In conclusion, under full-light illumination anoxygenic phototrophs are able to reduce the activity of oxygenic phototrophs by efficiently competing for inorganic carbon within the highly oxygenated layer. Anoxygenic photosynthesis, calculated from the difference in gOP under full and VIS illumination, represented between 10% and 40% of the C-fixation. The DIC depletion in the euphotic zone as well as the significant C-fixation by anoxygenic phototrophs in the oxic layer influences the carbon isotopic composition of the mat, which needs to be taken into account when interpreting isotopic biosignals in geological records. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by an extreme halophilic bacterium, Halomonas nitroreducens, isolated from hypersaline ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Uc, J M; Catzin, J; Vargas, I; Herrera-Kao, W; Moguel, F; Ramirez, E; Rincón-Arriaga, S; Lizama-Uc, G

    2014-10-01

    Morphological, biochemical and genotypic characterization of a halophilic bacterium isolated from hypersaline ponds located at Las Coloradas (Río Lagartos, Yucatán, Mexico). Characterization of polymer produced by this strain was also performed. Twenty strains were isolated from water samples of salt ponds and selected based on both morphological features and their PHA storage capacity, which were determined by SEM and staining methods with Nile red and Nile blue, respectively; strains were also analysed by the fluorescence imaging technique. Among them, JCCOL25.8 strain showed the highest production of PHA's reason why phenotypic and genotypic characterization was performed; this strain was identified as Halomonas nitroreducens. Polymer produced by this strain was characterized by FTIR, DSC, GPC and EDX spectroscopy. Results indicated that the biosynthesized polymer was polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) which had a melting peak at 170°C and a crystallinity percentage of about 36%. Based on phenotypic and genotypic aspects, JCCOL25.8 strain was identified as H. nitroreducens and it was capable to accumulate PHB. To our knowledge, there is only one study published on the biosynthesis of PHA's by H. nitroreducens strains, although the characterization of the obtained polymer was not reported. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Phytoplankton along the coastal shelf of an oligotrophic hypersaline environment in a semi-enclosed marginal sea: Qatar (Arabian Gulf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Antonietta; Al-Ansi, Mohsin; Al Din, Nehad Nour; Wei, Chih-Lin; Nunnally, Clifton C.; Al-Ansari, Ibrahim S.; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Soliman, Yousria; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Mahmoud, Ismail; Youssef, Nabiha; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.

    2013-06-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a concentration), primary production, abundance, species diversity and species groupings were measured in the coastal waters surrounding Qatar (Arabian Gulf) at 13 stations in February 2010, July 2010, February 2011 and May 2011. In addition, a broad suite of physico-chemical characteristics were measured: temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nutrients (dissolved and particulate). Waters surrounding the Qatari peninsula were found to be highly diverse (125 species of diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria were identified) but were low in both biomass (0.18-2.19 μg Chl a l-1) and productivity (0.14-0.97 mg C m-2 day-1). Phytoplankton physiology (Fv/Fm, σPSII, τQa, p) revealed acclimation strategies consistent with phytoplankton populations receiving ample light but insufficient nutrients. The finding of low primary production is consistent with water column nutrient ratios (DIN:P and DIN:Si ratioswaters stimulated biomass production of phytoplankton. This study in an oligotrophic, hypersaline semi-enclosed marginal sea is intended to contribute to the growing body of ecological information on this ecosystem functions.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of a microbialite-forming microbial mat from a hypersaline lake of the Kiritimati atoll, Central Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dominik; Arp, Gernot; Reimer, Andreas; Reitner, Joachim; Daniel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    On the Kiritimati atoll, several lakes exhibit microbial mat-formation under different hydrochemical conditions. Some of these lakes trigger microbialite formation such as Lake 21, which is an evaporitic, hypersaline lake (salinity of approximately 170‰). Lake 21 is completely covered with a thick multilayered microbial mat. This mat is associated with the formation of decimeter-thick highly porous microbialites, which are composed of aragonite and gypsum crystals. We assessed the bacterial and archaeal community composition and its alteration along the vertical stratification by large-scale analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the nine different mat layers. The surface layers are dominated by aerobic, phototrophic, and halotolerant microbes. The bacterial community of these layers harbored Cyanobacteria (Halothece cluster), which were accompanied with known phototrophic members of the Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. In deeper anaerobic layers more diverse communities than in the upper layers were present. The deeper layers were dominated by Spirochaetes, sulfate-reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria), Chloroflexi (Anaerolineae and Caldilineae), purple non-sulfur bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales), anaerobic Bacteroidetes (Marinilabiacae), Nitrospirae (OPB95), Planctomycetes and several candidate divisions. The archaeal community, including numerous uncultured taxonomic lineages, generally changed from Euryarchaeota (mainly Halobacteria and Thermoplasmata) to uncultured members of the Thaumarchaeota (mainly Marine Benthic Group B) with increasing depth.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of a microbialite-forming microbial mat from a hypersaline lake of the Kiritimati atoll, Central Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schneider

    Full Text Available On the Kiritimati atoll, several lakes exhibit microbial mat-formation under different hydrochemical conditions. Some of these lakes trigger microbialite formation such as Lake 21, which is an evaporitic, hypersaline lake (salinity of approximately 170‰. Lake 21 is completely covered with a thick multilayered microbial mat. This mat is associated with the formation of decimeter-thick highly porous microbialites, which are composed of aragonite and gypsum crystals. We assessed the bacterial and archaeal community composition and its alteration along the vertical stratification by large-scale analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the nine different mat layers. The surface layers are dominated by aerobic, phototrophic, and halotolerant microbes. The bacterial community of these layers harbored Cyanobacteria (Halothece cluster, which were accompanied with known phototrophic members of the Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. In deeper anaerobic layers more diverse communities than in the upper layers were present. The deeper layers were dominated by Spirochaetes, sulfate-reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi (Anaerolineae and Caldilineae, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales, anaerobic Bacteroidetes (Marinilabiacae, Nitrospirae (OPB95, Planctomycetes and several candidate divisions. The archaeal community, including numerous uncultured taxonomic lineages, generally changed from Euryarchaeota (mainly Halobacteria and Thermoplasmata to uncultured members of the Thaumarchaeota (mainly Marine Benthic Group B with increasing depth.

  7. The Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, including two Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.; Spanier, E.; Ferguson, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven species of Scyphomedusae are reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Two of these, Rhopilema nomadica spec. nov. and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, are Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean.

  8. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  9. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  10. Youth Unemployment in Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Neder, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    In all Mediterranean countries youth unemployment has reached alarming record levels. This paper analyses the current situation in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. In all countries school dropout rates are high, returns to education are low and the transition from education to work is problematic and difficult. This is due to a poor working vocational training system, the dualization of the labor market and minimum wages that are set too high. The Great Recession deteriorated the s...

  11. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  12. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  14. The Mediterranean diet: health and science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    .... It discusses the Mediterranean diet in the light of recent developments in nutritional biochemistry, disease mechanisms and epidemiological studies, and also provides advice on nutrition policies...

  15. NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue: Challenges and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cayan, Umit

    2003-01-01

    .... The new security concerns in the southern Mediterranean region terrorism, economic disparities, demographic imbalances, the potential for social and political instability, and the proliferation...

  16. Groundwater level responses to precipitation variability in Mediterranean insular aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Garcia, Celso; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the largest and most important sources of fresh water on many regions under Mediterranean climate conditions, which are exposed to large precipitation variability that includes frequent meteorological drought episodes, and present high evapotranspiration rates and water demand during the dry season. The dependence on groundwater increases in those areas with predominant permeable lithologies, contributing to aquifer recharge and the abundance of ephemeral streams. The increasing pressure of tourism on water resources in many Mediterranean coastal areas, and uncertainty related to future precipitation and water availability, make it urgent to understand the spatio-temporal response of groundwater bodies to precipitation variability, if sustainable use of the resource is to be achieved. We present an assessment of the response of aquifers to precipitation variability based on correlations between the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at various time scales and the Standardized Groundwater Index (SGI) across a Mediterranean island. We detected three main responses of aquifers to accumulated precipitation anomalies: (i) at short time scales of the SPI (24 months). The differing responses were mainly explained by differences in lithology and the percentage of highly permeable rock strata in the aquifer recharge areas. We also identified differences in the months and seasons when aquifer storages are more dependent on precipitation; these were related to climate seasonality and the degree of aquifer exploitation or underground water extraction. The recharge of some aquifers, especially in mountainous areas, is related to precipitation variability within a limited spatial extent, whereas for aquifers located in the plains, precipitation variability influence much larger areas; the topography and geological structure of the island explain these differences. Results indicate large spatial variability in the response of aquifers to precipitation in

  17. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  18. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis...

  19. River and Stream Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plants to grow. The two most common nutrients found in water are nitrogen and phosphorus. They cause algae to ... streams and rivers clean helps keep all the water downstream clean, too. Other stuff you might ... What's That Word Scientific Dictionary Not sure of what a word ...

  20. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...

  1. Stream Management: A Rebirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coler, Robert A.; Zatryka, Simon A.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a stream management course designed to give non-science majors an in-depth study of water quality. The course includes work in determining and measuring water quality parameters and the discussion of management techniques. Construction of a Hewitt Ramp and wing deflectors are illustrated in the article. (MA)

  2. Streaming-video produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Poul

    2004-01-01

     E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele produktionsf...... E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele...... produktionsforløbet: fra ide til færdigt produkt, forskellige typer af præsentationer, dramaturgiske overvejelser samt en konceptskitse. Streaming-video teknologien er nu så udviklet med et så tilfredsstillende audiovisuelt udtryk at vi kan begynde at fokusere på, hvilket indhold der er velegnet til at blive gjort...... tilgængeligt uafhængigt af tid og sted. Afslutningsvis er der en række kildehenvisninger, blandt andet en oversigt over de streaming-video produktioner, som denne artikel bygger på....

  3. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...

  4. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  5. Sedimentology, Mineralogy, Morphology, and Characterization of Purple Non-Sulfur Bacteria Communities from Modern Hypersaline Microbial Mats in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Colon, B. J.; Rivera-Lopez, E. O.; Ramirez-Martinez, W. R.; Rios-Velazquez, C.; Perez-Valentin, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial mats are organosedimentary structures which house complex guilds of microbial communities, held together by a gelatinous exopolymeric substance (EPS). This biofilm contributes to the formation of laminations by binding and trapping sediments, as well as in-situ organomineralization. Microbial mats commonly thrive in extreme habitats, such as the hypersaline environments, which have been studied throughout several coastal regions in the Caribbean. This project aims to study the morphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of five different modern hypersaline microbial mats from Puerto Rico and Anegada that have not yet been studied, to assess their differences/similarities. At the same time, we intent to isolate and characterize purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB), which is an anoxyphototrophic microorganism that contributes to the pink pigmentation observed in the second layer of a typical microbial mat. Different layers within each mat were separated, dissected and dissolved to remove all organic material. The resulting sediment was then analyzed mineralogically using X-ray diffraction, and used to make petrographic thin sections. To isolate PNSB candidates, serial dilutions followed by filtration were performed to extracted sections from the pink layer of each mat. The samples were planted in Petri dishes with marine media and placed in Anaerobic Jars. Colonies Descriptions, Gram stain and molecular analysis using 16S rDNA gene was performed. Preliminary results show a diversity of mat morphologies throughout the ponds, similar to what has been observed in other hypersaline ponds and marshes in the Caribbean. Sedimentary analysis shows that the mats from Puerto Rico have similar allochthonous material (e.g. Halimeda sp. fragments). Microcodium fabrics, conoform structures, and hemispheroidal morphologies were observed as well. In Anegada, lithified microbialites were observed in the Red Pond location. Mineralogically, all samples were similar except for the

  6. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae. Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1. In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1 across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels

  7. Application of factor analysis and electrical resistivity to understand groundwater contributions to coastal embayments in semi-arid and hypersaline coastal settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bighash, Paniz; Murgulet, Dorina

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater contributions and sources of salinity to Oso Bay in south Texas were investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of geochemical data and multitemporal electrical resistivity tomography surveys. Both analysis of geochemical data and subsurface imaging techniques identified two commonalities for the investigated system: 1) hypersaline water occurs near the groundwater/surface water interface during wet conditions creating reverse hydraulic gradients due to density effects. The development and downward movement of these fluids as continuous plumes deflect fresher groundwater discharge downward and laterally away from the surface; and 2) more pronounced upwelling of fresher groundwater occurs during drought periods when density inversions are more defined and are expected to overcome dispersion and diffusion processes and create sufficiently large-enough unstable gradients that induce density-difference convection. Salinity mass-balance models derived from time-difference resistivity tomograph and in-situ salinity data reaffirm these findings indicating that groundwater upwelling is more prominent during dry to wet conditions in 2013 (~ 545.5 m 3 /d) and is less pronounced during wet to dry conditions in 2012 (~ 262.7 m 3 /d) for the 224 m 2 area surveyed. Findings show that the highly saline nature of water in this area and changes in salinity regimes can be attributed to a combination of factors, namely: surface outflows, evapoconcentration, recirculation of hypersaline groundwaters, and potential trapped oil field brines. Increased drought conditions will likely exacerbate the rate at which salinity levels are increasing in bays and estuaries in semi-arid regions where both hypersaline groundwater discharge and high evaporation rates occur simultaneously. - Highlights: • Study of salinity regimes in relation to groundwater in a coastal semiarid setting • Factor analysis defined dominant factors influencing water quality variations.

  8. Application of factor analysis and electrical resistivity to understand groundwater contributions to coastal embayments in semi-arid and hypersaline coastal settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighash, Paniz; Murgulet, Dorina

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater contributions and sources of salinity to Oso Bay in south Texas were investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of geochemical data and multitemporal electrical resistivity tomography surveys. Both analysis of geochemical data and subsurface imaging techniques identified two commonalities for the investigated system: 1) hypersaline water occurs near the groundwater/surface water interface during wet conditions creating reverse hydraulic gradients due to density effects. The development and downward movement of these fluids as continuous plumes deflect fresher groundwater discharge downward and laterally away from the surface; and 2) more pronounced upwelling of fresher groundwater occurs during drought periods when density inversions are more defined and are expected to overcome dispersion and diffusion processes and create sufficiently large-enough unstable gradients that induce density-difference convection. Salinity mass-balance models derived from time-difference resistivity tomograph and in-situ salinity data reaffirm these findings indicating that groundwater upwelling is more prominent during dry to wet conditions in 2013 (~545.5m(3)/d) and is less pronounced during wet to dry conditions in 2012 (~262.7 m(3)/d) for the 224 m(2) area surveyed. Findings show that the highly saline nature of water in this area and changes in salinity regimes can be attributed to a combination of factors, namely: surface outflows, evapoconcentration, recirculation of hypersaline groundwaters, and potential trapped oil field brines. Increased drought conditions will likely exacerbate the rate at which salinity levels are increasing in bays and estuaries in semi-arid regions where both hypersaline groundwater discharge and high evaporation rates occur simultaneously. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Salinivibrio costicola GL6, a Novel Isolated Strain for Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theobromine Under Hypersaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashengroph, Morahem

    2017-01-01

    The present study has been conducted towards isolation of moderately halophilic bacteria capable of transforming caffeine into theobromine. A total of 45 caffeine-degrading moderate halophiles were enriched from hypersaline lakes and examined for the biotransformation of caffeine to theobromine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Strain GL6, giving the highest yield of theobromine, was isolated from the Hoz Soltan Lake, 20 % w/v salinity, central Iran, and identified as Salinivibrio costicola based on morphological and biochemical features as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank Accession No. KT378066) and DNA-DNA relatedness. The biotransformation of caffeine with strain GL6 leads to the formation of two metabolites, identified as theobromine and paraxanthine, but the yield of paraxanthine was much lower. Further study on the production of theobromine from caffeine under resting cell experiment was carried out subsequently. The optimal yield of theobromine (56 %) was obtained after a 32-h incubation using 5 mM of caffeine and 15 g l -1 (wet weight) of biomass in 0.1 M saline phosphate buffer (pH 7.0 and 10 % w/v NaCl) under agitation 180 rpm at 30 °C. The biotransformed theobromine was purified by preparative TLC and subjected to FTIR and mass spectroscopy for chemical identification. This is the first evidence for biotransformation of caffeine into theobromine by strains of the genus Salinivibrio.

  10. Microbial Diversity in Sediment Ecosystems (Evaporites Domes, Microbial Mats, and Crusts) of Hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana B.; Rasuk, Maria C.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel G.; Patterson, Molly M.; Ventosa, Antonio; Farias, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements, and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity, and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions, and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea) in bulk samples, and in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity) in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB, and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum, and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems) than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity. PMID:27597845

  11. Methylohalobius crimeensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, methanotrophic bacterium isolated from hypersaline lakes of Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Jürgen; Berger, Ursula; Hardt, Martin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2005-09-01

    A novel genus and species are proposed for two strains of methanotrophic bacteria isolated from hypersaline lakes in the Crimean Peninsula of Ukraine. Strains 10Ki(T) and 4Kr are moderate halophiles that grow optimally at 1-1.5 M (5.8-8.7%, w/v) NaCl and tolerate NaCl concentrations from 0.2 M up to 2.5 M (1.2-15%). This optimum and upper limit are the highest for any methanotrophic bacterium known to date. The strains are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-pigmented, motile, coccoid to spindle-shaped bacteria that grow on methane or methanol only and utilize the ribulose monophosphate pathway for carbon assimilation. They are neutrophilic (growth occurs only in the range pH 6.5-7.5) and mesophilic (optimum growth occurs at 30 degrees C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, strains 10Ki(T) and 4Kr represent a type I methanotroph within the 'Gammaproteobacteria'. However, the 16S rRNA gene sequence displays <91.5 % identity to any public-domain sequence. The most closely related methanotrophic bacterium is the thermophilic strain HB. The DNA G+C content is 58.7 mol%. The major phospholipid fatty acids are 18:1omega7 (52-61%), 16:0 (22-23%) and 16:1omega7 (14-20%). The dominance of 18:1 over 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids is unique among known type I methanotrophs. The data suggest that strains 10Ki(T) and 4Kr should be considered as belonging to a novel genus and species of type I methanotrophic bacteria, for which the name Methylohalobius crimeensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Strain 10Ki(T) (=DSM 16011(T)=ATCC BAA-967(T)) is the type strain.

  12. Association of a new type of gliding, filamentous, purple phototrophic bacterium inside bundles of Microcoleus chthonoplastes in hypersaline cyanobacterial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, E. D.; Cohen, Y.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    An unidentified filamentous purple bacterium, probably belonging to a new genus or even a new family, is found in close association with the filamentous, mat-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes in a hypersaline pond at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and in Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt. This organism is a gliding, segmented trichome, 0.8-0.9 micrometer wide. It contains intracytoplasmic stacked lamellae which are perpendicular and obliquely oriented to the cell wall, similar to those described for the purple sulfur bacteria Ectothiorhodospira. These bacteria are found inside the cyanobacterial bundle, enclosed by the cyanobacterial sheath. Detailed transmission electron microscopical analyses carried out in horizontal sections of the upper 1.5 mm of the cyanobacterial mat show this cyanobacterial-purple bacterial association at depths of 300-1200 micrometers, corresponding to the zone below that of maximal oxygenic photosynthesis. Sharp gradients of oxygen and sulfide are established during the day at this microzone in the two cyanobacterial mats studied. The close association, the distribution pattern of this association and preliminary physiological experiments suggest a co-metabolism of sulfur by the two-membered community. This probable new genus of purple bacteria may also grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by the cyanobacterium. Since the chemical gradients in the entire photic zone fluctuate widely in a diurnal cycle, both types of metabolism probably take place. During the morning and afternoon, sulfide migrates up to the photic zone allowing photoautotrophic metabolism with sulfide as the electron donor. During the day the photic zone is highly oxygenated and the purple bacteria may either use oxidized species of sulfur such as elemental sulfur and thiosulfate in the photoautotrophic mode or grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by M. chthonoplastes. The new type of filamentous purple sulfur

  13. Microbial diversity in sediment ecosystems (evaporites domes, microbial mats and crusts of hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Fernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea in bulk samples and, in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity.

  14. Improving evapotranspiration estimates in Mediterranean drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, Laura; Leuning, Ray; Villagarcia, Luis

    2013-01-01

    measurements from eddy covariance systems located in two functionally different sparsely vegetated drylands sites: a littoral Mediterranean semiarid steppe and a dry-subhumid Mediterranean montane site. The method providing the best results in both areas was fdrying (mean absolute error of 0.17 mm day−1) which...

  15. Mediterranean Security Into the Coming Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    in the Mediterranean, Malta: Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, University of Malta, 1998; and Eberhard Rhein, " Globalisation of the Economy...peace, more marked by internal conflicts (opposing terrorisms, urban guerrillas, social inequalities ) than by the great armoured and air battles. Iraq is

  16. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  17. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  18. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  19. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  20. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  1. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, A., E-mail: albert.puig@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015–2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  2. Stream processing health card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  3. Plastic debris in Mediterranean seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina-García, Marina; Militão, Teresa; Moreno, Javier; González-Solís, Jacob

    2013-12-15

    Plastic debris is often ingested by marine predators and can cause health disorders and even death. We present the first assessment of plastic ingestion in Mediterranean seabirds. We quantified and measured plastics accumulated in the stomach of 171 birds from 9 species accidentally caught by longliners in the western Mediterranean from 2003 to 2010. Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea) showed the highest occurrence (94%) and large numbers of small plastic particles per affected bird (on average N = 15.3 ± 24.4 plastics and mass = 23.4 ± 49.6 mg), followed by Yelkouan shearwaters (Puffinus yelkouan, 70%, N = 7.0 ± 7.9, 42.1 ± 100.0 mg), Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus, 70%, N = 3.6 ± 2.9, 5.5 ± 9.7 mg) and the rest of species (below 33%, N = 2.7, 113.6 ± 128.4 mg). Plastic characteristics did not differ between sexes and were not related to the physical condition of the birds. Our results point out the three endemic and threatened shearwater species as being particularly exposed to plastic accumulation.

  4. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  5. Climatic change in Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, A.

    1991-01-01

    United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) studies on forecasted greenhouse climatic effects on the Mediterranean coastal and marine ecosystems and regional socio-economic framework have indicated the need for a concerted plan of protective and remedial action. The studies considered rises of 1.5 degrees in ambient temperature and 20 centimeters in sea level occurring before the year 2025. A regional, as opposed to a global area, study approach was adopted since the severity of climatic effects is expected to vary greatly from one part of the world to another. The specific areas investigated were the Po River Delta and Venezia Lagoon in Italy, the Nile Delta, Camargue, the Ebro Delta, the Tunisian National Park area, and the Thermaicos Gulf in Greece. The rise in average temperature is expected to negatively effect Mediterranean agricultural production and the coastal and marine ecosystems due to prolonged periods of drought and exceptional rainfall. It is suggested that a system of dikes be constructed to protect the coastal areas which are heavily dependent on tourism and agriculture

  6. Characterisation of extreme winter precipitation in Mediterranean coastal sites and associated anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Maraun, D.; Kuglitsch, F. G.; Wanner, H.; Luterbacher, J.

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of daily extreme precipitation events for the extended winter season (October-March) at 20 Mediterranean coastal sites covering the period 1950-2006. The heavy tailed behaviour of precipitation extremes and estimated return levels, including associated uncertainties, are derived applying a procedure based on the Generalized Pareto Distribution, in combination with recently developed methods. Precipitation extremes have an important contribution to make seasonal totals (approximately 60% for all series). Three stations (one in the western Mediterranean and the others in the eastern basin) have a 5-year return level above 100 mm, while the lowest value (estimated for two Italian series) is equal to 58 mm. As for the 50-year return level, an Italian station (Genoa) has the highest value of 264 mm, while the other values range from 82 to 200 mm. Furthermore, six series (from stations located in France, Italy, Greece, and Cyprus) show a significant negative tendency in the probability of observing an extreme event. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and the large scale atmospheric circulation at the upper, mid and low troposphere is investigated by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. A 2-step classification procedure identifies three significant anomaly patterns both for the western-central and eastern part of the Mediterranean basin. In the western Mediterranean, the anomalous southwesterly surface to mid-tropospheric flow is connected with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic. During ≥5-year return level events, the subtropical jet stream axis is aligned with the African coastline and interacts with the eddy-driven jet stream. This is connected with enhanced large scale ascending motions, instability and leads to the development of severe precipitation events. For the eastern Mediterranean extreme precipitation events, the identified anomaly patterns suggest warm air advection connected with anomalous ascent motions

  7. Characterisation of extreme winter precipitation in Mediterranean coastal sites and associated anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Toreti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of daily extreme precipitation events for the extended winter season (October–March at 20 Mediterranean coastal sites covering the period 1950–2006. The heavy tailed behaviour of precipitation extremes and estimated return levels, including associated uncertainties, are derived applying a procedure based on the Generalized Pareto Distribution, in combination with recently developed methods. Precipitation extremes have an important contribution to make seasonal totals (approximately 60% for all series. Three stations (one in the western Mediterranean and the others in the eastern basin have a 5-year return level above 100 mm, while the lowest value (estimated for two Italian series is equal to 58 mm. As for the 50-year return level, an Italian station (Genoa has the highest value of 264 mm, while the other values range from 82 to 200 mm. Furthermore, six series (from stations located in France, Italy, Greece, and Cyprus show a significant negative tendency in the probability of observing an extreme event. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and the large scale atmospheric circulation at the upper, mid and low troposphere is investigated by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. A 2-step classification procedure identifies three significant anomaly patterns both for the western-central and eastern part of the Mediterranean basin. In the western Mediterranean, the anomalous southwesterly surface to mid-tropospheric flow is connected with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic. During ≥5-year return level events, the subtropical jet stream axis is aligned with the African coastline and interacts with the eddy-driven jet stream. This is connected with enhanced large scale ascending motions, instability and leads to the development of severe precipitation events. For the eastern Mediterranean extreme precipitation events, the identified anomaly patterns suggest warm air advection connected with anomalous

  8. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  9. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  10. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  11. The Phoenix Stream: A Cold Stream in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinot, E.; Yanny, B.; Li, T. S.; Santiago, B.; Marshall, J. L.; Finley, D. A.; Pieres, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age τ = 11.5 ± 0.5 Gyr and [Fe/H] cluster (GC) is a probable progenitor. There is no known GC within 5 kpc that is compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities (ODs) along the stream, however, no obvious counterpart-bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find ODs along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed—consistent with the epicyclic OD scenario for the formation of cold streams—as well as a misalignment between the northern and southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe OD.

  12. Dissolved nutrient balance and net ecosystem metabolism in a Mediterranean-climate coastal lagoon: San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F.; Zirino, A.; Holm-Hansen, O.; Hernández-Ayón, J. M.; Boyd, T. J.; Chadwick, B.; Rivera-Duarte, I.

    2008-02-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP), nitrogen (DIN), carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were studied in order to determine the net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) of San Diego Bay (SDB), a Mediterranean-climate lagoon. A series of four sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy (January 2000) and the dry (August 2000 and May and September 2001) seasons. During the dry season, temperature, salinity and DIP, DIC and DOC concentrations increased from oceanic values in the outer bay to higher values at the innermost end of the bay. DIP, DIC and DOC concentrations showed a clear offset from conservative mixing implying production of these dissolved materials inside the bay. During the rainy season, DIP and DOC increased to the head, whereas salinity decreased toward the mouth due to land runoff and river discharges. The distributions of DIP and DOC also showed a deviation from conservative mixing in this season, implying a net addition of these dissolved materials during estuarine mixing within the bay. Mass balance calculations showed that SDB consistently exported DIP (2.8-9.8 × 10 3 mol P d -1), DIC (263-352 × 10 3 mol C d -1) and DOC (198-1233 × 10 3 mol C d -1), whereas DIN (5.5-18.2 × 10 3 mol N d -1) was exported in all samplings except in May 2001 when it was imported (8.6 × 10 3 mol N d -1). The DIP, DIC and DOC export rates along with the strong relationship between DIP, DIC or DOC and salinity suggest that intense tidal mixing plays an important role in controlling their distributions and that SDB is a source of nutrients and DOC to the Southern California Bight. Furthermore, NEM ranged from -8.1 ± 1.8 mmol C m -2 d -1 in September to -13.5 ± 5.8 mmol C m -2 d -1 in January, highlighting the heterotrophic character of SDB. In order to explain the net heterotrophy of this system, we postulate that phytoplankton-derived particulate organic matter, stimulated by upwelling processes in the adjacent

  13. Tidal Streams Near and Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardal, Mark A.

    2014-06-01

    The Pandas survey of stars in M31's disk and halo is crisscrossed by numerous tidal features from both M31 and the Milky Way. Here I focus on two narrow stellar streams visible in the survey. They have comparable angular extent in the survey (10-13 degrees long versus only 0.3 degree wide), but one is a local Milky Way stream at about 30 kpc and one is in M31, roughly 25 times more distant. I estimate the stellar mass and metallicity in the streams and the distance gradient along them. The kinematics of the M31 stream is sparsely sampled by red giant stars and globular clusters. Bayesian modeling of the stream data yields accurate constraints on the orbital parameters of the streams.

  14. Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's 50th anniversary, the French Association for the Advancement of Science (AFAS) is organising a conference at CERN on 6 - 7 May on the subject of "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean". The full program can be found at http://www.avancement-sciences.org. For those wishing to attend, advanced registration is mandatory. Follow the instructions at: http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/congres/CERN/index.htm The conference fee is 50 euro. It includes attendance at the official dinner on Thursday 6 May and a copy of the conference proceedings. Special conditions for CERN: registration is free, but does not include the dinner. CERN people wishing to receive the proceedings will be charged 10 euro.

  15. "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's 50th anniversary, the French Association for the Advancement of Science (AFAS) is organising a conference at CERN on 6 - 7 May on the subject of "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean". The full program can be found at http://www.avancement-sciences.org. For those wishing to attend, advanced registration is mandatory. Follow the instructions at: http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/congres/CERN/index.htm The conference fee is 50 euro. It includes attendance at the official dinner on Thursday 6 May and a copy of the conference proceedings. Special conditions for CERN: registration is free, but does not include the dinner. CERN people wishing to receive the proceedings will be charged 10 euro.

  16. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona, Piermaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary grasslands are one of the most common vegetation types worldwide. In Europe, and in the Mediterranean basin, human activities have transformed many woodlands into secondary grasslands. Despite their recognized role in the global carbon cycle, very few data are available for estimating the biomass of Mediterranean grasslands. We developed linear regression models in order to predict the biomass of two native Mediterranean grasses (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Hyparrhenia hirta and an invasive alien grass (Pennisetum setaceum. Ampelodesmos mauritanicus is very common throughout the Mediterranean basin, mostly on north-facing slopes, H. hirta characterizes thermo-xeric grasslands, while P. setaceum is an alien species that is rapidly spreading along coastal areas. The measured morphometric attributes of individual plants as potential predictors were considered. The validation results corroborate the ability of the established models to predict above ground and total biomass of A. mauritanicus and P. setaceum. We also evaluated the total biomass per hectare for each species. The highest biomass per hectare was found for A. mauritanicus, whereas biomass was higher for H. hirta than for P. setaceum. The replacement of H. hirta by P. setaceum may reduce the total carbon storage in the ecosystem; however, P. setaceum allocates more resources to the roots, thus increasing the more stable and durable pool of carbon in grasslands.Los pastizales secundarios son uno de los tipos de vegetación más comunes en todo el mundo. En Europa y en la cuenca mediterránea, las actividades humanas han transformado muchos bosques en pastizales secundarios. A pesar de su reconocido papel en el ciclo global del carbono, hay muy pocos datos disponibles para la estimación de la biomasa de los pastizales mediterráneos. Hemos desarrollado modelos de regresión lineal con el fin de predecir la biomasa de dos gramíneas nativas del Mediterráneo (Ampelodesmos

  17. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2017-11-08

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as "Mediterranean" an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  18. In situ measurements of benthic primary production, respiration and nutrient fluxes in a hypersaline coastal lagoon of SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan Knoppers

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentbic oxygen and nutrient ftuxes were measured in a section of the hypersaline carbonate-rich coastal lagoon of Araruama, SE-Brazil. In situ incubations of the sediment surface (Zm - 1.5 were performed at one station with light/dark chambers during september 1993 (early spring period and april 1995 (earlyautumn period. The carbonate..rich aediments were covered by 1-3 mm thick microalgal mats, dominated by the cyanobaeteria Phormidium sp, Oscillatoria sp, and Lyngbya sp. Benthic net primary production rates were 15.4 ± 0.7 mmolC/m²/d in early spring and 33.8 ± 8.8 mmolC/m²/d in early autumn, total community respiration rates attained 35.3 ± 7.2 and 65.7 ± 16.9 mmolC/m²/d, and pelagic primary production rates 1.7 ± 0.7 and 4.0 ± 1.4 mmolC/m²/d, respectively. Total community metabolism was thus heterauophic and mainly driven by benthic metabolism. The benthic release rates af ammonia were 0.65 ± 0.32 mmolC/m²/day in early spring and 0.58± 0.42mmoVm ldaym early autumn, butwere near to negligible for orthophosphate. Pelagic primaryproduction was limited byphosphorous, in part, by the preferential release of étmmonia over orthophosphate from the sediment-water interface. The benthic primary production and nutrient release rates were within the range of other eury-to hypersaline carbonate-rich environments characterized by non- consolidated algat rats.Fluxos bênticos de oxigênio e nutrientes foram medidos numa seção da lagoa hipersalina e carbonática de Araruama, SE-Brasil Incubações in situ da superfície do sedimento (Zm = 1,5 foram realizadas em uma estação com câmaras claras/escuras nos meses de setembro de 1993 (início da primavera e abril de 1995 (início do outono. Os sedimentos ricos em carbonatos eram recobertos por um tapete microalgal de 1-3 mm, dominados pelas cianobactérias Phormidium sp,Oscillatoria spLyngbya sp. As taxas de produção primária yquida foram 15,4 ± 0,7 mmolC/m²/d Id no iníCIO da primavera e

  19. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  20. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  1. Tracking Gendered Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eriksson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent features of digital music services is the provision of personalized music recommendations that come about through the profiling of users and audiences. Based on a range of "bot experiments," this article investigates if, and how, gendered patterns in music recommendations are provided by the streaming service Spotify. While our experiments did not give any strong indications that Spotify assigns different taste profiles to male and female users, the study showed that male artists were highly overrepresented in Spotify's music recommendations; an issue which we argue prompts users to cite hegemonic masculine norms within the music industries. Although the results should be approached as historically and contextually contingent, we argue that they point to how gender and gendered tastes may be constituted through the interplay between users and algorithmic knowledge-making processes, and how digital content delivery may maintain and challenge gender relations and gendered power differentials within the music industries. Seen through the lens of critical research on software, music and gender performativity, the experiments thus provide insights into how gender is shaped and attributed meaning as it materializes in contemporary music streams.

  2. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  3. The Historical Construction of the Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenech, Dominic; Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Ideas about what the Mediterranean is, was or is imagined to be abound, and the debate over definition continues to intrigue scholars more than ever, especially as the region’s heightened newsworthiness in recent years has forced the protagonists of world affairs to turn their attention to it....... Historically the status of the Mediterranean has changed over and over again, in terms of unity and cohesion, or lack thereof, but also of the region’s shifting place in the global hierarchy of power. The post-Cold War era rekindled or exposed a host of historically-engrained problems and developments...... that brought the Mediterranean back into the limelight, as Europe first and then other world players recognized that the region’s concerns were also their own. Looking at the contemporary Mediterranean the authors see in it a scale-model of world affairs, a concentration of intense political situations...

  4. HVDC interconnection submarine link in Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, Giancarlo; Cova, Bruno; Pincella, Claudio; Rebolini, Massimo; Ricci, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The technology evolution of direct current energy transmission offer new perspectives for the exchange of energy with South side of Mediterranean Area: for Italy are new opportunity for energy import [it

  5. Report on the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) as an ambitious political initiative which aims at creating a better context for the Northern (Mediterranean) countries which are looking for a secure energy supply, and for the Southern and Eastern (Mediterranean) countries where demand is strongly increasing. It highlights the fact that the cost of this plan is indeed important but still limited regarding the regional scale. Its success therefore needs projects with sufficient profitability to attract investors and to be realised within an adapted law environment. The report also outlines that the plan needs a regional vision and a cooperative approach between North and South, that it will have a strong impact of electric interconnections all around the Mediterranean Sea, and that its governance needs to be clarified to maintain the political momentum created by its co-presidents

  6. Can the EC Mediterranean policy be revitalised?

    OpenAIRE

    Siebeke, Roland

    1985-01-01

    The enlargement of the European community to include Portugal and Spain has focussed public attention on the EC's relations with certain other states bordering the Mediterranean; Israel, Morocco, Tunisia and Cyprus in particular fear that the competitiveness of their exports to the European market will be prejudiced. In view of this and other threats to the EC's ties to her Southern neighbours the future of the EC's external Mediterranean policy is at stake.

  7. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  8. Denitrification in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): The role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Alday, J.J., E-mail: JuanJose.Gomez@uclm.es [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Carrey, R., E-mail: raulcarrey@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Valiente, N., E-mail: Nicolas.Valiente@uclm.es [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Otero, N., E-mail: notero@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsolergil@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, C., E-mail: cayora1@gmail.com [Grup d' Hidrologia Subterrània (GHS), Institut de Diagnóstic Ambiental i Estudis de l' Aigua (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, D. [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); and others

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO{sub 3}{sup −} pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 34}S, δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, δ{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} suggest that NO{sub 3}{sup −} from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup −} can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater–saltwater interface (down to 12–16 m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO{sub 3}{sup −} attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. - Highlights: • Denitrification comes about in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system. • Nitrate in the basin is derived from synthetic fertilizers slightly volatilized. • Organic carbon oxidation is likely to be the main electron donor in denitrification. • Density driven flow transports organic carbon to deeper zones of the aquifer.

  9. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  10. Mediterranean Diet and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Carioli, Greta; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica; Serraino, Diego; Montella, Maurizio; Giacosa, Attilio; Toffolutti, Federica; Negri, Eva; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2018-03-08

    The Mediterranean diet has been related to a reduced risk of several common cancers but its role on breast cancer has not been quantified yet. We investigated the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk by means of a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland. 3034 breast cancer cases and 3392 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic and non-gynaecologic diseases were studied. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was quantitatively measured through a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), summarizing the major characteristics of the Mediterranean dietary pattern and ranging from 0 (lowest adherence) to 9 (highest adherence). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer for the MDS using multiple logistic regression models, adjusting for several covariates. Compared to a MDS of 0-3, the ORs for breast cancer were 0.86 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-0.98) for a MDS of 4-5 and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.95) for a MDS of 6-9 ( p for trend = 0.008). The exclusion of the ethanol component from the MDS did not materially modify the ORs (e.g., OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.70-0.95, for MDS ≥ 6). Results were similar in pre- and post-menopausal women. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.

  11. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  12. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and TelegraphCQ lang...

  13. Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

  14. Pilot-Streaming: Design Considerations for a Stream Processing Framework for High-Performance Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Luckow; Peter Kasson; Shantenu Jha

    2016-01-01

    This White Paper (submitted to STREAM 2016) identifies an approach to integrate streaming data with HPC resources. The paper outlines the design of Pilot-Streaming, which extends the concept of Pilot-abstraction to streaming real-time data.

  15. X-ray microtomography characterization of carbonate microbialites from a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Rio de Janeiro State—Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.S., E-mail: alemachado@lin.ufrj.br [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dal Bó, P.F.F. [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lima, I. [Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Borghi, L. [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R. [Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to apply the micro-CT technique to assess recent microbialite samples from a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Rio de Janeiro State. The study comprises structural assessment, mineralogical characterization and porosity distribution of each sample. Micro-CT is increasingly present in geological reservoir analyses, and has advantages over other laboratory techniques since it is non-invasive and allows 2D/3D visualization of inner structures without previous preparation method, such as slabbing, polishing, thinning or impregnation. This technique renders structural analyses which can be spatially resolved to a scale of micrometers. Results show that micro-CT technique is also adequate for the characterization of carbonate microbialites, providing excellent high resolution 3D images, that enabled to distinguish different mineralogies and porosity distribution beyond it is inner structure.

  16. Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover

    2012-02-03

    A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H₂SO₄ solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L⁻¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mediterranean diet adherence in the Mediterranean healthy eating, aging and lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marventano, Stefano; Godos, Justyna; Platania, Alessio; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    A decline in adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern has been observed over the last years. The aim of this study was to assess the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and possible determinants in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort. Demographic and dietary data of 1937 individuals were collected in 2014-2015 from the general population of Catania, Sicily (Italy). Food frequency questionnaires and the MEDI-LITE score were used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The score well characterised consumption of major food groups, micro- and macro-nutrients. The cohort had a general good adherence, but only a minority was highly adherent. High adherence was directly associated with education, non-smoking and physical activity and inversely with high occupational status. In conclusions, Mediterranean diet is still followed in Sicily; however, nutrition education campaigns should promote healthy traditional dietary patterns in certain groups of individuals.

  18. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  19. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  20. Dynamical modeling of tidal streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2014-01-01

    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its 'track') in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of 'orphan' streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  1. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD, as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  2. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes. PMID:29117146

  3. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  4. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  5. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  6. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  7. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  8. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos

    2014-11-01

    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  9. Atlas of Northwestern Mediterranean Coccolithophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluïsa Cros

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The present Atlas contains a detailed study, based in scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations, of living coccolithophores from NW Mediterranean waters. The study contains 103 figures with 411 micrographs, which correspond to 168 coccolithophores (including different taxonomic and morphotypic entities. The figured specimens were collected during different cruises carried out from 1995 to 1999.Classification of the organisms follows modern taxonomy of living calcareous nannoplankton. Measures of the specimens and notes on their taxonomy are given in addition to abridged descriptions of the studied taxa. The atlas contains a large number of previously undescribed forms, specially in the genera Syracosphaera, Papposphaera, Polycrater, Anthosphaera, Corisphaera and Sphaerocalyptra. Several species never illustrated in the literature are presented here for the first time. Coccospheres having coccoliths of different recognized species are presented. These combination coccospheres are nowadays considered as transitional steps between different phases in the cellular life-cycle. An introduction with a brief overview of the actual coccolithophore knowledge and an abridged glossary with figures of the basic terminology are included.

  10. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardakas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted species of high conservation concern, during the period 2007−2009, with 80% of the river’s total length desiccating in the 2007 and 2008 droughts. The general trend was an increase in fish density and species richness along an upstream-downstream gradient. Fish assemblages from upstream to downstream were characterized by a decrease of the most rheophilic species (Squalius keadicus and an increase of the most stagnophilic species (Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus. Three river segments, characterized by a high degree of homogeneity were delineated. Habitat and environmental preferences for the studied fish species were identified, with elevation and low flowing habitats being the most important environmental factors affecting fish distribution patterns. The current study provides evidence that even in an intermittent river an assemblage pattern following a longitudinal gradient can be identified, mainly due to the lack of instream barriers that allows recolonization after flow resumption.

  11. Mediterranean diet, culture and heritage: challenges for a new conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Medina, F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss the role of the Mediterranean diet as a part of Human Culture and Intangible Cultural Heritage. Until the present, Mediterranean diet has been observed as a healthy model of medical behaviour. After its proposal as a Cultural Heritage of the Humanity at UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), Mediterranean diet is actually being observed as a part of Mediterranean culture and starting its concept as an equivalent of Mediterranean Cultural Food System or Mediterranean Culinary System. At the candidacy of Mediterranean diet as a World Cultural Intangible Heritage to be presented at UNESCO in 2008, this new conception is making sense. A new point of view that will be capital in the future discussions about the Mediterranean diet, their challenges and their future perspectives.

  12. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  13. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  14. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  15. Quantification of Groundwater Discharge in a Subalpine Stream Using Radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Avery

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the dry months of the water year in Mediterranean climates, groundwater influx is essential to perennial streams for sustaining ecosystem health and regulating water temperature. Predicted earlier peak flow due to climate change may result in decreased baseflow and the transformation of perennial streams to intermittent streams. In this study, naturally occurring radon-222 (222Rn was used as a tracer of groundwater influx to Martis Creek, a subalpine stream near Lake Tahoe, CA. Groundwater 222Rn is estimated based on measurements of 222Rn activity in nearby deep wells and springs. To determine the degassing constant (needed for quantification of water and gas flux, an extrinsic tracer, xenon (Xe, was introduced to the stream and monitored at eight downstream locations. The degassing constant for 222Rn is based on the degassing constant for Xe, and was determined to be 1.9–9.0 m/day. Applying a simple model in which stream 222Rn activity is a balance between the main 222Rn source (groundwater and sink (volatilization, the influx in reaches of the upstream portion of Martis Creek was calculated to be <1 to 15 m3/day/m, which cumulatively constitutes a significant portion of the stream discharge. Experiments constraining 222Rn emanation from hyporheic zone sediments suggest that this should be considered a maximum rate of influx. Groundwater influx is typically difficult to identify and quantify, and the method employed here is useful for identifying locations for focused stream flow measurements, for formulating a water budget, and for quantifying streamwater–groundwater interaction.

  16. Mediterranean climate and some tropical teleconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, P.; Price, C.; Krichak, S.; Saaroni, H.; Osetinsky, I.; Barkan, J.; Kishcha, P.; Ziv, B.

    2006-01-01

    Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems, e.g., El Ni no Southern Oscillation, South Asian Monsoon and hurricanes. Modelling of the severe floods suggests a relation to tropical hurricanes. For a specific event, high-resolution modelling of the severe flood on December 3-5, 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the Eastern Mediterranean climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the South Asian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors, like the Red Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust, also contribute to the Mediterranean climate variability

  17. Genesis and maintenance of "Mediterranean hurricanes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclonic storms that closely resemble tropical cyclones in satellite images occasionally form over the Mediterranean Sea. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses of such storms show small, warm-core structure and surface winds sometimes exceeding 25ms-1 over small areas. These analyses, together with numerical simulations, reveal that in their mature stages, such storms intensify and are maintained by a feedback between surface enthalpy fluxes and wind, and as such are isomorphic with tropical cyclones. In this paper, I demonstrate that a cold, upper low over the Mediterranean can produce strong cyclogenesis in an axisymmetric model, thereby showing that baroclinic instability is not necessary during the mature stages of Mediterranean hurricanes.

  18. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  19. Mediterranean seabird conservation: what can we do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mínguez

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities in the Mediterranean determine, to a large extent, the availability of food and breeding sites for seabirds, the two most important ecological requirements for breeding seabirds. Food availability is highly dependent on fisheries activities and the availability of breeding sites is largely related with tourism pressure. Conservation plans necessarily need to incorporate the fact that Mediterranean seabirds and human activities are forced partners. However, solutions are complex because fishing policies are not commonly designed by environmental agencies and also because seabirds are organized in metapopulations which do not coincide with administrative borders. In this monographic volume, several authors describe the main characteristics of the Mediterranean seabird community, identify its conservation problems and suggest a number of technical solutions.

  20. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason......, crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influence of climate changes and population increases. The main objective of this study was to analyse...... dryland Mediterranean cropping systems, and to discuss and recommend sustainable cropping technologies that could be used at the small-scale farm level. Four crop management practices were evaluated: crop rotations, reduced tillage, use of organic manure, and supplemental and deficit irrigation. Among...

  1. Acoustic thermometry of the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarsoulis, E. K.; Send, U.; Piperakis, G.; Testor, P.

    2004-08-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography is used to obtain heat-content estimates for the western Mediterranean basin. Travel-time data from 13 tomography sections of the Thetis-2 experiment (January-October 1994) are analyzed with a matched-peak inversion approach. The underlying analysis involves the use of peak arrivals and nonlinear model relations between travel-time and sound-speed variations. Slice inversion results are combined with temperature covariance functions for the western Mediterranean to obtain heat-content estimates for the basin. These estimates compare favorably with ECMWF data over the nine-month period of the Thetis-2 experiment. Furthermore, estimates for the basin-average temperature of the western Mediterranean deep water are obtained.

  2. Drought and detritivores determine leaf litter decomposition in calcareous streams of the Ebro catchment (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Silvia; Menéndez, Margarita; Basaguren, Ana; Pérez, Javier; Elosegi, Arturo; Pozo, Jesús

    2016-12-15

    Drought, an important environmental factor affecting the functioning of stream ecosystems, is likely to become more prevalent in the Mediterranean region as a consequence of climate change and enhanced water demand. Drought can have profound impacts on leaf litter decomposition, a key ecosystem process in headwater streams, but there is still limited information on its effects at the regional scale. We measured leaf litter decomposition across a gradient of aridity in the Ebro River basin. We deployed coarse- and fine-mesh bags with alder and oak leaves in 11 Mediterranean calcareous streams spanning a range of over 400km, and determined changes in discharge, water quality, leaf-associated macroinvertebrates, leaf quality and decomposition rates. The study streams were subject to different degrees of drought, specific discharge (Ls -1 km -2 ) ranging from 0.62 to 9.99. One of the streams dried out during the experiment, another one reached residual flow, whereas the rest registered uninterrupted flow but with different degrees of flow variability. Decomposition rates differed among sites, being lowest in the 2 most water-stressed sites, but showed no general correlation with specific discharge. Microbial decomposition rates were not correlated with final nutrient content of litter nor to fungal biomass. Total decomposition rate of alder was positively correlated to the density and biomass of shredders; that of oak was not. Shredder density in alder bags showed a positive relationship with specific discharge during the decomposition experiment. Overall, the results point to a complex pattern of litter decomposition at the regional scale, as drought affects decomposition directly by emersion of bags and indirectly by affecting the functional composition and density of detritivores. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  4. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  5. Planktonic foraminiferal abnormalities in coastal and open marine eastern Mediterranean environments: A natural stress monitoring approach in recent and early Holocene marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakou, A.; Kontakiotis, G.; Zarkogiannis, S.; Mortyn, P. G.; Drinia, H.; Koskeridou, E.; Anastasakis, G.

    2018-05-01

    Marine environmental status can be assessed through the study of bio-indicator species. Here, we monitor natural environmental stress by the occurrence of morphologically abnormal planktonic foraminiferal specimens from a suite of surface sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. We also compare Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) abnormality observations from sapropel S1-derived sediments in the Aegean, Libyan and Levantine basins, since they provide a direct record of a natural stress experiment that took place over past time scales. At initial sapropel deposition levels, we observe increased growth asymmetry in Globigerinoides ruber twinned and twisted individuals, possibly associated with eutrophication and anoxia. In modern material, a range of malformations and aberrant morphologies from slight deformity with smaller or overdeveloped chambers to more severe deformity with abnormally protruding or misplaced chambers, distorted spirals, and double tests is also observed, as a result of the hypersaline, oligotrophic and oxygen-depleted nature of the Mediterranean Sea water column. Overall, we highlight the current use of the relative abundance of abnormal tests as a bio-indicator for monitoring natural stress, especially the occurrence of twin specimens as indicative of high-salinity stress conditions, and further illustrate the necessity to map both their spatial and temporal distribution for accurate paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Such an approach presents the advantage to rapidly provide information over wide spatial and temporal scales, extending our ability to monitor a wide variety of environments (from coastal to the open-sea). However, further investigations should extend this approach to test the robustness of our findings in a number of similar oceanic settings.

  6. Hydrography - Boating Special Regulation Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer contains those streams/rivers within Pennsylvania that have specifc special regulations related to boating as defined by the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat...

  7. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On-stream analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An outline of some commercially available on-stream analysis systems in given. Systems based on x-ray tube/crystal spectrometers, scintillation detectors, proportional detectors and solid-state detectors are discussed

  9. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  10. Streaming in English Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend our knowledge of ability grouping through the reanalysis of two sets of survey data, the Plowden survey (Peaker, 1967) and the NFER streaming survey (Barker Lunn, 1970). (Editor)

  11. STREAMS - Technology Programme. Yearbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The STREAMS Technology Programme addresses municipal waste. Municipal waste is composed of waste from households and small businesses. The programme focuses on five areas Waste prevention, Collection, transportation, and management of waste streams, Waste treatment technologies, Waste recycling into raw materials and new products, Landfill technologies. The development projects of the STREAMS Programme utilize a number of different technologies, such as biotechnology, information technology, materials technology, measurement and analysis, and automation technology. Finnish expertise in materials recycling technologies and related electronics and information technology is extremely high on a worldwide scale even though the companies represent SMEs. Started in 2001, the STREAMS programme has a total volume of 27 million euros, half of which is funded by Tekes. The programme runs through the end of 2004. (author)

  12. Offshore wind mapping Mediterranean area using SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface, for example from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR), provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often...... with long periods of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models...

  13. Severe Weather Guide Mediterranean Ports. 40. Bizerte

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    TUNISIA 10 MALAGA, SPAIN *41 TUNIS, TUNISIA 11 NICE, FRANCE *42 SOUSSE, TUNISIA 12 CANNES, FRANCE *43 SFAX , TUNISIA 13 MONACO *44 SOUDA BAY, CRETE 14...mountains before moving over the Mediterranean Sea across the coast of Tunisia at about 35"N, roughly between Sfax and Sousse. NE’ly winds at Bizerte may...follow an E’ly track S of the Atlas mountains before moving over the Mediterranean Sea across the coast of Tunisia at about 35"N, roughly between Sfax

  14. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...

  15. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...... agronomic and environmental factors. Our objective is to determine the general principles underlying how, in Mediterranean environments, grain protein content (GPC) is affected by these factors and provide a system model with high predictive ability. We initially evaluated the capability of the Delphi...

  16. Microplastic sampling in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares; Sosthenes, Bahati; Syberg, Kristian

    to 5 Gyres protocol. Microplastics (5mm) across all sites. Abundance decreased with increasing distance from the coast of Palermo to the open sea, with the highest abundance (20717 particles per Km2) observed at the Sicilian coast. Fragments were......The extent of microplastic pollution in the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea is not yet known, although on Northwestern part has been previously studied. Plastic samples were collected at 7 transects during a 10 day expedition from Sicily (Italy) to Malaga (Spain) in September 2014. A 330 µM mesh....... This is the first study to assess plastic pollution levels in SW Mediterranean Sea....

  17. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 provides insights into the energy situation today and over the next two decades in the Mediterranean region. Its detailed data and analyses are of interest to stakeholders on both the supply and demand sides of the energy equation. This is the third edition in the MEP series, which highlights the extensive work of OME (Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie). This outlook draws upon the expertise of OME and its members. MEP 2011 provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in the Mediterranean. It presents data ranging from the early days of the region's energy industry to the situation today and an outlook to 2030, based on OME's supply and demand model, the Mediterranean Energy Model. Current efforts related to renewable energy sources and energy efficiency are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Mediterranean energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the region. MEP 2011 presents: - A description of the Mediterranean countries in a global context. - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Mediterranean energy sector. - Energy demand to 2030, including two cases: the Conservative and Proactive Scenarios. - Trends in past, present and future oil and natural gas production and development. - Existing and planned oil and gas infrastructure. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments in innovative and renewable energy sources. - In-depth analysis of energy efficiency measures and policies. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. MEP 2011 has been prepared by a joint-team of OME experts supported by related companies and independent expertise. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture of the energy industry and markets in the Mediterranean, the way they operate and their long

  18. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  19. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  20. Influence of seasonality and vegetation on the attenuation of emerging contaminants in wastewater effluent-dominated streams. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2017-11-01

    Treated wastewater from small communities is discharged into rivers or streams with a high biodiversity value. This is particularly important in Mediterranean countries, where most of the streams are dry almost all year round. This preliminary study assessed the occurrence and attenuation of 23 emerging contaminants (ECs) in 4 wastewater-dominated streams in which treated wastewater accounted for the entire stream flow. The concentration of ECs was monitored in the warm and cold seasons in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at 6 downstream locations. The concentration of ECs in the WWTP effluents ranged from undetected to 12 μg L -1 . The attenuation of ECs 1 km downstream ranged from no removal to up to 80% (48% on average). The half-lives of ECs in the 4 streams ranged from 0.4 to 20 h (3.9 ± 3.5 h on average). Compounds such as benzodiazepine drugs and flame retardants were the most recalcitrant (half-lives >5 h). The highest attenuation of ECs and ammonia was observed in the stream completely covered by vegetation. The cumulative hazardous quotient 1 km downstream was reduced on average by more than 60%. Therefore, the results suggest that both seasonality and vegetation play an important role in in-stream attenuation of ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pseudo-spectral methodology for a quantitative assessment of the cover of in-stream vegetation in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Yaron; Anker, Yaakov; Ben-Dor, Eyal; Schwartz, Guy; Gasith, Avital

    2010-05-01

    In-stream vegetation is a key ecosystem component in many fluvial ecosystems, having cascading effects on stream conditions and biotic structure. Traditionally, ground-level surveys (e.g. grid and transect analyses) are commonly used for estimating cover of aquatic macrophytes. Nonetheless, this methodological approach is highly time consuming and usually yields information which is practically limited to habitat and sub-reach scales. In contrast, remote-sensing techniques (e.g. satellite imagery and airborne photography), enable collection of large datasets over section, stream and basin scales, in relatively short time and reasonable cost. However, the commonly used spatial high resolution (1m) is often inadequate for examining aquatic vegetation on habitat or sub-reach scales. We examined the utility of a pseudo-spectral methodology, using RGB digital photography for estimating the cover of in-stream vegetation in a small Mediterranean-climate stream. We compared this methodology with that obtained by traditional ground-level grid methodology and with an airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing survey (AISA-ES). The study was conducted along a 2 km section of an intermittent stream (Taninim stream, Israel). When studied, the stream was dominated by patches of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and mats of filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata). The extent of vegetation cover at the habitat and section scales (100 and 104 m, respectively) were estimated by the pseudo-spectral methodology, using an airborne Roli camera with a Phase-One P 45 (39 MP) CCD image acquisition unit. The swaths were taken in elevation of about 460 m having a spatial resolution of about 4 cm (NADIR). For measuring vegetation cover at the section scale (104 m) we also used a 'push-broom' AISA-ES hyper-spectral swath having a sensor configuration of 182 bands (350-2500 nm) at elevation of ca. 1,200 m (i.e. spatial resolution of ca. 1 m). Simultaneously, with every swath we used an Analytical

  2. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  3. Streaming Process Discovery and Conformance Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burattin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Streaming process discovery, streaming conformance checking, and streaming process mining in general (also known as online process mining) are disciplines which analyze event streams to extract a process model or to assess their conformance with respect to a given reference model. The main...

  4. Unique Challenges to (Federal) Enterprise Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise streaming has different parameters than consumer Streaming. The government enterprise has some differences on top of that. I'd like to highlight some issues shared by the Federal government as a whole, with a closer look at streaming within NASA. Then we'll look at NASA's strategy for streaming.

  5. Process for humidifying a gaseous fuel stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederquist, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel gas stream for a fuel cell is humidified by a recirculating hot liquid water stream using the heat of condensation from the humidified stream as the heat to vaporize the liquid water. Humidification is accomplished by directly contacting the liquid water with the dry gas stream in a saturator to evaporate a small portion of water. The recirculating liquid water is reheated by direct contact with the humidified gas stream in a condenser, wherein water is condensed into the liquid stream. Between the steps of humidifying and condensing water from the gas stream it passes through the fuel cell and additional water, in the form of steam, is added thereto

  6. Organic carbon and phosphorus burial and iron limitation in hypersaline sediments of Guerrero Negro, Mexico: paleoceanographic significance and comparison to the Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, J. J.; Huerta-Diaz, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Hypersaline environments, including their microbial mat communities, were significantly more extensive in the geologic past, specifically during the Permian, than they are today and have been used as proxies to paleoenvironments. Over geologic time there have been significant changes in the burial of carbon, phosphorus and iron associated to pyrite. Eight sediment cores were collected along a salinity gradient (47 to 125‰) from Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL) and the evaporation ponds of the Guerrero Negro salt evaporation and production zone. Cores (from 15.5 to 23.5cm) were analyzed in 1cm increments for organic carbon (Corg), organic phosphorus (Porg), and pyrite. Using the evaporation pond (# 5) with the most well formed microbial mats as a proxy to Permian hypersaline environments and published accretion rates, burial fluxes of Corg and Porg were calculated to be 3.2±0.7 and 2.8x10-5±1.6x10-5gcm2yr-1, respectively. These fluxes were found to be orders of magnitude higher than present fluxes reported for some continental shelf and coastal regions. The average concentration of pyrite for the pond 5 was found to be 4.7±4.6µmolg-1, with Fe found to be limiting the formation of pyrite. In previous studies Corg to sulfur-pyrite ratios (C:S) for the Permian were found to be at their peak in geologic time. C:S values for this study were found to be even higher than Permian C:S values (526±247 to 2.5x109±9.1x108; 1131±1204 for pond 5). Based on reported paleoceanographic data, its suggested that at times during Earth’s history, when salt evaporation sites were more abundant, more Corg could have been preserved on a global scale in these environments than during the present. This increase in Corg burial was found in conjunction with decreased pyrite burial, which we attributed to Fe limitation. If this Fe limitation were caused by the extensive microbial mats that carpet the sediment surface, then Fe limitation would not be seen in OLL and where microbial mats do

  7. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  8. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  9. Screening of three Mediterranean phenylketonuria mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as the most frequent mutation (Dahri et al. 2010). The. E280K mutation was also reported in Mediterranean popu- lations (Guldberg et al. 1993). Since Tunisia is a Mediter- ranean country, patients with PKU are presumed to have these mutations. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of the three above mutations ...

  10. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north.

  11. Mediterranean climate change and Indian Ocean warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Hurrel, J.

    2006-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) responses to 20. century changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and greenhouse gases are diagnosed, with emphasis on their relationship to observed regional climate change over the Mediterranean region. A major question is whether the Mediterranean region's drying trend since 1950 can be understood as a consequence of the warming trend in tropical SSTs. We focus on the impact of Indian Ocean warming, which is itself the likely result of increasing greenhouse gases. It is discovered that a strong projection onto the positive polarity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index characterizes the atmospheric response structure to the 1950-1999 warming of Indian Ocean SSTs. This influence appears to be robust in so far as it is reproduced in ensembles of experiments using three different GCMs. Both the equilibrium and transient responses to Indian Ocean warming are examined. Under each scenario, the latitude of prevailing mid latitude westerlies shifts poleward during the November-April period. The consequence is a drying of the Mediterranean region, whereas northern Europe and Scandinavia receive increased precipitation in concert with the poleward shift of storminess. The IPCC (TAR) 20. century coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations forced by observed greenhouse gas changes also yield a post-1950 drying trend over the Mediterranean. We argue that this feature of human-induced regional climate change is the outcome of a dynamical feedback, one involving Indian Ocean warming and a requisite adjustment of atmospheric circulation systems to such ocean warming

  12. Southeast Asian history and the Mediterranean analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Historians of Southeast Asia have been inspired by Fernand Braudel's classic The Mediterranean because of its focus on the sea and multidisciplinary approach, and because it seems to solve two recalcitrant historiographical problems: the definition of time and space, and the reconciliation of local

  13. DIETARY HABITS OF A MEDITERRANEAN POPULATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    in urban areas in El Jadida, a costal province of Moroccowas selected. Dietary habits were assessed using a combination of a 24-h dietary recall during 3 non consecutive days ... model, epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary patterns in the Mediterranean ..... as well as heart disease and colon cancer [37].

  14. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  15. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including
    abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia,
    and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type

  16. Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology : A Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Hendrik J.; Nijboer, Albert J.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This article is a reply to the preceding rejoinder by Fantalkin et al., which they wrote in response to our article concerning radiocarbon dates of Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region measured at Groningen (van der Plicht et al. 2009). We do not agree with much of their criticism. Our reply

  17. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the

  18. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  19. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  20. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  1. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  2. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases.

  3. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  4. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  5. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  6. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Modification and channelization of streams and rivers have been conducted extensively throughout the world during the past century. Subsequently, much effort has been directed at re-creating the lost habitats and thereby improving living conditions for aquatic organisms. However, as restoration...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in-stream...

  7. CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Alfredo

    In the context of data stream research, taming the multidimensionality of real-life data streams in order to efficiently support OLAP analysis/mining tasks is a critical challenge. Inspired by this fundamental motivation, in this paper we introduce CAMS (C ube-based A cquisition model for M ultidimensional S treams), a model for efficiently OLAPing multidimensional data streams. CAMS combines a set of data stream processing methodologies, namely (i) the OLAP dimension flattening process, which allows us to obtain dimensionality reduction of multidimensional data streams, and (ii) the OLAP stream aggregation scheme, which aggregates data stream readings according to an OLAP-hierarchy-based membership approach. We complete our analytical contribution by means of experimental assessment and analysis of both the efficiency and the scalability of OLAPing capabilities of CAMS on synthetic multidimensional data streams. Both analytical and experimental results clearly connote CAMS as an enabling component for next-generation Data Stream Management Systems.

  8. Pollutant transport in natural streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the downstream effect of chemical and radioactive pollutant releases to tributary streams and rivers. The one-dimensional dispersion model was employed along with a dead zone model to describe stream transport behavior. Options are provided for sorption/desorption, ion exchange, and particle deposition in the river. The model equations are solved numerically by the LODIPS computer code. The solution method was verified by application to actual and simulated releases of radionuclides and other chemical pollutants. (U.S.)

  9. Stream-processing pipelines: processing of streams on multiprocessor architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    In this paper we study the timing aspects of the operation of stream-processing applications that run on a multiprocessor architecture. Dependencies are derived for the processing and communication times of the processors in such a system. Three cases of real-time constrained operation and four

  10. Stream Bank Erosion Rates of Small Missouri Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedimentation of surface waters in the United States is a significant environmental concern. Investigating land use impacts on stream bank erosion rates is intended to lead to the development of improved management practices and provide the basis for targeting the placement of management practices t...

  11. Secondary minerals from salt caves in the Atacama Desert (Chile: a hyperarid and hypersaline environment with potential analogies to the Martian subsurface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo De Waele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years several expeditions by French, American and especially Italian cavers have unveiled over 50 caves in the Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama Desert, Northern Chile. Many of these caves contain a variety of speleothems and minerals, some of which have rarely been observed within karst systems. Most of the secondary deposits in these caves are composed of halite, but also other halide, carbonate, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate minerals have been found. Among the sixteen cave mineral species recognized, atacamite, darapskite, blödite, leonite, anhydrite, and especially antarcticite are worth mentioning. In one of the samples an unknown Ca-Sr-bearing chloride mineral has also been discovered, but it has not been possible to carry out detailed mineralogical analyses. These often-rare minerals have formed in this region due to the very extreme hyperarid and salt-rich environment. This research reports the mineralogical results and proposes the genetical mechanisms leading to the formation of antarcticite, powdery anhydrite, and the paragenesis of the halite-darapskite-blödite. This study also shows that Atacama caves may be excellent analogues to study weathering processes and subsurface secondary minerals in hyperarid and hypersaline environments on Mars.

  12. Riparian influences on stream fish assemblage structure in urbanizing streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.H.; Freeman, B.J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the influence of land cover at multiple spatial extents on fish assemblage integrity, and the degree to which riparian forests can mitigate the negative effects of catchment urbanization on stream fish assemblages. Riparian cover (urban, forest, and agriculture) was determined within 30 m buffers at longitudinal distances of 200 m, 1 km, and the entire network upstream of 59 non-nested fish sampling locations. Catchment and riparian land cover within the upstream network were highly correlated, so we were unable to distinguish between those variables. Most fish assemblage variables were related to % forest and % urban land cover, with the strongest relations at the largest spatial extent of land cover (catchment), followed by riparian land cover in the 1-km and 200-m reach, respectively. For fish variables related to urban land cover in the catchment, we asked whether the influence of riparian land cover on fish assemblages was dependent on the amount of urban development in the catchment. Several fish assemblage metrics (endemic richness, endemic:cosmopolitan abundance, insectivorous cyprinid richness and abundance, and fluvial specialist richness) were all best predicted by single variable models with % urban land cover. However, endemic:cosmopolitan richness, cosmopolitan abundance, and lentic tolerant abundance were related to % forest cover in the 1-km stream reach, but only in streams that had <15% catchment urban land cover. In these cases, catchment urbanization overwhelmed the potential mitigating effects of riparian forests on stream fishes. Together, these results suggest that catchment land cover is an important driver of fish assemblages in urbanizing catchments, and riparian forests are important but not sufficient for protecting stream ecosystems from the impacts of high levels of urbanization.

  13. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-10-14

    Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A landmark randomized trial (PREDIMED) together with many well-conducted long-term observational prospective cohort studies support this causal effect.A new, large British cohort study by Tong et al. assessing the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease was recently published in BMC Medicine. Using a superb methodology, they followed-up 23,902 participants for 12.2 years on average and observed several thousand incident cases.The results of this cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular events. These findings support the transferability of this dietary pattern beyond the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The authors provided measures of population impact in cardiovascular prevention and estimated that 19,375 cases of cardiovascular death would be prevented each year in the UK by promoting the Mediterranean Diet.Please see related article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0677-4 .

  14. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  15. Streaming Algorithms for Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Hachenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    this problem in a streaming setting, where we only have a limited amount of storage, so that we cannot store all the points. We analyze the competitive ratio of our algorithms, allowing resource augmentation: we let our algorithm maintain a simplification with 2k (internal) points and compare the error of our...

  16. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the

  17. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  18. Efficient architectures for streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Wolkotte, P.T.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Heysters, P.M.; Athanas, P.; Becker, J.; Brebner, G.; Teich, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will focus on algorithms and reconfigurable tiled architectures for streaming DSP applications. The tile concept will not only be applied on chip level but also on board-level and system-level. The tile concept has a number of advantages: (1) depending on the requirements more or

  19. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. QStream: A Suite of Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Winter (Joost); R. Heckel; S. Milius

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a simple tool in Haskell, QStream, implementing the technique of coinductive counting by making use of Haskell's built-in coinduction capabilities. We furthermore provide a number of useful tools for stream exploration, including a number of pretty print functions and

  1. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple distribu......A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  2. Miscellaneous Waste Stream strategy document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    This strategy document addresses objectives and implementation for the Miscellaneous Waste Stream (MWS) program through FY1996. Its intention is to develop's comprehensive pollution prevention/hazard minimization program for MWS projects. The overall focus of this program is aimed at pollution prevention/hazard minimization for MWS processes and involves the elimination/minimization of processes and materials that result in pollutant releases to all environmental media. The document is divided into three categories of initial issues identified from funded MWS projects: waste streams, assessment tools, and waste characterization and worker exposure methods development. Initial strategy requires the development of a baseline of major waste streams at each facility and the identification of MWS issues and proposed solutions. Goals and schedules will evolve as these new issues are identified. Applicable pollution prevention/hazard minimization technologies will be identified, prioritized, and employed to address each issue commensurate with funding availability. Options will then be chosen and the proven technologies transferred to other sites, including commercial industry. Most notably, this strategy document calls for a 50 percent volume and toxicity reduction by CY1995 in the miscellaneous waste streams generated by processes within the MWS

  3. Water and tourism on Mediterranean islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igel, Wolf von; Candela, Lucila [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences Dept.

    2005-07-01

    An increased tourism development has taken place in the Mediterranean basin. This has induced some positive and negative consequences over diverse aspects of life and the natural system. One important consequence has been the increasing pressure put on natural resources, namely on fresh water resources. The patterns of water use related to tourism activity that lead to a situation of scarcity of water resources in a Mediterranean islands context are presented. Next are presented the main problems of hydrological, environmental and socio-economic nature that are a consequence of the increasing tourism development and accompanying increasing scarcity of water resources. As one of these main problems is often the insufficient water supply to meet the water demand, a discussion of the pros and cons of the diverse alternatives to increase the water supply and an explanation of some alternatives to control the water demand are presented. (orig.)

  4. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  6. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  7. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  8. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. THESSALOU-LEGAKI

    2012-12-01

    Isl., Aegean Sea and the bryozoan Electra tenella (Livorno harbour and Messina Straits area. The alien fish Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Fistularia commersonii, Sphyraena chrysotaenia and Sargocentron rubrum are also reported from the islands of Karpathos and Chalki, and Pteragogus pelycus from Heraklion Bay, Crete. In addition, new localities for four rare Mediterranean inhabitants are given: the cephalopod Thysanoteuthis rhombus (NW Sardinia and the fish: Lampris guttatus (Calabria, S Italy, Petromyzon marinus (Gokova Bay and Remora australis (Saronikos Gulf, while the opisthobranch gastropod Cerberilla bernadettae is reported for the first time from the E Mediterranean (Cyprus. Finally, three species of the Aegean ascidiofauna are recorded for the first time: Lissoclinum perforatum, Ciona roulei and Ecteinascidia turbinata. Furthermore, it was established that Phallusia nigra has extended its distributional range to the north of the Aegean Sea.

  9. Mediterranean Diet in Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Meryem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bad eating habits lead to the emergence of chronic health problems such as coronary artery diseases, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cancer and obesity and the relationship between diet and diseases is emphasized and the relationship between them is clearly revealed in studies conducted over many years. The Mediterranean diet, which is first described by Angel Keys at the beginning of the 1960’s, is not a specific diet but a natural way of eating in olive-growing region. With the properties such as the use of vegetable oils such as olive oil in particular, and the consumption of fish instead of red meat, the diet constitutes a health-protective nutrition. So, this review conducted the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic diseases.

  10. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

  11. The mediterranean policy of the EC— The case of industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ashoff, Guido; Hummen, Wilhelm

    1983-01-01

    The European Community faces the task of reformulating its Mediterranean policy in the light of the rather disappointing experience with the “Global Mediterranean Policy” adopted in 1972, the effects of the southward enlargement of the Community and the changed world economic climate. The article that follows discusses the experiences to date, the scope for action and possible guidelines for a future Mediterranean policy in the industrial sphere.

  12. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  13. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmentally driven synchronies of Mediterranean cephalopod populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stefanie; Quetglas, Antoni; Puerta, Patricia; Bitetto, Isabella; Casciaro, Loredana; Cuccu, Danila; Esteban, Antonio; Garcia, Cristina; Garofalo, Germana; Guijarro, Beatriz; Josephides, Marios; Jadaud, Angelique; Lefkaditou, Evgenia; Maiorano, Porzia; Manfredi, Chiara; Marceta, Bojan; Micallef, Reno; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Relini, Giulio; Sartor, Paolo; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tserpes, George; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is characterized by large scale gradients of temperature, productivity and salinity, in addition to pronounced mesoscale differences. Such a heterogeneous system is expected to shape the population dynamics of marine species. On the other hand, prevailing environmental and climatic conditions at whole basin scale may force spatially distant populations to fluctuate in synchrony. Cephalopods are excellent case studies to test these hypotheses owing to their high sensitivity to environmental conditions. Data of two cephalopod species with contrasting life histories (benthic octopus vs nectobenthic squid), obtained from scientific surveys carried out throughout the Mediterranean during the last 20 years were analyzed. The objectives of this study and the methods used to achieve them (in parentheses) were: (i) to investigate synchronies in spatially separated populations (decorrelation analysis); (ii) detect underlying common abundance trends over distant regions (dynamic factor analysis, DFA); and (iii) analyse putative influences of key environmental drivers such as productivity and sea surface temperature on the population dynamics at regional scale (general linear models, GLM). In accordance with their contrasting spatial mobility, the distance from where synchrony could no longer be detected (decorrelation scale) was higher in squid than in octopus (349 vs 217 km); for comparison, the maximum distance between locations was 2620 km. The DFA revealed a general increasing trend in the abundance of both species in most areas, which agrees with the already reported worldwide proliferation of cephalopods. DFA results also showed that population dynamics are more similar in the eastern than in the western Mediterranean basin. According to the GLM models, cephalopod populations were negatively affected by productivity, which would be explained by an increase of competition and predation by fishes. While warmer years coincided with declining octopus

  15. Projected acidification of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, J. C.; Le Vu, B.; Palmieri, J.; Dutay, J. C.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea's acidification rate is under debate. Its 10% higher alkalinity relative to that of average ocean waters, makes it chemically more capable to absorb CO2. That capacity is further enhanced by the rapid ventilation of its deep waters. Some data-based studies suggest that that extra carbon uptake causes larger changes in surface and deep pH than found in open-ocean waters. Yet simplified model simulations over the industrial era suggest otherwise. Here we offer the first projections of Mediterranean Sea acidification over the 21st century. Our projections rely on a regional climate model, which couples the ARPEGE atmospheric model to the NEMO-MED8 regional eddying ocean model under historical forcing followed by the IPCC A2 scenario over the 21st century. Those model results are used here to drive an offline configuration of the same ocean model including natural and anthropogenic carbon. Simulations were made with and without increasing CO2 and with and without climate change. With both, the level of free acidity ([H+]) doubles during 1860 to 2100 as does the seasonal amplitude of [H+]. But the seasonal amplitude of pH actually declines slightly (because of its log scale, Δ pH represents a relative change in [H+]). And although the projected change in surface pH is quite similar between average ocean waters and the Mediterranean, corresponding changes in [H+] are somewhat lower in the Med. Once again, changes on a log scale can be misleading. The pH changes are mostly due to increasing atmospheric CO2, but climate change substantially worsens the perturbation in parts of the western basin; conversely, previous studies suggest that climate change has virtually no overall effect on pH. Thus under the above scenario, the Mediterranean Sea is projected to experience a doubling of its natural level of free acidity along with similar enhancement to its seasonal extremes during the 21st century.

  16. pandemic in the eastern Mediterranean region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mediterranean region. The possibility of a new influenza A pandemic has alarmed health authorities worldwide. Guan et al. (1) summarized the actual situation of the novel reassortment A influenza H7N9 (nrH7N9) in China and presented the data of confirmed cases with nrH7N9 (1). Although until May 2013, only 60 cases ...

  17. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mediterranean diet in a world context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandratos, Nikos

    2006-02-01

    To put the debate on the Mediterranean diet in context by highlighting historical and prospective changes in the level and composition of food consumption in the world and key Mediterranean countries. Data from FAO's food balance sheets are used to illustrate historical evolution. Projections to 2030 are presented from FAO's recent and ongoing work on exploring world food and agriculture futures. International. Many developing countries are undergoing diet transitions bringing them closer to the diets prevalent in the richer countries, i.e. with more energy-dense foods. There follows an increase in the incidence of diet-related non-communicable diseases, which are superimposed on the health problems related to undernutrition that still afflict them. In parallel, many low-income countries are making little progress towards raising food consumption levels necessary for good nutrition and food security. Wider adoption of food consumption patterns akin to those of the Mediterranean diet hold promise of contributing to mitigate adverse effects of such diet transitions. However, the evolution of food consumption in the Mediterranean countries themselves is not encouraging, as these countries have also followed the trend towards higher shares of energy-dense foods. Possible policy responses to these problems include measures to raise awareness of the benefits of healthier diets and/or to change relative food prices in favour of such diets (by taxing fattening foods) or, at the extreme, making individuals who follow 'bad' diets, and thus are prone to associated diseases, bear a higher part of the consequent costs borne by the public health systems (tax fat people).

  19. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  20. Bryozoa from the Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SOKOLOVER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global warming on the composition of marine biotas is increasing, underscoring the need for better baseline information on the species currently present in given areas. Little is known about the bryozoan fauna of Israel; the most recent publication concerning species from the Mediterranean coast was based on samples collected in the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time, not only have the species present in this region changed, but so too has our understanding of bryozoan taxonomy. Here we use samples collected during the last decade to identify 47 bryozoan species, of which 15 are first records for the Levantine basin. These include one new genus and species (Crenulatella levantinensis gen. et. sp. nov., two new species (Licornia vieirai sp. nov. and Trematooecia mikeli sp. nov., and two species that may be new but for which available material is inadequate for formal description (Reteporella sp. and Thalamoporella sp.. In addition, Conopeum ponticum is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea. Non-indigenous species make up almost one-quarter of the 47 species identified. All of the non-indigenous species are native to tropical and subtropical regions, implying a change of the Levant bryozoan biota from a temperate to a more tropical state, probably related to both higher temperature and salinity and to the opening of the Suez Canal connecting the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean.

  1. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  3. The Mediterranean as a Zone of Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Balta

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding that the Mediterranean is a region whose most well-known specificity is the existence of conflicts, Paul Balta’s article revises the principal antagonisms and their respective causes, distinguishing between the conflicts that have their origin in the distant past and those which are characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century. On one side are the inherited conflicts from the past and their links to the three monotheistic denominations which weigh in the imagination of the peoples. The inheritances that mark Mediterranean societies recall the denominational fractures among Christianity, Judaism and Islam, as well as the schisms between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox camps and the Sunnis and the Shiites. Highlighting these types of clashes are the Arab-Israeli dispute, the conflicts in ex-Yugoslavia, and ethnic-religious antagonisms like the existing one between Greece and Turkey. On the other hand, among the open and potential conflicts characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century the author mentions those inherited from the colonization era (fundamentally territorial in nature, those belonging to community (for example, Lebanonand minority issues (Kosovo, Basques, Corsicans, Kurds and Berbers, and those stemming from the appropriation of Islam for political ends and the lack of respect for Human Rights and religious beliefs, economic disparities, demographic and emigration concerns, the turf struggle over control of natural resources such as petroleum, gas and fresh water, and the effects of the rivalry between Europe and the United States in the Mediterranean region.

  4. Union for the Mediterranean: projects to prevent the water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivet, G.; Guettier, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the Mediterranean water remains a rare, fragile and unevenly distributed resource. Global warming has implications for theses resources with an increase in extreme hydrological phenomena (drought and flooding). In this framework, at the Cairo conference in November 2006, the Euro-Mediterranean Environment Ministers broadly agreed on the need for improved coordination of the existing initiatives in order to promote real effectiveness, in particular the Mediterranean Action Plan and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. These actions are presented and discussed. The schedule is detailed. (A.L.B.)

  5. Euro-mediterranean partnership in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The conference for a Euro-Mediterranean partnership in the energy field took place from the seventh to ninth of June 1996 and convened the officials of 15 european countries and 10 mediterranean countries; the discussions were about five themes: the adhesion of mediterranean countries to the european chart of energy or their association to this treaty; the harmonization of legislations and regulations concerning investments; the development of gas and electric networks in this area; the positioning of a system to guarantee energy investments; the creation of an Euro-Mediterranean energy forum proposed by the commission which allowed to associate the different partners to the following of this cooperation. (N.C.)

  6. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  7. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. However, the query languages have mostly been SQL-based and aimed for low-level analysis of base data; therefore, there has been little work on supporting OLAP-like queries that provide real......-time multidimensional and summarized views of stream data. In this paper, we introduce a multi-dimensional stream query language and its formal semantics. Our approach turns low-level data streams into informative high-level aggregates and enables multi-dimensional and granular OLAP queries against data streams, which...... supports the requirements of today’s real time enterprises much better. A comparison with the STREAM CQL language shows that our approach is more flexible and powerful for high-level OLAP queries, as well as far more compact and concise. Classification: Real-time OLAP, Streaming data, Real-time decision...

  8. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  9. Exploiting coastal altimetry to improve the surface circulation scheme over the central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, Fatma; Birol, Florence; Zakardjian, Bruno; Bouffard, Jérome; Sammari, Cherif

    2016-07-01

    This work is the first study exploiting along track altimetry data to observe and monitor coastal ocean features over the transition area between the western and eastern Mediterranean Basins. The relative performances of both the AVISO and the X-TRACK research regional altimetric data sets are compared using in situ observations. Both products are cross validated with tide gauge records. The altimeter-derived geostrophic velocities are also compared with observations from a moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Results indicate the good potential of satellite altimetry to retrieve dynamic features over the area. However, X-TRACK shows a more homogenous data coverage than AVISO, with longer time series in the 50 km coastal band. The seasonal evolution of the surface circulation is therefore analyzed by conjointly using X-TRACK data and remotely sensed sea surface temperature observations. This combined data set clearly depicts different current regimes and bifurcations, which allows us to propose a new seasonal circulation scheme for the central Mediterranean. The analysis shows variations of the path and temporal behavior of the main circulation features: the Atlantic Tunisian Current, the Atlantic Ionian Stream, the Atlantic Libyan Current, and the Sidra Gyre. The resulting bifurcating veins of these currents are also discussed, and a new current branch is observed for the first time.

  10. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  11. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  12. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  13. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  14. Stream dynamics: An overview for land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard H. Heede

    1980-01-01

    Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predictions show how management actions will affect the stream and its environment.

  15. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  16. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  17. The long term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy B. Jones; Amanda J. Rinehart

    2010-01-01

    Warming in the boreal forest of interior Alaska will have fundamental impacts on stream ecosystems through changes in stream hydrology resulting from upslope loss of permafrost, alteration of availability of soil moisture, and the distribution of vegetation. We examined stream flow in three headwater streams of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) in...

  18. Restoring Summer Base Flow under a Decentralized Water Management Regime: Constraints, Opportunities, and Outcomes in Mediterranean-Climate California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Deitch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal rainfall dynamics in Mediterranean-climate coastal California place pressures on humans and aquatic ecosystems. Without rainfall during summer, residents and land managers commonly turn to streams and adjacent shallow aquifers to meet domestic, irrigation, and recreational water needs, often depleting the water necessary to support stream biota. The potential for adverse ecological impacts within this coupled natural-human system has led to interest in restoring summer base flow (especially for federally protected steelhead and coho salmon, which depend on flow through the summer dry season for juvenile survival through methods such as reducing dry-season water abstractions. Characterizing constraints and opportunities has proven useful for planning streamflow restoration in Mediterranean-climate coastal California. Biophysical parameters such as ample rainfall and very low summer discharge are critical considerations, but institutional parameters are equally important: regional management practices and state laws can inhibit streamflow restoration, and implementation is dependent on interrelationships among residents, agency staff, and other stakeholders (which we term the egosystem within each watershed. Additionally, while watershed-scale spatial analysis and field-based evaluations provided a solid foundation for exploring streamflow restoration needs, adaptation based on information from local stakeholders was often essential for prioritizing projects and understanding whether projects will have their intended benefits.

  19. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    programmers learn faster and better while at the same time laying the foundation for a more thorough treatment of more advanced aspects of software engineering. In this article, two examples demonstrate the application of STREAM. The STREAM process has been taught in the introductory programming courses......Programming is recognized as one of seven grand challenges in computing education. Decades of research have shown that the major problems novices experience are composition-based—they may know what the individual programming language constructs are, but they do not know how to put them together....... Despite this fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming education research hardly address the issue of teaching the skills needed for systematic development of programs. We provide a conceptual framework for incremental program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which unifies best...

  20. Total- and methyl-mercury concentrations and methylation rates across the freshwater to hypersaline continuum of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William P.; Swanson, Neil; Black, Brooks; Rudd, Abigail; Carling, Gregory; Fernandez, Diego P.; Luft, John; Van Leeuwen, Jim; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) speciation in water and sediment of the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands, a locale spanning fresh to hypersaline and oxic to anoxic conditions, in order to test the hypothesis that spatial and temporal variations in Hg concentration and methylation rates correspond to observed spatial and temporal trends in Hg burdens previously reported in biota. Water column, sediment, and pore water concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg), as well as related aquatic chemical parameters were examined. Inorganic Hg(II)-methylation rates were determined in selected water column and sediment subsamples spiked with inorganic divalent mercury (204Hg(II)). Net production of Me204Hg was expressed as apparent first-order rate constants for methylation (kmeth), which were also expanded to MeHg production potential (MPP) rates via combination with tin reducible ‘reactive’ Hg(II) (Hg(II)R) as a proxy for bioavailable Hg(II). Notable findings include: 1) elevated Hg concentrations previously reported in birds and brine flies were spatially proximal to the measured highest MeHg concentrations, the latter occurring in the anoxic deep brine layer (DBL) of the Great Salt Lake; 2) timing of reduced Hg(II)-methylation rates in the DBL (according to both kmeth and MPP) coincides with reduced Hg burdens among aquatic invertebrates (brine shrimp and brine flies) that act as potential vectors of Hg propagation to the terrestrial ecosystem; 3) values ofkmeth were found to fall within the range reported by other studies; and 4) MPP rates were on the lower end of the range reported in methodologically comparable studies, suggesting the possibility that elevated MeHg in the anoxic deep brine layer results from its accumulation and persistence in this quasi-isolated environment, due to the absence of light (restricting abiotic photo demethylation) and/or minimal microbiological demethylation.

  1. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RNM Queiroz

    Full Text Available The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H′=1.25. Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa(C. B. Adams, 1845 was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758 in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  2. A microbial oasis in the hypersaline Atacama subsurface discovered by a life detector chip: implications for the search for life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Victor; de Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Blanco, Yolanda; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gómez, Felipe; Gómez, Manuel J; Rivas, Luis A; Demergasso, Cecilia; Echeverría, Alex; Urtuvia, Viviana N; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Postigo, Marina; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Chong-Díaz, Guillermo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-12-01

    The Atacama Desert has long been considered a good Mars analogue for testing instrumentation for planetary exploration, but very few data (if any) have been reported about the geomicrobiology of its salt-rich subsurface. We performed a Mars analogue drilling campaign next to the Salar Grande (Atacama, Chile) in July 2009, and several cores and powder samples from up to 5 m deep were analyzed in situ with LDChip300 (a Life Detector Chip containing 300 antibodies). Here, we show the discovery of a hypersaline subsurface microbial habitat associated with halite-, nitrate-, and perchlorate-containing salts at 2 m deep. LDChip300 detected bacteria, archaea, and other biological material (DNA, exopolysaccharides, some peptides) from the analysis of less than 0.5 g of ground core sample. The results were supported by oligonucleotide microarray hybridization in the field and finally confirmed by molecular phylogenetic analysis and direct visualization of microbial cells bound to halite crystals in the laboratory. Geochemical analyses revealed a habitat with abundant hygroscopic salts like halite (up to 260 g kg(-1)) and perchlorate (41.13 μg g(-1) maximum), which allow deliquescence events at low relative humidity. Thin liquid water films would permit microbes to proliferate by using detected organic acids like acetate (19.14 μg g(-1)) or formate (76.06 μg g(-1)) as electron donors, and sulfate (15875 μg g(-1)), nitrate (13490 μg g(-1)), or perchlorate as acceptors. Our results correlate with the discovery of similar hygroscopic salts and possible deliquescence processes on Mars, and open new search strategies for subsurface martian biota. The performance demonstrated by our LDChip300 validates this technology for planetary exploration, particularly for the search for life on Mars.

  3. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta): importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R N M; Dias, T L P

    2014-08-01

    The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H'=1.25). Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  4. Sediment yields of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Flint, R.F.

    1970-01-01

    Sediment in Wisconsin streams causes economic and engineering problems in water management and reduces the value of water for nearly all uses. Sediment produces problems such as reduced reservoir capacity, navigation hazards, increased cost of water treatment, property damage, temporary loss of farmland, destruction of feeding and nesting grounds of fish, and destruction of wildlife habitat. Sediment in water also reduces the aesthetic value of surface waters and is detrimental to the State's tourist and recreation industry.

  5. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Animal models for auditory streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons’ response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044022

  7. StreamStats, version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Smith, Martyn J.; Guthrie, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kolb, Katharine R.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Santoro, Richard D.; Vraga, Hans W.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionStreamStats version 4, available at https://streamstats.usgs.gov, is a map-based web application that provides an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management, and engineering purposes. Developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the primary purpose of StreamStats is to provide estimates of streamflow statistics for user-selected ungaged sites on streams and for USGS streamgages, which are locations where streamflow data are collected.Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (which is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of exceedance in any year) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; permitting of water withdrawals and wastewater and industrial discharges; hydropower facility design and regulation; and setting of minimum allowed streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. Streamflow statistics can be computed from available data at USGS streamgages depending on the type of data collected at the stations. Most often, however, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to determine the statistics.

  8. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  9. Structural setting and tectonic control of mud volcanous from the central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Chaumillon, E.; Kopf, A.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a recent marine geophysical data set, including swath bathymetry, acoustic imagery and six-channel seismics, recorded over a large area of the Mediterranean Ridge (MR) in early 1998 during the Prismed 2 survey, this paper presents a study of the various relationships observed between

  10. Handbook for Forecasters in the Mediterranean. Part 2. Regional Forecasting Aids for the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    D day plus 1. Metaxas, D. A., 1978: Strong cold outbreaks in the east Mediterranean. A synoptic study. Rivista di Meteorologia Aeronautics, Vol...ROOM ?35 DIRECTOR 6010 EXECUTIVE BLVD JFK INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT RIVISTA DI METEOROLOGIA AEPONATUICAROCKVILLE, MO 20852 JAMAICA, NY 1143D PALAZZO DELLA

  11. ( Hodreum murinum L.) under sub-humid Mediterranean climate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wall barley (Hodreum murinum L.) is an annual cool-season grass species that grows in areas with a Mediterranean climate. It has potential as a forage source in Jordan. The objective was to determine seasonal chemical composition of wall barley grown under sub-humid Mediterranean conditions. A field trial

  12. Frequency of mutations in Mediterranean fever gene, with gender ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common hereditary inflammatory periodic disease, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, abdominal pain, synovitis and pleurisy. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distri- bution of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene mutations and to investigate the ...

  13. Sustainability of the energy sector in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Energy and climate change is a key priority issue mentioned by the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD) which explicitly claims that “Control, reduce or stabilize GhG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions” is a crucial target for Mediterranean countries. This paper uses the integrated assessment model IFs (International Futures) to implement a scenario analysis to investigate the mitigation potential of Mediterranean regions. It analyzes if the Mediterranean regions will be able to reach the MSSD climate change target and recommends amendments of the MSSD to implement with effectiveness climate change policies in the Mediterranean area. -- Highlights: ► In the majority of scenarios emissions in Mediterranean countries are not decreasing over 2020. ► Even in scenarios incorporating multiple policy actions emissions may not be decreasing over 2020. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development needs to go beyond the 2015 deadline to promote climate policies. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development is key to promote coordinated multiple actions to reduce emissions. ► Partial interventions could compromise the effectiveness of the overall regional emissions stabilization policies.

  14. Environmental Assessment for Selected Regions in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    7-23. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1972). Wide scale digital seismic exploration of the Mediterranean Sea. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 14...291-342. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1973). Geophysical exploration of the Mediterranean. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 15: 263-341

  15. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, E.; Boffetta, P.; Lagiou, P.; Ferrari, P.; Buckland, G.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V.; Trichopoulos, D.; Naska, A.; Benetou, V.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; von Ruesten, A.; Panico, S.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; May, A.; Peeters, P. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Buchner, F. L.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M-J; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Hallmans, G.; Johansson, I.; Manjer, J.; Wirfart, E.; Allen, N. E.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N.; Moskal, A.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Romaguera, D.; Mouw, T.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk

  16. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  17. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  18. The Mediterranean Solar Plan: Project proposals for renewable energy in the Mediterranean Partner Countries region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Tarhini, Mohamad; Touati, Manaf; Gonzalez Garcia, David; Alario, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the renewable energy projects, proposed by the nine Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) under the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the associated potential economic impacts. As one of the priority projects of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), the MSP's objective which attracted most attention until now is the intention to deploy an additional 20 GW of renewable electrical capacity in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (covering the MPCs plus Turkey) by 2020. The main findings of this research are: (1) as of February 2010, a total of 10.3 GW of renewable project proposals were identified in the MPCs, corresponding to about half of the 20 GW target; (2) investment needs for the identified projects could amount to EUR 21 billion by 2020, which represents about five times the amount invested by the region in conventional electricity generation in the last decade; and (3) the difference between the cost of renewable electricity generation and the economic cost of its fossil fuel alternatives could amount to EUR 1.2 billion. Insights stemming from the results of this research can generate useful regional messages for energy policy leaders in the MPCs to accelerate the development of renewable energy projects. - Highlights: ► We conducted a systematic survey of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean. ► The identified projects correspond to half the MSP 20 GW target. ► Maturity assessment is used to classify the advancement of the projects. ► We estimated the investment needs and required subsidies in the region by 2020.

  19. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  1. Plant biodiversity in French Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marianne; Bilodeau, Clelia; Alexandre, Frédéric; Godron, Michel; Gresillon, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    In a context of agricultural intensification and increasing urbanization, the biodiversity of farmed plots is a key to improve the sustainability of farmed landscapes. The medium life-duration of the vineyards as well as their location in Mediterranean region are favorable to plant biodiversity. We studied 35 vineyards and if present, their edges, located in three French Mediterranean terroirs: Bandol, Pic Saint Loup and Terrasses du Larzac. We collected botanical information (floral richness et diversity, biological traits), and analyzed their relationships with different factors: social (management, heritage or professional concern), environmental (slope, exposition, geology), spatial (edges, surrounding landscape in a 500 meters radius, distance to the nearest large city). Vineyards are generally heavily disturbed by intensive practices like tilling and application of herbicides, and for this reason their floral diversity is low. This is particularly true in Bandol terroir, in accordance with the standards of the Bandol PDO wine sector. Farmed landscapes and proximity to a large town impact on functional groups, generalist species being overrepresented. If vineyards are surrounded with natural edges, it doubles the floral richness at the plot and edges scale. Species present in vineyards edges are perennial herbaceous species with Euro- Asian and Mediterranean distribution ranges characteristic of prairie and wasteland stages, increasing the functional diversity of vineyards (generalist species). Environmental factors have a lower influence: vineyards are generally located on flat lands. These results suggest that some practices should be encouraged to avoid the biological degradation of vineyards: conservation of tree-lined edges and their extensive management, reduction of chemical weeding, grass-growing using non-cosmopolitan species. These recommendations should also contribute to soil conservation.

  2. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  3. Population structure in the Mediterranean basin: a Y chromosome perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, C; Redhead, N; Romano, V; Calì, F; Lefranc, G; Delague, V; Megarbane, A; Felice, A E; Pascali, V L; Neophytou, P I; Poulli, Z; Novelletto, A; Malaspina, P; Terrenato, L; Berebbi, A; Fellous, M; Thomas, M G; Goldstein, D B

    2006-03-01

    The Mediterranean region has been characterised by a number of pre-historical and historical demographic events whose legacy on the current genetic landscape is still a matter of debate. In order to investigate the degree of population structure across the Mediterranean, we have investigated Y chromosome variation in a large dataset of Mediterranean populations, 11 of which are first described here. Our analyses identify four main clusters in the Mediterranean that can be labelled as North Africa, Arab, Central-East and West Mediterranean. In particular, Near Eastern samples tend to separate according to the presence of Arab Y chromosome lineages, suggesting that the Arab expansion played a major role in shaping the current genetic structuring within the Fertile Crescent.

  4. Familial Mediterranean fever: An updated review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, İsmail; Birlik, Merih; Kasifoğlu, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder characterised by acute attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. FMF primarily affects Jewish, Armenian, Turkish, and Arab populations. The disease is accompanied by a marked decrease in quality of life due to the effects of attacks and subclinical inflammation in the attack-free periods. Untreated or inadequately treated patients run the risk of amyloidosis, which is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, the current information available on FMF is summarised. PMID:27708867

  5. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  6. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-14

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  7. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (November, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. MYTILINEOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present Collective Article information on 26 taxa belonging to 8 Phyla and extended from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine Sea are presented. The new records were found in 9 countries as follows: Spain: first record for the Mediterranean of the crab Cancer bellianus; Algeria: further records of the alien fish Lagocephalus sceleratus to the west Algerian waters; Italy: first report on the presence and establishment of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Lessina and Varano Lagoons (W. Adriatic and of Penaeus aztecus in Corigliano Gulf (Italian Ionian. Moreover, the extension of the distribution range of the polychaete Branchiomma bairdi to W. Sicily as well as that of the crab Ocypode cursor and the bryozoan Catenicella paradoxa to E. Sicily are cited. Slovenia: the record of the rare saccoglossan gastropod Placida cremoniana from Piran (Gulf of Trieste is the first for the Adriatic; Greece: the native sea slug Eubranchus farrani is the first from the Eastern Mediterranean; many sightings of the bamboo corals Isididae distributed along all the E. Ionian Sea and the establishment of P. aztecus in all Greek waters are also reported for first time; the westernmost extension of the alien urchin Diadema setosum in Cretan waters is cited and new sights of the alien species Goniobranchus annulatus and Pterois miles are shown. Turkey: the alien fish Champsodon capensis is reported for first time from the Aegean Sea and the native acari Agauopsis microrhyncha from the Levantine Sea; a new observation of the alien crab Atergatis roseus in Güllük Bay-Aegean is also mentioned; Cyprus: first records of  the alien urchin D. setosum and Lobotes surinamensis in Cypriot waters; Lebanon: several sightings of Monachus monachus from the Lebanese waters indicate a potential better status of the species in the area, Egypt: first records of the alien crab Dorippe quadridens and the alien gastropods Nerita sanguinolenta and Conomurex persicus from the

  8. New Bioactive Alkyl Sulfates from Mediterranean Tunicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Menna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of two species of marine ascidians, Aplidium elegans and Ciona edwardsii, collected in Mediterranean area, led to isolation of a series of alkyl sulfates (compounds 1–5 including three new molecules 1–3. Structures of the new metabolites have been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Based on previously reported cytotoxic activity of these type of molecules, compounds 1–3 have been tested for their effects on the growth of two cell lines, J774A.1 (BALB/c murine macrophages and C6 (rat glioma in vitro. Compounds 1 and 2 induced selective concentration-dependent mortality on J774A.1 cells.

  9. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  10. Wind energy in the Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the main findings relative to the European Communities OPET (Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technology) June 1992 conference on the potential for small and medium size wind energy applications in the Mediterranean countries and gives a panoramic look at progress being made by these countries in the development and use of wind energy turbines. One system which appears to be promising is the Danish 100 kW 'Bonus' wind turbine (23 m rotor, 30 m tower height) which has seen successful applications at a seaside resort and at a remote radio station in terms of performance, environmental compatibility and public acceptance

  11. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents ( N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania ( N = 1863) and Serbia ( N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  12. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  13. Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  14. Sexual dimorphism and age of Mediterranean salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Sandy; Renner, Sandra; Kupfer, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    We analysed sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for two Mediterranean species of the "true" salamander clade possessing distinct life histories (Salamandra algira and Mertensiella caucasica) and equilibrated the morphometric approach to individual age by using skeletochronology. For species that have a short breeding season and live at high altitudes, such as Mediterranean amphibians, the fecundity advantage hypothesis predicts female-biased SSD to maximise reproductive success. Our results showed no SSD in either species; however, morphometric data indicated a male-biased dimorphism in limb (arm and leg) dimensions in both species when compared to body size. Limb dimorphisms are likely related to the particular mating system, which involves an amplexus during spermatophore transfer. Arm length appeared sexually dimorphic during ontogeny both in viviparous S. algira and oviparous M. caucasica. A review on SSD indicated monomorphy of body size as a common lineage-specific pattern among the "true" salamander clade, but also the common presence of other traits such as sexually dimorphic limb proportions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Timing calibration of the NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, Marco

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the timing calibration system for the NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory (NEMO) underwater neutrino telescope. The NEMO Project aims at the construction of a km3 detector, equipped with a large number of photomultipliers, in the Mediterranean Sea. We foresee a redundant system to perform the time calibration of our apparatus: (1) A two-step procedure for measuring the offsets in the time measurements of the NEMO optical sensors, so as to measure separately the time delay for the synchronization signals to reach the offshore electronics and the response time of the photomultipliers to calibration signals delivered from a pulser through an optical fibre distribution system; (2) An all-optical procedure for measuring the differences in the time offsets of the different optical modules by means of common light sources. Such a system can be extended to work for a very large apparatus, even for complex arrangements of widely spaced sensors. The NEMO prototyping activities ongoing at a test site off the coast of Sicily will allow the system described in this work to be operated and tested in situ this year.

  16. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mediterranean Diet and Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Selmin, Ornella I.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of research data suggests that traditional dietary habits and lifestyle unique to the Mediterranean region (Mediterranean diet, MD) lower the incidence of chronic diseases and improve longevity. These data contrast with troubling statistics in the United States and other high income countries pointing to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and the projected explosion in cost of medical care associated with an aging population. In 2013, the MD was inscribed by UNESCO in the “Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.” The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans included the MD as a healthy dietary pattern. Therefore, specific objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the nutritional basis of this healthful diet, its metabolic benefits, and its role in multiple aspects of disease prevention and healthy aging. Whereas recommendations about the MD often focus on specific foods or bioactive compounds, we suggest that the eating pattern as a whole likely contributes to the health promoting effects of the MD. PMID:29051674

  19. Assessing the efficiency of Mediterranean ditch networks in preventing vineyards soil erosion within landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levavasseur, Florent; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Lagacherie, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Water erosion of cultivated soils is a threat to the sustainability of agriculture, especially in Mediterranean areas. For a long time, Mediterranean farmers have thus adopted some soil conservation practices. Actual ditch networks, which are generally associated with terraces, result from historical successive farmer settlements and are one of these soil conservation practices. By intercepting surface run-off, ditches decrease slope length and prevent soil erosion on downstream plots. However, since water erosion hazard and ditch network geometries are highly variable in vineyards landscape and since ditch building and maintaining are costly, the objective of this study was to identify and map the resulting efficiency of ditch networks in preventing soil erosion. For a given area, a ditch network efficiency is defined here as the balance between the network density, i.e. network cumulated length for a given area unit, and the erosion sensitivity over an area which measures the performance of the ditch network in limiting soil erosion. The erosion efficiency of ditch networks was thus identified using both i) computer generated ditch networks with various spatial configurations and ii) the stream power index as an erosion sensitivity indicator, computed from a DTM in which each ditch network was burned. The stream power index of the actual networks were compared with a set of generated networks whose density and topology were selected to maximize the performance in preventing soil erosion thanks to the use of a self-developed optimized stochastic network generator. For four 1 km² hillslopes, we showed that the performances of actual networks to prevent soil erosion was among the best that were obtained by simulated networks with even greater densities. Furthermore, we showed that the stream power index values that accounted for the actual ditch networks to prevent soil erosion hazard was both minimal and weakly variable in the whole study area (30 km²) at

  20. Sentiment Knowledge Discovery in Twitter Streaming Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifet, Albert; Frank, Eibe

    Micro-blogs are a challenging new source of information for data mining techniques. Twitter is a micro-blogging service built to discover what is happening at any moment in time, anywhere in the world. Twitter messages are short, and generated constantly, and well suited for knowledge discovery using data stream mining. We briefly discuss the challenges that Twitter data streams pose, focusing on classification problems, and then consider these streams for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. To deal with streaming unbalanced classes, we propose a sliding window Kappa statistic for evaluation in time-changing data streams. Using this statistic we perform a study on Twitter data using learning algorithms for data streams.

  1. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  2. BLOSTREAM: A HIGH SPEED STREAM CIPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI H. KASHMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although stream ciphers are widely utilized to encrypt sensitive data at fast speeds, security concerns have led to a shift from stream to block ciphers, judging that the current technology in stream cipher is inferior to the technology of block ciphers. This paper presents the design of an improved efficient and secure stream cipher called Blostream, which is more secure than conventional stream ciphers that use XOR for mixing. The proposed cipher comprises two major components: the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG using the Rabbit algorithm and a nonlinear invertible round function (combiner for encryption and decryption. We evaluate its performance in terms of implementation and security, presenting advantages and disadvantages, comparison of the proposed cipher with similar systems and a statistical test for randomness. The analysis shows that the proposed cipher is more efficient, high speed, and secure than current conventional stream ciphers.

  3. A groundwater salinity hotspot and its connection to an intermittent stream identified by environmental tracers (Mt Lofty Ranges, South Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas A.; Bestland, Erick A.; Soloninka, Lesja; Wallis, Ilka; Banks, Edward W.; Pichler, Markus

    2017-12-01

    High and variable levels of salinity were investigated in an intermittent stream in a high-rainfall area (˜800 mm/year) of the Mt. Lofty Ranges of South Australia. The groundwater system was found to have a local, upslope saline lens, referred to here as a groundwater salinity `hotspot'. Environmental tracer analyses (δ18O, δ2H, 87/86Sr, and major elements) of water from the intermittent stream, a nearby permanent stream, shallow and deep groundwater, and soil-water/runoff demonstrate seasonal groundwater input of very saline composition into the intermittent stream. This input results in large salinity increases of the stream water because the winter wet-season stream flow decreases during spring in this Mediterranean climate. Furthermore, strontium and water isotope analyses demonstrate: (1) the upslope-saline-groundwater zone (hotspot) mixes with the dominant groundwater system, (2) the intermittent-stream water is a mixture of soil-water/runoff and the upslope saline groundwater, and (3) the upslope-saline-groundwater zone results from the flushing of unsaturated-zone salts from the thick clayey regolith and soil which overlie the metamorphosed shale bedrock. The preferred theory on the origin of the upslope-saline-groundwater hotspot is land clearing of native deep-rooted woodland, followed by flushing of accumulated salts from the unsaturated zone due to increased recharge. This cause of elevated groundwater and surface-water salinity, if correct, could be widespread in Mt. Lofty Ranges areas, as well as other climatically and geologically similar areas with comparable hydrogeologic conditions.

  4. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  5. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  6. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  7. Parikh Matching in the Streaming Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Lap-Kei; Lewenstein, Moshe; Zhang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    |-length count vector. In the streaming model one seeks space-efficient algorithms for problems in which there is one pass over the data. We consider Parikh matching in the streaming model. To make this viable we search for substrings whose Parikh-mappings approximately match the input vector. In this paper we...... present upper and lower bounds on the problem of approximate Parikh matching in the streaming model....

  8. Network Characteristics of Video Streaming Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Silverlight, Flash, or HTML5 ) used for video streaming. In particular, we identify three different streaming strategies that produce traffic... HTML5 , Flash. 1. INTRODUCTION The popularity of video streaming has considerably increased in the last decade. Indeed, recent studies have shown...applications for mobile devices), and the container (Flash [10], HTML5 [18], Silverlight [4]), on the charac- teristics of the traffic between the

  9. On-stream chemical element monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averitt, O.R.; Dorsch, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method for on-stream chemical element monitoring are described wherein a multiplicity of sample streams are flowed continuously through individual analytical cells and fluorescence analyses are performed on the sample streams in sequence, together with a method of controlling the time duration of each analysis as a function of the concomitant radiation exposure of a preselected perforate reference material interposed in the sample-radiation source path

  10. Streaming Video Modeling for Robotics Teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    When creating a context a RGBA pixel format is used, and the format of the destination is copied from the codec object. The frame object requires...stream, configuration, buffers, and a header. A video format object is created with default settings and a video stream that uses the codec id from...the stream, and a copy of the codec context is made for use in the decoding process. Decoding and Displaying the Frame Decoding and displaying

  11. Structural and functional analysis of a microbial mat ecosystem from a unique permanent hypersaline inland lake: 'La Salada de Chiprana' (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Henk M; Ludwig, Rebecca; Wit, Rutger; Pringault, Olivier; Muyzer, Gerard; Niemann, Helge; Finke, Niko; Beer, Dirk

    2003-05-01

    The benthic microbial mat community of the only permanent hypersaline natural inland lake of Western Europe, 'La Salada de Chiprana', northeastern Spain, was structurally and functionally analyzed. The ionic composition of the lake water is characterized by high concentrations of magnesium and sulfate, which were respectively 0.35 and 0.5 M at the time of sampling while the total salinity was 78 g l(-1). Community composition was analyzed by microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment analyses and by studying culturable bacteria from different functional groups. Therefore, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied on most probable number (MPN) dilution cultures. Microscopy revealed that a thin layer of Chloroflexus-like bacteria overlaid various cyanobacteria-dominated layers each characterized by different morphotypes. DGGE analysis of MPN dilution cultures from distinct mat layers showed that various phylotypes of anoxygenic phototrophic, aerobic heterotrophic, colorless sulfur-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were present. The mats were furthermore functionally studied and attention was focussed on the relationship between oxygenic primary production and the flow of carbon through the microbial community. Microsensor techniques, porewater and sediment photopigment analysis were applied in order to estimate oxygenic photosynthetic rates, daily dynamics of (in)organic carbon porewater concentration and migration behavior of phototrophs. Chiprana microbial mats produced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) both during the day and night. It was estimated that 14% of the mats gross photosynthetic production and 49% of the mats net photosynthetic production diffused out of the mat in the form of low molecular mass fatty acids, although these compounds made up only 2% of the total DOC pool. The high flux of dissolved fatty acids from the microbial mat to the water column may explain why in this system Chloroflexus-like bacteria

  12. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Roman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Roman1, Laura Carta2, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González3, Lluís Serra-Majem41Mediterranean Diet Foundation, University of Barcelona Science Park, Spain; 2Department of Biosystems and Applied Sciences, Unit of Physiology and Human Nutrition, University of Cagliari, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Spain; 4Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SpainAbstract: The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older. A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported.Keywords: Mediterranean diet, elderly, health, review

  13. The Overview and Appliance of some Streaming Video software solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Qin , Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic streaming media technology, the streaming media system structure, principles of streaming media technology; streaming media file formats and so on. After that, it discusses the use streaming media in distance education, broadband video on demand, Internet broadcasting, video conferences and a more detailed exposition in streaming media. As the existing technology has been unable to satisfy the increasing needs of the Internet users, the streaming media technol...

  14. Sediment Characteristics of Tennessee Streams and Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Stanley W; Carey, William P

    1984-01-01

    Suspended-sediment and reservoir sedimentation data have been analyzed to determine sediment yields and transport characteristics of Tennessee streams Data from 31 reservoirs plus suspended-sediment...

  15. Structured multi-stream command language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    A multi-stream command language was implemented to provide the sequential and decision-making operations necessary to run the neutral-beam ion sources connected to the Doublet III tokamak fusion device. A multi-stream command language was implemented in Pascal on a Classic 7870 running under MAX IV. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to provide a brief description of the programs comprising the command language including the operating system interaction. Second, to give a description of the language syntax and commands necessary to develop a procedure stream. Third, to provide a description of the normal operating procedures for executing either the sequential or interactive streams

  16. Demetallization of hydrocarbon containing feed streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukes, S.G.; Hawley, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes how metals contained in a hydrocarbon containing feed stream are removed by contacting the hydrocarbon containing feed stream under suitable demetallization conditions with hydrogen and a catalyst composition comprising zirconium phosphate, cobalt phosphate and iron phosphate. The life and activity of the catalyst composition may be increased by introducing a decomposable metal compound selected from the group consisting of the metals of Group V-B, Group VI-B, Group VII-B and Group VIII of the Periodic Table into the hydrocarbon containing feed stream prior to contacting the hydrocarbon containing feed stream with the catalyst composition

  17. Occurrence of Diopatra marocensis (Annelida, Onuphidae in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih ÇINAR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the presence of Diopatra marocensis in the eastern Mediterranean. This species is small-sized and inhabited muddy bottom near the opening of rivers or lagoons [salinity range: 33−39‰] in the Aegean and Levantine Seas, and reached a maximum density of 90 ind.m-2 in Mersin Bay. This species might be an alien species that was introduced from the East Atlantic (near Gibraltar to the eastern Mediterranean via ballast water of ships, as it has never been reported from the western Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  19. SPIRORBID POLYCHAETES AS BOREAL GUESTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN PLEISTOCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSANA SANFILIPPO

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Spirorbis spirorbis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Spirorbis corallinae (de Silva & Knight-Jones, 1962 from Early and Middle Pleistocene deposits in Sicily and submerged Late Glacial sediments in the Western Mediterranean is presented. Today both species live on shores and very shallow bottoms in the North Atlantic and are unknown from the Recent Mediterranean. Such differences in their present and past biogeographic distributions suggest that these species were Boreal Guests (BGs in the Mediterranean Pleistocene. Special attention is paid to tube morphology and structure, which bear some diagnostic features for species identification. 

  20. Mediterranean Sea large-scale low-frequency ocean variability and water mass formation rates from 1987 to 2007: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinardi, Nadia; Zavatarelli, Marco; Adani, Mario; Coppini, Giovanni; Fratianni, Claudia; Oddo, Paolo; Simoncelli, Simona; Tonani, Marina; Lyubartsev, Vladislav; Dobricic, Srdjan; Bonaduce, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    We describe a synthesis of the Mediterranean Sea circulation structure and dynamics from a 23-year-long reanalysis of the ocean circulation carried out by Adani et al. (2011). This mesoscale permitting dynamical reconstruction of past ocean variability in the Mediterranean Sea allows the study of the time-mean circulation and its low frequency, decadal, components. It is found that the time-mean circulation is composed of boundary and open ocean intensified jets at the border of cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres. The large scale basin circulation is generally characterized in the northern regions by cyclonic gyres and in its southern parts by anticyclonic gyres and eddy-dominated flow fields, with the exception of the Tyrrhenian and the northern Ionian Sea. The time-mean Tyrrhenian Sea circulation is dominated by cyclonic gyres of different intensity and intermittency. The northern Ionian Sea circulation, however, reverses in sign in two ten-year periods, the first in 1987-1996 and the second in 1997-2006, which is here called the Northern Ionian reversal phenomenon. This reversal is provoked by the excursion of the Atlantic-Ionian Stream from the middle to the northern parts of the basin. The decadal variability of other parts of the basin is characterized by changes in strength of the basin scale structures. The water mass formation rates and variability are dominated by event-like periods where the intermediate and deep waters are formed for 2-3 years at higher rates. The largest deep water formation events of the past 23 years occurred separately in the western and eastern Mediterranean basin: the first coincided with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (Roether et al., 1996) and the second with the western Mediterranean deep water formation event in 2005-2006 (Smith et al., 2008). A new schematic of the basin-scale circulation is formulated and commented.