WorldWideScience

Sample records for mediterranean climate

  1. Climatic change in Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, A.

    1991-01-01

    United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) studies on forecasted greenhouse climatic effects on the Mediterranean coastal and marine ecosystems and regional socio-economic framework have indicated the need for a concerted plan of protective and remedial action. The studies considered rises of 1.5 degrees in ambient temperature and 20 centimeters in sea level occurring before the year 2025. A regional, as opposed to a global area, study approach was adopted since the severity of climatic effects is expected to vary greatly from one part of the world to another. The specific areas investigated were the Po River Delta and Venezia Lagoon in Italy, the Nile Delta, Camargue, the Ebro Delta, the Tunisian National Park area, and the Thermaicos Gulf in Greece. The rise in average temperature is expected to negatively effect Mediterranean agricultural production and the coastal and marine ecosystems due to prolonged periods of drought and exceptional rainfall. It is suggested that a system of dikes be constructed to protect the coastal areas which are heavily dependent on tourism and agriculture

  2. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  3. Climate changes over the past millennium: Relationships with Mediterranean climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed for climate change and its causes over the interval spanning roughly the past millennium. Particular emphasis is placed on patterns of climate change influencing Mediterranean climates of the Northern Hemisphere. The evidence is taken from studies using high-resolution climate proxy data sources, and climate modeling simulations. The available evidence suggests that forced changes in dynamical modes of variability including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have played a key role in the patterns of climate variability in Mediterranean regions over the past millennium

  4. Mediterranean climate and some tropical teleconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, P.; Price, C.; Krichak, S.; Saaroni, H.; Osetinsky, I.; Barkan, J.; Kishcha, P.; Ziv, B.

    2006-01-01

    Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems, e.g., El Ni no Southern Oscillation, South Asian Monsoon and hurricanes. Modelling of the severe floods suggests a relation to tropical hurricanes. For a specific event, high-resolution modelling of the severe flood on December 3-5, 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the Eastern Mediterranean climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the South Asian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors, like the Red Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust, also contribute to the Mediterranean climate variability

  5. Mediterranean climate modelling: variability and climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclo-genesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclo-genesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower inter-annual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21. century with the non-coupled models: cyclo-genesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean. (author)

  6. Mediterranean climate change and Indian Ocean warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Hurrel, J.

    2006-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) responses to 20. century changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and greenhouse gases are diagnosed, with emphasis on their relationship to observed regional climate change over the Mediterranean region. A major question is whether the Mediterranean region's drying trend since 1950 can be understood as a consequence of the warming trend in tropical SSTs. We focus on the impact of Indian Ocean warming, which is itself the likely result of increasing greenhouse gases. It is discovered that a strong projection onto the positive polarity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index characterizes the atmospheric response structure to the 1950-1999 warming of Indian Ocean SSTs. This influence appears to be robust in so far as it is reproduced in ensembles of experiments using three different GCMs. Both the equilibrium and transient responses to Indian Ocean warming are examined. Under each scenario, the latitude of prevailing mid latitude westerlies shifts poleward during the November-April period. The consequence is a drying of the Mediterranean region, whereas northern Europe and Scandinavia receive increased precipitation in concert with the poleward shift of storminess. The IPCC (TAR) 20. century coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations forced by observed greenhouse gas changes also yield a post-1950 drying trend over the Mediterranean. We argue that this feature of human-induced regional climate change is the outcome of a dynamical feedback, one involving Indian Ocean warming and a requisite adjustment of atmospheric circulation systems to such ocean warming

  7. ( Hodreum murinum L.) under sub-humid Mediterranean climate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wall barley (Hodreum murinum L.) is an annual cool-season grass species that grows in areas with a Mediterranean climate. It has potential as a forage source in Jordan. The objective was to determine seasonal chemical composition of wall barley grown under sub-humid Mediterranean conditions. A field trial

  8. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2008-01-01

    precipitation changes in Mediterranean mountains under different emission scenarios (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and Atmosphere-Ocean-Coupled General Circulation Models for two periods: 2055 (2040-2069 period) and 2085 (2070-2099). Finally, the future climate trends projected for Mediterranean......Mediterranean mountain biomes are considered endangered due to climate change that affects directly or indirectly different key features (biodiversity, snow cover, glaciers, run-off processes, and water availability). Here, we provide an assessment of temperature, precipitation, and spring...... spring (-17% under Alfi and -4.8% under B1 for 2085). On the contrary, non-Mediterranean European mountains will not experience a reduction of annual and spring precipitation. Implications of predicted climate change for both human and physical features are coupled in an integrated framework to gain...

  9. Global and Mediterranean climate change: a short summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardini, Virginia; Contessa, Gian Marco; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Gómez-Amo, José Luis; Meloni, Daniela; Monteleone, Francesco; Pace, Giandomenico; Piacentino, Salvatore; Sferlazzo, Damiano; di Sarra, Alcide

    2016-01-01

    Observed changes at the global scale. An increase of the annual mean global temperature and changes of other climate parameters have been observed in the last century. The global temperature and the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases are changing at a very fast pace compared to those found in palaeoclimate records. Changes in the Mediterranean. Variations of some climate change indicators can be much larger at the local than at the global scale, and the Mediterranean has been indicated among the regions most sensitive to climate change, also due to the increasing anthropogenic pressure. Model projections for the Mediterranean foresee further warming, droughts, and long-lasting modifications. Regional climate changes impact health and ecosystems, creating new risks, determined not only by weather events, but also by changing exposures and vulnerabilities. These issues, and in particular those regarding occupational safety, have not been sufficiently addressed to date.

  10. Climate Change Threatens Coexistence within Communities of Mediterranean Forested Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant) and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive), are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress) results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses. PMID:23077484

  11. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Viola, Francesco; Caracciolo, Domenico; Pumo, Dario; Noto, Leonardo; Loggia, Goffredo

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this s...

  12. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria eMarbà

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15 oC. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003 and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50 % of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5 ºC and at summer surface temperature of 27.5 ºC. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV, the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  13. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    KAUST Repository

    Marbà, Núria

    2015-08-13

    The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15°C. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003, and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50% of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5°C and at summer surface temperature of 27.5°C. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV), the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on the Mediterranean Coastal Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochier, F.; Ramieri, E.

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to highlight the potential impacts of changes in climatic conditions and in related variables, which could affect coastal areas, as well as to identify potential response measures which could reduce the vulnerability of coastal systems and enhance their adaptability. Attention will be focused on the Mediterranean basin which is in the climate change context, a zone of great interest and of recent concern at the world scale by some features: strong ocean-atmosphere-land interactions; contrast between the small size of the sea and its significant role in the global climate system; possibility to use it at a scaled down model for the monitoring of environmental and climate evolution; critical environmental conditions of some areas and high human pressure; and strong geographical, socio-economic and climatic contrasts. The first section provides an introduction to the climate change issue, the past trends and the projections of future climate at the global scale. The second section presents the main features of the Mediterranean basin and some relevant regional projections of future climatic variables. The third section focuses on the main likely impacts on the Mediterranean coasts. Different coastal systems - such as islands, deltas, estuaries, coastal wetlands and coastal cities - and different climate change impacts - such as inundation, increased flooding, salinisation, salt water intrusion, desertification, and increased erosion - are addressed in this section. Finally the last section brings some conclusions and identify some strategies of adaptations and directions for future research aimed at improving our ability to predict and assess the local impacts of climate change in the region

  15. Mediterranean biomes: Evolution of their vegetation, floras and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W.; Arroyo, Mary T.K.; Cowling, R.M.; Keeley, J. E.; Lamont, B.B.; Vargas, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) possess the highest levels of plant species richness in the world outside of the wet tropics. Sclerophyll vegetation similar to today’s mediterranean-type shrublands was already present on oligotrophic soils in the wet and humid climate of the Cretaceous, with fire-adapted Paleogene lineages in southwestern Australia and the Cape Region. The novel MTC seasonality present since the mid-Miocene has allowed colonization of MTEs from a regional species pool with associated diversification. Fire persistence has been a primary driving factor for speciation in four of the five regions. Understanding the regional patterns of plant species diversity among the MTEs involves complex interactions of geologic and climatic histories for each region as well as ecological factors that have promoted diversification in the Neogene and Quaternary. A critical element of species richness for many MTE lineages has been their ability to speciate and persist at fine spatial scales, with low rates of extinction.

  16. Influence of the NAO on the northwestern Mediterranean wave climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartomeu Cañellas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines teleconnections between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and the wave climate of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM, defined by the monthly mean significant wave height (SWH and the 95th percentile significant wave height (95th percentile SWH, in the period ranging from 1958 to 2001. The data analyzed comes from the multidecadal hindcast over Europe carried out during the HIPOCAS project. In order to avoid fictitious cross-correlations, data were prewhitened by fitting a p-order autoregressive model. To split the temporal and spatial variability, an EOF encoding technique was applied to residuals before searching for teleconnections. We found the northwestern Mediterranean wave climate to be influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with an instantaneous response. When the NAO is in its positive phase, positive anomalies in the SWH and the 95th percentile SWH appear in the area between the Balearic Islands, the Gulf of Lions and the Catalonian coast.

  17. 1.2 million years of climate change, globally and in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, T.Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we make a detailed reconstruction of climate changes based on materials from the Mediterranean Sea. Not only does this provide new insights in climate changes in the Mediterranean region, the aim is to improve our understanding of global climate changes as well. We created a single

  18. Implications of expected climate change in the Mediterranean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeftic, L. [United Nations Environment Programme, Athens (Greece). Mediterranean Coordinating Unit

    1993-09-01

    A Task Team was established in 1987 with the objective of preparing a Mediterranean regional overview of the implications of climate change for coastal, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as for socio-economic structures and activities. The paper presents a summary of the results of the first phase (1987-1989) of the work of the Task Team. Assuming a temperature rise of 1.5{degree}C by the year 2025, land degradation would increase, water resources decline, agricultural production would decline, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems could be damaged. Impacts of climatic change when combined with the greater impacts of non-climatic factors (e.g. population increases, development plans) would increase the probability of catastrophic events and hasten their occurrence. Case studies on six sites are to be finalised by the end of 1992. Despite the high quality of the Task Team`s study the impact of its work on national authorities and international bodies was below expectation. A specific regional scenario on climate change in the Mediterranean Basin due to global warming was developed following the Task Team`s recommendation. A summary of the approach and results is presented. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  19. EURO-CORDEX regional climate models: Performance over Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilinović, Tomislav; Güttler, Ivan; Srnec, Lidija; Branković, Čedo

    2017-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) are high-resolution version of a global climate models (GCMs) designed to achieve simulations at horizontal resolutions relevant for human activities on local and regional spatial scales, and to simulate relevant processes in historical and potential future climate conditions. In this study, a set of experiments the EURO-CORDEX simulations are evaluated over the Mediterranean region. All simulations were made at the two horizontal resolutions (50 km and 12.5 km) and compared with gridded pan-European gridded dataset E-OBSv11 at the regular 0.25°×0.25° grid for the two periods (1989-2008 for the ERA-Interim-driven ensemble of simulations; 1971-2000 for the GCMs-driven ensemble of simulations). We will evaluate the impacts of (1) the boundary conditions, (2) different horizontal resolutions (0.44°/50 km vs. 0.11°/12.5 km), and (3) the impact of convective parametrization on systematic errors, specialy in case of the RegCM4 model extensively used at DHMZ. For each simulation commonly used evaluation metrics are applied. They include: (1) spatially-averaged differences between RCMs and observations, (2) the spatial 95 th percentiles of simulated and observed temperature and precipitation, (3) spatial correlation coefficients between models and observations, (4) the ratio of spatial standard deviations between simulated and observed fields, and (5) the Spearman rank correlations between simulated and observed time-series of spatially-averaged temperature and precipitation. As commonly found in other studies, the total precipitation in RCM simulations is often overestimated and spatial correlations are noticeably lower than for temperature. The results highlight that, the RegCM4 is able to capture the (observed) spatial variability of the Mediterranean temperature climate. This is indicated by high spatial correlations with values larger than 0.9 and values of normalized standard deviation below 1 for Mediterranean region. The results

  20. Tropical tele-connections to the Mediterranean climate and weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alpert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems. Potential relations between EM rainfall extremes to tropical systems, e.g. El Niño, Indian Monsoon and hurricanes, are demonstrated. For a specific event, high resolution modelling of the severe flood on 3-5 December 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the EM climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the Indian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors like the Red-Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust are also likely to contribute to the EM climate variability.

  1. How will climate change affect endangered Mediterranean waterbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Rodríguez, Carlos; Seoane, Javier; Figuerola, Jordi; Bustamante, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and direct anthropogenic impacts, such as water extraction, largely affect water budgets in Mediterranean wetlands, thereby increasing wetland salinities and isolation, and decreasing water depths and hydroperiods (duration of the inundation period). These wetland features are key elements structuring waterbird communities. However, the ultimate and net consequences of these dynamic conditions on waterbird assemblages are largely unknown. We combined regular sampling of waterbird presence through one annual cycle with in-situ data on relevant environmental predictors of waterbird distribution to model habitat selection for 69 species in a typical Mediterranean wetland network in southwestern Spain. Species associations with environmental features were subsequently used to predict changes in habitat suitability for each species under three climate change scenarios (encompassing changes in environmental predictors that ranged from 10% to 50% change as predicted by regional climatic models). Waterbirds distributed themselves unevenly throughout environmental gradients and water salinity was the most important gradient structuring the distribution of the community. Environmental suitability for the guilds of diving birds and vegetation gleaners will decline in future climate scenarios, while many small wading birds will benefit from changing conditions. Resident species and those that breed in this wetland network will also be more negatively impacted than those using this area for wintering or stopover. We provide a tool that can be used in a horizon-scanning framework to identify emerging issues in waterbird conservation and to anticipate suitable management actions.

  2. Response of arid ecosystems to the Holocene climate variability along west and central Mediterranean gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouadi, Sahbi; Combourieu Nebout, Nathalie; Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Decadal to millennial climate variability is a common feature recorded by environmental series. However interconnections between climate forcing (i.e. insolation, thermohaline circulation) and large atmospheric circulation patterns (i.e. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation, Monsoon) still remain poorly understood considering their respective impacts on the global climate mechanisms. In the Mediterranean area, joint climatic influences from high temperate and low subtropical latitudes result in a high sensitivity of ecosystems to climate changes and especially to extreme events. Several vegetation records illustrate millennial changes in Mediterranean. Nevertheless notable discrepancies in the environmental response arise between Mediterranean edges (east vs west, north vs south). The new paleoenvironmental record from Sebkha Boujmel (33°N, southern Tunisia) covers the last 8kyr and exhibits eight humid/arid fluctuations with cyclic expansion of the desert, related to Middle and Late Holocene rapid climate changes (RCC) occurring at a centennial scale. Sebkha Boujmel record is replaced in the wider context of west Mediterranean and northern hemisphere. Asynchronies and disparity of the Mediterranean RCC occurrence documents north-south and west-east climate gradients in the west Mediterranean and pinpoint Sebkha Boujmel as the single vegetation record tracing as many climate events during the last 8kyr. Indeed the high sensitivity of arid environments triggers the prompt reaction of the southern Tunisian vegetation to Holocene RCC however tenuous. Pattern of RCC geographical occurrence in west and central Mediterranean is interpreted in the light of climate forcings involved for the Holocene centennial variability.

  3. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  4. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-07-16

    The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003-2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011-2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency will depend on the direct and indirect

  5. Fire in Mediterranean climate ecosystems: a comparative overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Four regions of the world share a similar climate and structurally similar plant communities with the Mediterranean Basin. These five areas, known collectively as "mediterranean-type climate (MTC) regions", are dominated by evergreen sclerophyllous-leaved shrublands, semi-deciduous scrub, and woodlands, all of which are prone to widespread crown fires. Summer droughts produce an annual fire hazard that contributes to a highly predictable fire regime. Fire has been an important factor driving the convergence of these systems and is reflected in plant traits such as lignotubers in resprouting shrubs and delayed reproduction that restricts recruitment to a postfire pulse of seedlings. On fertile soils where postfire resprouting is very rapid, opportunities for postfire seedling recruitment are limited and thus these woody taxa have not opted for delaying reproduction. Such fire-independent recruitment is widespread in the floras of MTC regions of the Mediterranean Basin and California and postfire seeding tends to dominate at the more arid end of the gradient. Due to very different geological histories in South Africa and Western Australia, substrates are nutrient poor and thus postfire resprouters do not pose a similar competitive challenge to seedlings and thus postfire seeding is very widespread in these floras. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that the MTC region of Chile had fire-prone landscapes in the Tertiary, these were lost with the late Miocene completion of the Andean uplift, which now blocks summer lightning storms from moving into the region. Today these five regions pose a significant fire management challenge due to the annual fire hazard and metropolitan centers juxtaposed with highly flammable vegetation. This challenge varies across the five MTC landscapes as a function of differences in regional fuel loads and population density.

  6. Sustainable buildings. Bioclimatic architecture for housing in a Mediterranean climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirone, L. [Tirone Nunes Urbanismo Lda, Sintra (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    Although the building sector is the largest energy consumer worldwide, and thus a major contributor to climate change and global warming, the comfort we require in our homes does not have to be harmful to our environment. While in a Mediterranean climate the mean outdoor temperatures coincide with the indoor comfort range, it is possible to apply passive solar technologies in the design of the new buildings and this provides three advantages: The buildings will offer thermal comfort to their inhabitants all year round, relying predominantly on renewable energies. The buildings will not require cooling at any time of year and will require up to 90% less heating than their conventional counterparts. The buildings will be no more costly to construct than their conventional counterparts. (orig.)

  7. Climate change reduces nectar secretion in two common Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takkis, Krista; Tscheulin, Thomas; Tsalkatis, Panagiotis; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-09-15

    Global warming can lead to considerable impacts on natural plant communities, potentially inducing changes in plant physiology and the quantity and quality of floral rewards, especially nectar. Changes in nectar production can in turn strongly affect plant-pollinator interaction networks-pollinators may potentially benefit under moderate warming conditions, but suffer as resources reduce in availability as elevated temperatures become more extreme. Here, we studied the effect of elevated temperatures on nectar secretion of two Mediterranean Lamiaceae species-Ballota acetabulosa and Teucrium divaricatum. We measured nectar production (viz. volume per flower, sugar concentration per flower and sugar content per flower and per plant), number of open and empty flowers per plant, as well as biomass per flower under a range of temperatures selected ad hoc in a fully controlled climate chamber and under natural conditions outdoors. The average temperature in the climate chamber was increased every 3 days in 3 °C increments from 17.5 to 38.5 °C. Both study species showed a unimodal response of nectar production (volume per flower, sugar content per flower and per plant) to temperature. Optimal temperature for sugar content per flower was 25-26 °C for B. acetabulosa and 29-33 °C for T. divaricatum. According to our results, moderate climate warming predicted for the next few decades could benefit nectar secretion in T. divaricatum as long as the plants are not water stressed, but have a moderate negative effect on B. acetabulosa. Nevertheless, strong warming as predicted by climate change models for the end of the 21st century is expected to reduce nectar secretion in both species and can thus significantly reduce available resources for both wild bees and honeybees in Mediterranean systems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  8. Climate change assessment for Mediterranean agricultural areas by statistical downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Palatella

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we produce projections of seasonal precipitation for four Mediterranean areas: Apulia region (Italy, Ebro river basin (Spain, Po valley (Italy and Antalya province (Turkey. We performed the statistical downscaling using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA in two versions: in one case Principal Component Analysis (PCA filter is applied only to predictor and in the other to both predictor and predictand. After performing a validation test, CCA after PCA filter on both predictor and predictand has been chosen. Sea level pressure (SLP is used as predictor. Downscaling has been carried out for the scenarios A2 and B2 on the basis of three GCM's: the CCCma-GCM2, the Csiro-MK2 and HadCM3. Three consecutive 30-year periods have been considered. For Summer precipitation in Apulia region we also use the 500 hPa temperature (T500 as predictor, obtaining comparable results. Results show different climate change signals in the four areas and confirm the need of an analysis that is capable of resolving internal differences within the Mediterranean region. The most robust signal is the reduction of Summer precipitation in the Ebro river basin. Other significative results are the increase of precipitation over Apulia in Summer, the reduction over the Po-valley in Spring and Autumn and the increase over the Antalya province in Summer and Autumn.

  9. Behaviour of green facades in Mediterranean Continental climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Rincon, L.; Vila, A.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Cabeza, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain data on the behaviour of green facades in buildings as a passive system for energy savings in dry Mediterranean Continental climate a long-term work has been performed. This paper presents the first results of two actions developed during 2009. First, the growth of four different climbing plants as well as their ability to provide shadow was studied. Second, monitoring for a year of a real green facade was carried out. The results confirmed the great capacity of green facades to produce shade, reducing the heat on the facade wall of the building. It was also verified that a microclimate between the wall of the building and the green curtain are created, characterized by slightly lower temperatures and higher relative humidity. This means that the green screen acts as a wind barrier and confirms the evapotranspiration effect of the plants. On the other hand, these results did not allow withdrawing conclusions about the insulation effect of green facades.

  10. Plastic bimodal xylogenesis in conifers from continental Mediterranean climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Jesús Julio; Olano, José Miguel; Parras, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    *Seasonal radial-increment and xylogenesis data can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Few xylogenesis studies have assessed how plastic xylogenesis is in sympatric conifer species from continental Mediterranean areas, where low winter temperatures and summer drought constrain growth. *Here, we analysed intra-annual patterns of secondary growth in sympatric conifer species (Juniperus thurifera, Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris). Two field sites (xeric and mesic) were evaluated using dendrometers, microcores and climatic data. *A bimodal pattern of xylogenesis characterized by spring and autumn precipitation and subsequent cambial reactivation was detected in J. thurifera at both study sites and in P. halepensis at the xeric site, but was absent in P. sylvestris where growth was largely controlled by day length. In the xeric site J. thurifera exhibited an increased response to water availability in autumn relative to P. halepensis and summer cambial suppression was more marked in J. thurifera than in P. halepensis. *Juniperus thurifera exhibited increased plasticity in its xylogenesis pattern compared with sympatric pines, enabling this species to occupy sites with more variable climatic conditions. The plastic xylogenesis patterns of junipers in drought-stressed areas may also provide them with a competitive advantage against co-occurring pines.

  11. Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit; Negev, Maya; Clermont, Alexandra; Green, Manfred S.

    2016-01-01

    Cities with a Mediterranean-type climate (Med-cities) are particularly susceptible to health risks from climate change since they are located in biogeographical hot-spots that experience some of the strongest effects of the changing climate. The study aims to highlight health impacts of climate change in Med-cities, analyze local climate adaptation plans and make adaptation policy recommendations for the Med-city level. We identified five Med-cities with a climate change adaptation plan: Adelaide, Barcelona, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Santiago. Beyond their similar Med-climate features (although Santiago’s are slightly different), the cities have different socio-economic characteristics in various aspects. We analyzed each plan according to how it addresses climate change-related drivers of health impacts among city dwellers. For each driver, we identified the types of policy adaptation tools that address it in the urban climate adaptation plans. The surveyed cities address most of the fundamental climate change-related drivers of risks to human health, including rising temperatures, flooding and drought, but the policy measures to reduce negative impacts vary across cities. We suggest recommendations for Med-cities in various aspects, depending on their local needs and vulnerability challenges: assessment of health risks, extreme events management and long-term adaptation, among others. PMID:27110801

  12. Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit; Negev, Maya; Clermont, Alexandra; Green, Manfred S

    2016-04-21

    Cities with a Mediterranean-type climate (Med-cities) are particularly susceptible to health risks from climate change since they are located in biogeographical hot-spots that experience some of the strongest effects of the changing climate. The study aims to highlight health impacts of climate change in Med-cities, analyze local climate adaptation plans and make adaptation policy recommendations for the Med-city level. We identified five Med-cities with a climate change adaptation plan: Adelaide, Barcelona, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Santiago. Beyond their similar Med-climate features (although Santiago's are slightly different), the cities have different socio-economic characteristics in various aspects. We analyzed each plan according to how it addresses climate change-related drivers of health impacts among city dwellers. For each driver, we identified the types of policy adaptation tools that address it in the urban climate adaptation plans. The surveyed cities address most of the fundamental climate change-related drivers of risks to human health, including rising temperatures, flooding and drought, but the policy measures to reduce negative impacts vary across cities. We suggest recommendations for Med-cities in various aspects, depending on their local needs and vulnerability challenges: assessment of health risks, extreme events management and long-term adaptation, among others.

  13. Climate change impact on fire probability and severity in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachisio Arca; Grazia Pellizzaro; Pierpaolo Duce; Michele Salis; Valentina Bacciu; Donatella Spano; Alan Ager; Mark Finney

    2010-01-01

    Fire is one of the most significant threats for the Mediterranean forested areas. Global change may increase the wildland fire risk due to the combined effect of air temperature and humidity on fuel status, and the effect of wind speed on fire behaviour. This paper investigated the potential effect of the climate changes predicted for the Mediterranean basin by a...

  14. Risk, hazards and resilience – tourism, climate change, Malta and the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew; International Conference on Sustainable Tourism and Events Planning and Policy

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will aim to discuss threats to, and consequences of current tourism growth and development and emerging issues associated with risk, natural hazards and resilience measures that are related to current estimations of climate change impact. The Mediterranean and Malta are used as a specific case. The validity and practicality of management options to tackle the complex nature and juxtaposition between tourism, climate change and Mediterranean tourism growth are cons...

  15. Data on photovoltaic power forecasting models for Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvoni, M; De Giorgi, M G; Congedo, P M

    2016-06-01

    The weather data have a relevant impact on the photovoltaic (PV) power forecast, furthermore the PV power prediction methods need the historical data as input. The data presented in this article concern measured values of ambient temperature, module temperature, solar radiation in a Mediterranean climate. Hourly samples of the PV output power of 960kWP system located in Southern Italy were supplied for more 500 days. The data sets, given in , were used in DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.04.078, M.G. De Giorgi, P.M. Congedo, M. Malvoni, D. Laforgia (2015) [1] to compare Artificial Neural Networks and Least Square Support Vector Machines. It was found that LS-SVM with Wavelet Decomposition (WD) outperforms ANN method. In DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2016.04.020, M.G. De Giorgi, P.M. Congedo, M. Malvoni (2016) [2] the same data were used for comparing different strategies for multi-step ahead forecast based on the hybrid Group Method of Data Handling networks and Least Square Support Vector Machine. The predicted PV power values by three models were reported in .

  16. High Variability Is a Defining Component of Mediterranean-Climate Rivers and Their Biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Cid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability in flow as a result of seasonal precipitation patterns is a defining element of streams and rivers in Mediterranean-climate regions of the world and strongly influences the biota of these unique systems. Mediterranean-climate areas include the Mediterranean Basin and parts of Australia, California, Chile, and South Africa. Mediterranean streams and rivers can experience wet winters and consequent floods to severe droughts, when intermittency in otherwise perennial systems can occur. Inter-annual variation in precipitation can include multi-year droughts or consecutive wet years. Spatial variation in patterns of precipitation (rain vs. snow combined with topographic variability lead to spatial variability in hydrologic patterns that influence populations and communities. Mediterranean streams and rivers are global biodiversity hotspots and are particularly vulnerable to human impacts. Biomonitoring, conservation efforts, and management responses to climate change require approaches that account for spatial and temporal variability (including both intra- and inter-annual. The importance of long-term data sets for understanding and managing these systems highlights the need for sustained and coordinated research efforts in Mediterranean-climate streams and rivers.

  17. New climate-proof cropping systems in dry areas of the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    A climate-proof cropping system is a system which is able to mitigate the effects of climate change, which often are unpredictable and extreme. The special issue is related to the subject of improving cropping systems in the Mediterranean region, which is one of the regions in the world facing most...... FP7 project entitled 'Sustainable water use securing food production in dry areas of the Mediterranean region (SWUP-MED)' working on climate-proof cropping systems in Morocco, Syria, Turkey and southern Europe, collaborating with UK, Denmark and Australia. The results are valid for other parts...... of the world, where Mediterranean climate is found, such as Western Australia and Western Chile, and in many dry areas of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East....

  18. Commonalities of carbon dioxide exchange in semiarid regions with monsoon and Mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid ecosystems with monsoon climates receive precipitation during the warm season while Mediterranean systems are characteristically wet in the cool season and dry in the summer. Comparing biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange across these two climate regimes can yield information about the int...

  19. Mediterranean climate modelling: variability and climate change scenarios; Modelisation climatique du Bassin mediterraneen: variabilite et scenarios de changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somot, S

    2005-12-15

    Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclo-genesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclo-genesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower inter-annual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21. century with the non-coupled models: cyclo-genesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean. (author)

  20. The future of the Mediterranean from impacts of climate change to adaptation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnan, A.; Garnaud, B.; Bille, R.; Gemenne, F.; Hallegatte, St.

    2009-01-01

    the fight against climate change must be considered for the short, medium and long term at the crossroads of climatic, socioeconomic and environmental issues. This is particularly true in the Mediterranean. The region's rapid growth in recent decades, while delivering significant positive impacts for the living conditions of the population, has however largely occurred at the expense of the environmental balance, which is essential for human well-being, and has often contributed to an increase in social and economical disparity, which are characteristic of the Mediterranean basin today. Major pressures and threats already place a heavy demand on the resources and activities of the Mediterranean. Climate change will accentuate these pressures, but will not change their nature. The aim therefore is to act upstream of these pressures and threats to reduce their effect and to avoid the occurrence of new ones. As the Mediterranean offers a diverse range of cultural, political, economical and environmental circumstances, it is expected that the impacts of climate change will take contrasting forms, as should the possible solutions. The Mediterranean therefore appears to be a priority for adaptation, and also serves as a laboratory for testing measures that could be implemented elsewhere in the world. This report aims to provide a general framework for the implementation of adaptation in the Mediterranean context, based on a number of important clarifications and accompanied by operational recommendations. In the first part (section 2) the scientific basis of the study will be set, notably from the works of the IPCC. We will assess the major climatic evolutions predicted for the Mediterranean over the coming century, concentrating on temperatures, rainfall regimes and variation of sea level. This will lead us to present (section 3) the induced physical impacts and to study the consequences on natural resources and human activities. We will then explore the central topic

  1. Regional assessment of Climate change impacts in the Mediterranean: the CIRCE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, A.

    2011-12-01

    The CIRCE project has developed for the first time an assessment of the climate change impacts in the Mediterranean area. The objectives of the project are: to predict and to quantify physical impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean area; to evaluate the consequences of climate change for the society and the economy of the populations located in the Mediterranean area; to develop an integrated approach to understand combined effects of climate change; and to identify adaptation and mitigation strategies in collaboration with regional stakeholders. The CIRCE Project, coordinated by the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisca e Vulcanologia, started on 1st April 2007 and ended in a policy conference in Rome on June 2011. CIRCE involves 64 partners from Europe, Middle East and North Africa working together to evaluate the best strategies of adaptation to the climate change in the Mediterranean basin. CIRCE wants to understand and to explain how climate will change in the Mediterranean area bringing together the natural sciences community and social community in a new integrated and comprehensive way. The project has investigated how global and Mediterranean climates interact, how the radiative properties of the atmosphere and the radiative fluxes vary, the interaction between cloudiness and aerosol, the modifications in the water cycle. Recent observed modifications in the climate variables and detected trends will be compared. The economic and social consequences of climate change are evaluated by analysing direct impacts on migration, tourism and energy markets together with indirect impacts on the economic system. CIRCE has produced results about the consequences on agriculture, forests and ecosystems, human health and air quality. The variability of extreme events in the future scenario and their impacts is also assessed. A rigorous common framework, including a set of quantitative indicators developed specifically for the Mediterranean environment was be developed

  2. Brief communication "Climatic covariates for the frequency analysis of heavy rainfall in the Mediterranean region"

    OpenAIRE

    Tramblay, Y.; Neppel, L.; Carreau, J.

    2011-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions, climate studies indicate for the future a possible increase in the extreme rainfall events occurrence and intensity. To evaluate the future changes in the extreme event distribution, there is a need to provide non-stationary models taking into account the non-stationarity of climate. In this study, several climatic covariates are tested in a non-stationary peaks-over-threshold modeling approach for heavy rainfall events in Southern France. Results indicate that the i...

  3. Modeling Climate and Societal Resilience in the Mediterranean During the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Xoplaki, E.; Luterbacher, J.; Zorita, E.; Fleitmann, D.; Preiser-Kapeller, J.; Toreti, A., , Dr; Sargent, A. M.; Bozkurt, D.; White, S.; Haldon, J. F.; Akçer-Ön, S.; Izdebski, A.

    2017-12-01

    Past civilisations were influenced by complex external and internal forces, including changes in the environment, climate, politics and economy. A geographical hotspot of the interplay between those agents is the Mediterranean, a cradle of cultural and scientific development. We analyse a novel compilation of high-quality hydroclimate proxy records and spatial reconstructions from the Mediterranean and compare them with two Earth System Model simulations (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-P) for three historical time intervals - the Crusaders, 1095-1290 CE; the Mamluk regime in Transjordan, 1260-1516 CE; and the Ottoman crisis and Celâlî Rebellion, 1580-1610 CE - when environmental and climatic stress tested the resilience of complex societies. ESMs provide important information on the dynamical mechanisms and underlying processes that led to anomalous hydroclimatic conditions of the past. We find that the multidecadal precipitation and drought variations in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean during the three periods cannot be explained by external forcings (solar variations, tropical volcanism); rather they were driven by internal climate dynamics. The integrated analysis of palaeoclimate proxies, climate reconstructions and model simulations sheds light on our understanding of past climate change and its societal impact. Finally, our research emphasises the need to further study the societal dimension of environmental and climate change in the past, in order to properly understand the role that climate has played in human history.

  4. The future of terrestrial mammals in the Mediterranean basin under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Luigi; Falcucci, Alessandra; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Psomas, Achilleas; Pottier, Julien; Baisero, Daniele; Rondinini, Carlo; Guisan, Antoine; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-09-27

    The Mediterranean basin is considered a hotspot of biological diversity with a long history of modification of natural ecosystems by human activities, and is one of the regions that will face extensive changes in climate. For 181 terrestrial mammals (68% of all Mediterranean mammals), we used an ensemble forecasting approach to model the future (approx. 2100) potential distribution under climate change considering five climate change model outputs for two climate scenarios. Overall, a substantial number of Mediterranean mammals will be severely threatened by future climate change, particularly endemic species. Moreover, we found important changes in potential species richness owing to climate change, with some areas (e.g. montane region in central Italy) gaining species, while most of the region will be losing species (mainly Spain and North Africa). Existing protected areas (PAs) will probably be strongly influenced by climate change, with most PAs in Africa, the Middle East and Spain losing a substantial number of species, and those PAs gaining species (e.g. central Italy and southern France) will experience a substantial shift in species composition.

  5. Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in mediterranean ecosystems worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk R Klausmeyer

    Full Text Available Mediterranean climate is found on five continents and supports five global biodiversity hotspots. Based on combined downscaled results from 23 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs for three emissions scenarios, we determined the projected spatial shifts in the mediterranean climate extent (MCE over the next century. Although most AOGCMs project a moderate expansion in the global MCE, regional impacts are large and uneven. The median AOGCM simulation output for the three emissions scenarios project the MCE at the end of the 21(st century in Chile will range from 129-153% of its current size, while in Australia, it will contract to only 77-49% of its current size losing an area equivalent to over twice the size of Portugal. Only 4% of the land area within the current MCE worldwide is in protected status (compared to a global average of 12% for all biome types, and, depending on the emissions scenario, only 50-60% of these protected areas are likely to be in the future MCE. To exacerbate the climate impact, nearly one third (29-31% of the land where the MCE is projected to remain stable has already been converted to human use, limiting the size of the potential climate refuges and diminishing the adaptation potential of native biota. High conversion and low protection in projected stable areas make Australia the highest priority region for investment in climate-adaptation strategies to reduce the threat of climate change to the rich biodiversity of the mediterranean biome.

  6. Modelling Climate change influence on runoff and soil losses in a rainfed catchment with Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Martínez-Casasnovas, José A.

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude of erosion processes, widespread throughout the Mediterranean areas, may be enhanced due to changes in seasonal precipitation regimes and an increase of extreme events. The present research shows the results of possible effects of climate change on runoff and soil loss in a rainfed catchment located in the Barcelona province (NE Spain).In the study area, vines are the main land use, cultivated under the Penedès designation of origin. The present research shows the results of runoff and soil loss simulated using SWAT for a small basin with vines as main land use. Input data included detailed soil and land use maps, and daily climate data of the period 1998-2012. The analysis compared simulated results for years with different climatic conditions during that period and the average with predictions for the scenario 2020, 2050 and 2080 based on the HadCM3 GCM under A2 scenario and the trends observed in the area related to maximum rainfall intensity. The model was calibrated and validated using data recorded at different subbasins, using soil water and runoff samples. Taking into account the predicted changes in temperature and precipitation, the model simulated a decrease in soil loss associated with a decrease in runoff, mainly driven by an increase in evapotranspiration. However, the trend in soil losses varied when the changes in precipitation could balance the increase of evapotranspiration and also due to the increase of rainfall intensity. An increase in maximum rainfall intensity in spring and autumn (main rainy seasons) produced significant increases in soil loss: by up to 12% for the 2020 scenario and up to 57% for the 2050 scenario, although high differences may exists depending on rainfall characteristics. The research confirmed the difficulty of predicting future soil loss in this region, which has a very high climate inter-annual variability.

  7. Scaling precipitation extremes with temperature in the Mediterranean: past climate assessment and projection in anthropogenic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, Philippe; Silva, Nicolas Da; Panthou, Gérémy; Bastin, Sophie; Muller, Caroline; Ahrens, Bodo; Borga, Marco; Conte, Dario; Fosser, Giorgia; Giorgi, Filippo; Güttler, Ivan; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Li, Laurent; Morin, Efrat; Önol, Bariş; Quintana-Segui, Pere; Romera, Raquel; Torma, Csaba Zsolt

    2016-03-01

    In this study we investigate the scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the Mediterranean region by assessing against observations the present day and future regional climate simulations performed in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs. Over the 1979-2008 period, despite differences in quantitative precipitation simulation across the various models, the change in precipitation extremes with respect to temperature is robust and consistent. The spatial variability of the temperature-precipitation extremes relationship displays a hook shape across the Mediterranean, with negative slope at high temperatures and a slope following Clausius-Clapeyron (CC)-scaling at low temperatures. The temperature at which the slope of the temperature-precipitation extreme relation sharply changes (or temperature break), ranges from about 20 °C in the western Mediterranean to global warming. The slope of the simulated future temperature-precipitation extremes relationship is close to CC-scaling at temperatures below the temperature break, while at high temperatures, the negative slope is close, but somewhat flatter or steeper, than in the current climate depending on the model. Overall, models predict more intense precipitation extremes in the future. Adjusting the temperature-precipitation extremes relationship in the present climate using the CC law and the temperature shift in the future allows the recovery of the temperature-precipitation extremes relationship in the future climate. This implies negligible regional changes of relative humidity in the future despite the large warming and drying over the Mediterranean. This suggests that the Mediterranean Sea is the primary source of moisture which counteracts the drying and warming impacts on relative humidity in parts of the Mediterranean region.

  8. Centennial Variability in Winter Climate and Water Column Oxygenation During Mediterranean Sapropel S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilbert, T.; Reichart, G.; Mason, P.; de Lange, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Eastern Mediterranean sapropels have been intensively studied as part of the oceanographic response to climate variability on orbital timescales, but the potential of laminated sapropel intervals for more highly resolved climate reconstruction remains underexploited. Even the highest resolution discrete sample series have been shown to alias short term variability in bottom water oxygenation, a key tracer of regional winter climate. Here we present trace elemental profiles of a laminated S1 sapropel, measured by Laser Ablation ICP-MS scanning of resin embedded sediment at <100µm resolution. The profiles reveal persistent centennial scale oscillations in the accumulation of V, Mo and U, interpreted to record variable oxygenation of the Eastern Mediterranean water column during S1. The results question existing theories about the stability of the 'sapropel state' and provide a new archive of centennial-scale winter climate variability in the wider European region.

  9. A model perspective on orbital forcing of monsoons and Mediterranean climate using EC-Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344765490

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on orbitally forced changes of monsoons and Mediterranean climate. Changes in the shape of the Earths orbit around the Sun and its rotational axis govern the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar radiation on time scales of thousands to millions of years. The

  10. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto-Moreno, V.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Giralt, S.; Jimenéz-Espejo, F.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.; de Lange, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic basin, near the Alboran basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to

  11. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  12. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  13. Adapting to climate change in the Mediterranean: Some questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bille, R.

    2008-01-01

    Circe (Climate change and impact research: the Mediterranean environment (www.circeproject. eu), an EC -funded 4-year research project, aims at developing for the first time a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts in the Mediterranean area. CIRCE's rational does not take climate impacts as direct consequences of climate changes: the causal relationship is much more complex since a given climate change leads to very contrasted impacts according to existing policies as well as to socio-economic and political responses. This paper freely draws on some findings from CIRCE 's first stakeholders meeting, organised by IDDRI in October 2007. A high level, focused dialogue among a small group of selected participants, this meeting was articulated around two key questions: 1 - Business models, sector-wide transitions and socio-economic irreversibilities: is there room for manoeuvre? 2 - Succeeding where we failed: can the climate challenge be turned into an opportunity? These questions were examined with regard to three sectors (agriculture, energy and tourism) and two themes (ecosystems protection and urban and regional planning). Important cross-cutting issues for the Mediterranean such as water management, regional security, international migrations, etc., were dealt with in the discussions along the two days. (author)

  14. How much water do we need for irrigation under Climate Change in the Mediterranean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Alberte, Bondeau; Wolfgang, Cramer; Simon, Decock; Sinan, Shi

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will very likely alter the hydrological system of already water-limited agricultural landscapes around the Mediterranean. This includes the need for, as well as the availability of irrigation water. On top of that Mediterranean agroecosystems are very likely to be under strong pressure in the near future through changes in consumer demands and diets, increasing urbanization, demographic change, and new markets for agricultural exportation. As a first step to assess the water demand of the agricultural sector, we use an ecohydrological model (the Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed land model, LPJmL) to estimate current and future irrigation water requirements of this region, considering various climate and socio-economic scenarios. LPJmL is a process-based, agricultural and water balance model, where plant growth is ecophysiologically coupled with hydrological variables. For these simulations, the model was adapted to the Mediterranean region in terms of agrosystems as well as crop parameters, and a sensitivity analysis for the irrigation system efficiency was performed. Patterns of current irrigation water requirements differ strongly spatially within the Mediterranean region depending mainly on potential evapotranspiration, the combination of crops cultivated and the extension of irrigated areas. The simulations for the future indicate that the Mediterranean may need considerable additional amounts of irrigation water. However, the regional patterns differ strongly depending on changes in length of growing periods, changes in transpirational rate (temperature and precipitation change, CO2-fertilization), and the consideration of potential improvements in irrigation system efficiency.

  15. The dependence of wintertime Mediterranean precipitation on the atmospheric circulation response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Giuseppe; Hoskins, Brian; Shepherd, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Climate models indicate a future wintertime precipitation reduction in the Mediterranean region which may have large socio-economic impacts. However, there is large uncertainty in the amplitude of the projected precipitation reduction and this limits the possibility to inform effective adaptation planning. We analyse CMIP5 climate model output to quantify the role of atmospheric circulation in the precipitation change and the time of emergence of the Mediterranean precipitation response. It is found that a simple circulation index, i.e. the 850 hPa zonal wind (U850) in North Africa, well describes the year to year fluctuations in the area-averaged Mediterranean precipitation, with positive (i.e. westerly) U850 anomalies in North Africa being associated with positive precipitation anomalies. Under climate change, U850 in North Africa and the Mediterranean precipitation are both projected to decrease consistently with the relationship found in the inter-annual variability. This enables us to estimate that about 85% of the CMIP5 mean precipitation response and 80% of the variance in the inter-model spread are related to changes in the atmospheric circulation. In contrast, there is no significant correlation between the mean precipitation response and the global-mean surface warming across the models. We also find that the precipitation response to climate change might already emerge from internal variability by 2025 relative to 1960-1990 according to the climate models with a large circulation response. This implies that it might soon be possible to test model projections using observations. Finally, some of the mechanisms which are important for the Mediterranean circulation response in the CMIP5 models are discussed.

  16. Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G and terrestrial (Zoñar Lake, Andalucia, Spain geochemical proxies provides a high-resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in the southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our combined terrestrial and marine archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. A dry period occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP – synchronously to the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC – and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP. Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity than the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of the Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The Late Holocene climate evolution of the in the study area confirms the see-saw pattern between the eastern and western Mediterranean regions and the higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.

  17. Impact of climate change on heavy precipitation events of the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricard, D.; Beaulant, A.L.; Deque, M.; Ducrocq, V.; Joly, A.; Joly, B.; Martin, E.; Nuissier, O.; Quintana Segui, P.; Ribes, A.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S.; Boe, J.

    2009-01-01

    A second topic covered by the CYPRIM project aims to characterize the evolution of heavy precipitation events in Mediterranean in the context of climate change. To this end, a continuous climate simulation from 1960 to 2099 has been run using a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model under IPCC A2 emission scenario. Various techniques of down-scaling, down to the very fine 2 km scale, and methods to highlight synoptic environments favourable to heavy rain, have been used to estimate the impact of climate change on precipitation and hydrology over South-East France, both for the whole autumn season and the heavy rain events. (authors)

  18. Climate change scenarios over the Mediterranean Basin; Scenari di cambiamento climatico sul bacino del Mediterraneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casaioli, Marco; Sciortino, Maurizio [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-11-01

    The results of climatic simulation over the Mediterranean Basin made available by major climate research centres, have been analyzed with the purposes of defining possible future climate scenarios. The validation of modelling results of present climate with observed climatology makes possible to assess capabilities and limitations of the General Circulation Models over the area under consideration. The evaluation of climate change scenarios in conditions of doubling atmospheric concentration of CO 2 gives indications on the expected magnitude of variation of temperature and precipitation. The results available agree to indicate a possible warming of air temperature but as far as concerned precipitation there is still no consensus between the climate projections produced by the different models considered in this study.

  19. Assessing Shifts of Mediterranean and Arid Climates Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 Climate Projections in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barredo, José I.; Mauri, Achille; Caudullo, Giovanni; Dosio, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is the richest biodiversity region in Europe and a global hotspot of biological diversity. In spite of that, anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious concerns for nature conservation in this region. One of the climatic threats is represented by shifts of the Mediterranean climate and expansion of the arid climate. In this paper, we present an assessment of changes in the spatial range of the Mediterranean climate in Europe and the conversion into arid climate under different greenhouse gas forcings, namely RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We used 11 simulations in two future 30-year periods of state-of-the-art regional climate models from EURO-CORDEX. Our results indicate that by the end of the century under RCP8.5 the present Mediterranean climate zone is projected to contract by 16%, i.e. an area ( 157,000 km2) equivalent to half the size of Italy. This compares with the less severe scenario RCP4.5 that projected only a 3% reduction. In addition, the Mediterranean climate zone is projected to expand to other zones by an area equivalent to 24 and 50% of its present extent under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Our study indicates that expansion of the arid zone is almost always the cause for contraction of the Mediterranean zone. Under RCP8.5 the arid zone is projected to increase by more than twice its present extent, equivalent to three times the size of Greece. Results of this study are useful for identifying (1) priority zones for biodiversity conservation, i.e. stable Mediterranean climate zones, (2) zones requiring assisted adaptation, such as establishment of new protected areas, implementation of buffer zones around protected areas and creating ecological corridors connecting stable Mediterranean zones.

  20. Interannual variability of Mediterranean evaporation and its relation to regional climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zveryaev, Igor I. [Moscow State University, P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS and Faculty of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hannachi, Abdel A. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    Gridded monthly evaporation data for 1958-2006 from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution data set are used to investigate interannual variability of Mediterranean evaporation during cold and hot seasons and its relation to regional atmospheric dynamics, sea surface temperature and atmospheric elements of the hydrological cycle. The first EOF mode of Mediterranean evaporation, explaining more than 50% of its total variance, is characterized by the monopole pattern both in winter and summer. However, despite structural similarity, the EOF-1 of Mediterranean evaporation is affected by different climate signals in cold and hot seasons. During winter the EOF-1 is associated with the East Atlantic teleconnection pattern. In summer, there is indication of tropical influence on the EOF-1 of Mediterranean evaporation (presumably from Asian monsoon). Both in winter and summer, principal components of EOF-1 demonstrate clear interdecadal signals (with a stronger signature in summer) associated with large sea surface temperature anomalies. The results of a sensitivity analysis suggest that in winter both the meridional wind and the vertical gradient of saturation specific humidity (GSSH) near the sea surface contribute to the interdecadal evaporation signal. In summer, however, it is likely that the signal is more related to GSSH. Our analysis did not reveal significant links between the Mediterranean evaporation and the North Atlantic Oscillation in any season. The EOF-2 of evaporation accounts for 20% (11%) of its total variance in winter (in summer). Both in winter and summer the EOF-2 is characterized by a zonal dipole with opposite variations of evaporation in western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea. This mode is associated presumably with smaller scale (i.e., local) effects of atmospheric dynamics. Seasonality of the leading modes of the Mediterranean evaporation is also clearly seen in the character of their links to atmospheric elements of the regional

  1. Rapid climatic variability in the west Mediterranean during the last 25 000 years from high resolution pollen data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Combourieu Nebout

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available High-temporal resolution pollen record from the Alboran Sea ODP Site 976, pollen-based quantitative climate reconstruction and biomisation show that changes of Mediterranean vegetation have been clearly modulated by short and long term variability during the last 25 000 years. The reliability of the quantitative climate reconstruction from marine pollen spectra has been tested using 22 marine core-top samples from the Mediterranean. The ODP Site 976 pollen record and climatic reconstruction confirm that Mediterranean environments have a rapid response to the climatic fluctuations during the last Termination. The western Mediterranean vegetation response appears nearly synchronous with North Atlantic variability during the last deglaciation as well as during the Holocene. High-resolution analyses of the ODP Site 976 pollen record show a cooling trend during the Bölling/Allerød period. In addition, this period is marked by two warm episodes bracketing a cooling event that represent the Bölling-Older Dryas-Allerød succession. During the Holocene, recurrent declines of the forest cover over the Alboran Sea borderlands indicate climate events that correlate well with several events of increased Mediterranean dryness observed on the continent and with Mediterranean Sea cooling episodes detected by alkenone-based sea surface temperature reconstructions. These events clearly reflect the response of the Mediterranean vegetation to the North Atlantic Holocene cold events.

  2. Future Evolution of Marine Heat Waves in the Mediterranean: Coupled Regional Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaraki, Sofia; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Nabat, Pierre; Cavicchia, Leone; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Cabos, William; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    FUTURE EVOLUTION OF MARINE HEAT WAVES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN : COUPLED REGIONAL CLIMATE PROJECTIONS The Mediterranean area is identified as a « Hot Spot » region, vulnerable to future climate change with potentially strong impacts over the sea. By 2100, climate models predict increased warming over the sea surface, with possible implications on the Mediterranean thermohaline and surface circulation,associated also with severe impacts on the ecosystems (e.g. fish habitat loss, species extinction and migration, invasive species). However, a robust assesment of the future evolution of the extreme marine temperatures remains still an open issue of primary importance, under the anthropogenic pressure. In this context, we study here the probability and characteristics of marine heat wave (MHW) occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea in future climate projections. To this end, we use an ensemble of fully coupled regional climate system models (RCSM) from the Med- CORDEX initiative. This multi-model approach includes a high-resolution representation of the atmospheric, land and ocean component, with a free air-sea interface.Specifically, dedicated simulations for the 20th and the 21st century are carried out with respect to the different IPCC-AR5 socioeconomic scenarios (1950-2100, RCP8.5, RCP4.5, RCP2.6). Model evaluation for the historical period is performed using satellite and in situ data. Then, the variety of factors that can cause the MHW (e.g. direct radiative forcing, ocean advection, stratification change) are examined to disentangle the dominant driving force. Finally, the spatial variability and temporal evolution of MHW are analyzed on an annual basis, along with additional integrated indicators, useful for marine ecosystems.

  3. Sensitivity of Mediterranean bivalve mollusc aquaculture to climate change, ocean acidification, and other environmental pressures: findings from a producers’ survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, L.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Mass, F.; Theodorou, J.A.; Ziveri, P.; Gazeau, F.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced climate change and ocean acidification are global environmental phenomena with a common driver: anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Both processes potentially threaten the Mediterranean bivalve mollusc aquaculture sector, which is economically relevant to several regions and

  4. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the central Mediterranean area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, O.; Magny, M.; Combourieu-nebout, N.; Goring, S.; Joannin, S.; de Beaulieu, J.-L.; Brugapaglia, E.; Dormoy, I.; Drescher-schneider, R.; Galop, D.; Ortu, E.; Sadori, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean area is particularly sensitive to short-term climate change due to its intermediate position between the higher-latitude and lower-latitude climate systems. Consequently, future climate change can be expected to be particularly strong in this region and will likely have a strong impact on terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore a growing interest has been focused on the climate study of the last 15,000 years in the Mediterranean area. This study presents new pollen-based climate reconstructions of Holocene precipitation and temperature for four high-resolution pollen sequences from north to south of Italy: - Lake Ledro, Northern Italy (Magny et al., 2009; Joannin et al, in prep), - Lake Accesa, central-Italy (Magny et al., 2007; Drescher-Schneider et al., 2007; Vannière et al., 2008; Peyron et al., 2011) - Trifoglietti, Southern Italy (Joannin et al., in prep) - Pergusa, Sicily (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001; Magny et al., 2011) We aim to reconstruct quantitatively the climate changes in central Mediterranean during the Holocene and distinguish the patterns, trends and main changes along a latitudinal gradient. We also aim to test the reconstruction of the precipitation seasonality which can be validated by independent proxies obtained for same records, i.e. lake-levels, charcoal/fires (Magny et al., 2011; Vannière et al., 2011). To provide the climatic reconstruction, we use both the Modern Analogues Technique (MAT), and the recent Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling/Generalized Additive Model method (NMDS/GAM) developed by Goring et al. (2009). Reconstructed annual and winter precipitations show a Holocene optimum at 9000-6000 cal BP for all sites, and an aridification trend starting around 4500 cal BP. The summer signal is different, underlining different patterns from North to South. Summer temperatures were cool during the Early Holocene and show a trend consistent with previous results for Southern Europe (Davis and Brewer, 2009). In order to test

  5. Fewer clouds in the Mediterranean: consistency of observations and climate simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Enriquez-Alonso, Aaron; Calbó, Josep; González, Josep-Abel; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Norris, Joel R; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M

    2017-02-02

    Clouds play a major role in the climate system, but large uncertainties remain about their decadal variations. Here we report a widespread decrease in cloud cover since the 1970 s over the Mediterranean region, in particular during the 1970 s-1980 s, especially in the central and eastern areas and during springtime. Confidence in these findings is high due to the good agreement between the interannual variations of cloud cover provided by surface observations and several satellite-derived and reanalysis products, although some discrepancies exist in their trends. Climate model simulations of the historical experiment from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) also exhibit a decrease in cloud cover over the Mediterranean since the 1970 s, in agreement with surface observations, although the rate of decrease is slightly lower. The observed northward expansion of the Hadley cell is discussed as a possible cause of detected trends.

  6. Climate and landscape drivers of tree decline in a Mediterranean ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Niels C; Mercer, Jack; Lyons, Tom; Poot, Pieter; Veneklaas, Erik; Hardy, Giles

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic land use are increasingly affecting the resilience of natural ecosystems. In Mediterranean ecoregions, forests and woodlands have shown progressive declines in health. This study focuses on the decline of an endemic woodland tree species, Eucalyptus wandoo (wandoo), occurring in the biodiversity hotspot of southwest Western Australia. We determined the change in health of wandoo stands between 2002 and 2008 across its geographic and climatic range, and associated this change in health with non-biotic variables focusing on: (1) fragment metrics; (2) topography; (3) soil characteristics; and (4) climate. Only fragment metrics and climate variables were found to be significantly related to the observed change in health. Stands that were small with high perimeter/area ratios were found to be most sensitive to health declines. Recent increases in autumn temperatures and decreases in annual rainfall were negatively affecting health of wandoo most prominently in the low rainfall zone of its climatic range. Together, these results suggest the onset of range contraction for this ecologically important species, which is likely to be exacerbated by projected future changes in climate. Our results emphasize the importance of establishing monitoring programs to identify changes in health and decline trends early to inform management strategies, particularly in the sensitive Mediterranean ecoregions.

  7. Climate and landscape drivers of tree decline in a Mediterranean ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Niels C; Mercer, Jack; Lyons, Tom; Poot, Pieter; Veneklaas, Erik; Hardy, Giles

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic land use are increasingly affecting the resilience of natural ecosystems. In Mediterranean ecoregions, forests and woodlands have shown progressive declines in health. This study focuses on the decline of an endemic woodland tree species, Eucalyptus wandoo (wandoo), occurring in the biodiversity hotspot of southwest Western Australia. We determined the change in health of wandoo stands between 2002 and 2008 across its geographic and climatic range, and associated this change in health with non-biotic variables focusing on: (1) fragment metrics; (2) topography; (3) soil characteristics; and (4) climate. Only fragment metrics and climate variables were found to be significantly related to the observed change in health. Stands that were small with high perimeter/area ratios were found to be most sensitive to health declines. Recent increases in autumn temperatures and decreases in annual rainfall were negatively affecting health of wandoo most prominently in the low rainfall zone of its climatic range. Together, these results suggest the onset of range contraction for this ecologically important species, which is likely to be exacerbated by projected future changes in climate. Our results emphasize the importance of establishing monitoring programs to identify changes in health and decline trends early to inform management strategies, particularly in the sensitive Mediterranean ecoregions. PMID:23403899

  8. Effects of land use intensification on fish assemblages in Mediterranean climate streams

    OpenAIRE

    Matono, Paula; Sousa, Dárcio; Ilheu, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Southern Portugal is experiencing a rapid change in land use due to the spread of intensive farming systems, namely olive production systems, which can cause strong negative environmental impacts and affect the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to identify the main environmental disturbances related with olive grove intensification on Mediterranean climate streams in southern Portugal, and to evaluate their effects on fish assemblage structure and integrity. Twenty ...

  9. Climate change and Mediterranean seagrass meadows: a synopsis for environmental managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PERGENT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This synopsis focuses on the effects of climate change on Mediterranean seagrasses, and associated communities, and on the contribution of the main species, Posidonia oceanica, to the mitigation of climate change effects through its role of sequestering carbon dioxide. Whilst the regression of seagrass meadows is well documented, generally linked to anthropogenic pressures, global warming could be a cause of new significant regressions, notably linked to the introduction of exotic species, the rise of Sea-Surface Temperature (SST, and relative sea level. Seagrass communities could also be affected by climate change through the replacement of seagrass species having high structural complexity by species of lower complexity and even by opportunistic introduced species. Although it is currently very difficult to predict the consequences of these alterations and their cascade effects, two main conflicting trends in the functioning of seagrass ecosystems that could occur are acceleration of the herbivore pathway or of the detritivore pathway. The mean net primary production of the dominant species, Posidonia oceanica, is relatively high and can be estimated to range between 92.5 to 144.7 g C m-2 a-1. Around 27% of the total carbon fixed by this species enters the sedimentary pathway leading to formation, over millennia, of highly organic deposits rich in refractory carbon. At the Mediterranean scale, the sequestration rate might reach 1.09 Tg C a-1. The amount of this stored carbon is estimated to range from 71 to 273 kg C m-2, which when considered at the Mediterranean scale would represent 11 to 42% of the CO2 emissions produced by Mediterranean countries since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The greatest value of the P. oceanica ecosystem, in the context of mitigation of global climate change, is linked to this vast long-term carbon stock accumulated over the millennia, and therefore, efforts should be focused on preserving the

  10. The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Weninger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004. These cooling anomalies are well-dated, with Greenland ice-core resolution, due to synchronicity between warm/cold foraminifera ratios in Mediterranean core LC21 as a proxy for surface water temperature, and Greenland GISP2 non sea-salt (nss [K+] ions as a proxy for the intensification of the Siberian High and for polar air outbreaks in the northeast Mediterranean (Rohling et al. 2002. Building on these synchronisms, the GISP2 agemodel supplies the following precise time-intervals for archaeological RCC research: (i 8.6–8.0 ka, (ii 6.0–5.2 ka, (iii 4.2–4.0 ka and (iv 3.1–2.9 ka calBP. For each of these RCC time intervals, based on detailed 14C-based chronological studies, we investigate contemporaneous cultural developments. From our studies it follows that RCC-related climatic deterioration is a major factor underlying social change, although always at work within a wide spectrum of social, cultural, economic and religious factors.

  11. Multi-GCM projections of future drought and climate variability indicators for the Mediterranean region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubrovský, Martin; Hayes, M.; Duce, P.; Trnka, M.; Svoboda, M.; Zara, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2014), s. 1907-1919 ISSN 1436-3798 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420806; GA MŠk LD12029 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : mediterranean * climate change * global climate models * temperature * precipitation * drought * Palmer drought severity index * weather generator Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10113-013-0562-z/fulltext.html

  12. Tomato crop coefficient grown under mediterranean climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    parameters which can contribute in difference of Kc values for this climatic region. The results of investigations on Policoro data confirmed relevant difference in the length of the growing period in respect to the data presented in FAO 56. Therefore, careful consideration of all growing and management...

  13. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Wildfire Exposure in Mediterranean Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Olga M; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Alcasena, Fermin J; Monteiro, Antonio T; Finney, Mark A; Del Giudice, Liliana; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Spano, Donatella

    2017-10-01

    We used simulation modeling to assess potential climate change impacts on wildfire exposure in Italy and Corsica (France). Weather data were obtained from a regional climate model for the period 1981-2070 using the IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Wildfire simulations were performed with the minimum travel time fire spread algorithm using predicted fuel moisture, wind speed, and wind direction to simulate expected changes in weather for three climatic periods (1981-2010, 2011-2040, and 2041-2070). Overall, the wildfire simulations showed very slight changes in flame length, while other outputs such as burn probability and fire size increased significantly in the second future period (2041-2070), especially in the southern portion of the study area. The projected changes fuel moisture could result in a lengthening of the fire season for the entire study area. This work represents the first application in Europe of a methodology based on high resolution (250 m) landscape wildfire modeling to assess potential impacts of climate changes on wildfire exposure at a national scale. The findings can provide information and support in wildfire management planning and fire risk mitigation activities. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Effect of Climate Change on Mediterranean Winter Ranges of Two Migratory Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Tellería

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of climate change on the distribution of two insectivorous passerines (the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and the chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita in wintering grounds of the Western Mediterranean basin. In this region, precipitation and temperature can affect the distribution of these birds through direct (thermoregulation costs or indirect effects (primary productivity. Thus, it can be postulated that projected climate changes in the region will affect the extent and suitability of their wintering grounds. We studied pipit and chiffchaff abundance in several hundred localities along a belt crossing Spain and Morocco and assessed the effects of climate and other geographical and habitat predictors on bird distribution. Multivariate analyses reported a positive effect of temperature on the present distribution of the two species, with an additional effect of precipitation on the meadow pipit. These climate variables were used with Maxent to model the occurrence probabilities of species using ring recoveries as presence data. Abundance and occupancy of the two species in the study localities adjusted to the distribution models, with more birds in sectors of high climate suitability. After validation, these models were used to forecast the distribution of climate suitability according to climate projections for 2050-2070 (temperature increase and precipitation reduction. Results show an expansion of climatically suitable sectors into the highlands by the effect of warming on the two species, and a retreat of the meadow pipit from southern sectors related to rain reduction. The predicted patterns show a mean increase in climate suitability for the two species due to the warming of the large highland expanses typical of the western Mediterranean.

  15. Effect of Climate Change on Mediterranean Winter Ranges of Two Migratory Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, José L; Fernández-López, Javier; Fandos, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of climate change on the distribution of two insectivorous passerines (the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and the chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita) in wintering grounds of the Western Mediterranean basin. In this region, precipitation and temperature can affect the distribution of these birds through direct (thermoregulation costs) or indirect effects (primary productivity). Thus, it can be postulated that projected climate changes in the region will affect the extent and suitability of their wintering grounds. We studied pipit and chiffchaff abundance in several hundred localities along a belt crossing Spain and Morocco and assessed the effects of climate and other geographical and habitat predictors on bird distribution. Multivariate analyses reported a positive effect of temperature on the present distribution of the two species, with an additional effect of precipitation on the meadow pipit. These climate variables were used with Maxent to model the occurrence probabilities of species using ring recoveries as presence data. Abundance and occupancy of the two species in the study localities adjusted to the distribution models, with more birds in sectors of high climate suitability. After validation, these models were used to forecast the distribution of climate suitability according to climate projections for 2050-2070 (temperature increase and precipitation reduction). Results show an expansion of climatically suitable sectors into the highlands by the effect of warming on the two species, and a retreat of the meadow pipit from southern sectors related to rain reduction. The predicted patterns show a mean increase in climate suitability for the two species due to the warming of the large highland expanses typical of the western Mediterranean.

  16. Uncertainties in assessing climate change impacts on the hydrology of Mediterranean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    There is substantial evidence in historical and recent observations that the Mediterranean and neighboring regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Numerous climate projections, stemming from ensembles of global and regional climate models, agree on severe changes in the climate forcing which are likely to exacerbate subsequent ecological, economic and social impacts. Many of these causal connections are closely linked to the general expectation that water availability will decline in the already water-stressed basins of Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Near East, even though considerable regional variances must be expected. Consequently, climate change impacts on water resources are raising concerns regarding their possible management and security implications. Decreasing access to water resources and other related factors could be a cause or a 'multiplier' of tensions within and between countries. Whether security threats arise from climate impacts or options for cooperation evolve does not depend only on the severity of the impacts themselves, but on social, economic, and institutional vulnerabilities or resilience as well as factors that influence local, national and international relations. However, an assessment of vulnerability and risks hinges on natural, socio-economic, and political conditions and responses, all of which are uncertain. Multidisciplinary research is needed to tackle the multi-facet complexity of climate change impacts on water resources in the Mediterranean and neighboring countries. This is particularly true in a region of overall data scarcity and poor data management and exchange structures. The current potential to develop appropriate regional adaptation measures towards climate change impacts suffers heavily from large uncertainties. These spread along a long chain of components, starting from the definition of emission scenarios to global and regional climate modeling to impact models and a

  17. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Ferrise, Roberto; Rodríguez, A

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation of crops to climate change has to be addressed locally due to the variability of soil, climate and the specific socio-economic settings influencing farm management decisions. Adaptation of rainfed cropping systems in the Mediterranean is especially challenging due to the projected...... decline in precipitation in the coming decades, which will increase the risk of droughts. Methods that can help explore uncertainties in climate projections and crop modelling, such as impact response surfaces (IRSs) and ensemble modelling, can then be valuable for identifying effective adaptations. Here......, a combination of adaptations for dealing with climate change demonstrated that effective adaptation is possible at Lleida. Combinations based on a cultivar without vernalization requirements showed good and wide adaptation potential. Few combined adaptation options performed well under rainfed conditions...

  18. Impacts of climate change on soil erosion in Portuguese watersheds with contrasting Mediterranean climates and agroforestry practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J. P.; Lima, J. C.; Bernard-Jannin, L.; Veiga, S.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Sampaio, E.; Batista, D. P.; Zhang, R.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Moreira, M.; Santos, J. M.; Keizer, J. J.; Corte-Real, J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change in Mediterranean regions could lead to higher winter rainfall intensity and, due to higher climatic aridity, lower vegetation cover. This could lead to increasing soil erosion rates, accelerating ongoing soil degradation and desertification processes. Adaptation to these scenarios would have costs and benefits associated with soil protection but also agroforestry production and water usage. This presentation will cover project ERLAND, which is studying these impacts for two headwater catchments (irrigation of corn in the lower slopes. Forest fires are a recurring problem, linked with the high biomass growth and the occurrence of a dry season. Potential impacts of climate change include less favorable conditions for eucalypt growth, higher incidence of wildfires, and less available water for summer irrigation, all of which could lead to lower vegetation cover. The Guadalupe catchment in southern Portugal has a dry Mediterranean climate (700 mm/yr, falling mostly in winter). The land-use is montado, an association between sclerophyllous oaks (cork and holm oaks) and annual herbaceous plans (winter wheat or pasture). The region suffers occasional severe droughts; climate change has the potential to increase the frequency and severity of these droughts, leading to lower vegetation cover and, potentially, limiting the conditions for cork and holm oak growth. Each catchment has been instrumented with erosion measurement plots and flow and turbidity measurements at the outlet, together with surveys of vegetation and soil properties; measurements in Macieira began in 2010 and in Guadalupe they began in 2011. These datasets will be used to parameterize, calibrate and validate the SWAT ecohydrological model, in order to ensure the appropriate simulation of the most important hydrological, vegetation growth and erosion processes which could be impacted upon by climate change. The model will, in turn, be the main tool to study future climate and land

  19. Rainfall interception by the vegetation in a Mediterranean type climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, M. F.; Roldán-Cañas, J.; Cienfuegos, I.

    2012-04-01

    The study of rainfall interception by the canopy of the vegetation is of great importance in the basin water balance, because a large part returns to the atmosphere as evaporation. The presence or absence of vegetation not only affects the amount of rainfall that reaches the ground level also affects the moisture content in soil and surface runoff. In arid or semiarid regions there are few studies related to the Mediterranean vegetation and its relationship to hydrological processes. Furthermore, most studies have characterized the interception by rainfall simulators in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the amount and distribution of rainfall through the process of interception by the canopy of trees and shrubs present in the hydrologic watershed of "The Cabril" (Córdoba, southern Spain). The predominant vegetation is scrub, composed mostly of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer), and arboreal formations of tree pines (Pinus pinea). The record of precipitation was performed using a rain gauge tipping bowl Eijkelkamp mark during periods of rain occurred in 2010 and 2011. The amount of precipitation intercepted by the canopy has been determined indirectly from the difference between incident precipitation and rain that passes through the canopy of vegetation, which is divided into the flow of throughfall and cortical flow. To measure the throughfall the soil surface was waterproofed. Throughfall volume that is generated after each rain event is collected in four tanks of 200 liters capacity interconnected. For measurement of cortical flow a spiral hose previously cut lengthwise was placed around the trunk in the case of tree pines. In rockrose, a container was installed around it at its base. Monitoring soil moisture was determined by moisture probes 6 Delta-T SM200 randomly distributed, which records the water content of the topsoil. Compared with rockrose, there is a higher percentage of interception in pine and lowest percentage of cortical

  20. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability on Forest Ecosystem in Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, O.; Musaoglu, N.; Türkeş, M.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of `climate change vulnerability' helps us to better comprehend the cause/effect relationships behind climate change and its impact on human societies, socioeconomic sectors, physiographical and ecological systems. Herein, multifactorial spatial modeling was applied to evaluate the vulnerability of a Mediterranean forest ecosystem to climate change. Thus, the geographical distribution of the final Environmental Vulnerability Areas (EVAs) of the forest ecosystem are based on the estimated final Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) values. This revealed that at current levels of environmental degradation, physical, geographical, policy enforcement and socioeconomic conditions, the area with a "very low" vulnerability degree covered mainly the town, its surrounding settlements and the agricultural lands found mainly over the low and flat travertine plateau and the plains at the east and southeast of the district. The spatial magnitude of the EVAs over the forest ecosystem under the current environmental degradation was also determined. This revealed that the EVAs classed as "very low" account for 21% of the total area of the forest ecosystem, those classed as "low" account for 36%, those classed as "medium" account for 20%, and those classed as "high" account for 24%. Based on regionally averaged future climate assessments and projected future climate indicators, both the study site and the western Mediterranean sub-region of Turkey will probably become associated with a drier, hotter, more continental and more water-deficient climate. This analysis holds true for all future scenarios, with the exception of RCP4.5 for the period from 2015 to 2030. However, the present dry-sub humid climate dominating this sub-region and the study area shows a potential for change towards more dry climatology and for it to become a semiarid climate in the period between 2031 and 2050 according to the RCP8.5 high emission scenario. All the observed and estimated results

  1. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  2. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  3. Hydrologic regime alteration of a Mediterranean catchment under climate change projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Haykel; Benabdallah, Sihem; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Herrmann, Frank; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2014-05-01

    Most of the climate models projections for the Mediterranean basin have showed that the region will likely to experience a general tendency towards drier climate conditions with decreases in total precipitation, increases in temperature, alterations in the rainfall extreme events and droughts frequency (IPCC, 2007; Giorgi and Lionello, 2008; López-Moreno et al., 2011). The region is already suffering from water resources scarcity and vulnerability which are expected to amplify in the next century (Ludwig et al., 2011; Schneider et al., 2013). Therefore, assessing the impact of climate change on the hydrologic regime of Mediterranean catchments is with a major concern not only to scientist but also to water resources policy makers and general public. However, most of the climate change impact studies focus on the flow regime on global or regional scale rather than on the catchment scale which is more useful and more appropriate to guide practical mitigation and adaptation policy. This is because hydro-climate modeling at the local scale is confronted to the variability in climate, topography, geology, lack of observations and anthropogenic activities within the catchment. Furthermore, it is well recognized that hydrological and climate models forecasts are always affected with uncertainty making the assessment of climate change impact on Mediterranean catchment hydrology more challenging. This work aims to assess the impact of climate change on a Mediterranean catchment located in North Africa (the Chiba catchment in northeast Tunisia) through a conjunctive use of physically based hydrological model (SWAT) driven with four climate models*. Quantification of the impact of climate change has been conducted by means of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (Richter et al., 1996) which are also ecologically meaningful. By comparing changes in these indicators in the reference period (1971-2000) to the projected ones in the future (2041-2070), it was possible to draw

  4. Impacts of climate change on tourism in the Mediterranean. Adaptive responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, A. [University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Key sensitivities to Mediterranean tourism include drought and heat waves, both of which are likely to increase with projected greenhouse warming. Adaptive responses must include lengthening of the present season and particularly taking care to cater for the increasing number of older people in the population of Northern European countries who will demand high environmental and accommodation standards and look for more bespoke holidays than the mass market tourist. Climate change in Northern Europe may affect the push-pull factors which currently favour a summer peak of tourists in many Mediterranean destinations. Infra structure and beaches may well be at risk from sea level rise and there are likely to be increased problems from forest fires, water supplies and hygiene.

  5. Impacts of climate change on tourism in the Mediterranean. Adaptive responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.

    2000-05-01

    Key sensitivities to Mediterranean tourism include drought and heat waves, both of which are likely to increase with projected greenhouse warming. Adaptive responses must include lengthening of the present season and particularly taking care to cater for the increasing number of older people in the population of Northern European countries who will demand high environmental and accommodation standards and look for more bespoke holidays than the mass market tourist. Climate change in Northern Europe may affect the push-pull factors which currently favour a summer peak of tourists in many Mediterranean destinations. Infra structure and beaches may well be at risk from sea level rise and there are likely to be increased problems from forest fires, water supplies and hygiene

  6. Variations in Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange across the late Pliocene climate transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallardo, Ángela; Grunert, Patrick; Piller, Werner E.

    2018-03-01

    Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar plays a significant role in the global ocean-climate dynamics in two ways. On one side, the injection of the saline and warm Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) contributes to North Atlantic deep-water formation. In return, the Atlantic inflow is considered a sink of less saline water for the North Atlantic Ocean. However, while the history of MOW is the focus of numerous studies, the Pliocene Atlantic inflow has received little attention so far. The present study provides an assessment of the Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange with a focus on the Atlantic inflow strength and its response to regional and global climate from 3.33 to 2.60 Ma. This time interval comprises the mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP; 3.29-2.97 Ma) and the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG). For this purpose, gradients in surface δ18O records of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber between the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1389E (Gulf of Cádiz) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 978A (Alboran Sea) have been evaluated. Interglacial stages and warm glacials of the MPWP revealed steep and reversed (relative to the present) W-E δ18O gradients suggesting a weakening of Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange likely caused by high levels of relative humidity in the Mediterranean region. In contrast, periods of stronger inflow are indicated by flat δ18O gradients due to more intense arid conditions during the severe glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 and the initiation of NHG (MIS G22, G14, G6-104). Intensified Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange in cold periods is linked to the occurrence of ice-rafted debris (IRD) at low latitudes and a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Our results thus suggest the development of a negative feedback between AMOC and exchange rates at the Strait of Gibraltar in the latest Pliocene as it has been proposed for the late Quaternary.

  7. Forest composition in Mediterranean mountains is projected to shift along the entire elevational gradient under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, Diego; Nogues, David Bravo; Ollero, Helios Sáinz

    2012-01-01

    significantly under climate warming. Large changes in species ranges and forest communities might occur, not only at high elevations within Mediterranean mountains but also along the entire elevational gradient throughout this region, particularly at low and mid-elevations. Mediterranean mountains might lose...... potential changes in the distribution and community composition of tree species in two mountainous regions of Spain under specific scenarios of climate change using data with a high spatial resolution. We also describe potential changes in species distributions and tree communities along the entire...... elevational gradient. Location  Two mountain ranges in southern Europe: the Central Mountain Range (central west of the Iberian Peninsula), and the Iberian Mountain Range (central east). Methods  We modelled current and future distributions of 15 tree species (Eurosiberian, sub-Mediterranean and Mediterranean...

  8. Combining projected changes in species richness and composition reveals climate change impacts on coastal Mediterranean fish assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albouy, Camille; Guilhaumon, François; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    are caused by different processes (species replacement vs. nestedness) in several areas of the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, our mapping strategy highlights that the coastal fish fauna in several regions of the Mediterranean Sea could experience a ‘cul-de-sac’ effect if exposed to climate warming. Overall....... nestedness), separately. We also present a mapping strategy to simultaneously visualize changes in species richness and assemblage composition. To illustrate our approach, we used the Mediterranean coastal fish fauna as a case study. Using Bioclimatic Envelope Models (BEMs) we first projected the potential...... future climatic niches of 288 coastal Mediterranean fish species based on a global warming scenario. We then aggregated geographically the species-level projections to analyse the projected changes in species richness and composition. Our results show that projected changes in assemblage composition...

  9. Fire regimes and vegetation responses in two Mediterranean-climate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, G.; Ginocchio, R.; Segura, A.; Keely, J.E.; Gomez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Wildfires resulting from thunderstorms are common in some Mediterranean-climate regions, such as southern California, and have played an important role in the ecology and evolution of the flora. Mediterranean-climate regions are major centers for human population and thus anthropogenic impacts on fire regimes may have important consequences on these plant formations. However, changes in fire regimes may have different impacts on Mediterranean type-ecosystems depending on the capability of plants to respond to such perturbations. Therefore, we compare here fire regimes and vegetation responses of two Mediterranean-climate regions which differ in wildfire regimes and history of human occupation, the central zone of Chile (matorral) and the southern area of California in United States (chaparral). In Chile almost all fires result from anthropogenic activities, whereas lightning fires resulting from thunderstorms are frequent in California. In both regions fires are more frequent in summer, due to high accumulation of dry plant biomass for ignition. Humans have markedly increased fires frequency both in the matorral and chaparral, but extent of burned areas has remained unaltered, probably due to better fire suppression actions and a decline in the built-up of dry plant fuel associated to increased landscape fragmentation with less flammable agricultural and urban developments. As expected, post-fire plant regeneration responses differs between the matorral and chaparral due to differences in the importance of wildfires as a natural evolutionary force in the system. Plants from the chaparral show a broader range of post-fire regeneration responses than the matorral, from basal resprouting, to lignotuber resprouting, and to fire-stimulated germination and flowering with fire-specific clues such as heat shock, chemicals from smoke or charred wood. Plants from the matorral have some resprouting capabilities after fire, but these probably evolved from other environmental

  10. High-frequency climate linkages between the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100)

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Julia; Lourens, L.J.; Raymo, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution records of Mediterranean and North Atlantic deep-sea sediments indicate that rapid changes in hydrology and climate occurred during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100) (at ∼2.52 Ma), which exhibits characteristics similar to late Pleistocene Dansgaard-Oeschger, Bond cycles and Heinrich events. As in the late Pleistocene, North Atlantic oceanographic and atmospheric changes were probably transmitted into the Mediterranean by some combination of surface water inflow and Atl...

  11. Holocene climate change, vegetation history and human impact in the Central Mediterranean : evidence from the Maltese Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Francis A.; Hunt, Chris O.; Schembri, Patrick J.; Bonanno, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Holocene climates and human impact in the Mediterranean basin have received much attention, but the Maltese Islands in the Central Mediterranean, although a pivotal area, have been little researched. Here, sedimentary and palynological data are presented for three cores from the Holocene coastal and shallowmarinedeposits of the Maltese Islands. These show deforestation from Pinus-Cupressaceae woodland in the early Neolithic, and then a long, but relatively stable history of agriculturally deg...

  12. A millennium of Mediterranean climate change and forest history in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Piovesan, G.

    2010-12-01

    A 1100 year sedimentary sequence from a lake in central Italy near Rome (Lago Lungo, Lazio, 379 m a.s.l.) was sampled for pollen and charcoal at an average interval of 26 years providing a high-resolution reconstruction of vegetation from 885 AD to the present. Pollen percentages support historical documents that describe periodic deforestation and agricultural expansion during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Forests recovered about 1400 AD following depopulation associated with the black plague and socio-economic instability and a shift to cool wet climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Mixed deciduous forest reached a maximum in 1550 AD, approximately one century later than many sites across Western Europe. A less diverse less dense forest emerged after 1650 AD following the plague of 1656 AD. There is no evidence that excessive cutting, burning and erosion during the medieval period caused permanent degradation of the landscape. Forests appear to have recovered rapidly when land use declined and climate became favorable. Comparison of the pollen data with reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) of Morocco and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indicate periods of deforestation and woodland regeneration coincide with climate change. During warm dry climate, deforestation accelerated and agriculture expanded, and during extended cool wet climate, conditions for cereal cultivation deteriorated, forests and wetland expanded, and the local agricultural system collapsed. These results show that in the Mediterranean, collapse of local agricultural systems may also occur during extended periods of cool/wet climate.

  13. The Arab Vernacular Architecture and its Adaptation to Mediterranean Climatic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit; Hamza, Efat

    2014-05-01

    Throughout history people have employed building strategies adapted to local climatic conditions in an attempt to achieve thermal comfort in their homes. In the Mediterranean climate, a mixed strategy developed - utilizing positive parameters (e.g. natural lighting), while at the same time addressing negative variables (e.g. high temperatures during summer). This study analyzes the adaptation of construction strategies of traditional Arab houses to Mediterranean climatic conditions. It is based on the assumption that the climate of the eastern Mediterranean led to development of unique architectural patterns. The way in which the inhabitants chose to build their homes was modest but creative in the context of climate awareness, with simple ideas. These were often instinctive responses to climate challenges. Nine traditional Arab houses, built from the mid-19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, were analyzed in three different regions in Israel: the "Meshulash" - an area in the center of the country, and the Lower and Upper Galilees (in the north). In each region three houses were examined. It is important to note that only a few houses from these periods still remain, particularly in light of new construction in many of the villages' core areas. Qualitative research methodologies included documentation of all the elements of these traditional houses which were assumed to be a result of climatic factors, such as - house position (direction), thickness of walls, thermal mass, ceiling height, location of windows, natural ventilation, exterior wall colors and shading strategies. Additionally, air temperatures and relative humidity were measured at selected dates throughout all seasons both inside and immediately outside the houses during morning, noon, evening and night-time hours. The documentation of the architectural elements and strategies demonstrate that climatic considerations were an integral part of the planning and construction process of these

  14. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell’Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

  15. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests.

  16. Signals of climate change in butterfly communities in a Mediterranean protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografou, Konstantina; Kati, Vassiliki; Grill, Andrea; Wilson, Robert J; Tzirkalli, Elli; Pamperis, Lazaros N; Halley, John M

    2014-01-01

    The European protected-area network will cease to be efficient for biodiversity conservation, particularly in the Mediterranean region, if species are driven out of protected areas by climate warming. Yet, no empirical evidence of how climate change influences ecological communities in Mediterranean nature reserves really exists. Here, we examine long-term (1998-2011/2012) and short-term (2011-2012) changes in the butterfly fauna of Dadia National Park (Greece) by revisiting 21 and 18 transects in 2011 and 2012 respectively, that were initially surveyed in 1998. We evaluate the temperature trend for the study area for a 22-year-period (1990-2012) in which all three butterfly surveys are included. We also assess changes in community composition and species richness in butterfly communities using information on (a) species' elevational distributions in Greece and (b) Community Temperature Index (calculated from the average temperature of species' geographical ranges in Europe, weighted by species' abundance per transect and year). Despite the protected status of Dadia NP and the subsequent stability of land use regimes, we found a marked change in butterfly community composition over a 13 year period, concomitant with an increase of annual average temperature of 0.95°C. Our analysis gave no evidence of significant year-to-year (2011-2012) variability in butterfly community composition, suggesting that the community composition change we recorded is likely the consequence of long-term environmental change, such as climate warming. We observe an increased abundance of low-elevation species whereas species mainly occurring at higher elevations in the region declined. The Community Temperature Index was found to increase in all habitats except agricultural areas. If equivalent changes occur in other protected areas and taxonomic groups across Mediterranean Europe, new conservation options and approaches for increasing species' resilience may have to be devised.

  17. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  18. A review of wave climate and prediction along the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez-Arcilla

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the characterization of wave storms along the Spanish/Catalan Mediterranean coast. It considers the "physical" and "statistical" description of wave parameters and how they are affected by the prevailing meteo patterns and the sharp gradients in orography and bathymetry. The available field data and numerically simulated wave fields are discussed from this perspective. The resulting limits in accuracy and predictability are illustrated with specific examples. This allows deriving some conclusions for both short-term operational predictions and a long-term climatic assessment.

  19. Climate sensitivity of Mediterranean pine growth reveals distinct east-west dipole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seim, A.; Treydte, K.; Trouet, V.; Frank, D.; Fonti, P.; Tegel, W.; Panayotov, M.; Fernandez-Donado, L.; Krusic, P.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 9 (2015), s. 2503-2513 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tree-ring width * scots pine * wood formation * ice core * variability * drought * precipitation * reconstructions * circulation * dynamics * climate dynamics * dendroclimatology * drought response * Mediterranean east-west dipole * palaeoclimatology * Pinus spp * principal component analysis * tree-ring width Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015

  20. CLIMATE CHANGE IN NORTHERN AFRICA: TOWARDS A RETURN OF RAINFALL ON THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOUACEUR ZEINEDDINE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine to what extent climate change affects the rainfall recorded on the southern Mediterranean basin, a trend analysis is proposed. This study is based on the chronological graphic method of processing information (MGCTI of type "Matrice Bertin". Results show an extreme variability of the precipitations and a severe drought, especially for Morocco, observed since 1970s. Finally, a gradual return to humid conditions is observed from the beginning of the 2000s in Algeria and Tunisia and since 2008 in Morocco. This new trend is also confirmed by recent results provided by agricultural data of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013.

  1. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers

    OpenAIRE

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell’Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Inability to determine reliably the direction and magnitude of change in natural and agro-ecosystems due to climate change poses considerable challenge to their management. Olive is an ancient ubiquitous crop having considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance in the Mediterranean Basin. We assess the ecological and economic impact of projected 1.8 °C climate warming on olive and its obligate pest, the olive fly. This level of climate warming will have varying impact on olive yield an...

  2. Abrupt climate changes of the last deglaciation detected in a Western Mediterranean forest record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Fletcher

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abrupt changes in Western Mediterranean climate during the last deglaciation (20 to 6 cal ka BP are detected in marine core MD95-2043 (Alboran Sea through the investigation of high-resolution pollen data and pollen-based climate reconstructions by the modern analogue technique (MAT for annual precipitation (Pann and mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest months (MTCO and MTWA. Changes in temperate Mediterranean forest development and composition and MAT reconstructions indicate major climatic shifts with parallel temperature and precipitation changes at the onsets of Heinrich stadial 1 (equivalent to the Oldest Dryas, the Bölling-Allerød (BA, and the Younger Dryas (YD. Multi-centennial-scale oscillations in forest development occurred throughout the BA, YD, and early Holocene. Shifts in vegetation composition and (Pann reconstructions indicate that forest declines occurred during dry, and generally cool, episodes centred at 14.0, 13.3, 12.9, 11.8, 10.7, 10.1, 9.2, 8.3 and 7.4 cal ka BP. The forest record also suggests multiple, low-amplitude Preboreal (PB climate oscillations, and a marked increase in moisture availability for forest development at the end of the PB at 10.6 cal ka BP. Dry atmospheric conditions in the Western Mediterranean occurred in phase with Lateglacial events of high-latitude cooling including GI-1d (Older Dryas, GI-1b (Intra-Allerød Cold Period and GS-1 (YD, and during Holocene events associated with high-latitude cooling, meltwater pulses and N. Atlantic ice-rafting. A possible climatic mechanism for the recurrence of dry intervals and an opposed regional precipitation pattern with respect to Western-central Europe relates to the dynamics of the westerlies and the prevalence of atmospheric blocking highs. Comparison of radiocarbon and ice-core ages for well-defined climatic transitions in the forest record suggests possible enhancement of marine reservoir ages in the Alboran

  3. Precipitation in a warming world: Assessing projected hydro-climate changes in California and other Mediterranean climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polade, Suraj D; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R; Dettinger, Michael D; Pierce, David W

    2017-09-07

    In most Mediterranean climate (MedClim) regions around the world, global climate models (GCMs) consistently project drier futures. In California, however, projections of changes in annual precipitation are inconsistent. Analysis of daily precipitation in 30 GCMs reveals patterns in projected hydrometeorology over each of the five MedClm regions globally and helps disentangle their causes. MedClim regions, except California, are expected to dry via decreased frequency of winter precipitation. Frequencies of extreme precipitation, however, are projected to increase over the two MedClim regions of the Northern Hemisphere where projected warming is strongest. The increase in heavy and extreme precipitation is particularly robust over California, where it is only partially offset by projected decreases in low-medium intensity precipitation. Over the Mediterranean Basin, however, losses from decreasing frequency of low-medium-intensity precipitation are projected to dominate gains from intensifying projected extreme precipitation. MedClim regions are projected to become more sub-tropical, i.e. made dryer via pole-ward expanding subtropical subsidence. California's more nuanced hydrological future reflects a precarious balance between the expanding subtropical high from the south and the south-eastward extending Aleutian low from the north-west. These dynamical mechanisms and thermodynamic moistening of the warming atmosphere result in increased horizontal water vapor transport, bolstering extreme precipitation events.

  4. More efficient irrigation may compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements due to climate change in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. We will present a recently published study1 that estimates the current level of water demand for Mediterranean agriculture and simulates the potential impacts of climate change, population growth and transitions to water-saving irrigation and conveyance technologies. The results indicate that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems, with large differences in the saving potentials across countries. Under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean. Both the Eastern and the Southern Mediterranean would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect. However, in some scenarios water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain. In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a large development2 that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops.

  5. Interpreting the Climatic Effects on Xylem Functional Traits in Two Mediterranean Oak Species: The Role of Extreme Climatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Angelo; Borghetti, Marco; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern, and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival, and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of (i) detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and (ii) exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks) rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport, resulting

  6. Interpreting the climatic effects on xylem functional traits in two Mediterranean oak species: the role of extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Rita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of i detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and ii exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport

  7. Solar Forcing of climate fluctuations in East Africa recorded in southeastern Mediterranean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Y.; Dulski, P.; Hajdas, I.; Ehrmann, W. U.; Schmiedl, G. H.; Haug, G. H.

    2010-12-01

    The proportions of terrigenous components in Mediterranean sediments derived from the atmosphere and rivers strongly depend on climate conditions in the source areas. The rainfall regimes of the northern and central part of the African continent are controlled by an interplay between global climate patterns and the regional hydrological balance. High-resolution XRF element records of a marine sediment core of the southeastern Levantine Sea (Mediterranean Sea; GeoTü SL112, 32° 44.52 N, 34° 39.02 E, water depth: 892 m) indicate distinctive changes in the sediment supply to the southeastern Mediterranean by the Nile River as well as the influx of aeolian dust from the Saharan desert. We observe minima in the concentration of the element iron (Fe), which we interpret as minima in dust input, during the well-known solar minima Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder, and Dalton. Wavelet analyses reveals a close correspondence in the periodicity in Fe input with the typical frequencies of solar cycles of about 90 and 210 years during the last 1400 years. Furthermore, the Fe record from the Levantine Sea sediments shows a remarkable similarity with the lake level record of Lake Naivasha in the eastern branch of the East African Rift and the pre-colonial drought history of Lake Malawi in the southern part of the African Rift Valley. Enhanced Saharan dust flux as indicated by high Fe content in the Levantine Sea core coincides with well-known droughts in equatorial east Africa as indicated by Lake Naivasha lowstands.

  8. Impacts of climate change on erosion in humid and dry Mediterranean regions of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Sampaio, Elsa; Corte-Real, João; Moreira, Madalena; Jacinto, Rita; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard

    2014-05-01

    Soils in the Mediterranean regions of Europe are often vulnerable to soil erosion, due to a combination of annual plant cover cycles, centuries of human use, the concentration of rainstorms in a short period of the year, and other factors. Climate change could bring about a warmer and drier climate, limiting vegetation growth while bringing heavier storms during winter. This could eventually lead to higher risks of soil losses and the consequential problems of land degradation and desertification. Project ERLAND, which began in 2009, is assessing these risks for two Mediterranean research catchments in Portugal, with four main goals: (i) collect data to understand hydrological and erosion processes in representative catchments; (ii) use this data to parameterize the SWAT eco-hydrological and erosion model as accurately as possible; (iii) use future socio-economic scenarios to estimate both impacts on climate change and on future land-use practices; and (iv) apply the SWAT model for these scenarios and estimate the consequences for soil erosion rates. The Macieira catchment is in a wet Mediterranean climate region, with high rainfall (c. 1300 mm.y-1) but a distinct summer dry season; erosion processes are associated with periods of sparse cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially after forest fires. The occurrence of a forest fire inside the catchment in 2011 allowed an analysis of the role played by this kind of disturbances on soil erosion. Climate change could bring less erosive rainfall events, but an increase in fire frequency, and therefore a potential shift of erosion from agriculture to forest land-uses. The Guadalupe catchment has a dry Mediterranean climate (rainfall of c. 550 mm.y-1); erosion processes occur mostly in permanent crops (olive trees) and winter cereal fields. Climate change could bring a concentration of rainfall in winter, as well as an increase in the area

  9. Climate change and the potential spreading of marine mucilage and microbial pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions.We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies.We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Characterizing Mediterranean Land Surfaces as Component of the Regional Climate System by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Koslowsky, D.; Menenti, M.; Nerry, F.; Otterman, Joseph; Starr, D.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive areas in the Mediterranean region are subject to land degradation and desertification. The high variability of the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere affects the regional climate. Relevant surface characteristics, such as spectral reflectance, surface emissivity in the thermal-infrared region, and vegetation indices, serve as "primary" level indicators for the state of the surface. Their spatial, seasonal and interannual variability can be monitored from satellites. Using relationships between these primary data and combining them with prior information about the land surfaces (such as topography, dominant soil type, land use, collateral ground measurements and models), a second layer of information is built up which specifies the land surfaces as a component of the regional climate system. To this category of parameters which are directly involved in the exchange of energy, momentum and mass between the surface and the atmosphere, belong broadband albedo, thermodynamic surface temperature, vegetation types, vegetation cover density, soil top moisture, and soil heat flux. Information about these parameters finally leads to the computation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The methodology was tested with pilot data sets. Full resolution, properly calibrated and normalized NOAA-AVHRR multi-annual primary data sets are presently compiled for the whole Mediterranean area, to study interannual variability and longer term trends.

  11. Plant functional traits of dominant native and invasive species in mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Standish, Rachel J; Stock, William D; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The idea that dominant invasive plant species outperform neighboring native species through higher rates of carbon assimilation and growth is supported by several analyses of global data sets. However, theory suggests that native and invasive species occurring in low-resource environments will be functionally similar, as environmental factors restrict the range of observed physiological and morphological trait values. We measured resource-use traits in native and invasive plant species across eight diverse vegetation communities distributed throughout the five mediterranean-climate regions, which are drought prone and increasingly threatened by human activities, including the introduction of exotic species. Traits differed strongly across the five regions. In regions with functional differences between native and invasive species groups, invasive species displayed traits consistent with high resource acquisition; however, these patterns were largely attributable to differences in life form. We found that species invading mediterranean-climate regions were more likely to be annual than perennial: three of the five regions were dominated by native woody species and invasive annuals. These results suggest that trait differences between native and invasive species are context dependent and will vary across vegetation communities. Native and invasive species within annual and perennial groups had similar patterns of carbon assimilation and resource use, which contradicts the widespread idea that invasive species optimize resource acquisition rather than resource conservation. .

  12. Ecosystem services in Mediterranean river basin: climate change impact on water provisioning and erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab F; Passuello, Ana; Sanchez-Canales, María; Terrado, Marta; López, Alfredo; Elorza, F Javier; Ziv, Guy; Acuña, Vicenç; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-08-01

    The Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and such changes impact the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services to human society. The predicted future scenarios for this region present an increased frequency of floods and extended droughts, especially at the Iberian Peninsula. This paper evaluates the impacts of climate change on the water provisioning and erosion control services in the densely populated Mediterranean Llobregat river basin of. The assessment of ecosystem services and their mapping at the basin scale identify the current pressures on the river basin including the source area in the Pyrenees Mountains. Drinking water provisioning is expected to decrease between 3 and 49%, while total hydropower production will decrease between 5 and 43%. Erosion control will be reduced by up to 23%, indicating that costs for dredging the reservoirs as well as for treating drinking water will also increase. Based on these data, the concept for an appropriate quantification and related spatial visualization of ecosystem service is elaborated and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Projected climate change impacts upon dew yield in the Mediterranean basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszkiewicz, M. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Abou Najm, M., E-mail: majdian@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Beysens, D. [Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, UMR 7636 CNRS — ESPCI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie — Universite Paris Diderot, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Service des Basses Temperatures, CEA-Grenoble & Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); OPUR, 60 rue Emeriau, 75015 Paris (France); Alameddine, I. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Bou Zeid, E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); El-Fadel, M. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-10-01

    Water scarcity is increasingly raising the need for non-conventional water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this context, atmospheric moisture can potentially be harvested in the form of dew, which is commonly disregarded from the water budget, although its impact may be significant when compared to rainfall during the dry season. In this study, a dew atlas for the Mediterranean region is presented illustrating dew yields using the yield data collected for the 2013 dry season. The results indicate that cumulative monthly dew yield in the region can exceed 2.8 mm at the end of the dry season and 1.5 mm during the driest months, compared to < 1 mm of rainfall during the same period in some areas. Dew yields were compared with potential evapotranspiration (PET) and actual evapotranspiration (ET) during summer months thus highlighting the role of dew to many native plants in the region. Furthermore, forecasted trends in temperature and relative humidity were used to estimate dew yields under future climatic scenarios. The results showed a 27% decline in dew yield during the critical summer months at the end of the century (2080). - Highlights: • Dew atlas for Mediterranean region is presented. • Cumulative dew yields can exceed 2.8 mm at the end of the dry season. • Dew yields compared with PET and ET show the role of dew to many native plants. • Forecasted trends under future climatic scenarios show a 27% decline in dew yield.

  14. Climate Change and Elevated Extinction Rates of Reptiles from Mediterranean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufopoulos, Johannes; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Ives, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent climate change has caused the distributions of many species to shift poleward, yet few empirical studies have addressed which species will likely be vulnerable to longer-term climate changes. To investigate past consequences of climate change, we calculated the population extinction rates of 35 reptile species from 87 Greek land-bridge islands in the Mediterranean that occurred over the last 16,000 years. Population extinction rates were higher for those species that today have more northern distributions. We further found that northern species requiring cool, mesic habitats had less available suitable habitat among islands, implicating loss of suitable habitat in their elevated extinction rates. These extinctions occurred in the context of increasing fragmentation, with islands shrinking and separating as sea levels rose. Thus, the circumstances faced by reptiles on the islands are similar to challenges for numerous species today that must cope with a changing climate while living in an increasingly human-fragmented landscape. Our island-biogeographical approach to investigating historical population extinctions gives insight into the long-term patterns of species responses to climate changes. PMID:21091198

  15. Experimental warming decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF provide numerous services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on AMF colonization. Results: Warming directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of warming, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A warming-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization.

  16. Climate change and health in the Eastern Mediterranean countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef S; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdo, Nour; Al-Sharif, Munjed; Elbetieha, Ahmed; Bakir, Hamed; Alemam, Rola

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the existing knowledge of the impact of climate change on health from previous research in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) and identify knowledge and research gaps. Different databases were searched for relevant studies published in the region between 2000 and 2014. The review was limited to studies reporting the impacts of climate change on health or studying associations between meteorological parameters and well-defined human health outcomes. This systematic review of 78 studies identified many knowledge and research gaps. Research linking climate change and health is scarce in the most vulnerable countries of the region. There is limited information regarding how changes in temperature, precipitation and other weather variables might affect the geographic range and incidence of mortality and morbidity from various diseases. Available research has many limitations and shortcomings that arise from inappropriate study designs, poor assessment of exposure and outcomes, questionable sources of data, lack of standardized methods, poor adjustment of confounders, limited geographical area studies, small sample sizes, poor statistical modeling and not testing for possible interactions between exposures. Research and information on the effect of climate change on health are limited. Longitudinal studies over extended periods of time that investigate the link between climate change and health are needed. There is a need for studies to be expanded to include more countries in the region and to include other environmental, social and economic factors that might affect the spread of the disease.

  17. Experimental warming decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah; Johnson, Bart R; Bohannan, Brendan; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Mueller, Rebecca; Bridgham, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide numerous services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on AMF colonization. Warming directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of warming, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. A warming-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization.

  18. The role of atmospheric circulation in the Mediterranean precipitation response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Giuseppe; Hoskins, Brian; Shepherd, Ted

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean region has been identified as a climate change hot-spot, due to a projected reduction in precipitation which could have large socio—economic impacts by affecting fresh water availability for agricultural and societal needs. However, the mechanisms that control such precipitation change are not well understood and there is large uncertainty in the amplitude of the projected precipitation change. We here show that more than 80% of the variance in the wintertime precipitation change in the CMIP5 models projections is linked to uncertainty in the atmospheric circulation response to climate change. This is demonstrated by introducing a simple index of atmospheric circulation based on the intensity of the westerly flow in North Africa. It is shown that the relationship between precipitation and circulation under climate change is consistent to what is found in the year to year variability. However, many CMIP5 climate models have biases in their ability of capturing the observed relationship between circulation and precipitation. This suggests that climate models may tend to underestimate the realised precipitation change for any given change in the atmospheric circulation.

  19. Co-evolution of hydrological components under climate change scenarios in the Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, F., E-mail: francesco.viola77@unipa.it; Francipane, A.; Caracciolo, D.; Pumo, D.; La Loggia, G.; Noto, L.V.

    2016-02-15

    ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean area is historically characterized by high human pressure on water resources. Today, while climate is projected to be modified in the future, through precipitation decrease and temperature increase, that jointly and non-linearly may affect runoff, concerns about water availability are increasing. For these reasons, quantitative assessment of future modifications in the mean annual water availability are important; likewise, the description of the future interannual variability of some hydrological components such as runoff and evapotranspiration are highly wished for water management and ecosystems dynamics analyses. This study investigates at basin spatial scale future runoff and evapotranspiration, exploring their probability density functions and their interdependence as functions of climatic changes. In order to do that, a parsimonious conceptual lumped model is here used. The model is forced by different future climate scenarios, generated through a weather generator based on a stochastic downscaling of an ensemble of General Circulation Models (GCMs) realizations. The use of the adopted hydrological model, under reliable stochastic future climate scenarios, allows to project future values of evapotranspiration and runoff in a probabilistic framework and, at the same time, the evaluation of their bivariate frequency distributions for changes through the Multivariate Kernel Density Estimation method. As a case study, a benchmark Mediterranean watershed has been proposed (Imera Meridionale, Italy). Results suggest a radical shift and shape modification of the annual runoff and evapotranspiration probability density functions. Possible implications and impacts on water resources management are here addressed and discussed. - Highlights: • This study investigates at basin spatial scale future runoff and evapotranspiration. • A simple conceptual hydrological model and GCMs realizations have been coupled. • Radical shift and shape

  20. Non-stationarities in land-atmosphere-climate interactions in Europe and the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Karin; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere are of major importance for the regional and global climate. Soil moisture thereby plays a key role: availability of water in the soils is one of the drivers of evaporation and thus impacts on temperature and precipitation. Regions of strong soil moisture-atmosphere coupling include the Mediterranean area while in other regions of Europe non-local effects such as the advection of dry (moist) air are more important. However, previous studies have also shown that climate is fundamentally non-stationary and that such non-stationarities occur on various spatial and temporal scales. These studies have mainly focused on sea-surface-atmosphere interactions or circulation-climate interactions. Thus, the question arises whether soil-moisture-atmosphere-climate interactions also show a non-stationary behavior. As a first step, Varimax-rotated s-mode principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce dimensions of soil moisture fields, circulation variables as well as of 2m temperature fields. The resulting PC loadings represent the spatial patterns while the PC scores are the corresponding time coefficients. For the analysis of non-stationarities, the time coefficients of soil moisture and temperature are further used in 30-year running correlation and feedback parameter analyses. Furthermore, correlation analyses are carried out for the circulation variables and soil moisture or temperature, as changes of the atmospheric circulation are a potential source of non-stationarities. All analyses focus on the boreal summer season 1950-2009. Results show substantial non-stationaries in the relationship between soil moisture and temperature in several regions in the European and Mediterranean domain. Depending on the region considered, these changes are accompanied by modifications in different large-scale circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Scandinavia pattern or a high pressure system centered

  1. Is climate change a threat for water uses in the Mediterranean region? Results from a survey at local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, I; Cirelli, C; Aubin, D; Larrue, C; Sellami, H; Afifi, S; Bellin, A; Benabdallah, S; Bird, D N; Deidda, R; Dettori, M; Engin, G; Herrmann, F; Ludwig, R; Mabrouk, B; Majone, B; Paniconi, C; Soddu, A

    2016-02-01

    Water scarcity and water security are linked, not only through the direct effects of water shortages on each water users' access to water, but also because of water conflicts generated. Climate change is predicted to raise temperatures in the Mediterranean region and reduce rainfall, leading to a reduction in water yield and possibly worsening the situation of water resource shortages that Mediterranean regions are already experiencing. In its dissemination strategy, the EU FP7 CLIMB project addressed water security threats through an analysis of water uses and water use rivalries within a few target catchments distributed over the Mediterranean region. The present work explores whether climate change is locally perceived by stakeholders (water users and managers) as a key issue for their water uses and water security. Individual interviews, meetings, and compilation of questionnaires were conducted at five sites located in the Mediterranean region. The methodology permitted an analysis of water use and its evolution in the water management context, an identification of the state of awareness of local stakeholders and of the pressures on water use and water use rivalries, and a prioritization of water uses. Currently, the main response to increasing water demand in the Mediterranean region, while not yet considering climate change as a driving force, is a progressive externalization of water resources, with limits represented by national borders and technological possibilities. Overall, 'climate change' was not mentioned by stakeholders during both interviews and in answers to the questionnaires. Even the prospect of decreasing precipitation was not considered a relevant or threatening issue in the coming 20years. This confirms the need to continue all efforts to disseminate the state of knowledge on climate change impacts in the Mediterranean region, such as water scarcity, especially to local water managers, as initiated by various research programs of the

  2. Assessing the impacts of climate change in Mediterranean catchments under conditions of data scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Swen; Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    According to current climate projections, Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. While there is scientific consensus that climate induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean regions are presently occurring and are projected to amplify in the future, very little knowledge is available about the quantification of these changes, which is hampered by a lack of suitable and cost effective hydrological monitoring and modeling systems. The European FP7-project CLIMB is aiming to analyze climate induced changes on the hydrology of the Mediterranean Basins by investigating 7 test sites located in the countries Italy, France, Turkey, Tunisia, Gaza and Egypt. CLIMB employs a combination of novel geophysical field monitoring concepts, remote sensing techniques and integrated hydrologic modeling to improve process descriptions and understanding and to quantify existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. The Rio Mannu Basin, located in Sardinia; Italy, is one test site of the CLIMB project. The catchment has a size of 472.5 km2, it ranges from 62 to 946 meters in elevation, at mean annual temperatures of 16°C and precipitation of about 700 mm, the annual runoff volume is about 200 mm. The physically based Water Simulation Model WaSiM Vers. 2 (Schulla & Jasper (1999)) was setup to model current and projected future hydrological conditions. The availability of measured meteorological and hydrological data is poor as common to many Mediterranean catchments. The lack of available measured input data hampers the calibration of the model setup and the validation of model outputs. State of the art remote sensing techniques and field measuring techniques were applied to improve the quality of hydrological input parameters. In a field campaign about 250 soil samples were collected and lab-analyzed. Different geostatistical regionalization methods were tested to improve the

  3. Deglacial and Holocene vegetation and climatic changes in the southern Central Mediterranean from a direct land–sea correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Desprat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large number of studies, the long-term and millennial to centennial-scale climatic variability in the Mediterranean region during the last deglaciation and the Holocene is still debated, including in the southern Central Mediterranean. In this paper, we present a new marine pollen sequence (core MD04-2797CQ from the Siculo-Tunisian Strait documenting the regional vegetation and climatic changes in the southern Central Mediterranean during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The MD04-2797CQ marine pollen sequence shows that semi-desert plants dominated the vegetal cover in the southern Central Mediterranean between 18.2 and 12.3 ka cal BP, indicating prevailing dry conditions during the deglaciation, even during the Greenland Interstadial (GI-1. Across the transition Greenland Stadial (GS-1 – Holocene, Asteraceae-Poaceae steppe became dominant till 10.1 ka cal BP. This record underlines with no chronological ambiguity that even though temperatures increased, deficiency in moisture availability persisted into the early Holocene. Temperate trees and shrubs with heath underbrush or maquis expanded between 10.1 and 6.6 ka, corresponding to Sapropel 1 (S1 interval, while Mediterranean plants only developed from 6.6 ka onwards. These changes in vegetal cover show that the regional climate in southern Central Mediterranean was wetter during S1 and became drier during the mid- to late Holocene. Wetter conditions during S1 were likely due to increased winter precipitation while summers remained dry. We suggest, in agreement with published modeling experiments, that the early Holocene increased melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in conjunction with weak winter insolation played a major role in the development of winter precipitation maxima in the Mediterranean region in controlling the strength and position of the North Atlantic storm track. Finally, our data provide evidence for centennial-scale vegetation and climatic changes in the

  4. Statistical downscaling of the French Mediterranean climate: assessment for present and projection in an anthropogenic scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lavaysse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean basin is a particularly vulnerable region to climate change, featuring a sharply contrasted climate between the North and South and governed by a semi-enclosed sea with pronounced surrounding topography covering parts of the Europe, Africa and Asia regions. The physiographic specificities contribute to produce mesoscale atmospheric features that can evolve to high-impact weather systems such as heavy precipitation, wind storms, heat waves and droughts. The evolution of these meteorological extremes in the context of global warming is still an open question, partly because of the large uncertainty associated with existing estimates produced by global climate models (GCM with coarse horizontal resolution (~200 km. Downscaling climatic information at a local scale is, thus, needed to improve the climate extreme prediction and to provide relevant information for vulnerability and adaptation studies. In this study, we investigate wind, temperature and precipitation distributions for past recent climate and future scenarios at eight meteorological stations in the French Mediterranean region using one statistical downscaling model, referred as the "Cumulative Distribution Function transform" (CDF-t approach. A thorough analysis of the uncertainty associated with statistical downscaling and bi-linear interpolation of large-scale wind speed, temperature and rainfall from reanalyses (ERA-40 and three GCM historical simulations, has been conducted and quantified in terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov scores. CDF-t produces a more accurate and reliable local wind speed, temperature and rainfall. Generally, wind speed, temperature and rainfall CDF obtained with CDF-t are significantly similar with the observed CDF, even though CDF-t performance may vary from one station to another due to the sensitivity of the driving large-scale fields or local impact. CDF-t has then been applied to climate simulations of the 21st century under B1 and A2 scenarios

  5. Soil respiration response to climate change in Pacific Northwest prairies is mediated by a regional Mediterranean climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lorien L; Johnson, Bart R; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration is expected to increase with rising global temperatures but the degree of response may depend on soil moisture and other local factors. Experimental climate change studies from single sites cannot discern whether an observed response is site-dependent or generalizable. To deconvolve site-specific vs. regional climatic controls, we examined soil respiration for 18 months along a 520 km climate gradient in three Pacific Northwest, USA prairies that represents increasingly severe Mediterranean conditions from north to south. At each site we implemented a fully factorial combination of 2.5-3 °C warming and 20% added precipitation intensity. The response of soil respiration to warming was driven primarily by the latitudinal climate gradient and not site-specific factors. Warming increased respiration at all sites during months when soil moisture was not limiting. However, these gains were offset by reductions in respiration during seasonal transitions and summer drought due to lengthened periods of soil moisture limitation. The degree of this offset varied along the north-south climate gradient such that in 2011 warming increased cumulative annual soil respiration 28.6% in the northern site, 13.5% in the central site, and not at all in the southern site. Precipitation also stimulated soil respiration more frequently in the south, consistent with an increased duration of moisture limitation. The best predictors of soil respiration in nonlinear models were the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), antecedent soil moisture, and temperature but these models provided biased results at high and low soil respiration. NDVI was an effective integrator of climate and site differences in plant productivity in terms of their combined effects on soil respiration. Our results suggest that soil moisture limitation can offset the effect of warming on soil respiration, and that greater growing-season moisture limitation would constrain cumulative annual

  6. Implications of Human Activities, Land Use Changes and Climate Variability in Mediterranean Lakes of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stefanidis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lakes in the Mediterranean climate zone experience high variation in rainfall and are vulnerable to changes in climate, land cover and anthropogenically induced effects on water level and salinity. This paper presents the results from the analyses of spatiotemporal changes of land cover/uses at catchment scale of two connected lakes in Greece that have recently exhibited a dramatic loss of water volume, and investigates the potential role of climate change as a main driver of the lake water loss. The classification of the historical land cover/uses was based on a series of LANDSAT images from 1972 to 2011. Changes in the landscape structure were assessed using landscape metrics that were calculated with FRAGSTATS software. Climate data and temporal series of water level, conductivity and chloride concentration, were analyzed to investigate the potential role of climate variability to the lake hydrology and water quality. The results showed that between 1972 and 2011 almost 28% of Lake Vegoritis and 13% of Lake Petron were replaced by cultivations and reed beds. Landscape metrics showed that the lake catchment’s area is highly fragmented, indicating a heterogeneous spatial pattern and degradation of the rural habitats. Regarding the climatic factors, it appears that precipitation follows a declining trend correlating with water level fluctuations. The water level in Lake Vegoritis also correlated with the conductivity and chloride concentration, indicating a relationship between hydrological alteration and water quality. Overall, a combined effect of climate- and human-induced land cover changes appeared to be responsible for the drastic environmental changes that urge the need for implementing effective restoration and mitigation measures.

  7. High-frequency climate linkages between the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Julia; Lourens, L.J.; Raymo, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution records of Mediterranean and North Atlantic deep-sea sediments indicate that rapid changes in hydrology and climate occurred during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100) (at ~2.52 Ma), which exhibits characteristics similar to late Pleistocene Dansgaard-Oeschger, Bond cycles and

  8. Climate change evolution of the hydrological balance of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas: impact of climate model resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elguindi, Nellie; Somot, S.; Déqué, M.; Ludwig, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the ability of the CNRM-ARPEGE CLIMATE V4 general circulation model (GCM) to estimate the present-day hydrological budget components [precipitation minus evaporation over the sea ( P - E) and fresh water runoff ( R)] over the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian sea basins. Three simulations were performed which were exactly identical except for horizontal resolution, allowing for a unique opportunity to isolate and study the effects of resolution on simulating the hydrological components. Model calculated values of runoff and P - E were compared to a variety of data sources and show that the model's performance improves significantly with increased resolution, especially in regions with mountainous terrain. Corresponding future climate simulations (following the IPCC A2 scenario) were also performed and indicate that while resolution does not seem to have a significant effect on the qualitative impacts of future climate change on the hydrologic balance, quantitatively the results vary significantly among the models. These results suggests that high resolution global models, or downscaling models such as RCMs, are necessary in order to assess the magnitude of future changes in the hydrological components of these basins.

  9. Different patterns of climate change scenarios for short-term and multi-day precipitation extremes in the Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan; Beguería, S.; Beranová, Romana; Gaál, Ladislav; López-Moreno, J. I.

    98-99, December (2012), s. 63-72 ISSN 0921-8181 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : climate change * precipitation extremes * regional climate models * extreme value analysis * Mediterranean Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.06.010

  10. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  11. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  12. How Fire History, Fire Suppression Practices and Climate Change Affect Wildfire Regimes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  13. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Brotons

    Full Text Available Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain. We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape

  14. Long term impact of organic amendments on forest soil properties under semiarid Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso González, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2017-04-01

    postafforestation); (iv) spring 2015 (42 months postafforestation) and; (v) spring 2016 (54 months postafforestation). The sampling strategy for each plot involved the collection of four disturbed soil samples taken from the surface (0 to 10-cm depth). The soil properties analyzed were as follows: (i) soil organic carbon (SOC); (ii) pH; (iii) electrical conductivity (EC); (iv) aggregates stability (AS) and; (v) texture (TE). Regarding to soil aggregate stability, 54 month after the afforestation, the percentage of stable aggregates has increased slightly in all the treatments (HP, RU, PM, SM and SH) in relation to control. Specifically, the differences were recorded in the fraction of macroaggregates (≥ 0.250 mm). The largest increases have been associated with SM, PM and RU treatments. Although the SM, PM and RU treatments helped to maintain the SOC at high levels in the 54 months following application. Conversely, not significant differences relative to the control plots were found for the pH, EC or texture, 54 months following afforestation. To conclude, these results showed an increase in the SOC and the stability of the macroaggregates when soil is amended with sludge, pinus mulch and straw much. This fact has been due to an increase in the number cementing agents due to: (i) the application of pinus, straw and sludge had resulted in the release of carbohydrates to the soil; and thus (ii) it has favored the development of a protective vegetation cover, which has increased the number of roots in the soil and the organic contribution to it. References: Casals P, Cortina J, Bottner P, Coûteaux MM, Vallejo VR.: CO2 efflux from a Mediterranean semi-arid forest soil. I. Seasonality and effects of stoniness. Biogeochemistry 48: 261-281, 2000. Eaton JM, McGoff NM, Byrne KA, Leahy P, Kiely G.: Land cover change and soil organic C stocks in the Republic of Ireland 1851-2000. Climatic Change 91: 317-334, 2008. García-Orenes F, Guerrero C, Roldán A, Mataix-Solera J, Cerdà A, Campoy

  15. Increased evapotranspiration demand in a Mediterranean climate might cause a decline in fungal yields under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ágreda, Teresa; Águeda, Beatriz; Olano, José M; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Fernández-Toirán, Marina

    2015-09-01

    Wild fungi play a critical role in forest ecosystems, and its recollection is a relevant economic activity. Understanding fungal response to climate is necessary in order to predict future fungal production in Mediterranean forests under climate change scenarios. We used a 15-year data set to model the relationship between climate and epigeous fungal abundance and productivity, for mycorrhizal and saprotrophic guilds in a Mediterranean pine forest. The obtained models were used to predict fungal productivity for the 2021-2080 period by means of regional climate change models. Simple models based on early spring temperature and summer-autumn rainfall could provide accurate estimates for fungal abundance and productivity. Models including rainfall and climatic water balance showed similar results and explanatory power for the analyzed 15-year period. However, their predictions for the 2021-2080 period diverged. Rainfall-based models predicted a maintenance of fungal yield, whereas water balance-based models predicted a steady decrease of fungal productivity under a global warming scenario. Under Mediterranean conditions fungi responded to weather conditions in two distinct periods: early spring and late summer-autumn, suggesting a bimodal pattern of growth. Saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi showed differences in the climatic control. Increased atmospheric evaporative demand due to global warming might lead to a drop in fungal yields during the 21st century. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-15

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  17. Topsoil moisture mapping using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, J F; Hueso-González, P; Ruiz-Sinoga, J D

    2017-10-01

    Soil mapping has been considered as an important factor in the widening of Soil Science and giving response to many different environmental questions. Geostatistical techniques, through kriging and co-kriging techniques, have made possible to improve the understanding of eco-geomorphologic variables, e.g., soil moisture. This study is focused on mapping of topsoil moisture using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions (humid, dry and semiarid) in three small watersheds and considering topography and soil properties as key factors. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a resolution of 1×1m was derived from a topographical survey as well as soils were sampled to analyzed soil properties controlling topsoil moisture, which was measured during 4-years. Afterwards, some topography attributes were derived from the DEM, the soil properties analyzed in laboratory, and the topsoil moisture was modeled for the entire watersheds applying three geostatistical techniques: i) ordinary kriging; ii) co-kriging considering as co-variate topography attributes; and iii) co-kriging ta considering as co-variates topography attributes and gravel content. The results indicated topsoil moisture was more accurately mapped in the dry and semiarid watersheds when co-kriging procedure was performed. The study is a contribution to improve the efficiency and accuracy of studies about the Mediterranean eco-geomorphologic system and soil hydrology in field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Do changes in climate and land use pose a risk to the future water availability of Mediterranean Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, T.; Trolle, D.; Andersen, H. E.; Thodsen, H.; Erdoğan, Ş.; Levi, E. E.; Filiz, N.; Jeppesen, E.; Beklioğlu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and change in water flow regime are intrinsic characteristics of Mediterranean lakes. However, considering the climate change projections for the water-limited Mediterranean region where potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation and with increased air temperatures and decreased precipitation, more dramatic water level declines in lakes and severe water scarcity problems are expected to occur in the future. Our study lake, Lake Beyşehir, the largest freshwater lake in the Mediterranean basin, is - like other Mediterranean lakes - under pressure due to water abstraction for irrigated crop farming and climatic changes, and integrated water level management is therefore required. We used an integrated modeling approach to predict the future lake water level of Lake Beyşehir in response to the future changes in both climate and, potentially, land use by linking the catchment model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with a Support Vector Machine Regression model (ɛ-SVR). We found that climate change projections caused enhanced potential evapotranspiration and reduced total runoff, whereas the effects of various land use scenarios within the catchment were comparatively minor. In all climate scenarios applied in the ɛ-SVR model, changes in hydrological processes caused a water level reduction, predicting that the lake may dry out already in the 2040s with the current outflow regulation considering the most pessimistic scenario. Based on model runs with optimum outflow management, a 9-60% reduction in outflow withdrawal is needed to prevent the lake from drying out by the end of this century. Our results indicate that shallow Mediterranean lakes may face a severe risk of drying out and loss of ecosystem value in near future if the current intense water abstraction is maintained. Therefore, we conclude that outflow management in water-limited regions in a warmer and drier future and sustainable use of water

  19. Sustainable Land Management's potential for climate change adaptation in Mediterranean environments: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Joris P. C.; de Vente, Joris

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has strong implications for many essential ecosystem services, such as provision of drinking and irrigation water, soil erosion and flood control. Especially large impacts are expected in the Mediterranean, already characterised by frequent floods and droughts. The projected higher frequency of extreme weather events under climate change will lead to an increase of plant water stress, reservoir inflow and sediment yield. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices are increasingly promoted as climate change adaptation strategy and to increase resilience against extreme events. However, there is surprisingly little known about their impacts and trade-offs on ecosystem services at regional scales. The aim of this research is to provide insight in the potential of SLM for climate change adaptation, focusing on catchment-scale impacts on soil and water resources. We applied a spatially distributed hydrological model (SPHY), coupled with an erosion model (MUSLE) to the Segura River catchment (15,978 km2) in SE Spain. We run the model for three periods: one reference (1981-2000) and two future scenarios (2031-2050 and 2081-2100). Climate input data for the future scenarios were based on output from 9 Regional Climate Models and for different emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Realistic scenarios of SLM practices were developed based on a local stakeholder consultation process. The evaluated SLM scenarios focussed on reduced tillage and organic amendments under tree and cereal crops, covering 24% and 15% of the catchment, respectively. In the reference scenario, implementation of SLM at the field-scale led to an increase of the infiltration capacity of the soil and a reduction of surface runoff up to 29%, eventually reducing catchment-scale reservoir inflow by 6%. This led to a reduction of field-scale sediment yield of more than 50% and a reduced catchment-scale sediment flux to reservoirs of 5%. SLM was able to fully mitigate the effect of climate

  20. Predicting Plant-Accessible Water in the Critical Zone: Mountain Ecosystems in a Mediterranean Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.; Goulden, M.; Riebe, C. S.; Tague, C.; O'Geen, A. T.; Flinchum, B. A.; Safeeq, M.; Conklin, M. H.; Hart, S. C.; Asefaw Berhe, A.; Hartsough, P. C.; Holbrook, S.; Bales, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced understanding of subsurface water storage, and the below-ground architecture and processes that create it, will advance our ability to predict how the impacts of climate change - including drought, forest mortality, wildland fire, and strained water security - will take form in the decades to come. Previous research has examined the importance of plant-accessible water in soil, but in upland landscapes within Mediterranean climates the soil is often only the upper extent of subsurface water storage. We draw insights from both this previous research and a case study of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory to: define attributes of subsurface storage, review observed patterns in its distribution, highlight nested methods for its estimation across scales, and showcase the fundamental processes controlling its formation. We observe that forest ecosystems at our sites subsist on lasting plant-accessible stores of subsurface water during the summer dry period and during multi-year droughts. This indicates that trees in these forest ecosystems are rooted deeply in the weathered, highly porous saprolite, which reaches up to 10-20 m beneath the surface. This confirms the importance of large volumes of subsurface water in supporting ecosystem resistance to climate and landscape change across a range of spatiotemporal scales. This research enhances the ability to predict the extent of deep subsurface storage across landscapes; aiding in the advancement of both critical zone science and the management of natural resources emanating from similar mountain ecosystems worldwide.

  1. Climate effects on historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzedo, Unai; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Caballero-Alfonso, Ángela M.; Faria, Sérgio H.; Li, Jianke; Castro-Hernández, José J.

    2016-06-01

    Historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter) from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean show pronounced short- and long-term fluctuations. Some of these fluctuations are believed to be associated with biological and ecological process, as well as distinct climate factors. For the period of study (1700-1936) of this work, we found a long-term increasing trend in the BFT captures and in the climate variables. After applying a statistical time series analysis of relevant climate variables and long-term tuna capture records, it is highlighted the role played by sea-surface temperature (SST) on bluefin population variations. The most relevant result of this study is the strong correlation found between the total solar irradiance (TSI) - an external component of the climate system - and bluefin captures. The solar irradiance could have affected storminess during the period under study, mainly during the time interval 1700-1810. We suggest physico-biological mechanisms that explain the BFT catch fluctuations in two consecutive time intervals. In the first period, from 1700 to 1810, this mechanism could be high storm and wind activity, which would have made the BFT fisheries activities more difficult by reducing their efficacy. In contrast, during the interval from 1810 to 1907, the effects of wind and storms could be on spawning behaviour and larval ecology, and hence on year class strength, rather than on fish or fisherman's behaviour. These findings open up a range of new lines of enquiry that are relevant for both, fisheries and climate change research.

  2. Modelling the impacts of climate change on hydrology and water quality in a mediterranean limno-reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Navarro, Euginio; Trolle, Dennis; Martinez-Pérez, Silvia

    Water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water managers in the Mediterranean region today and will exacerbate in a projected future warmer world, making a holistic approach for water resources management at the catchment scale essential. We expanded the Soil and Water...... Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed for a small Mediterranean catchment to quantify the potential effects of various climate change scenarios on catchment hydrology as well as the trophic state of a new kind of waterbody, a limno-reservoir (Pareja Limno-reservoir), created for environmental...

  3. Hydrological and water quality impact assessment of a Mediterranean limno-reservoir under climate change and land use management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina Navarro, Eugenio; Trolle, Dennis; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water managers in the Mediterranean region today and will exacerbate in a projected future warmer world, making a holistic approach for water resources management at the catchment scale essential. We expanded the Soil and Water...... Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed for a small Mediterranean catchment to quantify the potential effects of various climate and land use change scenarios on catchment hydrology as well as the trophic state of a new kind of waterbody, a limno-reservoir (Pareja Limno-reservoir), created for environmental...

  4. Final report of the project GICC-MedWater (march 2003/february 2006). Impacts of the climatic change on the hydrological cycle of the mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.

    2006-03-01

    In the framework of the climatic change, the management of the impacts needs a precise knowledge of the change characteristics at the regional scale. The hydrological cycle is an important component of the mediterranean regional climate. The GICC-MedWater project is placed in the scope of climatic scenari regionalization and studies the characteristics of the climatic warming for the mediterranean basin. The main objective is to propose scenari of the climate evolution, for the mediterranean basin region and the impacts on the general circulation and the biology of Mediterranean Sea. It also includes a validation of the models in order to verify the the quality of the obtained scenari. (A.L.B.)

  5. Modeling Mediterranean Riparian Vegetation Dynamics from Hydrologic Changes Conducted by Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaes, R. P.; Rodríguez-González, P.; Albuquerque, A.; Ferriera, M.; Pinheiro, A.

    2010-12-01

    The present study is part of an IWRM ERA-NET (European Research Area-NET, Regional or National research programs network on Integrated Water Resource Management) project named "RIPFLOW - Riparian vegetation modeling for the assessment of environmental flow regimes and climate change impacts within the WFD”. The project aims to develop a flexible dynamic model of riparian habitats and vegetation to be easily applied in a wide range of conditions across Europe (from humid regions of Austria to Mediterranean conditions, including rivers with permanent and non-permanent flow regimes) with the application to some case studies in the countries involved (Portugal, Austria, Spain). The dynamic vegetation model developed will allow assessing the ecological integrity of river functioning, regarding the flow regime as the most relevant factor shaping these plant communities. The rules underlying the dynamic vegetation model used take into account the vegetation succession phases, topography and hydrologic regime. The water level of each flow and spring flow water table have particular influence on the spread and regeneration of species, while the shear stress and flood duration determines the maintenance or entrainment of existing vegetation. The model is considered dynamic because allows changing, in an annual scale, all the parameters used in the modeling process. This model uses as input for the following year the output of the previous one, thus considering the preceding dynamics exerted on the vegetation patches and also changes on the physical nature of the study site. After computation, the model output is a series of annual maps of the vegetation succession phase patches. This model brings the innovation of working at the response guild level, allowing regional calibration and application instead of being site use restricted. In Portugal, the model was applied in a Mediterranean river aiming to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of the riparian vegetation patches

  6. The impact of changing climate conditions on the hydrological behavior of several Mediterranean sub-catchments in Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirini Vozinaki, Anthi; Tapoglou, Evdokia; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, although is already happening, consists of a big threat capable of causing lots of inconveniences in future societies and their economies. In this work, the climate change impact on the hydrological behavior of several Mediterranean sub-catchments, in Crete, is presented. The sensitivity of these hydrological systems to several climate change scenarios is also provided. The HBV hydrological model has been used, calibrated and validated for the study sub-catchments against measured weather and streamflow data and inputs. The impact of climate change on several hydro-meteorological parameters (i.e. precipitation, streamflow etc.) and hydrological signatures (i.e. spring flood peak, length and volume, base flow, flow duration curves, seasonality etc.) have been statistically elaborated and analyzed, defining areas of increased probability risk associated additionally to flooding or drought. The potential impacts of climate change on current and future water resources have been quantified by driving HBV model with current and future scenarios, respectively, for specific climate periods. This work aims to present an integrated methodology for the definition of future climate and hydrological risks and the prediction of future water resources behavior. Future water resources management could be rationally effectuated, in Mediterranean sub-catchments prone to drought or flooding, using the proposed methodology. The research reported in this paper was fully supported by the Project "Innovative solutions to climate change adaptation and governance in the water management of the Region of Crete - AQUAMAN" funded within the framework of the EEA Financial Mechanism 2009-2014.

  7. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  8. Climate change impacts on the fluvial regime in a Mediterranean mountainous area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    The water flow regime in Mediterranean basins is greatly influenced by the high variability of the meteorological patterns, with recurrent drought periods, and the heterogeneity of both terrain physical properties and land uses. These aspects together with the simultaneous demands of water resources for human consumption, irrigation and energy production make it crucial to have a continuous flow series on control points along the river network. In the current context of Global Warming, mountainous semiarid watersheds, where Mediterranean and alpine climates coexist, constitute singular places to evaluate its effects on the river flow regime. Sierra Nevada Mountain area (SN) (southern Spain), with altitudes ranging from 2000 to 3500 m.a.s.l., is a clear example of snow regions in a semiarid environment. Due to its special climate conditions, SN is part of the global climate change observatories network. The aim of this work is to estimate the influence of climate change on the flow regime over several control points along the main channel of the Guadalfeo River (in the South face of SN), by means of analysing the observed trends and focusing in the occurrence of drought period and extreme flood events. For this, the flow regime at three selected points in the river was simulated by using WiMMed, a physically-based hydrological model developed for Mediterranean regions, which includes flow routing calculations. The model was calibrated and validated from observations at a gauge station point, from which the flow series were obtained at upstream. Precipitation and temperature datasets from the reference period (1960-2000) and two different scenarios (A2, B1) for a future period (2046-2100) proposed by the Fourth Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were used as forcing meteorological variables. The comparison was performed over different flow indicator variables: 1) annual mean daily flow; 2) annual maximum daily flow; 3) annual number

  9. Implications of climate change for evaporation from bare soils in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet; Yano, Tomohisa; Evrendilek, Fatih; Uygur, Veli

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict quantitative changes in evaporation from bare soils in the Mediterranean climate region of Turkey in response to the projections of a regional climate model developed in Japan (hereafter RCM). Daily RCM data for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETr) and soil evaporation were obtained for the periods of 1994--2003 and 2070--2079. Potential evaporation (Ep) from bare soils was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation with a surface resistance of zero. Simulation of actual soil evaporation (Ea) was carried out using Aydin model (Aydin et al., Ecological Modelling 182:91-105, 2005) combined with Aydin and Uygur (2006, A model for estimating soil water potential of bare fields. In Proceedings of the 18th International Soil Meeting (ISM) on Soils Sustaining Life on Earth, Managing Soil and Technology, Sanliurfa, 477-480pp.) model of predicting soil water potential at the top surface layer of a bare soil, after performances of Aydin model (R2 = 94.0%) and Aydin and Uygur model (R2 = 97.6) were tested. The latter model is based on the relations among potential soil evaporation, hydraulic diffusivity, and soil wetness, with some simplified assumptions. Input parameters of the model are simple and easily obtainable such as climatic parameters used to compute the potential soil evaporation, average diffusivity for the drying soil, and volumetric water content at field capacity. The combination of Aydin and Aydin and Uygur models appeared to be useful in estimating water potential of soils and Ea from bare soils, with only a few parameters. Unlike ETr and Ep projected to increase by 92 and 69 mm (equivalent to 8.0 and 7.3% increases) due to the elevated evaporative demand of the atmosphere, respectively, Ea from bare soils is projected to reduce by 50 mm (equivalent to a 16.5% decrease) in response to a decrease in rainfall by 46% in the Mediterranean region of Turkey by the 2070s predicted by RCM, and consequently

  10. Architectural integration of energy solar collectors made with ceramic materials and suitable for the Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roviras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here aims to demonstrate the technical, architectural and energy viability of solar thermal collectors made with ceramic materials and the Mediterranean climate suitable for the production of domestic hot water (DHW and for heating systems in buildings. The design of a ceramic shell formed by panels collectors and panels no sensors, which are part of the same building system that is capable of responding to the basic requirements of a building envelope and capture solar energy is proposed. Ceramics considerably reduced the final cost of the sensor system and offers the new system a variety of compositional and chromatic since, with reduced performance compared to a conventional metallic collector, can occupy the entire surface of front and get a high degree of architectural integration. A tool for assessing the new ceramic solar collector has been defined from a multi-criteria perspective: economic, environmental and social. The tool enables the comparison of the ceramic solar collector with solar collectors on the market under different climatic and demand conditions.

  11. Probabilistic assessments of climate change impacts on durum wheat in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ferrise

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the availability of multi-model ensemble prediction methods has permitted a shift from a scenario-based approach to a risk-based approach in assessing the effects of climate change. This provides more useful information to decision-makers who need probability estimates to assess the seriousness of the projected impacts.

    In this study, a probabilistic framework for evaluating the risk of durum wheat yield shortfall over the Mediterranean Basin has been exploited. An artificial neural network, trained to emulate the outputs of a process-based crop growth model, has been adopted to create yield response surfaces which are then overlaid with probabilistic projections of future temperature and precipitation changes in order to estimate probabilistic projections of future yields. The risk is calculated as the relative frequency of projected yields below a selected threshold.

    In contrast to previous studies, which suggest that the beneficial effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration over the next few decades would outweigh the detrimental effects of the early stages of climatic warming and drying, the results of this study are of greater concern.

  12. Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.

    2012-04-01

    The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35°C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35°c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach

  13. Kestrel-prey dynamic in a Mediterranean region: the effect of generalist predation and climatic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Fargallo

    Full Text Available Most hypotheses on population limitation of small mammals and their predators come from studies carried out in northern latitudes, mainly in boreal ecosystems. In such regions, many predators specialize on voles and predator-prey systems are simpler compared to southern ecosystems where predator communities are made up mostly of generalists and predator-prey systems are more complex. Determining food limitation in generalist predators is difficult due to their capacity to switch to alternative prey when the basic prey becomes scarce.We monitored the population density of a generalist raptor, the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus over 15 years in a mountainous Mediterranean area. In addition, we have recorded over 11 years the inter-annual variation in the abundance of two main prey species of kestrels, the common vole Microtus arvalis and the eyed lizard Lacerta lepida and a third species scarcely represented in kestrel diet, the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula. We estimated the per capita growth rate (PCGR to analyse population dynamics of kestrel and predator species.Multimodel inference determined that the PCGR of kestrels was better explained by a model containing the population density of only one prey species (the common vole than a model using a combination of the densities of the three prey species. The PCGR of voles was explained by kestrel abundance in combination with annual rainfall and mean annual temperature. In the case of shrews, growth rate was also affected by kestrel abundance and temperature. Finally, we did not find any correlation between kestrel and lizard abundances.Our study showed for the first time vertebrate predator-prey relationships at southern latitudes and determined that only one prey species has the capacity to modulate population dynamics of generalist predators and reveals the importance of climatic factors in the dynamics of micromammal species and lizards in the Mediterranean region.

  14. The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sofo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive trees (Olea europaea L. are commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has developed a series of physiological mechanisms, that can be observed in several plants of the Mediterranean macchia, to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic conditions. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant response under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to water deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradient between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their accumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of carbohydrates (in particular mannitol and glucose, proline and other osmolytes have key roles in maintaining cell turgor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mechanisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understanding plant-soil interactions.

  15. Evaluation of soil contamination risk under climate change scenarios using Pantanal model in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    In this research, contamination vulnerability of Mediterranean soils was evaluated, using Andalusia (southern Spain; 87,600 km2) as a pilot area. The following components of the agro-ecological decision support system MicroLEIS DSS have been used: 1) SDBm, soil profile database, 2) CDBm, agroclimate database 3) MDBm, database of agricultural management, and 4) Pantanal model, specific assessment model for the vulnerability of soil contamination focus on nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals and pesticides. After the application of the model, results may be grouped into five vulnerability classes: V1-none, V2-low, V3-moderate, V4-high and V5-extreme for each specific contaminant. Physical and chemical data, and morphological description of 62 selected soil profiles from the study area were used in this study. Soil profiles were classified at sub-group level of USDA Soil Taxonomy, resulting in 37 units included in orders Inceptisols (26,9%), Entisols (21.2%), Alfisols (19.8%), Vertisols (17.9%), Mollisols (7.2%), Ultisols (4.3%) and Aridisols (2.8%). The CDBm database contains monthly average values of climate variables: mean temperature, maximum and minimum monthly rainfall, number of days of rain and humidity, collected during a consecutive period of 30 years that represent current climate scenario, and future climate scenarios (2040, 2070 and 2100). These scenarios have been calculated using climate change variation values from the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, 2011). The MDBm contains information about agricultural use and management of wheat crop. The Pantanal expert model was applied to each soil-unit. Results showed that 9.0%, 11.6%, 29.5% and 50.8% of the total studied area was classified as V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively, for pesticide contamination under the current climatic scenario. Under the future climate change scenario, 7.7%, 10.0%, 17.7% and 64.6% of the total studied area was classified as V1, V2, V3 and V4, respectively, for pesticide

  16. Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales.

  17. The Med-CORDEX initiative: towards fully coupled Regional Climate System Models to study the Mediterranean climate variability, change and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somot, S.; Ruti, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is considered as particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change (Giorgi, 2006; IPCC, 2007), in particular, to changes in its regional water cycle. This climate vulnerability is a key issue for the 500 million inhabitants living in the 30 Mediterranean countries. In addition, the Mediterranean basin is a good case study for climate regionalization. It is indeed surrounded by various and complex topography channelling regional winds (Mistral, Tramontane, Bora, Etesian, Sirocco) than defined local climate. Many small-size islands limit the low-level air flow and its coastline is particularly complex. Strong land-sea contrast, land-atmosphere feedback, intense air-sea coupling and aerosol-radiation interaction are also among the regional characteristics to take into account when dealing with the Mediterranean climate modeling. What is true for the Mediterranean climate is also true for the Mediterranean Sea that show complex bathymetry including narrow and shallow straits, a strong eddy activity and various distinct and interacting water masses. For all these reasons, the Mediterranean area has been chosen as a CORDEX sub-domain (MED) leading to the Med-CORDEX initiative endorsed by Med-CLIVAR and HyMeX. In addition to the core CORDEX framework (Atmosphere-RCM, 50 km, ERA-Interim, RCP4.5, RCP8.5), two more tiers have been defined for Med-CORDEX. The first one would like to assess the added-value of higher-resolution RCMs pushing the horizontal resolution up to 10 km. The second one will serve to test new regional climate modeling tools called Regional Climate System Models (RCSM) including a high-resolution and coupled representation of all the physical components of the regional climate system: atmosphere, land surface, vegetation, surface hydrology, rivers and ocean. In addition, the Med-CORDEX initiative is strongly coordinated with the HyMeX program that plans large field campaigns within the area of interest, development of new

  18. Adjustment of the tree-ring response of Juniperus thurifera to climate in the Western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varino, Filipa; DeSoto, Lucia; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Gouveia, Célia; Andrade, José; campelo, Filipe; Nabais, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is a long-lived conifer tree endemic to western Mediterranean region. It is well adapted to continental Mediterranean weather conditions such as negative winter temperatures or summer drought and is capable to maintain the photosynthetic activity all year round, making it a suitable species to study tree-ring sensitivity to climate change. In this work we have used tree-ring width data of J. thurifera trees from six stands located in northern Spain (Soria, Barrios de Luna and Desert of Monegros) and High Atlas in Morocco (Armd, Oukaimeden and Ourika) and correlated with climatic information (temperature and precipitation) from the Climate Research Unity (CRU) database. We have evaluated separately the growth patterns and climatic response of the populations from Spain and Morocco as they showed distinct seasonal dependence to temperature and precipitation. Afterwards, according to the length of both databases (ring-width and surface climate variables), we evaluated the role played by the climatic variables on the species growth pattern through time. We observed an increase of growth sensitivity to summer drought in Spain, whereas such sensitivity was not verify in Morocco"

  19. The Impact of Climate Variability on Occurrence of Sesame Phyllody and Symptomatology of the Disease in a Mediterranean Environment

    OpenAIRE

    CAGIRGAN, M. Ilhan; MBAYE, Nalla; SILME, R. Soner; OUEDRAOGO, Nofou; TOPUZ, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Although climate change and variability is considered as an alerting situation and a big challenge to food security, we describe here a positive impact of it regarding disappearance of sesame phyllody in an unusually cool and rainy growing season of 2010 at West Mediterranean region of Turkey where the disease has been devastating last five years and it would occur at any rate in the same field since the start of sesame cultivation in 1995. Phyllody symptomatology and incidence were studied i...

  20. Sludge accumulation pattern in an anaerobic pond under Mediterranean climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A; Parisopoulos, G; Papadopoulos, F; Karteris, A

    2003-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to observe the sludge accumulation pattern of an experimental, covered, anaerobic pond treating municipal wastewater under Mediterranean climatic conditions throughout a 2-year operational period (1999-2000) in order to form a seasonal sludge accumulation model which may be used to predict the required desludging time, not only of the particular anaerobic pond used in the study, but also for other types of anaerobic ponds and operational situations. The 4-m deep pond was supplied with pre-screened, untreated wastewater from the nearby treatment plant of Thessaloniki, Greece, initially at a flow rate of 120m3/day and later at a flow rate of 150m3/day. The influent characteristics were BOD5 441 mg O2/L, COD 942 mg O2/L and suspended solids (SS) 574 mg/L. BOD5, COD, and SS concentrations of the pond effluent were reduced by 50%, 53%, and 64%, respectively, in comparison with those of the influent. During the operational period, three distinctly different zones were seen to form within the anaerobic pond: The first zone, which formed at the bottom of the pond, consisted of inert, high-density sludge. The second zone, which formed above this, contained a high concentration of volatile (easily biodegradable) sludge. The third upper zone (supernatant), was a liquid layer low in suspended solids. The accumulation of sludge in the pond followed an annual sinusoidal pattern with high values during winter and low ones during summer due to the increased digestion rate. The maximum high-density sludge height observed was 0.7m, or 2% (14 m3) of the total pond volume. The maximum volatile sludge accumulation reached 3.1 m, or 53% (300 m3) of the pond volume. A seasonal sludge accumulation model, based on the sludge inflow and seasonal digestion rates, was used to simulate the annual fluctuation in accumulation rate for the local (Mediterranean type) climatic conditions. Monthly values of accumulation (or digestion) rate of sludge (K(AS)) were

  1. Correlation of fluvial sequences in the Mediterranean basin over the last 200 ka and their relationship to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.; Fuller, I. C.; Lewin, J.; Maas, G. S.; Passmore, D. G.; Rose, J.; Woodward, J. C.; Black, S.; Hamlin, R. H. B.; Rowan, J. S.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents a new correlation of Late and Middle Pleistocene fluvial sedimentary sequences in Greek, Libyan and Spanish river basins and evaluates river response to climate change over the Last Interglacial-Glacial Cycle. Over the past 200,000 years there have been at least 13 major alluviation episodes in the Mediterranean, although the amplitude, frequency and possibly, duration of these events varied significantly across the region. Parts of Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 5 appears to have been periods of pronounced landscape change in many Mediterranean catchments with major river aggradation occurring at ˜109-111 ka (during OIS 5d) and most notably at ˜88 ka (OIS 5b/5a boundary). Other parts of OIS 5 appear to have been periods of relative fluvial inactivity. OIS 2 and 3 were both characterised by an apparent increase in the number of alluviation events, and this record of river behaviour parallels many other palaeoenvironmental records in the region which also show more frequent climate fluctuations between ˜12 and 65 ka. There is evidence for a high degree of synchrony in major river aggradation events across the Mediterranean in catchments with very different sizes, tectonic regimes and histories. Climate-related changes in catchment hydrology and vegetation cover over the last 200 ka would appear to be the primary control of large-scale (catchment wide) sedimentation over time periods of between 10 3 and 10 4 years.

  2. Contributions to the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Pimentel-Rodrigues, Carla; Silva-Afonso, Armando; Castro, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs (GRs) are becoming a trend in urban areas, favouring thermal performance of buildings, promoting removal of atmospheric pollutants, and acting as possible water collection spots. Rainwater harvesting systems in buildings can also contribute to the management of stormwater runoff reducing flood peaks. These technologies should be enhanced in Mediterranean countries where water scarcity is increasing and the occurrence of extreme events is becoming very significant, as a result of climate change. An extensive pilot GR with three aromatic plant species, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and Thymus pseudolanuginosus, designed to study several parameters affecting rainwater runoff, has been in operation for 12 months. Physico-chemical analyses of roof water runoff (turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH4(+), NO3(-), PO4(3-), chemical oxygen demand) have shown that water was of sufficient quality for non-potable uses in buildings, such as toilet flushing. An innovative approach allowed for the development of an expression to predict a 'monthly runoff coefficient' of the GR system. This parameter is essential when planning and designing GRs combined with rainwater harvesting systems in a Mediterranean climate. This study is a contribution to improving the basis for the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with extensive GRs under a Mediterranean climate.

  3. Understanding the causes of recent warming of mediterranean waters. How much could be attributed to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Stips, Adolf

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, Mediterranean waters have been warming at a rather high rate resulting in scientific and social concern. This warming trend is observed in satellite data, field data and model simulations, and affects both surface and deep waters throughout the Mediterranean basin. However, the warming rate is regionally different and seems to change with time, which has led to the question of what causes underlie the observed trends. Here, we analyze available satellite information on sea surface temperature (SST) from the last 25 years using spectral techniques and find that more than half of the warming tendency during this period is due to a non-linear, wave-like tendency. Using a state of the art hydrodynamic model, we perform a hindcast simulation and obtain the simulated SST evolution of the Mediterranean basin for the last 52 years. These SST results show a clear sinusoidal tendency that follows the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) during the simulation period. Our results reveal that 58% of recent warming in Mediterranean waters could be attributed to this AMO-like oscillation, being anthropogenic-induced climate change only responsible for 42% of total trend. The observed acceleration of water warming during the 1990s therefore appears to be caused by a superimposition of anthropogenic-induced warming with the positive phase of the AMO, while the recent slowdown of this tendency is likely due to a shift in the AMO phase. It has been proposed that this change in the AMO phase will mask the effect of global warming in the forthcoming decades, and our results indicate that the same could also be applicable to the Mediterranean Sea. Henceforth, natural multidecadal temperature oscillations should be taken into account to avoid underestimation of the anthropogenic-induced warming of the Mediterranean basin in the future.

  4. Understanding the causes of recent warming of mediterranean waters. How much could be attributed to climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Macias

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, Mediterranean waters have been warming at a rather high rate resulting in scientific and social concern. This warming trend is observed in satellite data, field data and model simulations, and affects both surface and deep waters throughout the Mediterranean basin. However, the warming rate is regionally different and seems to change with time, which has led to the question of what causes underlie the observed trends. Here, we analyze available satellite information on sea surface temperature (SST from the last 25 years using spectral techniques and find that more than half of the warming tendency during this period is due to a non-linear, wave-like tendency. Using a state of the art hydrodynamic model, we perform a hindcast simulation and obtain the simulated SST evolution of the Mediterranean basin for the last 52 years. These SST results show a clear sinusoidal tendency that follows the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO during the simulation period. Our results reveal that 58% of recent warming in Mediterranean waters could be attributed to this AMO-like oscillation, being anthropogenic-induced climate change only responsible for 42% of total trend. The observed acceleration of water warming during the 1990s therefore appears to be caused by a superimposition of anthropogenic-induced warming with the positive phase of the AMO, while the recent slowdown of this tendency is likely due to a shift in the AMO phase. It has been proposed that this change in the AMO phase will mask the effect of global warming in the forthcoming decades, and our results indicate that the same could also be applicable to the Mediterranean Sea. Henceforth, natural multidecadal temperature oscillations should be taken into account to avoid underestimation of the anthropogenic-induced warming of the Mediterranean basin in the future.

  5. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED summer 2013 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental setup also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote-sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modeling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows were not favorable to producing high levels of atmospheric pollutants or intense

  6. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Dulac, F.; Formenti, P.; Nabat, P.; Sciare, J.; Roberts, G.; Pelon, J.; Ancellet, G.; Tanré, D.; Parol, F.; Denjean, C.; Brogniez, G.; di Sarra, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Arndt, J.; Auriol, F.; Blarel, L.; Bourrianne, T.; Chazette, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Claeys, M.; D'Anna, B.; Derimian, Y.; Desboeufs, K.; Di Iorio, T.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand, P.; Féron, A.; Freney, E.; Gaimoz, C.; Goloub, P.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Grand, N.; Hamonou, E.; Jankowiak, I.; Jeannot, M.; Léon, J.-F.; Maillé, M.; Mailler, S.; Meloni, D.; Menut, L.; Momboisse, G.; Nicolas, J.; Podvin, T.; Pont, V.; Rea, G.; Renard, J.-B.; Roblou, L.; Schepanski, K.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sellegri, K.; Sicard, M.; Solmon, F.; Somot, S.; Torres, B.; Totems, J.; Triquet, S.; Verdier, N.; Verwaerde, C.; Waquet, F.; Wenger, J.; Zapf, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr) is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a) including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED) project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy) and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental setup also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote-sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS) and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modeling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows) were not favorable to producing high levels of atmospheric pollutants or intense biomass burning

  7. Combined Impacts of Medium Term Socio-Economic Changes and Climate Change on Water Resources in a Managed Mediterranean Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassi Stefanova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections agree on a dryer and warmer future for the Mediterranean. Consequently, the region is likely to face serious problems regarding water availability and quality in the future. We investigated potential climate change impacts, alone (for three scenario periods and in combination with four socio-economic scenarios (for the near future on water resources in a Mediterranean catchment, whose economy relies on irrigated agriculture and tourism. For that, the Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM was applied to the drainage area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, using a set of 15 climate scenarios and different land use maps and management settings. We assessed the long-term average seasonal and annual changes in generated runoff, groundwater recharge and actual evapotranspiration in the catchment, as well as on water inflow and nutrients input to the lagoon. The projected average annual changes in precipitation are small for the first scenario period, and so are the simulated impacts on all investigated components, on average. The negative trend of potential climate change impacts on water resources (i.e., decrease in all analyzed components becomes pronounced in the second and third scenario periods. The applied socio-economic scenarios intensify, reduce or even reverse the climate-induced impacts, depending on the assumed land use and management changes.

  8. A test of the cross-scale resilience model: Functional richness in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, D.A.; Allen, Craig R.; Peterson, G.D.; Tyre, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological resilience has been proposed to be generated, in part, in the discontinuous structure of complex systems. Environmental discontinuities are reflected in discontinuous, aggregated animal body mass distributions. Diversity of functional groups within body mass aggregations (scales) and redundancy of functional groups across body mass aggregations (scales) has been proposed to increase resilience. We evaluate that proposition by analyzing mammalian and avian communities of Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. We first determined that body mass distributions for each animal community were discontinuous. We then calculated the variance in richness of function across aggregations in each community, and compared observed values with distributions created by 1000 simulations using a null of random distribution of function, with the same n, number of discontinuities and number of functional groups as the observed data. Variance in the richness of functional groups across scales was significantly lower in real communities than in simulations in eight of nine sites. The distribution of function across body mass aggregations in the animal communities we analyzed was non-random, and supports the contentions of the cross-scale resilience model. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.

  10. Improving the Representation of Mediterranean Heavy Precipitating Events over Land in a Regional Climate System Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, M.; Roehrig, R.; Nuissier, O.; Duffourg, F.; Somot, S.

    2017-12-01

    Most regional climate models (RCSMs) face difficulties in representing a reasonable pre-cipitation probability density function in the Mediterranean area and especially over land.Small amounts of rain are too frequent, preventing any realistic representation of droughts orheat waves, while the intensity of heavy precipitating events is underestimated and not welllocated by most state-of-the-art RCSMs using parameterized convection (resolution from10 to 50 km). Convective parameterization is a key point for the representation of suchevents and recently, the new physics implemented in the CNRM-RCSM has been shown toremarkably improve it, even at a 50-km scale.The present study seeks to further analyse the representation of heavy precipitating eventsby this new version of CNRM-RCSM using a process oriented approach. We focus on oneparticular event in the south-east of France, over the Cévennes. Two hindcast experimentswith the CNRM-RCSM (12 and 50 km) are performed and compared with a simulationbased on the convection-permitting model Meso-NH, which makes use of a very similarsetup as CNRM-RCSM hindcasts. The role of small-scale features of the regional topogra-phy and its interaction with the impinging large-scale flow in triggering the convective eventare investigated. This study provides guidance in the ongoing implementation and use of aspecific parameterization dedicated to account for subgrid-scale orography in the triggeringand closure conditions of the CNRM-RCSM convection scheme.

  11. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: a multiproxy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nieto-Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic Basin, near the Alboran Basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to fluvial-eolian oscillations, changes in redox conditions and paleocurrent intensity. Multivariate analyses allowed us to characterize three main groups of geochemical and mineralogical proxies determining the sedimentary record of this region. These three statistical groups were applied to reconstruct paleoclimate conditions at high resolution during the Late Holocene. An increase in riverine input (fluvial-derived elements – Rb/Al, Ba/Al, REE/Al, Si/Al, Ti/Al, Mg/Al and K/Al ratios, and a decrease in Saharan eolian input (Zr/Al ratio depict the Roman Humid Period and the Little Ice Age, while drier environmental conditions are recognized during the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, faster bottom currents and more energetic hydrodynamic conditions for the former periods are evidenced by enhanced sortable silt (10-63 μm and quartz content, and by better oxygenated bottom waters – as reflected by decreasing redox-sensitive elements (V/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and Zn/Al ratios. In contrast, opposite paleoceanographic conditions are distinguished during the latter periods, i.e. the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Although no Ba excess was registered, other paleoproductivity indicators (total organic carbon content, Br/Al ratio, and organometallic ligands such as U and Cu display the highest values during the Roman Humid Period, and together with increasing preservation of organic matter, this period exhibits by far the most intense productivity of the last 4000 yr. Fluctuations in detrital input into the basin as the main process managing deposition, reflected by the

  12. When did a Mediterranean-type climate originate in southwestern Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Byron B.; He, Tianhua

    2017-09-01

    Knowing the environments under which biota have evolved is essential for understanding the functional traits that they possess. Here, we ask when a Mediterranean-type climate (MTC) originated in Western Australia that might help to explain some of its special plant adaptations to summer drought and heat, mild wet winters and intense summer fires. Periodic drought and fire can be traced back to the Cretaceous in southwestern Australia (SWA) but its seasonality is unknown. Previous estimates of the origin of the MTC in SWA have varied from 30 to 3 million years ago (Ma). An early proposal was that it originated in northwestern Australia 30 Ma and migrated south to its present location for which we find independent support. We collated 47 cases of what is currently known about the time of origin of adaptive responses to summer drought and heat, wet winters and periodic intense fire among flowering plants in SWA. About 15% arose in the 40-30-million-year (My) period, 32% in the 30-20-My period and 47% in the 20-10-My period, suggesting that a MTC may have been widespread in SWA by the mid-Miocene, but there may have been local appearances (proto-MTC) up to 20 My earlier. Uncertainties remain about the location of lineages at various times, the fitness benefits of apparent adaptive traits and their confinement to a MTC, and the significance of the origin versus the onset of diversification of traits. The current dearth of C4 grasses in SWA is consistent with other indications of the absence of a prior history of a summer-dominant rainfall, suggesting that the current MTC arose from a uniform-rainfall climate. Other lines of evidence that might refine these findings include the chemical composition of, and application of geochronometers to, laterites, carbonates and corals that have been used with success elsewhere. We conclude by noting that there may have been a mixture of climates for much of the time, indicated by the persistence of a few rainforest species up to 3

  13. Reef fish dynamic response to climatic variability in a warm eastern Mediterranean semi-enclosed basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, K.; Koskeridou, E.; Giamali, Ch.; Karakitsios, V.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies on the effects of global warming on fish populations reveal that the resulting hypoxia-based habitat compression due to the expansion of the oxygen minimum zone may lead to the restriction of fish depth distributions to the oxygenated near-surface layer1. Here we postulate that similar phenomena may have affected the fish distribution in the early Pliocene Heraklion semi-enclosed sea (Crete, eastern Mediterranean). Fish otoliths from Voutes section are systematically identified and the data is examined from a palaeoecologic perspective in response to the Pliocene climatic variability. Bregmaceros and Diaphus taaningi otoliths' relative abundances are used as reliable palaeoclimatic indicators2. The Voutes section sediments contain a very rich fish fauna. Diaphus spp., Bregmaceros sp., Sardinella maderensis, Phosichthyidae and Sternoptychyidae form the pelagic component. Mesopelagic taxa belong mostly to Myctophids. The benthopelagic and benthic component of the fish fauna is very well diversified and is comprised of Gobiids, such as Gobius cf. niger, Callogobius sp., Lesueurigobius aff. sanzoi, and Aphya sp., as well as Gadiculus labiatus, Laemonema sp., Oblada melanura, Parascombrus mutinensis, Barbourisia rufa, Blennius sp., Ammodytes sp., Solea aff. solea. The presence of Oligopus sp., Spratelloides sp., and Brotula cf. mutlibarbata in the middle part of the section indicate the development of a reef in the study area. The palaeoecologic analysis of the surface, intermediate and deep water faunal groups indicate that the pelagic fish populations in the semi-enclosed early Pliocene Heraklion basin directly reflect the climatic variability. However, the intermediate and deep water fish did not respond to climate change in the same manner. Indeed, two dysoxic events are recorded in this section, where the pelagic component of the fauna is almost exclusively comprised of Bregmaceros sp., few Myctophids are present, and the benthic and benthopelagic

  14. Evaluation of electrochromic windows impact in the energy performance of buildings in Mediterranean climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, P.F.; Gaspar, A.R.; Martins, A.G.; Frontini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Old buildings refurbishment is essential for the global improvement of building energy indicators. Within this context, the paper focuses on the energy savings that may occur when using electrochromic (EC) windows, an interesting emerging technology alternative to shading devices to control solar gain in buildings located in Mediterranean climates. The EC windows technology is briefly presented and the optical properties adjustments of the glasses are discussed according to the operated range. The EC window dynamic behavior and the different control strategies are modeled and implemented in the ESP-r building simulation program. The EC window impact in the energy needs for heating and cooling is studied, considering different ambient parameters (exterior dry bulb temperature, interior dry bulb temperature and incident radiation) and set points for the EC control. A comparison of several windows solutions (single, double-glazing and EC windows), the type of building, internal gains from occupancy, lighting and equipment and the orientation of windows are considered for discussion through the analysis of the energy needs for heating and cooling. It is concluded that for this climate the best positive results are obtained when the EC are used in the west façade. For the south façade the results show no significant advantages in using EC windows. - Highlights: • Energy performance analysis of Electrochromic (EC) windows is carried out. • EC glass and control strategies are modeled and implemented in ESP-r. • EC windows are evaluated, on a test prototype, as an alternative to shading devices. • Set-points and measured variables are used to control optical properties of EC glass. • The most effective results are obtained when EC windows are used in the west façade

  15. Balanced sediment fluxes in southern California’s Mediterranean-climate zone salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencranz, Jordan A.; Ganju, Neil K.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many Mediterranean-climate salt marshes along southern California, USA coast import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a highly modified, sediment-starved, 1.5-km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1-km2marsh (Mugu) with fluvial sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12,000 and 8800 kg in a western and eastern channel. Western channel storm imports offset 8700 kg exported during 2 months of dry weather, while eastern channel storm imports augmented 9200 kg imported during dry weather. During the storm at Mugu, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1–2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg: 20 % of Mugu’s dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are geomorphically stable during dry weather conditions. Results suggest storms and high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes lead to marsh elevational instability based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  16. Different intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms between two Mediterranean trees under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In harsh environments facilitation alleviates biotic and abiotic constraints on tree recruitment. Under ongoing drier climate change, we expect facilitation to increase as a driver of coexistence. However, this might not hold under extreme abiotic stress and when the outcome depends on the interaction with other drivers such as altered herbivore pressure due to land use change. We performed a field water-manipulation experiment to quantify the importance of facilitation in two coexisting Mediterranean trees (dominant Juniperus thurifera and coexisting Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) under a climate change scenario. Shifts in canopy dominance favouring Q. ilex could be based on the extension of heterospecific facilitation to the detriment of conspecific alleviation. We found that saplings of both species transplanted under the canopy of nurse trees had greater survival probability, growth and photochemical efficiency. Intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms differed: alleviation of abiotic stress benefited both species during summer and J. thurifera during winter, whereas browsing protection was relevant only for Q. ilex. Facilitation was greater under the dry treatment only for Q. ilex, which partially agreed with the predictions of the stress gradient hypothesis. We conclude that present rainfall availability limits neither J. thurifera nor Q. ilex establishment. Nevertheless, under current global change scenarios, imposing increasing abiotic stress together with altered herbivore browsing, nurse trees could differentially facilitate the establishment of Q. ilex due to species-specific traits, i.e. palatability; drought, heat and cold tolerance, underlying species differences in the facilitation mechanisms and eventually triggering a change from pure juniper woodlands to mixed formations.

  17. Holocene vegetation and climate changes in the central Mediterranean inferred from a high-resolution marine pollen record (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Combourieu-Nebout

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution multiproxy study of the Adriatic marine core MD 90-917 provides new insights to reconstruct vegetation and regional climate changes over the southcentral Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas (YD and Holocene. Pollen records show the rapid forest colonization of the Italian and Balkan borderlands and the gradual installation of the Mediterranean association during the Holocene. Quantitative estimates based on pollen data provide Holocene precipitations and temperatures in the Adriatic Sea using a multi-method approach. Clay mineral ratios from the same core reflect the relative contributions of riverine (illite and smectite and eolian (kaolinite contributions to the site, and thus act as an additional proxy with which to evaluate precipitation changes in the Holocene. Vegetation climate reconstructions show the response to the Preboreal oscillation (PBO, most likely driven by changes in temperature and seasonal precipitation, which is linked to increasing river inputs from Adriatic rivers recorded by increase in clay mineral contribution to marine sediments. Pollen-inferred temperature declines during the early–mid Holocene, then increases during the mid–late Holocene, similar to southwestern Mediterranean climatic patterns during the Holocene. Several short vegetation and climatic events appear in the record, indicating the sensitivity of vegetation in the region to millennial-scale variability. Reconstructed summer precipitation shows a regional maximum (170–200 mm between 8000 and 7000 similar to the general pattern across southern Europe. Two important shifts in vegetation occur at 7700 cal yr BP (calendar years before present and between 7500 and 7000 cal yr BP and are correlated with increased river inputs around the Adriatic Basin respectively from the northern (7700 event and from the central Adriatic borderlands (7500–7000 event. During the mid-Holocene, the wet summers lead to permanent moisture all year

  18. Observing and simulating the impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Daskalakis, Nikos; Sfakianaki, Maria; Hatziannastassiou, Nikos; Im, Ulas

    2016-07-01

    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Sahara (Saharan dust), vegetation and the ocean as well as from biomass burning, overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. During the last decades, the Eastern Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including increased vehicle circulation, and industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems for Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole Eastern Mediterranean region. The recent financial crisis resulted in changes in human habits, energy production and subsequently air pollution. This resulted in changes in tropospheric composition that reflect changes in natural emissions and in human behavior have been detected by satellites and simulated by chemistry transport models. The results are presented and their robustness is discussed.

  19. Understanding north-western Mediterranean climate variability: a multi-proxy and multi-sequence approach based on wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent; Jalali, Bassem; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Sabatier, Pierre; Dezileau, Laurent; Peyron, Odile; Frigola, Jaime; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Forcings and physical mechanisms underlying Holocene climate variability still remain poorly understood. Comparison of different paleoclimatic reconstructions using spectral analysis allows to investigate their common periodicities and helps to understand the causes of past climate changes. Wavelet analysis applied on several proxy time series from the Atlantic domain already revealed the first key-issues on the origin of Holocene climate variability. However the differences in duration, resolution and variance between the time-series are important issues for comparing paleoclimatic sequences in the frequency domain. This work compiles 7 paleoclimatic proxy records from 4 time-series from the north-western Mediterranean all ranging from 7000 to 1000 yrs cal BP: -pollen and clay mineral contents from the lagoonal sediment core PB06 recovered in southern France, -Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) derived from alkenones, concentration of terrestrial alkanes and their average chain length (ACL) from core KSGC-31_GolHo-1B recovered in the Gulf of Lion inner-shelf, - δ18O record from speleothems recovered in the Asiul Cave in north-western Spain, -grain size record from the deep basin sediment drift core MD99-2343 north of Minorca island. A comparison of their frequency content is proposed using wavelet analysis and cluster analysis of wavelet power spectra. Common cyclicities are assessed using cross-wavelet analysis. In addition, a new algorithm is used in order to propagate the age model errors within wavelet power spectra. Results are consistents with a non-stationnary Holocene climate variability. The Halstatt cycles (2000-2500 years) depicted in many proxies (ACL, errestrial alkanes and SSTs) demonstrate solar activity influence in the north-western Mediterranean climate. Cluster analysis shows that pollen and ACL proxies, both indicating changes in aridity, are clearly distinct from other proxies and share significant common periodicities around 1000 and 600 years

  20. Is rainfall erosivity influenced by climate change?. A case study in a Mediterranean Climate area of North East Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean climate is the high intensity rainfall events usually recorded in autumn and spring. Those events usually concentrate a high percentage of annual rainfall. Different studies carried out in the Mediterranean countries suggest that notable changes in seasonal precipitation regimes have occurred during the second half of the 20th century. In addition, precipitation extremes seem to increase in association with global warming, which may favour erosion processes. Under this hypothesis one question arise: is the rainfall erosivity increasing influenced by climate change? In this work rainfall erosivity and its variability in the last two decades was analysed in an area located NE Spain, where erosion processes of high magnitude are recorded. The main land use in that area is grape vines, which due to the scarce soil cover is usually associated with the highest erosion rates. The study area was located in the Penedès depression (North East Spain). Hourly data from four observatories Els Hostalets de Pierola (UTM X: 400664, Y: 4598608m, elv: 326m ), La Granada ( X:393758; Y:4580393), Sant Martí Sarroca (X: 385556; Y:4581486, elv: 257m) and Font_Rubi (X: 385118, Y:4587935. elev: 415 m ) belonging to the period 1997-2013 were used in the analysis together with a tipping bucket rainfall series recorded at one minute intervals (10 years within the period 1996-2012). Rainfall erosivity was quantified by the index rainfall kinetic energy multiplied by the maximum intensity in 30minute periods (E*Imax30). The Imax30 was estimated from the relationship between hourly and 30 minute data obtained for the tipping bucket series using the Marquard algoritme. In order to analsye changes in rainfall erosivity, the annual and monthly number of erosive events were analysed for each observatory and in each year, the events were classified into intervals according to their erosivity. The intervals used were: 0-100; 100-200; 200-300; 300

  1. Climatic and topographical correlates of plant palaeo- and neoendemism in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Aparicio, Abelardo; Lavergne, Sébastien; Arroyo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary and ecological forces contributing to the emergence of biodiversity hotspots is of outstanding importance to elucidate how they may withstand current climate changes. Here we explored patterns of phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic plant endemism in a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We hypothesized that areas with wet and equable climatic conditions would be prone to long-term persistence of endemic lineages (palaeoendemism), whilst areas of recent local speciation (neoendemism) would be more related to harsher environmental conditions and to high topographical relief promoting speciation. We focused on the Baetic-Rifan biodiversity hotspot (southern Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco) in combination with molecular phylogenetic information and relative phylogenetic endemism (RPE), a recent phylogenetic measure of endemism, allowing us to discern centres of palaeo- from those of neoendemism. Using eco-geographical regions as study units, we explored correlations between both RPE and endemic species richness with precipitation- and temperature-related variables and with elevation range. Centres of neoendemism were concentrated towards the easternmost part of the hotspot, while centres of palaeoendemism were clustered in the vicinity of the Strait of Gibraltar. The RPE index, indicating more palaeoendemism, was positively correlated with total annual precipitation, while endemic species richness showed a poor correlation. In contrast, elevation range and mean annual temperature were poor predictors of RPE, despite elevation range showing a strong correlation with endemic species richness. The Baetic-Rifan biodiversity hotspot shows clearly differentiated centres of neo- and palaeoendemism. Topographical relief may have driven evolutionary diversification of newly evolved species, while water availability seems more critical for the long-term persistence of ancient lineages in refuge areas of smoother topography. Given climatic

  2. Effects of land use changes and conservation measures on land degradation under a Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohawesh, Y.; Taimeh, A.; Ziadat, F.

    2015-01-01

    Land degradation resulting from improper land use and management is a major cause of declined productivity in the arid environment. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a sequence of land use changes, soil conservation measures, and the time since their implementation on the degradation of selected soil properties. The climate for the selected 105 km2 watershed varies from semi-arid sub-tropical to Mediterranean sub-humid. Land use changes were detected using aerial photographs acquired in 1953, 1978, and 2008. A total of 218 samples were collected from 40 sites in three different rainfall zones to represent different land use changes and different lengths of time since the construction of stone walls. Analyses of variance were used to test the differences between the sequences of land use changes (interchangeable sequences of forest, orchards, field crops, and range), the time since the implementation of soil conservation measures, and rainfall on the thickness of the A-horizon, soil organic carbon content, and texture. Soil organic carbon reacts actively with different combinations and sequences of land use changes. The time since stone walls were constructed showed significant impacts on soil organic carbon and the thickness of the surface horizon. The effects of changing the land use and whether the changes were associated with the construction of stone walls, varied according to the annual rainfall. The results help in understanding the effects of land use changes on land degradation processes and carbon sequestration potential and in formulating sound soil conservation plans.

  3. East African climate fluctuations over the last 1400 years recorded in southeastern Mediterranean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Y.; Dulski, P.; Ehrmann, W.; Schmiedl, G.; Haug, G.

    2008-12-01

    The southeastern Mediterranean Sea sedimentary history of the late Holocene was influenced by distinctive changes in Nile River sediment discharge and Saharan dust influx. We present high-resolution XRF element data of a marine sediment core of the southeastern Levantine Sea (GeoTü SL112, 32° 44.52´ N, 34° 39.02´ E, water depth: 892 m) spanning the last 1400 years. We suggest a strong relationship between humidity changes in east Africa and the corresponding sedimentological response in the Levantine Sea. The Fe record of our Levantine Sea sediment record shows a remarkable similarity with the lake level record of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) (Verschuren et al., Nature, 2000) and the pre-colonial drought history of Lake Malawi (east Africa). Several intervals of enhanced Saharan dust flux as indicated by high Fe values in the Levantine Sea core coincide with well-known droughts in equatorial east Africa and Lake Naivasha lowstands. Frequency analysis suggests that solar variability has been a major influence in these climate fluctuations. The Fe record of our core, which we interpret as Saharan dust influx to the southeast Levantine Sea, is dominated by cyclicities of approximately 90 and 200 years, known as the Gleissberg and Suess cycles. The most pronounced periods of decreased dust accumulation in the southeast Levantine Sea occurred at about 1.1 kyr BP, 0.7 kyr BP, 0.55 kyr BP, 0.3 kyr BP and 0.1 kyr BP, coincident with the solar minima of Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder and Dalton.

  4. Hyperspectral Monitoring of Green Roof Vegetation Health State in Sub-Mediterranean Climate: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Patrizia; Porti, Michele; Veltri, Simone; Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica

    2017-03-23

    In urban and industrial environments, the constant increase of impermeable surfaces has produced drastic changes in the natural hydrological cycle. Decreasing green areas not only produce negative effects from a hydrological-hydraulic perspective, but also from an energy point of view, modifying the urban microclimate and generating, as shown in the literature, heat islands in our cities. In this context, green infrastructures may represent an environmental compensation action that can be used to re-equilibrate the hydrological and energy balance and reduce the impact of pollutant load on receiving water bodies. To ensure that a green infrastructure will work properly, vegetated areas have to be continuously monitored to verify their health state. This paper presents a ground spectroscopy monitoring survey of a green roof installed at the University of Calabria fulfilled via the acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. This study is part of a larger research project financed by European Structural funds aimed at understanding the influence of green roofs on rainwater management and energy consumption for air conditioning in the Mediterranean area. Reflectance values were acquired with a field-portable spectroradiometer that operates in the range of wavelengths 350-2500 nm. The survey was carried out during the time period November 2014-June 2015 and data were acquired weekly. Climatic, thermo-physical, hydrological and hydraulic quantities were acquired as well and related to spectral data. Broadband and narrowband spectral indices, related to chlorophyll content and to chlorophyll-carotenoid ratio, were computed. The two narrowband indices NDVI 705 and SIPI turned out to be the most representative indices to detect the plant health status.

  5. Quantitative reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mediterranean basin inferred from marine and continental pollen records: model/data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Odile; Magny, Michel; Combourieu Nebout, Nathalie; Goring, Simon; Brayshaw, David; Joannin, Sebastien; Kouli, Katerina; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Brugiapaglia, Elisabetta E.; Kotthoff, Ulrich; Pross, Joerg; Sadori, Laura; Fletcher, William; Desprat, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene period is particularly well investigated in the Mediterranean area by a large amount of data (palynologi¬cal, speleothems, or lake-level evidence). All these data show the Holocene to have a complex pat¬tern of climatic change across the Mediterranean region with strong and spatial and temporal variability. Recent studies based on lake-level records from Italy suggest a North-South climatic partition in the central Mediterranean through the Holocene (Magny et al., 2012). If the recent precipitation estimates based on pollen records of these Italian lakes seem support these interpretation (Peyron et al., 2012), given the scarcity of reliable palaeoclimatic records in the north and central-south Mediterranean, new evidence is needed to validate this hypothesis at the scale of the Mediterranean basin, particularly in East and West Mediterranean regions. This study aims to provide robust and precise quantitative estimates of the Holocene climate in the Mediterranean region based on: (1) A multi-method approach to better assess the error of reconstruction inherent in pollen-based climate predictions; (2) Four high-resolution pollen records taken from lakes located along a latitudinal gradient from the northern Italy to the south Italy. Three lakes are from peninsular Italy (Lake Ledro, Lake Accesa, Lake Trifoglietti), and one is from Sicily (Lake Pergusa). In addition, one pollen record is located in Greece (Tenaghi Philippon); (3) Six high-resolution pollen records taken from marine cores located along a longitudinal gradient from the Alboran Sea to the Aegean Sea (cores ODP 976, MD95-2043, MD90-917, MD04-2797, SL152, and NS14). These quantitative estimates of the Holocene climate will be compared to the simulations performed with a regional model (Brayshaw et al., 2010). We investigate climatic trends during the Holocene and test the hypothesis proposed by Magny et al., (2012) of opposite mid-Holocene summer precipitation regimes between the north

  6. Modifications in energy demand in urban areas as a result of climate changes: an assessment for the southeast Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartalis, C.; Synodinou, A.; Proedrou, M.; Tsangrassoulis, A.; Santamouris, M.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of climate changes on the urban environment may be assessed by calculating the modifications in energy production and consumption for such daily operations as heating and cooling. In this study climate changes in the southeastern Mediterranean (the area of Greece) were simulated for the year 2030 on the basis of specially constructed climatic scenarios which describe potential reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases, and were, thereafter, used to calculate the heating and cooling degree days for the same year. The results show that the cumulative amount of heating and cooling degree days will decrease and increase, respectively, as compared to the respective amounts for the year 1990. In terms of the cooling degree days, it was found that the areas most affected were the Attica and central Macedonia regions, the Aegean islands and Crete, whereas in terms of the heating degree days, it was found that a large part of the country will require less energy for heating. (author)

  7. Paleobiogeography of scleractinian reef corals: Changing patterns during the Oligocene-Miocene climatic transition in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Christine; Bosellini, Francesca R.

    2012-02-01

    During the Oligocene-Miocene Greenhouse-to-Icehouse climatic transition, the biogeography of reef corals or zooxanthellate-like scleractinian corals was gradually changing from a pan-tropical Tethyan Province in the Eocene to three reef-coral Provinces of the Western Atlantic-Caribbean, Indo-Pacific and Mediterranean. Our REEFCORAL database encompasses updated and homogenized data on paleoenvironmental and systematics of scleractinian corals occurring in the Oligocene and Miocene outcrops from circum-Mediterranean regions, provided by most of relatively recently published data in the literature and by the study of published and unpublished collections of coral specimens from the same area, including the important collections housed at the MNHN (Paris) and our own collections. As there is no validated direct criterion for the identification of the coral-zooxanthellate symbiosis in the fossil record, and considering the difficulty to use the biogeochemical approaches in the context of this study, the subjectivity of the morphological criteria and the relative recent age of the fossil corals we are dealing with, a uniformitarian approach has been used for inferring the symbiotic status of scleractinian genera in REEFCORAL. Among the 158 genera included in our database, 93 can be considered as zooxanthellate and 10 have a doubtful zooxanthellate status. This relatively exhaustive database was used to reconstruct the temporal and spatial distribution of scleractinian corals in the Mediterranean during the Oligocene-Miocene time in order to discuss the interplaying effects of the global cooling at that time, the re-organization of the Tethyan realm resulting from the African, Arabian and Eurasian plate collision and the emergence of the Alpine chains, driving the gradual northward movement of the whole region outside the tropical/subtropical belt. It is shown that the structure of the Mediterranean z-coral Oligocene-Miocene paleobiodiversity was characterized by many

  8. Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Impact of Double Glazed Façade Ventilation Systems in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Alavedra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs. However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs are required to obtain suitable comfort conditions inside the building. Forced ventilation systems are a feasible alternative to improve the thermal performance of a DGF in Mediterranean climates where large solar gains are a permanent condition throughout the year. In this paper the feasibility of using diverse forced ventilation methods in DGF is evaluated. In addition, an economical comparison between different mechanical ventilation systems was performed in order to demonstrate the viability of DGF forced ventilation. Moreover, an environmental study was carried out to prove the positive energetic balance on cooling loads between free and forced convection in DGF for Mediterranean climates. For this investigation, a CFD model was used to simulate the thermal conditions in a DGF for the different ventilation systems. Results obtained for heat flux, temperature and reductions in solar load gains were analyzed and applied for the economic and environmental research.

  9. Water and forests in the Mediterranean hot climate zone: a review based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares David, T.; Assunção Pinto, C.; Nadezhdina, N.; Soares David, J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Water scarcity is the main limitation to forest growth and tree survival in the Mediterranean hot climate zone. This paper reviews literature on the relations between water and forests in the region, and their implications on forest and water resources management. The analysis is based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning. Area of the study: The review covers research carried out in the Mediterranean hot climate zone, put into perspective of wider/global research on the subject. The scales of analysis range from the tree to catchment levels. Material and Methods: For literature review we used Sc opus, Web of Science and Go ogle Scholar as bibliographic databases. Data from two Quercus suber sites in Portugal were used for illustrative purposes. Main results: We identify knowledge gaps and discuss options to better adapt forest management to climate change under a tree water use/availability perspective. Forest management is also discussed within the wider context of catchment water balance: water is a constraint for biomass production, but also for other human activities such as urban supply, industry and irrigated agriculture. Research highlights: Given the scarce and variable (in space and in time) water availability in the region, further research is needed on: mapping the spatial heterogeneity of water availability to trees; adjustment of tree density to local conditions; silviculture practices that do not damage soil properties or roots; irrigation of forest plantations in some specific areas; tree breeding. Also, a closer cooperation between forest and water managers is needed. (Author)

  10. Storminess and environmental change climate forcing and responses in the Mediterranean region

    CERN Document Server

    Diodato, Nazzareno

    2014-01-01

    Bringing together a wide range of disciplines, including climatology, hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, this book offers a thorough review of contemporary developments in the modelling of Mediterranean hydro-climatological processes in time and space.

  11. Impact of grazing on range plant community components under arid Mediterranean climate in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Rotational grazing, full protection, continuous grazing species richness, species diversity, soil seed bank, Bayesian methods, Salsola vermiculata, seed longevity, rangeland management, Syria.   Rangelands represent 70% of the semi-arid and arid Mediterranean land mass. It is a

  12. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Haraguchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models—GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI—for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model—RCM—for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO2 concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15

  13. Effects of warmer and drier climate conditions on plant composition and biomass production in a Mediterranean shrubland community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Dato G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The last IPCC report predicts warmer and drier conditions for the future European climate and the Mediterranean basin could be highly sensible to future climatic change. In order to investigate how the forecast more stressing factors could affect Mediterranean shrubland ecosystems, an appropriate manipulation of the microclimate was carried out in an area covered by Mediterranean maquis aimed at extending the drought period and increasing the night-time temperature. Soil cover, plant growth, litterfall, leaf water status, and leaf nutritional status were monitored over three growing seasons. The manipulation altered the microclimate according to common scenarios, increasing mean annual night-time air temperature by about 1 �C and mean annual temperature by about 0.5 �C, and decreasing precipitation between 6-46% of the total rainfall during the growing seasons. A general increase of vegetation cover was observed in the whole community during the three years of experimentation. This positive temporal pattern was mainly observed in control and warming treatment, whereas in the drought treatment it was less evident. At species-specific level, a clear negative effect of drought treatment was observed for C. monspeliensis percentage cover. Shoot elongation was not significantly affected by the warming treatment. A significant negative effect of drought treatment was noticed in the 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 growing seasons. An increase of N and P concentrations in the drought treatment in Cistus was observed and it can be explained by the reduced shoot growth induced by the water shortage that we had observed in the same treatment. The absence of a concentration effect on the other two species could be the signal of the different behaviour with regard to a drier climate, and therefore could be a symptom of future change in species composition. We underline the need of long-term observation, because of the different responses of plants in the short

  14. Coupling of microbial nitrogen transformations and climate in sclerophyll forest soils from the Mediterranean Region of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cecilia A; Armesto, Juan J

    2018-06-01

    The Mediterranean region of central Chile is experiencing extensive "mega-droughts" with detrimental effects for the environment and economy of the region. In the northern hemisphere, nitrogen (N) limitation of Mediterranean ecosystems has been explained by the decoupling between N inputs and plant uptake during the dormant season. In central Chile, soils have often been considered N-rich in comparison to other Mediterranean ecosystems of the world, yet the impacts of expected intensification of seasonal drought remain unknown. In this work, we seek to disentangle patterns of microbial N transformations and their seasonal coupling with climate in the Chilean sclerophyll forest-type. We aim to assess how water limitation affects microbial N transformations, thus addressing the impact of ongoing regional climate trends on soil N status. We studied four stands of the sclerophyll forest-type in Chile. Field measurements in surface soils showed a 67% decline of free-living diazotrophic activity (DA) and 59% decrease of net N mineralization rates during the summer rainless and dormant season, accompanied by a stimulation of in-situ denitrification rates to values 70% higher than in wetter winter. Higher rates of both free-living DA and net N mineralization found during spring, provided evidence for strong coupling of these two processes during the growing season. Overall, the experimental addition of water in the field to litter samples almost doubled DA but had no effect on denitrification rates. We conclude that coupling of microbial mediated soil N transformations during the wetter growing season explains the N enrichment of sclerophyll forest soils. Expected increases in the length and intensity of the dry period, according to climate change models, reflected in the current mega-droughts may drastically reduce biological N fixation and net N mineralization, increasing at the same time denitrification rates, thereby potentially reducing long-term soil N capital

  15. Terrestrial climate variability and seasonality changes in the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP deduced from marine pollen records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dormoy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-based climate reconstructions were performed on two high-resolution pollen marines cores from the Alboran and Aegean Seas in order to unravel the climatic variability in the coastal settings of the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP (the Lateglacial, and early to mid-Holocene. The quantitative climate reconstructions for the Alboran and Aegean Sea records focus mainly on the reconstruction of the seasonality changes (temperatures and precipitation, a crucial parameter in the Mediterranean region. This study is based on a multi-method approach comprising 3 methods: the Modern Analogues Technique (MAT, the recent Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling/Generalized Additive Model method (NMDS/GAM and Partial Least Squares regression (PLS. The climate signal inferred from this comparative approach confirms that cold and dry conditions prevailed in the Mediterranean region during the Oldest and Younger Dryas periods, while temperate conditions prevailed during the Bølling/Allerød and the Holocene. Our records suggest a West/East gradient of decreasing precipitation across the Mediterranean region during the cooler Late-glacial and early Holocene periods, similar to present-day conditions. Winter precipitation was highest during warm intervals and lowest during cooling phases. Several short-lived cool intervals (i.e. Older Dryas, another oscillation after this one (GI-1c2, Gerzensee/Preboreal Oscillations, 8.2 ka event, Bond events connected to the North Atlantic climate system are documented in the Alboran and Aegean Sea records indicating that the climate oscillations associated with the successive steps of the deglaciation in the North Atlantic area occurred in both the western and eastern Mediterranean regions. This observation confirms the presence of strong climatic linkages between the North Atlantic and Mediterranean regions.

  16. Climatic niche conservatism and biogeographical non-equilibrium in Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae, an invasive plant in the Chilean Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T Peña-Gómez

    Full Text Available Species climate requirements are useful for predicting their geographic distribution. It is often assumed that the niche requirements for invasive plants are conserved during invasion, especially when the invaded regions share similar climate conditions. California and central Chile have a remarkable degree of convergence in their vegetation structure, and a similar Mediterranean climate. Such similarities make these geographic areas an interesting natural experiment for testing climatic niche dynamics and the equilibrium of invasive species in a new environment. We tested to see if the climatic niche of Eschscholzia californica is conserved in the invaded range (central Chile, and we assessed whether the invasion process has reached a biogeographical equilibrium, i.e., occupy all the suitable geographic locations that have suitable conditions under native niche requirements. We compared the climatic niche in the native and invaded ranges as well as the projected potential geographic distribution in the invaded range. In order to compare climatic niches, we conducted a Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Species Distribution Models (SDMs, to estimate E. californica's potential geographic distribution. We also used SDMs to predict altitudinal distribution limits in central Chile. Our results indicated that the climatic niche occupied by E. californica in the invaded range is firmly conserved, occupying a subset of the native climatic niche but leaving a substantial fraction of it unfilled. Comparisons of projected SDMs for central Chile indicate a similarity, yet the projection from native range predicted a larger geographic distribution in central Chile compared to the prediction of the model constructed for central Chile. The projected niche occupancy profile from California predicted a higher mean elevation than that projected from central Chile. We concluded that the invasion process of E. californica in central Chile is consistent with

  17. Climatic niche conservatism and biogeographical non-equilibrium in Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae), an invasive plant in the Chilean Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Gómez, Francisco T; Guerrero, Pablo C; Bizama, Gustavo; Duarte, Milén; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2014-01-01

    Species climate requirements are useful for predicting their geographic distribution. It is often assumed that the niche requirements for invasive plants are conserved during invasion, especially when the invaded regions share similar climate conditions. California and central Chile have a remarkable degree of convergence in their vegetation structure, and a similar Mediterranean climate. Such similarities make these geographic areas an interesting natural experiment for testing climatic niche dynamics and the equilibrium of invasive species in a new environment. We tested to see if the climatic niche of Eschscholzia californica is conserved in the invaded range (central Chile), and we assessed whether the invasion process has reached a biogeographical equilibrium, i.e., occupy all the suitable geographic locations that have suitable conditions under native niche requirements. We compared the climatic niche in the native and invaded ranges as well as the projected potential geographic distribution in the invaded range. In order to compare climatic niches, we conducted a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Species Distribution Models (SDMs), to estimate E. californica's potential geographic distribution. We also used SDMs to predict altitudinal distribution limits in central Chile. Our results indicated that the climatic niche occupied by E. californica in the invaded range is firmly conserved, occupying a subset of the native climatic niche but leaving a substantial fraction of it unfilled. Comparisons of projected SDMs for central Chile indicate a similarity, yet the projection from native range predicted a larger geographic distribution in central Chile compared to the prediction of the model constructed for central Chile. The projected niche occupancy profile from California predicted a higher mean elevation than that projected from central Chile. We concluded that the invasion process of E. californica in central Chile is consistent with climatic niche

  18. The Climate change impact on the water balance and use efficiency of two contrasting water limited Mediterranean ecosystems in Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Nicola; Corona, Roberto; Albertson, John

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT) competing for the water use. Often deforestation activities have been more intensive along the plan and alluvial river valleys, where deep soils are well suited for agricultural and grass became the primary PFT, while more natural woody vegetation (trees and shrubs) survived in the steep hillslopes and mountain areas, where soil thickness is low, i.e. less attractive for agricultural. Hence, Mediterranean regions are characterized by two main ecosystems, grassland and woodland, which for both natural and anthropogenic causes can grow in soils with also different characteristics (texture, hydraulic properties, depth), highly impacting water resources. Mediterranean regions suffer water scarcity produced in part by natural (e.g., climate variations) influences. For instance, in the Flumendosa basin water reservoir system, which plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate. The precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Indeed, precipitation decreased in winter months, which are crucial for reservoirs recharge through runoff. At the same time air temperature increased during the spring-summer season, when the precipitation slightly increased. The IPCC models predicts a further increase of drought in the Mediterranean region during winter, increasing the uncertainty on the future of the water resources system of these regions. Hence, there is the need to investigate the role of the PFT vegetation dynamics on the soil water budget of these ecosystems in the context of the climate change, and predict hydrologic variables for climate change scenarios

  19. Climate and land use changes effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a Mediterranean semi-natural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the effects of climate and land use changes on the soil carbon pool is critical to planning effective strategies for adaptation and mitigation in future scenarios of global climate and land use change. In this study, we used CarboSOIL model to predict changes in soil organic carbon stocks in a semi-natural area of Southern Spain in three different time horizons (2040, 2070, 2100), considering two general circulation models (BCM2 and ECHAM5) and three IPCC scenarios (A1b, A2, B2). The effects of potential land use changes from natural vegetation (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland) to agricultural land (olive grove and cereal) on soil organic carbon stocks were also evaluated. Predicted values of SOC contents correlated well those measured (R2 ranging from 0.71 at 0-25cm to 0.97 at 50-75cm) showing the efficiency of the model. Results showed substantial differences among time horizons, climate and land use scenarios and soil depth with larger decreases of soil organic carbon stocks in the long term (2100 time horizon) and particularly in olive groves. The combination of climate and land use scenarios (in particular conversion from current 'dehesa' to olive groves) resulted in yet higher losses of soil organic carbon stocks, e.g. -30, -15 and -33% in the 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75cm sections respectively. This study shows the importance of soil organic carbon stocks assessment under both climate and land use scenarios at different soil sections and point towards possible directions for appropriate land use management in Mediterranean semi natural areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Consequences of the climate change on water scarcity in the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassopoulos, Hypatia; Dumas, Patrice; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources while taking into account man-made reservoirs and changes in reservoir operating rules. Mediterranean basins are already characterized by an important temporal and spatial variability of water resources, and climatic models, despite the uncertainty, are indicating a change in precipitation regime with an increased drought risk. The regional assessment of change in water scarcity prevents using detailed data at the water basin level. Instead a generic model is constructed, based on information available at a regional scale. The steps of our methodology are: 1) Localisation and projection of water demands 2) Localisation of reservoirs and computation of available water quantity at each site 3) Determination of links between reservoirs and demands 4) Determination of operating rules All the existing reservoirs are localized on the basis of the International Commission of Dams and Reservoirs. Runoff is taken from the outputs of climatic models from the European program CIRCE. Sub-basin flow accumulation zone of each reservoir is determined based on a Digital Elevation Model (hydro1k), and the available quantity of water at each site is computed. On the demand side, domestic water use, cooling of power plants for electricity production, manufacturing and irrigation demands are taken into account. Future domestic demand is computed based on exogenous scenarios of population and wealth changes, using the WATERGAP2 methodology. For cooling and manufacturing processes, scenarios of modification of electricity production and added value are assumed, as well as water use intensities based on historical data and scenarios of technological progress, still using the WATERGAP2 methodology. In the case of irrigation, current irrigated areas , taken from the Global Map of Irrigation Areas and current productions, taken from agromaps are used. Crops phenology is determined based on the

  1. Ecological impacts of atmospheric pollution and interactions with climate change in terrestrial ecosystems of the Mediterranean Basin: Current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Munzi, Silvana; Alonso, Rocío; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Avila, Anna; Bermejo, Victoria; Bobbink, Roland; Branquinho, Cristina; Concostrina-Zubiri, Laura; Cruz, Cristina; Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; De Marco, Alessandra; Dias, Teresa; Elustondo, David; Elvira, Susana; Estébanez, Belén; Fusaro, Lina; Gerosa, Giacomo; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Matos, Paula; Mereu, Simone; Merino, José; Morillas, Lourdes; Nunes, Alice; Paoletti, Elena; Paoli, Luca; Pinho, Pedro; Rogers, Isabel B; Santos, Arthur; Sicard, Pierre; Stevens, Carly J; Theobald, Mark R

    2017-08-01

    Mediterranean Basin ecosystems, their unique biodiversity, and the key services they provide are currently at risk due to air pollution and climate change, yet only a limited number of isolated and geographically-restricted studies have addressed this topic, often with contrasting results. Particularities of air pollution in this region include high O 3 levels due to high air temperatures and solar radiation, the stability of air masses, and dominance of dry over wet nitrogen deposition. Moreover, the unique abiotic and biotic factors (e.g., climate, vegetation type, relevance of Saharan dust inputs) modulating the response of Mediterranean ecosystems at various spatiotemporal scales make it difficult to understand, and thus predict, the consequences of human activities that cause air pollution in the Mediterranean Basin. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement coordinated research and experimental platforms along with wider environmental monitoring networks in the region. In particular, a robust deposition monitoring network in conjunction with modelling estimates is crucial, possibly including a set of common biomonitors (ideally cryptogams, an important component of the Mediterranean vegetation), to help refine pollutant deposition maps. Additionally, increased attention must be paid to functional diversity measures in future air pollution and climate change studies to establish the necessary link between biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services in Mediterranean ecosystems. Through a coordinated effort, the Mediterranean scientific community can fill the above-mentioned gaps and reach a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the combined effects of air pollution and climate change in the Mediterranean Basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Land Use Intensification on Fish Assemblages in Mediterranean Climate Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matono, P.; Sousa, D.; Ilhéu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Southern Portugal is experiencing a rapid change in land use due to the spread of intensive farming systems, namely olive production systems, which can cause strong negative environmental impacts and affect the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to identify the main environmental disturbances related with olive grove intensification on Mediterranean-climate streams in southern Portugal, and to evaluate their effects on fish assemblage structure and integrity. Twenty-six stream sites within the direct influence of traditional, intensive, and hyper-intensive olive groves were sampled. Human-induced disturbances were analyzed along the olive grove intensity gradient. The integrity of fish assemblages was evaluated by comparison with an independent set of least disturbed reference sites, considering metrics and guilds, based on multivariate analyses. Along the gradient of olive grove intensification, the study observed overall increases in human disturbance variables and physicochemical parameters, especially organic/nutrient enrichment, sediment load, and riparian degradation. Animal load measured the impact of livestock production. This variable showed an opposite pattern, since traditional olive groves are often combined with high livestock production and are used as grazing pasture by the cattle, unlike more intensive olive groves. Stream sites influenced by olive groves were dominated by non-native and tolerant fish species, while reference sites presented higher fish richness, density and were mainly occupied by native and intolerant species. Fish assemblage structure in olive grove sites was significantly different from the reference set, although significant differences between olive grove types were not observed. Bray-Curtis similarities between olive grove sites and references showed a decreasing trend in fish assemblage integrity along the olive grove intensification gradient. Olive production, even in traditional groves, led to

  3. Human-climate interactions in the central Mediterranean region during the last millennia: The laminated record of Lake Butrint (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Ariztegui, Daniel; Brushulli, Brunhilda; Sinopoli, Gaia; Wagner, Bernd; Sadori, Laura; Gilli, Adrian; Pambuku, Arben

    2016-03-01

    Lake Butrint (39°47 N, 20°1 E) is a ca. 21 m deep, coastal lagoon located in SW Albania where finely-laminated sediments have been continuously deposited during the last millennia. The multi-proxy analysis (sedimentology, high-resolution elemental geochemistry and pollen) of a 12 m long sediment core, supported by seven AMS radiocarbon dates and 137Cs dating, enable a precise reconstruction of the environmental change that occurred in the central Mediterranean region during the last ∼4.5 cal kyrs BP. Sediments consist of triplets of authigenic carbonates, organic matter and clayey laminae. Fluctuations in the thickness and/or presence of these different types of seasonal laminae indicate variations in water salinity, organic productivity and runoff in the lake's catchment, as a result of the complex interplay of tectonics, anthropogenic forcing and climate variability. The progradation of the Pavllo river delta, favoured by variable human activity from the nearby ancient city of Butrint, led to the progressive isolation of this hydrological system from the Ionian Sea. The system evolved from an open bay to a restricted lagoon, which is consistent with archaeological data. An abrupt increase in mass-wasting activity between 1515 and 1450 BC, likely caused by nearby seismic activity, led to the accumulation of 24 homogenites, up to 17 cm thick. They have been deposited during the onset of finely laminated sedimentation, which indicates restricted, anoxic bottom water conditions and higher salinity. Periods of maximum water salinity, biological productivity, and carbonate precipitation coincide with warmer intervals, such as the early Roman Warm Period (RWP) (500 BC-0 AD), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (800-1400 AD) and recent times (after 1800 AD). Conversely, lower salinity and more oxic conditions, with higher clastic input were recorded during 1400-500 BC, the Late Roman and the Early Medieval periods (0-800 AD) and during the Little Ice Age (1400-1800 AD

  4. A future climate assessment on the quality and quantity of CrVI contaminated groundwater in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Argyraki, A.; Gkiouleka, I.; Paternoster, M.; Hatipoglu Bagci, Z.; Shammout, M.; Moraetis, D.; Dermatas, D.; Christou, A.

    2017-12-01

    The shortage of water and the water quality problems in Mediterranean countries appear more severe under climate change due to the intensive agricultural activities and the urban and industrial development that require reforms in the water policy approach. The ERANETMED CrITERIA project aims to assist water management organizations and water users in decision making when coping with water scarcity, climate extremes and contaminated water. Case areas of Mediterranean countries (Italy, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Jordan) with Cr(VI) contaminated waters are used as an example of a specific water pressure problem that has to be tackled through integrated water resources management. Moreover, Oman represents the arid-end member in identifying the different pathways of Cr(VI) contamination in surface and groundwater due to arid conditions. Thus, areas of similar geology can be used as analogs of areas passing from semi-arid to arid conditions. From a climate change perspective, it is important to investigate the impacts of changing precipitation patterns and, thus, assess the vulnerability of the aquifers. Thus, a high spatial resolution analysis is performed with observational data and climate model simulations on several time-scales drought and extreme precipitation, providing a concise picture of drought and flooding events for the present and the future climate. We use CORDEX experiment simulations under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5, further downscaled over the case study areas providing high spatial resolution information. The case studies inter-comparison stresses the diverse needs on water management along the Mediterranean and at the same time identifies common messages related to the future changes on water resources. RCP 4.5 shows a mild decrease in precipitation that becomes more severe towards the end of the century, though under the RCP 8.5 intense decrease is explicit in most timescales. The significant increase of precipitation variability and short and long-term drought

  5. Growing substrates for aromatic plant species in green roofs and water runoff quality: pilot experiments in a Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Palha, Paulo; Castro, Paula M L

    2017-09-01

    Green roof technology has evolved in recent years as a potential solution to promote vegetation in urban areas. Green roof studies for Mediterranean climates, where extended drought periods in summer contrast with cold and rainy periods in winter, are still scarce. The present research study assesses the use of substrates with different compositions for the growth of six aromatic plant species - Lavandula dentata, Pelargonium odoratissimum, Helichrysum italicum, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and T. pseudolanuginosus, during a 2-year period, and the monitoring of water runoff quality. Growing substrates encompassed expanded clay and granulated cork, in combination with organic matter and crushed eggshell. These combinations were adequate for the establishment of all aromatic plants, allowing their propagation in the extensive system located on the 5th storey. The substrate composed of 70% expanded clay and 30% organic matter was the most suitable, and crushed eggshell incorporation improved the initial plant establishment. Water runoff quality parameters - turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- and chemical oxygen demand - showed that it could be reused for non-potable uses in buildings. The present study shows that selected aromatic plant species could be successfully used in green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

  6. Restoring Summer Base Flow under a Decentralized Water Management Regime: Constraints, Opportunities, and Outcomes in Mediterranean-Climate California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Deitch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal rainfall dynamics in Mediterranean-climate coastal California place pressures on humans and aquatic ecosystems. Without rainfall during summer, residents and land managers commonly turn to streams and adjacent shallow aquifers to meet domestic, irrigation, and recreational water needs, often depleting the water necessary to support stream biota. The potential for adverse ecological impacts within this coupled natural-human system has led to interest in restoring summer base flow (especially for federally protected steelhead and coho salmon, which depend on flow through the summer dry season for juvenile survival through methods such as reducing dry-season water abstractions. Characterizing constraints and opportunities has proven useful for planning streamflow restoration in Mediterranean-climate coastal California. Biophysical parameters such as ample rainfall and very low summer discharge are critical considerations, but institutional parameters are equally important: regional management practices and state laws can inhibit streamflow restoration, and implementation is dependent on interrelationships among residents, agency staff, and other stakeholders (which we term the egosystem within each watershed. Additionally, while watershed-scale spatial analysis and field-based evaluations provided a solid foundation for exploring streamflow restoration needs, adaptation based on information from local stakeholders was often essential for prioritizing projects and understanding whether projects will have their intended benefits.

  7. Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean through a multiproxy analysis from Padul peat bog (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Román, María J.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Camuera, Jon; García-Alix, Antonio; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula, located in the Mediterranean area, is an interesting location for paleoclimate studies due to its geographic situation between arid and humid climates. Sediments from peat bogs and lakes from Sierra Nevada, in southeastern Iberian Peninsula, have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by Holocene climate change. These studies are essential if we want to understand the past climate change in the area, which is the key to identify the possible environmental response of the Sierra Nevada ecosystems to future climate scenarios. Padul basin, located in the southwest of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, contains a ca. 100 m-thick peat bog sedimentary sequence that was deposited during the past 1 Ma making this area interesting for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. A new 43 m-long sedimentary record has recently been retrieved from the Padul peat bog. In this study we have developed a multiproxy analysis of the Holocene part of the Padul-15-05 core including pollen analysis, XRF-core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry, supported by an age control based on AMS radiocarbon dates, providing with information about vegetation and climate variability during the past 9.9 cal ka BP. This multiproxy reconstruction of the Padul-15-05 evidences the Mediterranean as a sensitive area with respect to global-scale climate system, showing relevant climate episodes such as the ca. 8, 7.5, 6.5 and 5.5 cal ka BP events during the early and middle Holocene. The trend to aridification to the late Holocene is interrupted by more arid and humid periods as the Iberian Roman Humid Period (from ca. 3 to 1.6 cal ka BP), the Dark Ages (from ca. 1.5 to 1.1 cal ka BP), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (from ca. 1.1 to 1.3 cal ka BP) and the Little Ice Age period (from ca. 500 to 100 cal yr BP).

  8. Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and actual evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

  9. Discrepancies in the Climatology and Trends of Cloud Cover in Global and Regional Climate Models for the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Alonso, Aaron; Calbó, Josep; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Tan, Elcin

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims at comparing total cloud cover (TCC) as simulated by regional climate models (RCM) from CORDEX project with the same variable as simulated by the driving global climate models (GCM), which are part of the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project ensemble. The comparison is performed for the Mediterranean region, and for the 1971-2005 period, when results from the "historical" scenario can also be compared with two data sets of ground-based cloud observations. We work with 14 modeling results (resolution, 0.11° × 0.11°), which are a combination of five GCMs and five RCMs. In general, RCMs improve only very slightly the climatic estimation of TCC when compared with observations. Indeed, not all RCMs behave the same, and some indicators (monthly evolution of the relative bias) show an enhancement, while other indices (overall mean bias and annual range difference) improve only very slightly with respect to GCMs. Changes in the estimate of TCC in summer might be the most relevant value added by RCMs, as these should describe in a more proper way several mesoscale processes, which play a more relevant role in summer. Noticeably, RCMs are unable to capture the observed decadal trend in TCC. Thus, TCC simulated by RCMs is almost stable, in contradiction with observations and GCMs, which both show statistically significant decreasing trends in the Mediterranean area. This result is somewhat unsatisfactory, as if RCMs cannot reproduce past trends in TCC, their skill in projecting TCC into the future may be questioned.

  10. Water and forests in the Mediterranean hot climate zone: a review based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Soares David

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Water scarcity is the main limitation to forest growth and tree survival in the Mediterranean hot climate zone. This paper reviews literature on the relations between water and forests in the region, and their implications on forest and water resources management. The analysis is based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning. Area of the study: The review covers research carried out in the Mediterranean hot climate zone, put into perspective of wider/global research on the subject. The scales of analysis range from the tree to catchment levels. Material and Methods: For literature review we used Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar as bibliographic databases. Data from two Quercus suber sites in Portugal were used for illustrative purposes. Main results: We identify knowledge gaps and discuss options to better adapt forest management to climate change under a tree water use/availability perspective. Forest management is also discussed within the wider context of catchment water balance: water is a constraint for biomass production, but also for other human activities such as urban supply, industry and irrigated agriculture. Research highlights: Given the scarce and variable (in space and in time water availability in the region, further research is needed on: mapping the spatial heterogeneity of water availability to trees; adjustment of tree density to local conditions; silvicultural practices that do not damage soil properties or roots; irrigation of forest plantations in some specific areas; tree breeding. Also, a closer cooperation between forest and water managers is needed. Keywords: tree hydraulics; tree mortality; climate change; forest management; water resources.

  11. Hydrological and water quality impact assessment of a Mediterranean limno-reservoir under climate change and land use management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Trolle, Dennis; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia; Sastre-Merlín, Antonio; Jeppesen, Erik

    2014-02-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water managers in the Mediterranean region today and will exacerbate in a projected future warmer world, making a holistic approach for water resources management at the catchment scale essential. We expanded the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed for a small Mediterranean catchment to quantify the potential effects of various climate and land use change scenarios on catchment hydrology as well as the trophic state of a new kind of waterbody, a limno-reservoir (Pareja Limno-reservoir), created for environmental and recreational purposes. We also checked for the possible synergistic effects of changes in climate and land use on water flow and nutrient exports from the catchment. Simulations showed a noticeable impact of climate change in the river flow regime and consequently the water level of the limno-reservoir, especially during summer, complicating the fulfillment of its purposes. Most of the scenarios also predicted a deterioration of trophic conditions in the limno-reservoir. Fertilization and soil erosion were the main factors affecting nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations. Combined climate and land use change scenarios showed noticeable synergistic effects on nutrients exports, relative to running the scenarios individually. While the impact of fertilization on nitrate export is projected to be reduced with warming in most cases, an additional 13% increase in the total phosphorus export is expected in the worst-case combined scenario compared to the sum of individual scenarios. Our model framework may help water managers to assess and manage how these multiple environmental stressors interact and ultimately affect aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Assessing the impacts of climate change in Mediterranean catchments under conditions of data scarcity - The Gaza case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, David; Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    According to current climate projections, Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. While there is scientific consensus that climate induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean regions are presently occurring and are projected to amplify in the future, very little knowledge is available about the quantification of these changes, which is hampered by a lack of suitable and cost effective hydrological monitoring and modeling systems. The European FP7-project CLIMB is aiming to analyze climate induced changes on the hydrology of the Mediterranean Basins by investigating seven test sites located in the countries Italy, France, Turkey, Tunisia, Gaza and Egypt. CLIMB employs a combination of novel geophysical field monitoring concepts, remote sensing techniques and integrated hydrologic modeling to improve process descriptions and understanding and to quantify existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. One of those seven sites is the Gaza Strip, located in the Eastern Mediterranean and part of the Palestinian Autonomous Area, covers an area of 365km² with a length of 35km and 6 to 12km in width. Elevation ranges from sea level up to 104m in the East of the test site. Mean annual precipitation varies from 235mm in the South to 420mm in the North of the area. The inter annual variability of rainfall and the rapid population growth in an highly agricultural used area represent the major challenges in this area. The physically based Water Simulation Model WaSiM Vers. 2 (Schulla & Jasper (1999)) is setup to model current and projected future hydrological conditions. The availability of measured meteorological and hydrological data is poor as common to many Mediterranean catchments. The lack of available measured input data hampers the calibration of the model setup and the validation of model outputs. WaSiM was driven with meteorological forcing taken from 4

  13. Increasing severity of damage caused by floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960-2014), climate change or vulnerability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alfredo; Gil, Salvador; Lopez, Francisco; Barriendos, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, there has been an increase in physical and economic losses (WMO, CRED and UCL, 2014) that raises serious concerns in society. Climate change projections may explain the rise in flood losses; however, these shouldn't be considered yet (Bouwer, 2011). According to IPCC (2014), there is low confidence in anthropogenic climate change affecting the frequency and magnitude of fluvial floods on a global scale. In other words, this increase in flood events is not completely related to the higher frequency of heavy rainfall. To illustrate the aforementioned, a spatial example can be seen in the study area. In the Spanish Mediterranean coast, we see an increase in economic losses within the last 50 years due to flood events (Gil et al., 2014). It seems that the socio-economic growth and the rise of housing construction (Gaja, 2008) have led to an increase in vulnerability and exposure which are mainly responsible for those losses and the increase in severity of flood events (Pérez et al., 2015). Furthermore, this situation will probably become more precarious if some climate forecasts are met [IPCC, 2014; AEMET, 2015], and if the economic model fails to adopt efficient adaptive measures. Therefore, it is interesting to focus attention on social factors either within the present or future scenario in order to minimise the potential consequences and improve the adaptation. The main objective of this work focuses on the study of the evolution of the severity of the floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast for the period (1960-2015). To do that, a statistical analysis of the data base [Gil et al., 2014; extended to the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast (MEDIFLOOD)] and a multiscale mapping (local, provincial and regional level) of the frequency of these events will take place in order to make comparisons and show spatiotemporal patterns according to the severity events evolution. Preliminary results show some interesting statistically significant

  14. Coupling of regional atmospheric-ocean models for climate applications in the Mediterranean basin by using CORDEX-compliant simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan P.; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, most regional climate models (RCMs) are essentially composed of an atmospheric component coupled to a land surface scheme and driven over ocean areas by prescribed sea surface temperature (SST). Although such a RCM can be sufficient for many applications, there are cases (like in the Mediterranean basin) in which fine scale feedbacks associated with air-sea interactions can substantially influence the spatial and temporal structure of regional climates. Therefore, in this work we present the first testing phase of the application of a coupled atmospheric-ocean regional climate model (AORCM) for the Mediterranean basin under the framework of the CORWES project. CORWES is a Spanish consortium of research groups using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to contribute to the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). We use WRF and ROMS models as the atmospheric and oceanic component, respectively. Coupling between WRF and ROMS is achieved in the following way: on a prescribed interval of 2 h, WRF sends wind stress, surface heat and water fluxes to ROMS time-averaged over the previous two hours. One hour later, and also with a prescribed interval of 2 h, ROMS sends time-averaged SST to WRF. Here, we mainly focus on the performance of the coupled system in reproducing the ocean surface temperatures. To separate effects of the coupling on SST, additional uncoupled atmospheric simulations are also done in parallel. The case study covers the years 2001-2005 and is described below. The resolution of the domain used is 12 km. The number of vertical levels is 30 for WRF. The ROMS domain, with 32 vertical levels, is slightly smaller than WRF innermost nest and has a higher resolution of 4 km. The lateral atmospheric boundary conditions for WRF are taken from ERA-Interim reanalysis. The lateral oceanic boundary conditions for ROMS come from the downscaling of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation analysis (SODA) by an uncoupled nested ROMS

  15. The response of Mediterranean thermohaline circulation to climate change: a minimal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.Th.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Physics-based understanding of the effects of paleoclimate and paleogeography on the thermohaline circulation of the Mediterranean Sea requires an ocean model capable of long integrations and involving a minimum of assumptions about the atmospheric forcing. Here we examine the sensitivity of

  16. The response of Mediterranean thermohaline circulation to climate change: a minimal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.Th.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Physics-based understanding of the effects of paleoclimate and paleogeography on the thermohaline circulation of the Mediterranean Sea requires an ocean model capable of long integrations and involving a minimum of assumptions about the atmospheric forcing. Here we examine the sensitivity of the

  17. Wood stakes as an index of soil organic matter decomposition in a climatic gradient along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgensen, M. F.; Page-Dumroese, D. S.; Cerdà, A.; Úbeda, X.; M-Mena, M.; Rey, A.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) decomposition is a critical factor in assessing the possible impacts of future climate change and management on soil carbon cycling and sequestration. Soil OM decomposition is a function of abiotic (e.g. moisture, temperature, nutrient content, pH), and biotic (microbial biomass, functional diversity) conditions, which makes this soil process ideally suited to study across a range of soil and climatic conditions. We used wood stakes of four tree species (Populus alba, Populus tremuloides, Pinus halenensis, Pinus taeda) as standard indices of OM decomposition rates on the soil surface and in the mineral soil of three sites along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast with different soils, land use and climatic conditions: 1) Quercus suber forest - 700 mm rainfall /year, 2) Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepenis forest - 300 mm rainfall/year, and 3) tussock grasses - 150 mm rainfall /year. Our results show significant differences in wood stake decomposition as a function of climatic conditions, land use management, and wood stake species.

  18. Operational approaches to managing forests of the future in Mediterranean regions within a context of changing climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Scott L.; Millar, Constance I.; Collins, Brandon M.

    2010-04-01

    Many US forest managers have used historical ecology information to assist in the development of desired conditions. While there are many important lessons to learn from the past, we believe that we cannot rely on past forest conditions to provide us with blueprints for future management. To respond to this uncertainty, managers will be challenged to integrate adaptation strategies into plans in response to changing climates. Adaptive strategies include resistance options, resilience options, response options, and realignment options. Our objectives are to present ideas that could be useful in developing plans under changing climates that could be applicable to forests with Mediterranean climates. We believe that managing for species persistence at the broad ecoregion scale is the most appropriate goal when considering the effects of changing climates. Such a goal relaxes expectations that current species ranges will remain constant, or that population abundances, distribution, species compositions and dominances should remain stable. Allowing fundamental ecosystem processes to operate within forested landscapes will be critical. Management and political institutions will have to acknowledge and embrace uncertainty in the future since we are moving into a time period with few analogs and inevitably, there will be surprises.

  19. Operational approaches to managing forests of the future in Mediterranean regions within a context of changing climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Scott L; Millar, Constance I; Collins, Brandon M

    2010-01-01

    Many US forest managers have used historical ecology information to assist in the development of desired conditions. While there are many important lessons to learn from the past, we believe that we cannot rely on past forest conditions to provide us with blueprints for future management. To respond to this uncertainty, managers will be challenged to integrate adaptation strategies into plans in response to changing climates. Adaptive strategies include resistance options, resilience options, response options, and realignment options. Our objectives are to present ideas that could be useful in developing plans under changing climates that could be applicable to forests with Mediterranean climates. We believe that managing for species persistence at the broad ecoregion scale is the most appropriate goal when considering the effects of changing climates. Such a goal relaxes expectations that current species ranges will remain constant, or that population abundances, distribution, species compositions and dominances should remain stable. Allowing fundamental ecosystem processes to operate within forested landscapes will be critical. Management and political institutions will have to acknowledge and embrace uncertainty in the future since we are moving into a time period with few analogs and inevitably, there will be surprises.

  20. Rising Temperatures and Dwindling Water Supplies? Perception of Climate Change Among Residents of the Spanish Mediterranean Tourist Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Hug; Saurí, David; Olcina, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the results of a survey on the perception of climate change in the 14 "tourist zones" (as defined by the Spanish Statistical Institute, INE) that stretch from the French border to Gibraltar alongside the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including the Balearic Islands. Our sample consisted of 1,014 telephone interviews stratified according to the number of tourists staying in each zone. Respondents showed concern for the likely impacts of climate change on jobs and thought that climate change would reduce the economic activity of their areas. Responses were also pessimistic regarding future water availability but agreed with the development of alternative sources such as desalination and water re-use. Household size, educational levels, and employment tended to be the most significant statistical explanatory factors regarding attitudes toward climate change. Respondents in larger households (a variable not tested in the literature as far as we know), respondents with higher education, and respondents working for a wage tended to express more concerns than the rest.

  1. A new integrated oceanographic/atmospheric facility in the central Mediterranean: the instrumented buoy contributing to the Lampedusa Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sarra, Alcide; Bommarito, Carlo; Meloni, Daniela; Monteleone, Francesco; Pace, Giandomenico; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Anello, Fabrizio; Artale, Vincenzo; Bergamasco, Alessandro; Colella, Simone; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Marullo, Salvatore; Piacentino, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Volpe, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    The Station for Climate Observations on the island of Lampedusa (35.52°N, 12.63°E; http://www.lampedusa.enea.it) has been operational since 1997 in the central Mediterranean Sea and is dedicated at long-term measurements of atmospheric parameters related to climate. Measurements, also made in collaboration with different international Institutes, contribute to several global networks (GAW/WMO; NOAA Cooperative air sampling network; AERONET; ICOS, etc.). As an integration of the climate observatory, an oceanographic buoy was deployed in August 2015 about 3.3 miles South West of the island of Lampedusa, at 35.49°N, 12.47°E. The buoy was developed within the Italian RITMARE flagship project. The ocean depth at the buoy site is 74 m. Primary scientific objectives of the marine observatory are: to investigate air sea interactions in the central Mediterranean; to study the surface energy budget; to characterize the oceanic optical properties, and to investigate links with the carbon cycle. The site will act as a cal/val facility for satellite observations. A first set of measurements of downwelling shortwave and longwave irradiances were activated in September 2015, and more than 1 year of continuous measurements are now available. The other instruments are presently being installed and will become operational soon. They include CTD, O2, and temperature sensors at various depths; 7-band upwelling and downwelling radiation sensors at two depths; downwelling and upwelling solar (broadband and spectral) and infrared (broadband) irradiances at the surface; meteorological parameters. Additional developments are linked to the measurement of oceanic pCO2 and atmospheric turbulence, including sensible heat fluxes. The buoy is open to further expansions and developments.

  2. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  3. Realising consilience: How better communication between archaeologists, historians and natural scientists can transform the study of past climate change in the Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izdebski, A.; Holmgren, K.; Weiberg, E.; Stocker, S. R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Florenzano, A.; Gogou, A.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Luterbacher, J.; Martrat, B.; Masi, A.; Mercuri, A. M.; Montagna, P.; Sadori, L.; Schneider, A.; Sicre, M. A.; Triantaphyllou, M.; Xoplaki, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 136, SI (2016), s. 5-22 ISSN 0277-3791 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : environmental history * land-use * cultural landscape * eastern anatolia * plant landscape * soil-erosion * human impact * collapse * holocene * roman * Archaeology * Climate change * Consilience * History * Interdisciplinary collaboration * Mediterranean * Natural sciences * Palaeoecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.797, year: 2016

  4. Late Glacial to Holocene climate change and human impact in the Mediterranean : The last ca. 17ka diatom record of Lake Prespa (Macedonia/Albania/Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane M.; Wagner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Lake Prespa (Macedonia/Albania/Greece) occupies an important location between Mediterranean and central European climate zones. Although previous multi-proxy research on the Late Glacial to Holocene sequence, core Co1215 (320cm; ca. 17cal ka BP to present), has demonstrated its great value as an

  5. Impact of climate change on water balance components in Mediterranean rainfed olive orchards under tillage or cover crop soil management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carretero, María Teresa; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Dosio, Alessandro; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    The rainfed olive orchards in Southern Spain constitute the main socioeconomic system of the Mediterranean Spanish agriculture. These systems have an elevated level of complexity and require the accurate characterization of crop, climate and soil components for a correct management. It is common the inclusion of cover crops (usually winter cereals or natural cover) intercalated between the olive rows in order to reduce water erosion. Saving limited available water requires specific management, mowing or killing these cover crops in early spring. Thus, under the semi-arid conditions in Southern Spain the management of the cover crops in rainfed olive orchards is essential to avoid a severe impact to the olive orchards yield through depletion of soil water. In order to characterize this agricultural system, a complete water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for the semi-arid conditions of Southern Spain, called WABOL (Abazi et al., 2013). In this complex and fragile system, the climate change constitutes a huge threat for its sustainability, currently limited by the availability of water resources, and its forecasted reduction for Mediterranean environments in Southern Spain. The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of climate change on the different components of the water balance in these representative double cropping systems: transpiration of the olive orchard and cover crop, runoff, deep percolation and soil water content. Four climatic scenarios from the FP6 European Project ENSEMBLES were first bias corrected for temperatures and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) and, subsequently, used as inputs for the WABOL model for five olive orchard fields located in Southern Spain under different conditions of crop, climate, soils and management, in order to consider as much as possible of the variability detected in the Spanish olive orchards. The first results indicate the significant effect of the cover

  6. Influence of urbanization pattern on stream flow of a peri-urban catchment under Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Coelho, Celeste A. O.

    2015-04-01

    The demand for better life quality and lower living costs created a great pressure on peri-urban areas, leading to significant land-use changes. The complexity of mixed land-use patterns, however, presents a challenge to understand the hydrological pathways and streamflow response involved in such changes. This study assesses the impact of a actively changing Portuguese peri-urban area on catchment hydrology. It focuses on quantifying streamflow delivery from contributing areas, of different land-use arrangement and the seasonal influence of the Mediterranean climate on stream discharge. The study focuses on Ribeira dos Covões a small (6 km2) peri-urban catchment on the outskirts of Coimbra, one of the main cities in central Portugal. Between 1958 and 2012 the urban area of the catchment expanded from 8% to 40%, mostly at the expense of agriculture (down from 48% to 4%), with woodland now accounting for the remaining 56% of the catchment area. The urban area comprises contrasting urban settings, associated with older discontinuous arrangement of buildings and urban structures and low population density (80% woodland and highest (29% on sandstone; 18% on limestone) in the most urbanized (49-53% urban) sub-catchments. Percentage impermeable surface seems to control streamflow particularly during dry periods. Winter runoff was 2-4 times higher than total river flow in the summer dry season in highly urbanized areas, but was 21-fold higher in winter in the least urbanized sub-catchment, denoting greater flow connectivity enhanced by increased soil moisture. Although impermeable surfaces are prone to generate overland flow, the proximity to the stream network is an important parameter determining their hydrological impacts. During the monitoring period, the enlargement of 2% of the urban area at downslope locations in the Covões sub-catchment, led to a 6% increase in the runoff coefficient. In contrast, the urban area increase from 9 to 25% mainly in upslope parts of

  7. Rapid changes in temperature and hydrology in the western Mediterranean during the last climatic cycle from the high resolution record ODP Site 976 (Alboran Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Peyron, Odile; Bout-Roumazeille, Viviane

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution pollen record, pollen-inferred climate reconstructions and clay mineralogy records were performed over the last climatic cycle from the ODP Site 976 located in the Alboran Sea Continental paleoenvironment proxies were provided on the same samples to depict the short and long term variability of Mediterranean vegetation and climate during the two last terminations and the last two interglacials. Pollen record highlights the vegetation changes associated to climate variability while clay mineralogy informs about the terrigenous inputs related to wind and/or river transport. During the last cycle, both vegetation and clay minerals data have recorded the response of continental ecosystems to all the climate events which characterized the last 135000 years. The Dansgaard/Oeschger oscillations and the rapid cold events evidenced in the North Atlantic (Bond et al., 1993; McManus et al., 1994) are well evidenced in the ODP sequence. Thus, warm interstadials show a strong colonisation of temperate Mediterranean forest while cold events are particularly well expressed by correlative increases in dry steppic to semi-desert formation with enhanced input from African desert dust (Bout-Roumazeilles et al, 2007 and in progress). A special attention has been paid on the two last glacial/interglacial transitions 1 and 2 that occurred before the interglacial inception in order to better understand what happened during these key-periods in continental areas and also better understand how reacts the Mediterranean climate regime through these two periods. The two high resolution records from the Terminaison 2/ Stage 5 and Terminaison 1/ Holocene are compared especially with regards to the wind regime modifications through atmospheric supply, and to hydrological and temperature changes reconstructed from pollen data. Therefore for these two key-periods, we aim to produce a robust climate reconstruction pollen-inferred precipitation and temperature from the 0DP 976 marine

  8. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  9. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-07-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  10. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  11. A fully coupled Mediterranean regional climate system model: design and evaluation of the ocean component for the 1980–2012 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Sevault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A fully coupled regional climate system model (CNRM-RCSM4 dedicated to the Mediterranean region is described and evaluated using a multidecadal hindcast simulation (1980–2012 driven by global atmosphere and ocean reanalysis. CNRM-RCSM4 includes the regional representation of the atmosphere (ALADIN-Climate model, land surface (ISBA model, rivers (TRIP model and the ocean (NEMOMED8 model, with a daily coupling by the OASIS coupler. This model aims to reproduce the regional climate system with as few constraints as possible: there is no surface salinity, temperature relaxation, or flux correction; the Black Sea budget is parameterised and river runoffs (except for the Nile are fully coupled. The atmospheric component of CNRM-RCSM4 is evaluated in a companion paper; here, we focus on the air–sea fluxes, river discharges, surface ocean characteristics, deep water formation phenomena and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. Long-term stability, mean seasonal cycle, interannual variability and decadal trends are evaluated using basin-scale climatologies and in-situ measurements when available. We demonstrate that the simulation shows overall good behaviour in agreement with state-of-the-art Mediterranean RCSMs. An overestimation of the shortwave radiation and latent heat loss as well as a cold Sea Surface Temperature (SST bias and a slight trend in the bottom layers are the primary current deficiencies. Further, CNRM-RCSM4 shows high skill in reproducing the interannual to decadal variability for air–sea fluxes, river runoffs, sea surface temperature and salinity as well as open-sea deep convection, including a realistic simulation of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. We conclude that CNRM-RCSM4 is a mature modelling tool allowing the climate variability of the Mediterranean regional climate system to be studied and understood. It is used in hindcast and scenario modes in the HyMeX and Med-CORDEX programs.

  12. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and COinf2/infin a Mediterranean environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Ferrise, R.; Rodríguez, A.; Lorite, I. J.; Bindi, M.; Carter, T. R.; Fronzek, S.; Palosuo, T.; Pirttioja, N. K.; Baranowski, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Chen, Y.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffmann, H.; Höhn, J.; Jurečka, František; Kersebaum, K. C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lana, M.; Mechiche-Alami, A.; Minet, J.; Montesino, M.; Nendel, C.; Porter, J. R.; Ruget, F.; Semenov, M. A.; Steinmetz, Z.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; de Wit, H. A.; Rötter, R. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, JAN (2018), s. 260-274 ISSN 0308-521X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : AOCK concept * Crop model ensemble * Mediterranean cropping system * Rainfed * Sensitivity analysis * Wheat adaptation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2016

  13. The Middle Miocene Climate Transition in the Central Mediterranean. Geologica Ultraiectina (326)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Miocene Climate Transition (~15-13.7 Ma) is one of the major steps in Cenozoic climate evolution. The rapid expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ~13.9 – 13.7 Ma caused important climate changes on a global scale. The aim of this PhD research has been to study the effects of the

  14. Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann ecology and its relationship with climatic variables and natural enemies in Mediterranean areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Jaume; Alegre, Simó; Gatius, Ferran; Sarasúa, M José; Alins, Georgina

    2015-02-01

    A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect the ecology and population dynamics of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was observed from May to August. Winter temperatures did not kill the canopy colonies, and both canopy and root colonies are the source of reinfestations in Mediterranean areas. Thus, control measures should simultaneously address roots and canopy. European earwigs Forficula auricularia (Linnaeus) were found to reduce the survival of overwintering canopy colonies up to June, and this can allow their later control by the parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) from summer to fall. Preliminary models to predict canopy infestations were developed.

  15. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A.; Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Maguas, C.; Branquinho, C.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO 2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species

  16. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Cerena, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maguas, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, Universidade Atlantica, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-08-15

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO{sub 2} and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species.

  17. Reconstruction of climate change at sub-decadal resolution from marine sediment cores from the Gulf of Taranto, Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauel, A.; Mueller, I.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Zonneveld, K. A.; de Lange, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the framework of MOCCHA project (Multidisciplinary study of continental/ocean climate dynamics using high-resolution records from the eastern Mediterranean) we are reconstructing Holocene climate change from high sedimentation rate marine cores collected in the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). For a calibration study, we carried out oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of planktonic foraminifera of an extensive set of sediment surface samples taken along the southern Italian coast. The comparison with seasonal satellite-based sea surface temperature maps and water column profiles, as well as to a set of water samples from the Gulf of Taranto allows estimating the effect of salinity on the δ18O of foraminifera. The results indicate that the planktonic species G. ruber, while being highly affected by different salinity distributions, predominantly record a signal for summer temperature conditions. Measurements of G. ruber (white and pink sub-species) at 5 year resolution from a short core covering the last 700 years, show large and coherent variations in δ18O which can be correlated to global temperature reconstructions, suggesting that this is a very promising site for reconstructing Holocene climate variability. Differences in the records of the two subspecies indicate an anthropogenic impact on the ecology of these foraminifera for the last 100 years, which is probably related to nutrient inputs.

  18. Multidisciplinary study Of Continental/ocean Climate dynamics using High-resolution records from the eastern mediterraneAn (MOCCHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, G. J.; Versteegh, G.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Bernasconi, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    For high-resolution paleoclimate studies on high-frequency variations, continuous marine records with sufficient time resolution are needed. Such records are rare but vital for our understanding of causes and consequences of climate and environmental change at decadal to millennial time scales. Our initial studies at a near-coastal and a deep Mediterranean anoxic basin site seem to provide a continuous marine paleo-climate record that permits such high-resolution and well dated climate reconstructions for at least the last few kyrs. Cores for the MOCCHA project have been collected during the pre-Moccha ESPRESSO cruise with RV Universitatis and CAPUCCINO cruise with RV Poseidon, followed by the DOPPIO cruise with RV Pelagia. The cores recovered and studied thusfar appear to contain largely laminated sediments (submillimetric) down to 10 kyr. We will introduce the sites with existing and recently published evidence and supplement these with preliminary results for both sites obtained during these cruises. All of these are illustrating their suitability for high-resolution studies of paleoclimate that we hope to extend to > 35 kyr, i.e. for future IODP drilling. This work is supported by the EUROMARGINS Programme of the European Science Foundation NWO.817.01.002 MOCCHA project).

  19. The impact of climatic variations on the reproductive success of Gentiana lutea L. in a Mediterranean mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuena-Lombraña, Alba; Fois, Mauro; Fenu, Giuseppe; Cogoni, Donatella; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2018-03-30

    Increases in temperature have been predicted and reported for the Mediterranean mountain ranges due to global warming and this phenomenon is expected to have profound consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We hereby present the case of Gentiana lutea L. subsp. lutea, a rhizomatous long-lived plant living in Central-Southern Europe, which is at the edge of its ecological and distributional range in Sardinia. Concretely, we analysed the reproductive success experienced during three phenological cycles (2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016) in four representative populations, with particular attention to the phenological cycle of 2014/2015, which has been recorded as one of the warmest periods of the last decades. The Smirnov-Grubbs test was used to evaluate differences in temperature and precipitation regimes among historical data and the analysed years, while the Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Wilcoxon test was used to measure differences between anthesis and reproductive performances among cycles and populations. In addition, generalised linear models were carried out to check relationships between climate variables and reproductive performance. Significant differences among climate variables and analysed cycles were highlighted, especially for maximum and mean temperatures. Such variations determined a non-flowering stage in two of the four analysed populations in 2014/2015 and significant differences of further five reproductive traits among cycles. These results confirmed that in current unstable climatic conditions, which are particularly evident in seasonal climates, reproductive success can be a sensitive and easily observable indicator of climatic anomalies. Considering the importance of this issue and the ease and cost-effectiveness of reproductive success monitoring, we argue that research in this sense can be a supporting tool for the enhancement of future crucial targets such as biodiversity conservation and the mitigation of global

  20. Combined impacts of climate and socio-economic scenarios on irrigation water availability for a dry Mediterranean reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Jacinto, Rita; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of climate and associated socio-economic changes on water availability, including supply and demand, quality, and storage volume, were evaluated for the Vale do Gaio reservoir in southern Portugal, located in a dry Mediterranean climate and already under drought stress. The SWAT model was applied with 6 scenarios for 2071-2100, involving two storylines (A1B and B1) with individual changes in climate (-9% annual rainfall, increasing in winter by +28 to +30%), socio-economic conditions (an increase in irrigation demand by 11%, and a replacement of cereals and pastures by sunflower), and a combination of both. Most future scenarios resulted in lower water availability, due to lower supply by streamflow (-19 to -27%) combined with higher irrigation demand (+3 to +21%). This resulted in more years with constraints on irrigation supply (presently: 28%; scenarios: 37 to 43%), although they were partially mitigated by lower losses due to storage excess discharge. However, land-use changes also decreased water quality by increasing sediment loads (+86 to +109%) and associated Phosphorus loads (+28 to +48%). This was mostly due to a projected replacement of existing pastures by sunflower cultivation for biodiesel, which was the major source of increased erosion. The combination of lower volumes and higher sediment and P flows also increased P concentrations in the reservoir (+29 to +93%), increasing conditions for eutrophication. Impacts were more severe in scenario A1B than in B1, and in combined changes than in climate or socio-economic changes alone. Water availability was resilient to climate change, as impacts led only to a moderate aggravation of present-day conditions. Lower future water availability could be addressed by improved supply and demand management strategies and, in the most extreme scenario, by water transfers from regional water reserves; future water quality issues, however, could be addressed through land-use policies aiming at soil

  1. Floodplain inundation response to climate, valley form, and flow regulation on a gravel-bed river in a Mediterranean-climate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, P.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2017-04-01

    Floodplain inundation regime defines hydrological connectivity between river channel and floodplain and thus strongly controls structure and function of these highly diverse and productive ecosystems. We combined an extensive LiDAR data set on topography and vegetation, long-term hydrological records, as well as the outputs of hydrological and two-dimensional hydraulic models to examine how floodplain inundation regimes in a dynamic, regulated, gravel-cobble river in a Mediterranean-climate region are controlled by reach-scale valley morphology, hydroclimatic conditions, and flow regulation. Estimated relative differences in the extent, duration, and cumulative duration of inundation events were often as large as an order of magnitude and generally greatest for large and long duration events. The relative impact of flow regulation was greatest under dry hydroclimatic conditions. Although the effects of hydroclimate and flow impairment are larger than that of valley floor topography, the latter controls sensitivity of floodplain hydroperiod to flow regime changes and should not be ignored. These quantitative estimates of the relative importance of factors that control floodplain processes in Mediterranean, semiarid rivers contributes to better understanding of hydrology and geomorphology of this important class of channels. We also discuss implications of our findings for processes that shape floodplain habitat for riparian vegetation and salmonid fish, especially in the context of ecological restoration.

  2. Assessment of gridded observations used for climate model validation in the Mediterranean region: the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Drobinski, Philippe; Borga, Marco; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Delrieu, Guy; Morin, Efrat; Tartari, Gianni; Toffolon, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    This letter assesses the quality of temperature and rainfall daily retrievals of the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA and D) with respect to measurements collected locally in various parts of the Euro-Mediterranean region in the framework of the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX), endorsed by the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). The ECA and D, among other gridded datasets, is very often used as a reference for model calibration and evaluation. This is for instance the case in the context of the WCRP Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) and its Mediterranean declination MED-CORDEX. This letter quantifies ECA and D dataset uncertainties associated with temperature and precipitation intra-seasonal variability, seasonal distribution and extremes. Our motivation is to help the interpretation of the results when validating or calibrating downscaling models by the ECA and D dataset in the context of regional climate research in the Euro-Mediterranean region. (letter)

  3. Decadal analysis of impact of future climate on wheat production in dry Mediterranean environment: A case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prakash N; Telleria, Roberto; Al Khatib, Amal N; Allouzi, Siham F

    2018-01-01

    Different aspects of climate change, such as increased temperature, changed rainfall and higher atmospheric CO 2 concentration, all have different effects on crop yields. Process-based crop models are the most widely used tools for estimating future crop yield responses to climate change. We applied APSIM crop simulation model in a dry Mediterranean climate with Jordan as sentinel site to assess impact of climate change on wheat production at decadal level considering two climate change scenarios of representative concentration pathways (RCP) viz., RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Impact of climatic variables alone was negative on grain yield but this adverse effect was negated when elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were also considered in the simulations. Crop cycle of wheat was reduced by a fortnight for RCP4.5 scenario and by a month for RCP8.5 scenario at the approach of end of the century. On an average, a grain yield increase of 5 to 11% in near future i.e., 2010s-2030s decades, 12 to 16% in mid future i.e., 2040s-2060s decades and 9 to 16% in end of century period can be expected for moderate climate change scenario (RCP4.5) and 6 to 15% in near future, 13 to 19% in mid future and 7 to 20% increase in end of century period for a drastic climate change scenario (RCP8.5) based on different soils. Positive impact of elevated CO 2 is more pronounced in soils with lower water holding capacity with moderate increase in temperatures. Elevated CO 2 had greater positive effect on transpiration use efficiency (TUE) than negative effect of elevated mean temperatures. The change in TUE was in near perfect direct relationship with elevated CO 2 levels (R 2 >0.99) and every 100-ppm atmospheric CO 2 increase resulted in TUE increase by 2kgha -1 mm -1 . Thereby, in this environment yield gains are expected in future and farmers can benefit from growing wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tree-ring analysis of winter climate variability and ENSO in Mediterranean California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Univ. of Colorado, Boulder

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using tree-ring data as a proxy for regional precipitation and ENSO events in the Mediterranean region of California is explored. A transect of moisture-sensitive tree-ring sites, extending from southwestern to north-central California, documents regional patterns of winter precipitation and replicates the regional response to ENSO events in the 20. century. Proxy records of ENSO were used with the tree-ring data to examine precipitation/ENSO patterns in the 18. and 19. centuries. Results suggest some temporal and spatial variability in the regional precipitation response to ENSO over the last three centuries

  5. Estimating climate-change effects on a Mediterranean catchment under various irrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. von Gunten

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insight: The simulated catchment responses to climate change show clear differences between the irrigation scenarios. In future climate, groundwater levels and base flows decrease more when irrigation is present than without irrigation, because groundwater levels and base flow in present climate are already at low levels without irrigation. In contrast, annual peak discharges increase more in non-irrigated cases than in irrigated cases. Irrigation increases water availability and an associated rise in potential evapotranspiration results in higher actual evapotranspiration during summer. In non-irrigated scenarios, by contrast, actual evapotranspiration in summer is controlled by precipitation and thus decreases in future climate.

  6. Impact of climate change on heavy precipitation events of the Mediterranean basin; Impact du changement climatique sur les evenements de pluie intense du bassin mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, D.; Beaulant, A.L.; Deque, M.; Ducrocq, V.; Joly, A.; Joly, B.; Martin, E.; Nuissier, O.; Quintana Segui, P.; Ribes, A.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S. [Meteo-France et CNRS, Groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique (GAME), 31 - Toulouse (France); Boe, J. [California Univ., Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A second topic covered by the CYPRIM project aims to characterize the evolution of heavy precipitation events in Mediterranean in the context of climate change. To this end, a continuous climate simulation from 1960 to 2099 has been run using a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model under IPCC A2 emission scenario. Various techniques of down-scaling, down to the very fine 2 km scale, and methods to highlight synoptic environments favourable to heavy rain, have been used to estimate the impact of climate change on precipitation and hydrology over South-East France, both for the whole autumn season and the heavy rain events. (authors)

  7. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  8. The impact of ocean-atmosphere interaction and atmospheric model resolution on the Mediterranean climate as simulated by regionally coupled ESM ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Dmitry; Cabos, William; Jacob, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea and adjacent land is located in a transitional area between tropical and mid-latitudes and presents a complex orography and coastlines where intense local air-sea and land-sea interactions take place. These intense local air-sea interactions together with the inflow of Atlantic water drive the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. The resolution of global climate models in general is too coarse to correctly describe air-sea fluxes of energy and mass that play a key role in the process of deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. From the other hand stand-alone atmospheric models can be inadequate to simulate the air-sea fluxes correctly. For these reasons, the Mediterranean Sea is a region where atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCM) are critical for the study of the processes in the atmosphere and ocean. In this work we use the regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model ROM and its atmospheric component REMO in standalone configuration in order to assess the role of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks and the ocean and atmosphere models resolution in the simulation of both the ocean and atmospheric features of the Mediterranean hydrological cycle. To this end, a number of coupled and uncoupled simulations forced by ERA-Interim boundary conditions have been carried out. Namely, four different sets of coupled and uncoupled simulations with different atmospheric resolutions (25 and 12.5 km) are used to estimate the impact of resolution and coupling on the mass and heat budget as well as deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Climate Data Homogenization and its Impact on Heatwave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, F. G.; Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Della-Marta, P. M.; Zerefos, C. S.; Turkes, M.; Luterbacher, J.

    2010-12-01

    Heatwaves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heatwaves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heatwave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified before and after data homogenization. Daily temperature homogeneity analyses suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heatwave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heatwave intensity, heatwave length and heatwave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor of 7.6 ± 1.3, 7.5 ± 1.3 and 6.2 ± 1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heatwave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  10. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Soil organic carbon distribution in Mediterranean areas under a climate change scenario via multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Obregón-Romero, Rafael

    2017-08-15

    Over time, the interest on soil studies has increased due to its role in carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO 2 rates. In many studies, independent variables were related to soil organic carbon (SOC) alone, however, the contribution degree of each variable with the experimentally determined SOC content were not considered. In this study, samples from 612 soil profiles were obtained in a natural protected (Red Natura 2000) of Sierra Morena (Mediterranean area, South Spain), considering only the topsoil 0-25cm, for better comparison between results. 24 independent variables were used to define it relationship with SOC content. Subsequently, using a multiple linear regression analysis, the effects of these variables on the SOC correlation was considered. Finally, the best parameters determined with the regression analysis were used in a climatic change scenario. The model indicated that SOC in a future scenario of climate change depends on average temperature of coldest quarter (41.9%), average temperature of warmest quarter (34.5%), annual precipitation (22.2%) and annual average temperature (1.3%). When the current and future situations were compared, the SOC content in the study area was reduced a 35.4%, and a trend towards migration to higher latitude and altitude was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of three downscaling methods in simulating the impact of climate change on the hydrology of Mediterranean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Seguí, P.; Ribes, A.; Martin, E.; Habets, F.; Boé, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryStudies of the impact of climate change on water resources usually follow a top to bottom approach: a scenario of emissions is used to run a GCM simulation, which is downscaled (RCM and/or stastistical methods) and bias-corrected. Then, this data is used to force a hydrological model. Seldom, impact studies take into account all relevant uncertainties. In fact, many published studies only use one climate model and one downscaling technique. In this study, the outputs of an atmosphere-ocean regional climate model are downscaled and bias-corrected using three different techniques: a statistical method based on weather regimes, a quantile-mapping method and the method of the anomaly. The resulting data are used to force a distributed hydrological model to simulate the French Mediterranean basins. These are characterized by water scarcity and an increasing human pressure, which cause a demand in assessments on the impact of climate change hydrological systems. The purpose of the study is mainly methodological: the evaluation of the uncertainty related to the downscaling and bias-correction step. The periods chosen to compare the changes are the end of the 20th century (1970-2000) and the middle of the 21st century (2035-2065). The study shows that the three methods produce similar anomalies of the mean annual precipitation, but there are important differences, mainly in terms of spatial patterns. The study also shows that there are important differences in the anomalies of temperature. These uncertainties are amplified by the hydrological model. In some basins, the simulations do not agree in the sign of the anomalies and, in many others, the differences in amplitude of the anomaly are very important. Therefore, the uncertainty related to the downscaling and bias-correction of the climate simulation must be taken into account in order to better estimate the impact of climate change, with its uncertainty, on a specific basin. The study also shows that according

  13. The response of Mediterranean thermohaline circulation to climate change: a minimal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Th. Meijer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Physics-based understanding of the effects of paleoclimate and paleogeography on the thermohaline circulation of the Mediterranean Sea requires an ocean model capable of long integrations and involving a minimum of assumptions about the atmospheric forcing. Here we examine the sensitivity of the deep circulation in the eastern Mediterranean basin to changes in atmospheric forcing, considered a key factor in the deposition of organic-rich sediments (sapropels. To this extent we explore the setup of an ocean general circulation model (MOMA with realistic (present-day bathymetry and highly idealized forcing. The model proves able to qualitatively capture some important features of the large-scale overturning circulation, in particular for the eastern basin. The response to (i a reduction in the imposed meridional temperature gradient, or (ii a reduction in net evaporation, proves to be non-linear and, under certain conditions, of transient nature. Consistent with previous model studies, but now based on a minimum of assumptions, we find that a reduction in net evaporation (such as due to an increase in freshwater input may halt the deep overturning circulation. The ability to perform long model integrations allows us to add the insight that, in order to have the conditions favourable for sapropel formation persist, we must also assume that the vertical mixing of water properties was reduced. The "minimal" model here presented opens the way to experiments in which one truly follows the basin circulation into, or out of, the period of sapropel formation and where forcing conditions are continously adjusted to the precession cycle.

  14. Multi-GCM projections of future drought and climate variability indicators for the Mediterranean region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubrovský, Martin; Hayes, M.; Duce, P.; Trnka, Miroslav; Svoboda, M.; Zara, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2014), s. 1907-1919 ISSN 1436-3798 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * mediteranean * global climate models * temperature * precipitation * drought * palmer drought severity index * weather generator Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2014

  15. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating the contribution of Sustainable Land Management to climate change adaptation and mitigation, and its impacts on Mediterranean ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Joris; Zagaria, Cecilia; Pérez-Cutillas, Pedro; Almagro, Maria; Martínez-Mena, Maria; Baartman, Jantiene; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    Changing climate and land management have strong implications for soil and water resources and for many essential ecosystem services (ES), such as provision of drinking and irrigation water, soil erosion control, and carbon sequestration. Large impacts of climate change are expected in the Mediterranean, characterized by a high dependence on scarce soil and water resources. On the other hand, well designed Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies can reduce the risks associated with climate change, but their design requires knowledge of their multiple effects on ecosystem services under present and future climate scenarios and of possible tradeoffs. Moreover, strategies are only viable if suited to local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions, so stakeholder engagement is crucial during their selection, evaluation and implementation. We present preliminary results of a catchment wide assessment of the expected impacts of climate change on water availability in the Segura basin (18800 km2) southeastern Spain. Furthermore, we evaluated the impacts of past land use changes and the benefits of catchment wide implementation of SLM practices to protect soil and water resources, prevent sedimentation of reservoirs and increase carbon sequestration in soil and vegetation. We used the InVEST modeling framework to simulate the water availability and sediment export under different climate, land use and land management scenarios, and quantified carbon stocks in soil and vegetation. Realistic scenarios of implementation of SLM practices were prepared based on an extensive process of stakeholder engagement and using latest climate change predictions from Regional Climate Models for different emission scenarios. Results indicate a strong decrease in water availability in the Segura catchment under expected climate change, with average reductions of upto 60% and large spatial variability. Land use changes (1990 - 2006) resulted in a slight increase in water

  17. Linking wood anatomy and xylogenesis allows pinpointing of climate and drought influences on growth of coexisting conifers in continental Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Arturo; Camarero, J Julio; Carrer, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Forecasted warmer and drier conditions will probably lead to reduced growth rates and decreased carbon fixation in long-term woody pools in drought-prone areas. We therefore need a better understanding of how climate stressors such as drought constrain wood formation and drive changes in wood anatomy. Drying trends could lead to reduced growth if they are more intense in spring, when radial growth rates of conifers in continental Mediterranean climates peak. Since tree species from the aforementioned areas have to endure dry summers and also cold winters, we chose two coexisting species: Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensisMill., Pinaceae) and Spanish juniper (Juniperus thuriferaL., Cupressaceae) (10 randomly selected trees per species), to analyze how growth (tree-ring width) and wood-anatomical traits (lumen transversal area, cell-wall thickness, presence of intra-annual density fluctuations-IADFs-in the latewood) responded to climatic variables (minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, soil moisture deficit) calculated for different time intervals. Tree-ring width and mean lumen area showed similar year-to-year variability, which indicates that they encoded similar climatic signals. Wet and cool late-winter to early-spring conditions increased lumen area expansion, particularly in pine. In juniper, cell-wall thickness increased when early summer conditions became drier and the frequency of latewood IADFs increased in parallel with late-summer to early-autumn wet conditions. Thus, latewood IADFs of the juniper capture increased water availability during the late growing season, which is reflected in larger tracheid lumens. Soil water availability was one of the main drivers of wood formation and radial growth for the two species. These analyses allow long-term (several decades) growth and wood-anatomical responses to climate to be inferred at intra-annual scales, which agree with the growing patterns already described by xylogenesis approaches for the same

  18. Hydrological modeling of stream flow in small Mediterranean dams and impact of climate change : case study of wadi Rmel catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habaieb, Hamadi; Hermassi, Taoufik; Moncef Masmoudi, Mohamed; Ben Mechlia, Nétij

    2015-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by a semi-arid climate with an irregular and high spatial variability of rainfall. This situation is expected to aggravate under the expected increase of temperature and modification of rainfall regime predicted by most climate models for the Mediterranean region. Water is a major limiting factor for agriculture in Tunisia and mobilization of surface water resources is approaching its maximum. Dams are installed on almost all large watersheds and concerned also medium size and small ones. Hydrological functioning of such structures and their capacity to satisfy user's demand under the changing climate will be addressed using simple models and results will be discussed in this paper. The small catchment of Wadi Rmel is considered here for methodological development. This watershed (675 Km2) is situated in North-East Tunisia with average annual rainfall of 420 mm and was equipped in 1998 with a small dam. Data on rainfall collected at 12 rainfall stations during the period 1908 - 2012 are analyzed and used to build a coherent series of monthly rainfalls and spatially averaged on the watershed by the Thiessen method. In a second step, rainfall-runoff modeling was used to estimate runoff and water budget of the dam. Tow rainfall-runoff models GR2M and SWAT were considered and evaluated when using i) the rainfall observed at the dam and ii) the average rainfall on the watershed. The observed and simulated level in the dam were compared for both models and situations. Results showed that taking into account the spatial distribution of rainfall improved the simulation of stream flows and that SWAT model performs better than GR2M. The use of such models to make prediction of stream flow using downscaled climatic data from GCM will be discussed. Analysis of the results considering tow standardized sets of future greenhouse gas emissions used by the General Circulation Models for the IPCC 5th approximation RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 and three future

  19. Late Glacial to Early Holocene socio-ecological responses to climatic instability within the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier; Jones, Samantha E.; Burjachs, Francesc

    2018-03-01

    The period spanning the Late Glacial and the Early Holocene (≈19-8.2 ka) witnessed a dramatic sequence of climate and palaeoenvironmental changes (Rasmussen et al., 2014). Interestingly, some of the most significant transformations ever documented in human Prehistory took place during this period such as the intensification of hunter-gatherer economic systems, the domestication process of wild plants and animals, and the spread of farming across Eurasia. Understanding the role of climate and environmental dynamics on long-term cultural and economic trajectories, as well as specific human responses to episodes of rapid climate change, still remains as one of the main challenges of archaeological research (Kintigh et al., 2014).

  20. Improving models to assess impacts of climate change on Mediterranean water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, water availability for human consumption has faced major constraints due to increasing pollution and reduced water availability. Water resources availability can gain additional stresses and pressures in the context of potential climate change scenarios. For the last decades, the climate change paradigm has been the scope of many researchers and the focus of decision makers, policies and environmental/climate legislation. Decision-makers face a wide range of constrains, as they are forced to define new strategies that merge planning, management and climate change adaptations. In turn, decision-makers must create integrated strategies aiming at the sustainable use of resources. There are multiple uncertainties associated with climate change impact assessment and water resources. Typically, most studies have dealt with uncertainties in emission scenarios and resulting socio-economic conditions, including land-use and water use. Less frequently, studies have address the disparities between the future climates generated by climate models for the same greenhouse gas concentrations; and the uncertainties related with the limited knowledge of how watersheds work, which also limits the capacity to simulate them with models. Therefore, the objective of this study is to apply the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrological model to a catchment in Alentejo, southern Portugal; and to evaluate the uncertainty associated both to the calibration of hydrological models and the use of different climate change scenarios and models (a combination of 4 GCM (General Circulation Models) and 1 RCM (Regional Circulation Models) for the scenarios RCP 4.5 and 8.5. The Alentejo region is highly vulnerable to the effects of potential climate changes with particular focus on water resources availability, despite several reservoirs used for freshwater supply and agriculture irrigation (e.g. the Alqueva reservoir - the largest artificial lake of the Iberian Peninsula

  1. Short term climate variability during "Roman Classical Period" in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Versteegh, Gerard J. M.

    2011-12-01

    To obtain insight into character and potential forcing of short-term climatic and oceanographic variability in the southern Italian region during the "Roman Classical Period" (60 BC-AD 200), climatic and environmental reconstructions based on a dinoflagelate cyst record from a well dated site in the Gulf of Taranto located at the distal end of the Po-river discharge plume have been established with high temporal resolution. Short-term fluctuations in accumulation rates of the Adriatic Surface Water species Lingulodinium machaerophorum, the freshwater algae Concentricystes and species resistant to aerobic degradation indicate that fluctuations in the trophic state of the upper waters are related to river discharge of northern and eastern Italian rivers which in turn are strongly related to precipitation in Italy. The dinoflagellate cyst association indicates that local sea surface temperatures which in this region are strongly linked to local air temperatures were slightly higher than today. We reconstruct that sea surface temperatures have been relatively high and stable between 60 BC-AD 90 and show a decreasing trend after AD 90. Fluctuations in temperature and river discharge rates have a strong cyclic character with main cyclicities of 7-8 and 11 years. We argue that these cycles are related to variations of the North Atlantic Oscillation climate mode. A strong correlation is observed with global variation in Δ 14C anomalies suggesting that solar variability might be one of the major forcings of the regional climate. Apart from cyclic climate variability we observed a good correlation between non-cyclic temperature drops and global volcanic activity indicating that the latter forms an additional major forcing factor of the southern Italian climate during the Roman Classical Period.

  2. Growth duration is a better predictor of stem increment than carbon supply in a Mediterranean oak forest: implications for assessing forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempereur, Morine; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Damesin, Claire; Joffre, Richard; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rocheteau, Alain; Rambal, Serge

    2015-08-01

    Understanding whether tree growth is limited by carbon gain (source limitation) or by the direct effect of environmental factors such as water deficit or temperature (sink limitation) is crucial for improving projections of the effects of climate change on forest productivity. We studied the relationships between tree basal area (BA) variations, eddy covariance carbon fluxes, predawn water potential (Ψpd ) and temperature at different timescales using an 8-yr dataset and a rainfall exclusion experiment in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean coppice. At the daily timescale, during periods of low temperature (forest productivity under climate change scenarios. © 2015 CNRS-ADEME New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Dynamic of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows in the northwestern Mediterranean: Could climate change be to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Bein, Aymeric; Dedeken, Marine; Oberti, Pascal; Orsini, Antoine; Santucci, Jean-François; Short, Frederic

    2015-07-01

    The distribution and the vitality of the P. oceanica meadow were monitored in the western Mediterranean at 15 sites along the coasts of Corsica (1000 km of coastline) using two monitoring systems, the Posidonia Monitoring Network and SeagrassNet, between 2004 and 2013. While the vitality of the meadow is satisfactory overall, due to the low impact of human pressure along these coasts, patterns of change over time show a slight degradation of the main descriptors of the meadow. The meadow's vitality index had declined on average by 8.6%, the BiPo index by 9.8%, and there was a regression of the lower limit at six sites. While this pattern of change may reflect local alterations in the environment (increase or decline in human pressure), the regressive dynamic of the meadow observed at the lower limit at several reference sites (e.g., Marine Protected Areas, sites distant from sources of human impact) is more worrying. Two hypotheses might explain the regression observed: (i) the rise in mean sea level during the study period, which may have resulted in a significant regression in sectors where the slope is relatively slight, and (ii) the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which declined from 2002 to reach very low values in 2010. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change impacts on wheat production in a Mediterranean environment in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Asseng, S.

    2006-01-01

    The environment in which crops will be grown in the future will change. CO2 concentrations [CO2] and temperatures (T) will probably increase and a decline of winter rainfall is predicted for south-west Australia. To be able to adapt crop systems to a changing climate it is important to know how

  5. Fire management in Mediterranean-climate shrublands: a case study from the Cape fynbos, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Wilgen, BW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors used a spatial data base of fires within 10 protected areas covering >720 000 ha to examine the frequency, seasonality, size and cause of fires over four decades. Their study covered five fire climate zones and a range of mountain fynbos...

  6. New Tree-Ring Evidence from the Pyrenees Reveals Western Mediterranean Climate Variability since Medieval Times

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Krusic, P. J.; Verstege, A.; Sanguesa-Barreda, G.; Wagner, S.; Camarero, J. J.; Ljungqvist, F. C.; Zorita, E.; Oppenheimer, C.; Konter, O.; Tegel, W.; Gärtner, H.; Cherubini, P.; Reinig, F.; Esper, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 14 (2017), s. 5295-5318 ISSN 0894-8755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Europe * Volcanoes * Climate variability * Interannual variability * Multidecadal variability * Trends Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 4.161, year: 2016

  7. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  8. Vine vigor and cluster uniformity on Vitis vinifera L. seed procyanidin composition in a warm Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Edo-Roca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed procyanidin composition of Vitis vinifera L. var. ˈCarignanˈ and ˈGrenacheˈ was analyzed to assess the impact of vintage climatology, plant vigor and bunch variability on the quality of grapes. This study was carried out over 2007 and 2008 vintages in Terra Alta denomination of origin (DO. This region is located in northeastern Spain and characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a continental tendency. Procyanidin composition of seeds from four vineyards was analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC-DAD-TOF/MS. Vintage, vigor and ripeness uniformity had an influence on the procyanidin concentration in seeds. Flavan-3-ol polymerization increased during the warm year, together with a notable dependence on the variety and vine vigor. In warmer years and low vigor, ˈGrenacheˈ seed composition is likely to be more vulnerable than ˈCarignanˈ. High levels of flavan-3-ol monomers and low polymerization characterized the seeds of the temperate year.

  9. Heat accumulation period in the Mediterranean region: phenological response of the olive in different climate areas (Spain, Italy and Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Ruiz, Luis; Fornaciari, Marco; Romano, Bruno; Galán, Carmen; Oteros, Jose; Ben Dhiab, Ali; Msallem, Monji; Orlandi, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The main characteristics of the heat accumulation period and the possible existence of different types of biological response to the environment in different populations of olive through the Mediterranean region have been evaluated. Chilling curves to determine the start date of the heat accumulation period were constructed and evaluated. The results allow us to conclude that the northern olive populations have the greatest heat requirements for the development of their floral buds, and they need a period of time longer than olives in others areas to completely satisfy their biothermic requirements. The olive trees located in the warmest winter areas have a faster transition from endogenous to exogenous inhibition once the peak of chilling is met, and they show more rapid floral development. The lower heat requirements are due to better adaptation to warmer regions. Both the threshold temperature and the peak of flowering date are closely related to latitude. Different types of biological responses of olives to the environment were found. The adaptive capacity shown by the olive tree should be considered as a useful tool with which to study the effects of global climatic change on agro-ecosystems.

  10. Study on the Application of Cool Paintings for the Passive Cooling of Existing Buildings in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Costanzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building roofs play a very important role in the energy balance of buildings, especially in summer, when they are hit by a rather high solar irradiance. Depending on the type of finishing layer, roofs can absorb a great amount of heat and reach quite high temperatures on their outermost surface, which determines significant room overheating. However, the use of highly reflectivecool materials can help to maintain low outer surface temperatures; this practice may improve indoor thermal comfort and reduce the cooling energy need during the hot season. This technology is currently well known and widely used in the USA, whilereceiving increasing attention in Europe. In order to investigate the effectiveness of cool roofs as a passive strategy for passive cooling in moderately hot climates, this paper presents the numerical results of a case study based on the dynamic thermal analysis of an existing office building in Catania (southern Italy, Mediterranean area. The results show how the application of a cool paint on the roof can enhance the thermal comfort of the occupants by reducing the operative temperatures of the rooms and to reduce the overall energy needs of the building for space heating and cooling.

  11. Sustainable earth-based vs. conventional construction systems in the Mediterranean climate: Experimental analysis of thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, S.; de Gracia, A.; Pérez, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    The building envelope has high potential to reduce the energy consumption of buildings according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) because it is involved along all the building process: design, construction, use, and end-of-life. The present study compares the thermal behavior of seven different building prototypes tested under Mediterranean climate: two of them were built with sustainable earth-based construction systems and the other five, with conventional brick construction systems. The tested earth-based construction systems consist of rammed earth walls and wooden green roofs, which have been adapted to contemporary requirements by reducing their thickness. In order to balance the thermal response, wooden insulation panels were placed in one of the earth prototypes. All building prototypes have the same inner dimensions and orientation, and they are fully monitored to register inner temperature and humidity, surface walls temperatures and temperatures inside walls. Furthermore, all building prototypes are equipped with a heat pump and an electricity meter to measure the electrical energy consumed to maintain a certain level of comfort. The experimentation was performed along a whole year by carrying out several experiments in free floating and controlled temperature conditions. This study aims at demonstrating that sustainable construction systems can behave similarly or even better than conventional ones under summer and winter conditions. Results show that thermal behavior is strongly penalized when rammed earth wall thickness is reduced. However, the addition of 6 cm of wooden insulation panels in the outer surface of the building prototype successfully improves the thermal response.

  12. Variability modes of precipitation along a Central Mediterranean area and their relations with ENSO, NAO, and other climatic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimeris, Anastasios; Ranieri, Ezio; Founda, Dimitra; Norrant, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    This study analyses a century-long set of precipitation time series in the Central Mediterranean (encompassing the Greek Ionian and the Italian Puglia regions) and investigates the statistically significant modes of the interannual precipitation variability using efficient methods of spectral decomposition. The statistical relations and the possible physical couplings between the detected modes and the global or hemispheric patterns of climatic variability (the El Niño Southern Oscillation or ENSO, the North Atlantic Oscillation or NAO, the East Atlantic or EA, the Scandinavian or SCAND, and others) were examined in the time-frequency domain and low-order synchronization events were sought. Significant modes of precipitation variability were detected in the Taranto Gulf and the southern part of the Greek Ionian region at the sub-decadal scales (mostly driven by the SCAND pattern) and particularly at the decadal and quasi-decadal scales, where strong relations found with the ENSO activity (under complex implications of EA and NAO) prior to the 1930s or after the early-1970s. The precipitation variations in the Adriatic stations of Puglia are dominated by significant bi-decadal modes which found to be coherent with the ENSO activity and also weakly related with the Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature intrinsic variability. Additionally, important discontinuities characterize the evolution of precipitation in certain stations of the Taranto Gulf and the Greek Ionian region during the early-1960s and particularly during the early-1970s, followed by significant reductions in the mean annual precipitation. These discontinuities seem to be associated with regional effects of NAO and SCAND, probably combined with the impact of the 1970s climatic shift in the Pacific and the ENSO variability.

  13. Stable water isotope patterns in a climate change hotspot: the isotope hydrology framework of Corsica (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Taubald, Heinrich; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-06-01

    The Mediterranean is regarded as a region of intense climate change. To better understand future climate change, this area has been the target of several palaeoclimate studies which also studied stable isotope proxies that are directly linked to the stable isotope composition of water, such as tree rings, tooth enamel or speleothems. For such work, it is also essential to establish an isotope hydrology framework of the region of interest. Surface waters from streams and lakes as well as groundwater from springs on the island of Corsica were sampled between 2003 and 2009 for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. Isotope values from lake waters were enriched in heavier isotopes and define a local evaporation line (LEL). On the other hand, stream and spring waters reflect the isotope composition of local precipitation in the catchment. The intersection of the LEL and the linear fit of the spring and stream waters reflect the mean isotope composition of the annual precipitation (δP) with values of-8.6(± 0.2) ‰ for δ(18)O and-58(± 2) ‰ for δ(2)H. This value is also a good indicator of the average isotope composition of the local groundwater in the island. Surface water samples reflect the altitude isotope effect with a value of-0.17(± 0.02) ‰ per 100 m elevation for oxygen isotopes. At Vizzavona Pass in central Corsica, water samples from two catchments within a lateral distance of only a few hundred metres showed unexpected but systematic differences in their stable isotope composition. At this specific location, the direction of exposure seems to be an important factor. The differences were likely caused by isotopic enrichment during recharge in warm weather conditions in south-exposed valley flanks compared to the opposite, north-exposed valley flanks.

  14. Impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the East Mediterranean - An overview of the first results from the CITYZEN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Saharan dust, vegetation and the sea, as well as from biomass burning, in overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. The east basin of the Mediterranean and the surrounding regions, include significant megacities such as Istanbul and Cairo, but also several large urban centers like to its north part Athens and Thessaloniki; to the east Izmir and Adana, Amman, Beirut, Damascus and to the south Alexandria. The region covers from rural to maritime and desert conditions. During the last decades, the East Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including enhanced vehicle circulation, and in industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems in Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole East Mediterranean region. Ozone and aerosol air quality limits are often exceeded over the entire Mediterranean, in particular during summer. High ozone and aerosol concentrations are harmful for human health and ecosystems, and they can also be responsible for agricultural crop loss and climate change. The contribution of various sources to these exceedances remains to be determined. In addition the importance of interactions between natural and anthropogenic emissions in the area has to be evaluated. For this purpose, in the frame of the CityZEN EU funded project, available records of air pollution levels over the past decades have been compiled and analysed for Istanbul and Cairo

  15. Aridification determines changes in forest growth in Pinus halepensis forests under semiarid Mediterranean climate conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Lasanta, Teodoro; Gracia, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Using a set of 16 Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images from 1984 to 2006, we tested whether climate trends in the last three decades differentially controlled the vegetal activity of eight Pinus halepensis forests located across a marked bioclimatic gradient. Our results show spatial differences in trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) between 1984 and 2006, which were highly related to the spatial distribution of aridity. There was a strong correlation between the change ...

  16. The environmental, archaeological and historical evidence for regional climatic changes and their societal impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean in Late Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Adam; Pickett, Jordan; Roberts, Neil; Waliszewski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for climatic changes in the Eastern Mediterranean for the period 200-800 AD and offers hypotheses on the role of climatic fluctuations in the societal developments that occurred in this region at the end of Antiquity. The geographical focus of the paper includes Anatolia and the Levant, two major regions of the Eastern Roman Empire that are rich in environmental, historical and archaeological data. The paper starts with the review of current research on the economic, settlement and vegetation history of the Eastern Mediterranean in Late Antiquity, which provides the necessary framework for the study of potential climate impacts. The core of the article is devoted to the analysis of the palaeoclimatic evidence, which is divided in two groups. The first one encompasses the direct evidence, that is palaeoclimate proxies and the textual record of extreme weather events, while the second includes indirect information on climate, in particular multi-proxy studies that include pollen analysis, archaeological evidence, and the historical evidence of subsistence crises. We conclude that during our study period there occurred three periods of substantially different climatic conditions. A late Roman drought ∼350-470 AD was followed by a dramatic shift to much wetter climatic conditions. These in turn changed into increasing dryness after ∼730 AD in Anatolia and ∼670 AD in the Levant. The lack of chronological precision in the dating of the archaeological evidence and of some climatic records makes it impossible at present to make conclusive observations regarding the societal responses to these climatic fluctuations. Nonetheless in all probability, the extended and - in some areas - severe late Roman drought did not cause any major social upheaval or economic decline in Anatolia or the Levant, although it appears to have contributed to a change in patterns of water use in the cities. In contrast, the increased availability of moisture

  17. Potential impact of climatic changes on floristic evolution of phytocoenoses in mediterranean agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvenuti

    Full Text Available In order to predict the potential agronomic scenarios of the future, the probable involvements of climatic changes on weed dynamics were analyzed. In this perspective the several climatic parameters were examined and overlapped to the biological characteristics of the different species to predict both: weed evolution and the sustainability of the relative management. Thermal and CO2 increasing favour the weed ruderality in terms of seed quantity and velocity of seed set. In addition the increasing of stress factors (thermal, drought, UV-B, etc. favour the de-specialization trend as typically occurs in the most persistent weeds. Adverse climatic dynamics, even due to events of opposite biological action (for example drought and flooding, appears to have a synergistic impact with the agronomic disturbances. Indeed these additive disturbances increase the selective pressure of the phytocoenoses and play a crucial role in the allowing survival only to the “segetal” weeds as well it occurs from the origin of agriculture. Consequently, the different degree of resilience induces a decreasing of the phytocoenoses complexity. This biodiversity reduction appears to increase the risk of exotic weed invasion overall regards to species from warmer and more arid environments (potentially even parasite species. Their invasivity could be increased by biotic or abiotic stress factors that are not present in their native environment. The fate of rare weeds appears to go to their extinction, overall if their dynamics is linked to fragile mutualistic interaction as it occurs in the case of entomogamous species. Indeed such simultaneous presence (flora and pollinator fauna is mined by the progressive differences between photoperiod and thermoperiod and the consequent de-synchronization of their phenological phases. This virtual weed evolution through the increasing of the richness of self- and wind-pollinated weeds will involve both: 1 the agricultural landscape

  18. Potential impact of climatic changes on floristic evolution of phytocoenoses in mediterranean agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvenuti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the potential agronomic scenarios of the future, the probable involvements of climatic changes on weed dynamics were analyzed. In this perspective the several climatic parameters were examined and overlapped to the biological characteristics of the different species to predict both: weed evolution and the sustainability of the relative management. Thermal and CO2 increasing favour the weed ruderality in terms of seed quantity and velocity of seed set. In addition the increasing of stress factors (thermal, drought, UV-B, etc. favour the de-specialization trend as typically occurs in the most persistent weeds. Adverse climatic dynamics, even due to events of opposite biological action (for example drought and flooding, appears to have a synergistic impact with the agronomic disturbances. Indeed these additive disturbances increase the selective pressure of the phytocoenoses and play a crucial role in the allowing survival only to the “segetal” weeds as well it occurs from the origin of agriculture. Consequently, the different degree of resilience induces a decreasing of the phytocoenoses complexity. This biodiversity reduction appears to increase the risk of exotic weed invasion overall regards to species from warmer and more arid environments (potentially even parasite species. Their invasivity could be increased by biotic or abiotic stress factors that are not present in their native environment. The fate of rare weeds appears to go to their extinction, overall if their dynamics is linked to fragile mutualistic interaction as it occurs in the case of entomogamous species. Indeed such simultaneous presence (flora and pollinator fauna is mined by the progressive differences between photoperiod and thermoperiod and the consequent de-synchronization of their phenological phases. This virtual weed evolution through the increasing of the richness of self- and wind-pollinated weeds will involve both: 1 the agricultural landscape

  19. Losing water in temporary streams on a Mediterranean island: Effects of climate and land-cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Celso; Amengual, Arnau; Homar, Víctor; Zamora, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Temporary streams are unique, sensitive and threatened fluvial systems. They periodically dry up and contribute to biodiversity by supporting different species. In Mediterranean regions, human pressures and climate change increase the duration of the dry period for the streams. We analysed the annual and seasonal trends on streamflow data from 14 gauging stations on temporary streams on the island of Mallorca. We used a Mann-Kendall trend test on data from 1977 to 2009 (33 years) to identify trends in discharge, number of days with water, accumulated precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), and land cover change. Results show a general decreasing trend of streamflow during spring and summer, with flows reduced between 4 and 17% in some basins. Although the inter-annual variability is high for both seasons, the decrease in annual precipitation, the increase in temperature, and the effects of colonization and growth of forests explain the reduction in the number of days with running water. Correlation and elasticity analyses show that precipitation is the main driver for streamflow reduction, but the increase in temperature and land-cover changes also play a significant role in the decreasing of flows. These seasonal changes especially affect the headwaters of the basins, which are located in a mountainous area. The Kendall regional test, applied to the 12 basins considered in the Tramuntana range, reveals a significant decreasing annual trend in the number of days with measured flow. The forest expansion and the warmer conditions cause a higher vegetation water demand, increasing the real evapotranspiration and, consequently, reducing the runoff and thus increasing the losses in the water balance. In addition, the increase in the number of days during which channels and parafluvial habitats are disconnected negatively affects the aquatic habitat. This paper provides the first evidence of a consistent long-term reduction in flow in temporary streams in the

  20. Aerosol indirect effects on summer precipitation in a regional climate model for the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Nicolas; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Aerosols affect atmospheric dynamics through their direct and semi-direct effects as well as through their effects on cloud microphysics (indirect effects). The present study investigates the indirect effects of aerosols on summer precipitation in the Euro-Mediterranean region, which is located at the crossroads of air masses carrying both natural and anthropogenic aerosols. While it is difficult to disentangle the indirect effects of aerosols from the direct and semi-direct effects in reality, a numerical sensitivity experiment is carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which allows us to isolate indirect effects, all other effects being equal. The Mediterranean hydrological cycle has often been studied using regional climate model (RCM) simulations with parameterized convection, which is the approach we adopt in the present study. For this purpose, the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysics scheme is used in a pair of simulations run at 50 km resolution with extremely high and low aerosol concentrations. An additional pair of simulations has been performed at a convection-permitting resolution (3.3 km) to examine these effects without the use of parameterized convection. While the reduced radiative flux due to the direct effects of the aerosols is already known to reduce precipitation amounts, there is still no general agreement on the sign and magnitude of the aerosol indirect forcing effect on precipitation, with various processes competing with each other. Although some processes tend to enhance precipitation amounts, some others tend to reduce them. In these simulations, increased aerosol loads lead to weaker precipitation in the parameterized (low-resolution) configuration. The fact that a similar result is obtained for a selected area in the convection-permitting (high-resolution) configuration allows for physical interpretations. By examining the key variables in the model outputs, we propose a causal chain that links the aerosol

  1. Abiotic and seasonal control of soil-produced CO2 efflux in karstic ecosystems located in Oceanic and Mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Anton, Elena; Cuezva, Soledad; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Alvarez-Gallego, Miriam; Pla, Concepcion; Benavente, David; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    This study characterizes the processes involved in seasonal CO2 exchange between soils and shallow underground systems and explores the contribution of the different biotic and abiotic sources as a function of changing weather conditions. We spatially and temporally investigated five karstic caves across the Iberian Peninsula, which presented different microclimatic, geologic and geomorphologic features. The locations present Mediterranean and Oceanic climates. Spot air sampling of CO2 (g) and δ13CO2 in the caves, soils and outside atmospheric air was periodically conducted. The isotopic ratio of the source contribution enhancing the CO2 concentration was calculated using the Keeling model. We compared the isotopic ratio of the source in the soil (δ13Cs-soil) with that in the soil-underground system (δ13Cs-system). Although the studied field sites have different features, we found common seasonal trends in their values, which suggests a climatic control over the soil air CO2 and the δ13CO2 of the sources of CO2 in the soil (δ13Cs-soil) and the system (δ13Cs-system). The roots respiration and soil organic matter degradation are the main source of CO2 in underground environments, and the inlet of the gas is mainly driven by diffusion and advection. Drier and warmer conditions enhance soil-exterior CO2 interchange, reducing the CO2 concentration and increasing the δ13CO2 of the soil air. Moreover, the isotopic ratio of the source of CO2 in both the soil and the system tends to heavier values throughout the dry and warm season. We conclude that seasonal variations of soil CO2 concentration and its 13C/12C isotopic ratio are mainly regulated by thermo-hygrometric conditions. In cold and wet seasons, the increase of soil moisture reduces soil diffusivity and allows the storage of CO2 in the subsoil. During dry and warm seasons, the evaporation of soil water favours diffusive and advective transport of soil-derived CO2 to the atmosphere. The soil CO2 diffusion is

  2. Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean Sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, C.; Somot, S.; Deque, M.; Sevault, F. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Calmanti, S.; Carillo, A.; Dell' Aquilla, A.; Sannino, G. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Elizalde, A.; Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Gualdi, S.; Oddo, P.; Scoccimarro, E. [INGV, Bologna (Italy); L' Heveder, B.; Li, L. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)

    2012-10-15

    Within the CIRCE project ''Climate change and Impact Research: the Mediterranean Environment'', an ensemble of high resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCMs) are used to simulate the Mediterranean climate for the period 1950-2050. For the first time, realistic net surface air-sea fluxes are obtained. The sea surface temperature (SST) variability is consistent with the atmospheric forcing above it and oceanic constraints. The surface fluxes respond to external forcing under a warming climate and show an equivalent trend in all models. This study focuses on the present day and on the evolution of the heat and water budget over the Mediterranean Sea under the SRES-A1B scenario. On the contrary to previous studies, the net total heat budget is negative over the present period in all AORCMs and satisfies the heat closure budget controlled by a net positive heat gain at the strait of Gibraltar in the present climate. Under climate change scenario, some models predict a warming of the Mediterranean Sea from the ocean surface (positive net heat flux) in addition to the positive flux at the strait of Gibraltar for the 2021-2050 period. The shortwave and latent flux are increasing and the longwave and sensible fluxes are decreasing compared to the 1961-1990 period due to a reduction of the cloud cover and an increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) and SSTs over the 2021-2050 period. The AORCMs provide a good estimates of the water budget with a drying of the region during the twenty-first century. For the ensemble mean, he decrease in precipitation and runoff is about 10 and 15% respectively and the increase in evaporation is much weaker, about 2% compared to the 1961-1990 period which confirm results obtained in recent studies. Despite a clear consistency in the trends and results between the models, this study also underlines important differences in the model set-ups, methodology and choices of some physical parameters inducing

  3. Inclusion of climatic and touristic factors in the analysis and modelling of the municipal water demand in a Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elena; Bragalli, Cristiana; Neri, Mattia

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean regions, inherently affected by water scarcity conditions, the gap between water availability and demand may further increase in the near future due to both climatic and anthropogenic drivers. In particular, the high degree of urbanization and the concentration of population and activities in coastal areas is often severely impacting the water availability also for the residential sector. It is therefore crucial analysing the importance of both climatic and touristic factors as drivers for the water demand in such areas, to better understand and model the expected consumption in order to improve the water management policies and practices. The study presents an analysis referred to a large number of municipalities, covering almost the whole Romagna region, in Northern Italy, representing one of the most economically developed areas in Europe and characterized by an extremely profitable tourist industry, especially in the coastal cities. For this region it is therefore extremely important to assess the significance of the drivers that may influence the demand in the different periods of the year, that is climatic factors (rainfall depths and occurrence, temperature averages and extremes), but also the presence of tourists, in both official tourist accommodation structures and in holidays homes (and the latter are very difficult to estimate). Analyses on the Italian water industry at seasonal or monthly time scale has been so far, extremely limited in the literature by the scarce availability of data on the water demands, that are made public only as annual volumes. All the study municipalities are supplied by the same water company, who provided monthly consumption volumes data at the main inlet points of the entire distribution network for a period of 7 years (2009-2015). For the same period, precipitation and temperature data have been collected and summarised in indexes representing monthly averages, days of occurrence and over threshold values

  4. Climate change and peripheral populations: predictions for a relict Mediterranean viper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Brito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche-based models were developed in peripheral populations of Vipera latastei North Africa to: 1 identify environmental factors related to species occurrence; 2 identify present suitable areas; 3 estimate future areas according to forecasted scenarios of climate change; and 4 quantify habitat suitability changes between present and future climatic scenarios. Field observations were combined with environmental factors to derive an ensemble of predictions of species occurrence. The resulting models were projected to the future North African environmental scenarios. Species occurrence was most related to precipitation variation. Present suitable habitats were fragmented and ranged from coastal to mountain habitats, and the overall fragmented range suggests a relict distribution from wider past ranges. Future projections suggest a progressive decrease in suitable areas. The relationship with precipitation supports the current unsuitability of most North Africa for the species and predicts future increased extinction risk. Monitoring of population trends and full protection of mountain forests are key-targets for long-term conservation of African populations of this viper. Predicted trends may give indications about other peripheral populations of Palearctic vertebrates in North Africa which should be assessed in detail.

  5. Simulation of the hydrodynamic behaviour of a Mediterranean reservoir under different climate change and management scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Prats

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important current issues in the management of lakes and reservoirs is the prediction of global climate change effects to determine appropriate mitigation and adaptation actions. In this paper we analyse whether management actions can limit the effects of climate change on water temperatures in a reservoir. For this, we used the model EOLE to simulate the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of the reservoir of Bimont (Provence region, France in the medium term (2036-2065 and in the long term (2066-2095 using regionalised projections by the model CNRM-CERFACS-CNRM-CM5 under the emission scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Water temperature projections were compared to simulations for the reference period 1993-2013, the longest period for which we had year-long data for both hydrology and meteorology. We calibrated the model using profile measurements for the period 2010-2011 and we carried an extensive validation and assessment of model performance. In fact, we validated the model using profile measurements for 2012-2014, obtaining a root mean square error of 1.08°C and mean bias of -0.11°C, and we assured the consistency of model simulations in the long term by comparing simulated surface temperature to satellite measurements for 1999-2013. We assessed the effect using synthetic input data instead of measured input data by comparing simulations made using both kinds of data for the reference period. Using synthetic data resulted in slightly lower (-0.3°C average and maximum epilimnion temperatures, a somewhat deeper thermocline, and slightly higher evaporation (+7%. To investigate the effect of different management strategies, we considered three management scenarios: i bottom outlet and present water level; ii bottom outlet and elevated water level; and iii surface outlet and elevated water level. According to the simulations, the reservoir of Bimont will have a low rate of warming of the epilimnion of 0.009-0.024 °C·yr-1, but a

  6. Med-CORDEX: a first coordinated inter-comparison of high-resolution and fully coupled regional climate models for the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somot, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Due to its geographical, meteorological and oceanographic features, the Mediterranean region can be considered as one of the best place to test and use regional climate modelling tools. It has been chosen as one of the CORDEX sub-domain (MED) leading to the Med-CORDEX initiative. This open and voluntary initiative, financially supported by MISTRALS/HyMeX, has been proposed by the Mediterranean climate modelling research community as a follow-up of previous initiatives. In addition to the CORDEX-like simulations (Atmosphere-RCM, 50 km, ERA-Interim and GCM driven runs), Med-CORDEX includes additional simulations to experiment some of the regional climate modelling current challenges. We present here the status and results of these additional simulations dedicated to the use of (1) very high-resolution Regional Climate Models (RCM, up to 10 km) and (2) fully coupled Regional Climate System Models (RCSM), coupling the various components of the regional climate (atmosphere, land surface and hydrology, river and ocean). Today, Med-CORDEX gathers 23 different modelling groups from 9 different countries (France, Italy, Spain, Serbia, Turkey, Greece, Tunisia, Germany, Hungary) in Europe, Middle-East and North-Africa. They use 12 different atmosphere RCMs including land-surface representation, 4 river models, 10 regional ocean models and 12 different Regional Climate System Models. Almost all the simulations planned (Evaluation, Historical and Scenarios modes) have been completed by the modelling teams. More than half of the runs are archived and freely available for non-commercial use through a dedicated database hosted at ENEA at www.medcordex.eu in common and standardized netcdf format (265,000 files and 3.6 Tb uploaded). This includes atmosphere-only, ocean-only and fully coupled regional climate models. In particular multi-model regional ocean simulations have been archived in a common and standardized format for the first time in the history of the Mediterranean Sea

  7. Characterizing a Century of Climate and Hydrological Variability of a Mediterranean and Mountainous Watersheds: the Durance River Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, T.; Kuentz, A.; Gailhard, J.; Andreassian, V.

    2013-12-01

    Improving the understanding of mountain watersheds hydrological variability is a great scientific issue, for both researchers and water resources managers, such as Electricite de France (Energy and Hydropower Company). The past and current context of climate variability enhances the interest on this topic, since multi-purposes water resources management is highly sensitive to this variability. The Durance River watershed (14000 km2), situated in the French Alps, is a good example of the complexity of this issue. It is characterized by a variety of hydrological processes (from snowy to Mediterranean regimes) and a wide range of anthropogenic influences (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, tourism and water supply), mixing potential causes of changes in its hydrological regimes. As water related stakes are numerous in this watershed, improving knowledge on the hydrological variability of the Durance River appears to be essential. In this presentation, we would like to focus on a methodology we developed to build long-term historical hydrometeorological time-series, based on atmospheric reanalysis (20CR : 20th Century Reanalysis) and historical local observations. This methodology allowed us to generate precipitation, air temperature and streamflow time-series at a daily time-step for a sample of 22 watersheds, for the 1883-2010 period. These long-term streamflow reconstructions have been validated thanks to historical searches that allowed to bring to light ten long historical series of daily streamflows, beginning on the early 20th century. Reconstructions appear to have rather good statistical properties, with good correlation (greater than 0.8) and limited mean and variance bias (less than 5%). Then, these long-term hydrometeorological time-series allowed us to characterize the past variability in terms of available water resources, droughts or hydrological regime. These analyses help water resources managers to better know the range of hydrological

  8. Modeling the eco-hydrologic response of a Mediterranean type ecosystem to the combined impacts of projected climate change and altered fire frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tague, Christina; Seaby, Lauren Paige; Hope, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Global Climate Models (GCMs) project moderate warming along with increases in atmospheric CO2 for California Mediterranean type ecosystems (MTEs). In water-limited ecosystems, vegetation acts as an important control on streamflow and responds to soil moisture availability. Fires are also key...... disturbances in semiarid environments, and few studies have explored the potential interactions among changes in climate, vegetation dynamics, hydrology, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and fire. We model ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and summer streamflow under a range of temperature...... climate scenarios, biomass in chaparral-dominated systems is likely to increase, leading to reductions in summer streamflow. However, within the range of GCM predictions, there are some scenarios in which vegetation may decrease, leading to higher summer streamflows. Changes due to increases in fire...

  9. Genetic analysis of production traits of Holstein cows in the Mediterranean climate of Iran using random regression and animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jabarzadeh Ivrigh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Productive traits such as milk production and fat and protein percentage have economic importance in the livestock industry. Accurate prediction of breeding value of animals is one of the best tools available for maximizing response to selection program. It is a fact that the main objective of the breeding program, is to achieve the maximum economic benefit. For breeders of dairy cattle, milk, fat, and protein are the main sources of income that are the most important traits in the firm goals. For evaluating the dairy cattle based on these traits (milk production, fat, and protein percentage, prediction of breeding values is essential. The present study was performed in order to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic and phenotypic trends of production traits in the Mediterranean climate of Iran (including; Ardebil, Hamadan, East and West Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces using 105118 records for Test Day and 30985 records for 305-day lactation records Related 8808 Herd of first lactation Holstein Cattle calving between 2003 to 2013. All records collected by Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Materials and Methods Records were edited using Fox pro 8.0 and ACCESS 2010 software and the wrong and unusual records were removed from the dataset. All analyses were performed using the RR (random regression routine of the WOMBAT software package using AIREML algorithm on Linux operation system. Test day records were analyzed with the following random regression model (RRM: Where; Pk; kth fixed effect of province, YSl; lth fixed effect of year-season of calving, Yklimnptv; test day record i obtained at dimt of cow p calved at the nth age group in herd-test day m, HTDm; fixed effect of mth herd-test date, Cf; The fth fixed regression coefficient for calving age, agen; The nth calving age, k; The order of fit for fixed regression coefficients (k=4, βr; The rth fixed regression coefficient, ka; The order of fit for additive

  10. Determinants of extinction-colonization dynamics in Mediterranean butterflies: the role of landscape, climate and local habitat features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Chacón, Albert; Stefanescu, Constantí; Genovart, Meritxell; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Páramo, Ferran; Turco, Marco; Oro, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many species are found today in the form of fragmented populations occupying patches of remnant habitat in human-altered landscapes. The persistence of these population networks requires a balance between extinction and colonization events assumed to be primarily related to patch area and isolation, but the contribution of factors such as the characteristics of patch and matrix habitats, the species' traits (habitat specialization and dispersal capabilities) and variation in climatic conditions have seldom been evaluated simultaneously. The identification of environmental variables associated with patch occupancy and turnover may be especially useful to enhance the persistence of multiple species under current global change. However, for robust inference on occupancy and related parameters, we must account for detection errors, a commonly overlooked problem that leads to biased estimates and misleading conclusions about population dynamics. Here, we provide direct empirical evidence of the effects of different environmental variables on the extinction and colonization rates of a rich butterfly community in the western Mediterranean. The analysis was based on a 17-year data set containing detection/nondetection data on 73 butterfly species for 26 sites in north-eastern Spain. Using multiseason occupancy models, which take into account species' detectability, we were able to obtain robust estimates of local extinction and colonization probabilities for each species and test the potential effects of site covariates such as the area of suitable habitat, topographic variability, landscape permeability around the site and climatic variability in aridity conditions. Results revealed a general pattern across species with local habitat composition and landscape features as stronger predictors of occupancy dynamics compared with topography and local aridity. Increasing area of suitable habitat in a site strongly decreased local extinction risks and, for a number of species

  11. Combining remote sensing and GIS climate modelling to estimate daily forest evapotranspiration in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration monitoring allows us to assess the environmental stress on forest and agricultural ecosystems. Nowadays, Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are the main techniques used for calculating evapotranspiration at catchment and regional scales. In this study we present a methodology, based on the energy balance equation (B-method, that combines remote sensing imagery with GIS-based climate modelling to estimate daily evapotranspiration (ETd for several dates between 2003 and 2005. The three main variables needed to compute ETd were obtained as follows: (i Land surface temperature by means of the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal band, (ii air temperature by means of multiple regression analysis and spatial interpolation from meteorological ground stations data at satellite pass, and (iii net radiation by means of the radiative balance. We calculated ETd using remote sensing data at different spatial and temporal scales (Landsat-7 ETM+, Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 60, 120 and 1000 m, respectively and combining three different approaches to calculate the B parameter, which represents an average bulk conductance for the daily-integrated sensible heat flux. We then compared these estimates with sap flow measurements from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand in a Mediterranean mountain area. This procedure allowed us to better understand the limitations of ETd modelling and how it needs to be improved, especially in heterogeneous forest areas. The method using Landsat data resulted in a good agreement, R2 test of 0.89, with a mean RMSE value of about 0.6 mm day−1 and an estimation error of ±30 %. The poor agreement obtained using TERRA/AQUA MODIS, with a mean RMSE value of 1.8 and 2.4 mm day−1 and an estimation error of about ±57 and 50 %, respectively. This

  12. SWB Groundwater Recharge Analysis, Catalina Island, California: Assessing Spatial and Temporal Recharge Patterns Within a Mediterranean Climate Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge quantification is a key parameter for sustainable groundwater management. Many recharge quantification techniques have been devised, each with advantages and disadvantages. A free, GIS based recharge quantification tool - the Soil Water Balance (SWB) model - was developed by the USGS to produce fine-tuned recharge constraints in watersheds and illuminate spatial and temporal dynamics of recharge. The subject of this research is to examine SWB within a Mediterranean climate zone, focusing on the Catalina Island, California. This project relied on publicly available online resources with the exception the geospatial processing software, ArcGIS. Daily climate station precipitation and temperature data was obtained from the Desert Research Institute for the years 2008-2014. Precipitation interpolations were performed with ArcGIS using the Natural Neighbor method. The USGS-National Map Viewer (NMV) website provided a 30-meter DEM - to interpolate high and low temperature ASCII grids using the Temperature Lapse Rate (TLR) method, to construct a D-8 flow direction grid for downhill redirection of soil-moisture saturated runoff toward non-saturated cells, and for aesthetic map creation. NMV also provided a modified Anderson land cover classification raster. The US Department of Agriculture-National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey website provided shapefiles of soil water capacity and hydrologic soil groups. The Hargreaves and Samani method was implemented to determine evapotranspiration rates. The resulting SWB output data, in the form of ASCII grids are easily added to ArcGIS for quick visualization and data analysis (Figure 1). Calculated average recharge for 2008-2014 was 3537 inches/year, or 0.0174 acre feet/year. Recharge was 10.2% of the islands gross precipitation. The spatial distribution of the most significant recharge is in hotspots which dominate the residential hills above Avalon, followed by grassy/unvegetated areas

  13. Climate Variability and Industrial-Suburban Heat Environment in a Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina A. Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomenon prevalently concerns industrialized countries. It consists of a significant increase in temperatures, especially in industrialized and urbanized areas, in particular, during extreme warm periods like summer. This paper explores the climate variability of temperatures in two stations located in Matera city (Southern Italy, evaluating the increase in temperatures from 1988 to 2015. Moreover, the Corine Land Covers (1990–2000–2006–2012 were used in order to investigate the effect of land use on temperatures. The results obtained confirm the prevalence of UHI phenomena for industrialized areas, highlighting the proposal that the spreading of settlements may further drive these effects on the microclimate. In particular, the presence of industrial structures, even in rural areas, shows a clear increase in summer maximum temperatures. This does not occur in the period before 2000, probably due to the absence of the industrial settlement. On the contrary, from 2000 to 2015, changes are not relevant, but the maximum temperatures have always been higher than in the suburban area (station localized in green zone during daylight hours.

  14. GestAqua.AdaPT - Mediterranean river basin modeling and reservoir operation strategies for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Marco, Machado; Aal, Carlo; Carmona Rodrigues, António; Beça, Pedro; Casanova Lino, Rafael; Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia

    2016-04-01

    Climate change (CC) scenarios for the Mediterranean region include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as drought periods. higher average temperatures and evapotranspiration, combined with the decrease of annual precipitation may strongly affect the sustainability of water resources. In face of these risks, improving water management actions? by anticipating necessary operational measures is required to insure water quantity and quality according to the needs of the populations and irrigation in agriculture. This is clearly the case of the Alentejo region, southern Portugal, where present climatic conditions already pose significant challenges to water resources stakeholders, mainly from the agricultural and the urban supply sectors. With this in mind, the GestAqua.AdaPT project is underway during 2015 and 2016, aiming at analyzing CC impacts until 2100 and develop operational procedures to ensure water needs are adequately satisfied in the Monte Novo and Vigia reservoirs, which supply water for the city of Évora and nearby irrigation systems. Specific project objectives include: a) defining management and operational adaptation strategies aiming to ensure resource sustainability, both quantitatively and qualitatively; b) evaluate future potential costs and available alternatives to the regional water transfer infrastructure linked with the large Alqueva reservoir implemented in 2011; c) defining CC adaptation strategies to reduce irrigation water needs and d) identification of CC adaptation strategies which can be suitable also to other similar water supply systems. The methodology is centered on the implementation of a cascade of modeling tools, allowing the integrated simulation of the multiple variables under analysis. The project is based on CC scenarios resulting from the CORDEX project for 10 combinations of Global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs). The study follows by using two of these combinations

  15. Sunflower N2O emissions under two different water regimes in Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Vitale, Luca; Di Tommasi, Paul; Tedeschi, Anna; Tosca, Maurizio; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Human activities are altering the atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration with negative effects on global climate and environment. Cropland represents about 12 % of earth's surface and largely contribute to GHGs production, in particular N2O, due to a massive use of nitrogen fertilization. In particular, agriculture and intensive livestock farming may significantly affect biogeochemical cycles included nitrogen cycle. However, it is often difficult to predict the total amount of fluxes caused by agricultural management, which impact on both the whole agro-ecosystem. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate soil N2O fluxes under two different irrigation managements. The experimental trial was conducted in a farm in surrounding of Naples, southern Italy. The crop monitored was sunflower for biomass uses. Two irrigation levels were performed: returning 100% (optimal irrigation) and 50% (deficit irrigation) of soil field capacity for the layer 0.0-0.50 m. 314 Kg ha-1 of urea fertilizer was supplied in two times: at sowing and 40 days later. Before sowing, six autochambers were inserted 3 cm into the soil and connected to a gas chromatograph and a scanning apparatus. A program for chambers' management was implemented to monitor soil N2O fluxes measured different times of the day. Biometric parameters such as LAI, root depth, above- and below-ground biomass were monitored during the experiment. Results shows that soil N2O fluxes were affected by irrigation regime; in particular, the deficit irrigation determined lower N2O fluxes compared to optimal irrigation but the total biomass production and yield were comparable between the two water regimes. So low input farm management could be take in account to reduce the total N2O emission and maintain at the same time high productivity level in terms of biomass and yield. Keywords: N2O fluxes, Irrigation schedule, sunflower

  16. Balanced Sediment Fluxes in Southern California's Mediterranean-climate Zone Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencranz, J. A.; Dickhudt, P.; Ganju, N. K.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Ambrose, R. F.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Brosnahan, S.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many southern California, USA salt marshes import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are also potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a sediment starved 1.5 km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1 km2 marsh (Mugu) with a watershed sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12000 and 8800 kg in a western channel. This offset 8700 kg export during two months of dry weather, while landward net fluxes in the eastern channel accounted for 33% of the import. During the storm, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1-2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence at Mugu yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg, accounting for 20% of dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are currently geomorphically stable. Our results suggest that storms and exceptionally high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea-level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes may lead to marsh elevational instability, based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  17. Facilitating a stakeholder-led approach to the development of Mediterranean climate services: co-ordinating the CLIM-RUN case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, C. M.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIM-RUN case studies provide a real-world context for bringing together experts on the demand and supply side of climate services. They are essential to the CLIM-RUN objective of using iterative and bottom-up (i.e., stakeholder led) approaches for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders. The region of interest for CLIM-RUN is the Mediterranean, which is a recognised climate change hotspot (i.e., a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming) and which does not currently have developed climate service networks such as exist in a number of Central and Northern European countries. The case studies focus on the energy and tourism sectors, but also include a cross-cutting study on wild fires (an issue of increasing concern in the Mediterranean) as well as a cross-sectorial integrated case study for the Venice lagoon. They span coastal (e.g., Tunisia and Croatia), island (e.g., Cyprus) and mountain (e.g., Savoie) environments, the eastern (e.g., Greece) to western (e.g., Spain, Morocco) Mediterranean regions, and regional to local foci. Stakeholder involvement has been critical from the start of the project in March 2011, with a series of targeted workshops helping to define the framework for each case study. Two specific workshop objectives were to (i) better understand who are the climate services stakeholders and (ii) what they need/want from climate services (both in terms of data products and broader knowledge). Many of the workshops were held in local languages to maximise stakeholder participation, with expert knowledge provided by the CLIM-RUN climate and stakeholder expert teams (the CET and SET). Following the workshops, CET members are 'translating' the user needs into specific requirements from climate observations and models and identifying areas where additional modelling and analysis are required. As part of the central co-ordination of the case studies, a perception and data needs

  18. Impact of the use of a CO2 responsive land surface model in simulating the effect of climate change on the hydrology of French Mediterranean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queguiner, S.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Calvet, J.-C.; Faroux, S.; Quintana-Seguí, P.

    2011-10-01

    In order to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the impact model in climate change studies, a CO2 responsive version of the land surface model ISBA (ISBA-A-gs) is compared with its standard version in a climate impact assessment study. The study is performed over the French Mediterranean basin using the Safran-Isba-Modcou chain. A downscaled A2 regional climate scenario is used to force both versions of ISBA, and the results of the two land surface models are compared for the present climate and for that at the end of the century. Reasonable agreement is found between models and with discharge observations. However, ISBA-A-gs has a lower mean evapotranspiration and a higher discharge than ISBA-Standard. Results for the impact of climate change are coherent on a yearly basis for evapotranspiration, total runoff, and discharge. However, the two versions of ISBA present contrasting seasonal variations. ISBA-A-gs develops a different vegetation cycle. The growth of the vegetation begins earlier and reaches a slightly lower maximum than in the present climate. This maximum is followed by a rapid decrease in summertime. In consequence, the springtime evapotranspiration is significantly increased when compared to ISBA-Standard, while the autumn evapotranspiration is lower. On average, discharge changes are more significant at the regional scale with ISBA-A-gs.

  19. The Mediterranean Plio-Pleistocene: A reference frame for astronomically paced low and high latitude climate changes (Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The astronomical theory of climate has revolutionized our understanding of past climate change and the development of highly accurate geologic time scales for the entire Cenozoic. Most of this understanding has started with the construction of high-resolution stable oxygen isotope (18O) records from planktonic and benthic foraminifera of open ocean deep marine sediments explored by the international drilling operations of DSDP, ODP and IODP. These efforts culminated into global ocean isotopic stacked records, which give a clear picture of the evolution of the climate state through time. Fundamental for these reconstructions are the assumptions made between the astronomical forcing and the tuned time series and the accuracy of the astronomical solution. In the past decades, an astronomically calibrated time scale for the Pliocene and Pleistocene of the Mediterranean has been developed, which has become the reference for the standard Geologic Time Scale. Characteristic of the studied marine sediments are the cyclic lithological alternations, reflecting the interference between obliquity and precession-paced low latitude climate variability. These interference patterns allowed to evaluate the accuracy of astronomical solutions and to constrain the dynamical ellipticity of the Earth and tidal dissipation by the Sun and the Moon, which in turn provided the backbone for the widely applied LR04 open ocean benthic isotope stack of the past 5 Myr. So far, the assumed time lags between orbital forcing and the global climate response as reflected in LR04 have not been tested, while these assumptions hark back to SPECMAP, using simple ice sheet models and a limited number of radiometric dates. In addition, LR04 adopted a shorter response time for the smaller ice caps during the Pliocene. Here I present the first benthic 18O record of the Mediterranean reference scale, which strikingly mirrors the LR04. I will use this record to discuss the assumed phase relations and its

  20. The effect of grazing on soil and water losses under arid and mediterranean climates. Implications for desertification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdà, A.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Two sites, both affected by grazing but under different climatic conditions, were selected in Israel to study the effect of grazing on soil degradation. One site was selected in the Judean Desert, a dry environment (260 mm mean annual rainfall with a long history of overgrazing and very little vegetative cover. The second site was selected in the Galilee Mountains where the climate is of Mediterranean type (650 mm mean annual rainfall and the vegetative cover is much greater in spite of the grazing. Simulated rain experiments were performed in the field and in the laboratory in order to evaluate differences in hydrological and erosional response to rainfall between the two sites. The results show a clear difference between these two ecosystems. In the Judean Desert, where vascular plant cover is sparse, a crust was developed which enhanced overland flow and erosion. In the Mediterranean environment the overland flow and erosion were negligible under shrubs and relatively high at the intershrub corridors. At the hillslope scale a mosaiclike pattern of water and soil contributing and accepting patches was developed. Such a pattern usually protect the hillslope from being eroded. Runoff and erosion rates luere very high in the Judean Desert and negligible in the Galilee Mountains.

    [fr] Afin d'étudier l'effet du pâturage sur la dégradation des sols, deux zones de caractéristiques climatiques différentes soumises au pâturage ont été sélectionnées en Israel. L'une de ces zones se trouve située dans le désert de Judée, un milieu très aride (260 mm de précipitation annuelle moyenne avec un couvert végétal peu dense et une longue influence du surpâturage. La deuxième zone se trouve sur les montagnes de Galilée, caractérisées par un climat méditerranéen (650 mm de précipitation annuelle moyenne et un couvert végétal bien plus dense et ce malgré l'influence du pâturage. Afin d'évaluer le comportement hydrologique et

  1. Dissolved nutrient balance and net ecosystem metabolism in a Mediterranean-climate coastal lagoon: San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F.; Zirino, A.; Holm-Hansen, O.; Hernández-Ayón, J. M.; Boyd, T. J.; Chadwick, B.; Rivera-Duarte, I.

    2008-02-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP), nitrogen (DIN), carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were studied in order to determine the net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) of San Diego Bay (SDB), a Mediterranean-climate lagoon. A series of four sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy (January 2000) and the dry (August 2000 and May and September 2001) seasons. During the dry season, temperature, salinity and DIP, DIC and DOC concentrations increased from oceanic values in the outer bay to higher values at the innermost end of the bay. DIP, DIC and DOC concentrations showed a clear offset from conservative mixing implying production of these dissolved materials inside the bay. During the rainy season, DIP and DOC increased to the head, whereas salinity decreased toward the mouth due to land runoff and river discharges. The distributions of DIP and DOC also showed a deviation from conservative mixing in this season, implying a net addition of these dissolved materials during estuarine mixing within the bay. Mass balance calculations showed that SDB consistently exported DIP (2.8-9.8 × 10 3 mol P d -1), DIC (263-352 × 10 3 mol C d -1) and DOC (198-1233 × 10 3 mol C d -1), whereas DIN (5.5-18.2 × 10 3 mol N d -1) was exported in all samplings except in May 2001 when it was imported (8.6 × 10 3 mol N d -1). The DIP, DIC and DOC export rates along with the strong relationship between DIP, DIC or DOC and salinity suggest that intense tidal mixing plays an important role in controlling their distributions and that SDB is a source of nutrients and DOC to the Southern California Bight. Furthermore, NEM ranged from -8.1 ± 1.8 mmol C m -2 d -1 in September to -13.5 ± 5.8 mmol C m -2 d -1 in January, highlighting the heterotrophic character of SDB. In order to explain the net heterotrophy of this system, we postulate that phytoplankton-derived particulate organic matter, stimulated by upwelling processes in the adjacent

  2. Climate variability and socio-environmental changes in the northern Aegean (NE Mediterranean) during the last 1500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogou, Alexandra; Triantaphyllou, Maria; Xoplaki, Elena; Izdebski, Adam; Parinos, Constantine; Dimiza, Margarita; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Luterbacher, Juerg; Kouli, Katerina; Martrat, Belen; Toreti, Andrea; Fleitmann, Dominik; Rousakis, Gregory; Kaberi, Helen; Athanasiou, Maria; Lykousis, Vasilios

    2016-04-01

    We provide new evidence on sea surface temperature (SST) variations and paleoceanographic/paleoenvironmental changes over the past 1500 years for the north Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean). The reconstructions are based on multiproxy analyses, obtained from the high resolution (decadal to multi-decadal) marine record M2 retrieved from the Athos basin. Reconstructed SSTs show an increase from ca. 850 to 950 AD and from ca. 1100 to 1300 AD. A cooling phase of almost 1.5 °C is observed from ca. 1600 AD to 1700 AD. This seems to have been the starting point of a continuous SST warming trend until the end of the reconstructed period, interrupted by two prominent cooling events at 1832 ± 15 AD and 1995 ± 2 AD. Application of an adaptive Kernel smoothing suggests that the current warming in the reconstructed SSTs of the north Aegean might be unprecedented in the context of the past 1500 years. Internal variability in atmospheric/oceanic circulations systems as well as external forcing as solar radiation and volcanic activity could have affected temperature variations in the north Aegean Sea over the past 1500 years. The marked temperature drop of approximately ~2°C at 1832 ± 15 yr AD could be related to the 1809 ΑD 'unknown' and the 1815 AD Tambora volcanic eruptions. Paleoenvironmental proxy-indices of the M2 record show enhanced riverine/continental inputs in the northern Aegean after ca. 1450 AD. The palaeoclimatic evidence derived from M2 record is combined with a socio-environmental study of the history of the north Aegean region. We show that the cultivation of temperature-sensitive crops, i.e. walnut, vine and olive, co-occurred with stable and warmer temperatures, while its end coincided with a significant episode of cooler temperatures. Periods of agricultural growth in Macedonia coincide with periods of warmer and more stable SSTs, but further exploration is required in order to identify the causal links behind the observed phenomena. The Black Death likely

  3. Assessing the ability of three land ecosystem models to simulate gross carbon uptake of forests from boreal to Mediterranean climate in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Three terrestrial biosphere models (LPJ, Orchidee, Biome-BGC were evaluated with respect to their ability to simulate large-scale climate related trends in gross primary production (GPP across European forests. Simulated GPP and leaf area index (LAI were compared with GPP estimates based on flux separated eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange and LAI measurements along a temperature gradient ranging from the boreal to the Mediterranean region. The three models capture qualitatively the pattern suggested by the site data: an increase in GPP from boreal to temperate and a subsequent decline from temperate to Mediterranean climates. The models consistently predict higher GPP for boreal and lower GPP for Mediterranean forests. Based on a decomposition of GPP into absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR and radiation use efficiency (RUE, the overestimation of GPP for the boreal coniferous forests appears to be primarily related to too high simulated LAI - and thus light absorption (APAR – rather than too high radiation use efficiency. We cannot attribute the tendency of the models to underestimate GPP in the water limited region to model structural deficiencies with confidence. A likely dry bias of the input meteorological data in southern Europe may create this pattern.

    On average, the models compare similarly well to the site GPP data (RMSE of ~30% or 420 gC/m2/yr but differences are apparent for different ecosystem types. In terms of absolute values, we find the agreement between site based GPP estimates and simulations acceptable when we consider uncertainties about the accuracy in model drivers, a potential representation bias of the eddy covariance sites, and uncertainties related to the method of deriving GPP from eddy covariance measurements data. Continental to global data-model comparison studies should be fostered in the future since they are necessary to identify consistent model bias along environmental

  4. Ademe et Vous. International Newsletter No. 33, July 2015. The mediterranean is taking charge of climate change policies for a better future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Valerie; Seguin-Jacques, Catherine; Tappero, Denis

    2015-07-01

    With six months to go before the Paris climate summit, the MEDCOP21 forum has brought together various players from the Mediterranean civil society in Marseille to discuss current initiatives in place to tackle climate change. ADEME actively contributed to the event. Like other economic sectors, agriculture must rethink its practices in order to contribute effectively to the energy and ecological transitions. Taking an active part in this process, ADEME has been supporting various key players of France's agricultural sector. ADEME team headed to Milan, home of the 2015 Universal Exhibition, during European Sustainable Development Week (ESDW) from 30 May to 5 June, to share its expertise on environmental evaluation of agricultural practices

  5. Coupling of remote sensing, field campaign, and mechanistic and empirical modeling to monitor spatiotemporal carbon dynamics of a Mediterranean watershed in a changing regional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, S; Donmez, C; Evrendilek, F

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate impacts of regional climate change in the 2070s on carbon (C) cycle of a Mediterranean watershed combining field measurements, Envisat MERIS and IKONOS data, and the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model. Simulation results indicated that the present total C sink status (1.36 Mt C year(-1)) of Mediterranean evergreen needleleaf forest, grassland and cropland ecosystems is expected to weaken by 7.6% in response to the climate change in the 2070s (Mt=10(12) g). This decreasing trend was mirrored in soil respiration (R H), aboveground and belowground net primary production (NPP), NEP, and net biome production (NBP). The decrease in NEP in the 2070s was the highest (21.9%) for mixed forest where the smallest present C sink of 0.03 Mt C year(-1) was estimated. The average present net ecosystem production (NEP) values were estimated at 110±15, 75±19, and 41±25 g C m(-2) years(-1) in forest, grassland, and cropland, respectively, with a watershed-scale mean of 95±30 g C m(-2) years(-1). The largest present C sink was in grassland, with a total C pool of 0.55 Mt C year(-1), through its greater spatial extent.

  6. Climate and Landuse Change Impacts on hydrological processes and soil erosion in a dry Mediterranean agro-forested catchment, southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Sampaio, Elsa; Moreira, Madalena; Lima, Júlio; Jacinto, Rita; Corte-Real, João

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase aridity in the Mediterranean rim of Europe, due to decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. This could lead to impacts on soil erosion, since the lower rainfall could nevertheless become concentrated in higher intensity events during the wet season, while the more arid conditions could reduce vegetation cover, also due to climate-induced land-use changes. In consequence, there is an interest in understanding how climate change will affect the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. To study this issue, the SWAT eco-hydrological model was applied to Guadalupe, an agro-forested catchment (446 ha) located close to the city of Évora, with a Mediterranean inland climate. The landcover is a mix of dispersed cork oak forests ("montado"), annual crops, and agroforesty regions where the cork oaks are associated with crops or pasture; this land cover is representative of the dry regions of southern Portugal and Spain. The catchment has been instrumented since 2011 with a hydrometric station (water discharge and suspended sediment concentration data) and a soil moisture measurement station. There is also observed data of actual evapotranspiration, LAI and biomass production (in pasture; from 1999 and 2008) and runoff data and sediment yield measured in six 16m2 plots. Water balance, vegetation growth, soil erosion and sediment yield in SWAT was calibrated with this dataset. This work will present the dataset, modeling process, results for impacts of climate and land-use change scenarios for vegetation growth, soil erosion and sediment export, considering the climate and socio-economic scenarios A1b and B1 (based on SRES storylines). Climate scenarios were created by statistical downscaling from Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for the period 2071-2100 (30 years). The reference period was 1971-2000 (30 years). The SWAT model was used to

  7. Renewable Energies and Enhanced Energy Efficiencies: Mitigation/Adaptation Measures to Climate Change Impacts on Cyprus and in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean in general and Cyprus in particular are considered "hot spots" of future climate change. This will become manifest through an increase in the number and duration of drought events and extended hot-spells. The need to cope with the impacts of climate change will lead to enhanced requirements for cooling of private and public housing and growing demands for potable water derived from seawater desalination. This in turn will cause increasing pressures on electricity production and will result in additional strain on the energy sector in the region. For Cyprus, the current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of petroleum products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to about 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. The current building stock on Cyprus lacks basic measures for energy efficiency. This is particularly noteworthy with regard to insufficient insulation of buildings, which causes significant amounts of energy to be expanded for cooling. In light of these facts, an increased use of renewable energies and measures to enhance energy efficiencies in the built environment constitute important elements of a stringent and effective mitigation/adaptation strategy to climate change. The Eastern Mediterranean is among the most suitable location for the utilization of solar energy in Europe. A global direct normal irradiance of more than 1 800 kWh/m2 on Cyprus offers a renewable electricity potential of app. 20 to 23 TWh/yr when concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is employed. With regard to enhanced energy efficiency

  8. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  9. Using global Climate Impact Indicators to assess water resource availability in a Mediterranean mountain catchment: the Sierra Nevada study case (Spain) in the SWICCA platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Gulliver, Zacarias; José Polo, María

    2017-04-01

    Climate services provide water resource managements and users with science-based information on the likely impacts associated to the future climate scenarios. Mountainous areas are especially vulnerable to climate variations due to the expected changes in the snow regime, among others; in Mediterranean regions, this shift involves significant effects on the river flow regime and water resource availability and management. The Guadalfeo River Basin is a 1345 km2 mountainous, coastal catchment in southern Spain, ranging from the Mediterranean Sea coastline to the Sierra Nevada mountains to the north (up to 3450 m a.s.l.) within a 40-km distance. The climate variability adds complexity to this abrupt topography and heterogeneous area. The uncertainty associated to snow occurrence and persistence for the next decades poses a challenge for the current and future water resource uses in the area. The development of easy-to-use local climate indicators and derived decision-making variables is key to assess and face the economic impact of the potential changes. The SWICCA (Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation) Platform (http://swicca.climate.copernicus.eu/) has been developed under the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and provides global climate and hydrology indicators on a Pan-European scale. Different case studies are included to assess the platform development and contents, and analyse the indicators' performance from a proof-of-concept approach that includes end-users feedbacks. The Guadalfeo River Basin is one of these case studies. This work presents the work developed so far to analyse and use the SWICCA Climate Impact Indicators (CIIs) related to river flow in this mountainous area, and the first set of local indicators specifically designed to assess selected end-users on the potential impact associated to different climate scenarios. Different CIIs were extracted from the SWICCA interface and tested against the local information

  10. Changes in beach shoreline due to sea level rise and waves under climate change scenarios: application to the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Enríquez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the impacts in reshaping coastlines as a result of sea level rise and changes in wave climate. The methodology proposed combines the SWAN and SWASH wave models to resolve the wave processes from deep waters up to the swash zone in two micro-tidal sandy beaches in Mallorca island, western Mediterranean. In a first step, the modelling approach has been validated with observations from wave gauges and from the shoreline inferred from video monitoring stations, showing a good agreement between them. Afterwards, the modelling set-up has been applied to the 21st century sea level and wave projections under two different climate scenarios, representative concentration pathways RCP45 and RCP85. Sea level projections have been retrieved from state-of-the-art regional estimates, while wave projections were obtained from regional climate models. Changes in the shoreline position have been explored under mean and extreme wave conditions. Our results indicate that the studied beaches would suffer a coastal retreat between 7 and up to 50 m, equivalent to half of the present-day aerial beach surface, under the climate scenarios considered.

  11. Assessment of the phenology impact on SVAT modelling through a crop growth model over a Mediterranean crop site : Consequences on the water balance under climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, S.; Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Ruget, F.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Lecharpentier, P.; Ripoche, D.; Launay, M.; Brisson, N.

    2012-04-01

    In the coming years, water resources and vegetation production of Mediterranean areas will be drastically affected by climate changes as well as intense and rapid changes in the land use. The impact of climate and land-use changes on water balance and vegetation production can be analysed and predicted through land surface models, provided that the uncertainties associated to these models and to the data used to run them are evaluated. Vegetation phenology is generally poorly taken into account in land surface models and may be a substantial source of uncertainties for global change scenario studies. In this paper, we discuss the improvement obtained in Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modelling by taking into account the phenology using a crop growth model, focusing on the water budget, over a Mediterranean crop site. The STICS model (Brisson et al, 1998) is used to simulate crop processes (growth and development, taking into account water and nitrogen exchanges between the environment and the crop). STICS describes the vegetation phenology very accurately and was validated for many types of crop and various pedoclimatic conditions. The SVAT model being analyzed is the a-gs version (Calvet et al., 1998) of the ISBA model (Noilhan et al, 1989), which simulates the photosynthesis and calculates the plant biomass and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) using a simple growth model. In STICS, the phenology is driven by the sum of daily air temperatures, which is quite realistic, while in ISBA, the phenology is driven by the plant carbon assimilation. Measurements (vegetation characteristics, soil properties, agricultural practises, energy and water balance) performed in the lower Rhone valley experimental area (Avignon, France) are used as well as long series of climatic data (past records and future simulations). In a first step, by running STICS and ISBA for maize and wheat crops with long series of climatic data, including future scenarios of climate (CLIMATOR

  12. Application of CarboSOIL model to predict the effects of climate change on soil organic carbon stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict soil organic carbon contents (SOC) at standard soil depths of 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013). The model was applied to a study area of north-eastern Sardinia (Italy) (40° 46'N, 9° 10'E, mean altitude 285 m a.s.l.), characterized by extensive agro-silvo-pastoral systems which are typical of similar areas of the Mediterranean basin (e.g. the Iberian peninsula). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric according to WRB), while cork oak forest (Quercus suber L.) is the potential native vegetation which has been converted to managed land with pastures and vineyards in recent years (Lagomarsino et al., 2011; Francaviglia et al., 2012; Bagella et al, 2013; Francaviglia et al., 2014). Six land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (TV); No-tilled grassed vineyards (GV); Hay crop (HC); Pasture (PA); Cork oak forest (CO) and Semi-natural systems (SN). The HC land use includes oats, Italian ryegrass and annual clovers or vetch for 5 years and intercropped by spontaneous herbaceous vegetation in the sixth year. The PA land use is 5 years of spontaneous herbaceous vegetation, and one year of intercropping with oats, Italian ryegrass and annual clovers or vetch cultivated as a hay crop. The SN land use (scrublands, Mediterranean maquis and Helichrysum meadows) arise from the natural re-vegetation of former vineyards which have been set-aside probably due to the low grape yields and the high cost of modern tillage equipment. Both PA and HC are grazed for some months during the year, and include scattered cork-oak trees, which are key components of the 'Dehesa'-type landscape (grazing system with Quercus L.) typical of this area of Sardinia and other areas of southern Mediterranean Europe. Dehesas are often converted to more profitable land uses such as vineyards (Francaviglia et al., 2012; Mu

  13. Coupled atmosphere ocean climate model simulations in the Mediterranean region: effect of a high-resolution marine model on cyclones and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the importance of an eddy-permitting Mediterranean Sea circulation model on the simulation of atmospheric cyclones and precipitation in a climate model. This is done by analyzing results of two fully coupled GCM (general circulation models simulations, differing only for the presence/absence of an interactive marine module, at very high-resolution (~ 1/16°, for the simulation of the 3-D circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. Cyclones are tracked by applying an objective Lagrangian algorithm to the MSLP (mean sea level pressure field. On annual basis, we find a statistically significant difference in vast cyclogenesis regions (northern Adriatic, Sirte Gulf, Aegean Sea and southern Turkey and in lifetime, giving evidence of the effect of both land–sea contrast and surface heat flux intensity and spatial distribution on cyclone characteristics. Moreover, annual mean convective precipitation changes significantly in the two model climatologies as a consequence of differences in both air–sea interaction strength and frequency of cyclogenesis in the two analyzed simulations.

  14. Studying soil organic carbon in Mediterranean soils. Different techniques and the effects of land management and use, climatic and topographic conditions, organic waste addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important component of global carbon cycle, and the changes of its accumulation and decomposition directly affect terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and global carbon balance. The ability of soil to store SOC depends to a great extent on climate and some soil properties, in addition to the cultivation system in agricultural soils. Soils in Mediterranean areas are very poor in organic matter and are exposed to progressive degradation processes. Therefore, a lot of actions are conducted to improve soil quality and hence mitigate the negative environmental and agronomic limitations of these soils. Improved cultivation systems (conversion of cropland to pastoral and forest lands, conventional tillage to conservation tillage, no manure use to regular addition of manure) have been introduced in recent years, increasing the contents in SOC and therefore, enhancing the soil quality, reducing soil erosion and degradation, improving surface water quality and increasing soil productivity. Moreover, the organic waste addition to the soils is especially useful in Mediterranean regions, where the return of organic matter to soil not only does it help soils store SOC and improve soil structure and soil fertility but also it allows to reuse a wide range of agro-industrial wastes.

  15. Continued Multidisciplinary study Of Continental/ocean Climate dynamics using High-resolution records from the eastern mediterraneAn (MOCCHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Gert J.; Versteegh, G.; Zonneveld, K.; Bernasconi, S.

    2010-05-01

    Studies on high-resolution paleoclimate and with high-frequency variations, demand for continuous marine records with sufficient time resolution. Such records are rare but vital for our understanding of causes and consequences of climate and environmental change at decadal to millennial time scales. Our initial studies at a near-coastal and a deep Mediterranean anoxic basin site seem to provide a continuous marine paleo-climate record that permits such high-resolution and well dated climate reconstructions for at least the last few kyrs. Cores for the MOCCHA project have been collected during the pre-Moccha ESPRESSO cruise with RV Universitatis and CAPUCCINO cruise with RV Poseidon, followed by the DOPPIO cruise and the MACCHIATO-cruise with RV Pelagia. The cores recovered and studied thusfar appear to contain largely laminated sediments (submillimetric) down to 10 kyr. We will introduce the sites with existing and recently published evidence and supplement these with preliminary results for both sites obtained during these cruises. All of these are illustrating their suitability for high-resolution studies of paleoclimate that we hope to extend to > 35 kyr, i.e. for future IODP drilling. This work is supported by the EUROMARGINS Programme of the European Science Foundation NWO.817.01.002 MOCCHA project).

  16. Effect of climate-related change in vegetation on leaf litter consumption and energy storage by Gammarus pulex from Continental or Mediterranean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Foucreau

    Full Text Available As a consequence of global warming, it is important to characterise the potential changes occurring for some functional processes through the intra-specific study of key species. Changes in species distribution, particularly when key or engineer species are affected, should contribute to global changes in ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined the potential consequences induced by global warming on ecosystem functioning in term of organic matter recycling. We compared consumption of leaf litter by some shredder populations (Gammarus pulex between five tree species inhabiting continental (i.e., the northern region of the Rhône River Valley and/or Mediterranean (i.e., the southern region of the Rhône River Valley conditions. To consider any potential adaptation of the gammarid population to vegetation in the same climate conditions, three populations of the key shredder Gammarus pulex from the northern region and three from the southern region of the Rhône River Valley were used. We experimentally compared the effects of the geographical origin of both the gammarid populations and the leaf litter species on the shredding activity and the physiological state of animals (through body triglyceride content. This study demonstrated that leaf toughness is more important than geographical origin for determining shredder leaf litter consumption. The overall consumption rate of the gammarid populations from the southern region of Rhône Valley was much higher than that of the populations from the northern region, but no clear differences between the origins of the leaf litter (i.e., continental vs. Mediterranean were observed. The northwards shift of G. pulex populations adapted to warmer conditions might significantly modify organic matter recycling in continental streams. As gammarid populations can demonstrate local adaptations to certain leaf species as a trophic resource, changes in riparian vegetation associated with climate change

  17. Effect of climate-related change in vegetation on leaf litter consumption and energy storage by Gammarus pulex from Continental or Mediterranean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucreau, Natacha; Piscart, Christophe; Puijalon, Sara; Hervant, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of global warming, it is important to characterise the potential changes occurring for some functional processes through the intra-specific study of key species. Changes in species distribution, particularly when key or engineer species are affected, should contribute to global changes in ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined the potential consequences induced by global warming on ecosystem functioning in term of organic matter recycling. We compared consumption of leaf litter by some shredder populations (Gammarus pulex) between five tree species inhabiting continental (i.e., the northern region of the Rhône River Valley) and/or Mediterranean (i.e., the southern region of the Rhône River Valley) conditions. To consider any potential adaptation of the gammarid population to vegetation in the same climate conditions, three populations of the key shredder Gammarus pulex from the northern region and three from the southern region of the Rhône River Valley were used. We experimentally compared the effects of the geographical origin of both the gammarid populations and the leaf litter species on the shredding activity and the physiological state of animals (through body triglyceride content). This study demonstrated that leaf toughness is more important than geographical origin for determining shredder leaf litter consumption. The overall consumption rate of the gammarid populations from the southern region of Rhône Valley was much higher than that of the populations from the northern region, but no clear differences between the origins of the leaf litter (i.e., continental vs. Mediterranean) were observed. The northwards shift of G. pulex populations adapted to warmer conditions might significantly modify organic matter recycling in continental streams. As gammarid populations can demonstrate local adaptations to certain leaf species as a trophic resource, changes in riparian vegetation associated with climate change might locally

  18. Effect of Climate-Related Change in Vegetation on Leaf Litter Consumption and Energy Storage by Gammarus pulex from Continental or Mediterranean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucreau, Natacha; Piscart, Christophe; Puijalon, Sara; Hervant, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of global warming, it is important to characterise the potential changes occurring for some functional processes through the intra-specific study of key species. Changes in species distribution, particularly when key or engineer species are affected, should contribute to global changes in ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined the potential consequences induced by global warming on ecosystem functioning in term of organic matter recycling. We compared consumption of leaf litter by some shredder populations (Gammarus pulex) between five tree species inhabiting continental (i.e., the northern region of the Rhône River Valley) and/or Mediterranean (i.e., the southern region of the Rhône River Valley) conditions. To consider any potential adaptation of the gammarid population to vegetation in the same climate conditions, three populations of the key shredder Gammarus pulex from the northern region and three from the southern region of the Rhône River Valley were used. We experimentally compared the effects of the geographical origin of both the gammarid populations and the leaf litter species on the shredding activity and the physiological state of animals (through body triglyceride content). This study demonstrated that leaf toughness is more important than geographical origin for determining shredder leaf litter consumption. The overall consumption rate of the gammarid populations from the southern region of Rhône Valley was much higher than that of the populations from the northern region, but no clear differences between the origins of the leaf litter (i.e., continental vs. Mediterranean) were observed. The northwards shift of G. pulex populations adapted to warmer conditions might significantly modify organic matter recycling in continental streams. As gammarid populations can demonstrate local adaptations to certain leaf species as a trophic resource, changes in riparian vegetation associated with climate change might locally

  19. A method for modeling the effects of climate and land use changes on erosion and sustainability of soil in a Mediterranean watershed (Languedoc, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroissien, Jean-Baptiste; Darboux, Frédéric; Couturier, Alain; Devillers, Benoît; Mouillot, Florent; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Global climate and land use changes could strongly affect soil erosion and the capability of soils to sustain agriculture and in turn impact regional or global food security. The objective of our study was to develop a method to assess soil sustainability to erosion under changes in land use and climate. The method was applied in a typical mixed Mediterranean landscape in a wine-growing watershed (75 km(2)) within the Languedoc region (La Peyne, France) for two periods: a first period with the current climate and land use and a second period with the climate and land use scenarios at the end of the twenty-first century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B future rainfall scenarios from the Météo France General circulation model was coupled with four contrasting land use change scenarios that were designed using a spatially-explicit land use change model. Mean annual erosion rate was estimated with an expert-based soil erosion model. Soil life expectancy was assessed using soil depth. Soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy were combined into a sustainability index. The median simulated soil erosion rate for the current period was 3.5 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 273 years, showing a low sustainability of soils. For the future period with the same land use distribution, the median simulated soil erosion rate was 4.2 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 249 years. The results show that soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy are more sensitive to changes in land use than to changes in precipitation. Among the scenarios tested, institution of a mandatory grass cover in vineyards seems to be an efficient means of significantly improving soil sustainability, both in terms of decreased soil erosion rates and increased soil life expectancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Final report of the project GICC-MedWater (march 2003/february 2006). Impacts of the climatic change on the hydrological cycle of the mediterranean basin; Rapport final du projet GICC-MedWater (mars 2003/fevrier 2006). Impacts du changement climatique sur le cycle hydrologique du bassin mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L

    2006-03-15

    In the framework of the climatic change, the management of the impacts needs a precise knowledge of the change characteristics at the regional scale. The hydrological cycle is an important component of the mediterranean regional climate. The GICC-MedWater project is placed in the scope of climatic scenari regionalization and studies the characteristics of the climatic warming for the mediterranean basin. The main objective is to propose scenari of the climate evolution, for the mediterranean basin region and the impacts on the general circulation and the biology of Mediterranean Sea. It also includes a validation of the models in order to verify the the quality of the obtained scenari. (A.L.B.)

  1. Reclaimed water as a main resource to enhance the adaptive capacity to climate change in semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural areas using Earth Observation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia Rico, Ana; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Matieu, Pierre-Philippe; Hernandez Sancho, Francesc; Loarte, Edwin

    Lack of water is being a big problem in semi-arid areas to make agricultural profits. Most of Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, Greece or Cyprus and other countries like Morocco, the Arab United Emirates, South-American countries or China are starting to reuse wastewater as adaptation to climate change water scarcity. Drought areas are nowadays increasing, thus making fertile areas unproductive. For this reason, the European trend is to work on reusing wastewater as a solution to water scarcity in agriculture. Moreover, since population is growing fast, wastewater production is increasing as well as drinkable water demand, thus making reclaimed water as the water guarantee for irrigation and better agricultural management. This work represents a preliminary initiative to check, analyse and monitor the land by using remote sensing techniques to identify and determine the potential lands that used to be productive in the past, are now abandoned, and we want to recuperate to obtain socio-economic benefits. On top of this, this initiative will clearly enhance the adaption capacity of rural/agricultural lands to climate change. Alternatively to reclaimed water, greenhouses, desalination plants or transboarding water do not really eliminate the problem but only offer a temporary solution, make spending plenty of money and always provoking irreversible damages to the environment. The pilot area to first develop this research is the Valencia and Murcia Autonomous Communities located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coastline. An added value of this work will be to develop a methodology transferable to other potential countries with similar climatic characteristics and difficulties for irrigation, by using remote sensing methods and techniques. The remote sensing products obtained provide full information about the current state of the potential lands to grow crops. Potential areas are then being selected to carry out a socio-economic analysis leading to: (i

  2. Predicting the long-term durability of hemp–lime renders in inland and coastal areas using Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climatic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizzi, Anna, E-mail: anna.arizzi@ouce.ox.ac.uk [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Viles, Heather [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Martín-Sanchez, Inés [Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Cultrone, Giuseppe [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Hemp-based composites are eco-friendly building materials as they improve energy efficiency in buildings and entail low waste production and pollutant emissions during their manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the organic nature of hemp enhances the bio-receptivity of the material, with likely negative consequences for its long-term performance in the building. The main purpose of this study was to study the response at macro- and micro-scale of hemp–lime renders subjected to weathering simulations in an environmental cabinet (one year was condensed in twelve days), so as to predict their long-term durability in coastal and inland areas with Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climates, also in relation with the lime type used. The simulated climatic conditions caused almost unnoticeable mass, volume and colour changes in hemp–lime renders. No efflorescence or physical breakdown was detected in samples subjected to NaCl, because the salt mainly precipitates on the surface of samples and is washed away by the rain. Although there was no visible microbial colonisation, alkaliphilic fungi (mainly Penicillium and Aspergillus) and bacteria (mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus) were isolated in all samples. Microbial growth and diversification were higher under Tropical climate, due to heavier rainfall. The influence of the bacterial activity on the hardening of samples has also been discussed here and related with the formation and stabilisation of vaterite in hemp–lime mixes. This study has demonstrated that hemp–lime renders show good durability towards a wide range of environmental conditions and factors. However, it might be useful to take some specific preventive and maintenance measures to reduce the bio-receptivity of this material, thus ensuring a longer durability on site. - Highlights: • Realistic simulations in the cabinet of one-year exposure to environmental conditions • Influence of the lime type on the durability of hemp–lime renders

  3. Solar forcing, climate dynamics and human activities in Mediterranean Mountains during the last millennium: the Lake Estanya record (Southern Pyrenees, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellon, Mario; Corella, Pablo; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Engstrom, Daniel R.; González-Sampériz, Penélope; López-Vicente, Manuel; Mata, Pilar; Moreno, Ana; Navas, Ana; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Rico, Mayte; Rieradevall, Maria; Romero, Óscar; Rubio, Esther; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The multi-proxy study of short sediment cores recovered in small, karstic Lake Estanya (42°02' N, 0°32' E, 670 m.a.s.l.) in the Southern Pre-Pyrenean Ranges (NE Spain) provides a detailed record of the complex climatic and anthropogenic interactions occurring in Mediterranean areas since medieval times. The integration of sedimentary facies, elemental and isotopic geochemistry (δ18Ocalcite, δ13Ccalcite and δ13Corg) and biological proxies (diatoms, chironomids and pollen), together with a robust chronological control, provided by AMS radiocarbon dating and 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques, enabled precise reconstruction of the main phases of environmental change during the last millennium, associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the Industrial Era. Shallow lake levels and saline conditions with poor development of littoral environments prevailed during medieval times (1150-1300 AD). Generally higher water levels and more dilute waters occurred during the LIA (1300-1850 AD), although this period shows a complex internal palaeohydrological structure and is contemporaneous with a gradual increase of farming activity. Maximum lake levels and flooding of the littoral shelf occurred during the nineteenth century, coinciding with the maximum expansion of agriculture in the area and prior to the last cold phase of the LIA. Finally, declining lake levels during the twentieth century, coinciding with a decrease in human pressure, are associated with warmer climate conditions reconstructed by instrumental records. A strong link with solar irradiance is suggested by the chronology of the main hydrological phases reconstructed in Estanya. Lower lake levels dominated during periods of enhanced solar activity (MCA and post—ca. 1850 AD) and higher lake levels during periods of diminished solar activity (LIA). Changes in winter precipitation, dominance of NAO negative phases and a strengthening of the westerlies would be

  4. Evaluation of uncertainties in mean and extreme precipitation under climate change for northwestern Mediterranean watersheds from high-resolution Med and Euro-CORDEX ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colmet-Daage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The climate change impact on mean and extreme precipitation events in the northern Mediterranean region is assessed using high-resolution EuroCORDEX and MedCORDEX simulations. The focus is made on three regions, Lez and Aude located in France, and Muga located in northeastern Spain, and eight pairs of global and regional climate models are analyzed with respect to the SAFRAN product. First the model skills are evaluated in terms of bias for the precipitation annual cycle over historical period. Then future changes in extreme precipitation, under two emission scenarios, are estimated through the computation of past/future change coefficients of quantile-ranked model precipitation outputs. Over the 1981–2010 period, the cumulative precipitation is overestimated for most models over the mountainous regions and underestimated over the coastal regions in autumn and higher-order quantile. The ensemble mean and the spread for future period remain unchanged under RCP4.5 scenario and decrease under RCP8.5 scenario. Extreme precipitation events are intensified over the three catchments with a smaller ensemble spread under RCP8.5 revealing more evident changes, especially in the later part of the 21st century.

  5. A note on the correlation between circular and linear variables with an application to wind direction and air temperature data in a Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototzis, M.; Papadopoulos, G. K.; Droulia, F.; Tseliou, A.; Tsiros, I. X.

    2018-04-01

    There are several cases where a circular variable is associated with a linear one. A typical example is wind direction that is often associated with linear quantities such as air temperature and air humidity. The analysis of a statistical relationship of this kind can be tested by the use of parametric and non-parametric methods, each of which has its own advantages and drawbacks. This work deals with correlation analysis using both the parametric and the non-parametric procedure on a small set of meteorological data of air temperature and wind direction during a summer period in a Mediterranean climate. Correlations were examined between hourly, daily and maximum-prevailing values, under typical and non-typical meteorological conditions. Both tests indicated a strong correlation between mean hourly wind directions and mean hourly air temperature, whereas mean daily wind direction and mean daily air temperature do not seem to be correlated. In some cases, however, the two procedures were found to give quite dissimilar levels of significance on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis of no correlation. The simple statistical analysis presented in this study, appropriately extended in large sets of meteorological data, may be a useful tool for estimating effects of wind on local climate studies.

  6. Evaluation of uncertainties in mean and extreme precipitation under climate change for northwestern Mediterranean watersheds from high-resolution Med and Euro-CORDEX ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmet-Daage, Antoine; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Ricci, Sophie; Llovel, Cécile; Borrell Estupina, Valérie; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Servat, Eric

    2018-01-01

    The climate change impact on mean and extreme precipitation events in the northern Mediterranean region is assessed using high-resolution EuroCORDEX and MedCORDEX simulations. The focus is made on three regions, Lez and Aude located in France, and Muga located in northeastern Spain, and eight pairs of global and regional climate models are analyzed with respect to the SAFRAN product. First the model skills are evaluated in terms of bias for the precipitation annual cycle over historical period. Then future changes in extreme precipitation, under two emission scenarios, are estimated through the computation of past/future change coefficients of quantile-ranked model precipitation outputs. Over the 1981-2010 period, the cumulative precipitation is overestimated for most models over the mountainous regions and underestimated over the coastal regions in autumn and higher-order quantile. The ensemble mean and the spread for future period remain unchanged under RCP4.5 scenario and decrease under RCP8.5 scenario. Extreme precipitation events are intensified over the three catchments with a smaller ensemble spread under RCP8.5 revealing more evident changes, especially in the later part of the 21st century.

  7. Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystem on Sardinia under past and future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, R.; Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Historical human influences (e.g., deforestation, urbanization) further altered these ecosystems. Sardinia island is a representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. Two contrasting case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin (1700 km2). The first site is a typical grassland on an alluvial plan valley (soil depth > 2m) while the second is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation species (mainly wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous) that grow in a soil bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured (soil depth 15 - 40 cm). In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by the eddy correlation technique while soil moisture was continuously estimated with water content reflectometers, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) was estimated. The following objectives are addressed:1) pointing out the dynamics of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, CO2 and vegetation cover for two contrasting water-limited ecosystems; 2) assess the impact of the soil depth and type on the CO2 and water balance dynamics; 3) evaluate the impact of past and future climate change scenarios on the two contrasting ecosystems. For reaching the objectives an ecohydrologic model that couples a vegetation dynamic model (VDM), and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model (LSM) has been used. Historical meteorological data are available from 1922 and hydro-meteorological scenarios are then generated using a weather generator. The VDM-LSM model predict soil water balance and vegetation dynamics for the generated

  8. Consequences of a future climatic scenario for the anchovy fishery in the Alboran Sea (SW Mediterranean): A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, D.; Castilla-Espino, D.; García-del-Hoyo, J. J.; Navarro, G.; Catalán, I. A.; Renault, L.; Ruiz, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Alboran basin is one of the most productive areas of the Mediterranean Sea and supports an anchovy fishery with a history of remarkably variable landings. Past and present anchovy recruitment levels are highly sensitive to changes in the strength and direction of the incoming jet of Atlantic waters, which modulate the hydrographic features of the basin. Here, we analyze plausible consequences for the anchovy fisheries in the region based on a projected physical scenario for the end of the century obtained using a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model. Our model predicts a substantial increase in horizontal water velocity and a negligible change in the associated biological production, which likely indicates reductions in anchovy stock, catches and revenues. Alternative policies are analyzed here for the economic scenario that is expected to emerge under future conditions of oceanographic features, pelagic ecosystem dynamics and anchovy landings in the Alboran Sea.

  9. Climate change impact on the olive pollen season in Mediterranean areas of Italy: air quality in late spring from an allergenic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio; Ruga, Luigia; Romano, Bruno; Fornaciari, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there are many effects of climate change on aeroallergens, and thus on allergic diseases in humans. In the Mediterranean region, despite the importance of the olive tree for production, there is high allergenicity of olive pollen and related risks to human health. Aerobiological sampling techniques can be used to analyse the pollinosis phenomenon through determination of mean daily pollen concentrations per cubic metre of air. The present study was carried out from 1999 to 2008 in 16 olive-growing areas in Italy, to update the information on the pollinosis characteristics of Olea europaea in the study areas. The analysis of the average flowering season over the study period highlights a temporal scaling of pollen in the atmosphere that depends on the different climatic characteristics. This is mainly dependent on temperature, and in part, determined by latitude. Generally, the levels of O. europaea pollen in the atmosphere are higher from mid-April to the end of June, with the period of greatest risk to human health due to this olive pollen in this area currently limited primarily to the last 10 days of May. However, the pollen season can move, depending on the climate scenario considered, and data here can be used to determine potential time shifts in pollinosis that might cause more precocious asthma and allergy problems. The allergy season for this type of pollen might be significantly precocious in future decades (20-30 days earlier in the year), which will impact on the severity and duration of allergies attributable to olive tree pollen.

  10. Assessing the Correlation between Land Cover Conversion and Temporal Climate Change—A Pilot Study in Coastal Mediterranean City, Fethiye, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Cinar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth and expansion of urbanized landscapes in cities has resulted in an increase in air temperature and has lowered the bioclimatic comfort levels in urban landscapes. Recent studies to estimate the climatic response of urban landscape conversion have mostly examined the relationship between land use/land cover (LULC change and land surface temperature (LST data collected using advanced remote sensing (RS techniques instead of atmospheric temperature. In this respect, four decadal Landsat images from the 1980s were used to investigate the impact of landscape transformation on atmospheric temperature. The mean and average minimum and maximum monthly air temperature datasets were used in the analysis. The CORINE (Coordination of Information on Environment index was used to determine LULC diversity in an urban development boundary and urban periphery. Consequently, clustered LULC change values for the last three decades were integrated with decadal air temperature anomalies. The findings revealed an important relationship between monthly mean air temperature and land changes over recent decades, which resulted in an increase in urban fabric land use, deforestation land cover changes and conversion of permanent crop fields to artificial green houses for earlier vegetable production; the R-sqr values for these regressions were 97.7%, 88.5% and 90.6% respectively. On the other hand, the most important increasing temperature trends were obtained for the average monthly minimum air temperature, which supports the global warming concerns of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and related studies, which have concluded that an increased nighttime temperature results in urban heat islands (UHIs. The results should be used to support better urban landscape plans and architectural designs to improve human thermal comfort for sustainable urban life in Mediterranean cities. Street geometry and orientation to wind breeze, the Height

  11. MURASOC, a parametric model to test climate change effects on soil organic carbon. Application to Southern Spain (Mediterranean áreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric C.; Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Obregón-Romero, Rafael; Gil Torres, Juan; Recio-Espejo, Jose Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is formed through the decomposition processes of plant, animal and microbial residues, root exudates, living and dead microorganism and soil biota; and is the main energy source for soil microorganism. Consequently, a strong feedback is stablished among a large number of components in the complex biota-abiota network. Likewise, SOC influences in physical, chemical and biological soil properties such as temperature, cationic exchange capacity and plant growth (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015). Therefore, to improve our knowledge about what soil variables are more responsible of SOC content would be extremely useful in soils characterization. In many studies, independent variables were related to SOC, however, the possible combined effects of different independent variables and their ability to model SOC have not been considered. On the other hand, over the last few decades interest in soil organic carbon (SOC) has increased due to its role in C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Fernández-Romero et al., 2016; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García 2014). Then, attempts to model SOC content have multiplied over this time. In this study, 612 soil profiles obtained from the Natura 2000 network of protected areas in the Sierra Morena mountains, (Spain) were used with the following objectives: i) To quantify SOC content according to different variables (analytical, morphological, genetic and climatic) in order to define the variables that are most closely related to SOC content; ii) To model the Current SOC content for a geographic area (Sierra Morena - Spain); iii) To model SOC suitability-habitat under a climate change scenario; iv) To extrapolate the SOC content and distribution model to the wider Andalusia region, showing the areas that have a high probability to experience an increase in their SOC content in coming years; and v) To propose

  12. Linear and non-linear responses of vegetation and soils to glacial-interglacial climate change in a Mediterranean refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtvoeth, Jens; Vogel, Hendrik; Valsecchi, Verushka; Lindhorst, Katja; Schouten, Stefan; Wagner, Bernd; Wolff, George A

    2017-08-14

    The impact of past global climate change on local terrestrial ecosystems and their vegetation and soil organic matter (OM) pools is often non-linear and poorly constrained. To address this, we investigated the response of a temperate habitat influenced by global climate change in a key glacial refuge, Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia). We applied independent geochemical and palynological proxies to a sedimentary archive from the lake over the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5) and the following interglacial (MIS 5e-c), targeting lake surface temperature as an indicator of regional climatic development and the supply of pollen and biomarkers from the vegetation and soil OM pools to determine local habitat response. Climate fluctuations strongly influenced the ecosystem, however, lake level controls the extent of terrace surfaces between the shoreline and mountain slopes and hence local vegetation, soil development and OM export to the lake sediments. There were two phases of transgressional soil erosion from terrace surfaces during lake-level rise in the MIS 6-5 transition that led to habitat loss for the locally dominant pine vegetation as the terraces drowned. Our observations confirm that catchment morphology plays a key role in providing refuges with low groundwater depth and stable soils during variable climate.

  13. New records of Trichoptera in reference Mediterranean-climate rivers of the Iberian Peninsula and north of Africa: taxonomical, faunistical and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonada, N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichoptera is a very rich order in the Western Mediterranean, but knowledge of caddisflies in the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa is still not complete. We present records of caddisflies collected in 114 sites of the Mediterranean climate region of the Iberian Peninsula and the western Rif. We also provide notes on ecological aspects and taxonomical remarks on some species. Atotal of 86 species were identified and 8 species extended their distribution range. Considering the four differentiated geological regions in the western Mediterranean Basin during the Tertiary, 60 species were collected in the Iberian plate region, 29 in the Transition, 30 in the Betic and 18 in the Rif. Local richness was not significantly different between the four regions but significant differences were found among several river ecotypes within regions. Temporary sites had lower local richness than other ecotypes in all regions except in the Rif, whereas headwaters had similar richness in any region regardless of their geology. The Rif region had the lowest Trichoptera richness, which is not only the result of the scarcity of faunistic studies in the area but also of the high frequency of temporary rivers and the isolation of the area. Our results suggest that conservation measures addressed to preserve the biodiversity of the Western Mediterranean should be enforced, especially in the Rif region.

    El orden Trichoptera es rico en especies en la zona del Mediterráneo Occidental, pero el conocimiento de este grupo en la Península Ibérica y el norte de África resta aún de ser completo. Presentamos datos de tricópteros recolectados en 114 localidades de la región Mediterránea de la Península Ibérica y del Rif occidental. Además, proporcionamos datos sobre la ecología de algunas especies así como notas taxonómicas. Se identificaron un total de 86 especies y el rango de distribución aumentó para 8 de ellas. Sesenta especies se recolectaron en la

  14. Human responses and non-responses to climatic variations during the last Glacial-Interglacial transition in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Neil; Woodbridge, Jessie; Bevan, Andrew; Palmisano, Alessio; Shennan, Stephen; Asouti, Eleni

    2018-03-01

    We review and evaluate human adaptations during the last glacial-interglacial climatic transition in southwest Asia. Stable isotope data imply that climatic change was synchronous across the region within the limits of dating uncertainty. Changes in vegetation, as indicated from pollen and charcoal, mirror step-wise shifts between cold-dry and warm-wet climatic conditions, but with lag effects for woody vegetation in some upland and interior areas. Palaeoenvironmental data can be set against regional archaeological evidence for human occupancy and economy from the later Epipalaeolithic to the aceramic Neolithic. Demographic change is evaluated from summed radiocarbon date probability distributions, which indicating contrasting - and in some cases opposite - population trajectories in different regions. Abrupt warming transitions at ∼14.5 and 11.7 ka BP may have acted as pacemakers for rapid cultural change in some areas, notably at the start of the Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures. However temporal synchroneity does not mean that climatic changes had the same environmental or societal consequences in different regions. During cold-dry time intervals, regions such as the Levant acted as refugia for plant and animal resources and human population. In areas where socio-ecological continuity was maintained through periods of adverse climate (e.g. Younger Dryas) human communities were able to respond rapidly to subsequent climatic improvement. By contrast, in areas where there was a break in settlement at these times (e.g. central Anatolia), populations were slower to react to the new opportunities provided by the interglacial world.

  15. Comparing landscape scale vegetation dynamics following recent disturbance in climatically similar sites in California and the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohay Carmel; Curtis H. Flather

    2004-01-01

    A long line of inquiry on the notion of ecological convergence has compared ecosystem structure and function between areas that are evolutionarily unrelated but under the same climate regime. Much of this literature has focused on quantifying the degree to which animal morphology or plant physiognomy is alike between disjunct areas. An important property of ecosystems...

  16. Influence of Improvement of Airtightness on Energy Retrofit of Social Housing, a Case Study in a Mediterranean Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Agüera, Jesica; Suárez, Rafael; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    in other European countries and the USA. However, there is a lack of studies with adequate roominess to allow a proper analysis and interpretation of what happens in our regional climate and construction typology. The aims of this paper is presenting a case study for the energy retrofit of 68 social multi...

  17. High-frequency climate variability in the late Quaternary eastern Mediterranean : Associations of Nile discharge and basin overturning circulation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, Rick

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aimed to (1) improve our knowledge on existing geochemical methods for detailed reading of the marine archives, and (2) application of the geochemical toolbox to an area that because of its geographical location, its sensitivity to subtle climate-related changes, and the subsequent

  18. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-10-01

    Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale data sets to describe the climate, the soil properties, the vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation). This paper investigates the uncertainties in these drivers and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) land surface model over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing data sets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN (Système d'Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie) high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the leaf area index (LAI) time courses derived from the ECOCLIMAP-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional data sets which include the ERA-Interim (ERA-I) low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data set (GPCC) and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The evaluation of the drivers indicates very low bias in daily downwelling shortwave radiation for ERA-I (2.5 W m-2) compared to the negative biases found for SAFRAN (-10 W m-2) and the MSG satellite (-12 W m-2). Both SAFRAN and ERA-I underestimate downwelling longwave radiations by -12 and -16 W m-2, respectively. The SAFRAN and ERA-I/GPCC rainfall are slightly biased at daily and longer timescales (1 and 0.5 % of the mean rainfall measurement). The SAFRAN rainfall is more precise than the ERA-I/GPCC estimate which shows larger inter-annual variability in yearly rainfall error (up to 100 mm). The ECOCLIMAP-II LAI climatology does not properly resolve Mediterranean crop phenology and underestimates the bare soil period which leads to an overall overestimation of LAI over the crop succession. The

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of RegCM4 regional climate model in simulating the aerosol optical depth patterns over the region of Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Ntogras, Christos; Zanis, Prodromos

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the ability of the regional climate model RegCM4 to simulate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) patterns over the region of Eastern Mediterranean is assessed. Three separate runs were implemented within the framework of the QUADIEEMS project for the time period 2000-2010 at a horizontal resolution of 50km covering the region of Europe. ERA-interim data were used as lateral boundary conditions while the model was driven by emissions from CMIP5. In the first case, the total of the aerosol types that RegCM4 accounts for were included (sulfate, black carbon, sea salt, dust), while in the other two cases only anthropogenic and dust particles were taken into account, respectively. The total AOD patterns were compared against level-2 satellite observations from MODIS TERRA and AQUA and ground-based measurements from 12 AERONET sites located in the region. In addition, the RegCM4 anthropogenic and dust AOD patterns were compared against the anthropogenic and dust component of MODIS AOD which was calculated using a combination of various satellite, model and reanalysis products. Our results indicate a significant underestimation of the anthropogenic AOD, while, on the contrary, the dust AOD fields are simulated in a more efficient way. The QUADIEEMS project is co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) and national resources under the operational programme Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the framework of the Action "Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers".

  20. Statistical analysis and ANN modeling for predicting hydrological extremes under climate change scenarios: the example of a small Mediterranean agro-watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Dokou, Zoi; Karatzas, George P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a modeling management tool for the simulation of extreme flow events under current and future climatic conditions. This tool is a combination of different components and can be applied in complex hydrogeological river basins, where frequent flood and drought phenomena occur. The first component is the statistical analysis of the available hydro-meteorological data. Specifically, principal components analysis was performed in order to quantify the importance of the hydro-meteorological parameters that affect the generation of extreme events. The second component is a prediction-forecasting artificial neural network (ANN) model that simulates, accurately and efficiently, river flow on an hourly basis. This model is based on a methodology that attempts to resolve a very difficult problem related to the accurate estimation of extreme flows. For this purpose, the available measurements (5 years of hourly data) were divided in two subsets: one for the dry and one for the wet periods of the hydrological year. This way, two ANNs were created, trained, tested and validated for a complex Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece. As part of the second management component a statistical downscaling tool was used for the creation of meteorological data according to the higher and lower emission climate change scenarios A2 and B1. These data are used as input in the ANN for the forecasting of river flow for the next two decades. The final component is the application of a meteorological index on the measured and forecasted precipitation and flow data, in order to assess the severity and duration of extreme events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bakker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well-dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well-dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show changes in both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics match shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late-3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid-7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid-10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid-12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes in

  2. Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum – a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adloff

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP, the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas.

    The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results.

    The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never

  3. Influence of tillage practices on soil biologically active organic matter content over a growing season under semiarid Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martín-Lammerding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In semiarid areas, traditional, intensive tillage has led to the depletion of soil organic matter, which has resulted in reduced soil fertility. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems, practised over 12 years, on soil organic carbon (SOC, nitrogen (SN and biologically active organic matter (particulate organic matter [POM]; potentially mineralisable nitrogen [PMN]; microbial biomass [MB]. A Mediterranean Alfisol, located in central Spain, was managed using combinations of conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT or no-tillage (NT, plus a cropping background of either continuous wheat (WW or a fallow/wheat/pea/barley rotation (FW. Soil was sampled at two depths on four occasions during 2006-2007. The results showed the sampling date and the cropping background to significantly affect the SOC (p<0.0057 and p<0.0001 respectively. Tillage practice, however, had no effect on SOC or SN. The C-and N-POM contents were significantly influenced by the date, tillage and rotation. These variables were significantly higher under NT than CT and under WW than FW. The PMN was influenced by date, tillage and rotation, while C-MB was significantly affected by tillage (p< 0.0063, but not by rotation. The NT plots accumulated 66% C-POM, 60% N-POM, 39% PMN and 84% C-MB more than the CT plots. After more than 12 years, the benefits of conservation practices were found in the considered soil properties, mainly under no tillage. In order to obtain a consistent data set to predict soil biological status, it is necessary further study over time.

  4. Final Technical Report: Response of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Associated Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, Walter C

    2002-08-15

    This research incorporated an integrated hierarchical approach in space, time, and levels of biological/ecological organization to help understand and predict ecosystem response to elevated CO{sub 2} and concomitant environmental change. The research utilized a number of different approaches, and collaboration of both PER and non-PER investigators to arrive at a comprehensive, integrative understanding. Central to the work were the CO{sub 2}-controlled, ambient Lit, Temperature controlled (CO{sub 2}LT) null-balance chambers originally developed in the arctic tundra, which were re-engineered for the chaparral with treatment CO{sub 2} concentrations of from 250 to 750 ppm CO{sub 2} in 100 ppm increments, replicated twice to allow for a regression analysis. Each chamber was 2 meters on a side and 2 meters tall, which were installed over an individual shrub reprouting after a fire. This manipulation allowed study of the response of native chaparral to varying levels of CO{sub 2}, while regenerating from an experimental burn. Results from these highly-controlled manipulations were compared against Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulations, in an area adjacent to the CO{sub 2}LT null balance greenhouses. These relatively short-term results (5-7 years) were compared to long-term results from Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) surrounding natural CO{sub 2} springs in northern Italy, near Laiatico, Italy. The springs lack the controlled experimental rigor of our CO{sub 2}LT and FACE manipulation, but provide invaluable validation of our long-term predictions.

  5. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  6. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Martin, E.; Calvet, J.-C.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-02-01

    Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale forcing datasets to describe the climate, the surface characteristics (soil texture, vegetation dynamic) and the cropland management (irrigation). This paper investigates the errors in these forcing variables and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) land surface model over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing datasets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the Leaf Area Index (LAI) cycles derived from the Ecoclimap-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional datasets which includes the ERA-Interim low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre dataset (GPCC) and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The methodology consists in comparing the simulation achieved using large-scale forcing datasets with the simulation achieved using local observations for each forcing variable. The relative impacts of the forcing variables on simulated ET are compared with each other and with the model uncertainties triggered by errors in soil parameters. LAI and the lack of irrigation in the simulation generate the largest mean deviations in ET between the large-scale and the local-scale simulations (equivalent to 24 and 19 months of ET over 12 yr). The climate induces smaller mean deviations equivalent to 7-8 months of ET over 12 yr. The soil texture has the lowest impact (equivalent to 3 months of ET). However, the impact of errors in the forcing variables is smaller than the impact triggered by errors in the soil parameters (equivalent to 27 months of ET). The absence of

  7. Direct nitrous oxide emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems : Emission factors based on a meta-analysis of available measurement data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, Maria L.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Adams, Dean C.; Abalos, Diego; Barton, Louise; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Pappa, Valentini A.; Smith, Pete; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Bouwman, Lex; Bondeau, Alberte; Lassaletta, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Many recent reviews and meta-analyses of N2O emissions do not include data from Mediterranean studies. In this paper we present a meta-analysis of the N2O emissions from Mediterranean cropping systems, and propose a more robust and reliable regional emission factor (EF) for N2O, distinguishing the

  8. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Latorre, Jose Manuel; Escosa, Raul; Masià, Montserrat; Fuentes, Marius Vicent; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, Maria Dolores

    2010-07-31

    International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour

  9. Climatic and socio-economic fire drivers in the Mediterranean basin at a century scale: Analysis and modelling based on historical fire statistics and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouillot, F.; Koutsias, N.; Conedera, M.; Pezzatti, B.; Madoui, A.; Belhadj Kheder, C.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire is the main disturbance affecting Mediterranean ecosystems, with implications on biogeochemical cycles, biosphere/atmosphere interactions, air quality, biodiversity, and socio-ecosystems sustainability. The fire/climate relationship is time-scale dependent and may additionally vary according to concurrent changes climatic, environmental (e.g. land use), and fire management processes (e.g. fire prevention and control strategies). To date, however, most studies focus on a decadal scale only, being fire statistics ore remote sensing data usually available for a few decades only. Long-term fire data may allow for a better caption of the slow-varying human and climate constrains and for testing the consistency of the fire/climate relationship on the mid-time to better apprehend global change effects on fire risks. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) associated with process-based fire models have been recently developed to capture both the direct role of climate on fire hazard and the indirect role of changes in vegetation and human population, to simulate biosphere/atmosphere interactions including fire emissions. Their ability to accurately reproduce observed fire patterns is still under investigation regarding seasonality, extreme events or temporal trend to identify potential misrepresentations of processes. We used a unique long-term fire reconstruction (from 1880 to 2016) of yearly burned area along a North/South and East/West environmental gradient across the Mediterranean Basin (southern Switzerland, Greece, Algeria, Tunisia) to capture the climatic and socio economic drivers of extreme fire years by linking yearly burned area with selected climate indices derived from historical climate databases and socio-economic variables. We additionally compared the actual historical reconstructed fire history with the yearly burned area simulated by a panel of DGVMS (FIREMIP initiative) driven by daily CRU climate data at 0.5° resolution across the

  10. Physiological and metabolic responses to rising temperature in Gammarus pulex (Crustacea) populations living under continental or Mediterranean climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucreau, N; Cottin, D; Piscart, C; Hervant, F

    2014-02-01

    Latitudinal thermal gradients offer the possibility of comparing the current performance of populations of a single species living in contrasting thermal conditions. The Rhône River Valley (France) presents a 5°C thermal gradient corresponding to the increase in temperature predicted by climatic models (IPCC, 2007). We studied the thermal tolerance to rising temperature (from 15 to 30°C) of five populations of the key species Gammarus pulex living either in the North (i.e. the cold part) or in the South (i.e. the warm part) of the river Valley. Individuals were acclimated at 18, 21, 24, 27 or 30°C during 10days. After this period, we here measured experimentally the populations' survival, ventilatory rate, oxygen consumption, and glycogen and triglyceride contents. Southern populations have a higher survival rate and higher oxygen consumption at higher temperatures (27 and 30°C) in comparison with northern populations. Southern individuals also presented a hyperventilation, and higher energy stores compared to northern individuals whatever the acclimation temperature considered. In a global change context, the rising temperatures during the next decades may differently impair the metabolism and the survival of populations of G. pulex from different geographical origins. These differences in ecophysiological responses of organisms must be taken into account to predict the consequences of climate change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced mesoscale climate projections in TAR and AR5 IPCC scenarios: a case study in a Mediterranean climate (Araucanía Region, south central Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, R; Abarca-Del-Río, R; Ávila, A; Morales, L

    2016-01-01

    Climate change scenarios are computed on a large scale, not accounting for local variations presented in historical data and related to human scale. Based on historical records, we validate a baseline (1962-1990) and correct the bias of A2 and B2 regional projections for the end of twenty-first century (2070-2100) issued from a high resolution dynamical downscaled (using PRECIS mesoscale model, hereinafter DGF-PRECIS) of Hadley GCM from the IPCC 3rd Assessment Report (TAR). This is performed for the Araucanía Region (Chile; 37°-40°S and 71°-74°W) using two different bias correction methodologies. Next, we study high-resolution precipitations to find monthly patterns such as seasonal variations, rainfall months, and the geographical effect on these two scenarios. Finally, we compare the TAR projections with those from the recent Assessment Report 5 (AR5) to find regional precipitation patterns and update the Chilean `projection. To show the effects of climate change projections, we compute the rainfall climatology for the Araucanía Region, including the impact of ENSO cycles (El Niño and La Niña events). The corrected climate projection from the high-resolution dynamical downscaled model of the TAR database (DGF-PRECIS) show annual precipitation decreases: B2 (-19.19 %, -287 ± 42 mm) and A2 (-43.38 %, -655 ± 27.4 mm per year. Furthermore, both projections increase the probability of lower rainfall months (lower than 100 mm per month) to 64.2 and 72.5 % for B2 and A2, respectively.

  12. MICROCLIMATIC RESPONSES OF PLANT COMMUNITIES TO CLIMATIC CHANGES: A STUDY CASE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTAL VEGETATION NEAR ROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. GUIDOTTI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the microclimates of the different plant communities in the Castelporziano Estate to identify changes at short and medium time, caused by interacting factors at local scale like anthropic disturbance, climatic change and territory management. Air temperature and humidity, soil temperature and PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation were monthly monitored. Measurements were taken in 21 stations, 6 of which along a transect in the vegetation of the dunes and the other 15 stations in forest associations. The dataset have been processed using different statistical treatments: (1 analysis of variance to evaluate the homeostatic capacity of the different communities; (2 analysis of microclimatic deviations values from mesoclimatic data, represented by Castelporziano Estate meteo-climatic stations, to detect microclimatic differences; (3 Multivariate Cluster Analysis to classify the different microclimates. Three main results were obtained: (1 comparison between microclimatic parameters measured during 2007-2008 and previous ones (2003 showed a general tendency of all forest types to shift towards xerophile conditions: air humidity decreased in a large percentage (20%. The woodland with major risk is the Lauro-Carpinetum that looses the 18% of air humidity in a very short period (5 years; (2 vegetation of the dunes displays homeostatic capacity in relationship with structural complexity increasing from pioneer communities of Cakiletum maritimae to mature stands of Viburno- Quercetum ilicis; (3 Cluster Analysis, performed on microclimatic data, allowed to classify vegetation in three different groups, confirming the same patterns obtained by floristic composition. Microclimate resulted a valid and robust tool to detect the ecological status of species and communities, and to follow their temporal changes.

  13. MICROCLIMATIC RESPONSES OF PLANT COMMUNITIES TO CLIMATIC CHANGES: A STUDY CASE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTAL VEGETATION NEAR ROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the microclimates of the different plant communities in the Castelporziano Estate to identify changes at short and medium time, caused by interacting factors at local scale like anthropic disturbance, climatic change and territory management. Air temperature and humidity, soil temperature and PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation were monthly monitored. Measurements were taken in 21 stations, 6 of which along a transect in the vegetation of the dunes and the other 15 stations in forest associations. The dataset have been processed using different statistical treatments: (1 analysis of variance to evaluate the homeostatic capacity of the different communities; (2 analysis of microclimatic deviations values from mesoclimatic data, represented by Castelporziano Estate meteo-climatic stations, to detect microclimatic differences; (3 Multivariate Cluster Analysis to classify the different microclimates. Three main results were obtained: (1 comparison between microclimatic parameters measured during 2007-2008 and previous ones (2003 showed a general tendency of all forest types to shift towards xerophile conditions: air humidity decreased in a large percentage (20%. The woodland with major risk is the Lauro-Carpinetum that looses the 18% of air humidity in a very short period (5 years; (2 vegetation of the dunes displays homeostatic capacity in relationship with structural complexity increasing from pioneer communities of Cakiletum maritimae to mature stands of Viburno- Quercetum ilicis; (3 Cluster Analysis, performed on microclimatic data, allowed to classify vegetation in three different groups, confirming the same patterns obtained by floristic composition. Microclimate resulted a valid and robust tool to detect the ecological status of species and communities, and to follow their temporal changes.

  14. Basic bio-ecological parameters of the invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Phoenix canariensis under Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembilio, O; Jacas, J A

    2011-04-01

    The invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), is one of the most destructive pests of palms in the world. Since its detection in the Mediterranean Basin, the ornamental Phoenix canariensis Hort. ex Chabaud has become its main host. This study was aimed at determining the life cycle of R. ferrugineus in live P. canariensis palms. Egg lethal temperature threshold and thermal constant were determined in the laboratory and resulted in 13.1°C and 40.4 degree days (DD), respectively. A semi field assay was carried out in a mesh enclosure where living P. canariensis palms were artificially infested with neonate larvae at one-month intervals from June 2008 to May 2009 under natural conditions. Infested palms were dissected at different time intervals. Maximum mortality rates for R. ferrugineus were observed for palms infested either in December or January (100%), whereas those infested from April through September showed maximum survival rates. Mean monthly temperatures below 10.3°C were lethal for neonate larvae, as 4.5°C were for older immature stages. All recovered larvae could be classed according to one of 13 instars. A thermal constant of 666.5 DD was estimated for complete larval development. Pupal develoment required an additional 282.5 DD. Based on these results and on the temperatures from 46 climatic stations selected in the Iberian Peninsula, less than one generation per year can be expected in areas with mean annual temperature below 15°C and more than two where mean annual temperature is above 19°C.

  15. Effects of land use changes and soil conservation intervention on soil properties as indicators for land degradation under a Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohawesh, Y.; Taimeh, A.; Ziadat, F.

    2015-07-01

    Land degradation resulting from improper land use and management is a major cause of declined productivity in the arid environment. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a sequence of land use changes, soil conservation measures, and the time since their implementation on the degradation of selected soil properties. The climate for the selected 105 km2 watershed varies from semi-arid sub-tropical to Mediterranean sub-humid. Land use changes were detected using aerial photographs acquired in 1953, 1978, and 2008. A total of 218 samples were collected from 40 sites in three different rainfall zones to represent different land use changes and variable lengths of time since the construction of stone walls. Analyses of variance were used to test the differences between the sequences of land use changes (interchangeable sequences of forest, orchards, field crops, and range), the time since the implementation of soil conservation measures, rainfall on the thickness of the A-horizon, soil organic carbon content, and texture. Soil organic carbon reacts actively with different combinations and sequences of land use changes. The time since stone walls were constructed showed significant impacts on soil organic carbon and the thickness of the surface horizon. The effects of changing the land use and whether the changes were associated with the construction of stone walls varied according to the annual rainfall. The changes in soil properties could be used as indicators of land degradation and to assess the impact of soil conservation programs. The results help in understanding the effects of land use changes on land degradation processes and carbon sequestration potential and in formulating sound soil conservation plans.

  16. The sea-skater Halobates (Heteroptera Gerridae) - probable cause for extinction in the Mediterranean and potential for re-colonisation following climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Lanna; Damgaard, Jakob; Garrouste, Romain

    2012-01-01

    the Mediterranean Sea. A fossil, Halobates ruffoi Andersen et al., 1994, described from Middle-Upper Eocene (45 Ma) Italy indicates that sea skaters were present in this part of the world in the past. Other geological evidence points to dramatic changes in the Mediterranean Sea during the Tertiary and Quaternary...... that may have led to their later extinction. In this paper we review briefly the distribution, systematics, evolution and ecology of Halobates, and discuss the potential for the Mediterranean to be recolonised following expected environmental changes due to global warming....

  17. Response of the Nile and its catchment to millennial-scale climatic change since the LGM from Sr isotopes and major elements of East Mediterranean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, M. R.; Krom, M. D.; Cliff, R. A.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Ayalon, A.; Paterne, M.

    2011-02-01

    Changes in 87Sr/ 86Sr and major element geochemistry, from two sediment cores (9509 and 9501) in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM), were used to resolve changes in sediment provenance and, hence, determine climate changes in the Nile catchment and Eastern Sahara desert over the past 25 ka. The sediment was described by a three end-member system comprising Blue Nile (BN; 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7506; Sr = 210 ppm), White Nile (WN; 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7094; Sr = 72.5 ppm) and Saharan dust (SD; 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7183; Sr = 99 ppm). The sedimentary record of these cores represents the suspended load carried down the Nile river and discharged into the S.E. Levantine basin and thus records palaeoclimatically controlled changes in erosion and transport in the catchment. During arid periods (0-5 ka BP) and prior to 11 ka BP, fluxes of BN sediment at 9509 (˜6 g/cm 2/yr & 10-12 g/cm 2/yr, respectively) were greater than during the peak of the African Humid Period (AHP) from 5 to 11 ka BP (the deposition of the youngest organic-rich sediment, termed sapropel (S-1), in the EM basin. By contrast the flux of WN increased during the AHP from ˜5 g/cm 2/yr at ˜13 ka BP to >15 g/cm 2/yr. In the Ethiopian Highlands (BN catchment) increases in the amount and duration of the monsoon during the AHP caused more vegetation to grow resulting in less soil erosion. In the WN catchment increased rainfall caused more catchment erosion and higher sediment flux through the Sudd marshes. The sedimentation rate in core 9509 increased during the AHP because of the greater importance of the WN sediment flux relative to the BN sediment flux. Saharan dust flux also decreased during the AHP reaching a minimum at ˜6 ka BP (core 9509) due to 'greening' of the Sahara desert. At the onset of S-1, the changes in Nile flow as determined by 87Sr/ 86Sr and climatic changes in the EM basin determined by δ 18O of planktonic foraminifera were simultaneous, confirming that such isotopic tracers cannot be used directly to

  18. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  19. Fate of classical faecal bacterial markers and ampicillin-resistant bacteria in agricultural soils under Mediterranean climate after urban sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Platero, Leticia; Nadal, Ignacio; Navarro-García, Federico

    2016-09-15

    The use of sewage sludge or biosolids as agricultural amendments may pose environmental and human health risks related to pathogen or antibiotic-resistant microorganism transmission from soils to vegetables or to water through runoff. Since the survival of those microorganisms in amended soils has been poorly studied under Mediterranean climatic conditions, we followed the variation of soil fecal bacterial markers and ampicillin-resistant bacteria for two years with samplings every four months in a split block design with three replica in a crop soil where two different types of biosolids (aerobically or anaerobically digested) at three doses (low, 40; intermediate, 80; and high, 160Mg·ha(-1)) were applied. Low amounts of biosolids produced similar decay rates of coliform populations than in control soil (-0.19 and -0.27log10CFUs·g(-1)drysoilmonth(-1) versus -0.22) while in the case of intermediate and high doses were close to zero and their populations remained 24months later in the range of 4-5log10CFUs·g(-1)ds. Enterococci populations decayed at different rates when using aerobic than anaerobic biosolids although high doses had higher rates than control (-0.09 and -0.13log10CFUs·g(-1)dsmonth(-1) for aerobic and anaerobic, respectively, vs -0.07). At the end of the experiment, counts in high aerobic and low and intermediate anaerobic plots were 1 log10 higher than in control (4.21, 4.03, 4.2 and 3.11log10CFUs·g(-1) ds, respectively). Biosolid application increased the number of Clostridium spores in all plots at least 1 log10 with respect to control with a different dynamic of decay for low and intermediate doses of aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Ampicillin-resistant bacteria increased in amended soils 4months after amendment and remained at least 1 log10 higher 24months later, especially in aerobic and low and intermediate anaerobic plots due to small rates of decay (in the range of -0.001 to -0.008log10CFUs·g(-1)dsmonth(-1) vs -0.016 for control). Aerobic

  20. Effects of rainfall partitioning by Mediterranean vegetation on soil water content dynamics. Results from field studies along a climatic gradient in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme; Muzylo, Aleksandra; Schnabel, Susanne; Domingo, Francisco; Cantón, Yolanda; Gallart, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    The role played by rainfall partitioning by vegetation is of paramount importance for the water balance both at local and catchment scales. Rainfall partitioning fluxes (throughfall and stemflow) have a large degree of temporal and spatial variability and may consequently lead to significant changes in the volume and composition of water that reach the understory vegetation and the soil. Throughfall affects the surface soils horizons and stemflow, channelled by branches and stems, can reach deeper soil layers and remain available for the roots. This work investigates the effect of rainfall partitioning on soil water content in three Mediterranean study areas covering a strong climatic gradient and different vegetation species. From Northern to Southern Spain the study areas are: The Vallcebre research catchments (42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) with forest patches of Pinus sylvestris and of Quercus pubescens, The Parapuños research catchment (39° 35'N, 6° 5'W ), a wooded rangeland with Quercus rotundifolia and annual grasses in open areas, and the Tabernas experimental area (37° 0'N, 2° 26'W) with disperse shrubs and a mixture of annual plants and biological soil crusts in open areas. Mean annual rainfall ranges between 862 and 235 mm (in Vallcebre and Tabernas respectively). For the studied tree species throughfall was the dominant flux and have a similar rate, being stemflow only a small part of the bulk rainfall. For the studied shrubs, measured throughfall as well as stemflow were highly variable between species. Superficial soil water content was on average lower under forest (Vallcebre) or individual trees (Parapuños) that in the open areas. Contrarily, in Tabernas soil was wetter under shrubs than in open areas, although with higher variability. Driest soils below continous forest covers, as in Vallcebre, or even in sparse covered areas as in the Parapuños catchment, may be explained by the dominant role of rainfall interception and transpiration. In Tabernas

  1. Organic matter recycling in a shallow coastal zone (NW Mediterranean): The influence of local and global climatic forcing and organic matter lability on hydrolytic enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2008-12-01

    Seawater and sediment were collected on a monthly basis from a shallow (10.5 m depth) coastal site in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from November 1993 to December 1994 to determine the main environmental forces that influenced the biogeochemical processes and to study the relationships between the availability and lability of the organic matter (OM) and hydrolytic enzymatic activity. The current direction throughout the sampling year was influenced by the climatic conditions, which showed significant correlations with north atlantic oscillation (NAO) index values. The current generally flowed northwards in spring. This could cause significantly lower transparency values than in the summer, when an eastward current probably reduced the allochthonous input of material from the main local watercourse and contributed to turning the conditions from mesotrophic to oligotrophic. Spring and summer were separated by transitional periods more than by the canonical autumn and winter seasons. These transitions were characterised by a reduction in salinity values and by resuspension caused by water column mixing and a current flowing towards the southwest. The significant inverse correlations of the chlorophyll- a and protein concentrations, bacterial abundance and proteolysis of the bottom seawater and transparency showed the direct influence of resuspension on the organic matter dynamics. Moreover, OM trophic quality influenced the bacterial parameters and the enzymatic activities. The glycolytic β glucosidase and chitinase activities and their bacterial cell-specific hydrolytic rates were higher when substrates such as hydrolysable proteins were available, while they decreased when refractory compounds were abundant. The low leucine aminopeptidase: β glucosidase ratio values observed in the water column were presumably related to the potential ease with which microbes obtained protein-derived materials and energy, the protein hydrolysable fraction being estimated at

  2. Decadal to millennial time scale climate variability in the Central Mediterranean during the Holocene: a reconstruction based on geochemical proxies from high resolution sedimentary records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudeau, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    To assess potential anthropogenic contributions to future climate change it is necessary to understand natural climate variability. This can be achieved by studying climate variability during the Holocene, when similar basic climate boundary conditions persisted as today. During this period climate

  3. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  4. Integrated management of organic wastes for remediation of massive tailings storage facilities under semiarid mediterranean climate type: efficacy of organic pork residues as study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; España, Helena; Gardeweg, Rosario; Bas, Fernando; Gandarillas, Mónica

    2016-04-01

    Remediation of large surface areas of massive mine wastes, such as tailings storage facilities (TSFs) is challenging, particularly when no topsoils have been stored for the mine closure stage. Worldwide, it has been demonstrated that the use of organic wastes as substrate amendments for remediation of hard rock mine wastes is a useful alternative to topsoils material. In the case of semi-arid climate conditions of north-central Chile, the copper mining industry has generated massive TSF (between 400 ha and 3,000 ha) which needs now to be properly closed according to recently established mine closure regulations. However, in most of the cases, there have been no topsoils savage that facilitate the initial stage of the site remediation. Industrial organic wastes (i.e. biosolids) are found in the area, but their availability is normally below the demand needed for remediation of TSFs and salt content is normally elevated, thus posing salinization risks to the substrate and negative plant growth. We focused on a large organic waste producing industry, the pork industry, whose growth has been restricted due to the limited possibilities for using pig slurries as amendments for croplands in north-central Chile and the strong odor generated, resulting in conflicts with local communities. Incorporation of pig slurries as amendments to post-operative TSFs has been scarcely evaluated at international level (i.e. Spain) and no evaluation at all exists for the solid organic fraction generated from pig slurry treatment plants (PSTP). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of both pig slurries (PS) and the solid fraction of PSTP (SF-PSTP) as tailings amendment for creating good plant productivity on TSFs located under semi-arid Mediterranean climate conditions in north-central Chile. A short-term greenhouse study was developed. Copper mine tailings were mixed either with PS (0, 40, 80, and 120 m3 ha-1) or SF-PSTP (0, 25, 50 and 75 t ha-1), distributed in 3 L pots, and

  5. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  6. Influence of land use and climate on recent forest expansion: a case study in the Eurosiberian–Mediterranean limit of north-west Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Martinez, J.M.; Suarez-Seoane, S.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Luis Calabuig, de E.

    2014-01-01

    1.In Mediterranean mountainous areas, forests have expanded in recent decades because traditional management practices have been abandoned or reduced. However, understanding the ecological mechanisms behind landscape change is a complex undertaking because the influence of land use may be reinforced

  7. The mediterranean policy of the EC— The case of industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ashoff, Guido; Hummen, Wilhelm

    1983-01-01

    The European Community faces the task of reformulating its Mediterranean policy in the light of the rather disappointing experience with the “Global Mediterranean Policy” adopted in 1972, the effects of the southward enlargement of the Community and the changed world economic climate. The article that follows discusses the experiences to date, the scope for action and possible guidelines for a future Mediterranean policy in the industrial sphere.

  8. Thermal Comfort On Subtropical And Mediterranean Climate Analyzing Some Physiological Data Through Fuzzy Theory [conforto Térmico De Bovinos Leiteiros Confinados Em Clima Subtropical E Mediterrâneo Pela Análise De Parâmetros Fisiológicos Utilizando A Teoria Dos Conjuntos Fuzzy

    OpenAIRE

    Perissinotto M.; Moura D.J.; Cruz V.F.; de Souza S.R.L.; de Lima K.A.O.; Mendes A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model and evaluate, through fuzzy logic, the level of thermal comfort experienced by housed animals as a function of their physiologic variables of rectal temperature (RT) and breath rate (BR), and setting their critical thresholds. The database was setup using two distinct environments: Subtropical climate (São Pedro area, Brazil) and mediterranean climate (Évora area, Portugal). Holstein cows temperature and breath rates were obtained in order to build a p...

  9. Establishment of a planted field with Mediterranean shrubs in Sardinia and its evaluation for climate mitigation and to combat desertification in semi-arid regions

    OpenAIRE

    De Dato GD; Loperfido L; De Angelis P; Valentini R

    2009-01-01

    Forested areas are important in arid and semi-arid regions primarily to combat desertification, but also to increase carbon sinks. To reverse the land degradation processes, restoration in the Mediterranean Basin had been frequently obtained by planting indigenous and exotic conifers, but it has been demonstrated that shrubs are nurse species for tree seedlings. Furthermore, planting indigenous shrubs is more efficient than allochthonous in restoring degraded soils. The aims of this work were...

  10. Early Differential Responses of Co-dominant Canopy Species to Sudden and Severe Drought in a Mediterranean-climate Type Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Katinka X. Ruthrof; George Matusick; Giles E. St. J. Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Globally, drought and heat-induced forest disturbance is garnering increasing concern. Species from Mediterranean forests have resistance and resilience mechanisms to cope with drought and differences in these ecological strategies will profoundly influence vegetation composition in response to drought. Our aim was to contrast the early response of two co-occurring forest species, Eucalyptus marginata and Corymbia calophylla, in the Northern Jarrah Forest of southwestern Australia, following ...

  11. Sustainability of the energy sector in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Energy and climate change is a key priority issue mentioned by the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD) which explicitly claims that “Control, reduce or stabilize GhG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions” is a crucial target for Mediterranean countries. This paper uses the integrated assessment model IFs (International Futures) to implement a scenario analysis to investigate the mitigation potential of Mediterranean regions. It analyzes if the Mediterranean regions will be able to reach the MSSD climate change target and recommends amendments of the MSSD to implement with effectiveness climate change policies in the Mediterranean area. -- Highlights: ► In the majority of scenarios emissions in Mediterranean countries are not decreasing over 2020. ► Even in scenarios incorporating multiple policy actions emissions may not be decreasing over 2020. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development needs to go beyond the 2015 deadline to promote climate policies. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development is key to promote coordinated multiple actions to reduce emissions. ► Partial interventions could compromise the effectiveness of the overall regional emissions stabilization policies.

  12. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...

  13. Phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs have been determined by geological processes and climate change in the Late Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Çiğdem; Bilgin, C. Can; Beerli, Peter; Westaway, Rob; Ohst, Torsten; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Uzzell, Thomas; Bilgin, Metin; Hotz, Hansjürg; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Plötner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Aim Our aims were to assess the phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in eastern Mediterranean water frogs and to estimate divergence times using different geological scenarios. We related divergence times to past geological events and discuss the relevance of our data for the systematics of eastern Mediterranean water frogs. Location The eastern Mediterranean region. Methods Genetic diversity and divergence were calculated using sequences of two protein-coding mitochondrial (mt) genes: ND2 (1038 bp, 119 sequences) and ND3 (340 bp, 612 sequences). Divergence times were estimated in a Bayesian framework under four geological scenarios representing alternative possible geological histories for the eastern Mediterranean. We then compared the different scenarios using Bayes factors and additional geological data. Results Extensive genetic diversity in mtDNA divides eastern Mediterranean water frogs into six main haplogroups (MHG). Three MHGs were identified on the Anatolian mainland; the most widespread MHG with the highest diversity is distributed from western Anatolia to the northern shore of the Caspian Sea, including the type locality of Pelophylax ridibundus. The other two Anatolian MHGs are restricted to south-eastern Turkey, occupying localities west and east of the Amanos mountain range. One of the remaining three MHGs is restricted to Cyprus; a second to the Levant; the third was found in the distribution area of European lake frogs (P. ridibundus group), including the Balkans. Main conclusions Based on geological evidence and estimates of genetic divergence we hypothesize that the water frogs of Cyprus have been isolated from the Anatolian mainland populations since the end of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), i.e. since c. 5.5-5.3 Ma, while our divergence time estimates indicate that the isolation of Crete from the mainland populations (Peloponnese, Anatolia) most likely pre-dates the MSC. The observed rates of divergence imply a time window of c

  14. Oxygen consumption in Mediterranean octocorals under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Previati, M.; Scinto, A.; Cerrano, C.; Osinga, R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem resilience to climate anomalies is related to the physiological plasticity of organisms. To characterize the physiological response of some common Mediterranean gorgonians to fluctuations in temperature, four species (Paramuricea clavata, Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolinii and

  15. Climate of the past 2500 years in the Gulf of Taranto, central Mediterranean Sea: A high-resolution climate reconstruction based on δ18O and δ13C of Globigerinoides ruber (white)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauel, A.-L.; Goudeau, M.-L.S.; de Lange, G.J.; Bernasconi, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a high-resolution isotope stratigraphy based on Globigerinoides ruber (white) over the past 2500 years in the Gulf of Taranto, central Mediterranean. G. ruber (white) reflects summer conditions in the Gulf of Taranto but is influenced by two major surface water masses: the Western

  16. Late Pliocene millennial to Milankovitch-scale climate variability: A case study of Marine Isotope Stages 101-95 in the Mediterranean and adjacent North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Julia

    2005-01-01

    The selected time interval and sections should shed new light on the following fundamental research questions: Are sub-Milankovitch frequencies present in the late Pliocene with frequencies similar to those observed in the late Pleistocene and, if so, is the climate mechanism comparable (Chapter 2)? What is the relationship of these signals with high latitude and low latitude climate (Chapter 3 and 4)? Are the phase relations of the different climate components with respect to the primary for...

  17. Stand structure and recent climate change constrain stand basal area change in European forests: a comparison across boreal, temperate and Mediterranean biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Madrigal-Gonzalez, Jaime; Ratcliffe, S.; Coomes, D.C.; Kändler, G.; Lehtonen, A.; Wirth, C.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    European forests have a prominent role in the global carbon cycle and an increase in carbon storage has been consistently reported during the 20th century. Any further increase in forest carbon storage, however, could be hampered by increases in aridity and extreme climatic events. Here we use forest inventory data to identify the relative importance of stand structure (stand basal area and mean d.b.h.), mean climate (water availability) and recent climate change (temperature a...

  18. The sea-skater Halobates (Heteroptera Gerridae) - probable cause for extinction in the Mediterranean and potential for re-colonisation following climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Lanna; Damgaard, Jakob; Garrouste, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Sea-skaters in the genus Halobates Eschscholtz 1822 include some of the most specialised water striders and are found in tropical and subtropical seas around the world. Even though species of Halobates occur in both the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea, no extant sea-skater has been reported from t...... that may have led to their later extinction. In this paper we review briefly the distribution, systematics, evolution and ecology of Halobates, and discuss the potential for the Mediterranean to be recolonised following expected environmental changes due to global warming....

  19. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down ...

  20. The Mediterranean alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccaria, P.; Minca, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of Italian and French Mediterranean studies from a postcolonial and geographical perspective. It claims that the relationship between contemporary Mediterranean geographies and mainstream European modernities has been overlooked by the Mediterraneanist literature, a

  1. Late Pliocene climate variability on Milankovitch to millennial time scales: a high-resolution study of MIS100 from the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Julia; Lourens, L.J.; Hilgen, F.J.; Laan, Erwin van der; Kouwenhoven, T.J.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Astronomically tuned high-resolution climatic proxy records across marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100) from the Italian Monte San Nicola section and ODP Leg 160 Hole 967A are presented. These records reveal a complex pattern of climate fluctuations on both Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch

  2. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the

  3. Respuestas ecofisiológicas de plantas en ecosistemas de zonas con clima mediterráneo y ambientes de altamontaña Ecophysiological responses of plants in ecosystems with Mediterranean-like climate and high mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. MARINO CABRERA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una revisión de los estudios en ecofisiología en plantas de zonas con clima tipo mediterráneo, con enfásis en la fotosíntesis frente a los múltiples estrés de estos ambientes. Se hace un acercamiento ecofisiológico al estudio de la distribución de las formas de vida y de las especies, particularmente en la zona central de Chile. Se analiza el efecto del estrés hídrico (sequía, térmico (temperaturas y lumínico (radiación en la fotosíntesis. El estrés hídrico sería un factor determinante en la distribución de árboles siempreverdes y semideciduos en altitudes bajas, mientras que en altitudes intermedias (en el límite arbóreo o mayores, las temperaturas y/o el estrés hídrico junto con el estrés lumínico afectarían a arbustos y cojines. Se discutirá el fenómeno de la fotoinhibición de la fotosíntesis causada por los múltiples estrés que enfrentarían las plantas en zonas de clima tipo mediterráneo, explicando los conceptos teóricos básicos de la emisión de fluorescencia de la clorofila a y la fotoprotección otorgada por las xantofilas. Se proponen hipótesis para explicar como estos múltiples estrés modulan la distribución y los patrones fenológicos estacionales e interanuales en plantas. Se comparan especies filogenéticamente cercanas (e.g., congenéricas y con diferencias interespecíficas en los caracteres fenotípicos que se correlacionan con parámetros del ambiente, que se explican mediante procesos adaptativos y que no son producto de la inercia filogenéticaThis review highlights the studies on plant physiological ecology of Mediterranean-like climate zones, with interest in the photosynthesis and in the multiple stress characteristics of these environments. It incorporates an eco-physiological approach to the study of the distribution of the life forms and species of Mediterranean ecosystems, particularly in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile. It is emphasized the effect of drought

  4. Representation of spatial and temporal variability of daily wind speed and of intense wind events over the Mediterranean Sea using dynamical downscaling: impact of the regional climate model configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herrmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric datasets coming from long term reanalyzes of low spatial resolution are used for different purposes. Wind over the sea is, for example, a major ingredient of oceanic simulations. However, the shortcomings of those datasets prevent them from being used without an adequate corrective preliminary treatment. Using a regional climate model (RCM to perform a dynamical downscaling of those large scale reanalyzes is one of the methods used in order to produce fields that realistically reproduce atmospheric chronology and where those shortcomings are corrected. Here we assess the influence of the configuration of the RCM used in this framework on the representation of wind speed spatial and temporal variability and intense wind events on a daily timescale. Our RCM is ALADIN-Climate, the reanalysis is ERA-40, and the studied area is the Mediterranean Sea.

    First, the dynamical downscaling significantly reduces the underestimation of daily wind speed, in average by 9 % over the whole Mediterranean. This underestimation has been corrected both globally and locally, and for the whole wind speed spectrum. The correction is the strongest for periods and regions of strong winds. The representation of spatial variability has also been significantly improved. On the other hand, the temporal correlation between the downscaled field and the observations decreases all the more that one moves eastwards, i.e. further from the atmospheric flux entry. Nonetheless, it remains ~0.7, the downscaled dataset reproduces therefore satisfactorily the real chronology.

    Second, the influence of the choice of the RCM configuration has an influence one order of magnitude smaller than the improvement induced by the initial downscaling. The use of spectral nudging or of a smaller domain helps to improve the realism of the temporal chronology. Increasing the resolution very locally (both spatially and temporally improves the representation of spatial

  5. Fire regimes and vegetation responses in two Mediterranean-climate regions Regímenes de incendios y respuestas de la vegetación en dos regiones de clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA MONTENEGRO

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires resulting from thunderstorms are common in some Mediterranean-climate regions, such as southern California, and have played an important role in the ecology and evolution of the flora. Mediterranean-climate regions are major centers for human population and thus anthropogenic impacts on fire regimes may have important consequences on these plant formations. However, changes in fire regimes may have different impacts on Mediterranean type-ecosystems depending on the capability of plants to respond to such perturbations. Therefore, we compare here fire regimes and vegetation responses of two Mediterranean-climate regions which differ in wildfire regimes and history of human occupation, the central zone of Chile (matorral and the southern area of California in United States (chaparral. In Chile almost all fires result from anthropogenic activities, whereas lightning fires resulting from thunderstorms are frequent in California. In both regions fires are more frequent in summer, due to high accumulation of dry plant biomass for ignition. Humans have markedly increased fires frequency both in the matorral and chaparral, but extent of burned areas has remained unaltered, probably due to better fire suppression actions and a decline in the built-up of dry plant fuel associated to increased landscape fragmentation with less flammable agricultural and urban developments. As expected, post-fire plant regeneration responses differs between the matorral and chaparral due to differences in the importance of wildfires as a natural evolutionary force in the system. Plants from the chaparral show a broader range of post-fire regeneration responses than the matorral, from basal resprouting, to lignotuber resprouting, and to fire-stimulated germination and flowering with fire-specific clues such as heat shock, chemicals from smoke or charred wood. Plants from the matorral have some resprouting capabilities after fire, but these probably evolved from

  6. Yield, physicochemical traits, antioxidant pattern, polyphenol oxidase activity and total visual quality of field-grown processing tomato cv. Brigade as affected by water stress in Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Riccardo N; Di Silvestro, Isabella; Patanè, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    The 'processing tomato' is an important source of natural antioxidants whose concentration depends, along with other parameters, on water availability. In order to better understand the mechanisms that regulate the response to water stress, a study was carried out in a typically semi-arid Mediterranean environment to investigate the yield, chemical composition and visual quality of tomato cv. 'Brigade' field grown under no irrigation (V0) in comparison with those of the conventional fully irrigated crop (V100). The stressful conditions of V0 affected the total yield. Nevertheless, fruits exhibited an increase in firmness (+27%), total solids (+23%) and total soluble solids (+5%). The dynamic balance between the antioxidant pattern and polyphenol oxidase activity under water stress conditions resulted in fruits with increased antioxidant activity (+12%), due to a decline in enzyme activity (-48%) and a rise in vitamin C (+20%) and total phenolic (+13%) contents. It is possible to manage water stress by applying water-saving irrigation strategies in order to promote the quality and nutritional properties of tomatoes while also contributing to saving water. This is a relevant aspect in processing tomato cultivation in semi-arid environments, where both the cost and availability of irrigation water represent a rising problem in agricultural activities. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Early Differential Responses of Co-dominant Canopy Species to Sudden and Severe Drought in a Mediterranean-climate Type Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka X. Ruthrof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, drought and heat-induced forest disturbance is garnering increasing concern. Species from Mediterranean forests have resistance and resilience mechanisms to cope with drought and differences in these ecological strategies will profoundly influence vegetation composition in response to drought. Our aim was to contrast the early response of two co-occurring forest species, Eucalyptus marginata and Corymbia calophylla, in the Northern Jarrah Forest of southwestern Australia, following a sudden and severe drought event. Forest plots were monitored for health and response, three and 16 months following the drought. Eucalyptus marginata was more susceptible to partial and complete crown dieback compared to C. calophylla, three months after the drought. However, resprouting among trees exhibiting complete crown dieback was similar between species. Overall, E. marginata trees were more likely to die from the impacts of drought, assessed at 16 months. These short-term differential responses to drought may lead to compositional shifts with increases in frequency of drought events in the future.

  8. Late Pliocene millennial to Milankovitch-scale climate variability: A case study of Marine Isotope Stages 101-95 in the Mediterranean and adjacent North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Julia

    2005-01-01

    The selected time interval and sections should shed new light on the following fundamental research questions: Are sub-Milankovitch frequencies present in the late Pliocene with frequencies similar to those observed in the late Pleistocene and, if so, is the climate mechanism comparable

  9. Late Pliocene millennial to Milankovitch-scale climate variability : A case study of marine isotope stages 101-95 in the Mediterranean and adjacent North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, J.

    2005-01-01

    The selected time interval and sections should shed new light on the following fundamental research questions: Are sub-Milankovitch frequencies present in the late Pliocene with frequencies similar to those observed in the late Pleistocene and, if so, is the climate mechanism comparable (Chapter 2)?

  10. Assessing the ability of three land ecosystem models to simulate gross carbon uptake of forests from boreal to Mediterranean climate in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.; Le Maire, Guerric; Zaehle, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Vetter, M.; Churkina, G.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Reichstein, M.

    2007-01-01

    Three terrestrial biosphere models (LPJ, Orchidee, Biome-BGC) were evaluated with respect to their ability to simulate large-scale climate related trends in gross primary production (GPP) across European forests. Simulated GPP and leaf area index (LAI) were compared with GPP estimates based on flux

  11. Hydrodynamic, neotectonic and climatic control of the evolution of a barrier beach in the microtidal environment of the NE Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Serafim E.; Ghionis, George; Verykiou, Efthymia; Roussakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Sifnioti, Dafni; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis P.; Andris, Periklis; Georgiou, Panos

    2015-02-01

    The existence of barrier beaches is crucial, as they act as a buffer zone to the associated wetlands, whilst they are sensitive to climate change. The present study offers an insight into the processes controlling the formation and evolution of the Gyra barrier beach (NW coast of the island of Lefkada) in the microtidal, tectonically very active Ionian Sea under the influence of regional climate change and human interference. Such investigations are sparse in the literature. Existing information regarding regional geology, sediment availability and human intervention is combined with the collection of geophysical data, field observations and simulations of nearshore hydro- and sediment dynamics, analysis of climatic variations with respect to offshore wind/wave patterns (including storminess), in situ measurements of recent morphometric changes (2006-2008) and historical shoreline changes (since the 1960s). The recent formation and evolution (mostly under retreat) of the Gyra barrier beach is shown to be the combined result of the regional seismotectonic setting, relative increase of sea level, coastal sediment transport patterns, as well as human impact (negative) on primarily terrestrial sediment influxes. The current erosional trend of the barrier beach is associated with a shift in the wind and wave direction (from SW to NW) of extreme storm events in the Ionian Sea since the 1980s. The regional climatic variations of the last decades are well correlated with the trend of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  12. Impacts of climate change on vegetation, hydrological and socio-economic droughts in a transitional wet-to-dry Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Pulquério, Mário; Grosso, Nuno; Duarte Santos, Filipe; João Cruz, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The Tagus river basin is located in a transitional region between humid and semi-arid climate. The lower part of the basin is a strategic source of water for Portugal, providing water for agricultural irrigation, hydropower generation, and domestic water supplies for over 4 million people. Climate change in this region is expected to lead to higher temperatures and lower rainfall, therefore increasing climatic aridity. In this transitional region, this could lead to an increased frequency of severe droughts, threatening climatic support for current agricultural and forestry practices, as well as the sustainability of domestic water supplies. This work evaluated the impacts of climate change on drought frequency and severity for the Portuguese part of the Tagus river basin. Climate change scenarios for 2010-2100 (A2 greenhouse emission scenarios) were statistically downscaled for the study area. They were evaluated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) eco-hydrological model, which simulated vegetation water demand and drought stress, soil water availability, irrigation abstraction, streamflow, reservoir storage and groundwater recharge. Water inflows from Spain were estimated using an empirical climate-based model. Drought occurrence and severity was analyzed in terms of: * meteorological drought, based on (i) the Standardized Precipitation Index and (ii) the Aridity Index; * vegetation/agricultural drought, based on plant water stress; * hydrological drought, based on (i) streamflow rates and (ii) reservoir storage; * socio-economic drought, based on (i) the capacity of the main reservoir in the system (Castelo de Bode) to sustain hydropower and domestic supplies, and (ii) the rate of groundwater extraction vs. irrigation demands for the cultures located in the intensive cultivation regions of the Lezírias near the Tagus estuary. The results indicate a trend of increasing frequency and severity of most drought types during the XXIst century, with a

  13. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason......, crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influence of climate changes and population increases. The main objective of this study was to analyse...... dryland Mediterranean cropping systems, and to discuss and recommend sustainable cropping technologies that could be used at the small-scale farm level. Four crop management practices were evaluated: crop rotations, reduced tillage, use of organic manure, and supplemental and deficit irrigation. Among...

  14. Corrigendum to "Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum – a model study" published in Clim. Past, 7, 1103–1122, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schmiedl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP, the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never identified before

  15. Tradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate-Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin; Migliorati, Massimiliano De Antoni; Cammarano, Davide; Pruneddu, Giovanni; Giunta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over

  16. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  17. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  18. THE EVALUATION OF THE SOLAR ORIENTED ENERGY EFFECTIVE BUILDING DESIGN UNDER THE MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN TERMS OF WATER HEATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem TETİK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the acknowledging of the fact that the half of the resources of the earth is being utilized for construction purposes; in this dissertation, which aims to lower this rate for our country by raising the awareness of the society, it is asserted that the utilization of the solar energy, unlike the common belief, should be considered as a passive manner during the design phase, before utilizing it in an active manner and the types of utilization, in which the solar energy can be benefitted at its full, is further demonstrated. Within this context, the analyses of the solar energy systems were conducted, the variables according to the climate and building types were discussed and the current suggestions for the improvement were presented along with the relevant literature reviews and case studies.

  19. Projected acidification of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, J. C.; Le Vu, B.; Palmieri, J.; Dutay, J. C.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea's acidification rate is under debate. Its 10% higher alkalinity relative to that of average ocean waters, makes it chemically more capable to absorb CO2. That capacity is further enhanced by the rapid ventilation of its deep waters. Some data-based studies suggest that that extra carbon uptake causes larger changes in surface and deep pH than found in open-ocean waters. Yet simplified model simulations over the industrial era suggest otherwise. Here we offer the first projections of Mediterranean Sea acidification over the 21st century. Our projections rely on a regional climate model, which couples the ARPEGE atmospheric model to the NEMO-MED8 regional eddying ocean model under historical forcing followed by the IPCC A2 scenario over the 21st century. Those model results are used here to drive an offline configuration of the same ocean model including natural and anthropogenic carbon. Simulations were made with and without increasing CO2 and with and without climate change. With both, the level of free acidity ([H+]) doubles during 1860 to 2100 as does the seasonal amplitude of [H+]. But the seasonal amplitude of pH actually declines slightly (because of its log scale, Δ pH represents a relative change in [H+]). And although the projected change in surface pH is quite similar between average ocean waters and the Mediterranean, corresponding changes in [H+] are somewhat lower in the Med. Once again, changes on a log scale can be misleading. The pH changes are mostly due to increasing atmospheric CO2, but climate change substantially worsens the perturbation in parts of the western basin; conversely, previous studies suggest that climate change has virtually no overall effect on pH. Thus under the above scenario, the Mediterranean Sea is projected to experience a doubling of its natural level of free acidity along with similar enhancement to its seasonal extremes during the 21st century.

  20. Impacts of exotic forest pathogens on Mediterranean ecosystems: Four case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo Garbelotto; Marco Pautasso

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are hotspots of biodiversity. Because of a coincidence of high species richness and human presence, Mediterranean biodiversity is particularly threatened by processes such as habitat degradation, fragmentation and loss, pollution, climate change and introduction of invasive species. Invasive tree pathogens are among the problematic exotic...

  1. Airborne fungi in non-problem buildings in a southern-hemisphere mediterranean climate: preliminary study of natural and mechanical ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, P.C.; Murry, F. [School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch (Australia); Neumeister-Kemp, H.G. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Lysek, G. [Fachbereich Botanik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence on fungal contamination in moisture-damaged and complaint buildings worldwide, but little is known about the occurrence and distribution of fungi in healthy non-complaint buildings in a southern-hemisphere climate. The study tested the hypothesis that fungi in healthy buildings are low in numbers and very similar to the numbers and mixtures of species in both the outdoor air and the outdoor air in other parts of the world. Fungi were collected using a 6-stage Andersen sampler, and various indoor air quality (IAQ) indicators and a sick-building syndrome (SBS) questionnaire were used in parallel. The results showed that all IAQ parameters were within USA and Canadian guidelines in all the buildings. There was also a low incidence of SBS complaints and symptoms. The total colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were also low, and the range of fungal species was low compared to buildings in other parts of the world. However, the mixture of fungal genera in the indoor air was different from the outdoor air. There were also substantial differences between indoor locations. At some locations fungi including 'Aspergillus niger', 'Penicillium' spp. and 'Alternaria alternata' were much higher indoors than outdoors or, as the pathogen 'Paecilomyces lilacinus', were absent in the outdoor air indicating indoor sources. Differentiation of fungal species was required to identify indoor fungal sources as the outdoor air was not the major source of indoor fungi. The study also demonstrated that evaluating the potential exposure to airborne fungi in indoor air requires differentiation to the species level as simple CFU counts could not differentiate between benign and potentially harmful fungi. (author)

  2. Mediterranean California, Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.

  3. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people of Mediterranean origin — including Sephardic Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and Turks. But it may affect ... attacks, you'll likely feel normal. Symptom-free periods may be as short as a few days ...

  4. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    of the Cedars they once had. Much of the rainfall in Crete is lost as an asset to evaporation or it runs off and does not infiltrate to become groundwater. The conclusion is that the cause of Mediterranean desertification is not at all related to erosion. Erosion is a problem of the non sustainable practices that destroy damage biodiversity and compact and transform the soil. This has nothing to do with climate because it happens everywhere. The Ermes project suggested that erosion is greatest where the annual rainfall is about 300 -400 mm because of the influence of salt and the dispersion of clay.

  5. Climate and Global Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, J.C.; Pons, A.; Fantechi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume contains the lessons delivered at the course held in Arles, France, on the subject Climate and Global Change: natural variability of the geosphere and biosphere systems, biogeochemical cycles and their perturbation by human activities, monitoring and forecasting global changes (satellite observations, modelling,...). Short presentations of students' own research activities are also proposed (climatic fluctuation in the Mediterranean area, climate/vegetation relations, etc.)

  6. The scale effect on soil erosion. A plot approach to understand connectivity on slopes under cultivation at variable plot sizes and under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Ferro, Vito; Iovino, Massimo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; González Camarena, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    research share information collected during the last 15 years in the Sparacia and El Teularet soil erosion experimental stations under the same management and research how the concept of connectivity can help us to have a better understanding of the soil erosion process, and the effect of scale. All the data will be treated to show the runoff and sediment eroded at different plot sizes to understand how the sediment is transported at event scale. The rainfall characteristics will be also analysed to understand the soil erosion processes at different scales. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Bagarello, V., Ferro, V., Pampalone, V. 2015b. A new version of the USLE-MM for predicting bare plot soil loss at the Sparacia (South Italy) experimental site. Hydrological Processes, 29(19), 4210-4219. Bagarello, V., Ferro, V., Giordano, G., Mannocchi, F., Pampalone, V., Todisco, F. 2015a. A modified applicative criterion of the physical model concept for evaluating plot soil erosion predictions. Catena, 126, 53-58. Cerdà, A. and M. F. Jurgensen. 2011. Ant Mounds as a Source of Sediment on Citrus Orchard Plantations in Eastern Spain. A Three-Scale Rainfall Simulation Approach. Catena 85 (3): 231-236. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.008. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordan, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Sinoga, J. D. R. 2015. Shrubland as a soil and water conservation agent in Mediterranean-type ecosystems: The Sierra de Enguera study site contribution. Monitoring and Modelling Dynamic Environments, 45. Cerdà, A., R. Brazier, M. Nearing, and J. de Vente. 2013. Scales and Erosion. Catena 102: 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2011.09.006. Galdino, S., E. E. Sano, R. G. Andrade, C. R. Grego, S. F. Nogueira, C. Bragantini, and A. H. G

  7. Applying data mining methods to the assessment of soil contamination and carbon sequestration under Mediterranean Climate. The case study of Guadiamar basin (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Vallés, Sara; Pino-Mejías, Rafael; Blanco-Velázquez, Francisco J.; Anaya-Romero, María

    2017-04-01

    In the present background of increasing access to vast datasets of soil and environmental records, the application of the newest analytical techniques and approaches for modelling offer excellent opportunities to define recommendations and simulate processes for land degradation and management. In this regard, data mining techniques have been successfully applied in different fields of environmental sciences, performing an innovative tool to explore relevant questions and providing valuable results and useful applications through an efficient management and analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets. Soil Organic matter, pH and trace elements in soil perform close relationships, with ability to alter each other and lead to emerging, synergic properties for soils. In addition, effects associated to climate and land use change promotes mechanisms of feedback that could amplify the negative effects of soil contamination on human health, biodiversity conservation and soil ecosystem services maintenance. The aim of this study was to build and compare several data mining models for the prediction of potential and interrelated functions of soil contamination and carbon sequestration by soils. In this context, under the framework of the EU RECARE project (Preventing and Remediating degradation of Soils in Europe through Land Care), the Guadiamar valley (SW Spain) is used as case study. The area was affected by around four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud rich in heavy metals, resulting from a mine spill, in 1998, where more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land were affected. The area was subjected to a large-scale phyto-management project, and consequently protected as "Green Corridor". In this study, twenty environmental variables were taken into account and several base models for supervised classification problems were selected, including linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, logistic regression, neural networks and support vector machines. A

  8. Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current climate policy and issues of energy security mean wind farms are being built at an increasing rate to meet energy demand. As wind farm development is very likely in the Mediterranean Sea, we provide an assessment of the offshore wind potential and identify expected biological effects of such developments in the region. We break new ground here by identifying potential offshore wind farm (OWF “hotspots” in the Mediterranean. Using lessons learned in Northern Europe, and small-scale experiments in the Mediterranean, we identify sensitive species and habitats that will likely be influenced by OWFs in both these hotspot areas and at a basin level. This information will be valuable to guide policy governing OWF development and will inform the industry as and when environmental impact assessments are required for the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Winter Precipitation Forecast in the European and Mediterranean Regions Using Cluster Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totz, Sonja; Tziperman, Eli; Coumou, Dim; Pfeiffer, Karl; Cohen, Judah

    2017-01-01

    The European climate is changing under global warming, and especially the Mediterranean region has been identified as a hot spot for climate change with climate models projecting a reduction in winter rainfall and a very pronounced increase in summertime heat waves. These trends are already

  10. Resprout and survival of willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana), Poplars (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica) cuttings in marly gullies with Southern aspect in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Freddy; Labonne, Sophie; Dangla, Laure; Lavandier, Géraud

    2014-05-01

    In the Southern French Alps under a mountainous and Mediterranean climate, a current strategy of bioengineering is developed for trapping sediment in marly gullies with surface area less than 1 ha. It is based on the use of structures in the form of brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood microdams. Purple and white Willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana) are recommended here as they proved their efficiency to resprout and survive in such environment. However, these species installed in Southern gullies did not survive in previous experiments, due to the too harsh conditions of solar radiation and drought. We thus decided to test other species, namely black Poplar (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica), which proved their resistance to drought conditions in other experiments. To this view, bioengineering structures have been built in 2010 in eroded marly gullies in the Roubines and Fontaugier catchments (Southern Alps, France). We tested two installation modalities: one in spring and a second in autumn. Seventy-eight bioengineering structures (50 in spring and 28 in autumn), among which 32 made with Poplar cuttings and 28 with Tamaris cuttings, as well as 11 structures with purple Willow and 7 with white Willow as controls, were built in 6 experimental gullies. After 3 observation years for each modality (2010 to 2012, and 2011 to 2013, respectively), results first revealed that Willow species succeeded in surviving in gullies in Southern aspect (76 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 52 % for those installed in autumn), which is in contradiction with previous results. Second, Poplar showed a good ability to survive (62 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 33 % for those installed in autumn). Tamaris obtained the worst score with 26 % and 38 % of survival for the cuttings installed in spring and autumn, respectively. Globally, excepted for Tamaris, survival rates were better for the cuttings installed in spring. The bioengineering

  11. Hydrological simulation in the Mediterranean region with SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU. Improvement of the physics of the model and evaluation of the risk within the framework of climate change; Simulation hydrologique en region mediterraneenne avec SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU. Amelioration de la physique et evaluation des risques dans le cadre du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere, Quintana Segui

    2008-12-15

    The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU model is assessed and its physics are improved. The SAFRAN meteorological analysis is first validated in detail. The surface model ISBA is then modified to better describe the hydraulic conductivity in the soil. A strategy of calibration is defined and applied at the scale of France. The improved model is then used to assess the impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean region. A regional climate model is down-scaled by two different methods. The study shows that the uncertainties related to the down-scaling are important. Uncertainty related to the impact model is smaller, but must be taken into account for the extremes. In this region, the extremes of river flows, and sometimes the means, will increase during the first half of the twenty-first century. At the end of the century, the scenario indicates a decline of the average of river flows and the extremes will remain stable, leading to increased variability. (author)

  12. Assessment of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain yield, aerial biomass and flowering date stability in Mediterranean environments

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias-García, Rebeca; Prats, Elena; Flores, Fernando; Amri, Moez; Mikić, Aleksandar; Rubiales, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean environments are of most interest to study pea adaptability to terminal drought conditions especially in the current context of global climate change. In our work we have tested nine pea cultivars in five South European and North African locations, characterised by different agro climatic conditions within the Mediterranean climate. Data were processed through the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis. Grain yield, aboveground biomass and flowering date w...

  13. Interrogating the Mediterranean 'Migration Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This Forum aims to uncover the socio-politics of the ‘migration crisis’ in the Mediterranean. The contributions explore the idea of the ‘migration crisis’ or ‘refugee crisis’ in the Mediterranean from the starting point that as scholars of the Mediterranean we can do two things: one, we can look at

  14. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  16. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  17. The chemical composition of silages produced in a Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Introduction. Feed cost is a major cost item in all dairying systems. The feed costs of dairies in the Swartland region of the Western Cape varies from 70 to 80% of total costs (Van der Spuy, 1998). This area has a Mediterranean climate and winter-growing crops such as oats, barley, wheat and lupins are cultivated for feed ...

  18. Invasive bark and ambrosia beetles in California Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Seybold; Richard Penrose; Andrew Graves

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the native ranges, histories of introduction, recent research efforts, and the potential impacts of some of 22 species of invasive scolytids in California’s Mediterranean forest ecosystems. The diversity of native and ornamental tree species, the varied climatic zones, and the widespread importation of nursery stock and packaged cargo have made...

  19. Spatial diversity of recent trends in Mediterranean tree growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galván, J. D.; Camarero, J. J.; Ginzler, C.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, 084001 (2014) ISSN 1748-9326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * dendroecology * drought climatology * Mediterranean Basin * tree-ring research Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.906, year: 2014

  20. Sulphidic Mediterranean surface waters during Pliocene sapropel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Passier, H.F.; Bosch, Hendrik-Johannes (paleontoloog); Nijenhuis, I.A.; Lourens, L.J.; Böttcher, M.E.; Leenders, A.; Lange, G.J. de; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1999-01-01

    Sapropels -organic-matter rich layers- are common in Neogene sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The formation of these layers has been attributed to climate-related increases in organic-matter production and increased organic-matter preservation due to oxygen depletion in more stagnant

  1. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  2. Phylogeography, historical demography and distribution modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Perea

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean freshwater fish fauna has evolved under constraints imposed by the seasonal weather/hydrological patterns that define the Mediterranean climate. These conditions have influenced the genetic and demographic structure of aquatic communities since their origins in the Mid-Pliocene. Freshwater species in Mediterranean-type climates will likely constitute genetically well-differentiated populations as a consequence of fragmentation resulting from drought/flood cycles, to varying ...

  3. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...

  4. Climate change's impact on Morocco's northeast coast | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... The Mediterranean is a global climate-change hotspot. Morocco's Mediterranean coast is particularly vulnerable due to the low-lying deltaic plain of the Moulouya River. Here, climate impacts could be disastrous given the river's ecological and economic importance. The Moulouya is the main water source ...

  5. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  6. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  7. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  8. Long term precipitation trends and variability within the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Philandras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the trends and variability of annual precipitation totals and annual rain days over land within the Mediterranean region are analyzed. Long term ground-based observations concerning, on one hand, monthly precipitation totals (1900–2010 and rain days (1965–2010 from 40 meteorological stations within the Mediterranean region were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and the World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme (WCDMP of the World Meteorological Organization. On the other hand, high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.5° gridded monthly data CRU TS 3.1 were acquired from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, for the period 1901–2009. The two datasets were compared by means of trends and variability, while the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO in the Mediterranean precipitation was examined. In the process, the climatic changes in the precipitation regime between the period 1961–1990 (reference period and the period 2071–2100 (future climate were presented using climate model simulations (RACMO2.1/KNMI. The future climate projections were based on SRES A1B.

    The findings of the analysis showed that statistically significant (95% confidence level negative trends of the annual precipitation totals exist in the majority of Mediterranean regions during the period 1901–2009, with an exception of northern Africa, southern Italy and western Iberian peninsula, where slight positive trends (not statistically significant at 95% CL appear. Concerning the annual number of rain days, a pronounced decrease of 20 %, statistically significant (95% confidence level, appears in representative meteorological stations of east Mediterranean, while the trends are insignificant for west and central Mediterranean. Additionally, NAO index was found to be anticorrelated with the precipitation totals and the number of rain days mainly in Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece. These

  9. Environmentally driven synchronies of Mediterranean cephalopod populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stefanie; Quetglas, Antoni; Puerta, Patricia; Bitetto, Isabella; Casciaro, Loredana; Cuccu, Danila; Esteban, Antonio; Garcia, Cristina; Garofalo, Germana; Guijarro, Beatriz; Josephides, Marios; Jadaud, Angelique; Lefkaditou, Evgenia; Maiorano, Porzia; Manfredi, Chiara; Marceta, Bojan; Micallef, Reno; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Relini, Giulio; Sartor, Paolo; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tserpes, George; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is characterized by large scale gradients of temperature, productivity and salinity, in addition to pronounced mesoscale differences. Such a heterogeneous system is expected to shape the population dynamics of marine species. On the other hand, prevailing environmental and climatic conditions at whole basin scale may force spatially distant populations to fluctuate in synchrony. Cephalopods are excellent case studies to test these hypotheses owing to their high sensitivity to environmental conditions. Data of two cephalopod species with contrasting life histories (benthic octopus vs nectobenthic squid), obtained from scientific surveys carried out throughout the Mediterranean during the last 20 years were analyzed. The objectives of this study and the methods used to achieve them (in parentheses) were: (i) to investigate synchronies in spatially separated populations (decorrelation analysis); (ii) detect underlying common abundance trends over distant regions (dynamic factor analysis, DFA); and (iii) analyse putative influences of key environmental drivers such as productivity and sea surface temperature on the population dynamics at regional scale (general linear models, GLM). In accordance with their contrasting spatial mobility, the distance from where synchrony could no longer be detected (decorrelation scale) was higher in squid than in octopus (349 vs 217 km); for comparison, the maximum distance between locations was 2620 km. The DFA revealed a general increasing trend in the abundance of both species in most areas, which agrees with the already reported worldwide proliferation of cephalopods. DFA results also showed that population dynamics are more similar in the eastern than in the western Mediterranean basin. According to the GLM models, cephalopod populations were negatively affected by productivity, which would be explained by an increase of competition and predation by fishes. While warmer years coincided with declining octopus

  10. A comparison between desert and Mediterranean antlion populations: differences in life history and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, I; Filin, I; Golan, M; Buchshtav, M; Subach, A; Ovadia, O

    2008-01-01

    We performed a transplant experiment to compare the life histories and morphologies of five geographically representative antlion Myrmeleon hyalinus populations along a sharp climatic gradient, from a Mediterranean climate in Israel's north to a desert climate in the south. Larvae were raised in two environmental chambers simulating Mediterranean and desert climates to investigate the extent to which the different populations exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Along the north-to-south climatic gradient, we observed a gradient in body mass prior to pupation and in pupation rate. Mediterranean populations suffered higher mortality rate when exposed to desert conditions, whereas the mortality rate of desert populations was consistent between Mediterranean and desert conditions. Our results regarding body mass, pupation rate and mortality rate suggest that Mediterranean populations had a more flexible response compared with desert populations. An analysis of digital photographs was used to measure population morphological differences, which were usually indicative of a decrease in trait size along the north-to-south gradient. We show how climatic gradients translate into phenotypic differences in an antlion population and provide a morphometric tool to distinguish between instar stages.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Familial Mediterranean fever Familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  12. Mediterranean Environmental Acoustic Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This fact , coupled with the continued operatir%._l interest there, makes the issuance of an up-date to the Atie .7orthwhile. (U) In order to serve the...characteristics from wind conditions has long interested wave theoreticians and forecasters. These specialists have developed various graphs, tables, and...the Mediterranean. Under the proper environmental conditions, micro- scopic and larger protozoans, crustaceans, and jellyfishes responsible for

  13. Slagging and fouling risk of Mediterranean biomasses for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Nieva, Daniel J.; Dopazo, Raquel; Ortiz, Luis (Univ. of Vigo (Spain), Forestry School, A Xunqueira Campus, Pontevedra)

    2010-07-15

    The interest in biomass combustion has grown exponentially in the last years, as a means for renewable heat and energy promoting local development and mitigating climate change. Various Mediterranean agricultural and forest resources such as olive stone, almond shell or pinecone chips remain large unutilized, despite their potential for being utilized in biomass combustion. New energy crops such as Cardoon, Brassica or Sorghum, are being introduced in Mediterranean countries for Bioenergy production; however, the slagging and fouling risk of many of these potential feedstocks are currently limiting their application in combustion processes given their high alkali, silica or chlorine contents. In this publication, various methods for biomass slagging and fouling hazard monitoring and prediction are presented based on recent studies with Mediterranean biomasses combustion in Spain

  14. Ademe et Vous. International Newsletter No. 29, July-August 2014. MEDENER: promoting the energy transition in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Valerie; Seguin-Jacques, Catherine; Tappero, Denis

    2014-07-01

    A number of Euro-Mediterranean stakeholders from the public and private sectors gathered in Marseille, France, on 24 April for the second international conference on energy transition in the Mediterranean, organised by the Mediterranean Association of National Agencies for Energy Conservation (MEDENER). Overview and outlook. Alongside strategies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, local authorities need to anticipate climate change and put in place relevant measures to adapt accordingly. Launched in January 2012, the European ShMILE 2 project aimed to help the tourism industry professionals in six Mediterranean countries open up to sustainable tourism and raise awareness of the European Ecolabel. The project recently ended, with very encouraging results

  15. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  16. EVALUATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS FOR MEDITERRANEAN SUBCATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  17. Compositional variability in Mediterranean archaeofaunas from Upper Paleolithic Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily Lena

    2018-03-01

    Recent meta-analyses of Upper Paleolithic Southwestern European archaeofaunas (Jones, 2015, 2016) have identified a consistent "Mediterranean" cluster from the Last Glacial Maximum through the early Holocene, suggesting similarities in environment and/or consistency in hunting strategy across this region through time despite radical changes in climate. However, while these archaeofaunas from this cluster all derive from sites located within today's Mediterranean bioclimatic region, many of them are from locations far from the Mediterranean Sea - Atlantic Portugal, the Spanish Meseta - which today differ significantly from each other in biotic composition. In this paper, I explore clustering (through cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling) within the Mediterranean archaeofaunal group. I test for the influence of sample size as well as the geographic variables of site elevation, latitude, and longitude on variability in the large mammal portions of archaeofaunal assemblages. ANOVA shows no relationship between cluster-defined groups and site elevation or longitude; instead, site latitude appears to be a primary contributor to patterning. However, the overall compositional similarity of the Mediterranean archaeofaunas in this dataset suggests more consistency than variability in Upper Paleolithic hunting strategy in this region.

  18. Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol to Drying of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Samset, B. H.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Sillmann, J.; Voulgarakis, A.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Iverson, T.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Olivié, D.; Richardson, T.; Stjern, C.; Takemura, T.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, radiative balance and thus, the hydrological cycle. Many studies have reported that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the mid-20th century, and investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare observed Mediterranean precipitation trends during 1951-2010 with responses to individual forcing in a set of state-of-the-art global climate models. Our analyses suggest that nearly one-third (30%) of the observed precipitation decrease may be attributable to black carbon forcing. The remainder is most strongly linked to forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs), with scattering sulfate aerosols having negligible impacts. Black carbon caused an enhanced positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like sea level pressure (SLP) pattern, characterized by higher SLP at mid-latitudes and lower SLP at high-latitudes. This SLP change diverted the jet stream and storm tracks further northward, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in Northern Europe. The results from this study suggest that future black carbon emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems, and economy in the Mediterranean region.

  19. Mediterranean limnology: current status, gaps and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ALVAREZ COBELAS

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The current ecosystem paradigm in limnology is represented by the cold temperate, stratifying lake and the single-channelled river. However, the variety of inland water ecosystems is much higher, and so is the ecol