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Sample records for mediterranean corn borer

  1. Development of a sprayable slow-release formulation for the sex pheromone of the Mediterranean Corn Borer, Sesamia nonagroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, J.J. de

    2008-01-01

    In the FAIR project "Pheromaize", CT96-1302, the main objective is to provide European growers with a reliable, cost effective and environmentally friendly technology based on pest mating disruption. The project is mainly focused on Mediterranean Corn Borer (MCB), Sesamia nonagroides, the key pest

  2. QTL Mapping for Yield and Resistance against Mediterranean Corn Borer in Maize

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    José C. Jiménez-Galindo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays, in Mediterranean countries, inflicting significant kernel yield losses. For that reason, it necessary to know the genetic mechanisms that regulate the agronomic and resistance traits. A quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping study for yield, resistance against MCB attack, and other relevant agronomic traits was performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from the cross A637 × A509 that is expected to segregate for yield, and ear, and stalk resistance to MCB. 171 RILs were evaluated in 2014 and 2015 at Pontevedra, Spain, along with the two parental inbreds A637 and A509 using a 13 × 14 single lattice design with two replications. A genetic map with 285 SNP markers was used for QTL analysis. Our objectives were to detect QTL for resistance to MCB and tolerance-related agronomic traits, to gain insights on the genetic relationship between resistance to MCB attack and yield, and to establish the best way for simultaneously improving yield and resistance to MCB.Results: Twelve significant QTL were detected for agronomic and resistance traits. QTL at bins 1.10 and 5.04 were especially interesting because the same allelic variant at these QTL simultaneously improved yield and insect resistance. In contrast, in the region 8.04–8.05, QTL showed opposite effects for yield and resistance. Several QTL for indexes which combine yield and resistance traits were found especially in the region 10.02–10.03.Conclusions: Selecting genotypes with the favorable allele of QTL on chromosome 5 (bin 5.01 will decrease tunnel length without affect yield, silking and plant height and QTL on the region 5.04 could be used to improve stalk resistance and yield simultaneously. An allele of QTL on bin 9.07 will increase ear resistance to MCB attack but it could produce later varieties while favorable allele in region 1.10 could improve ear and

  3. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

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    Santiago Rogelio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

  4. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn.

  5. Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Transgenic Corn: An Assessment of Refuge Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock

    1999-01-01

    The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.

  6. Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered.

  7. Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2013-04-01

    Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun.

  8. Sterility inheritance in the irradiated European Corn Borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, I.; Barbulescu, Al.

    1990-01-01

    The inherited sterility in F 1 and F 2 of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses of 10 and 15 Krad has been studied at Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops, Fundulea, Romania. Irradiations were done with a 60 Co source delivering 1,805 roentgen/h/m in containers of 23 mm diameter and 125 mm height, placed apart from the 60 Co source. Following irradiation of male parent generation, no significant differences were recorded in F 1 and F 2 referring to the number of deposited egg-batches and adult longevity. Nevertheless, there was a significant decrease of the percentage of viable eggs and an increase of the number of sterile couples. (author)

  9. Asian corn borer (ACB) and non-ACB pests in GM corn (Zea mays L.) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afidchao, Miladis M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2013-07-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging pest in corn in south-east Asia. Corn farmers in the Philippines have incurred great yield losses in the past decades because of ACB infestation. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bt herbicide-tolerant (BtHT) corns have been developed to reduce borer attacks worldwide. This study assessed the extent of ACB and non-ACB pest infestations in both GM and non-GM corn in Isabela Province, the Philippines. Specific aims were to reinvestigate the efficacy of Bt corn in controlling ACB, to evaluate what parts of Bt corn plants are susceptible to ACB, to monitor the potential development of ACB resistance and to evaluate whether secondary pests dominate in an ACB-free Bt corn environment. The study involved preparatory interviews with farmers, site selection, field scouting and visual inspection of 200 plants along 200 m transect lines through 198 cornfields. Bt corn can efficiently reduce the ACB pest problem and reduce borer damage by 44%, to damage levels in Bt and BtHT corn of 6.8 and 7% respectively. The leaves of Bt corn were more susceptible, while cobs of Bt corn were less affected by ACB. Non-ACB pests were common in Bt toxin-free cornfields and reduced in non-GM cornfields where ACB was abundant. No secondary pest outbreaks were found in ACB-free Bt cornfields. Bt and BtHT corn hybrids containing the Cry1Ab protein performed well in Isabela Province. Reduced cob damage by ACB on Bt fields could mean smaller economic losses even with ACB infestation. The occurrence of ACB in Bt and BtHT cornfields, although at a moderate and insignificant level, could imply the potential development of resistance to Bt toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Implications of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, infestation in an Aspergillus flavus-biocontrolled corn agroecosystem.

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    Mencarelli, Mariangela; Accinelli, Cesare; Vicari, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    A novel biocontrol strategy consisting of field application of bioplastic-based granules inoculated with a non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus L. strain has recently been shown to be effective for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study focused on other factors that may affect the feasibility of this biocontrol technique, and more specifically the role of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis H., in the dispersal and infestation of A. flavus in corn and its impact on crop yield. In spite of the high percentage of corn ears showing larval feeding damage, ECB-bored kernels accounted for only 3 and 4% in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Most of the damaged kernels were localised in the ear tip or immediately below. More precisely, the average incidence of ECB-bored kernels in the upper end of the ear was 32%. However, less than 5% of kernels from the central body of the ear, which includes the majority of kernels, were injured by ECB. Although ECB larvae showed a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 and thus had the potential to serve as vectors of the mould, fungal infection of kernels was poorly associated with insect damage. ECB infestation resulted in grain yield losses not exceeding 2.5%. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Datasets for transcriptomic analyses of maize leaves in response to Asian corn borer feeding and/or jasmonic acid

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    Corn is one of the most widely grown crops throughout the world. However, many corn fields develop pest problems such as corn borers every year that seriously affect its yield and quality. Corn's response to initial insect damage involves a variety of changes to the levels of defensive enzymes, toxi...

  12. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

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    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  13. Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.

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    Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.

  14. Native bark beetles and wood borers in Mediterranean forests of California

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    Christopher J.  Fettig

    2016-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), and to a much lesser extent wood borers (primarily Coleoptera: Buprestidae and Cerambycidae), are capable of causing conifer mortality in Mediterranean forests of California, U.S. This mortality is an important part of the ecology of these ecosystems, but the economic and social...

  15. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

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    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  16. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  17. Transgenic Bt corn varietal resistance against the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Cramibidae) and implications to sugarcane

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    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), attacks crops including corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; and sugarcane, Saccharum spp., but strongly resistant varieties of any kind, native or otherwise, have not been identified. A field plot corn varie...

  18. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

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    Fan Jiang

    Full Text Available A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  19. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Tiantao; Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  20. Combining ability in maize for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer resistance based on a laboratory bioassay for larval growth.

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    Williams, W P; Buckley, P M; Davis, F M

    1995-02-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, are major insect pests of maize, Zea mays L., in the southern USA. Both insects feed extensively on leaves of plants in the whorl stage of growth. A diallel cross of seven inbred lines with different levels of susceptibility to leaf feeding damage in the field was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer larval growth. Diets were prepared from lyophilized leaf tissue of field-grown plants of the inbred lines and their 21 F1 hybrids. One inbred line, Tx601, exhibited heavy leaf damage in field tests but showed moderate resistance in the laboratory bioassay. Both general and specific combining ability were highly significant sources of variation in the inheritance of fall armyworm and south-western corn borer larval growth in the laboratory bioassay. Tx601 showed excellent general combining ability for reduced larval growth of both species.

  1. Covalent cross-linking of cell-wall polysaccharides through esterified diferulates as a maize resistance mechanism against corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

    2015-03-04

    There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming.

  2. Current European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, injury levels in the northeastern United States and the value of Bt field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric W; Breining, James A; Shaffer, John A; Fleischer, Shelby J; Roth, Gregory W; Tooker, John F

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence indicates that some populations of European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), have declined to historic lows owing to widespread adoption of Bt corn hybrids. To understand current ECB populations in Pennsylvania field corn, the authors assessed larval damage in Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at 29 sites over 3 years. The influence of Bt adoption rates, land cover types and moth activity on levels of ECB damage was also considered. Bt hybrids reduced ECB damage when compared with non-Bt, but these differences inconsistently translated to higher yields and, because of higher seed costs, rarely improved profits. No relationships were detected between land use or Bt adoption and ECB damage rates, but positive relationships were found between plant damage and captures of Z-race ECB moths in pheromone traps in the PestWatch network. ECB damage levels were generally low and appear to be declining across Pennsylvania. In many locations, farmers may gain greater profits by planting competitive non-Bt hybrids; however, Bt hybrids remain valuable control options, particularly in the parts of Pennsylvania where ECB populations persist. Moth captures from PestWatch appear to provide insight into where Bt hybrids are most valuable. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Non-Pleiotropic Coupling of Daily and Seasonal Temporal Isolation in the European Corn Borer

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    Rebecca C. Levy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Speciation often involves the coupling of multiple isolating barriers to produce reproductive isolation, but how coupling is generated among different premating barriers is unknown. We measure the degree of coupling between the daily mating time and seasonal mating time between strains of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis and evaluate the hypothesis that the coupling of different forms of allochrony is due to a shared genetic architecture, involving genes with pleiotropic effects on both timing phenotypes. We measure differences in gene expression at peak mating times and compare these genes to previously identified candidates that are associated with changes in seasonal mating time between the corn borer strains. We find that the E strain, which mates earlier in the season, also mates 2.7 h earlier in the night than the Z strain. Earlier daily mating is correlated with the differences in expression of the circadian clock genes cycle, slimb, and vrille. However, different circadian clock genes associate with daily and seasonal timing, suggesting that the coupling of timing traits is maintained by natural selection rather than pleiotropy. Juvenile hormone gene expression was associated with both types of timing, suggesting that circadian genes activate common downstream modules that may impose constraint on future evolution of these traits.

  4. Variation in microRNA levels between Cry1Ab-resistant and susceptible strains of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic maize hybrids that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins effectively protect against feeding damage inflicted by the insect pest the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Field monitoring and laboratory selections have detected varying level...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE PRESENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner

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    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments with natural population of European corn borer (ECB were conducted in three vegetation seasons (2012-2014 at Agricultural Institute in Osijek. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design as split-split plot method, with three repetitions. This plot has been constantly maize - soybean rotation for already 15 years. It was a 3x3x4 factorial experiment with three irrigation levels (A1- non-irrigated (only natural precipitation, A2-from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3-from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1-0, B2-100 and B3-200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1-0SSK 596; C2-0SSK 617; C3-0SSK 602 and C4-0SSK 552.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotypes on occurrence and damage of maize plants by the European corn borer larvae and relation between leaf feeding larvae with nitrogen and silicon concentration as well as C/N ratio. At the end of each growing season, ten maize plants from each variant were cut. Ear weight for each specific plant (g, tunnel length (cm, number of larvae in stalk, number of larvae in the ear shank, ear shank damage (cm and total number of larvae in maize plantwere determined. In silking stage (middle of July ten leaves (below the ear, from 10 maize plants were sampled on each variant. Nitrogen, carbon and silicon concentrations were determined in maize leaf (% and C/N ratio calculated. In 2014, a significantly lower ECB attack was determined taking into account lower temperatures and higher amount of precipitate compared to the previous years. Dominance of Z-type European corn borer on pheromone traps in the area of eastern Slavonia was confirmed. Increasing the level of soil water content, damage from larvae was reduced and increasing the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. We have confirmed different hybrid resistance in regards to damage from larvae

  6. THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER (OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HÜBNER REVIEW OF RESULTS FROM CROATIA

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    Marija Ivezić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.

  7. European Corn Borer life stage model: Regional estimates of pest development and spatial distribution under present and future climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Muška, F.; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Kocmánková, E.; Žalud, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 207, 2-4 (2007), s. 61-84 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QG60051; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0125 Grant - others:6th FP EU(XE) GOCE 037005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Corn borer * ECAMON * GCMs * Degree day model * Climate change impacts Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2007

  8. Sympatric host races of the European corn borer: adaptation to host plants and hybrid performance.

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    Calcagno, V; Thomas, Y; Bourguet, D

    2007-09-01

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of maize crops. In Europe, two sympatric host races are found: one feeds on maize (Zea mays) and the other mainly on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). The two host races are genetically differentiated, seldom crossing in the laboratory or in the field, and females preferentially lay eggs on their native host species. We conducted two independent experiments, in field and greenhouse conditions, to determine whether the two host races are locally adapted to their host species. The effect of larval density and the performance of hybrids were also investigated. Despite some differences in overall larval feeding performance, both experiments revealed consistent patterns of local adaptation for survival and for larval weight in males. In females the same trend was observed but with weaker statistical support. F1 hybrids did not seem to be disadvantaged compared with the two parental races. Overall, our results showed that both host races are physiologically adapted to their native host. The fitness trade-off between the two host plants provides a potential driving force for ecological speciation in this species.

  9. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie

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    Yueqin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F1 crosses were similar (LC50s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g, which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance (h decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue (h = 0.02, but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant (h = 0.98 on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold, Cry1Ac (0.8-fold, Cry1F (0.9-fold, and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold. The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  10. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Prophenoloxidases from Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée

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    Shasha Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect phenoloxidase (PO belongs to the type 3 copper protein family and possesses oxidoreductase activities. PO is typically synthesized as a zymogen called prophenoloxidase (PPO and requires the proteolytic activation to function. We here cloned full-length cDNA for 3 previously unidentified PPOs, which we named OfPPO1a, OfPPO1b, and OfPPO3, from Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée, in addition to the previously known OfPPO2. These conceptual PPOs and OfPPO2 all contain two common copper-binding regions, two potential proteolytic activation sites, a plausible thiol-ester site, and a conserved C-terminal region but lack a secretion signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus. O. furnacalis PPOs were highly similar to other insect PPOs (42% to 79% identity and clustered well with other lepidopteran PPOs. RT-PCR assay showed the transcripts of the 4 OfPPOs were all detected at the highest level in hemocytes and at the increased amounts after exposure to infection by bacteria and fungi. Additionally, we established an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system to produce recombinant O. furnacalis PPO proteins for future use in investigating their functions. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the activation and functioning mechanisms of O. furnacalis PPOs.

  11. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie.

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    Wang, Yueqin; Yang, Jing; Quan, Yudong; Wang, Zhenying; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2017-06-07

    A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR) after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F₁ crosses were similar (LC 50 s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g), which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance ( h ) decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue ( h = 0.02), but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant ( h = 0.98) on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold), Cry1Ac (0.8-fold), Cry1F (0.9-fold), and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold). The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  12. Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner pheromone reception

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    Heckel David G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.

  13. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  14. Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer

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    Hansson Bill S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG. Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered

  15. Susceptibility of The Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin CRY1AC

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    Aye Kyawt Kyawt Ei

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The larval susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, to a Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Cry1Ac was evaluated using insect feeding bioassays. The founding population of O. furnacalis was originally collected from the experimental station of UGM at Kalitirto and had been reared in the laboratory for three generations using an artificial diet “InsectaLf”. The tested instars were exposed on diets treated with a series of concentrations of Cry1Ac for one week. The LC50 values on the seventh day after treatment for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars were 7.79, 21.12, 113.66, and 123.17 ppm, respectively, showing that the higher the instars the lesser the susceptibility to Cry1Ac. When the neonates were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cry1Ac (0.0583, 0.116, and 0.5830 ppm, growth and development of the surviving larvae were inhibited. The fecundity and viability of females produced from treated larvae decreased with increasing the concentrations. These findings indicate that Cry1Ac is toxic to larva of O. furnacalis and has chronic effects to larvae surviving from Cry1Ac ingestion.   Kepekaan larva penggerek batang jagung Asia, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, terhadap protein Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac diuji dengan metode celup pakan. Larva berasal dari pertanaman jagung di KP-4, UGM di Kalitirto dan telah dikembangbiakkan di laboratorium menggunakan pakan buatan (InsectaLF selama tiga generasi sebelum digunakan untuk pengujian. Larva O. furnacalis yang diuji dipaparkan pada pakan buatan yang telah dicelupkan pada seri konsentrasi Cry1Ac. Nilai LC50 pada hari ketujuh setelah perlakukan untuk instar 1, 2, 3, dan 4 berturut-turut adalah 0,79; 21,12; 113,66; dan 123,17 ppm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa instar yang semakin tinggi tingkat kepekaannya terhadap Cry1Ac semakin menurun. Larva yang baru menetas dan diberi pakan yang telah dicelupkan pada konsentrasi sublethal Cry1Ac

  16. Genetic hitchhiking associated with life history divergence and colonization of North America in the European corn borer moth.

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    Dopman, Erik B

    2011-05-01

    A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation. Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories of population divergence, including strict allopatric isolation, restricted migration, secondary contact, and population growth or decline. This result corroborates a previous QTL study that identified the Tpi chromosomal region as a repository for gene(s) contributing to divergence in life history. Patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at Tpi suggest a recent selective sweep and genetic hitchhiking associated with colonization of North America from Europe ~200 generations ago. These results indicate that gene genealogies initially diverge during speciation because of selective sweeps, but differential introgression may play a role in the maintenance of differentiation for sympatric populations.

  17. Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S

    2010-10-08

    Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management.

  18. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  19. Impact on bacterial community in midguts of the Asian corn borer larvae by transgenic Trichoderma strain overexpressing a heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding domain.

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    Yingying Li

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H and the Simpson (1-D indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.

  20. Microbial diversity in the midguts of field and lab-reared populations of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis.

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    Eugeni Belda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of comparing the biodiversity of the midgut-associated microbiota and explore their potential as a source of genes and enzymes with biotechnological applications. METHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high-throughput sequencing approach has been used to identify bacterial species, genes and metabolic pathways, particularly those involved in plant-matter degradation, in two different ECB populations (field-collected vs. lab-reared population with artificial diet. Analysis of the resulting sequences revealed the massive presence of Staphylococcus warneri and Weissella paramesenteroides in the lab-reared sample. This enabled us to reconstruct both genomes almost completely. Despite the apparently low diversity, 208 different genera were detected in the sample, although most of them at very low frequency. By contrast, the natural population exhibited an even higher taxonomic diversity along with a wider array of cellulolytic enzyme families. However, in spite of the differences in relative abundance of major taxonomic groups, not only did both metagenomes share a similar functional profile but also a similar distribution of non-redundant genes in different functional categories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a highly diverse pool of bacterial species in both O. nubilalis populations, with major differences: The lab-reared sample is rich in gram-positive species (two of which have almost fully sequenced genomes while the field sample harbors mainly gram-negative species and has a larger set of cellulolytic enzymes. We have found a clear relationship between the

  1. Timing clorpirifos + cypermethrin and indoxacarb applications to control European corn borer damage and fumonisin contamination in maize kernels.

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    Blandino, Massimo; Peila, Alessandro; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2010-02-01

    European corn borer (ECB) is the main maize pest in central and southern Europe and it promotes the infection of maize with Fusarium verticillioides, which is able to produce fumonisins. Field experiments were performed from 2006 to 2007 in northwestern Italy to determine the effects of the timing of insecticide applications on maize fungal ear rot and fumonisin contamination in natural infection conditions. Four application timings and two insecticides (clorpirifos + cypermethrin and indoxacarb) were compared each year. In both years, the treatments applied at the beginning of a consistent ECB flight activity and at the flight peak showed the best efficacy to control the insect damage on ears. Fungal ear rot and fumonisin contamination were clearly affected by ECB control. The efficacy of the best application timing to control fumonisin occurrence was 73% in 2006 and 84% in 2007. Earlier insecticide applications showed lower fumonisin contamination than treatments applied after the adult flight peak. The production of maize and maize-based foods with a low fumonisin content may be enhanced through correct insecticide application against the second ECB generation. The optimum timing of insecticides is between the beginning of a consistent adult flight activity and the flight peak.

  2. Forecasting Spring Emergence of the Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), Based on Postdiapause Development Rate.

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    Park, Chang-Gyu; Seo, Bo Yoon; Jung, Jin Kyo; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Lee, Si-Woo; Seong, Ki Yeong

    2017-12-05

    This study was conducted to develop temperature-dependent postdiapause development models of overwintering larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and to evaluate the models' forecasting accuracy using spring adult emergence data. Overwintering larvae were collected at three different times: 24 February (first), 23 March (second), and 25 April (third), 2005. The developmental periods of each collection colony were measured at eight constant temperatures, and those developmental rates were modeled with linear and nonlinear regression. One linear and three nonlinear models provided good fits of developmental rate to temperature across all colonies (r2 = 0.96-0.99). The distribution of development completion time was modeled with a Weibull equation that fit data from the second (r2 = 0.92) and third (r2 = 0.97) colonies better than the first (r2 = 0.87). A Lactin 2 model based on data from the first colony was statistically the best model to describe the relationship between temperature and the postdiapause development rate of O. furnacalis (r2adj = 0.99). However, validation results based on the field data showed that the Logan 6 model combined with the Weibull model (based on the second colony) was well describing spring adult emergence patterns up to 50% cumulative emergence date. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Host-plant diversity of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis: what value for sustainable transgenic insecticidal Bt maize?

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    Bourguet, D; Bethenod, M T; Trouvé, C; Viard, F

    2000-01-01

    The strategies proposed for delaying the development of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic maize require high levels of gene flow between individuals feeding on transgenic and refuge plants. The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) may be found on several host plants, which may act as natural refuges. The genetic variability of samples collected on sagebrush (Artemisia sp.), hop (Humulus lupulus L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) was studied by comparing the allozyme frequencies for six polymorphic loci. We found a high level of gene flow within and between samples collected on the same host plant. The level of gene flow between the sagebrush and hop insect samples appeared to be sufficiently high for these populations to be considered a single genetic panmictic unit. Conversely, the samples collected on maize were genetically different from those collected on sagebrush and hop. Three of the six loci considered displayed greater between-host-plant than within-host-plant differentiation in comparisons of the group of samples collected on sagebrush or hop with the group of samples collected on maize. This indicates that either there is genetic isolation of the insects feeding on maize or that there is host-plant divergent selection at these three loci or at linked loci. These results have important implications for the potential sustainability of transgenic insecticidal maize. PMID:10902683

  4. Fitness costs associated with Cry1F resistance in the European corn borer

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    Crops producing insecticidal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted in order to manage key insect pests. Bt crops can provide an effective tool for pest management; however, the evolution of Bt resistance can diminish this benefit. The European corn b...

  5. Parasitoid inventarisation of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1796 and options for its biological control in Slovenia

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    Jaka RAZINGER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB is an important maize pest in central and northern Europe. Presently it is controlled by insecticides or biological agents such as Trichogramma brassicae in several European countries, excluding Slovenia, where the pest’s pressure is highly variable and no appropriate mechanization is available. Lessening the dependence on chemical pesticides is an integral part of the European Union’s agenda for agriculture. Mass release of Trichogramma spp. could be seen as a promising alternative for ECB control in countries with a highly fluctuating ECB pressure and no mechanization for insecticide applications. However, no records of naturally occurring hymenopteran parasitoids of ECB exist in Slovenia. To address this important under-researched topic and provide the expert basis for potential introduction of ECB egg parasitoids in Slovene maize production, a systematic inventarisation programme of ECB parasitoids was launched in 2010. Additionally, ECB flight was monitored in 2011 and 2012 at two locations in Slovenia: Jablje and Rakičan. In both locations two ECB generations  were observed. ECB was fist observed at the end of May in Rakičan. During the five years of the systematic survey we discovered two ECB parasitoid species. ECB egg masses were parasitized by Trichogramma brassicae, whereas ECB pupae were parasitized by Tycherus nigridens, with 6 or 7 % parasitation rate, respectively. T. nigridens represents a new taxon report for Slovenia. We conclude that there is a strong need for undertaking systematic surveys of natural enemies of agricultural pests.

  6. Inheritance of photoperiodic control of larval diapause in the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

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    Xiao, L; He, H M; Zhong, P S; Fu, S; Chen, C; Xue, F S

    2015-06-01

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis enters diapause as fully grown larvae. Owing to geographical variation in photoperiodic control of diapause, the subtropical strain from Hefei city (HF) enters diapause in response to short daylengths, whereas the tropical strain from Ledong county (LD) exhibits almost no diapause under the same conditions. The two strains were used in crosses to study the inheritance of diapause. The HF strain showed a typical long-day response with a critical daylength of approximately 14.97 h at 22 °C, 14.60 h at 25 °C and 13.68 h at 28 °C. The LD strain showed weak photoperiodic responses at 22 and 25 °C; and the F1 progeny also showed a long-day response with significantly shorter critical daylength compared with the HF strain. However, the LD × HF (F × M) crosses had significantly longer critical daylengths than HF × LD crosses, indicating a sexual bias in the inheritance of diapause induction, with the male parent having more influence on the F1 progeny. The critical daylength in a backcross to HF was significantly longer than a backcross to LD. Whether the inheritance of diapause fits an additive hypothesis or not depended on photoperiod, with results from different photoperiods showing additive inheritance or incomplete dominance of either diapause or non-diapause. Unlike diapause induction, the duration of diapause for reciprocal crosses was equally influenced by each parent, suggesting that diapause incidence and maintenance are controlled by separate systems in O. furnacalis.

  7. Inheritance of diapause in crosses between the northernmost and the southernmost strains of the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis.

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    Shu Fu

    Full Text Available The northernmost Harbin strain (N strain of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short daylengths; whereas the southernmost Ledong strain (S strain exhibits almost no diapause under the same light conditions. In the present study, we examined the inheritance of diapause induction and termination by crossing the two strains under a range of environmental conditions. The N strain showed a typical long-day response with a critical daylength of approximately15.88 h at 22°C, 15.72 h at 25°C and 15.14 h at 28°C, whereas the S strain showed a weak photoperiodic response at 22°C. The F1 progeny also showed a long-day response at 22, 25 and 28°C. However, the critical daylengths in S ♀ × N ♂ crosses were significantly longer than those in N ♀ × S ♂ crosses, indicating a sex linkage in the inheritance of diapause induction, with the male parent having more influence on the following F1 progeny. The incidence of diapause in S ♀ × N ♂ crosses was the same as in the N strain under short daylengths of 11-13 h, indicating that diapause trait is completely dominant over the non-diapause trait. The critical daylength in backcross to N was significantly longer than it was in backcross to S, showing a grandfather gene effect. Whether the inheritance of diapause fits an additive hypothesis or not was dependent on the rearing photoperiod, and the capacity for diapause was transmitted genetically in the manner of incomplete dominance. The duration of diapause for the reciprocal crosses under different diapause-terminating conditions showed different patterns of inheritance. The results in this study reveal that genetic and genetic-environmental interactions are involved in diapause induction and termination in O. furnacalis.

  8. Resistance evolution to Bt crops: predispersal mating of European corn borers.

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    Ambroise Dalecky

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the high-dose refuge (HDR strategy, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins produced by transgenic crops, became mandatory in the United States and is being discussed for Europe. However, precopulatory dispersal and the mating rate between resident and immigrant individuals, two features influencing the efficiency of this strategy, have seldom been quantified in pests targeted by these toxins. We combined mark-recapture and biogeochemical marking over three breeding seasons to quantify these features directly in natural populations of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless of males having dispersed beforehand or not, as assumed in the HDR strategy. Accordingly, 0-67% of resident females mating before dispersal did so with resident males, this percentage depending on the local proportion of resident males (0% to 67.2%. However, resident males rarely mated with immigrant females (which mostly arrived mated, the fraction of females mating before dispersal was variable and sometimes substantial (4.8% to 56.8%, and there was no evidence for male premating dispersal being higher. Hence, O. nubilalis probably mates at a more restricted spatial scale than previously assumed, a feature that may decrease the efficiency of the HDR strategy under certain circumstances, depending for example on crop rotation practices.

  9. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  10. Modification of hormonal balance in larvae of the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) due to sublethal Bacillus thuringiensis protein ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Albajes, Ramon; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2011-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., is highly efficient against the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) when the larvae feed only on the transgenic plants. However, when they feed on Bt leaves during only part of their development, thus ingesting sublethal amounts of Bt toxins, some larvae survive. A previous study reported a prolonged development and precocious diapause induction in larvae fed on a diet with sublethal amounts of Cry1Ab protein. To determine whether these effects were accompanied by a modification of the hormonal balance, S. nonagrioides larvae were fed on sublethal amounts of Bt protein provided in Bt leaves or in the diet. The larvae that survived had higher levels of juvenile hormone (JH), whereas their level of ecdysteroids did not increase sufficiently to allow pupation, leading to a longer larval development and more larval molts. This response may be considered a defense mechanism that allows some larvae to survive toxin ingestion; it is similar the response to insecticidal toxins or viruses observed in other larvae. Changes in the hormone levels in diapausing larvae were undetectable, probably because these changes were masked by the higher level of JH in the hemolymph of diapausing larvae and because of lack of ecdysteroid titer increase, a phenomenon that is usually observed a few days before pupation in nondiapausing larvae. These results should be taken into account in the establishment of non-Bt refuges to prevent development of Bt-resistance in S. non-agrioides populations.

  11. Genetic isolation between two sympatric host plant races of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner. II: assortative mating and host-plant preferences for oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethenod, M-T; Thomas, Y; Rousset, F; Frérot, B; Pélozuelo, L; Genestier, G; Bourguet, D

    2005-02-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner, colonized maize (Zea mays L.) after its introduction into Europe about 500 years ago and is now considered one of the main pests of this crop. In northern France, two sympatric host races have been described: one feeding on maize and the other on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and hop (Humulus lupulus L.). In a previous study, we showed that mating between the two races may be impeded by differences in the timing of moth emergence and in the composition of the sex pheromone produced by the females. In this study, we further investigated the genetic isolation of these two races using strains from the maize (Z strain) and mugwort (E strain) races selected for diagnostic alleles at two allozyme loci. In a cage containing maize and mugwort plants and located in natural conditions, mating between individuals of the same strain occurred more often than mating between males and females of the E and Z strains. In particular, we obtained no evidence for crosses between Z females and E males. We also found that females of the Z strain laid their eggs almost exclusively on maize, whereas females of the E strain laid their eggs preferentially, but not exclusively, on mugwort. These results suggest that the genetic differentiation between the two host races may also be favored by host-plant preference, one of the first steps toward sympatric speciation.

  12. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or western bean cutworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-07-09

    Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination.

  13. Downregulation and Mutation of a Cadherin Gene Associated with Cry1Ac Resistance in the Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of resistance in target pests is a major threat to long-term use of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxins. To manage and/or delay the evolution of resistance in target insects through the implementation of effective strategies, it is essential to understand the basis of resistance. One of the most important mechanisms of insect resistance to Bt crops is the alteration of the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors in the midgut. A Cry1Ac-selected strain of Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, a key pest of maize in China, evolved three mutant alleles of a cadherin-like protein (OfCAD (MPR-r1, MPR-r2 and MPR-r3, which mapped within the toxin-binding region (TBR. Each of the three mutant alleles possessed two or three amino acid substitutions in this region, especially Thr1457→Ser. In highly resistant larvae (ACB-Ac200, MPR-r2 had a 26-amino acid residue deletion in the TBR, which resulted in reduced binding of Cry1Ac compared to the MPR from the susceptible strain, suggesting that the number of amino acid deletions influences the level of resistance. Furthermore, downregulation of OfCAD gene (ofcad transcription was observed in the Cry1Ac resistant strain, ACB-Ac24, suggesting that Cry1Ac resistance in ACB is associated with the downregulation of the transcript levels of the cadherin-like protein gene. The OfCAD identified from ACB exhibited a high degree of similarity to other members of the cadherin super-family in lepidopteran species.

  14. Domain III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie Toxin Plays an Important Role in Binding to Peritrophic Membrane of Asian Corn Borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Feng

    Full Text Available The insecticidal IE648 toxin is a truncated Cry1Ie protein with increased toxicity against Asian corn borer (ACB. Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins that disrupt insect midgut cells to kill the larvae. However, the peritrophic membrane (PM is an important barrier that Cry toxins must cross before binding to midgut cells. Previously, it was shown that Cry toxins are able to bind and accumulate in the PM of several lepidopteran insects. Binding of IE648 toxin to PM of ACB was previously reported and the goal of the current work was the identification of the binding region between Cry1Ie and the PM of ACB. Homologous competition binding assays showed that this interaction was specific. Heterologous competition binding assays performed with different fragments corresponding to domain I, domain II and domain III allowed us to identify that domain III participates in the interaction of IE648 with the PM. Specifically, peptide D3-L8 (corresponding to Cry1Ie toxin residues 607 to 616, located in an exposed loop region of domain III is probably involved in this interaction. Ligand blot assays show that IE648 interact with chitin and PM proteins with sizes of 30, 32 and 80 kDa. The fact that domain III interacts with proteins of similar molecular masses supports that this region of the toxin might be involved in PM interaction. These data provide for the first time the identification of domain III as a putative binding region between PM and 3D-Cry toxin.

  15. Genetic Basis of Cry1F-Resistance in a Laboratory Selected Asian Corn Borer Strain and Its Cross-Resistance to Other Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Wang

    Full Text Available The Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, is the most destructive insect pest of corn in China. Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been demonstrated for ACB, suggesting the potential for Cry1F inclusion as part of an insect pest management program. Insects can develop resistance to Cry toxins, which threatens the development and use of Bt formulations and Bt crops in the field. To determine possible resistance mechanisms to Cry1F, a Cry1F-resistant colony of ACB (ACB-FR that exhibited more than 1700-fold resistance was established through selection experiments after 49 generations of selection under laboratory conditions. The ACB-FR strain showed moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac of 22.8- and 26.9-fold, respectively, marginally cross-resistance to Cry1Ah (3.7-fold, and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ie (0.6-fold. The bioassay responses of progeny from reciprocal F1 crosses to different Cry1 toxin concentrations indicated that the resistance trait to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F has autosomal inheritance with no maternal effect or sex linked. The effective dominance (h of F1 offspring was calculated at different concentrations of Cry1F, showing that h decreased as concentration of Cry1F increased. Finally, the analysis of actual and expected mortality of the progeny from a backcross (F1 × resistant strain indicated that the inheritance of the resistance to Cry1F in ACB-FR was due to more than one locus. The present study provides an understanding of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in ACB-FR and also shows that pyramiding Cry1F with Cry1Ah or Cry1Ie could be used as a strategy to delay the development of ACB resistance to Bt proteins.

  16. Expressed sequence tags from larval gut of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis: Exploring candidate genes potentially involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Andre LB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidoptera represents more than 160,000 insect species which include some of the most devastating pests of crops, forests, and stored products. However, the genomic information on lepidopteran insects is very limited. Only a few studies have focused on developing expressed sequence tag (EST libraries from the guts of lepidopteran larvae. Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins, and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ESTs generated from the larval gut of the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and the western world. Our goals were to establish an ECB larval gut-specific EST database as a genomic resource for future research and to explore candidate genes potentially involved in insect-Bt interactions and Bt resistance in ECB. Results We constructed two cDNA libraries from the guts of the fifth-instar larvae of ECB and sequenced a total of 15,000 ESTs from these libraries. A total of 12,519 ESTs (83.4% appeared to be high quality with an average length of 656 bp. These ESTs represented 2,895 unique sequences, including 1,738 singletons and 1,157 contigs. Among the unique sequences, 62.7% encoded putative proteins that shared significant sequence similarities (E-value ≤ 10-3with the sequences available in GenBank. Our EST analysis revealed 52 candidate genes that potentially have roles in Bt toxicity and resistance. These genes encode 18 trypsin-like proteases, 18 chymotrypsin-like proteases, 13 aminopeptidases, 2 alkaline phosphatases and 1 cadherin-like protein. Comparisons of expression profiles of 41 selected candidate genes between Cry1Ab-susceptible and resistant strains of ECB by RT-PCR showed apparently decreased expressions in 2 trypsin-like and 2

  17. (Zea mays L.) GENOTYPES BY LEPIDOPTEROUS STEM BORERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The three maize endosperm types used in the experiment were susceptible to stem borer infestation, but there was no statistical difference with respect to stem borer infestation and severity of damage for July and August cropping, although, sweet corn tended to be more susceptible than the other endosperm types (flint and.

  18. Do Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) gravid females discriminate between Bt or multivitamin corn varieties? Role of olfactory and visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Diego; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, is a key pest of corn and a main target of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in Northeast Spain. Trends for future biotechnology crops indicate that Bt, non-Bt, and stacked corn varieties with metabolic pathways for vitamin-increased traits could coexist in same region. Knowledge of the oviposition response of gravid females of S. nonagrioides to these different varieties could be extremely important for managing strategies aimed for delaying resistance development. In dual-choice assays, we examined the host preference of gravid females of S. nonagrioides for four corn varieties: a new transgenic corn with increased vitamin levels, its near isogenic counterpart (M37W), a Bt corn plant, and its near isogenic counterpart. Olfactory cues were the predominant ones when gravid females looked for a suitable host to lay eggs, and no synergistic effects were observed when both visual and olfactory cues were present. When the plant was visible, the females preferred the odors emitted by the nontransgenic to its multivitamin transgenic counterpart and when they only could detect the volatiles they also preferred the nontransgenic M37W variety to the Bt corn variety. If gravid females are less attracted to corn with an increased level of vitamins, this could impact insect resistance management and the value of refuge plants, if such traits are stacked with an insect resistance trait. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. ESTIMATING THE VALUE OF BT CORN: A MULTI-STATE COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Jeffrey; Martin, Marshall A.; Preckel, Paul V.; Edwards, C. Richard; Dobbins, Craig L.

    2000-01-01

    Bt corn offers a powerful tool to control European corn borers and some other pests. Because pest infestations and farming practices differ across the Corn Belt, economic benefits also differ. This research estimates the value of Bt corn across the Corn Belt. Results identify areas where Bt adoption is economically justified.

  20. THE ECONOMICS OF REFUGE DESIGN FOR BT CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Jeffrey; Martin, Marshall A.; Preckel, Paul V.; Dobbins, Craig L.; Edwards, C. Richard

    1999-01-01

    Planting Bt corn on large areas may lead to European corn borer (ECB) resistance to Bt. Scientists recommend planting a non-Bt corn refuge as part of a resistance management strategy. Different refuge configurations may impact farm profits differently. This paper analyzes the economics of alternative refuge configurations in Indiana.

  1. Effects of manure and cultivation on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions from a corn field under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Hadar; Bar-Tal, Asher; Tamir, Guy; Bloom, Paul; Venterea, Rodney T; Chen, Dong; Zhang, Yi; Clapp, C Edward; Fine, Pinchas

    2010-01-01

    The use of organic residues as soil additives is increasing, but, depending on their composition and application methods, these organic amendments can stimulate the emissions of CO(2) and N(2)O. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of management practices in irrigated sweet corn (Zea mays L.) on CO(2) and N(2)O emissions and to relate emissions to environmental factors. In a 3-yr study, corn residues (CR) and pasteurized chicken manure (PCM) were used as soil amendments compared with no residue (NR) under three management practices: shallow tillage (ST) and no tillage (NT) under consecutive corn crops and ST without crop. Tillage significantly increased (P Carbon dioxide and N(2)O fluxes were correlated with soil NH(4) concentrations and with days since tillage and days since seeding. Fluxes of CO(2) were correlated with soil water content, whereas N(2)O fluxes had higher correlation with air temperature. Annual CO(2) emissions were higher with PCM than with CR and NR (9.7, 2.9, and 2.3 Mg C ha(-1), respectively). Fluxes of N(2)O were 34.4, 0.94, and 0.77 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) with PCM, CR, and NR, respectively. Annual amounts of CO(2)-C and N(2)O-N emissions from the PCM treatments were 64 and 3% of the applied C and N, respectively. Regardless of cultivation practices, elevated N(2)O emissions were recorded in the PCM treatment. These emissions could negate some of the beneficial effects of PCM on soil properties.

  2. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure o...

  3. Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae) Injury to Corn Containing Single and Pyramided Bt Traits, and Blended or Block Refuge, in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, D D; Akin, D S; All, J N; Bessin, R T; Brewer, M J; Buntin, D G; Catchot, A L; Cook, D; Flanders, K L; Huang, F-N; Johnson, D W; Leonard, B R; Mcleod, P J; Porter, R P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Tindall, K V; Stewart, S D; Troxclair, N N; Youngman, R R; Rice, M E

    2015-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); and lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are lepidopteran pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Blended refuge for transgenic plants expressing the insecticidal protein derivative from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has recently been approved as an alternative resistance management strategy in the northern United States. We conducted a two-year study with 39 experiments across 12 states in the southern United States to evaluate plant injury from these five species of Lepidoptera to corn expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ab, as both single and pyramided traits, a pyramid of Cry1Ab×Vip3Aa20, and a pyramid of Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt in a blended refuge. Leaf injury and kernel damage from corn earworm and fall armyworm, and stalking tunneling by southwestern corn borer, were similar in Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants compared with the Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt blended refuge averaged across five-plant clusters. When measured on an individual plant basis, leaf injury, kernel damage, stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer), and dead or injured plants (lesser cornstalk borer) were greater in the blended non-Bt refuge plants compared to Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment. When non-Bt blended refuge plants were compared to a structured refuge of non-Bt plants, no significant difference was detected in leaf injury, kernel damage, or stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer). Plant stands in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment had more stalk tunneling from sugarcane borer and plant death from lesser cornstalk borer compared to a pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab structured refuge

  4. Integrated pest management strategies to sustain corn productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpuz, M R; Raymundo, P P

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the economics and effectiveness of Trichogramma and earwigs in the suppression of corn borer and identify other corn pest associated during vegetative stage using light trapping. A Randomized Complete Block Design was used in laying out the experiments with five treatments as follows: Treatment 1-Control, Treatment 2-Trichogramma, Treatment 3-Earwigs, Treatment 4-Light Trapping and Treatment 5-Trichogramma + earwigs. Based on the analysis of variance it revealed highly significant variations among treatments with regards to number of parasitized and unparasitized egg mass of corn borer at 35 and 45 days after planting. In like manner, the damage assessment done by corn borer differed significantly at 35 and 45 days after planting. With regards to weight of green corn grains per sampling area, a highly significant differences was observed among the treatment means. The combination of Trichogramma and Earwigs showed high effectively in the field by exhibiting the highest computed yield per hectare and higher return of investment per peso invested.

  5. Emerald ash borer flight potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...

  6. Emerald ash borer biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...

  7. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  8. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  9. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles of gut genes between cry1Ab-resistant and susceptible strains of Ostrinia nubilalis revealed genes possibly related to the adaptation of resistant larvae to transgenic cry1Ab corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) gut 2,895 unique genes expressions were quantified and compared between a laboratory-selected Cry1Ab-resistant (R) strain and a susceptible (S) strain after fed transgenic corn (MON810) leaves expressing Cry1Ab by microarray. A total of 398 gut genes were di...

  10. Carpenterworm Moths and Cerambycid Hardwood Borers Caught in Light Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Solomon; L. Newsome; W. N. Darwin

    1972-01-01

    A portable, battery-operated light trap was used in hardwood stands in Mississippi. Ten species of hardwood borers were captured with carpenterworm moths being taken in the greatest numbers. Many cerambycid borers were also captured.

  11. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  12. Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 against southern United States insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, M W; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W; Dhavala, S; Craig, C; Leonard, B R; Stewart, S D; All, J; Musser, F R; Buntin, G D; Samuel, L

    2012-10-01

    Studies were conducted across the southern United States to characterize the efficacy of multiple Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) events in a field corn, Zea mays L., hybrid for control of common lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. Cry1F protein in event TC1507 and Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins in event MON 89034 were evaluated against pests infesting corn on above-ground plant tissue including foliage, stalks, and ears. Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in event DAS-59122-7 and Cry3Bb1 in event MON 88017 were evaluated against the larvae of Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, which occur below-ground. Field corn hybrids containing Cry1F, Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 insecticidal proteins (SmartStax) consistently demonstrated reductions in plant injury and/or reduced larval survivorship as compared with a non-Bt field corn hybrid. Efficacy provided by a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt proteins was statistically equal to or significantly better than corn hybrids containing a single event active against target pests. Single event field corn hybrids provided very high levels of control of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar), lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and were not significantly different than field corn hybrids with multiple events. Significant increases in efficacy were observed for a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt events for sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Mexican corn rootworm. Utilization of field corn hybrids containing multiple Bt events provides a means for managing insect resistance to Bt proteins and reduces non-Bt corn refuge requirements.

  13. Feeding behavior of neonate Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Cry1Ab Bt corn: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E; Pizzolato, T D

    2011-06-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economically important insect pest of corn, Zea mays L., in the United States and Canada. The development of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect. To assess the feeding behavior of neonate O. nubilalis on Bt corn, we examined differences in feeding behavior, based on presence of plant material in the gut, between Cry1Ab Bt corn and non-Bt near isoline corn for four intervals over a 48-h period. Feeding experiments revealed that there was significantly less feeding on Bt corn compared with non-Bt near isoline corn. The behavior of neonates on the plant corresponded with the differences in feeding on the two corn lines. The findings also showed that > 50% of the larvae initially left the plant before there was evidence in the gut of feeding regardless of whether the source was Bt or non-Bt corn. A higher quantity of plant material was found in the gut of larvae recovered from leaves of non-Bt compared with Bt corn. At the end of 48 h among the larvae that had left the plant, a greater proportion from Bt corn had plant material in the gut than did those from non-Bt corn.

  14. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  15. Flight potential of the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robin A.J. Taylor; Robert A. Haack

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Native to several Asian countries, EAB was discovered in six southeastern Michigan counties and southwestern Ontario in 2002. EAB presumably emerged from infested solid wood...

  16. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  17. Emerald ash borer genetics: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, samples were collected from introduced sites in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ontario, Canada, as well as native sites in China, Japan, and South Korea with the help of a network of collaborators. The beetles were analyzed using DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome...

  18. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  19. Emerald ash borer survival in firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to Asia and was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. As of October 2004, EAB was only found to breed in ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. EAB is spreading naturally through adult flight as well as artificially through...

  20. Implications of Black Coffee Twig Borer on cocoa in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Implications of Black Coffee Twig Borer on cocoa in Uganda. G.H. Kagezi1, P. Kucel1, J.P. Egonyu1, ... Here, we report for the first time an outbreak of the Black Coffee Twig Borer (BCTB), Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), a new pest on ... the damaged plant parts do not bear fruits resulting into loss of yields and hence,.

  1. Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...

  2. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  3. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  4. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...

  5. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize ...

  6. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous testing of several public Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize events did not show control of the African stem borer (Busseola fusca Fuller), an important stem borer species, without which stewardship would be compromised by the possibility of rapid development of resistance to Bt deltaendotoxins. This study was ...

  7. Binding analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 proteins in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolos, Camila C; Hernández-Martinez, Patricia; Crialesi-Legori, Paula C B; Desidério, Janete A; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar; Lemos, Manoel Victor F

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis, F.) is an important corn pest in South America and United States. The aim of the present study was to analyze the susceptibility and binding interactions of three Cry1A proteins and Cry1Fa in a Brazilian D. saccharalis population. The results showed that Cry1Ab was the most active, followed by Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa and Cry1Aa. All Cry1-biotinylated proteins tested bound specifically to the D. saccharalis brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Heterologous competition assays showed shared binding sites for all Cry1A proteins and another one shared by Cry1Fa and Cry1Ab. Thus, pyramiding Cry1Aa/Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins would be a recommended strategy for managing this pest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biology of the European oak borer in Michigan, United States of America, with comparisons to the native twolined chestnut borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2014-01-01

    In 2010-2011, we studied the European oak borer (EOB), Agrilus sulcicollis Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Michigan, United States of America, and made comparisons with the native twolined chestnut borer (TLCB), Agrilus bilineatus (Weber). EOB adult flight began and peaked before TLCB. More EOB females were captured on...

  9. The effects of bt corn on rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Matthew D; Moore, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    Bt crops are one of the most commonly used genetically modified crops worldwide. Bt crops contain a gene that is derived from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces the Cry1Ab toxin. Bt corn that contains the Cry1Ab toxin is used throughout the Midwest United States to control crop pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Headwater streams in regions known for intensive agriculture receive Bt corn detritus after the fall harvest, which is then consumed by a diverse community of stream invertebrates. The rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) is a common invertebrate detritivore in these headwater streams. Both isogenic and Bt corn were grown under the controlled environmental conditions of a greenhouse and, after senescence, were tested for nutritional equality. Rusty crayfish were exposed to one of several detrital treatments composed of Bt corn, Bt corn plus American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), isogenic corn alone, isogenic corn plus P. occidentalis, or P. occidentalis alone for 8 weeks. Both strains of corn were grown under the controlled environmental conditions in a greenhouse and were tested for nutritional equality after senescence. Crayfish were housed in live streams with a water temperature of 12.8 °C and a 12:12 h light-to-dark photoperiod. Survival and growth of animals within each experimental treatment were monitored each week. After 8 weeks of exposure, there was no statistically significant difference in growth between crayfish in Bt and isogenic treatments. However, survivorship was 31 % lower in the Bt treatment compared with the isogenic treatment. These results suggest that the Bt corn and isogenic corn were of equivalent nutritional value but that Bt corn does have a toxic effect on rusty crayfish during long-term exposure.

  10. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  11. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  12. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  13. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  14. Impulsive Biological Pest Control Strategies of the Sugarcane Borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Rafikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an impulsive biological pest control of the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis by its egg parasitoid Trichogramma galloi based on a mathematical model in which the sugarcane borer is represented by the egg and larval stages, and the parasitoid is considered in terms of the parasitized eggs. By using the Floquet theory and the small amplitude perturbation method, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution when some conditions hold. The numerical simulations show that the impulsive release of parasitoids provides reliable strategies of the biological pest control of the sugarcane borer.

  15. Effects of triticale cultivars grown in a Mediterranean environment on biomass yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Motzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticale is a valuable crop in Mediterranean environments because its growth capacity at low temperatures and its precocity make it possible to obtain high biomass yields in early spring. Precocity of triticale is particularly appreciated in Mediterranean environment, where irrigation allows the sowing of a spring–summer corn crop after a winter cereal crop has been harvested for silage.

  16. Effects of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Robert P. Long; Joanne Rebbeck; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Catherine P. Herms; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Kyle C. Costilow; Lawrence C. Long; David L. Cappaert

    2010-01-01

    The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmare) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program involving U.S. Forest Service Northern Research Station (Research...

  17. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  18. Emerald ash borer dispersal in Maryland: go forth young pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Sargent; Dick Bean; Michael Raupp; Alan J. Sawyer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive pest from Asia, was introduced into Maryland in April 2003 via infested nursery stock shipped from Michigan to a nursery in southern...

  19. Plant-insect interactions between female dogwood borer and apple

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Daniel Lee

    2009-01-01

    A rearing methodology for dogwood borer was developed, using standardized procedures at each developmental stage. These methods enabled the establishment of a laboratory colony and efficient production of synchronized cohorts of each of its lifestages throughout the year for specific experimental needs. The behavioral repertoire shown by mated female dogwood borer in an apple orchard was characterized and quantified and the diel periodicity with which those behaviors occurred was deter...

  20. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  1. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and other borers in California and Arizona oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Mary Louise. Flint; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on...

  2. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    .... APHIS-2008-0072] Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri... emerald ash borer (EAB). The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of EAB into... CONTACT: Mr. Paul Chaloux, National Program Coordinator, Emerald Ash Borer Program, Emergency and Domestic...

  3. 76 FR 5679 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...-0098] Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York... interim rule that amended the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan... those areas, was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer to noninfested...

  4. 76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...] Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant... revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer in the Plant Protection and Quarantine... treat emerald ash borer. DATES: Effective Date: January 19, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr...

  5. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    .... APHIS-2009-0098] Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New..., USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the emerald ash borer... the emerald ash borer to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: This interim rule is effective...

  6. Cross-pollination of nontransgenic corn ears with transgenic Bt corn: efficacy against lepidopteran pests and implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, E C; O'Rourke, P K; Hutchison, W D

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab.

  7. Invasion genetics of emerald ash borer in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts to eradicate this destructive pest by federal and state regulatory agencies continue. Knowledge of EAB genetics will be useful in understanding the invasion dynamics of the beetle and to help identify geographic localities of potential biocontrol agents.

  8. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of

  9. Correlation between agronomic and stem borer resistant traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... selecting for stem borer resistance and high yield could consider plant height, days to 50% pollen shed, ear aspect and grain ... improvement study therefore, breeders need to consider not only the magnitude of the correlation between pairs of .... computed using variance-covariance matrix and estimates of ...

  10. Candidate Sex Pheromone Components of Persimmon Bark Borer Euzophera batangensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xiujun, W.; Kalinová, Blanka; Manguang, L.; Hoskovec, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 12 (2009), s. 84-89 ISSN 1001-7488 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 860 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Euzophera batangensis * persimmon bark borer * sex pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Abbreviations: Bt, Bacillus thuringiensis; HPR, host plant resistance; ITK, indigenous technical knowledge; CFT, confined field trials; IRM, Insect Resistance Management. achieving greater yields is to minimize insect pest losses through the use of stem borer resistant maize that could reduce annual grain ...

  12. Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the Incidence of Stalk Rot under Varying Plant Population Densities in Maize. ... heavier cobs and more grains. The results showed that the medium plant density was more desirable from both disease and pest control points of view. JARD Vol. 1 2001: pp. 67-74 ...

  13. Sustainable Approach for the Management of the Pod Borers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown on about 360 hectares in Mauritius. Pod borers (Lampides boeticus L., Maruca vitrata F. and Etiella zinckenella Tr.) are reported to cause serious damage to floral parts and pods. They are difficult to control with insecticides because they remain concealed in feeding sites. Farmers.

  14. Emerald ash borer biological control release and recovery guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli S. Gould; Leah S. Bauer; Jonathan Lelito; Jian. Duan

    2012-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle from Asia that feeds on ash trees, was discovered as the cause of extensive ash mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Canada in 2002. It is thought that this destructive pest was introduced in the early 1990's in infested solid wood packing material originating in Asia. Shortly after EAB was discovered in North...

  15. Modeling emerald ash borer spread in Ohio and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha Prasad; Louis Iverson; Matthew Peters; Jonathan Bossenbroek; Davis Sydnor; Mark Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    Our group has been modelling the spread of emerald ash borer (EAB) in Ohio using a spatially explicit cell-based model that takes into account the insect's flight characteristics (Insect Flight Model) as well as external factors that enable the insects to travel passively (Insect Ride Model).

  16. Evaluating rapid response to a goldspotted oak borer diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Scott; Kevin Turner

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus, GSOB) was discovered in the mountain community of Idyllwild, 56.3 km north of its known area of infestation. This was the third time that a point of outbreak was discovered >32.2 km from the GSOB infestation area, suggesting that human transport of GSOB has substantially expanded the...

  17. Emerald ash borer in Russia: 2009 situation update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Baranchikov; Y. Gninenko; G. Yurchenko

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian Far East where it is considered a minor pest, attacking weakened or dying ash trees. In 2006, EAB was found to be responsible for enormous damage of ash species in Moscow, which causes serious concern for Europe. Recently we reviewed the EAB...

  18. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  19. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  20. Management tactics for emerald ash borer: chemical and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Daniel A. Herms; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Andrew R. Tluczek

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid native to northeast Asia, has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in infested areas of eastern North America. EAB apparently arrived in infested solid wood packaging materials from China in the early 1990s near Detroit, MI, but was not identified as...

  1. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  2. Varietal role in the management of the larger grain borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the amount of haemolymph vitellogenin (Vg) of the Larger Grain Borer (LGB), Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) vitellogenic females reared on different maize varieties. The varieties were ZM 521, ZM 421, ECAVL1-DLN, WEEVIL A, LOCAL 1 and LOCAL 2. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel ...

  3. Current status of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the current distribution of the larger grain borer (LGB), Prostephanus truncatus, in five states of South-western Nigeria; Ogun, Oyo, Lagos, Ondo and Osun by visual observation of maize stored in cribs and using the synthetic aggregation pheromone of LGB as baits in survey traps for twenty days.

  4. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  5. Emerald ash borer aftermath forests: the future of ash ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Catharine P. Herms

    2011-01-01

    The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program between the U.S. Forest Service and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring ash demographics, understory light availability, EAB population dynamics, native and non-native plants, and effects of ash...

  6. A repellent against the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer continues to pose a formidable challenge to coffee growers worldwide. Due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. A sesquiterpene, (E,E)-a-farnesene, produced by infested coffee berries...

  7. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control.

  8. Shifts in sensory neuron identity parallel differences in pheromone preference in the European corn borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A Koutroumpa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone communication relies on highly specific signals sent and received between members of the same species. However, how pheromone specificity is determined in moth olfactory circuits remains unknown. Here we provide the first glimpse into the mechanism that generates this specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis. In Ostrinia nubilalis it was found that a single locus causes strain-specific, diametrically opposed preferences for a 2-component pheromone blend. Previously we found pheromone preference to be correlated with the strain and hybrid-specific relative antennal response to both pheromone components. This led to the current study, in which we detail the underlying mechanism of this differential response, through chemotopically mapping of the pheromone detection circuit in the antenna. We determined that both strains and their hybrids have swapped the neuronal identity of the pheromone-sensitive neurons co-housed within a single sensillum. Furthermore, neurons that mediate behavioral antagonism surprisingly co-express up to five pheromone receptors, mirroring the concordantly broad tuning to heterospecific pheromones. This appears as possible evolutionary adaptation that could prevent cross attraction to a range of heterospecific signals, while keeping the pheromone detection system to its simplest tripartite setup.

  9. Expression of stress-related genes in diapuase od European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popović, Ž. D.; Subotić, A.; Nikolić, T. V.; Radojičić, R.; Blagojević, D. P.; Grubor-Lajšić, G.; Košťál, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 186, AUG 1 (2015), s. 1-7 ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103 Grant - others:Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 173014 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GST * redoxin * ferritin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.651, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1096495915000627

  10. Exposure and nontarget effects of transgenic Bt corn debris in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter D; Dively, Galen P; Swan, Christopher M; Lamp, William O

    2010-04-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) transformed with a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) comprises 49% of all corn in the United States. The input of senesced corn tissue expressing the Bt gene may impact stream-inhabiting invertebrates that process plant debris, especially trichopteran species related to the target group of lepidopteran pests. Our goal was to assess risk associated with transgenic corn debris entering streams. First, we show the input of corn tissue after harvest was extended over months in a stream. Second, using laboratory bioassays based on European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)], we found no bioactivity of Cry1Ab protein in senesced corn tissue after 2 wk of exposure to terrestrial or aquatic environments. Third, we show that Bt near-isolines modify growth and survivorship of some species of invertebrates. Of the four nontarget invertebrate species fed Bt near-isolines, growth of two closely related trichopterans was not negatively affected, whereas a tipulid crane fly exhibited reduced growth rates, and an isopod exhibited reduced growth and survivorship on the Cry1Ab near-isoline but not on the stacked Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 near-isoline. Because of lack of evidence of bioactivity of Bt after 2 wk and because of lack of nontarget effects on the stacked near-isoline, we suggest that tissue-mediated differences, and not the presence of the Cry1Ab protein, caused the different responses among the species. Overall, our results provide evidence that adverse effects to aquatic nontarget shredders involve complex interactions arising from plant genetics and environment that cannot be ascribed to the presence of Cry1Ab proteins.

  11. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  12. THE STEM BORER INFESTATION ON RICE CULTIVARS AT THREE PLANTING TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarsih Suharto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in Indonesia. A field trial was conducted in Karawang, West Java in dry season of 2003 to study the effect of planting time on the stem borer infestation on seven rice cultivars. The rice cultivars tested were Fatmawati (new plant type cultivar, Gilirang (semi-new plant type cultivar, Maro and Intani 3 (hybrid rice cultivars, and IR72, Cilosari and IR62 (inbreed rice cultivars. The three planting times (PT were: (1 the early PT, 14 days before farmer’s PT, (2 the common PT, simultaneously with farmer’s PT, and (3 the late PT, 14 days after farmer’s PT. The trial was arranged in a split plot design with four replications. Planting time is the main plot and rice cultivar is the subplot. Fourteen-day old rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm x 25 cm planting distance in a 5 m x 6 m plot size. Species and fluctuation of rice stem borer were determined by using water traps containing four synthetic sex pheromone lures of rice stem borer species as attractant. Results showed that the dominant species of stem borer was yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.. Degree of stem borer infestation depended upon the planting time. Stem borer infestation at the first planting time was higher (average 37.90% compared to those found at the second and third planting time, i.e. 0.65% and 0.54%, respectively. Rice yields of Fatmawati, Gilirang, Maro, Intani-3, and Cilosari cultivars correlated with the degree of stem borer infestation, but did not correlate with planting time. Cilosari cultivar showed the most tolerant under heavily stem borer infestation. The present study implies that adjustment of planting time is the most feasible effort to reduce stem borer infestation because none of the seven rice cultivars tested were able to minimize damage under heavily infestation of yellow stem borer.

  13. 75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host... of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and spread of emerald ash borer in the... prevent the introduction and [[Page 45602

  14. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down ...

  15. The Mediterranean alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccaria, P.; Minca, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of Italian and French Mediterranean studies from a postcolonial and geographical perspective. It claims that the relationship between contemporary Mediterranean geographies and mainstream European modernities has been overlooked by the Mediterraneanist literature, a

  16. Insect Damage, Aflatoxin Content, and Yield of Bt Corn in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, K L; Flanders, K L; Hagan, A K; Ortiz, B

    2014-10-01

    Isoline pairs of hybrid corn, similar except for presence or absence of a Bt trait, were planted at eight sites across Alabama over three years. This study evaluated insect damage, yield, and aflatoxin levels as affected by the Bt traits, YieldGard Corn Borer (expressing Cry1Ab), Herculex I (expressing Cry1F), Genuity VT Triple PRO (expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2), Agrisure Viptera 3111 (expressing Vip3Aa20 and Cry1Ab), and Genuity SmartStax (expressing Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry1F). When examined over all sites and years, hybrids with any of the included Bt traits had lower insect damage and higher yields. However, insect damage was not consistently correlated to yield. Bt traits expressing multiple proteins provided greater protection from corn earworm feeding than did traits for single proteins. Yields and aflatoxin levels were highly variable among sites although irrigated sites had higher yields than nonirrigated sites. Aflatoxins commonly accumulate in corn in the southeastern United States because of prevailing high temperatures and frequent dry conditions. Aflatoxin levels were not consistently associated with any factors that were evaluated, including Bt traits. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  17. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  18. BIOFUEL FROM CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  19. The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonhof, M.

    2000-01-01

    Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many

  20. Population genetics and biological control of goldspotted oak borer, an invasive pest of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa Lopez; Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Richard Stouthamer; Mark Hoddle

    2015-01-01

    California’s oak woodlands are threatened by the recent introduction of goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus). This invasive wood-borer is indigenous to mountain ranges in southern Arizona where its low population densities may be due to the presence of co-evolved, host-specific natural enemies. Reuniting A. auroguttatus...

  1. Levels of control of Chilo partellus stem borer in segregating tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, stem borers destroy an estimated 400,000 metric tons, or 13.5%, of farmers' annual maize harvest costing about US$80 millions. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize controls stem borers without harming humans, livestock and the environment and was sown to 140m ha-1 globally in 2009. Two public Bt maize lines of ...

  2. Population Distribution and Range Expansion of the Invasive Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blake E; Beuzelin, Julien M; Reagan, Thomas E

    2017-04-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest that was first introduced into southern Texas in 1980 and has been expanding its range eastward along the United States Gulf Coast. The pest attacks rice (Oryza sativa L.), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), corn (Zea mays L.), and other graminaceous crops, and its establishment in Louisiana is expected to have severe economic impacts on crop production. Range expansion and population distribution of E. loftini were monitored with a network of 77 pheromone traps throughout southwestern Louisiana from 2013 to 2015. Eoreuma loftini was ubiquitous throughout the study region, with male moths captured in every habitat sampled. Spatial analysis revealed the population is characterized by high and low density clusters, with the greatest trap captures occurring in southeastern Calcasieu Parish and southern Jefferson Davis Parish. Trap captures in more northern regions of the study were lower than in southern parishes. Trap captures in areas where the pest has been established for >3 yr were greatest in rice habitats. The weighted mean population center moved eastward at a rate of ∼11 km per year. Human-aided movement of E. loftini was probably not involved in the eastward expansion documented during this study. Seasonal population peaks were detected in March-April, July-August, and October-November. This study indicates this species is continuing its spread eastward along the United States Gulf Coast and will likely become established throughout Louisiana within the next 20 yr. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Densification characteristics of corn cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Corn cobs are potential feedstocks for producing heat, power, fuels, and chemicals. Densification of corn cobs into briquettes/pellets would improve their bulk handling, transportation, and storage properties. In this study, densification characteristics of corn cobs were studied using a uniaxial piston-cylinder densification apparatus. With a maximum compression pressure of 150 MPa, effects of particle size (0.85 and 2.81 mm), moisture content (10 and 20% w.b.), and preheating temperature (25 and 85 C) on the density and durability of the corn cob briquettes (with diameter of about 19.0 mm) were studied. It was found that the durability (measured using ASABE tumbling can method) of corn cob briquettes made at 25 C was 0%. At both particle sizes, preheating of corn cob grinds with about 10% (w.b.) moisture content to 85 C produced briquettes with a unit density of > 1100 kg m{sup -3} and durability of about 90%. (author)

  4. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  5. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  6. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Joyce

    Full Text Available The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species.

  7. Product evaluation : Dow Corning 888

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-10

    This report contains a product evaluation of Dow Corning 888 joint sealant. Dow Corning 888 is a one-part silicone material that cures to a low modulus silicone rubber upon exposure to atmospheric moisture. Its uses include transverse and longitudina...

  8. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  9. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  10. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  11. Factors that influence emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) adult longevity and oviposition under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Juli Gould; Leah S. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a nonnative insect from Asia that threatens ash trees in the urban and natural forests of North America. Research on this invasive insect and rearing parasitoids for...

  12. First occurrence of the goldspotted oak borer parasitoid, Calosota elongata (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Yigen Chen; Micheal I. Jones; Robert C. Venette; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Calosota elongata Gibson (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a gregarious, ectoparasitic larval parasitoid that was described recently (Gibson 2010) in association with the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse [now considered to be Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)] in its native...

  13. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  14. Optimization of visual trapping methodology for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Francese; Damon J. Crook; Ivich Fraser; David R. Lance; Alan J. Sawyer; Victor C. Mastro

    2009-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), spreads throughout the range of North American ash species, better tools are needed for the detection and delimitation of new infestations...

  15. Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Duan; R.W. Fuester; J. Wildonger; P.B. Taylor; S. Barth; S-E. Spichiger

    2009-01-01

    Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin....

  16. Slowing ash mortality: a potential strategy to slam emerald ash borer in outlier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; John Bedford

    2009-01-01

    Several isolated outlier populations of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) were discovered in 2008 and additional outliers will likely be found as detection surveys and public outreach activities...

  17. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis SDS-502 on adult emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Diana K. Londo& #241; o

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an intermittent pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in northeastern Asia, was discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In North America, infestations of EAB are now known in 13 states and 2 provinces.

  18. Foliar nutrients explain goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, adult feeding preference among four California oak species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen. Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus...

  19. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  20. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  1. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  2. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Population numbers of lesser grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica F.) in kernels and spikes in stored spelt

    OpenAIRE

    Almaši, Radmila; Poslončec, Danijela

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of population numbers of lesser grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica F.) depending on initial density of population of this species and depending on storage methods of spelt (Triticum aestivum spp. spelta), sort Eko 10. Results have showed that the lesser grain borer develops better in kernels than in spikes. Average offspring obtained from kernel in all three evaluations (2, 4 and 6 months) was statistically significantly higher compared to the spikes. The initial po...

  4. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  5. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  6. Corning lightweight core fabrication technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Edwards, Mary J.; Hobbs, Thomas W.

    2003-12-01

    Fabrication of lightweight mirrors from low expansion glasses can be achieved using various core and faceplate lightweighting techniques. Lightweighting can be achieved using abrasive waterjet cutting, CNC milling and a new approach that Corning is developing to produce lightweight cores based on Corning's patented ceramic extrusion process. The selection of which lightweighting technology to use is dependent on customer design considerations of the lightweight mirror. These lightweighting techniques are reviewed and discussed, along with advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Corning will also introduce and discuss their new core lightweighting process.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and...

  8. Risk and the Value of Bt Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Paul D. Mitchell; Marlin E. Rice

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual model is developed to evaluate the effect of Bt corn on risk. Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between marginal and aggregate risk effects and demonstrate that the effect of Bt corn on risk depends crucially on the price paid for the technology. Empirical results show that, depending on the price, Bt corn can be marginally risk increasing or decreasing and can either increase or decrease corn acreage. Also, depending on the price, Bt corn can provide a risk bene...

  9. Integrated bioethanol production from mixtures of corn and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sitong; Xu, Zhaoxian; Li, Xiujuan; Yu, Jianming; Cai, Mufeng; Jin, Mingjie

    2018-02-27

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass, such as corn stover (CS), to ethanol has encountered issues of inhibition from degradation products, low ethanol titer and low ethanol productivity. This work integrated CS into corn ethanol process for effective conversion. CS was pretreated using either dilute alkali or dilute acid pretreatment. The pretreated CS was enzymatically hydrolyzed and then mixed with liquefied corn for ethanol fermentation. Fermentation strains, substrate mixing ratios and fed-batch strategy were investigated. The mixture of alkali pretreated CS and corn at solids loadings of 10% and 20%, respectively, resulted in 92.30 g/L ethanol. Ethanol titer was further improved to 96.43 g/L with a fed-batch strategy. The mixture of dilute acid pretreated CS and corn achieved a better performance, leading to 104.9 g/L ethanol with 80.47% ethanol yield and a productivity as high as 2.19 g/L/h. This work demonstrated effective conversion of CS and corn together to ethanol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mediterranean California, Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.

  11. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people of Mediterranean origin — including Sephardic Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and Turks. But it may affect ... attacks, you'll likely feel normal. Symptom-free periods may be as short as a few days ...

  12. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  13. Corn in consortium with forages

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia; Marcelo Andreotti; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho; Keny Samejima Mascarenha Lopes; Ciniro Costa; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana

    2013-01-01

    The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS) throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was c...

  14. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  15. WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BT CORN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Rice, Marlin E.

    2001-01-01

    A common perception is that the value of Bt corn arises from two components-Bt corn increases expected profit and reduces profit variability. This perception encourages farmers and the policy makers to add a risk benefit to estimates of the value of Bt corn to account for the variability reduction. However, a conceptual model generates a useful decomposition of the value of Bt corn and a condition determining the impact of Bt corn on profit variability. An empirical model finds that Bt corn i...

  16. Strategic removal of host trees in isolated, satellite infestations of emerald ash borer can reduce population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel J. Fahrner; Mark Abrahamson; Robert C. Venette; Brian H. Aukema

    2017-01-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive beetle causing significant mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and western Russia. The invasive range has expanded to more than half of the states in the United States since the initial detection in Michigan, USA in 2002. Emerald ash borer is typically managed with a combination of techniques...

  17. Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...

  18. Relations between two rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella (Cr.) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and their hymenopterous larval parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during

  19. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of two Pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are

  20. Interrogating the Mediterranean 'Migration Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This Forum aims to uncover the socio-politics of the ‘migration crisis’ in the Mediterranean. The contributions explore the idea of the ‘migration crisis’ or ‘refugee crisis’ in the Mediterranean from the starting point that as scholars of the Mediterranean we can do two things: one, we can look at

  1. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  2. White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don

    2015-02-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The relationship between trees and human health: evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Butry, David T; Michael, Yvonne L; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Liebhold, Andrew M; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mao, Megan Y

    2013-02-01

    Several recent studies have identified a relationship between the natural environment and improved health outcomes. However, for practical reasons, most have been observational, cross-sectional studies. A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. Data were collected from 1990 to 2007, and the analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. There was an increase in mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties infested with the emerald ash borer. The magnitude of this effect was greater as infestation progressed and in counties with above-average median household income. Across the 15 states in the study area, the borer was associated with an additional 6113 deaths related to illness of the lower respiratory system, and 15,080 cardiovascular-related deaths. Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. This finding adds to the growing evidence that the natural environment provides major public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  5. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  6. Resistance to Bt corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the U.S. corn belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the United States Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn creates intense selection pressure for target insects to develop resis...

  7. Field-based assessment of resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...

  8. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally Bt hybrids suppressed corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  9. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...

  10. Aquatic degradation of Cry1Ab protein and decomposition dynamics of transgenic corn leaves under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Rita; Schaller, Jörg; Lintow, Sven; Gert Dudel, E

    2015-03-01

    The increasing cultivation of genetically modified corn plants (Zea mays) during the last decades is suggested as a potential risk to the environment. One of these genetically modified variety expressed the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein originating from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), resulting in resistance against Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer. Transgenic litter material is extensively studied regarding the decomposition in soils. However, only a few field studies analyzed the fate of the Cry1Ab protein and the impact of green and senescent leaf litter from corn on the decomposition rate and related ecosystem functions in aquatic environments. Consequently, a microbial litter decomposition experiment was conducted under controlled semi-natural conditions in batch culture using two maize varieties: one variety with Cry1Ab and another one with the appertaining Iso-line as control treatment. The results showed no significant differences between the treatment with Cry1Ab and the Iso-line regarding loss of total mass in dry weight of 43% for Iso-line and 45% for Bt-corn litter, lignin content increased to 137.5% (Iso-line) and 115.7% (Bt-corn), and phenol loss decreased by 53.6% (Iso-line), 62.2% (Bt-corn) during three weeks of the experiment. At the end of the experiment Cry1Ab protein was still detected with 6% of the initial concentration. A slightly but significant lower cellulose content was found for the Cry1Ab treatment compared to the Iso-line litter at the end of the experiment. The significant higher total protein (25%) and nitrogen (25%) content in Bt corn, most likely due to the additionally expression of the transgenic protein, may increase the microbial cellulose degradation and decrease microbial lignin degradation. In conclusion a relevant year by year input of protein and therefore nitrogen rich Bt corn litter into aquatic environments may affect the balanced nutrient turnover in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  12. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  13. Nitrogen Soil Testing for Corn in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Evanylo, Gregory K.; Alley, Marcus M., 1947-

    2009-01-01

    An adequate supply of plant-available nitrogen (N) is crucial for efficient corn production, and corn N requirements are greater than any other nutrient. This publication reviews the link between nitrogen and corn production, nitrogen behavior, soil testing, test procedures and recommendations.

  14. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  15. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  16. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  18. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  19. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1∶1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  20. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  1. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies.

  2. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Haavik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  3. Microfungi on the kernels of transgenic and non-transgenic maize damaged by the European corn borer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remešová, J.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Prášil, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2007), s. 205-213 ISSN 1211-0981 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) 1B53043 Program:1B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : bt-maize * microfungi * plant protection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. Sex-linked pheromone receptor genes of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, are in tandem arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuning of the olfactory system of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromones is crucial for correct species recognition; however, little is known about the genetic changes that drive speciation in this system. Moths of the genus Ostrinia are good models to elucidate this question, since significant differences in pheromone blends are observed within and among species. Odorant receptors (ORs play a critical role in recognition of female sex pheromones; eight types of OR genes expressed in male antennae were previously reported in Ostrinia moths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened an O. nubilalis bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library by PCR, and constructed three contigs from isolated clones containing the reported OR genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis using these clones as probes demonstrated that the largest contig, which contained eight OR genes, was located on the Z chromosome; two others harboring two and one OR genes were found on two autosomes. Sequence determination of BAC clones revealed the Z-linked OR genes were closely related and tandemly arrayed; moreover, four of them shared 181-bp direct repeats spanning exon 7 and intron 7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of tandemly arrayed sex pheromone receptor genes in Lepidoptera. The localization of an OR gene cluster on the Z chromosome agrees with previous findings for a Z-linked locus responsible for O. nubilalis male behavioral response to sex pheromone. The 181-bp direct repeats might enhance gene duplications by unequal crossovers. An autosomal locus responsible for male response to sex pheromone in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa was recently reported to contain at least four OR genes. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that generation of additional copies of OR genes can increase the potential for male moths to acquire altered specificity for pheromone components, and accordingly, facilitate differentiation of sex pheromones.

  5. A Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy reveals two divergent allelic classes within the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.

  6. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  7. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the

  8. Our Mother Corn. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Designed to accompany the preceding student text (which deals with the role of corn in the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes), the teaching guide contains a suggested sequence of activities and needed supplementary information along with an indication of the student text they follow. Sections include: farming notes; basic needs activities; house…

  9. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  10. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Familial Mediterranean fever Familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  12. Mediterranean Environmental Acoustic Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This fact , coupled with the continued operatir%._l interest there, makes the issuance of an up-date to the Atie .7orthwhile. (U) In order to serve the...characteristics from wind conditions has long interested wave theoreticians and forecasters. These specialists have developed various graphs, tables, and...the Mediterranean. Under the proper environmental conditions, micro- scopic and larger protozoans, crustaceans, and jellyfishes responsible for

  13. Recent development and advances in survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. ​Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Taylor Scarr; Joseph Francese; Damon Crook; Michael Domingue; Harold Thistle; Brian Strom; Laura Blackburn; Daniel A. Herms; Krista Ryall; Patrick. Tobin

    2016-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002 (www.emeraldashborer. info 2016) and continues to spread in North America. Canadian and U.S. federal, provincial, and state regulatory agencies have used artificial traps...

  14. Three-year progression of emerald ash borer-induced decline and mortality in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Robert P. Long; Robin A.J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms

    2008-01-01

    We monitored the progression of ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality due to emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in 38 forest stands in the upper Huron River watershed region of southeastern Michigan from 2004-2007. Black ash (F. nigra), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and white ash...

  15. Biological control of emerald ash borer in North America: current progress and potential for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Jonathan P. Lelito

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to north-east Asia, was first discovered in North America near Detroit in 2002. EAB has since spread to at least 15 U.S. States and two Canadian provinces, threatening the existence of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A classical biocontrol program was initiated...

  16. Potential production of emerald ash borer adults: tree, site and landscape-level applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in forest and urban settings in southeastern lower Michigan and Windsor, Ontario. To date, 21 Michigan counties have been...

  17. Emerald Ash Borer: Invasion of the Urban Forest and the Threat to North America's Ash Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough

    2006-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered killing ash trees in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, in 2002. Like several other invasive forest pests, the EAB likely was introduced and became established in a highly urbanized setting, facilitated by international trade and abundant hosts. Up to 15 million ash trees in...

  18. Patterns among the ashes: Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2010-01-01

    Landscape metrics, including host abundance and population density, were calculated using forest inventory and land cover data to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). The Random Forests classification algorithm in the R statistical environment was...

  19. An assessment of the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and landscape pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2009-01-01

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread...

  20. Differential utilization of ash phloem by emerald ash borer larvae: Ash species and larval stage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Michael D. Ulyshen; Therese M. Poland

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the extent to which ash species (black, green and white) and larval developmental stage (second, third and fourth instar) affect the efficiency of phloem amino acid utilization by emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larvae. EAB larvae generally utilized green ash...

  1. Differential response in foliar chemistry of three ash species to emerald ash borer adult feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Justin G.A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses of the three most common North...

  2. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Justin G.A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region...

  3. Levels of control of Chilo partellus stem borer in segregating tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... segregating tropical Bt maize populations in Kenya. Mwimali G. Murenga1, Stephen M. Githiri2, Stephen N. Mugo3* and Florence M. Olubayo4 ... methods of stem borer control (James, 2009; Mugo et al.,. 2005; Tabashnik et al., 2009). ... genic maize varieties (James, 2009). The benefits accruing to farmers ...

  4. Evaluation of firewood bagging and vacuum treatment for regulatory control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Kuhn; Chen Zhangjing; Andrea Diss-Torrance; Erin L. Clark

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery in Detroit, Michigan, in 2002, the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has caused extensive mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) as it has spread across southeast Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario, Canada (Haack et al. 2002, Poland and McCullough 2006). In addition to this core...

  5. Heat treatment of Firewood for Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard D. Bergman; Brian K. Brashaw; Scott W. Myers

    2014-01-01

    The movement of firewood within emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB)-infested states and into adjoining areas has been a contributor to its spread throughout the United States and Canada. In an effort to prevent further human-aided spread of EAB and to facilitate interstate commerce, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and cooperating...

  6. Evaluation of Perma Guard D-20 and imidacloprid to control emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2003-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Buprestidae), a native of Asia, was discovered in the USA and Canada in 2002. Drs. Deborah McCullough (Michigan State University) and Therese Poland (USDA-FS) tested several systemic and topical insecticides for EAB control, which they reported elsewhere. One additional insecticide that we...

  7. Impact of emerald ash borer on forests within the Huron River watershed of southeast Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemarie Smith; Daniel A. Herms; Robert P. Long

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB), a buprestid beetle native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) over thousands of square miles in southeast Michigan, northwest Ohio and neighboring Ontario. This invasive pest has the potential to decimate ash across North America with major impacts on...

  8. Assessing wood quality of borer-infested red oak logs with a resonance acoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Henry E. Stelzer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Patricia K. Lebow; Robert J. Ross

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of insect attack increases. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  9. On the eyes of male coffee berry borers as rudimentary organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E Vega

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001 number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10 than in females (127.5 ± 3.88. To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles.

  10. Toward the development of survey trapping technology for the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese Poland; Damon Crook; Joseph Francese; Jason Oliver; Gard Otis; Peter De Groot; Gary Grant; Linda MacDonald; Deborah McCullough; Ivich Fraser; David Lance; Victor Mastro; Nadeer Youssef; Tanya Turk; Melodie Youngs

    2007-01-01

    Improved survey tools are essential for accurately delimiting the infestation of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and for detecting new infestations. Current survey methods including visual surveys for damage, girdled trap trees, and trunk dissections are less than ideal because newly infested trees...

  11. Invasion Genetics of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis FAIRMAIRE) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts by federal and state regulatory agencies to control this destructive pest have been challenged by the biology of the pest and the speed in which it has spread. Invasion dynamics of the beetle and identifying source populations from Asia may help identify geographic localities of...

  12. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  13. Assessment of an apparently isolated population of emerald ash borer in upper Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Hyslop; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an exotic forest pest of ash that is native to Asia. Since its discovery in North America in 2002, it has been found in 13 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces and has killed more than 50 million trees in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana alone. The presence of EAB in Houghton County, MI, was...

  14. Population biology of emerald ash borer and its natural enemies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao

    2008-01-01

    Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), also known as emerald ash borer (EAB), was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario, Canada, in 2002 following investigations of declining and dying ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Agrilus planipennis has also spread to Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia,...

  15. Moisture content and nutrition as selection forces for emerald ash borer larval feeding behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Tina Ciaramitaro; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The exotic phloem-feeding emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, has killed tens of millions of North American ash trees (Fraxinus) since its first detection in the U.S.A. in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which disrupts translocation of photosynthates and nutrients. We observed that EAB...

  16. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  17. Contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production (case in Pondidaha, Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, M.; Bande, LOS; Hasan, A.; Yuswana, A.; Rinambo, F.

    2018-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most important crops which production continues to be improved in all areas of soybean cultivation centers in an effort to maintain the availability of soybean foods, including Southeast Sulawesi. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production. Methods of direct observation were made on observed variables, including species and population of pest pod borer, intensity, and crop production. The result that found four types of pod borer pests are Nezara viridula, Riptortus linearis, Etiella zinckenella, and Leptocorisa acuta, each with a different population and contribution to the intensity of pod damage. The result of path analysis showed that directly population of N. viridula (61.14) and E. zinckenella (66.44) gave positive contribution in increasing pod damage, by 0.332 and 0.502 respectively, while the negative contribution was shown by population of R. linearis and L. acuta. Damage of the pod causes increased production of low soybean is only about 0.202, therefore required appropriate control techniques to control pod borer pests populations in soybean crops.

  18. Life table evaluation of change in emerald ash borer populations due to biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Jennings; Jian J. Duan; Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Paula M. Shrewsbury; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2015-01-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB), is an invasive buprestid native to northeastern Asia that feeds on ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). First detected in North America (in Michigan, United States and Ontario, Canada) in 2002, EAB has spread rapidly, in part because of movement of infested nursery stock and untreated...

  19. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoyang Zhao; Miguel A. Alvarez Gonzales; Therese M. Poland; Omprakash. Mittapalli

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong...

  20. Evaluation of recovery and monitoring methods for parasitoids released against Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an invasive insect pest, and the target of an extensive biological control campaign designed to mitigate EAB driven ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Since 2007, environmental releases of three species of hymenopteran parasitoids of EA...

  1. Use of unwounded ash trees for the detection of emerald ash borer adults: EAB landing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Melissa J. Porter; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of multiple trapping techniques and sites within a survey program is essential to adequately identify the range of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestation. Within natural forests, EAB lands on stick band traps wrapped around girdled ash trees at a rate similar to that on unwounded ash trees. The objective of...

  2. Genetic transformation of Fraxinus spp. for resistance to the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Kaitlin J. Palla

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae) is a wood-boring beetle that poses substantial risk to the ash resource in North America. Ash species native to the United States and known to be susceptible to EAB are Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), F. americana (white ash...

  3. Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in newly-colonized sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo J. Mercader; Andrew M. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough

    2009-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal...

  4. Dendrochronological reconstruction of the epicenter and early spread of emerald ash borer in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold; Frank W. Telewski

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis was identified in 2002 as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality in Detroit, Michigan, and has since killed millions of ash trees in the US and Canada. When discovered, it was not clear how long it had been present or at what location the invading colony started....

  5. The Role of Biocontrol of Emerald Ash Borer in Protecting Ash Regeneration after Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...

  6. Modeling potential movements of the emerald ash borer: the model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Jonathan Bossenbroek; Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is threatening to decimate native ashes (Fraxinus spp.) across North America and, so far, has devastated ash populations across sections of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario. We are attempting to develop a computer model that will predict EAB future movement by adapting...

  7. Exploring the molecular and biochemical basis of ash resistance to emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin G.A. Whitehill; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) feed on phloem of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. It is hypothesized that the resistance of Asian species of ash (e.g., Manchurian ash, F. mandshurica) to EAB is due to endogenous defenses present in phloem tissues in the form of defensive proteins and/or...

  8. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  9. Detection of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, at low population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Porter; Michael D. Hyslop; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was first discovered in North America in Detroit, MI, in 2002. This beetle has killed millions of ash trees in several states in the United States and in Canada, and populations of this insect continue to be detected. EAB is difficult to detect when it invades new...

  10. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland; David. Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed...

  11. Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  12. Effectiveness of stem borer control on the yield of maize ( Zea Mays L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were carried out at Umudike South eastern Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria, in the 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons to evaluate the effectiveness of stemborer resistant maize varieties, AMA–TZBR-WCI, TZBR--ELD3 and FARO 23 + FURADAN in protecting maize (Zea mays L) against stem borer infestation.

  13. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on four species of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter D. Koenig; Andrew M. Liebhold; David N. Bonter; Wesley M. Hochachka; Janis L. Dickinson

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis, first detected in 2002 in the vicinity of Detroit, Michigan, USA, is one of the most recent in a long list of introduced insect pests that have caused serious damage to North American forest trees, in this case ash trees in the genus Fraxinus. We used data from Project FeederWatch, a...

  14. Genetic analysis of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) populations in Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack; Anthony I. Cognato; James J. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees first discovered outside of its native range of northeastern Asia in 2002. EAB spread from its initial zone of discovery in the Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario metropolitan areas,...

  15. Laboratory bioassay of emerald ash borer adults with a Bacillus thuringiensis formulation sprayed on ash leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Diana. Londono

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to Asia that feeds on ash trees (Fraxinus spp.), was discovered in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002. It apparently arrived in the 1990's via infested solid-wood packing materials from China. As of 2011, areas considered generally infested with...

  16. Imidacloprid concentration effects on adult emerald ash borer: a greenhouse study

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Phil Lewis; John Molongoski

    2008-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the active ingredient of many widely used products applied to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in valuable urban trees. Systemic treatment with imidacloprid is typically made in the spring to reduce the number of larvae that would otherwise be generated by oviposition during the summer. Substantial...

  17. Emerald ash borer biological control: rearing, releasing, establishment, and efficacy of parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Deborah L. Miller

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) is an invasive buprestid native to Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. It was first discovered in 2002 in areas of southern Michigan and Ontario, and infestations have since been found in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, Virginia...

  18. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  19. Integrated pest management of coffee berry borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: current status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges...

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deborah G. McCullough

    2015-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy...

  1. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  2. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fainnaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling(bark and phloem removed from a 15...

  3. Testing public Bt maize events for control of stem borers in the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays L), developed using modified genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), controls stem borers without observable negative effects to humans, livestock or the environment, and is now sown on 134 million hectares globally. Bt maize could contribute to increasing maize production in ...

  4. Emerald ash borer in North America: a research and regulatory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Nathan W. Siegert

    2005-01-01

    The saga of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmare (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in North America began on 25 June 2002, when five entomologists representing Michigan State University (MSU), the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS)...

  5. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  6. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  7. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  8. Production and Partial Characterization of Alpha-Amylase from Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn pomace, a by-product of corn from “ogi” production was used as a substrate for the production of alpha-amylase by a corn fermenting strain of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 4527. The corn pomace was fortified with potassium phosphate, magnesium sulphate and 2% w/v glucose to produce corn pomace basal medium, ...

  9. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  10. Shock treatment of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Austin; Rughoonundun, Hema; Petersen, Eric; Holtzapple, Carol; Holtzapple, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Corn stover digestibility was enhanced via shock treatment. A slurry of lime-treated corn stover was placed in a partially filled closed vessel. From the ullage space, either a shotgun shell was fired into the slurry, or a gas mixture was detonated. Various conditions were tested (i.e., pressures, depth, solids concentrations, gas mixtures). A high pressurization rate (108,000 MPa/s shotgun shells; 4,160,000 MPa/s hydrogen/oxygen detonation) was the only parameter that improved enzymatic digestibility. Stoichiometric propane/air deflagration had a low pressurization rate (37.2 MPa/s) and did not enhance enzymatic digestibility. Without shock, enzymatic conversion of lime-treated corn stover was 0.80 g glucan digested/g glucan fed with an enzyme loading of 46.7 mg protein/g glucan. With shock, the enzyme loading was reduced by ∼2× while maintaining the same conversion. Detonations are extraordinarily fast; rapidly cycling three small vessels (0.575 m 3 each) every 7.5 s enables commercially relevant shock treatment (2,000 tone/day). © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:815-823, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. A technique to dissect the alimentary canal of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei , with isolation of internal microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Ceja-Navarro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A technique for dissecting the alimentary canal of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is presented. The technique was developed to isolate and identify alimentary canal-associated microorganisms that might be involved in caffeine detoxification.

  12. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  13. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  14. a Study of Paddystem Borer (scirpophaga Incertulas) Population Dynamics and its Influence Factors Base on Stepwise Regress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linnan; Peng, Lin; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Yinsong

    Paddystem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) is a serious rice pest. The damaged plants wither into dead tassel or white tassel. Such damage leads to decreased in rice production. In order to control the damages of paddystem borer efficiency, it is very important to analyze and study the regulation of population dynamics and the related factors affecting the development. This investigated the population dynamics of paddystem borer by means of light trap in JianShui County in Yunnan of China during 2004 to 2006, and analyzed the meteorological conditions affecting the population dynamics. The research suggests that: there exists a significant relationship between the population dynamics of paddystem borer and meteorological factors, among it, The most influenced are the average minimum temperature per month and relative humidity (RH).

  15. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Zukoff, Sarah N.; Zukoff, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technolog...

  16. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Asfers Adil; Blenzar Abdelali; Rachdaoui Mohammed; Joutei Abdelmalek Boutaleb; Houssa Abdelhadi Ait; Sekkat Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella), oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta) and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana) revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 ...

  17. Lambda-cyhalothrin efficiency on fruit borer control and quali-quantitative spraying aspects in a pinecone crop

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Jacqueline Lavinscky Costa; Castellani, Maria Aparecida; Raetano, Carlos Gilberto; Macêdo, Juliana Alves de; Nery, Moisés Silva; Moreira, Gabriela Luz Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, the state of Bahia is one of the largest pinecone (Annona squamosa L.) growers; nevertheless, fruit borer (Cerconota anonella L.) presence limits production. This research aimed to test the efficiency of lambda-cyhalothrin in controlling fruit borer using different spray volumes; additionally, this research tested qualitative and quantitative operational aspects. Trials were carried out in pinecone orchards in Caraíbas-BA, Brazil. Pesticide efficiency was tested by a rando...

  18. High-conversion hydrolysates and corn sweetener production in dry-grind corn process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most corn is processed to fuel ethanol and distillers’ grain animal feed using the dry grind process. However, wet milling is needed to refine corn starch. Corn starch is in turn processed to numerous products, including glucose and syrup. However, wet milling is a capital, labor, and energy intensi...

  19. FARMER DEMAND FOR CORN ROOTWORM BT CORN: DO INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Langrock, Ines; Hurley, Terrance M.; Ostlie, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Farmer adoption of Bt corn and compliance with insect resistance management (IRM) regulations will influence the success of these regulations. The purpose of this paper is to use farmer survey data to estimate the demand for new corn rootworm Bt corn and the cost of complying with proposed IRM regulations.

  20. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  1. Synergistic action of enzyme preparations towards recalcitrant corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Corn silage, its water unextractable solids (WUS) and enzyme recalcitrant solids (ErCS) and an industrial corn silage-based anaerobic fermentation residue (AFR) represent corn substrates with different levels of recalcitrance. Compositional analysis reveals different levels of arabinoxylan

  2. The relationship of pellagra to corn and the low availability of niacin in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K J

    1983-01-01

    The poorest inhabitants of an area generally eat the narrowest range of foods, and one staple (which serves as a cheap source of calories) dominates. In turn, the specific type of malnutrition seen in that area depends upon that predominant staple and how it is processed before consumption. Corn, used here in the sense of "Indian corn" or maize, was brought to Europe from America, and over the period 1750-1850 became the typical peasant's staple in many of the areas bordering the Mediterranean. By the end of that period, it had also come to be recognized that pellagra had become a serious, chronic disease in these same countries, flaring up each spring amongst the poorest people living on diets containing much corn and very little animal food (i.e., meat, eggs or dairy products) or wine and being generally in a state of wretchedness. Nothing of the sort was seen in areas where wheat and rice were the staple foods, even when they were highly milled. Most scientists agreed on this association with corn, though not on what was the true cause-and-effect relationship. Research in the present century has shown that pellagra is primarily due to a dietary deficiency of niacin. However, the niacin content of different foods did not tie in well with their pellagra-preventive value. But then it was discovered that a second nutrient, tryptophan, could act as precursor of the vitamin with approximately one sixtieth of the activity of the actual vitamin. The "niacin equivalent" values of foods (calculated from their content of both nutrients) show a much better correlation with their pellagra-preventive value. Thus, mature corn is lower in niacin content than are wheat and rice; also the mixed proteins of corn are lower in their tryptophan content. What is not explained by the calculation of "niacin equivalent" is the general freedom from pellagra of the peasants in Mexico and Central America, where corn has been the staple for millenia and where poverty, the consequent lack of

  3. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Petersen, G I; Stein, H H

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed and to compare these values with the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and AA in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight growing barrows (initial BW: 82.5 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. Diets contained corn, DDGS, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or hominy feed as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and protein. Pigs were fed experimental diets for eight 7-d periods, with ileal digesta being collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of Lys in corn gluten meal (78.7%) was greater (P bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed (46.0, 48.4, 68.4, and 58.8%, respectively). The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, Leu, and Met in bakery meal were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Arg, His, Leu, and Met in corn gluten feed were less (P bakery meal had SID values of most AA that were less than in corn, but corn gluten meal had SID values for most AA that were greater than the SID of AA in corn, bakery meal, and corn coproducts.

  4. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  5. Cornelis den Hartog: an outstanding aquatic ecologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.; Brock, T.C.M.; Kempers, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    A survey is given of the work and life of Cornelis den Hartog up to the date in 1996 on which he retired from his position as a professor at the University of Nijmegen. Cornelis (Kees) den Hartog made important contributions to aquatic ecology in the widest sense, e.G. On brackish water typology,

  6. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  7. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2013-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the concentration of DE and ME in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 84 barrows (initial BW: 13.7±2.3 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 14 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Seven diets were formulated to contain corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal as the sole source of P. Seven additional diets were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that 600 units of microbial phytase was included in each diet. The STTD of P was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, and the STTD of P was also greater (Pbakery meal than in corn and hominy feed. Addition of phytase increased (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal but not in corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or DDGS. In Exp. 2, 56 barrows (initial BW: 14.6±2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 7 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A corn-based diet consisting of 97.5% corn and vitamins and minerals was formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and DDGS, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, or corn germ meal, and 2 diets were based on hominy feed or bakery meal. The concentration of ME was 3,891, 3,675, 3,655, 3,694, 4,400, 3,169, and 3,150 kcal/kg DM in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, respectively. The ME (DM basis) in corn was greater (Pbakery meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, but less (Pbakery meal, and DDGS was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, but phytase can be included in diets containing corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, and corn germ meal to improve P digestibility. The ME in corn gluten meal is greater than

  8. Feeding and Development of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Cultivated Olive, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  10. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  11. The parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Polaszek, A.; Fitton, M.G.; Bianchi, G.; Huddleston, T.

    2017-01-01

    A key is provided for the recognition of the hymenopterous parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot, a pest of rice in Africa and Madagascar. Five species are described as new: Braconidae: Chelonus maudae Huddleston, Rhacanotus carinafus Polaszek; Ichneumonidae: Prisfomerus bullis Fitton, Prisfomerus caris Fitton, Venturia jordanae Fitton. The following synonyms are proposed: Goniozus indicus Muesebeck, G. natalensis Gordh and G. procerae Risbec are synonymiz...

  12. Pheromones control oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer in cling peaches

    OpenAIRE

    Pickel, Carolyn; Hasey, Janine; Bentley, Walt; Olson, William H.; Grant, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Slow-release pheromone tech-nology can successfully control oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer while eliminating in-season insecticide sprays in cling peaches. In conjunction with a demon-stration program, we compared mating disruption for these two pests with standard grower pest-control methods in the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, and monitored for pest damage, yield and grower costs. While the mating-disruption program was effective in controlling the targeted pests, costs were...

  13. Progress and future directions in research on the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland

    2014-01-01

    When the emerald ash borer (EAB) was discovered near Detroit, Michigan in July 2002, very little was known about it other than the fact that it was killing large numbers of ash trees throughout a widespread area in southeast Michigan (Poland and McCullough 2006). Ash mortality in the area had been noted for a few years, but was attributed to ash decline until damage...

  14. Effect of pheromone dispenser density on timing and duration of approaches by peachtree borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J

    2010-10-01

    The timing and duration of approaches by male peachtree borer Synanthedon exitiosa Say (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to commercial pheromone dispensers placed singly or at high density in peach orchards was determined by using field-deployed video cameras and digital video recorders. Cameras were trained on one dispenser, and one standard lure was placed in a peach orchard, and on 12 dispensers in a separate orchard where dispensers for mating disruption had been placed at 371 per hectare. Male moth approaches were video recorded at the peak of peachtree borer annual flight, from 13 to 18 August 2009. The mean approach timing (h:min:sec±SD) during the study period was 11:33:12 ± 00:46:43, 11:43:52 ± 00:45:58, and 11:41:21 ± 00:45:54 AM with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. Day-to-day variability in approach timings suggested that there were no biologically significant differences among treatments. The frequency distribution of approach durations varied among treatments, as the high-density dispensers had mostly short approaches, while the distribution of approaches to the single dispenser and lure was wider. The median (interquartile range) approach duration was 3 (2-4), 1 (1-2), and 4 (2-6) seconds with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. The relative rank of median approach durations was constant throughout the period, indicating differences among treatments. This study showed that the presence of pheromone dispensers for mating disruption did not cause an advancement of peachtree borer diel rhythm of response. Shorter approaches to dispensers placed at high density than singly suggest that dispenser retentiveness is not constant with peachtree borer, which may bias estimates of disruption activity as a function of dispenser density.

  15. Qibla in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Piniés, Mònica

    Orientation toward Mecca has been compulsory for Muslims in all time periods and in all places. In fact, mosques were built in such a way as to help believers to pray toward the right direction. Nevertheless, the alignment of the sacred buildings was not always exact, and many did not actually face the Kaaba. There are many reasons for this "mistake", the main one being that at the time of the construction of the most important mosques, the astronomical and geographical knowledge needed to make accurate calculations was lacking. In the Mediterranean area, the scholars who were most involved in this task were the fuqahā' (experts in Islamic jurisprudence) who were sometimes well versed in astronomical knowledge or, at least, were skilled in the practice of popular astronomy. The combination of astronomy and religion, mixed with the political and topographical conditions, produces a unique area of study which remains controversial today.

  16. Nutrient addition to corn masa flour: effect on corn flour stability, nutrient loss, and acceptability of fortified corn tortillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Cassís, Lorena; Solano, Lourdes; Duarte-Vázquez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Iron, zinc, and vitamin B complex are among the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies in Mexico, with iron deficiency being the leading cause of anemia. Mexico has the highest per capita consumption of corn in the world, consumed mainly as tortilla. Thus, corn flour for making tortillas has been suggested as an effective strategy to overcome malnutrition in developing countries such as Mexico where corn is a staple food. The stability of micronutrients added to food is an important factor for the success of fortification programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of corn flour fortified with micronutrients, and to measure the effect of micronutrient fortification on the sensory quality and stability of the fortificants in fresh and stored tortilla. A commercially homogenized nonfortified corn flour (NCFC) produced from degermed white corn was fortified with a premix containing iron, zinc, thiamin, and riboflavin. Changes in thiamin, riboflavin, iron, and zinc content in fortified corn flour (FCF) and nonfortified corn flour (NFCF) during storage were investigated. Vitamin B1 and B2 content was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy while iron and zinc content was analyzed by atomic absorption. Thiamin content in FCF and NFCF showed a significant (p flour into tortillas. Storage time slightly affected the stability of riboflavin and thiamin in FCF while the cooking process produced considerable losses of both vitamins. Tortillas made from FCF were well accepted by Mexican adults. We conclude that the addition of vitamins and minerals in the forms and quantities used in this study do not modify the shelf-life of corn flour, and neither do they cause sensorial changes in tortillas made from FCF.

  17. Localized search cues in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B; Meihls, L N; Coudron, T A; Lim, E; Hibbard, B E

    2009-04-01

    Cues that elicit a characteristic localized search behavior by neonate larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were extracted from living corn, Zea mays L., roots with acetone. Larvae were exposed to corn roots or to an acetone extract of corn roots and then transferred into a bioassay arena where their movements were tracked and recorded. After a 5-min exposure to live corn roots, larvae produced highly convoluted tracks that were indicative of a localized search behavior, and these distinctive tracks were also produced by larvae exposed to an acetone extract of corn roots. Larvae exposed to a filter paper control moved in relatively straight paths that were indicative of ranging behavior. Larval tracks were recorded by means of a videocamera and tracking software, and four parameters of movement were used to quantify the tracks: mean turn angle, mean meander, total distance, and maximum distance from origin. For every parameter measured, tracks resulting from exposure to the control were significantly different from tracks resulting from exposure to live corn roots and to all doses of the corn root extract. In a separate experiment, larvae exposed to corn root pieces or corn root juice exhibited the localized search behavior, but larvae exposed to oat root pieces and oat root juice (nonhost) exhibited ranging behavior.

  18. Insecticide enhancement with feeding stimulants in corn for western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2005-08-01

    Amounts of the insecticide thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality of western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, were reduced 100-fold when extracts of germinating corn, Zea mays L., were used to entice neonate larvae to feed on it. In behavioral bioassays, neonate rootworm larvae fed vigorously on filter paper disks treated with liquid pressed from corn roots. Moreover, disks treated with an acetone extract of corn (dried and rewetted with water) also elicited strong feeding from larvae. Larvae wandered away from filter paper disks treated with distilled water without feeding. Dilutions of thiamethoxam were tested in the bioassay alone or with corn extract and the efficacy of this insecticide was improved by the addition of the corn extract. For solutions containing 10 ppm thiamethoxam, 95% larval mortality occurred after 30 min of exposure when corn extract was present, but only 38% mortality occurred when the same concentration of insecticide alone (no feeding stimulants) was tested. Larval mortality after 24 h was significantly higher for corn extract-treated disks with 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 ppm insecticide than for the same concentrations without corn extract. Thiamethoxam did not deter larval feeding on corn extract, even at the highest concentration of thiamethoxam tested.

  19. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul

    2010-04-01

    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.

  20. Mineral nutrients in mediterranean ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Day, JA

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available ' classifications of plant forms and formations, categories implicitly based on their intuitive views of convergence. Because of the striking similarities in plant form among the small, widely-separated Mediterranean ecosystems (Figure 1), biogeographical concepts...

  1. Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bouillon

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a systematic account of the hydrozoan species collected up to now in the Mediterranean Sea. All species are described, illustrated and information on morphology and distribution is given for all of them. This work is the most complete fauna of hydrozoans made in the Mediterranean. The fauna includes planktonic hydromedusae, benthic polyps stages and the siphonophores. The Hydrozoa are taken as an example of inconspicuous taxa whose knowledge has greatly progressed in the last decades due to the scientific research of some specialists in the Mediterranean area. The number of species recorded in the Mediterranean almost doubled in the last thirty years and the number of new records is still increasing. The 457 species recorded in this study represents the 12% of the world known species. The fauna is completed with classification keys and a glossary of terms with the main purpose of facilitating the identification of all Meditrranean hydrozoan species

  2. Global security in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sánchez Mateos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the WEU, NATO and specially the European Union (in the framework of the Barcelona process initiated security dialogues with countries East and South of the Mediterranean Basin. Those processes are far to achieve significant progress. Some arguments help to explain the present situation: on the one hand, European countries and organizations lack clear strategic goals and consistent policies. On the other, difficulties to create a security dialogue in the Mediterranean, which is a precondition to generateboth a common language and security culture, are the result of differences between the European and the Arab security cultures. Nevertheless, the geopolitical environment, the Euro-Mediterranean process itself and the development of the European Union demanda strategic revision on how to implement the objectives of the Barcelona Declaration, reformulating the idea of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership towards a new concept of shared security that integrates Southern interests and concerns.

  3. The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition assessments and leaf isotope measurements to assess pest damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Flower; Kathleen S. Knight; Joanne Rebbeck; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler

    2013-01-01

    Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America are being severely impacted by the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) which was inadvertently introduced to the US in the 1990s from Asia. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a phloem boring beetle which relies exclusively on ash trees to complete its life cycle. Larvae...

  4. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  5. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  6. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  7. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... quality of corn (Zea mays indendata) mixed with legumes such as various cowpea (Vigna ungiuculata) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) ... seeding of soybean with corn in alternate-rows as 1 corn + 1 soybean or 1 corn + 2 ..... And also silage quality is many times more significant property than quantity.

  8. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  9. Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Cicero; Amorim,Edson Perito; Barbosa Neto,José Fernandes; Cardoso Filho,Julio Alves; Sereno,Maria Jane Cruz de Melo

    2011-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in various subspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This type was originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations of sweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this pre...

  10. Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte.

    OpenAIRE

    Cicero Almeida; Edson Perito Amorim; José Fernandes Barbosa Neto; Julio Alves Cardoso Filho; Maria Jane Cruz de Melo Sereno

    2011-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in varioussubspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This typewas originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations ofsweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this presen...

  11. Down regulation of a gene for cadherin, but not alkaline phosphatase, associated with Cry1Ab resistance in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Yang

    Full Text Available The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt proteins (i.e., Cry1Ab in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of transgenic Bt crops. Understanding the pests' resistance mechanisms will facilitate development of effective strategies for delaying or countering resistance. Alterations in expression of cadherin- and alkaline phosphatase (ALP have been associated with Bt resistance in several species of pest insects. In this study, neither the activity nor gene regulation of ALP was associated with Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. Total ALP enzymatic activity was similar between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR strains of D. saccharalis. In addition, expression levels of three ALP genes were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and -RR, and cDNA sequences did not differ between susceptible and resistant larvae. In contrast, altered expression of a midgut cadherin (DsCAD1 was associated with the Cry1Ab resistance. Whereas cDNA sequences of DsCAD1 were identical between the two strains, the transcript abundance of DsCAD1 was significantly lower in Cry1Ab-RR. To verify the involvement of DsCAD1 in susceptibility to Cry1Ab, RNA interference (RNAi was employed to knock-down DsCAD1 expression in the susceptible larvae. Down-regulation of DsCAD1 expression by RNAi was functionally correlated with a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. These results suggest that down-regulation of DsCAD1 is associated with resistance to Cry1Ab in D. saccharalis.

  12. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  14. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  15. Atrazine Metabolism in Resistant Corn and Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, R. H.

    1968-01-01

    The metabolism of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine) in the resistant species, corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) was not the same. In corn, atrazine was metabolized via both the 2-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation pathways while sorghum metabolized atrazine via the N-dealkylation pathway. Atrazine metabolism in corn yielded the metabolites, 2-hydroxy-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (hydroxyatrazine), 2-hydroxy-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (hydroxycompound I), and 2-hydroxy-4-amino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (hydroxycompound II). None of these hydroxylated derivatives appeared as metabolites of atrazine in sorghum. Hydroxycompounds I and II were formed in 2 ways in corn: (1) by benzoxazinone-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (compound I) and 2-chloro-4-amino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (compound II) that were formed by N-dealkylation of atrazine and (2) by N-dealkylation of hydroxyatrazine, the major atrazine metabolite in corn. The interaction of the 2-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation pathways in corn results in the formation of the 3 hydroxylated non-phytotoxic derivatives of atrazine. Images PMID:16656991

  16. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  17. Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  19. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    KATSANEVAKIS, S.; ACAR, Ü.; AMMAR, I.; BALCI, B. A.; BEKAS, P.; BELMONTE, M.; CHINTIROGLOU, C. C.; CONSOLI, P.; DIMIZA, M.; FRYGANIOTIS, K.; GEROVASILEIOU, V.; GNISCI, V.; GÜLŞAHIN, N.; HOFFMAN, R.; ISSARIS, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf) (Greece); the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore); the mantis shrimp Clorid...

  1. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece.

  2. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Nonalcoholic beverages, § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter 20 Do. Frozen dairy desserts, § 170.3(n)(20) of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section 184.1262 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  4. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  5. Pest Management Strategies Against the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    Coffee ( Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ∼80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over U.S. $500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry) and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next. Coffee berry borer control has primarily been based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Management strategies have focused on the use of African parasitoids ( Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Prorops nasuta, and Phymastichus coffea), fungal entomopathogens ( Beauveria bassiana), and insect traps. These approaches have had mixed results. Recent work on the basic biology of the insect has provided novel insights that might be useful in developing novel pest management strategies. For example, the discovery of symbiotic bacteria responsible for caffeine breakdown as part of the coffee berry borer microbiome opens new possibilities for pest management via the disruption of these bacteria. Some chemicals with repellent propieties have been identified, and these have a high potential for field implementation. Finally, the publication of the CBB genome has provided insights on the biology of the insect that will help us to understand why it has been so successful at exploiting the coffee plant. Here I discuss the tools we now have against the CBB and likely control strategies that may be useful in the near future.

  6. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.

  8. Impact of Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae) Pests on Corn Containing Pyramided Bt Traits and a Blended Refuge in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, F P F; Bessin, R T; Brewer, M J; Buntin, D G; Catchot, A L; Cook, D R; Flanders, K L; Kerns, D L; Porter, R P; Reisig, D D; Stewart, S D; Rice, M E

    2016-08-01

    Blended refuge for transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been approved in the northern United States as a resistance management strategy alternative to a structured refuge. A three-year study (2012-2014) was conducted with 54 trials across nine states in the southern United States to evaluate plant injury from lepidopteran pests of corn and yield in a corn hybrid expressing Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Pioneer Brand Optimum Leptra) planted as a pure stand and in refuge blends of 5, 10, and 20% in both early and late plantings. Injury by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was generally proportional to the percentage of non-Bt corn within each refuge blend. Across locations, ear injury in plots with 100% Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) corn ranged from no injury to a maximum of 0.42 cm(2) per ear in Mississippi in 2013. Leaf injury ratings in 100% non-Bt plots in early and late planted trials in 2014 were 86- and 70-fold greater than in 100% Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) plots. Plants in plots with blended refuges had significantly greater leaf injury in 2012 (5, 10, and 20% refuge blends), in the early-planted corn in 2013 (10 and 20% only), and in both early- and late-planted corn in 2014 (20% only) as compared with leaf injury in a pure stand of Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) seen during these years. Corn ears in plots with blended refuges also had significantly greater area of kernels injured in 2012 (5, 10, and 20%), in early- and late-planted corn in 2013 (5, 10, and 20%), and in early (10 and 20% only)- and late-planted corn (5, 10, and 20%) in 2014 as compared with ear injury in a pure stand of Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) seen during these years. Infestations of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera

  9. A power-driven increment borer for sampling high-density tropical wood

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Krottenthaler; Philipp Pitsch; G. Helle; Giuliano Maselli Locosselli; Gregório Ceccantini; Jan Altman; Miroslav Svoboda; Jiri Dolezal; Gerhard Schleser; Dieter Anhuf

    2015-01-01

    High-density hardwood trees with large diameters have been found to damage manually operated increment borers, thus limiting their use in the tropics. Therefore, we herein report a new, low-cost gasoline-powered sampling system for high-density tropical hardwood trees with large diameters. This system provides increment cores 15 mm in diameter and up to 1.35 m in length, allowing minimally invasive sampling of tropical hardwood tree species, which, up to the present, could not be collected by...

  10. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  11. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  12. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  13. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  14. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  15. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  16. Modeling emerald ash borer dispersal using percolation theory: estimating the rate of range expansion in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms; Louis R. Iverson

    2008-01-01

    The dispersal of organisms is rarely random, although diffusion processes can be useful models for movement in approximately homogeneous environments. However, the environments through which all organisms disperse are far from uniform at all scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is obligate on ash (Fraxinus spp...

  17. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Taylor; Jian J. Duan; Roger. Fuester

    2011-01-01

    Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Ontario also indicate that some existing parasitoids...

  18. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

    2009-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, ...

  19. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; Therese M. Poland; Steven J. Pierce; Su Zie. Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of...

  20. Evaluating the use of plastic bags to prevent escape of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Andrea Diss-Torrance

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and...

  1. An introduction to the square-necked grain beetle as a predator of coffee berry borer in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control can be an important component of integrated pest management programs. Coffee berry borer is a new pest of Hawaii coffee that arrived with no apparent natural enemies. The square-necked grain beetle, Cathartus quadricollis, has been present in Hawaii for many years and has become o...

  2. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  3. Planning for and implementing an emerald ash borer-induced forest restoration program in municipal woodlands in Oakville, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Williams; Candace. Karandiuk

    2017-01-01

    Oakville is an urban municipality with 846 ha of woodland. Management priorities are to maintain forest health, environmental health, and safety; wood production is a minor objective. The town developed a comprehensive strategy to plan for emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) induced ash mortality and forest restoration. Oakville has begun...

  4. Emerald ash borer aftermath forests: The dynamics of ash mortality and the responses of other plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Joanne Rebbeck; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Wendy S. Klooster; Catherine P. Herms; Alejandro A. Royo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program involving the U.S. Forest Service's Northern Research Station and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring the decline and mortality of >4,500 ash trees and saplings, EAB population density, changes...

  5. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...

  6. Population dynamics and impacts of the red-headed leafy spurge stem borer on leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; George Markin; Joseph Milan; Tom Barbouletos; Matthew J. Rinella

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the biological control agent, red-headed leafy spurge stem borer, against the nonnative invasive plant leafy spurge. Our three treatments were release of the biological control agent into uncaged plots, release of the biological control agent into plots caged to prevent agent escape, and control plots caged to prevent agent entry. These...

  7. Microsatellite population genetics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): comparisons between Asian and North American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson C. Keever; Christal Nieman; Larissa Ramsay; Carol E. Ritland; Leah S. Bauer; D. Barry Lyons; Jenny S. Cory

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae), is an invasive wood-boring beetle native to northeast Asia. This species was first detected in Michigan USA in 2002, and is a significant threat to native and ornamental ash tree species (Fraxinus spp.) throughout North America. We...

  8. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  9. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: The potential for early stage recovery of North American ash trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of North America, ash (Fraxinus) stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees, saplings, basal sprouts, and seedlings. Without a soil seed bank for Fraxinus spp., tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these...

  10. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  11. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  12. Development of a web-based tool for projecting costs of managing emerald ash borer in municipal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford S. Sadof

    2009-01-01

    City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city...

  13. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  14. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Mike Ulyshen; Leah Bauer; Ivich. Fraser

    2011-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North...

  15. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...

  16. Can ash communities and their dependent species be partially protected through biological control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002 and has been detected in 32 U.S. states and two Canadian pro...

  17. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  18. Establishing Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), the introduced egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer, in Michigan ash stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby Petrice; F. William Ravlin; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2016-01-01

    The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is one of four parasitoid species from northeast Asia being released in regions of North America as part of a biological control program to manage the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (Bauer et al...

  19. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  20. A Survey: Potential Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Tolerant to Drought or Resistant to Stem Borers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac M. Wamatsembe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Uganda is constrained by various factors, but especially drought and stem borers contribute to significant yield losses. Genetically modified (GM maize with increased drought tolerance and/or Bt insect resistance (producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein is considered as an option. For an ex ante impact analysis of these technologies, a farmer survey was carried out in nine districts of Uganda, representing the major farming systems. The results showed that farmers did rate stem borer and drought as the main constraints for maize farming. Most farmers indicated a positive attitude towards GM maize, and 86% of all farmers said they would grow GM maize. Farmer estimated yield losses to drought and stem borer damage were on average 54.7% and 23.5%, respectively, if stress occurred. Taking the stress frequency into consideration (67% for both, estimated yield losses were 36.5% and 15.6% for drought and stem borer, respectively. According to the ex-ante partial budget analysis, Bt hybrid maize could be profitable, with an average value/cost ratio of 2.1. Drought tolerant hybrid maize had lower returns and a value/cost ratio of 1.5. Negative returns occurred mainly for farmers with non-stressed grain yields below 2 t·ha−1. The regulatory framework in Uganda needs to be finalized with consideration of strengthening key institutions in the maize sector for sustainable introduction of GM maize.

  1. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  2. Community composition and structure had no effect on forest susceptibility to invasion by the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemarie Smith; Daniel A. Herms; Robert P. Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a non-native, wood-boring beetle that has caused widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus (Oleaceae)) in eastern North America. During 2004-2007, we determined whether forest community composition and structure of black (F. nigra...

  3. Natural enemies of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in northeast China, with notes on two species of parasitic Coleoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Yi Wang; Liang-Ming Cao; Zhong-Qi Yang; Jian J. Duan; Juli R. Gould; Leah S. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    To investigate natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in northeastern China, we conducted field surveys of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus (Oleaceae)) trees in semi-natural forests and plantations at variable EAB densities from 2008 to 2013. Our surveys revealed a complex of...

  4. Review of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), life history, mating behaviours, host plant selection, and host resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Yigen Chen; Jennifer Koch; Deepa. Pureswaran

    2015-01-01

    As of summer 2014, the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has become established in 24 states in the United States of America and has killed tens of millions of ash trees since its introduction into Michigan in the 1990s. Considerable research has been conducted on many aspects of EAB life...

  5. Screening of different insecticides against maize shoot fly atherigona soccata (Rond.) and maize borer. chilo partellus (swinh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Rana, Z.A.; Haq, I.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)

  6. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  7. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoff, Sarah N; Zukoff, Anthony L

    2017-01-01

    Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the stack of both Bt and RNAi, or the isoline of these. The behavior of the rootworm larvae indicated a significant host preference response to all corn hybrids (with or without insecticidal traits) compared to the filter paper and oat roots. A weaker host response to the RNAi corn roots was observed in the susceptible larvae when compared to the resistant larvae, but not for the Bt + RNAi vector stack. Additionally, the resistant larvae demonstrated a weaker host response to the isoline corn roots when compared to the susceptible larvae. Although weaker, these host responses were significantly different from those observed in the negative controls, indicating that all hybrids tested do contain the contact cues necessary to elicit a host preference response by both Cry3Bb1-resistant and Cry3Bb1-susceptible larvae that would work to hinder resistance development in refuge in a bag fields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Preparation of antioxidative corn protein hydrolysates, purification and evaluation of three novel corn antioxidant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Du-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; He, Jun-Fang

    2016-08-01

    Corn gluten meal is a major co-product of corn wet milling. Corn gluten meal was hydrolyzed with Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Alcalase+Flavourzyme and Flavourzyme+Alcalase. At the substrate concentration of 10%, corn protein hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase had a degree of hydrolysis of 17.83%, which was higher than that by Flavourzyme (3.65%). The hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase+Flavourzyme exhibited better antioxidant activities and was further purified. Three novel antioxidant peptides were purified by a series of chromatographic techniques. Sequences of the three peptides were identified as Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala, Tyr-Pro-Lys-Leu-Ala-Pro-Asn-Glu and Tyr-Pro-Gln-Leu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Glu, respectively. Among the three peptides, Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala exhibited good reducing power and excellent scavenging capacities for DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical, with IC50 values of 0.116 and 0.39mg/ml, respectively. The results from our study indicate antioxidant potency of corn protein hydrolysates and peptides separated from corn gluten meal and can provide basic understanding for the application of corn protein hydrolysates as natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of twin-screw extrusion on soluble arabinoxylans and corn fiber gum from corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkhornart, Sasathorn; Lee, Seul Gi; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-09-01

    The effect of feed moisture content and screw speed in the extrusion process with and without chemical pretreatment of corn fiber was investigated. Different chemical pretreatment methods (NaOH and H2 SO4 solution) were compared. The improvement of reducing sugar, soluble arabinoxylans (SAX) content and the yield of corn fiber gum was measured. A high reducing sugar content was obtained in the filtrate fraction from the extruded destarched corn fiber (EDCF) with H₂SO₄ pretreatment. Feed moisture content most effectively improved both reducing sugar and SAX content of filtrate. Increasing feed moisture content and screw speed resulted in a higher SAX content in the filtrate of the EDCF with NaOH pretreatment. The SAX content of the residual solid from the EDCF with NaOH pretreatment was higher compared to H₂SO₄ pretreated and unpretreated samples and significantly increased with decreasing feed moisture content. The screw speed did not have a major impact after enzyme hydrolysis. The yield of corn fiber gum was increased by 12% using NaOH pretreatment combined with extrusion process as compared to the destarched corn fiber. The results show the great potential of the extrusion process as an effective pretreatment for disruption the lignocelluloses of corn fiber, leading to conversion of cellulose to glucose and hemicelluloses to SAX and isolation of corn fiber gum. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A method for sampling waste corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    observed that different particle size fractions from corn bran are not uniformly composed. The content of monosaccharides varies and results in differences in content and composition of cellulose and arabinoxylan. These differences in biomass composition may very well also be part of the explanation why...... bran fraction. Once the arabinoxylan structure is free of the cell wall matrix the hydrolysis seem to be restricted due to steric hindrance or lack of additional enzymes to catalyse the hydrolysis of certain unusual bonds. In particular, it is of outmost importance to target arabinosyl substitutions...... by completing the knowledge about corn bran arabinoxylan, which can then lead to the identification of missing, central enzyme activities, and thereby also make the work on corn bran generic. The thesis is based upon the scientific publications produced during the last four years and they represent...

  12. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  13. Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla-Hurtado Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was

  14. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully

  15. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  16. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not less...

  17. Corn cob lightweight concrete for non-structural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, J.; Vieira, J.; Pereira, H.; Jacinto, C.; Vilela, P.; Paiva, A.; Pereira, S.; Cunha, V.; Varum, H.

    2012-01-01

    A lightweight concrete using granulated corn cob (without corn) as an aggregate is proposed in this research work. Taking into account that corn cob, after extracting the corn, is generally considered an agricultural waste, an interesting economic and sustainable benefit may result by using it as a building material. Therefore, it can be an alternative sustainable lightweight aggregate solution in comparison to the most currently applied ones such as expanded clay, particles of co...

  18. Interaction between N-fertilizer and water availability on borer-rot complex in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.

  19. The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on different phases of coffee borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Silva, A.L. da.

    1974-10-01

    Two experiments carried out in order to determine immediate lethal doses (LD sub(I)) for gamma irradiation of larvae, pupae and adults hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) are presented. One experiment aimed only the determination of LD sub(I) for the adults of the coffee borer-outside the coffee-berries. The other to obtain the equivalent data for insects inside the coffee-berry, for all phases of the development cycle of the insect. It was found that LD sub(I) for larvae was around 350 Krad and for pupae around 400 Krad. For the adults, the LD sub(I) for insects outside the coffee-berry was 475 Krad and 525 for insects inside the coffee-berry. It was found that smaller doses caused a pronunced decrease in the insect lifetime, lifetime decrease proportionally as the irradiation dose increase. According to the results obtained, is postulated that this species of coffee-borer may be considered resistant to gamma radiation [pt

  1. Relationships of Reproductive Traits with the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B . sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M . sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis , and S. nonagrioides . For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA, Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA, showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.

  2. Responses of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Taiwan to a range of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuan; Chang, Cheng; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2010-07-01

    Information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. An early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, the susceptibility of this pest in Taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined. Over 1000-fold resistance to carbofuran was detected in C. suppressalis collected from Chiayi and Changhua prefectures, with estimated LC(50) values of > 3 mg cm(-2). In addition, 61-fold resistance to cartap was found in the Chiayi population. On the other hand, all tested populations of rice stem borer were still relatively susceptible to chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, with LC(50) values ranging from 30 to 553 ng cm(-2). Chilo suppressalis populations collected from the central parts of Taiwan have a higher degree of resistance to the tested insecticides than those from northern areas. The occurrence of high resistance to carbofuran in the Chiayi and Changhua areas suggests that this compound should be replaced with chemicals having a different mode of action, such as chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, to which low cross-resistance has been detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55 percent...

  4. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70 percent...

  5. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols...

  6. Corn Clubs: Building the Foundation for Agricultural and Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uricchio, Cassandra; Moore, Gary; Coley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Corn clubs played an important role in improving agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Corn clubs were local organizations consisting of boys who cultivated corn on one acre of land under the supervision of a local club leader. The purpose of this historical research study was to document the organization, operation, and outcomes of corn…

  7. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  8. Nutritional qualities of corn cob and waste paper incubated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate corn cob and waste paper cultured with edible mushroom (Pleurotus sajor) as a mean of improving their nutritive value for livestock animals. Waste paper and corn cob were 14.2 and 47.7% DM respectively. Crude fibre degradation was 25.0% for corn cob and 7.21% for waste paper ...

  9. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of spiced soy-corn milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy-corn milk type was produced from a blend of soybean milk and corn milk extract at a ratio of 3:1. The soy-corn milk type was spiced with ginger and garlic extract respectively to improve the taste. Total dissolved solid (TDS), total titrable acidity (TTA) specific gravity (SG), apparent colloidal stability, pH and sensory ...

  10. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and...

  11. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food...

  12. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  13. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137.265 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  14. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  15. Combination of endophytic Bacillus and Beauveria for the management of Fusarium wilt and fruit borer in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhukarthikeyan, Rathinam; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Raguchander, Thiruvengadam

    2014-11-01

    Most of the approaches for biocontrol of pests and diseases have used a single biocontrol agent as antagonist to a single pest or pathogen. This accounts for the inconsistency in the performance of biocontrol agents. The development of a bioformulation possessing a mixture of bioagents could be a viable option for the management of major pests and diseases in crop plants. A bioformulation containing a mixture of Beauveria bassiana (B2) and Bacillus subtilis (EPC8) was tested against Fusarium wilt and fruit borer in tomato under glasshouse and field conditions. The bioformulation with B2 and EPC8 isolates effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera) under glasshouse and field conditions compared with the individual application of B2 and EPC8 isolates and control treatments. In vitro studies showed a higher larval mortality of H. armigera when fed with B2 + EPC8-treated leaves. Further, plants treated with the B2 + EPC8 combination showed a greater accumulation of defence enzymes such as lipoxygenase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase against wilt pathogen and fruit borer pest than the other treatments. Moreover, a significant increase in growth parameters and yield was observed in tomato plants treated with B2 + EPC8 compared with the individual bioformulations and untreated control. The combined application of Beauveria and Bacillus isolates B2 and EPC8 effectively reduced wilt disease and fruit borer attack in tomato plants. Results show the possibility of synchronous management of tomato fruit borer pest and wilt disease in a sustainable manner. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Outbreak of Phoracantha semipunctata in Response to Severe Drought in a Mediterranean Eucalyptus Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Seaton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic events, including droughts and heatwaves, can trigger outbreaks of woodboring beetles by compromising host defenses and creating habitat conducive for beetle development. As the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts are likely to increase in the future, beetle outbreaks are expected to become more common. The combination of drought and beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter ecosystem structure, composition, and function. Our aim was to investigate a potential outbreak of the native Eucalyptus longhorned borer, Phoracantha semipunctata (P. semipunctata, following one of the most severe droughts on record in the Northern Jarrah Forest of Southwestern Australia. Beetle damage and tissue moisture were examined in trees ranging from healthy to recently killed. Additionally, beetle population levels were examined in adjacent forest areas exhibiting severe and minimal canopy dieback. Severely drought-affected forest was associated with an unprecedented outbreak of P. semipunctata, with densities 80 times higher than those observed in surrounding healthier forest. Trees recently killed by drought had significantly lower tissue moisture and higher feeding damage and infestation levels than those trees considered healthy or in the process of dying. These results confirm the outbreak potential of P. semipunctata in its native Mediterranean-climate Eucalyptus forest under severe water stress, and indicate that continued drying will increase the likelihood of outbreaks.

  17. Evidence of resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 corn by western corn rootworm: root injury in the field and larval survival in plant-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and recent management of western corn rootworm has included planting of Bt corn. Beginning in 2009, western corn rootworm populations with resistance to Cry3Bb1 c...

  18. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan by using sentinel eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2016-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoid species, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera:...

  19. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Meihls

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72% compared with control colonies (33%. For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest.

  20. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  1. Identification of a New cry1I-Type Gene as a Candidate for Gene Pyramiding in Corn To Control Ostrinia Species Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Can; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Abdelgaffar, Heba M; Pan, Hongyu; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Pyramiding of diverse cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis with different modes of action is a desirable strategy to delay the evolution of resistance in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Considering the dependency of susceptibility to Cry toxins on toxin binding to receptors in the midgut of target pests, a diverse mode of action is commonly defined as recognition of unique binding sites in the target insect. In this study, we present a novel cry1Ie toxin gene (cry1Ie2) as a candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to control Ostrinia species larvae. The new toxin gene encodes an 81-kDa protein that is processed to a protease-resistant core form of approximately 55 kDa by trypsin digestion. The purified protoxin displayed high toxicity to Ostrinia furnacalis and O. nubilalis larvae but low to no activity against Spodoptera or heliothine species or the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor. Results of binding assays with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ab toxin and brush border membrane vesicles from O. nubilalis larvae demonstrated that Cry1Ie2 does not recognize the Cry1Ab binding sites in that insect. Reciprocal competition binding assays with biotin-labeled Cry1Ie2 confirmed the lack of shared sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis brush border membrane vesicles. These data support Cry1Ie2 as a good candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to increase the control of O. nubilalis and reduce the risk of resistance evolution. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  3. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  4. The Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, including two Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.; Spanier, E.; Ferguson, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven species of Scyphomedusae are reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Two of these, Rhopilema nomadica spec. nov. and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, are Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean.

  5. Identification of feeding stimulants in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2008-04-01

    Using a bioassay-driven approach, we have isolated and identified a blend of compounds from the roots of germinating corn, Zea mays L., that serve as feeding stimulants for neonate western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The active blend is a combination of simple sugars (30:4:4 mg/ml glucose:fructose:sucrose in the corn root) plus at least one of the free fatty acids in germinating corn roots (2:5 mg/ml oleic acid:linoleic acid in the corn root). When an extract of germinating corn was partitioned into an ethyl acetate fraction and an aqueous fraction, full feeding occurred only when the two fractions were recombined, indicating that the phagostimulant was comprised of both polar and nonpolar components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of root extracts from germinating corn seedlings revealed a blend of 20 compounds from a variety of chemical classes, including small sugars, diacids, amino acids, inorganic compounds, and free fatty acids. When the major components were tested in feeding bioassays, the sugars and lipids were shown to be essential for feeding by larvae, but the two classes of compounds were only effective when combined. The sugars alone elicited feeding by only 40% of larvae, but the percentage of larvae feeding was increased significantly with the addition of linoleic acid (91.7% larvae feeding) or oleic acid (85.8% larvae feeding). The amino acids alone were not essential elements for feeding by western corn rootworm larvae.

  6. An Economic Analysis of Corn-based Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A global multi-commodity simulation model was developed to estimate the impact of changes in ethanol production on the U.S. corn industry. Increased ethanol production under the Energy Acts of 2005 and 2007 resulted in a significant increase in the price of corn. However, for corn-based ethanol production, the break-even price of corn is approximately $4.52 per bushel with a federal subsidy of $0.51 per gallon of pure ethanol and $2.50 gasoline. With a corn price of $4.52, the economically de...

  7. Fructose and high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HF...

  8. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweet corn packed with a suitable liquid packing medium which may include water and the creamy component...) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (d) Butter or margarine in a quantity not less than 3 percent... husk per 400 g. (14 ounces) of drained weight. Place all pieces of cob under a measured amount of water...

  9. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  10. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  11. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    static radial compression, determine a viscoelastic or rheological model for the tested corn cob samples, and investigate the effects of moisture content and rate of loading on the viscoelastic constants that characterize the ... exchange of kinetic energy on that scale. As any other model, mechanical models give at most part ...

  12. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  13. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  14. Youth Unemployment in Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Neder, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    In all Mediterranean countries youth unemployment has reached alarming record levels. This paper analyses the current situation in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. In all countries school dropout rates are high, returns to education are low and the transition from education to work is problematic and difficult. This is due to a poor working vocational training system, the dualization of the labor market and minimum wages that are set too high. The Great Recession deteriorated the s...

  15. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  16. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assesment of corn (zea mays l.) genotypes in relation to nitrogen fertilization under irrigated cropping conditions in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrikci, H.; Ulger, A.C.; Buyuk, G.; Korkmaz, K.; Ryan, J.; Karnez, E.; Cakir, B.; Konuskan, O.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in crop production is based on supplying adequate amounts of the nutrient for optimum economic yield, while minimizing losses to the environment. Exploiting genotypic differences in N use is an additional consideration in achieving nutrient-use efficiency. Thus, in order to identify N-efficient corn genotypes, we established N-response field trials at 2 locations (University Research Farm, and Cutaem) for 2 years (1999, 2000) in the Cukurova region of Turkey. Ten corn genotypes, commonly grown in the region, were fertilized with N at application rates of 160, 240, 320 and 400kg N ha/sup -1/. The optimum N fertilizer rate was probably in the 160-240 kg N ha/sup -1/ rate based on response data. There were no significant or consistent differences between genotypes and N application for grain yield and N uptake. The average agronomic efficiency ranged between 20 to 65% across the genotypes and decreased with increasing N application rates. The pattern was similar for other efficiency indices with decreases with applied N, but little or no genotype differences. It is apparent that the genotypes used were bred for N as well as yield. There was little evidence of differences between genotypes or their response to N. Thus, while genotypic selection of corn can be one of the suitable potential N management practices in the Mediterranean region where genetic diversity exists, it is not appropriate considering genotypes are homogenous with respect to N use. (author)

  18. Implications of corn prices on water footprints of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyo; Suh, Sangwon; Smith, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Previously reported water footprints (WFPs) of corn ethanol have been estimated based on the assumption that corn ethanol feedstock could be supplied by the same states where the corn is grown. However, ethanol conversion facilities may choose out-of-state feedstock suppliers depending on the total price of feedstock they have to pay including both the corn price and transportation costs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the WFPs and total water use (TWU) of corn ethanol considering an optimal allocation of corn with heterogeneous corn feedstock prices across states. The results show that the WFPs of corn ethanol are less than 100 l of water per liter of ethanol (Lw/Le) for all ethanol-producing states based on both the 2008 corn price and transportation costs for rail and truck. Results also reveal that WFPs are very sensitive to the market price of corn and that additional greenhouse gas emissions due to corn trade between states are not significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  20. The Mediterranean diet: health and science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    .... It discusses the Mediterranean diet in the light of recent developments in nutritional biochemistry, disease mechanisms and epidemiological studies, and also provides advice on nutrition policies...

  1. NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue: Challenges and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cayan, Umit

    2003-01-01

    .... The new security concerns in the southern Mediterranean region terrorism, economic disparities, demographic imbalances, the potential for social and political instability, and the proliferation...

  2. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  3. Nitrogen Use and Carbon Sequestered by Corn Rotations in the Northern Corn Belt, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Pikul

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversified crop rotation may improve production efficiency, reduce fertilizer nitrogen (N requirements for corn (Zea mays L., and increase soil carbon (C storage. Objectives were to determine effect of rotation and fertilizer N on soil C sequestration and N use. An experiment was started in 1990 on a Barnes clay loam (U.S. soil taxonomy: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Calcic Hapludoll near Brookings, SD. Tillage systems for corn–soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. rotations were conventional tillage (CS and ridge tillage (CSr. Rotations under conventional tillage were continuous corn (CC, and a 4-year rotation of corn–soybean–wheat (Triticum aestivum L. companion-seeded with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.–alfalfa hay (CSWA. Additional treatments included plots of perennial warm season, cool season, and mixtures of warm and cool season grasses. N treatments for corn were corn fertilized for a grain yield of 8.5 Mg ha–1 (highN, of 5.3 Mg ha–1 (midN, and with no N fertilizer (noN. Total (1990–2000 corn grain yield was not different among rotations at 80.8 Mg ha–1 under highN. Corn yield differences among rotations increased with decreased fertilizer N. Total (1990–2000 corn yields with noN fertilizer were 69 Mg ha–1 under CSWA, 53 Mg ha–1 under CS, and 35 Mg ha–1 under CC. Total N attributed to rotations (noN treatments was 0.68 Mg ha–1 under CSWA, 0.61 Mg ha–1 under CS, and 0.28 Mg ha–1 under CC. Plant carbon return depended on rotation and N. In the past 10 years, total C returned from above- ground biomass was 29.8 Mg ha–1 under CC with highN, and 12.8 Mg ha–1 under CSWA with noN. Soil C in the top 15 cm significantly increased (0.7 g kg–1 with perennial grass cover, remained unchanged under CSr, and decreased (1.7 g kg–1 under CC, CS, and CSWA. C to N ratio significantly narrowed (–0.75 with CSWA and widened (0.72 under grass. Diversified rotations have potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce

  4. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  5. Comparisons of Transcriptional Profiles of Gut Genes between Cry1Ab-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Ostrinia nubilalis Revealed Genes Possibly Related to the Adaptation of Resistant Larvae to Transgenic Cry1Ab Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiu Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A microarray developed on the basis of 2895 unique transcripts from larval gut was used to compare gut gene expression profiles between a laboratory-selected Cry1Ab-resistant (R strain and its isoline susceptible (S strain of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis after the larvae were fed the leaves of transgenic corn (MON810 expressing Cry1Ab or its non-transgenic isoline for 6 h. We revealed 398 gut genes differentially expressed (i.e., either up- or down-regulated genes with expression ratio ≥2.0 in S-strain, but only 264 gut genes differentially expressed in R-strain after being fed transgenic corn leaves. Although the percentages of down-regulated genes among the total number of differentially expressed genes (50% in S-strain and 45% in R-strain were similar between the R- and S-strains, the expression ratios of down-regulated genes were much higher in S-strain than in R-strain. We revealed that 17 and 9 significantly up- or down-regulated gut genes from S and R-strain, respectively, including serine proteases and aminopeptidases. These genes may be associated with Cry1Ab toxicity by degradation, binding, and cellular defense. Overall, our study suggests enhanced adaptation of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on transgenic Cry1Ab corn as revealed by lower number and lower ratios of differentially expressed genes in R-strain than in S-strain of O. nubilalis.

  6. Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) rice varieties against stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Ghaffar; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghareyazie, Behzad; Sattari, Majid

    2008-02-15

    Three transgenic rice varieties namely Khazar, Neda and Nemat, all containing a cry1Ab gene, were evaluated through PCR analysis and field examinations for their resistance at natural infestation of insect pests during 2007. The results showed that all transgenic varieties produced 1.2 kb PCR product derived from application of cry1Ab gene. In field conditions, transgenic varieties exhibited high levels of resistance against natural infestation of stem borer and the damaged plants based on dead heart or white heat for them were less than 1%. Moreover, in stem-cut bioassay 100% of released larvae died within four days after infestation. These results demonstrate that expression of cry1Ab gene in the genome of transgenic varieties provided season-long protection from the natural infestation of lepidopteran insects.

  7. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  8. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora effect on coffe berry borer in the Algarrobo locality, Trinidad, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvis Valdés Zayas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, coffee berry borer is considered the pest that bigger causes damage, to coffee production all over the world. It is an insect of difficult handling with the traditional control methods by mean of insecticides. For this reason the Strategy of Integrated Handling of this Plague take into consideration since manual collection of the insect up the employment of biological controls. The last alternative is one of the more appealed by coffee farmers due to the minor cost. That’s why with the realization of this work the levels of effectiveness of several doses of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on the control of H. hampei were evaluated. There were not significant differences between the three doses evaluated so it is suggested the employment of the dose of 500 million for hectare for the control of the plague because it is the most economic dose.

  9. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  10. [Diagnosing Low Health and Wood Borer Attacked Trees of Chinese Arborvitae by Using Thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest.

  11. RESISTANCE OF SOME GROUNDNUT CULTIVARS TO SOYBEAN POD BORER, ETIELLA ZINCKENELLA TREIT. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinardi Apriyanto, Edi Gunawan, dan Tri Sunardi .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of some groundnut cultivars to soybean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treit. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.  Five groundnut cultivars: Badak, Panther, Sima, Gajah, and Simpai, were grown in field in June-August, 2006 to determine their resistance/susceptibility to Etiella zinckenella Treit.  Two local cultivars (big and small seeds were included as comparison (controls. All cultivars were grown in experimental plots arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD, replicated three times. The incidence of soybean pod borer and damaged pods were observed at 9, 11, 13 weeks after sowing (WAS at 10 sample plants taken randomly from each plot. All cultivars were harvested at 13 WAS. Number of damaged pods was counted and percentages per plant were calculated. Larvae observed inside pod or in the soil were counted and collected. The seed yield per plant and weight of 100 seeds from 100 sample plants taken randomly at harvest were weighted to nearest gram at 10% water content. Pod toughness (hardness was measured with penetrometer. Resistance level of each cultivar was determined based on cultivar’s means and overall mean and standard deviation of the percentages of damaged pods. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA and means were separated with DMRT. The result revealed that mean percentages of damaged pod differed significantly between cultivars. Seed yield of cultivar Panther, Sima and Badak were significantly higher than those of the other two and local cultivars. Cultivar Panther was categorized as resistant, cultivar Sima and Badak as moderately resistant, while the others as susceptible. The relative resistance of groundnut cultivar seems, at least in part, to correlate with the structural hardness of pod.

  12. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  13. Improving evapotranspiration estimates in Mediterranean drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, Laura; Leuning, Ray; Villagarcia, Luis

    2013-01-01

    measurements from eddy covariance systems located in two functionally different sparsely vegetated drylands sites: a littoral Mediterranean semiarid steppe and a dry-subhumid Mediterranean montane site. The method providing the best results in both areas was fdrying (mean absolute error of 0.17 mm day−1) which...

  14. Mediterranean Security Into the Coming Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    in the Mediterranean, Malta: Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, University of Malta, 1998; and Eberhard Rhein, " Globalisation of the Economy...peace, more marked by internal conflicts (opposing terrorisms, urban guerrillas, social inequalities ) than by the great armoured and air battles. Iraq is

  15. RISK AND RETURN TO IP GRAIN PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF HIGH OIL CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Todd D.; Gray, Allan W.; Dobbins, Craig L.

    2000-01-01

    Returns for soybeans, commodity corn and high oil corn under an export and domestic market buyer's-call contract were simulated. High oil corn is competitive with commodity corn when yield drag is two percent and bundling reduces seed cost. Commodity loan rate is important in reducing high oil corn price risk.

  16. Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangila, David S; Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; French, B Wade; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-04-01

    Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1-expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 2013 to characterize the susceptibility of western corn rootworm populations to the rootworm-active proteins Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and Cry34/35Ab1. Results demonstrate that there are heritable differences in susceptibility of Nebraska western corn rootworm populations to rootworm-active Bt traits. Proportional survival and corrected survival data coupled with field histories collectively support the conclusion that a level of field resistance to Cry3Bb1 has evolved in some Nebraska populations in response to selection pressure and that cross-resistance exists between Cry3Bb1 and mCry3A. There was no apparent cross-resistance between Cry34/35Ab1 and either Cry3Bb1 or mCry3A. The potential implications of these results on current and future corn rootworm management strategies are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Baby corn, green corn, and dry corn yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, milho verde e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato S Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In corn, when the first female inflorescence is removed, the plant often produces new female inflorescences. This allows the first ear to be harvested as baby corn (BC and the second as green corn (GC or dry corn (DC, that is, mature corn. The flexibility provided by a variety of harvested products allows the grower to compete with better conditions in the markets. We evaluated BC, GC, and DC yields in corn cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, and BRS 2020, after the first ear was harvested as BC. A random block design with ten replicates was utilized. The yields of MM, MV and MS were higher when these products were individually harvested than when they were harvested in combination with baby corn (BC + GC and BC + DC. Cultivar BRS 2020 was the best for producing BC exclusively, considering the number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and the number (NH of marketable husked ears. Considering weight (WH of BC marketable husked ears, cultivar AG 1051 was the best. Cultivars did not differ in baby corn yield when this product was harvested in combination with MS or MV, except with regard to NH and WH, with AG 1051 being superior. The cultivars did not differ between total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked green ears. However, cultivars AG 1051 and AG 2060 were the best with respect to marketable unhusked green ears and number and weight of marketable husked green ears. Cultivar AG 1051 was the best with regard to kernel yield.No milho, se a primeira inflorescência feminina é removida, existe frequentemente a produção de novas inflorescências femininas. Isso possibilita que a primeira espiga seja colhida como minimilho (MM e a segunda, como milho verde (MV, ou milho seco (MS, isto é, milho maduro. A flexibilidade proporcionada pela colheita de vários produtos permite ao agricultor competir melhor nos mercados. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de MM, MV e MS das cultivares AG 1051, AG 2060 e BRS 2020, ap

  18. Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, on maize, and its effect on host finding by Trichogramma egg parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Dutton, A.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of Ostrinia nubilalis is reviewed based on published information and new research. The position of egg masses of O. nubilalis on maize plants and leaves were sampled in the field. Most egg masses were found on the lower leaf side, on the middle part of the

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance mechanisms among Lepidoptera: progress on genomic approaches to uncover causal mutations in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants that expressed Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins can suffer feeding damage from a small number of lepidopteran insect species under field conditions, which has heightened concerns about the durability of pest control tactics. Genomics research has provid...

  20. A rearrangement of the Z chromosome topology influences the sex-linked gene display in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sex determination system of Lepidoptera is comprised of heterogametic females (ZW) and homogametic males (ZZ), where voltinism (Volt) and the male pheromone response traits (Resp) are controlled by genes housed on the Z-chromosome. Volt and Resp determine traits that lead to ecotype differentia...

  1. IDENTIFICATION, CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF A CRY1AB CADHERIN RECEPTOR FROM EUROPEAN CORN BORER, OSTRINIA NUBILALIS (H&UUML;BNER ) (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE). (R829479C014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Down-regulation of aminopeptidase N and ABC transporter subfamily G transcripts in Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac resistant Asian corn borer, Ostrina furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline protein (Cry) toxins cause mortality by a mechanism involving pore formation or signal transduction following toxin binding to receptors along the midgut lumen of susceptible insects, but this mechanism and mutations therein that lead to resistance remain poor...

  3. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes, and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...

  4. Utilizing wild relative ((Solanum viarum) as resistant source to shoot and fruit borer in brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha

    2010-01-01

    Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Solanum viarum to transfer th...

  5. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h 2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  6. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  7. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  9. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  10. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  11. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  13. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfers Adil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study

  14. Tolerance of different rice genotypes (oryza sativa l.) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Nasrullah; Tofique, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies report the genotypic responses of 61 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (35 aromatic and 26 non aromatic) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions. The data obtained on these genotypes on larval infestation in combination with yield were the criteria to assess the resistance depicted by them. The studies showed that among aromatic genotypes, 'Khushboo-95' gave the best yield of grain and harboured the least pest infestation (2.81% dead hearts and 1.85% white heads); on the other hand variety 'Sonahri Sugdasi (P)' harboured the highest borers attack (10.37% and 19.30%) and yielded the lowest grain yield. Regarding non-aromatic genotypes, IR8-2.5-11 received least infestation (1.32% and 0.26% dead hearts and white heads, respectively) generating highest yield showing its tolerance to borer's attack, in contrast, genotype IR6-252 harboured the highest infestation (5.65%, 4.28%) and yielded minimum grain indicating its susceptibility. These results demonstrate the expression of resistance gene in the genome of tolerant rice genotypes that can provide season-long protection from the natural infestation of insect pests. (author)

  15. Crafting traps with attractant alcoholics an alternative for monitoring and control of borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agramont Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.

  16. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps.

  17. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis. In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of combining ability in white corn for special use as corn grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Souto Bignotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the genetic potential of white corn for corn grits, 28 hybrids resulting from diallel crosses of eight parents, including parents and S1 generations, were evaluated. The combining abilities and levels of heterosis and inbreeding depression were estimated. The parents used were the main white maize hybrids of the Brazilian germplasm. The combinations HT 9332 x HT 392, IAC Nelore x HT 9332, IAC Nelore x HT 932, and IPR 119 x IAC Nelore are promising for reciprocal recurrent selection programs targeting higher grain yield. Hybrid IPR 127 was indicated as a source of industrial lines with favorable traits for dry-rolled corn production. Hybrid IAC Nelore had the lowest estimate of inbreeding depression and was recommended for the breeding of lines and participation in higher-yielding hybrids and composites.

  19. The use of corn (ZEA MAYS) biomass in drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The most important agricultural crop in the world, besides wheat and rice is corn. In the last 10 years, Republic of Croatia has produced about 2000000 tons of corn. Most of that is used for food and feed and for seed production and it is 1000000 tons in quantity. This quantity demands between 35000 to 40000 tons of oil. For the reason, this paper describes the possibilities of the substitution of oil with corn biomass after harvesting. (author)

  20. Impact of certain corn cultivars on some ological parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development, survival rate, reproduction and biological parameters of the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on five corn cultivars were evaluated at 25°C under laboratory conditions. The corn leaf aphid had a longer nymphal developmental time of 4.99, 4.98, 4.73, 4.46, and 5.60 day of Ada9516, K. Arifiye, ...

  1. A Corn Tissue Culture Cell Line with Altered Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-ie C, Hsing; Jack M, Widholm; Robert W, Rinne; Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica; Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana; Plant Physiology and Genetics Research Unit, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service and Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana

    1991-01-01

    A variant corn callus line derived from callus which originated from etiolated leaves of Illinois High Oil corn (Zea mays L.) has been identified. The variant corn callus line had increased lipid content concomitant with increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and altered biotin-containing protein patterns relative to the wild type callus. The variant callus line also had altered fatty acid composition concomitant with decreased oleate desaturase activity compared to the wild type callus. T...

  2. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Nikolić Ana; Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of ...

  3. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  4. Plastic debris in Mediterranean seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina-García, Marina; Militão, Teresa; Moreno, Javier; González-Solís, Jacob

    2013-12-15

    Plastic debris is often ingested by marine predators and can cause health disorders and even death. We present the first assessment of plastic ingestion in Mediterranean seabirds. We quantified and measured plastics accumulated in the stomach of 171 birds from 9 species accidentally caught by longliners in the western Mediterranean from 2003 to 2010. Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea) showed the highest occurrence (94%) and large numbers of small plastic particles per affected bird (on average N = 15.3 ± 24.4 plastics and mass = 23.4 ± 49.6 mg), followed by Yelkouan shearwaters (Puffinus yelkouan, 70%, N = 7.0 ± 7.9, 42.1 ± 100.0 mg), Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus, 70%, N = 3.6 ± 2.9, 5.5 ± 9.7 mg) and the rest of species (below 33%, N = 2.7, 113.6 ± 128.4 mg). Plastic characteristics did not differ between sexes and were not related to the physical condition of the birds. Our results point out the three endemic and threatened shearwater species as being particularly exposed to plastic accumulation.

  5. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  6. Climatic change in Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, A.

    1991-01-01

    United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) studies on forecasted greenhouse climatic effects on the Mediterranean coastal and marine ecosystems and regional socio-economic framework have indicated the need for a concerted plan of protective and remedial action. The studies considered rises of 1.5 degrees in ambient temperature and 20 centimeters in sea level occurring before the year 2025. A regional, as opposed to a global area, study approach was adopted since the severity of climatic effects is expected to vary greatly from one part of the world to another. The specific areas investigated were the Po River Delta and Venezia Lagoon in Italy, the Nile Delta, Camargue, the Ebro Delta, the Tunisian National Park area, and the Thermaicos Gulf in Greece. The rise in average temperature is expected to negatively effect Mediterranean agricultural production and the coastal and marine ecosystems due to prolonged periods of drought and exceptional rainfall. It is suggested that a system of dikes be constructed to protect the coastal areas which are heavily dependent on tourism and agriculture

  7. Field-Cage Methodology for Evaluating Climatic Suitability for Introduced Wood-Borer Parasitoids: Preliminary Results from the Emerald Ash Borer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van

    2011-01-01

    Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133

  8. Impact on Corn Prices from Reduced Biofuel Mandates

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; Wei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Press reports indicate that the Environmental Protection Agency may significantly reduce ethanol mandates to levels that can easily be met. To gain insight into what this decision implies about the price of corn we use a new model of the corn and RIN markets to project corn and ethanol prices and quantities through the 2019 marketing year under two ethanol mandate scenarios. The first scenario is the status quo where mandates that can be met with corn ethanol increase to 14.4 billion gallons ...

  9. Modernizing the handling of ear corn. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleptz, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of the project was to modernize the handling of ear corn. The corn was picked with a three row JD 300 picker pulled by a tractor. Pulled behind the picker was a side dump wagon with a capacity of 150 bushels of ear corn. When the dump wagon was full, a grain truck was driven along side of the wagon and the dump wagon, controlled by the tractor driver, was emptied into the truck. After two dumps of the wagon, the truck was driven to the storage area. The storage area consisted of ten (ten) 2000 bushel corn cribs set in a semi circle so that the elevator that filled the cribs could be moved from one crib to the next without changing the fill point. At the storage area, the truck full of corn was dumped into the platform feeder. By using a platform feeder to feed the elevator, all ten (10) cribs could be filled without moving it. After the harvest was complete, the corn remains in the cribs until needed for feed or until the corn is sold. During the time that the corn remains in the cribs, the turbine ventilator draws air through the corn and dries it.

  10. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  11. Potential Market for Non-GMO Corn and Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; John C. Beghin

    1999-01-01

    Demand for non-GMO (genetically modified organism) corn and soybeans is high in the EU and Japan, which are two of the largest markets for U.S. corn and soybeans. This presents a potential problem for markets if U.S. processors find themselves scrambling to locate and purchase non-GMO crops. By looking at how the 1998 U.S. corn and soybean crops were used, Babcock and Beghin project possible demand in the 99/00 marketing year for non-GMO corn and soybeans.

  12. Influence of age and diet on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.

  13. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic properties. Th...

  14. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic propertie...

  15. POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI FROM NORTHERN AND MEXICAN CORN ROOTWORMS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) AND CROSS-AMPLIFICATION WITH OTHER DIABROTICA SPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...

  16. Investigation of climate variability and climate change impacts on corn yield in the Eastern Corn Belt, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruoyu

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for both food and biofuels requires more corn production at global scale. However, current corn yield is not able to meet bio-ethanol demand without jeopardizing food security or intensifying and expanding corn cultivation. An alternative solution is to utilize cellulose and hemi-cellulose from perennial grasses to fulfill the increasing demand for biofuel energy. A watershed level scenario analysis is often applied to figure out a sustainable way to strike the balance b...

  17. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  18. Adaptation by western corn rootworm to Bt corn: characterizing inheritance, fitness costs, and feeding preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used a laboratory-selected, Bt-resistant strain of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte, to characterize inheritance of resistance, feeding behavior, and fitness costs associated with resistance to maize producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3...

  19. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messing, Joachim [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  20. Pod Characteristics of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Related to Cocoa Pod Borer Resistance (Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  1. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  2. Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's 50th anniversary, the French Association for the Advancement of Science (AFAS) is organising a conference at CERN on 6 - 7 May on the subject of "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean". The full program can be found at http://www.avancement-sciences.org. For those wishing to attend, advanced registration is mandatory. Follow the instructions at: http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/congres/CERN/index.htm The conference fee is 50 euro. It includes attendance at the official dinner on Thursday 6 May and a copy of the conference proceedings. Special conditions for CERN: registration is free, but does not include the dinner. CERN people wishing to receive the proceedings will be charged 10 euro.

  3. "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's 50th anniversary, the French Association for the Advancement of Science (AFAS) is organising a conference at CERN on 6 - 7 May on the subject of "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean". The full program can be found at http://www.avancement-sciences.org. For those wishing to attend, advanced registration is mandatory. Follow the instructions at: http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/congres/CERN/index.htm The conference fee is 50 euro. It includes attendance at the official dinner on Thursday 6 May and a copy of the conference proceedings. Special conditions for CERN: registration is free, but does not include the dinner. CERN people wishing to receive the proceedings will be charged 10 euro.

  4. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona, Piermaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary grasslands are one of the most common vegetation types worldwide. In Europe, and in the Mediterranean basin, human activities have transformed many woodlands into secondary grasslands. Despite their recognized role in the global carbon cycle, very few data are available for estimating the biomass of Mediterranean grasslands. We developed linear regression models in order to predict the biomass of two native Mediterranean grasses (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Hyparrhenia hirta and an invasive alien grass (Pennisetum setaceum. Ampelodesmos mauritanicus is very common throughout the Mediterranean basin, mostly on north-facing slopes, H. hirta characterizes thermo-xeric grasslands, while P. setaceum is an alien species that is rapidly spreading along coastal areas. The measured morphometric attributes of individual plants as potential predictors were considered. The validation results corroborate the ability of the established models to predict above ground and total biomass of A. mauritanicus and P. setaceum. We also evaluated the total biomass per hectare for each species. The highest biomass per hectare was found for A. mauritanicus, whereas biomass was higher for H. hirta than for P. setaceum. The replacement of H. hirta by P. setaceum may reduce the total carbon storage in the ecosystem; however, P. setaceum allocates more resources to the roots, thus increasing the more stable and durable pool of carbon in grasslands.Los pastizales secundarios son uno de los tipos de vegetación más comunes en todo el mundo. En Europa y en la cuenca mediterránea, las actividades humanas han transformado muchos bosques en pastizales secundarios. A pesar de su reconocido papel en el ciclo global del carbono, hay muy pocos datos disponibles para la estimación de la biomasa de los pastizales mediterráneos. Hemos desarrollado modelos de regresión lineal con el fin de predecir la biomasa de dos gramíneas nativas del Mediterráneo (Ampelodesmos

  5. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  6. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2017-11-08

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as "Mediterranean" an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  7. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  8. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  9. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  10. The Historical Construction of the Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenech, Dominic; Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Ideas about what the Mediterranean is, was or is imagined to be abound, and the debate over definition continues to intrigue scholars more than ever, especially as the region’s heightened newsworthiness in recent years has forced the protagonists of world affairs to turn their attention to it....... Historically the status of the Mediterranean has changed over and over again, in terms of unity and cohesion, or lack thereof, but also of the region’s shifting place in the global hierarchy of power. The post-Cold War era rekindled or exposed a host of historically-engrained problems and developments...... that brought the Mediterranean back into the limelight, as Europe first and then other world players recognized that the region’s concerns were also their own. Looking at the contemporary Mediterranean the authors see in it a scale-model of world affairs, a concentration of intense political situations...

  11. HVDC interconnection submarine link in Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, Giancarlo; Cova, Bruno; Pincella, Claudio; Rebolini, Massimo; Ricci, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The technology evolution of direct current energy transmission offer new perspectives for the exchange of energy with South side of Mediterranean Area: for Italy are new opportunity for energy import [it

  12. Report on the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) as an ambitious political initiative which aims at creating a better context for the Northern (Mediterranean) countries which are looking for a secure energy supply, and for the Southern and Eastern (Mediterranean) countries where demand is strongly increasing. It highlights the fact that the cost of this plan is indeed important but still limited regarding the regional scale. Its success therefore needs projects with sufficient profitability to attract investors and to be realised within an adapted law environment. The report also outlines that the plan needs a regional vision and a cooperative approach between North and South, that it will have a strong impact of electric interconnections all around the Mediterranean Sea, and that its governance needs to be clarified to maintain the political momentum created by its co-presidents

  13. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  14. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  15. Preparation and In vitro Digestibility of Corn Starch Phosphodiester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the process conditions and analyze in vitro digestibility of corn starch phosphodiester prepared by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Methods: By using response surface method, the effects of STMP concentration, pH, esterification temperature, and urea addition on digestion resistance of corn starch ...

  16. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  17. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germ...

  18. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... There is also evidence that suggests intercropping may benefit a non-legume which needs nitrogen if the other crop is a legume, since legumes will fix nitrogen in the soil (Portes,. 1984; Avcioglu et al., 2003). Intercropping of corn with legumes is an alternative to monocropping of corn and has a number of ...

  19. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  20. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. Methods: Edible corn starch phosphate was prepared via the reaction of starch with active sodium tripolyphosphate. Reaction efficiency and viscosity were used as indices to optimize experimental conditions. Freeze-thaw stability ...