WorldWideScience

Sample records for medieval legal history

  1. Living History with a Medieval Banquet in the Alhambra Palace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbas, Audrey

    1996-01-01

    Recommends that students learn about Islamic civilization by presenting a "medieval banquet in the Alhambra Palace." Provides information about middle eastern culture and history that students could use to plan and produce the banquet. Includes a list of 26 "guests" who would be role-played by students. (CFR)

  2. Against a Systemic Legal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roberts

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the resort to systems theory as the foundation of an evolutionary legal history. In particular, the theoretical legacy of Niklas Luhmann upon which Marie Theres Fögen proposes to draw seems to have limited application outside a context in which advanced system differentiation is present. Although (like Marx, Durkheim and Weber before him Luhmann drew in a broad evolutionary trajectory, he was concerned principally with “functionally differentiated society”. Earlier phases – covering precisely those formations that historians will presumably focus upon – are very hazily sketched in and relatively poorly theorised. In general, we should not too readily acknowledge “the exhaustion of the paradigm of modernity” (Santos, 1995 or rush to proclaim the obsolescence of multi-dimensional approaches such as those of Bourdieu (1977 and Giddens (1984. Any legal history that marginalises both human actors and the conditional environment has a considerable task in making up the ensuing deficit.

  3. Creating a Danish legal language: legal terminology in the medieval Law of Scania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamm, Ditlev; Vogt, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In the decades after 1200 the kingdom of Denmark developed a corpus of provincial laws written in Danish for the three major legal provinces. With the legislation for the eastern province of Scania as a starting point, this article shows how the writing down of the law led not only to the creatio...... of a legal language but to a written vernacular language in general. It was not until the fifteenth century that written Danish was found outside of texts; charters and narrative until that point had been written in Latin....

  4. Temporal Visualization for Legal Case Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Chanda; Allen, Robert B.; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Discusses visualization of legal information using a tool for temporal information called "LifeLines." Explores ways "LifeLines" could aid in viewing the links between original case and direct and indirect case histories. Uses the case of Apple Computer, Inc. versus Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett Packard Company to…

  5. Medieval Universities, Legal Institutions, and the Commercial Revolution. NBER Working Paper No. 17979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Davide; Yuchtman, Noam

    2012-01-01

    We present new data documenting medieval Europe's "Commercial Revolution'' using information on the establishment of markets in Germany. We use these data to test whether medieval universities played a causal role in expanding economic activity, examining the foundation of Germany's first universities after 1386 following the Papal Schism. We…

  6. Measuring the Measuring Rod: Bible and Parabiblical Texts within the History of Medieval Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Doležalová

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the acknowledged crucial role it had in forming medieval written culture, the Bible and a wide-range of parabiblical texts still remain largely ignored by histories of medieval literatures. The reason for this striking omission of an important group of medieval texts from the 'canonical' narratives is, as I argue, the strong bias in favour of national, secular, fictional, and original texts which shapes literary studies – an inheritance from the nineteenth-century nationalising approaches discussed in the first issue of the Interfaces journal. Of course, the discipline of literary studies and therefore selection, hierarchization, and interpretation are complex social, cultural and political processes where almost anything is possible. It is the environment, the interpretive community, in which the interpretation takes place that has a decisive role. And that, too, is constantly being transformed. Thus, there are no final categories and answers because as long as there are interpretive communities, meanings are generated and operate in new ways. That is why the present discussion does not aim to claim that many of the parabiblical texts are literature and should have been included in the canon of medieval literature. Rather, I examine what the nineteenth-century notion of canon did to these texts and how the current questioning and substantial reshaping of notions of canon can transform our understanding of parabiblical texts.

  7. Epistolary Documents in High-Medieval History-Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bainton, Henry

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the way history-writers in the reign of King Henry II (King of England, Duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, d. 1189) quoted documents in their histories. Although scholars have often identified documentary quotation as the most distinctive feature...

  8. Medieval Nomads – Sixth International Conference on the Medieval History of the Eurasian Steppe (Szeged, Hungary, November 23–26, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Uzelac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixth international conference dedicated to the Medieval History of the Eurasian Steppe took place in the Hungarian city of Szeged on November 23-26, 2016. The organizer of the event was MTA-SZTE (“Hungarian Academy of Sciences – University of Szeged” Turkological Research group of the departments of Altaic and Medieval Studies at the Faculty of Arts, University of Szeged. More than thirty scholars from Hungary, Russia, Turkey, China, Spain, Bulgaria and Serbia took part in this event. The working languages of the conference were English and Russian. Presented papers dealt with various aspects of the history of Eurasian nomads, from the Early Middle Ages up to the seventeenth century. Among them, several have been related to the history of the Golden Horde. The proceedings of the conference are planned to be published in 2017, as a separate volume of the journal Chronica – Annual of The Institute of History, University of Szeged. Considering the quality and variety of the papers, presented at this occasion, there is no doubt it will attract the attention of the growing community of researchers and scholars interested in the medieval history of Eurasia.

  9. A little bit of legal history

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On Monday 18 October, a little bit of legal history will be made when the first international tripartite agreement between CERN and its two Host States is signed. This agreement, which has been under negotiation since 2004, clarifies the working conditions of people employed by companies contracted to CERN. It will facilitate the management of service contracts both for CERN and its contractors.   Ever since 1965, when CERN first crossed the border into France, the rule of territoriality has applied. This means that anyone working for a company contracted to CERN whose job involves crossing the border is subject to the employment legislation of both states. The new agreement simplifies matters by making only one legislation apply per contract, that of the country in which most of the work is carried out. This is good for CERN, it’s good for the companies, and it’s good for their employees. It is something that all three parties to the agreement have wanted for some time, and I...

  10. German Legal History: National Traditions and Transnational Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duve

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I review select institutional and analytical traditions of Legal History in 20th century Germany, in order to put forth some recommendations for the future development of our discipline. A careful examination of the evolution of Legal History in Germany in the last twenty-five years, in particular, reveals radical transformations in the research framework: Within the study of law, there has been a shift in the internal reference points for Legal History. While the discipline is opening up to new understandings of law and to its neighboring disciplines, its institutional position at the law departments has become precarious. Research funding is being allocated in new ways and the German academic system is witnessing ever more internal differentiation. Internationally, German contributions and analytic traditions are receiving less attention and are being marginalized as new regions enter into a global dialogue on law and its history. The German tradition of research in Legal History had for long been setting benchmarks internationally; now it has to reflect upon and react to new global knowledge systems that have emerged in light of the digital revolution and the transnationalization of legal and academic systems. If legal historians in Germany accept the challenge these changing conditions pose, thrilling new intellectual and also institutional opportunities emerge. Especially the transnationalization of law and the need for a transnational legal scholarship offers fascinating perspectives for Legal History.

  11. Dementia, personhood and embodiment: what can we learn from the medieval history of memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    Memory and dementia are historical ideas that preceded the development of modern neuroscientific, psychogeriatric and medical approaches to aging and cognitive impairment. This article explores the value of such historical ideas in order to understand the discourses and metaphors by which Western thought has individualized memory as the guarantor of rational personhood, while at the same, treating memory decline as a threat to healthy and successful aging. Discussion focuses on the relationship between memory and the body in the classical and medieval ars memoria (the art of memory) and in the early modern philosophies of personhood, particularly the work of John Locke. Conclusions consider the significance of Western culture's history of embodied memory as it moved from cosmic to individual to neurocognitive sites for our wider views about the treatment of dementia.

  12. Construction of a taxonomy for medieval Portuguese history: problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros, Filipa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our main goal was to design and build a taxonomy of medieval Portuguese history using an interdisciplinary approach based on doctoral research. First, the criteria used for the selection of the vocabulary and its formal and semantic normalization were determined. Then species were listed, followed by the characterization of categories and their respective subclasses. As conclusions we highlight the successful application of the selected terms, as well as the fact that the taxonomy’s categories are being continuously updated and expanded, both in their global extension and in the depth of their thematic representation. In addition we offer proposals for continuing the ontological development of this taxonomy.Se ha fijado como objetivo principal diseñar y elaborar una taxonomía sobre Historia medieval portuguesa, y hacerlo mediante un abordaje interdisciplinar y como fruto de las investigaciones de tesis. En su proceso se determinaron, primero, los criterios seguidos para la selección y normalización formal y semántica del vocabulario. Luego se listaron las especies y se caracterizaron las categorías y las respectivas subclases. Como conclusión se destaca el hecho de que se han experimentado con éxito métodos antes ya probados en otros estudios para proyectar, desarrollar y mantener taxonomías, con independencia del nivel de especificidad temática, hecho que plantea otro tipo de retos. Sin olvidarse de avanzar propuestas que le den continuidad hacia su desarrollo ontológico.

  13. medico-legal perspectives in history

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various legal codes dealing with medical malpractice existed in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Islam, Greece, Rome, Persia and India. The first documented Code of Laws ever used by human civilisation in, for example, Mesopotamia is to be found from the Law Code of Hammurabi – a textual source of evidence concerning ...

  14. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of…

  15. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and…

  16. The Second National Research Conference “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turko-Tatar States of Western Siberia” (Kurgan, 17–18 April 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Maslyuzhenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of the Second National Research Conference “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turko-Tatar States of Western Siberia”, which was held in Kurgan on 17th–18th April 2014. 38 researchers from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine participated at the Conference. The Conference was focused on several topics. On the first day, the Conference started with the issues of the Shiban’s ulus history and a role of the Shibanids in the history of the Golden Horde, including the issue of the borders of these lands, the ulus of Jochi’s place in its administrative structure, the participation of representatives of the dynasty in the events of the Great Zamyatnya (i.e, the Great Distemper and strives of the 1420’s. There were also discussed the ethnic and political processes in the Tyumen and Siberian Yurt. Considerable attention was paid to the Turkization of the Western Siberian population and formation of various groups of the Siberian Tatars. Researchers have noted the limitations of the source base of the late-medieval history of the region and the need for a comprehensive approach to the research involving experts in the fields of history, archaeology, ethnography, anthropology, linguistics. A separate debate was held on the role of the Nogai and Bukhara factor in the history of the Kuchum Siberian khanate. On the second day, there were discussed various aspects of the Turkic-Tatar peoples’ occurrence from the Ural-Irtysh interfluve to the Russian State. There were presented reports both on the policy and destiny of the Kuchum descendants and legal and military aspects of the Tatar yurtes’ subordination. There was held a discussion about two versions of the Ichkinski Tatar ethnogenesis as a special group of the Tatar population of the region. Thereupon, the conference participants called for a cautious stance on the use of ethnic reconstructions in Turkic history and their use in the construction of

  17. History of development of the Azerbaijanian Medieval psychological thought (11-16th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunzaliya R. Musaeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of the Middle Ages became a new progressive stage of development of psychological thought. Daily supervision and generalization in the course of communication, activities gained further development in the form of philosophical judgment and a formulation of the most general laws and offers. In the Middle Ages, under the influence of the developed objective historical reality, in Azerbaijan the number of the poets and prose writers writing in the native language though before this work were created by them, generally in the Arab and farsidsky languages has increased. The ancient period comes to the end at this stage and the medieval period of the Azerbaijani literature when in parallel the psychology passed the stage of consecutive studying and the analysis of human knowledge which is saved up in the course of communication of people with each other begins. In article it is told about culture, customs, literary and cultural heritage of the Azerbaijani people. The main attention is paid to studying of prescientific and scientific psychological science of Azerbaijan during various periods when it developed as one of the field of philosophy. Also merits of such prominent representatives of public and scientific thought as Bahmanyar, Siradzheddin Urmavi, Nizami Gyandzhevi, Nasireddin Tusi, etc. are emphasized. Researches show that history of science and culture of Azerbaijan, models of folklore and references are rich with psychological thoughts and ideas. Azerbaijan has ancient traditions in the history of forming of the first psychological views. After declaration of independence as Azerbaijan in modern literature the main place is taken by universal ideas, subjects of return of the occupied native lands, love for the country, justice, etc. In spite of the fact that now the Azerbaijani literature is based on reflection and a celebration of ideas of an azerbaydzhanizm, modernist and post-modernist aspirations are also shown in a varying

  18. In praise of death : history and poetry in medieval Marwar (South Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study of heroic and epic “war poetry” transmitted by the poets of pastoral-nomadic communities in medieval Marwar (Rajasthan) evokes the lived past of the Rajput, Bhil and Charan of the Marwari desert with a detailed analysis of poetic sources concerning Pabuji, a fourteenth-century warrior and

  19. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  20. Exploring Medieval European Society with Chess: An Engaging Activity for the World History Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotti, John; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    In a typical high school World History course, the teacher must teach thousands of years of human history in one year, thus making it the most comprehensive history course offered in school. Given the extended content requirements in a World History course, individual topics are given little time before the class must "move on" to the…

  1. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A.; Fedi, M.E.; Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J.; Cartocci, A.; Calabrisotto, C. Scire

    2010-01-01

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  2. Max Dvořák and the History of Medieval Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans H. Aurenhammer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual development of Max Dvořák (1874-1921, one of the protagonists of the ‘Vienna School of Art History’, was characterized by a constant process of methodological self-criticism. His changing views on Medieval Art are known above all by two texts: The Enigma of the Art of the Van Eyck Brothers (1904, strongly influenced by Wickhoff and Riegl and by an ‘impressionistic’ view of modernity, and Idealism and Naturalism in Gothic Sculpture and Painting (1918, an essay dating to Dvořák’s late, ‘expressionistic’, period. Knowing only these two texts, the decisive turn undertaken by Dvořák around 1920 could be interpreted as a sudden change of paradigm. As the paper wants to show, this view has to be revised after having read and analyzed Dvořák’s hitherto unpublished university lectures on Western European Art in the Middle Ages which were given four times from 1906 to 1918.

  3. The effects of Medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael M; Limborg, Morten T; Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Pujolar, José-Martin

    2014-06-05

    Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence times ca. 600-800 years bp, providing strong evidence for establishment of dams in the Medieval as the factor causing divergence. Bayesian cluster analysis showed influence of stocked trout in several reference populations, but not in the focal lake and anadromous populations. Estimates of effective population size using a linkage disequilibrium method ranged from 244 to > 1,000 in all but one anadromous population, but were lower (153 and 252) in the lake populations. We show that genetic divergence of lake-dwelling trout in two Danish lakes reflects establishment of water mills and impassable dams ca. 600-800 years ago rather than a natural genetic population structure. Although effective population sizes of the two lake populations are not critically low they may ultimately limit response to selection and thereby future adaptation. Our results demonstrate that populations may have been affected by anthropogenic disturbance over longer time scales than normally assumed.

  4. Tamgha and the Struggle against It: On the History of Medieval Turkic-mongol Taxation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Yu. Pochekaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Turkic-Mongol taxation institute of tamgha widely used in the Mongol Empire since the first half of the 13th century. Author characterizes the etymology of this term, its meanings, legal regulation of levy and rates, evolution of the tax in different states – successors of the Mongol Empire (the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, etc. as well as in these states even after fall of Chinggisid dynasties (such as Iran under Safavids, Central Asia under Timurids. As the author supposes, the long-term use of tamgha allows us to talk about the vitality and effectiveness of Chinggisid legal tradition, which survived after the end of “Chinggisid age”. Even the rulers and dynasties, which positioned themselves as rivals of Chinggisids, used tamgha in their taxation system. This tax was also borrowed by the Russians and was used for a long time becoming a base for custom system in Russia. Other subjects of the research are the struggle of Islamic theologians and jurists against tamgha in different countries of Inner Asia and reasons for this struggle. The author attempts to clarify reasons of this struggle, strict position of clergy against tamgha and measures of rulers who did not want to be in trouble with clergy, but at the same time tried to save tamgha as effective and profitable tax.

  5. Mining History and Prezent State of Medieval Mine Jeroným

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Lednická, Markéta; Hrubešová, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1781 (2008), s. 61-71 ISSN 0372-9508 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : mining history * geomechanical monitoring * mining water Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure www.wydawnictvopolitechniki.pl

  6. [The original German scholarly literature of medieval falconry and the history of its scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Martina

    2007-01-01

    German scholarly literature (Fachliteratur) of the middle ages devoted to falconry falls into two main categories: Translations, mostly of latin works, and original treatises. After a short survey of falconry in the past, this article will discuss the original treatises and the history of their analysis since the 19th century. In this context it will deal with the research of the following scholars: Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Anton von Perger, Ernst von Dombrowski, Hermann Werth, Christoph von Biedermann and--most importantly--Kurt Lindner. The appendix contains the editio princeps of the German Münchener Rezeptar I from the codex unicus, München, Universitätsbibliothek, 80 Cod. ms. 354, fol. 31r-33r (dating from the 15th century).

  7. Exploring the secret history of the legal service of the European Executives, 1952-1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    key private archives, consequently constitutes the first attempt to write a history of the legal service of the European executives from 1952 to 1967. With the functions and actions of the legal service being very far from the public spotlight, the story presented here has until now been completely...... to finally be able to affirm, reject or nuance Stein’s classic claim....

  8. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Paolo; Høgel, Christian; Mortensen, Lars Boje; Tyler, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for liter...

  9. JEWISH SUFISM IN MEDIEVAL ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Epafras, Leonard C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a literary research and preliminary examination to a unique interaction between Jews and Sufism that taken place in medieval Islamic ruling. In the face of the present antagonistic posture of Jews and Muslims relationship that dominates the public sphere, in history, there are some examples of interaction of the two people beyond confictual narrative. One of them is Jewish mysticism that adopted Sufism into their spiritual ideal, which took place in the medieval era. We might ...

  10. The Research Seminar “New Sources on the Medieval Turkic-Tatar History: New Findings, Interpretation, Prospects for Research” (Kazan, December 6, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Giniyatullina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The research seminar “New Sources on the Medieval Turkic-Tatar History: New Findings, Interpretation, Prospects for Research” was held at the Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences on December 6, 2017 in the framework of the International Scientific and Practical Conference, “The Epoch through the Person’s Prism: 130th Anniversary of Gaziz Gubaidullin”. The head of the M.A. Usmanov Center for Research of the Golden Horde and the Tatar Khanate (Sh. Marjani Institute of History of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, I.M. Mirgaleev, acted as the coordinator of the seminar and spoke about the importance of studying new sources on medieval Turkic-Tatar history and introducing them into current scholarly discussions. Scholars from academic centers of Russia, Great Britain, and Finland took part in the seminar. Doctor of Historical Studies, Ilya Vladimirovich Zaitsev, acted as its main spea­ker. His speech was devoted to the recently discovery of the “History of Chinggis Khan” by Mansur ibn Abdarrakhman (1741. I.V. Zaitsev described the biography of the author, the history of the creation, and the present study of this work. The next meeting of the editorial board of the research journal, “Golden Horde Review”, was held on the same day, where the following issues related to the development of the journal’s activities were discussed: – the work of the editorial board; – peer review problems; – increasing the proportion of English articles; – unification of bibliographic format. The editor-in-chief, I.M. Mirgaleev, briefly acquainted colleagues with activities of the journal’s editorial board and discussed the successful inclusion of the journal in the citation databases Scopus and WoS, as well as in the list of the Higher Attestation Commission.

  11. Stable isotope evidence for sex- and status-based variations in diet and life history at medieval Trino Vercellese, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J; Vercellotti, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    The medieval period in Europe was a time of unprecedented social complexity that affected human diet. The diets of certain subgroups-for example, children, women, and the poor-are chronically underrepresented in historical sources from the medieval period. To better understand diet and the distribution of foods during the medieval period, we investigated stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of 30 individuals from Trino Vercellese, Northern Italy (8th-13th c.). Specifically, we examined diet differences between subgroups (males and females, and high- and low-status individuals), and diet change throughout the life course among these groups by comparing dentine and bone collagen. Our results show a diet based on terrestrial resources with input from C(4) plants, which could include proso and/or foxtail millet. Diets of low-status males differ from those of females (both status groups) and of high-status males. These differences develop in adulthood. Childhood diets are similar among the subgroups, but sex- and status-based differences appear in adulthood. We discuss the possibility of cultural buffering and dietary selectivity of females and high-status individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ghana and Mali. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.4. World History and Geography: Medieval Sub-Saharan Africa. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.4 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. Seventh-grade students focus on the Niger River and the growth of the Mali and Ghana empires; analyze the importance…

  13. A középkori magyar városfejlődés migráció- és ipartörténeti vonatkozásai a történeti személynévtan tükrében I. Személynévadás és migráció [Relations of migration and industrial history and medieval urban development in Hungary in the light of historical anthroponymy I. Giving personal names and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyás, László Szabolcs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore for what purposes and by what means medieval personal names can be used in social historical research. Bynames derived from place names are examined in the present paper, as they prove to be essential sources in research into medieval migration history. From registers and to a lesser extent from charters of other types (sales contracts, civil procedural documents, the author has collected approximately 12,000 personal names of serfs and burghers. Information on migration history deduced from the names (e.g. distance, legal status of the previous place of residence is compared with the characteristics of medieval urban development. In doing so, the author relies on the so-called centrality score system, elaborated by András Kubinyi, which at present is the most accepted and effective method in research into urban, and more broadly, settlement history. With respect to the seven categories of settlements defined by Kubinyi, one can observe substantial and logical differences concerning the proportion of the incomers, the distance of migration and the legal status of the emissive settlements. These facts also suggest that Kubinyi’s categories (in fact, hierarchical levels demonstrating prosperity do identify settlements at different levels of their development.

  14. Medieval Chinese syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Medieval Chinese Syntax” aims to provide a sketch of the development of function words and syntactic structures during the Chinese Medieval period, including Early Medieval Chinese (ca. 0-700 A.D.) and Late Medieval Chinese (ca. 700-1100).

  15. The Development of the Interface between Law, Medicine and Psychiatry: Medico-Legal Perspectives in History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Swanepoel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicine and law were related from early times. This relation resulted as a necessity of protecting communities from the irresponsible acts of impostors. Various legal codes dealing with medical malpractice existed in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Islam, Greece, Rome, Persia and India. Over the course of the past 30 years, interest in the history of psychiatry has boomed. Much of this proliferation of interest has taken place under the broad influence of postmodernism and has resulted in multiple and diverse histories that no longer seek to provide a linear narrative of constant evolutionary progress. Rather, these new histories explore and disrupt taken for granted assumptions about the past and provide a starting point for discussion and debate about the some of the very foundations of mental health care in South Africa. As a matter of practical importance knowledge of how knowledge accrues and knowledge of the mistakes of the past is of prime importance in preventing similar mistakes in present and future work. An important reason for specifically understanding historical psychiatry is the fact that many of the uncertainties experienced in the present are a direct result of decisions made in the past. The key issue is that while it is tempting to experience current psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered as natural and permanent, an understanding of the past helps mental health and legal practitioners to see things in a different perspective. Psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered have changed over time and can undoubtedly also be changed in future. Therefore, the research conducted in this article focuses on the history and development of law and psychiatry including prehistoric times, the Arabian countries, the Nile Valley as well as Greece and Rome.

  16. Mobility histories of 7th-9th century AD people buried at early medieval Bamburgh, Northumberland, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, S E; Roberts, C A; Lucy, S; Pearson, G; Gröcke, D R; Nowell, G; Macpherson, C G; Young, G

    2013-07-01

    Early Medieval England is described historically as a time when people migrated from the Continent to English shores. This study tests the hypothesis that those buried in the Bowl Hole cemetery, Bamburgh, Northumberland were nonlocally born, because of its royal status. Ninety-one male and female adult, and nonadult, skeletons were studied. Isotope ratios of strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) and oxygen (δ(18) O) were generated for 78 individuals (28 females, 27 males, five "adults," 18 nonadults). The mean Sr value for human enamel was 0.71044, standard deviation (sd) 0.001, and the mean O (δw) value is -5.9‰, sd 1.6‰. Additionally, animal tooth enamel (mean Sr value 0.710587, sd 0.001; mean O value -6.5‰, sd 1.5‰), local soil (mean Sr value 0.709184, sd 0.0006), snail shells (mean Sr value 0.708888, sd 0.0001), and soil samples from a 5 km transect heading inland (mean Sr value 0.709121, sd 0.0003), were analyzed for an indication of the isotopic composition of bioavailable Sr in the modern environment and to assess the impact of sea-spray; water samples from a well, local rivers, and standing water were analyzed for local δ(18) O values (mean O value -6.4‰, relative to VSMOW, sd 2.8‰). Over 50% of those buried at Bamburgh were nonlocal. All ages and both sexes produced "nonlocal" signatures; some suggested childhood origins in Scandinavia, the southern Mediterranean or North Africa. Stature and other indicators of health status indicated differences in quality of life between local and migrant groups. These differences did not extend to burial practices. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A History of "Wasen" : Japanese-style Vessels : Part I: From Primitive Dugouts to Medieval Constructed Ships

    OpenAIRE

    T., Kosada; he University of Tokyo

    1980-01-01

    In 1975, the 484,337 dwt tanker Nissei Mam became the largest ship to be classified by NK. We know all of the details of this huge ship's construction, but what of those of its ancestry? This article explores the ancient history of the vessels that led up to this leviathan, and the unique manner in which "wasen", Japanese wooden ships, were developed.

  18. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Nasser; Gorji, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The history of psychological sciences and especially the ways in which related disorders were treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the West. The main objective of this article is to review the clinical approaches to psychological disorders used by practitioners in medieval Persia. Several documents still exist from which the clinical data on different psychological syndromes in medieval Persia can be ascertained. Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Internet, references from relevant articles and books, the Astan-e-Ghods Razavi Library, the Tehran University Library, the Mashhad University Library, and the files of the authors. Search terms included psychiatry, psychology, Persian, medieval, Avicenna, and pharmacotherapy. The medieval practitioners defined various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of these disorders. Medieval Persian medical writings encouraged the treatment of psychological disorders by tackling the conditions that cause or contribute to the disorder and through the use of electrical-shock therapy, phlebotomy, psychotherapy, music and color therapy, and especially prescription of long lists of medicaments. Some of the approaches of doctors in medieval Persia are accepted today, although most remain largely unexamined. With further research, more of these treatments may be shown to be of use to modern medicine.

  19. Making medieval art modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth den Hartog

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Janet T. Marquardt’s book ‘Zodiaque. Making medieval art modern’ discusses the historical context, history and impact of the Zodiaque publications issued by the monks from the abbey of Ste-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in Burgundy between 1951 and 2001 and links the striking photogravures, the core business of these books, to the modern movement. Although Marquardt’s view that the Zodiaque series made a great impact on the study of Romanesque sculpture is somewhat overrated, her claim that the photogravures should be seen as avant-garde works of art and the books as a “museum without walls” is entirely convincing.

  20. Sampling strategy and analysis of trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on medieval human bones--the concept of chemical life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund

    2013-07-30

    Medieval human bones have the potential to reveal diet, mobility and treatment of diseases in the past. During the last two decades trace element chemistry has been used extensively in archaeometric investigations revealing such data. Many studies have reported the trace element inventory in only one sample from each skeleton - usually from the femur or a tooth. It cannot a priori be assumed that all bones or teeth in a skeleton will have the same trace element concentrations. Six different bone and teeth samples from each individual were carefully decontaminated by mechanical means. Following dissolution of ca. 20 mg sample in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide the assays were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) with quadropole detection. We describe the precise sampling technique as well as the analytical methods and parameters used for the ICPMS analysis. The places of sampling in the human skeleton did exhibit varying trace element concentrations. Although the samples are contaminated by Fe, Mn and Al from the surrounding soil where the bones have been residing for more than 500 years, other trace elements are intact within the bones. It is shown that the elemental ratios Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca can be used as indicators of provenance. The differences in trace element concentrations can be interpreted as indications of varying diet and provenance as a function of time in the life of the individual - a concept which can be termed chemical life history. A few examples of the results of such analyses are shown, which contains information about provenance and diagenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous L. Craane MA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  2. Medieval Dobrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marko Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An interesting and highly structured medieval complex, Dobrun has been attracting attention of scholars for a long time. Unlike the ruins of medieval fortifications, the remains of wall-painting in the former monastery church received most of the attention. A series of problems have, however remained open. Some of them have escaped observation, and there are hypotheses that ought to be reassessed. The Dobrun complex is not a matter of local or regional significance. It is a surviving testimony to the events and processes that marked the century preceding the final Ottoman occupation of Serbia and Bosnia. After outlining the research work done to date and analyzing the original historical documents and physical remains, this paper brings the author's views of the issue and some reflections aimed at suggesting directions of further research. The Dobrun complex is situated on the fringe of a hospitable landscape in the lower Rzav valley, not far from Višegrad. It is a region of present-day Republika Srpska on the border with Serbia. The medieval fortifications high up on cliffs above either side of the river controlled the entrance to the gorge, a natural border between western Serbia and Podrinje (the Drina river basin. About a kilometer downstream, on a plot of flat land above the right riverbank, surrounded by rocky hillsides and opening onto a gully cut by a mountain stream, sits the monastic complex of Dobrun with the Church of the Annunciation. The discussion of the structural remains of the complex (Fig. 2 proceed from the multipart whole, which consists of fortifications on the rocks above either bank of the Rzav, built in such a way as to take full advantage of the terrain for defence purposes. The steep slopes and inaccessible rocks complete with walls and towers form a fortress considered at the time of building to be virtually unassailable. Fortification elements were laid out on the western edge of the gorge, which was and still is an

  3. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.

  4. Custom: The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the fifth in the series, contains the proceedings from the conference Custom. The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages held at the Law School at the University of Aarhus in May 2008. The volume covers topics from local case studies and studies of learned law...... to broader reflections on the development and use of the legal concept consuetudo and its connection with other sources of law, with the balance between local and regional power structures, and secular and ecclesiastical societies in medieval Europe. Combining the approaches of several historical disciplines...... - political, social, intellectual, and legal -international eminent scholars offer their views on central aspects of the function of legal customs and of the development of one of the most debated concepts in legal historiography of the last century. Students and scholars of European legal history and legal...

  5. Gioacchino Volpe and the medieval religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Artifoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a widened version of a lecture held in 2005 at the congress: ‘Gioacchino Volpe between past and present’, issued in the volume edited by R. Bonuglia (Rome 2007. It analyzes the main topics present in the work by Gioacchino Volpe: Movimenti religiosi e sette ereticali nella società medievale italiana (secoli XI-XIV (‘Religious movements and heretical sects in Italian Medieval society (11th-14th century', of 1922, and connects such essay to the author’s interests for ‘social’ history in the period after the 11th century. It also casts light on the influence of  Volpe’s thesis on many Italian Medieval scholars, who studied the medieval heresies over the 20th century (Morghen, Dupré Theseider, Manselli, Violante.

  6. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... origins, showing how an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend can be found in works by several familiar writers including Jordanes, Bede, ‘Fredegar’, Paul the Deacon, Freculph, and Æthelweard. The book investigates how legends of northern warriors were first created in classical texts and since re-calibrated to fit...... the disciplines of poetry, history, rhetoric, linguistics, and archaeology. After years of intense critical interest in medieval attitudes towards the classical world, Africa, and the East, this first book-length study of ‘the North’ will inspire new debates and repositionings in medieval studies....

  7. Medievalism: From Ruskin toChesterton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jenko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the topic of medievalism as all existing, still evolving, and future forms of reception of the Middle Ages, focusing primarily on the issues of the term itself and the problems that arise with its definition, its occurrence in John Ruskin’s time, various historical forms, and their variations, especially considering some of the implications of its official or academic aspect – namely, medieval studies in general. Consequently, the article shows that medievalism entails a step beyond or beneath the usual opposition between the real and false Middle Ages. In terms of objectivity as an ideal, as the search or quest for the real Middle Ages (and also as a reaction against subjective receptions, colored by presuppositions, preconceptions, and prejudice, medievalism shifts our perspective on the opposition between the objective and subjective, inaugurating a field of study that centers on the objective-subjective, which should not be seen or taken as a synthesis. Furthermore, it pinpoints a change or shift in the status of truth itself: a truth with no guarantee. Primarily making reference to art history, the article emphasizes the importance of medievalist fantasies and proposes a much needed re-reading of Panofsky’s take on the scholastic habitus. Both terms, fantasy and/or habitus, permeate the field of medievalism, opening what is perhaps the most important question: that of (works of art and materiality.

  8. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orning, Hans Jacob

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour......, and other kinds of material or symbolic assets? Seven essays by Scandinavian scholars are supplemented by contributions from Stephen White, John Hudson and Gerd Althoff, to provide a new baseline for discussing both the strategies pursued in the political game and those used to settle local disputes. Using...... practice and process as key analytical concepts, these authors explore formal law and litigation in conjunction with non-formal legal proceedings such as out-of-court mediation, rituals, emotional posturing, and feuding. Their insights place the Northern medieval world in a European context of dispute...

  9. The distribution of mercury and other trace elements in the bones of two human individuals from medieval Denmark – the chemical life history hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Skytte, Lilian; Pilekær, Christian

    2013-01-01

    performed on a single sample from a tooth or a long bone. In this paper we investigate how a suite of elements (Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Hg and Pb) are distributed in two medieval skeletons excavated at the laymen cemetery at the Franciscan Friary in Svendborg, Denmark.The analyses have been...... individuals can be clearly distinguished by Principal Component Analysis of all the measured trace elements.Our data support a previously published hypothesis that the elemental ratios Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca are indicative of provenance. Aluminium, Fe and Mn can be attributed to various forms of diagenesis...

  10. MKHITAR GOSH'S MEDIEVAL LAW CODE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ARMENIAN COMMUNITIES ABROAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Susanna; Khachatryan, Mikayel; Johrian, Ara; Ghazaryan, Karen

    2014-07-01

    The Law Book of the medieval Armenian legal and economic thought is an exceptional work that encompasses valuable information of the Armenian nation's domestic life. Mkhitar Gosh was considered to be one of the most outstanding figures and lawyers (lawmakers) of all times. Armenian Law Code after Mkhitar Gosh is writhed at 12 century. One of the primary sources for the law code was Armenian customary law. This Code became moral code for guiding for hall Armenians over the world because of high moral spirit reflecting Armenian mentality. This article presents the brief history of extension of legal rules setting out in the Law Code. The Law Code was established and widely used not only in Armenia but also in a number of Armenian communities abroad (Russian, Poland, Georgia, Latvia, India etc.). Law Code was accepted by all Armenians. Moreover, it served for the development of legislation for a number of civilized European and Asian countries.

  11. The Third All-Russian Research Conference (with International Participation “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turkic-Tatar States of the Western Siberia”, Kurgan, 21–22 April, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Maslyuzhenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises the work of the Third all-Russian research conference (with international participation “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turkic-Tatar States of the Western Siberia”, which was held in the city of Kurgan on April 21–22, 2014. In total, 32 researchers from Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan took part in the conference. The first roundtable was dedicated to the topic “Western Siberia and the Shibanids during the period of the Golden Horde (13th–14th centuries”. Special attention was given to the problems of source studies of the history of this dynasty, the localisation of the territory and borders of the Shibanids’ possessions, the possibility of other Chingisid dynasties’ claims to the territory of southwestern Siberia, and the Shibanids’ engagement in the events of Great Zamyatnya and the steppe feuds of the 1420s. The second roundtable was linked to the history of “The Tyumen and Siberian Khanates and Their Neighbours (15th–16th centuries”. The greater part of the talks was dedicated to international relations in the post-Horde era and in its former territories, including Russian-Siberian and Siberian-Bukharian interactions. The possibility of the investigation of Kuchum Khan’s imagology and its relationship with historical realities, the issues of interaction between the central government and regional elites during Kuchum Khan’s reign, and some problems of historiography were considered at the conference. The researchers again noted the need for an interdisciplinary approach combining the involvement of specialists in history, archaeology, ethnography, anthropology, and linguistics. Special attention was drawn to the phase-down of archaeological research of the late medieval sites of western Siberia. In the framework of the third roundtable, the issues of the history of “Turkic Population of the southwestern Siberia in the end of the 16th–17th centuries” were

  12. Essays on medieval computational astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergón, José Chabás

    2014-01-01

    In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables.

  13. Flavorings in Context: Spices and Herbs in Medieval Near East

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Paulina B.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, the approach towards imported spices varied from culture to culture. In medieval and early post-medieval Europe, where spices became an exotic object of temporary desire, they were often used unskillfully and in a haphazard manner. In the Ottoman Constantinople, unlike in Europe, it was the moderate use of spices, and not overdosing them, that became a manifestation of status. As deliberate paragons of refinement, the Ottomans depreciated what they considered uncivilized w...

  14. Rules & legislation on love charms in early medieval Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.

    2010-01-01

    Love magic is defined as verbal and material instruments by which erotic and affectionate feelings are believed to be aroused or destroyed in a supernatural way. This is a discussion of love magic as it is presented in early medieval Hiberno-Latin penitentials and Irish legal texts.

  15. Soil archives of a Fluvisol: subsurface analysis and soil history of the medieval city centre of Vlaardingen, the Netherlands - an integral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiving, Sjoerd; de Ridder, Tim; van Dasselaar, Marcel; Roozen, Stan; Prins, Maarten

    2016-06-01

    The medieval city of Vlaardingen (the Netherlands) was strategically located on the confluence of three rivers, the Maas, the Merwede, and the Vlaarding. A church of the early 8th century AD was already located here. In a short period of time, Vlaardingen developed in the 11th century AD into an international trading place and into one of the most important places in the former county of Holland. Starting from the 11th century AD, the river Maas repeatedly threatened to flood the settlement. The flood dynamics were registered in Fluvisol archives and were recognised in a multidisciplinary sedimentary analysis of these archives. To secure the future of these vulnerable soil archives an extensive interdisciplinary research effort (76 mechanical drill holes, grain size analysis (GSA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), archaeological remains, soil analysis, dating methods, micromorphology, and microfauna) started in 2011 to gain knowledge on the sedimentological and pedological subsurface of the settlement mound as well as on the well-preserved nature of the archaeological evidence. Pedogenic features are recorded with soil description, micromorphological, and geochemical (XRF - X-ray fluorescence) analysis. The soil sequence of 5 m thickness exhibits a complex mix of "natural" as well as "anthropogenic" layering and initial soil formation that enables us to make a distinction between relatively stable periods and periods with active sedimentation. In this paper the results of this interdisciplinary project are demonstrated in a number of cross-sections with interrelated geological, pedological, and archaeological stratification. A distinction between natural and anthropogenic layering is made on the basis of the occurrence of the chemical elements phosphor and potassium. A series of four stratigraphic and sedimentary units record the period before and after the flooding disaster. Given the many archaeological remnants and features present in the lower units, in

  16. ACTIVE BRIBERY IN CROATIAN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to writing about the history of punishment, it is always linked with critically re-thinking and better understanding of the contemporary system of punishment, as a result of its long historical development. In such a way, „contemporary criminal law cannot be seen as a result of an effort made by a certain nation or in a certain epoch“. „Permanently faced with social changes, in its long historical development, criminal law has been modifying its fundamental principles and categories, by building new institutes and instruments, in order to become less cruel and more human, but not less efficient than in earlier stages of its development, characterized by rudeness, cruelty and exemplarity of its sanctions. Although it is not easy to answer the question, if there is the measure, in which social understanding of punishment and its purpose, determines the civilizational level in the society, there is no doubt about the fact that civilizational and legal point of view towards punishment derives from a waste range of factors: general, cultural, sociological, psychological, religious, political and other factors that should be taken altogether in their historical dimension. The genesis of criminal law is linked with the moment of establishing the public authorities and the state. According to different criteria, it is possible to introduce different periodization of criminal law. When it comes to the historical criterion, there can be made a historical division into periods of ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary criminal law (punishment, which periods should not be taken as absolutely inseparable. The point of this paper is to present a review and development of punishing active bribery in the Croatian medieval and modern law.

  17. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Elly R

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  18. Legal history of the revolt of Saint Titus in Fourteenth century Venetian Crete (1363-1366

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Magnani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines all the different judicial aspects of the response which was given by the Republic of Venice to the serious revolution exploded in Crete in 1363. From the legal point of view, this response was structured on the procedures of exception (inquisitio ex officio, arbitrium, privilege and grace normally applied in late Middle Ages as effective means to preserve political authority. These procedures were used by Venice as flexible elements to create consent and to legitimate its power.

  19. Legal Protection of Well-known Trademark Rights in China : History, Current Situation and Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The legal term of “Well-Known Trademark” first appeared in the 1883 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, which sets forth the principles for granting special protection to well-known trademarks. In recent years, Sino-US disputes over intellectual property protection have the trend to upgrade, and among these disputes, well-known trademark protection is an important cornerstone. In recent years in China, the well-known trademark protection system is still relatively week...

  20. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  1. Clinical peer review in the United States: history, legal development and subsequent abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hozain, Ahmed E

    2014-06-07

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation requires hospitals to conduct peer review to retain accreditation. Despite the intended purpose of improving quality medical care, the peer review process has suffered several setbacks throughout its tenure. In the 1980s, abuse of peer review for personal economic interest led to a highly publicized multimillion-dollar verdict by the United States Supreme Court against the perpetrating physicians and hospital. The verdict led to decreased physician participation for fear of possible litigation. Believing that peer review was critical to quality medical care, Congress subsequently enacted the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) granting comprehensive legal immunity for peer reviewers to increase participation. While serving its intended goal, HCQIA has also granted peer reviewers significant immunity likely emboldening abuses resulting in Sham Peer Reviews. While legal reform of HCQIA is necessary to reduce sham peer reviews, further measures including the need for standardization of the peer review process alongside external organizational monitoring are critical to improving peer review and reducing the prevalence of sham peer reviews.

  2. 'The biggest legal battle in UK casino history': Processes and politics of 'cheating' in sociotechnical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark R

    2018-04-01

    Previous literature on cheating has focused on defining the concept, assigning responsibility to individual players, collaborative social processes or technical faults in a game's rules. By contrast, this paper applies an actor-network perspective to understanding 'cheating' in games, and explores how the concept is rhetorically effective in sociotechnical controversies. The article identifies human and nonhuman actors whose interests and properties were translated in a case study of 'edge sorting' - identifying minor but crucial differences in tessellated patterns on the backs of playing cards, and using these to estimate their values. In the ensuing legal controversy, the defending actors - casinos - retranslated the interests of actors to position edge sorting as cheating. This allowed the casinos to emerge victorious in a legal battle over almost twenty million dollars. Analyzing this dispute shows that cheating is both sociotechnically complex as an act and an extremely powerful rhetorical tool for actors seeking to prevent changes to previously-established networks. Science and Technology Studies (STS) offers a rich toolkit for examining cheating, but in addition the cheating discourse may be valuable to STS, enlarging our repertoire of actor strategies relevant to sociotechnical disputes.

  3. Why We Need a Medieval Narratology: A Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva von Contzen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the growing interest in diachronic approaches and the historicizing of narratology, a medieval narratology is called for which systematically scrutinizes medieval forms and functions of narration. In the first part of the article, the problems of applying classical narratological theories to medieval literature are sketched, as well as the reasons for the relative invisibility of the narratological studies already conducted by medievalists. In the second part, the main parameters of a medieval narratology are outlined by means of selected sample analyses across a range of genres. A medieval narratology, it is argued, requires necessary shifts and modifications of existing theories, but also an open dialogue between the disciplines. Both narratologists and medievalists can profit from such an endeavor, which does not reject classical and post-classical theories. Rather, it is based on an informed understanding of the historical grounding of narrative forms and their place in the history of literature. The essay rounds off with a proposal of “Ten Theses for a Medieval Narratology”.

  4. What the History of Drugs Can Teach Us About the Current Cannabis Legalization Process: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Over time, there have been considerable changes in the variety, availability, production, distribution, and use and user(s) of psychoactive substances, the meaning of substance use and its impact on users and their social or physical environment(s). This article reviews the mechanisms of introduction of psychoactive substances such as alcohol, tobacco, coffee, tea and cannabis to populations and communities that did not have them before. It considers the historical tension between early adopters who greet new substances with various levels of enthusiasm in their eagerness to enjoy what they believe to be the benefits of using these substances, and those focused on what they believe to be the negative aspects of use, who decry these new substances with horror. With more nonusers than users in the population, social policies tend to be directed at preventing, restricting, or punishing selected use, users and .drugs., using controls and interventions such regulation, incarceration, death sentence, treatment, prevention, legalization, taxation, among others. Whatever their intent or wished-for impact, all had consequences that produced additional, unplanned for, and (often) negative effects. This paper will consider some of these sequences as they occurred historically with other substances in light of the current shift to legalization and normalization of cannabis, noting the mechanisms of use, controls, and consequences of some types of formal interventions and give some attention to how and what we can learn from our experiences in order to plan ahead and become better prepared to successfully deal with the 'unexpecteds' of that well-known 'hell' paved with good intentions.

  5. Triumphs Show: What Makes Art History? Year 7 Exploit the Resources of the Victoria and Albert Museum's Medieval Gallery to Create and Curate Their Own Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copsey, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    What do 14 Year 7 students, an art teacher, a history teacher and the Victoria and Albert Museum have in common? They are all part of the "Stronger Together" Museum Champion project run by The Langley Academy and the River & Rowing Museum and supported by Arts Council England, designed to engage students, teachers and museum staff…

  6. The Desirability of Medieval Germany: Some Observations on an Introductory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillings, Lewis G.; Murdoch, Brian O.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems and advantages of a course in Medieval Germany, including history, culture and literature along with language. Attention is given to issues and texts to be studied. (CHK)

  7. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  8. The Resources of the Past in Early Medieval Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantner, C.; McKitterick, R.M.; Meeder, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This volume analyses the importance of history, the textual resources of the past and the integration of Christian and imperial Rome into the cultural memory of early medieval Europe within the wider question of identity formation. The case studies in this book shed new light on the process of

  9. The Lincoln Legal Papers Curriculum: Understanding Illinois Social History through Documents from the Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln, 1836-1861.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Lawrence W., Ed.; Drake, Frederick D., Ed.

    This curriculum considers the social history of Illinois during the years of 1836-1861 by studying Abraham Lincoln's legal papers from his time as a lawyer. Nearly 100,000 documents have been discovered in the archives of local, county, state, federal courts, libraries, and other repositories. The documents include detailed information about the…

  10. Russian Medieval Military Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappoport, Pavel

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available In Russia defensive works were not less important than in Western Europe. Russian chronicles are full of reports of the building of towns, of their siege and defence. In Ancient Russian the word town meant not a town in the modern sense, but only a fortified settlement as distinct from an unfortified one. Thus the concept town applied to medieval towns proper and to citadels, feudal castles and even fortified villages. Every population centre with a wall round it was called a town. Moreover, until the 17th century this word was frequently applied to mean the fortifications themselves.

  11. Medieval codes of ius commune in Portugal: status quaestionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Portugal inherited from the kingdom of León legal sources and its earliest law code. With the “rebirth” of Roman law, the Ius commune –arriving very early in the twelfth century– soon came to shape everyday life, from the middle ages until the Enlightenment of the late eighteenth century. Enormous research efforts have been made to locate chronologically and spatially medieval remnants of these legal texts. This work aims to provide a summary, including a comprehensive and updated picture, of the status quaestionis of this theme.

  12. Mediality and Materiality in the History of Religions. A Medieval Case Study about Religion and Gender in In-Between Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Beinhauer-Köhler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses possible terminologies for labelling historical materials. Drawing on the history of the city of Cairo around the 12th century – to the Fatimid era and to later Ayyubid times – it looks at the documents of three religions on religious infrastructure donated by women. This reveals women’s ability to shape the public sphere. At least to a certain extent, the segregation of the sexes and the concept of the harem are questionable. This topic requires the reconstruction and re-reading of fragmental materials. Methodological reflections are helpful for dealing with different sources, mostly combinations of texts and archaeology, embedded in the current debate about material culture and media as well as materialization and mediation. It might seem anachronistic, but to specify these categories it is useful to compare this example with a contemporary study by Mia Lövheim on female Internet bloggers. In both cases we find women as self-confident agents in public spaces.

  13. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  14. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    1986-01-01

    From the reviews: The book is, in spite of the author's more modest claims, an introductory survey of main developments in those disciplines which were particularly important in Medieval Islamic mathematics...No knowledge of mathematics (or of the history of mathematics) beyond normal high-school level is presupposed, and everything required beyond that (be it Apollonian theory of conics or the definitions of celestial circles) is explained carefully and clearly. Scattered throughout the work are a number of lucid remarks on the character of Islamic mathematics or of mathematical work in general. The book will hence not only be an excellent textbook for the teaching of the history of mathematics but also for the liberal art aspect of mathematics teaching in general. - Jens Høyrup, Mathematical Reviews ...as a textbook, this work is highly commendable...It is definitely the product of a skillful mathematician who has collected over the years a reasonably large number of interesting problems from medieval Arab...

  15. An Introduction to the Medieval English: The Historical and Literary Context, Traces of Church and Philosophical Movements in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtash, Esmail Zare; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi; Samani, Farzane Safarzade

    2017-01-01

    The Transition from Greek to medieval philosophy that speculated on religion, nature, metaphysics, human being and society was rather a rough transition in the history of English literature. Although the literature content of this age reflected more religious beliefs, the love and hate relationship of medieval philosophy that was mostly based on…

  16. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  17. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Kathryn

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Some more earthquakes from medieval Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shafi, Muzamil

    2014-07-01

    Kashmir has the peculiarity of having written history of almost 5,000 years. However, the description of earthquakes in the archival contents is patchy prior to 1500 a.d. Moreover, recent search shows that there exist certain time gaps in the catalogs presently in use especially at medieval level (1128-1586 a.d.). The presence of different ruling elites in association with socioeconomic and political conditions has in many ways confused the historical context of the medieval sources. However, by a meticulous review of the Sanskrit sources (between the twelfth and sixteenth century), it has been possible to identify unspecified but fair number (eight seismic events) of earthquakes that do not exist in published catalogs of Kashmir or whose dates are very difficult to establish. Moreover, historical sources reveal that except for events which occurred during Sultan Skinder's rule (1389-1413) and during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470), all the rediscovered seismic events went into oblivion, due mainly to the fact that the sources available dedicated their interests to the military events, which often tended to overshadow/superimpose over and even concealed natural events like earthquakes, resulting in fragmentary accounts and rendering them of little value for macroseismic intensity evaluation necessary for more efficient seismic hazard assessment.

  19. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  20. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised

  1. [Neurology in medieval regimina sanitatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos González, V; Guerrero Peral, A L

    2011-09-01

    In medical medieval literature some works about dietetics stand out. Dietetics, as a separate branch of medicine, includes not only food or drinks, but other environmental factors influencing on health. They are known as regimina sanitatis or salutis, and specially developed in the Christian west. They generally consisted of a balance between the Galenic "six non-natural things"; factors regulating health and its protection: environment, exercise, food, sleep, bowel movements and emotions. After reviewing the sources and defining the different stages of this genre, we have considered three of the most out-standing medieval regimina, the anonymous Regimen sanitatis salernitanum, Arnaldo de Vilanova's Regimen sanitatis ad regem aragonum and Bernardo de Gordon's Tractatus of conservatione vite humane. In them we review references to neurological disease. Though not independently considered, there is a significant presence of neurological diseases in the regimina. Dietetics measures are proposed to preserve memory, nerves, or hearing, as well as for the treatment of migraine, epilepsy, stroke or dizziness. Regimina are quiet representative among medical medieval literature, and they show medieval physicians vision of neurological diseases. Dietetics was considered useful to preserve health, and therapeutics was based on natural remedies. 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. The Image of Medieval Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Marjorie D.

    1978-01-01

    California State University offered a course concerning the roles and positions of women in medieval society as depicted in Middle High German literature. The course was open to all undergraduate students and required no prerequisites or knowledge of German. The content and structure of the course are outlined. (SW)

  3. Uncovering the Secret: Medieval Women, Magic and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwikowska Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For medieval audiences women occupied a specific, designated cultural area which, while they could freely form it according to their will and nature, was in fact imaginary and immaterial. Women in social, legal, and religious contexts were mostly counted among the receptive, inactive, and non-ruling groups. On both levels, there was a group of features universally defining all women: the strong, virtuous and independent model Aquinas lamented was replaced in real life by the sinful, carnal and weak stereotype, and the erotic, emotional, mysterious, and often wild type present predominantly in literature. Indeed, women were a source of scientific, theological, and cultural fascination because of their uncanny and complex nature, producing both fear and desire of the source and nature of the unattainable and inaccessible femininity. In social contexts, however, the enchantress seems to lose that veil of allure and, instead, is forced to re-define her identity by suppressing, denying, or losing her supernatural features. With the example of Saint Agnes from the South English Legendary Life of Saint Agnes, and Melior from Partonope of Blois (ca. 1450, the article will explore how medieval texts dealt with the complex and unruly female supernatural, and how its neutralization and subduing fitted into the moral, scientific, and cultural norms of medieval society.

  4. Elites and their children : a study in the historical anthropology of medieval China, 500-1000 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pissin, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The history of children in medieval China, as in other parts of the world and in pre-modern times, stands in marked contrast to the traditional areas of historical inquiry such as the history of the state, the history of the economy or intellectual history. Children generally do not have political

  5. Medieval monsters, in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a plethora of studies on the medieval monster. These studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of religion, art, literature, and science in the Middle Ages. However, a tendency to treat the medieval monster in purely symbolic and psychological terms ignores the lived experiences of impaired medieval people and their culture's attitudes toward them. With the aid of recent insights provided by disability studies, this article aims to confront "real" medieval monsters--e.g., physically impaired human beings--in both their human and monstrous aspects.

  6. Postmortem Inventories in Medieval Valencia. A Source for the Study of Household Consumption and Living Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Almenar Fernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic questions about the nature of postmortem inventories in late medieval Valencia have rarely been asked. What distinguished them from other lists of goods and what was their legal basis? Why were inventories made? Which goods were listed and which ones omitted? How many inventories are preserved today? Which sectors of medieval society requested them? The answers that this paper provides clearly show the potential of a serial and quantitative usage of the Valencian inventory for the study of household consumption, an analysis that would enable us to measure far more accurately the changes in living standards in late medieval society to a degree that is difficult to achieve in other regions of Europe.

  7. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  8. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2004-01-01

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

  9. History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, C. Edward

    1980-01-01

    Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

  10. Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Magic in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn.......The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn....

  11. Medieval Romances: "Perceval" to "Monty Python."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Dorothy M.

    A selection of romances from medieval literature can be used successfully in undergraduate literature classes to trace the appearance and relevance of medieval themes, motifs, and characters in works of modern poetry, fiction, and film. New scholarly editions, historiographies, translations, and modernizations give both teachers and students more…

  12. Preservice Social Studies Teachers' Opinions Regarding History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaca, Eray; Yildirim, Tercan

    2018-01-01

    In Turkey, preservice social studies teachers take history education courses such as Revolution History and Kemalism I-II, Ancient History and Civilization, Pre-Islamic Turkish History and Culture, History of Turkish Education, History of Medieval Age, Ottoman History and Civilization I-II, New and Contemporary History, Contemporary World History,…

  13. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Cesaretti

    Full Text Available Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations, our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured

  14. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  15. Archaeological culture and medieval ethnic community: theoretical and methodical problems of correlation (the case of medieval Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmaylov Iskander L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to archaeological culture and ethnos comparison in the case of medieval Bulgaria are discussed in the article. According to the author, in recent years it has become evident that the traditional concept and methodology of the study of the Bulgars’ ethnogenesis and ethnic history are in contradiction with the facts accumulated. The methods of “archaeological ethno-genetics”, which dictated solving problems of ethnogenesis of the ancient population belonging to an archaeological culture in direct correlation with ethnicity, are currently being criticized. According to modern ideas about ethnos and ethnicity, ethnicity is based upon identity with a complex hierarchical nature. Contemporary methodology requires proceeding with the integrated study of the problems of ethnogenesis on the basis of archaeology and ethnology. This kind of analysis is based upon the study of the medieval Bulgar mentality as a source of information on key aspects of ethno-political ideas. The analysis of authentic historical sources, historiographical tradition elements and folklore materials makes it possible to reconstruct the basic ideas that were significant for an ethnic group. The archaeological culture of the population of Bulgaria is characterized by two clearly distinguished and interconnected elements – the common Muslim culture and that of the elite military “druzhina” (squad. These elements directly characterize the Bulgar ethno-political community. These theoretical conclusions and empirical research concerning the case of the medieval Bulgars’ ethnogenesis attest to the productivity of ethnological synthesis techniques on an interdisciplinary basis.

  16. Teaching English and History through Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alun; Martin, Dave

    1997-01-01

    Explores the appeal of historical fiction for young readers and describes its place within any school curriculum. Describes a project in Dorset Middle Schools which used historical fiction to teach medieval history and English. Notes that students' historical thinking was improved, their knowledge of medieval world advanced, and their writing was…

  17. From Egypt to Umbria: Jewish Women and Property in the Medieval Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the financial activities of medieval Jewish women in Italy and the Mediterranean. Contrary to Jewish legal tradition, which curtailed women’s financial autonomy, by the later Middle Ages communities across the region increasingly allowed women to manage their own dotal property, inherit property from a variety of sources, and engage in loan banking. An examination of the historical developments of some Jewish communities in Egypt, Spain, and central Italy suggests that t...

  18. Remaking the medico-legal scene: a social history of the late-Victorian coroner in Oxford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Elizabeth T

    2010-04-01

    There have been wide-ranging debates about medicine and the law encapsulated in the figure of the coroner in Victorian England. Recently the historical literature on coroners has been enriched by macro-studies. Despite this important research, the social lives of coroners and their daily interactions remain relatively neglected in standard historical accounts. This article redresses that issue by examining the working life of the coroner for Oxford during the late-Victorian era. Edward Law Hussey kept very detailed records of his time in office as coroner. New research material makes it feasible to trace his professional background, from doctor of the sick poor, to hospital house surgeon and then busy coroner. His career trajectory, personal interactions, and professional disputes, provide an important historical prism illuminating contemporary debates that occupied coroners in their working lives. Hussey tried to improve his medico-legal reach and the public image of his coroner's office by reducing infanticide rates, converting a public mortuary, and acquiring a proper coroner's court. His campaigns had limited success because the social scene in which he worked was complicated by the dominance of health and welfare agencies that resented his role as an expanding arm of the Victorian information state.

  19. Ancient genomes reveal a high diversity of Mycobacterium leprae in medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Avanzi, Charlotte; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Seitz, Alexander; Herbig, Alexander; Inskip, Sarah; Bonazzi, Marion; Reiter, Ella; Urban, Christian; Dangvard Pedersen, Dorthe; Taylor, G Michael; Singh, Pushpendra; Stewart, Graham R; Velemínský, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, György; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Belcastro, M Giovanna; Boldsen, Jesper L; Nebel, Almut; Mays, Simon; Donoghue, Helen D; Zakrzewski, Sonia; Benjak, Andrej; Nieselt, Kay; Cole, Stewart T; Krause, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Studying ancient DNA allows us to retrace the evolutionary history of human pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, the main causative agent of leprosy. Leprosy is one of the oldest recorded and most stigmatizing diseases in human history. The disease was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries with over 200,000 new cases reported annually. Previous worldwide studies on modern and European medieval M. leprae genomes revealed that they cluster into several distinct branches of which two were present in medieval Northwestern Europe. In this study, we analyzed 10 new medieval M. leprae genomes including the so far oldest M. leprae genome from one of the earliest known cases of leprosy in the United Kingdom-a skeleton from the Great Chesterford cemetery with a calibrated age of 415-545 C.E. This dataset provides a genetic time transect of M. leprae diversity in Europe over the past 1500 years. We find M. leprae strains from four distinct branches to be present in the Early Medieval Period, and strains from three different branches were detected within a single cemetery from the High Medieval Period. Altogether these findings suggest a higher genetic diversity of M. leprae strains in medieval Europe at various time points than previously assumed. The resulting more complex picture of the past phylogeography of leprosy in Europe impacts current phylogeographical models of M. leprae dissemination. It suggests alternative models for the past spread of leprosy such as a wide spread prevalence of strains from different branches in Eurasia already in Antiquity or maybe even an origin in Western Eurasia. Furthermore, these results highlight how studying ancient M. leprae strains improves understanding the history of leprosy worldwide.

  20. Ancient genomes reveal a high diversity of Mycobacterium leprae in medieval Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena J Schuenemann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying ancient DNA allows us to retrace the evolutionary history of human pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, the main causative agent of leprosy. Leprosy is one of the oldest recorded and most stigmatizing diseases in human history. The disease was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries with over 200,000 new cases reported annually. Previous worldwide studies on modern and European medieval M. leprae genomes revealed that they cluster into several distinct branches of which two were present in medieval Northwestern Europe. In this study, we analyzed 10 new medieval M. leprae genomes including the so far oldest M. leprae genome from one of the earliest known cases of leprosy in the United Kingdom-a skeleton from the Great Chesterford cemetery with a calibrated age of 415-545 C.E. This dataset provides a genetic time transect of M. leprae diversity in Europe over the past 1500 years. We find M. leprae strains from four distinct branches to be present in the Early Medieval Period, and strains from three different branches were detected within a single cemetery from the High Medieval Period. Altogether these findings suggest a higher genetic diversity of M. leprae strains in medieval Europe at various time points than previously assumed. The resulting more complex picture of the past phylogeography of leprosy in Europe impacts current phylogeographical models of M. leprae dissemination. It suggests alternative models for the past spread of leprosy such as a wide spread prevalence of strains from different branches in Eurasia already in Antiquity or maybe even an origin in Western Eurasia. Furthermore, these results highlight how studying ancient M. leprae strains improves understanding the history of leprosy worldwide.

  1. Becoming Artifacts Medieval Seals, Passports and the Future of Digital Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Mawaki

    2012-01-01

    What does a digital identity token have to do with medieval seals? Is the history of passports of any use for enabling the discovery of Internet users' identity when crossing virtual domain boundaries during their digital browsing and transactions? The agility of the Internet architecture and its simplicity of use have been the engines of its…

  2. New astronomical references in two Catalonian late medieval documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María José; Marco, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, after 13 years of preparation, the Generalitat of Catalunya finished the publication of the 10 volumes of the Dietaris de la Generalitat de Catalunya. The Dietaris, as well as a closely related source, the llibre de Jornades 1411/1484 de Jaume Safont, cover the period of 1411 to 1539. In this article, we examine astronomical references contained in these two sources, and place them in their historical context. Our main focus lies on astronomical phenomena that have not previously been published in the astronomical literature. In fact, relatively few astronomical records are accessible in Spanish medieval and early modern history, and our paper intends to fill this gap partially.

  3. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  4. Climate change. Climate in Medieval time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Raymond S; Hughes, Malcolm K; Diaz, Henry F

    2003-10-17

    Many papers have referred to a "Medieval Warm Period." But how well defined is climate in this period, and was it as warm as or warmer than it is today? In their Perspective, Bradley et al. review the evidence and conclude that although the High Medieval (1100 to 1200 A.D.) was warmer than subsequent centuries, it was not warmer than the late 20th century. Moreover, the warmest Medieval temperatures were not synchronous around the globe. Large changes in precipitation patterns are a particular characteristic of "High Medieval" time. The underlying mechanisms for such changes must be elucidated further to inform the ongoing debate on natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change.

  5. The Challenge of Folklore to Medieval Studies

    OpenAIRE

    John Lindow

    2018-01-01

    When folklore began to emerge as a valid expression of a people during the early stages of national romanticism, it did so alongside texts and artifacts from the Middle Ages. The fields of folklore and medieval studies were hardly to be distinguished at that time, and it was only as folklore began to develop its own methodology (actually analogous to medieval textual studies) during the nineteenth century that the fields were distinguished. During the 1970s, however, folklore adopted a wholly...

  6. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  7. Ascertainment of Customs and Personal Laws in Medieval Italy from the Lombard Kingdom to the Communes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Storti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The medieval systems of law in Italy and Europe have been proposed as a sort of virtual laboratory to deal with the issue of ensuring that the principle of equality in the rule of law be compatible with the recognition of indigenous peoples’ customs. The legal framework of the medieval communes sought to strike a balance between the general interest in having legal certainty and uniformity with the citizens’ interest in ruling their family life and economic assets according to their cultural and social values. Up until the 14th century, in Lombardy an individual’s legal status, family and inheritance continued to be ruled according to the customs of the individual’s natio, be they Lombard or Roman. The ascertainment of customs is an arduous task, as oral customs are fluid and vary from place to place and from family to family. For this reason, in the Middle Ages ascertainment was always entrusted to judges and legal experts (sapientes. Until a few decades ago, recognising and enforcing customs was mostly unthinkable due to legal positivism and the principle of equality. Now, however, the limits of the principle of legal equality are well known: »Legal positivism was not able to abolish status« (G. Alpa. The recognition of »legal Indigenous status« provides continuity between the past (the Middle Ages and present (Indigenous Peoples Basic Law. Just as in the past, when living according to a given natio’s laws and customs did not mean self-government, so today the enforcement of an indigenous peoples’ basic law should not undermine the sovereignty of the State.

  8. History of oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.

    This paper highlights history of the oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Oceanographic activities during Ancient period, Medieval period, British period, Post-Independence period are briefly discussed. The role of the IIOE, IOC, UNESCO are also...

  9. Medieval Stars in Melk Abbey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. G.; Zotti, G.

    2012-05-01

    Melk Abbey, a marvel of European high baroque architecture, is one of the most frequently visited tourist attractions in Austria, attracting 450 000 visitors each year. The monastery's museum presents selected aspects of Benedictine life in Melk since the monastery's foundation in 1089. After the church, the library is the second-most important room in a Benedictine monastery. Due to the wide scientific interests and contacts of the medieval monks, these libraries also contain manuscripts on mathematics, physics and astronomy. In 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009), the annual library exhibition was fully dedicated to astronomical manuscripts and early prints from the past 1000 years. Following earlier research work on astronomical manuscripts in Melk's library, we were invited to organise the exhibition. In addition, we also presented a lecture series and provided more background in an accompanying book. Because of positive feedback from the visitors, the exhibition was extended until March 2011. In the two years of its duration, the exhibition was seen by more than 900 000 visitors. In this article, we describe the background to the scientific project, how the exhibition was organised and lessons learned from this project.

  10. Medieval Theatre: It's More Fun than It Looks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Mike

    1996-01-01

    Explores production ideas for plays other than works by Shakespeare, including medieval plays such as the "Wakefield Noah" by the Wakefield Master. Lists some questions to consider when deciding to perform a medieval play. (PA)

  11. Memória e história da educação medieval: uma análise da Autentica Habita e do Estatuto de Sorbonne Memory and history of medieval education: an analysis of Authentica Habita and the Statute of Sorbonne University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Oliveira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é tecer considerações sobre a história e a memória de homens de saber, entre os séculos XII e XIII, no Ocidente latino, a partir de dois documentos. O primeiro é o Authentica Habita (1155/58. Este documento foi editado pelo imperador Frederico Barbaroxa (1122-1190. Nele, o Imperador do Sacro Império Romano-Germânico (1152-1190 apresentou uma lei, considerada a primeira, para defender os interesses dos homens de saber - ou daqueles que se dedicavam ao conhecimento. O segundo é o Estatuto da Universidade de Sorbone (1274. Este documento tinha como objetivo regular a vida dos estudantes no lócus universitário. Para a análise dos dois documentos que procuravam proteger e regulamentar a vida de homens do saber seguiremos os caminhos da história social, sob a perspectiva da longa duração. Entendemos que os processos históricos, os fenômenos educativos e as instituições escolares e universitárias de outros tempos históricos podem servir de pontos de partida para uma reflexão dos homens contemporâneos diante das suas questões.The purpose of this study is to use two relevant documents to make considerations about the history and memory of scholars who lived between the XIIth and the XIIIth centuries, in the Latin West. The first document, named Authentica Habita (1155/58, was edited by the emperor Frederico Barbaroxa (1122-1190. In this document, the Emperor of the Sacred Roman-Germanic Empire (1152-1190 presented a law, considered as the first one to defend the interests of scholars. The second document was the Statute of Sorbonne University (1274, a document which aimed at regulating the students' life within the university locus. For the analysis of both documents, written with the purpose of protecting and regulating the life of scholars, the path of social history will be followed, on a long-term perspective. Such retrospective is based on our view that historical processes, educational phenomena

  12. Bengal Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  13. The Medieval Dublin Project: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall O'hOisin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Medieval Dublin Project. It covers the development and release of the DVD ‘Medieval Dublin: From Vikings to Tudors (Schools Edition,’ and outlines the major virtual and interactive features developed for that release. The paper also covers the collaboration that took place between the DVD development team and the academic community and discusses the ways in which 3D visualisations, timelines, interactivity and character-based storytelling were used to present Dublin’s archaeological heritage in an engaging and interesting way

  14. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an account of selected topics from key mathematical works of medieval Islam, based on the Arabic texts themselves. Many of these works had a great influence on mathematics in Western Europe. Topics covered in the first edition include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and numerical approximation; this second edition adds number theory and combinatorics. Additionally, the author has included selections from the western regions of medieval Islam—both North Africa and Spain. The author puts the works into their historical context and includes numerous examples of how mathematics interacted with Islamic society.

  15. Anthony Davenport. Medieval Narrative – An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TRIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This latest book by Tony Davenport represents not only a very useful guide to the different types of narrative associated with the Middle Ages but also succinctly describes their origins in Antiquity as well as linking up the various genres of medieval story-telling to present-day fiction in prose and film. The introductory pages thus give a global picture of narrative both before and after the medieval period and the Middle Ages are thereby not left in a vacuum. Although the focus is on Engl...

  16. Greek Astronomy and the Medieval Arabic Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, George

    2002-07-01

    Islamic scholars of the Middle Ages are often credited with preserving the scientific writings of Antiquity through the Dark Ages of Europe. Saliba argues that the medieval Islamic astronomers did far more—actually correcting and improving on Greek astronomy by creating new mathematical tools to explain the motions of celestial objects. These tools were so useful that Copernicus appears to have borrowed them for use in his heliocentric cosmology. In this new light, the medieval Islamic astronomers played a fundamental role in the scientific revolution that was forged in Europe during the Renaissance.

  17. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  18. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  19. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    different medieval understandings of identity and ethnicity. Among other things, the ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ tale was exploited to promote a legacy of ‘barbarian’ vigor that could withstand the negative cultural effects of Roman civilization. This volume employs a variety of perspectives cutting across...

  20. Sex differentials in frailty in medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2010-10-01

    In most modern populations, there are sex differentials in morbidity and mortality that favor women. This study addresses whether such female advantages existed to any appreciable degree in medieval Europe. The analyses presented here examine whether men and women with osteological stress markers faced the same risks of death in medieval London. The sample used for this study comes from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery in London. The benefit of using this cemetery is that most, if not all, individuals interred in East Smithfield died from the same cause within a very short period of time. This allows for the analysis of the differences between men and women in the risks of mortality associated with osteological stress markers without the potential confounding effects of different causes of death. A sample of 299 adults (173 males, 126 females) from the East Smithfield cemetery was analyzed. The results indicate that the excess mortality associated with several osteological stress markers was higher for men than for women. This suggests that in this medieval population, previous physiological stress increased the risk of death for men during the Black Death to a greater extent than was true for women. Alternatively, the results might indicate that the Black Death discriminated less strongly between women with and without pre-existing health conditions than was true for men. These results are examined in light of previous analyses of East Smithfield and what is known about diet and sexually mediated access to resources in medieval England. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  2. [Women, bodies, and Hebrew medieval medical literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carmen Caballero

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores different views on the female body articulated within Hebrew medieval texts on women's health care. It also investigates whether texts also integrate women's own perceptions of their bodies, and of their needs and care. I have analysed how this genre of Hebrew literature understood two key issues in the construction of sexed bodies: menstruation and cosmetics.

  3. The Vicissitudes of a Medieval Japanese Warrior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In standard accounts of medieval Japanese society, enormous stress is put on the conflicts between local landholders (zaichi ryôshu) and absentee proprietors. Fuelled by the debate on feudalism that divided scholars up until the early 1990s, these conflicts have widely been recognised as proof...

  4. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  5. The Dichotomy of Insularity: Islands between Isolation and Connectivity in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, L.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of islands in maritime and global history is not yet understood in a comparative and long term perspective. This article aims to contribute to understanding the role of islands for the establishment, preservation and extension of maritime connections in medieval and early modern

  6. The wine trade, piracy and maritime contract law in late medieval Southampton

    OpenAIRE

    Pamuk, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of History, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 102-105. In late medieval Southampton, wine was a commodity, which was extensively traded, and quite precious to the pirates of the English Channel because it was easy to sell and the vessels loaded with wine had less protection than the ships of precious metals. Therefore, increase of wine trade in the late m...

  7. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  8. Un gobierno medieval en un mundo global.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Becerra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario is a unique case in the World of corporate governance enduring, by which this university, one of the most prestigious institutions in Colombia, could preserve its culture and medieval tradition in the election of their authorities and governance becoming a modern higher education institution that educate the future social leaders. Nova et Vetera – the New and the Old– the integration of today reality and dynamics, and its future projection, with the more ancient university tradition of the Medieval concept of “Universitas Scholarium” becoming a modern institution of 354 years old. These successful combinations produced by the continuity of traditional corporate governance since 1653 has empowered the institution and permit it to lead the most important intellectual, political and social changes of the country.

  9. The first coronation churches of medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalić Jovanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The medieval ceremony of coronation as a rule took place in the most important church of a realm. The sites of the coronation of Serbian rulers before the establishment of the Žiča monastery church as the coronation church of Serbian kings in the first half of the thirteenth century have not been reliably identified so far. Based on the surviving medieval sources and the archaeological record, this paper provides background information about the titles of Serbian rulers prior to the creation of the Nemanjić state, and proposes that Stefan, son of the founder of the Nemanjić dynasty, was crowned king (1217 in the church of St Peter in Ras.

  10. Insight into the Fulnek Church and Parish Medieval Building Chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinková Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The church of the Holy Trinity and parish in Fulnek was for nearly four centuries an Augustinian canonry and collegiate church (1293-1389. The medieval church and parish building chronology, however, have not been thus far established. From research between 2015 and 2016 we have been able to identify medieval portions of the buildings, clarify the site medieval construction phases and date the parish buildings (formerly the canonry from dendrochronological analysis of embedded wooden scaffolding.

  11. Interest in medieval accounts: Examples from England, 1272-1340

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian R. Bell; Chris Brooks; Tony Moore

    2008-01-01

    Research into medieval interest rates has been hampered by the diversity of terms and methods used by historians, creating serious misconceptions in the eporting of medieval interest rates, which have then been taken at face value by later scholars. This has had important repercussions on the wider debate on the credit risk of different forms of medieval governments and the costs of borrowing as a bar to investment. This paper seeks to establish a standardised methodology to accurately calcul...

  12. Pulp fictions of medieval England: Essays in popular romance

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Middle English popular romance is the most audacious and compendious testimony to the imaginary world of the English Middle Ages. Yet, with few exceptions, it remains under read and under studied. Pulp fictions of medieval England demonstrates that popular romance merits and rewards serious critical attention and that it is crucial to our understanding of the complex and conflicted world of medieval England. Pulp fictions of medieval England comprises ten essays on individual romances that, w...

  13. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  14. Orientation of medieval churches of Morava school

    OpenAIRE

    Tadić Milutin; Gavrić Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the mathematical and topographic analysis of orientation of the most significant churches (11) of Morava school, the last style in architecture of medieval Serbia whose executors were chief architects. The deviation from equinox East of the main axis of each church and the dates when the Sun rises on the physical horizon, in the extension of the main axis, have been calculated. These were the dates when the church could have been oriented towards the rising Sun....

  15. Geriatric management in medieval Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Morteza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications. PMID:24381461

  16. [Who were the healers in medieval Trondheim?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, K; Westin, S

    1998-12-10

    When Trondheim celebrated its millenium in 1997, this also marked a 1000 year-old medical tradition. In medieval times, sick and disabled people made their pilgrimage to the Nidaros cathedral and the grave of Saint Olav (995-1030). Working from the assumption that every organized society develops rituals and rules to deal with disease and death, we have looked for evidence of what kind of healers one would expect there were in medieval Trondheim up to the reformation in 1537. Sources include reports from archaeological excavations, written material of both medieval and more recent origin, buildings and objects, and living traditions. Three kinds of healer traditions can be identified: The popular and "wise" folk healers were based on traditional pre-Christian mythology and belief in natural forces. The charitable clerics emerged with Christianity. The "professional" wound healers evolved from the needs of the military, later to merge with the early barber surgeons. Traces of scientific traditions, the Salerno school and early European university medicine can be found in local texts, but there is no evidence of any university educated doctor practising in Trondheim before the 17th century.

  17. Disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnjatović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the process of gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia during the second half of the 14th and the first half of the 15th century. This period is characterized by an appearance of frequent usurpations of the ruling right to mint coinage by local landlords and the attempts of the rulers from Lazarević and Branković families to restore unified monetary system. Common debasements and restorations of silver coinage provoked economic instability and induced frequent turning backwards to the custom of using weighted silver instead of silver coins as commodity monetary standard. The aim of this paper is to explain the reasons for those phenomena. We apply qualitative, historical, empirical analysis where we consider money minting right holders and their decisions to debase and restore the value of silver dinars. We found that gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbian State continued until the fall of Serbian Despotate as a consequence of political instability following dissolution of medieval Serbian Empire and economic and financial exhaustion of Serbia by Ottoman suzerains.

  18. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  19. Legality in multiple legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 [2010], xxv + 303 pp.

  20. Magna Carta: Teaching Medieval Topics for Historical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Scott Alan

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Ages are an immensely important era in the Western experience. Unfortunately, medieval studies are often marginalized or trivialized in school curriculum. With the approach of the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, the famous charter of rights from medieval England, one has a timely and useful example for considering what a focus on…

  1. Renewing Audience Response in Study of Medieval Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David V.

    Although modern readers often find the interpretation of medieval literature difficult, they should be encouraged to use their imagination to resolve the dilemmas they encounter. Often, these are the same issues with which medieval audiences had to wrestle and which the poets intended to raise. W. Iser's and H. R. Jauss's principles of…

  2. Exploring the Middle Ages with the Medieval Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Joseph D.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how medieval maps provide a means for studying the Middle Ages by allowing students to explore the ideology and representations of the medieval world conveyed by the maps. Explains that students also can compare the maps with literature from the same time period to further analyze the representations of the culture. (CMK)

  3. Locality and Distance in Cults of Saints in Medieval Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2017-01-01

    A discussion of the Norwegian medieval cult of the purported Irish St Sunniva, a cult in which holiness is seen as foreign and distant in the cultural memory of the saint.......A discussion of the Norwegian medieval cult of the purported Irish St Sunniva, a cult in which holiness is seen as foreign and distant in the cultural memory of the saint....

  4. La historia de la esclavitud y la historia medieval de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. (Jr. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la esclavitud en la Península Ibérica ha despertado un gran interés e inspirado un gran número de publicaciones en las últimas décadas. La esclavitud fue una constante a lo largo de los periodos antiguo y medieval, hasta nuestros días. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, era escasa en número y sus porcentajes reducidos respecto al número total de la población. En la mayor parte de los periodos, los esclavos suponían menos de un 5% de la población total, aunque en algunas ciudades era a veces superior, llegando a suponer hasta un 25%. El origen de los esclavos podía variar, desde los hijos de madres esclavas, a los cautivos de guerra que no habían conseguido rescatarse, o esclavos importados a la Península Ibérica por mercaderes. Este último grupo varió en su composición a lo largo del tiempo, e incluía esclavos europeos, del Próximo Oriente, del Magreb y de África Subsahariana. A partir del siglo XVI y hasta el XVIII, aparecen también en la documentación unos cuantos esclavos americanos y asiáticos. Hasta la fecha, los estudios se han basado en aquellos documentos de venta que proporcionaban información sobre los esclavos. Más recientemente, la documentación procedente de casos legales, cofradías religiosas y por los propios esclavos han cobrado importancia. Las nuevas tendencias dentro de los estudios sobre la esclavitud investigan las relaciones entre raza —concepto definido y analizado de muy distintas formas— y esclavitud, y el creciente reconocimiento del enorme peso de la esclavitud femenina. Las historias de estas mujeres y de sus hijos, que crecieron como esclavos, se convertirán probablemente en uno de los temas clave de estos nuevos enfoques.The history of slavery in the Península Ibérican Peninsula has generated great interest and many publications over the last several decades. Slavery was a constant presence from ancient through medieval to early modern times. At the same time, though, it

  5. Medieval European medicine and Asian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2014-08-01

    This article aimed to explain the reasons why Asian spices including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon were considered as special and valuable drugs with curative powers in the Medieval Europe. Among these spices, pepper was most widely and frequently used as medicine according to medieval medical textbooks. We analyzed three main pharmacology books written during the Middle Ages. One of the main reasons that oriental spices were widely used as medicine was due to the particular medieval medical system fundamentally based on the humoral theory invented by Hippocrates and Galen. This theory was modified by Arab physicians and imported to Europe during the Middle Ages. According to this theory, health is determined by the balance of the following four humors which compose the human body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each humor has its own qualities such as cold, hot, wet, and dry. Humoral imbalance was one of the main causes of disease, so it was important to have humoral equilibrium. Asian spices with hot and dry qualities were used to balance the cold and wet European diet. The analysis of several major medical textbooks of the Middle Ages proves that most of the oriental spices with hot and dry qualities were employed to cure diverse diseases, particularly those caused by coldness and humidity. However, it should be noted that the oriental spices were considered to be much more valuable and effective as medicines than the local medicinal ingredients, which were not only easily procured but also were relatively cheap. Europeans mystified oriental spices, with the belief that they have marvelous and mysterious healing powers. Such mystification was related to the terrestrial Paradise. They believed that the oriental spices were grown in Paradise which was located in the Far East and were brought to the Earthly world along the four rivers flowing from the Paradise.

  6. A Morphology of Medieval Notations in the Optical Neume Recognition Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Helsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of medieval notations depends on effective categorization of individual signs in order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of their musical meaning. Over the past century, chant scholars have developed several kinds of neume tables which arrange and contextualize neumes either according to graphical type, chronology, or scribal tradition. Some neume tables contain longer strings of neumes that link certain notation conventions with performance traditions. The course of neume table development reads like a history of the study of early notations, itself, and reveals the evolving interests and pursuits of the scholars who created them. It also sets the stage for the latest use of the neume table as a reference for document analysis software applied to digital images of medieval manuscripts. Now, instead of presenting a static list of discrete signs, the neume table can be understood as a reflection of the notational variety and nuance of the hundreds of thousands of neumes contained in every book of liturgical chant. On this scale, neume tables help scholars to understand the use of medieval neumes in the same way a linguist understands the morphology of words. This article presents the principles on which this new kind of neume table has been developed and suggests the ways in which this new way of thinking might inform the discipline in the future.

  7. Embroided Portraits in the Romanian Medieval Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Marghidan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available If the artistic value of the Romanian medieval embroidery is obvious, it is no less real its documentary value. Most embroided portraits are made on liturgical pieces and they are a proof of the relationship of the rulers with the Orthodox Church. The position of the characters is a mute way of communicating the status that the voievod had. The vertical rigid representations, kneeling, the gestures of the palms and elbows, the beneficence objects, the way characters are grouped, the proportion or their placement in the work can be symbolically interpreted depending on the type of the Liturgical item on which the embroidery was done.

  8. A Passage to Infinity Medieval Indian Mathematics from Kerala and Its Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, George Gheverghese

    2009-01-01

    This book traces the first faltering steps taken in the mathematical theorisation of infinity which marks the emergence of modern mathematics. It analyses the part played by Indian mathematicians through the Kerala conduit, which is an important but neglected part of the history of mathematics. Passage to Infinity: Medieval Indian Mathematics from Kerala and its Impact begins with an examination of the social origins of the Kerala School and proceeds to discuss its mathematical genesis as well as its achievements. It presents the techniques employed by the School to derive the series expansion

  9. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many......” by Baggesen, in turn based on German and English sources. Anna Maria Lenngren followed with several ballads, often based on Danish sources. One more purely Swedish medieval ballad is “Varulven”. From 1810 unto 1971 thirteen versions of this Swedish ballad was discovered and printed. I place the focus...

  10. Advances in optics in the medieval Islamic world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge in the field of optics, mainly in catoptrics and dioptrics, before the birth of modern science and the well-documented contributions of men such as Kepler and Newton. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of the subject such as one might find in history of science journals; instead, it is aimed at the curious physicist who has probably been taught that nothing much of note was understood about the behaviour of light, beyond outdated philosophical musings, prior to the seventeenth century. The paper will focus on advances during the medieval period between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, in both the east and the west, when the theories of the Ancient Greeks were tested, advanced, corrected and mathematised. In particular, it concentrates on a multivolume treatise on optics written one thousand years ago by the Arab scholar, Ibn al-Haytham, and examines how it influenced our understanding of the nature of reflection and refraction of light. Even the well-informed physicist should find a few surprises here, which will alter his or her view of the debt we owe to these forgotten scholars.

  11. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  12. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  13. Orientation of English Medieval Parish Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Peter G.

    Our understanding of the alignment of English medieval parish churches, after more than three centuries of research, is far from complete. The arrangement of relatively few structures has been explained beyond reasonable doubt, and tests of the overwhelmingly popular festival orientation theory are often insufficiently rigorous to provide convincing answers. Much work remains to be done, including verifying and analyzing some of the existing raw data, determining whether the present church was dedicated at the time of construction, examining wills for evidence of early dedications, measuring the effect of eastern horizons on sunrise azimuths, and consulting excavation reports to assess whether earlier buildings may have influenced the arrangement of those churches that replaced them.

  14. Orientation of medieval churches of Morava school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the mathematical and topographic analysis of orientation of the most significant churches (11 of Morava school, the last style in architecture of medieval Serbia whose executors were chief architects. The deviation from equinox East of the main axis of each church and the dates when the Sun rises on the physical horizon, in the extension of the main axis, have been calculated. These were the dates when the church could have been oriented towards the rising Sun. This possibility has been ruled out for four churches. As for the other churches, the matching of the mentioned dates with the patron’s days wasn’t established. The churches in monasteries Ljubostinja and Kalenic are oriented with astronomical precision towards equinox East, an admirable fact considering the tools available to the builders. Rade Borovic, the only chief architect who put his signature on his work, was the chief architect of Ljubostinja.

  15. The modern enterprise – successor of business organization forms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pacala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in the role and influence of the forms of business organization on the economy and society. Interpretations of the role of companies in the modern period, ranging from enthusiastic support (as the most important invention of capitalism, an explanation of the Western civilization’s expansion to moderate and often critical positions, where the company is seen as a solution, not necessarily optimal, to market imperfections. On the other hand, we often ponder upon the explanation of political, administrative and infrastructural success of ancient Rome: the state or the enterprise (the private initiative? Closer to our time, we rediscover with amazement that the "dark" Middle Ages are not at all dark and lacking in progress, at least in terms of capitalist organization and logic. The development of trade in the two poles of medieval Europe (the Mediterranean and the BaltoScandinavian area, of industry and trade in the North-Western quadrant (Flanders and neighbouring regions, was concurrent with the improvement of organizational forms of business, with the diversity and flexibility of entrepreneurial or even corporate frameworks. Of course, the study of historical sources (ancient or medieval cannot provide direct answers or solutions to the questions of modern society, because the challenges of today are rather different to those of the past. On the other hand, understanding history can help companies to build a more complete and a wiser enterprise functionality and role in the modern society, to reformulate the questions and to find new solutions. Our paper, with a clear juridical perspective on economic history, focuses on the organization of firms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe, tries to provide examples, useful interpretations and diverse solutions to the problems of contemporary society and economy.

  16. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  17. Premaxillary hyperdontia in medieval Norwegians: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stermer Beyer-Olsen, E M

    1989-11-01

    An excavation of a part of the graveyard of St Olav's church, Trondheim, Norway, uncovered 389 tombs from the medieval period (1100-1600). Radiographic examination of 140 skulls with an intact premaxilla revealed hyperdontia in the form of a mesiodens in two (1.4%) cases. This is within the same range as similar medieval and present Nordic populations. Change in functional pattern does not seem to influence the prevalence.

  18. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  19. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  20. The medieval župa: Nahiya of Vatnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekić Radmilo B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of disclosed and closed records of the Dubrovnik Archive, Turkish census from 1468-1469. and 1475-1477, researches on the ground and relevant literature, we made an attempt to discover how the župa of Vatnica got its name and to define its borders that parted the area of Travunia from the area of Hum. Vatnica had been populated before Slavic people settled the area. Recent history records present Vatnica borders vaguely and imprecisely. Our findings contradict the findings presented in history records that state Travunia borders stretch to Trusina. The župa of Vatnica was placed eastward from the župa of Dabar in Hum land, with the borderline alongside Divin and Kuti village. In the northwest Vatnica bordered župa of Nevesinje alongside Davidovići and Lukavac villages, while the southeast border was reaching župa of Rudine, east from Narat village. Turkish invasion brought in suffering and migrations with local people causing them to leave their homes. Turkish administrative system naturalized itself according to its needs thus changing the old borders. While occupied by Turks, a part of former župa of Vatnica, including Vatnica village, became a part of Turkish nahiya Dabar, but at the same time on the east side of Vatnica village existed nahiya of Vatnica stayed behind with six unpopulated villages, which was supported by the Turkish census. Windy political odds affected the medieval economy of Vatnica. Population pursued agriculture, above all grape growing. They would breed draught cattle for transport and market. Economy of this region was partly influenced by Dubrovnik where the youngster would go to find work and learn trade. Remainders of the past times are stone tombs called 'stećak' as well as the sites of orthodox churches.

  1. On the distribution of trace element concentrations in multiple bone elements in 10 Danish medieval and post-medieval individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Kaare; Skytte, Lilian; D'imporzano, Paolo; Orla Thomsen, Per; Søvsø, Morten; Lier Boldsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The differences in trace element concentrations among 19 different bone elements procured from 10 archaeologically derived human skeletons have been investigated. The 10 individuals are dated archaeologically and some by radiocarbon dating to the medieval and post-medieval period, an interval from ca. AD 1150 to ca. AD 1810. This study is relevant for two reasons. First, most archaeometric studies analyze only one bone sample from each individual; so to what degree are the bones in the human body equal in trace element chemistry? Second, differences in turnover time of the bone elements makes the cortical tissues record the trace element concentrations in equilibrium with the blood stream over a longer time earlier in life than the trabecular. Therefore, any differences in trace element concentrations between the bone elements can yield what can be termed a chemical life history of the individual, revealing changes in diet, provenance, or medication throughout life. Thorough decontamination and strict exclusion of non-viable data has secured a dataset of high quality. The measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (for Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, Ba, Sr, Zn, Pb and As) and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (for Hg) on ca. 20 mg samples. Twelve major and trace elements have been measured on 19 bone elements from 10 different individuals interred at five cemeteries widely distributed in medieval and renaissance Denmark. The ranges of the concentrations of elements were: Na (2240-5660 µg g -1 ), Mg (440-2490 µg g -1 ), Al (9-2030 µg g -1 ), Ca (22-36 wt. %), Mn (5-11450 µg g -1 ), Fe (32-41850 µg g -1 ), Zn (69-2610 µg g -1 ), As (0.4-120 µg g -1 ), Sr (101-815 µg g -1 ), Ba (8-880 µg g -1 ), Hg (7-78730 ng g -1 ), and Pb (0.8-426 µg g -1 ). It is found that excess As is mainly of diagenetic origin. The results support that Ba and Sr concentrations are effective provenance or dietary indicators. Migrating

  2. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  3. On the street and in the bathhouse: medieval Galenism in action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomans, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we combine the perspective of medieval urban hygiene and the fi ndings of medical and intellectual historians by tracing some ways in which medieval urban residents and governments attempted to limit disease and promote health by recourse to preventative measures. In both of the urban regions and domains in focus, namely Italian streets and Dutch bathhouses, considerable thought had been put into reducing the health risks perceived as attending upon them, at times devising arguments and procedures that possibly refl ect insights from prevailing medical theories and the advice of practitioners. We suggest that the relation between medical learning and health practices was more complex than a trickledown process, and analyze them in the context of pre-modern “healthscaping”: a physical, social, legal, administrative, and political process by which urban individuals, groups, and especially governments sought to safeguard and improve collective wellbeing.En este artículo combinamos la perspectiva de la higiene urbana medieval con los hallazgos de los historiadores de la medicina y de la intelectualidad, analizando algunas de las formas con que los habitantes y los gobiernos urbanos medievales intentaron limitar las enfermedades y promover la salud mediante medidas preventivas. En las dos regiones que se toman en consideración (las calles italianas y los baños holandeses, se hizo un esfuerzo de reflexión considerable para reducir los riesgos de la salud, elaborando a veces argumentos y procedimientos que reflejaban las ideas de las teorías médicas imperantes y los consejos de los profesionales. Sugerimos que la relación entre el aprendizaje médico y las prácticas de salud era más compleja que un simple proceso de propagación, y la analizamos en el contexto de la preservación de la salud de carácter pre-moderno: un proceso físico, legal, administrativo y político mediante el cual individuos, grupos y, especialmente

  4. Legal Radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, L. de

    1986-01-01

    The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)

  5. Studies in the History of Business Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, George H., Ed.; Hildebrandt, Herbert W., Ed.

    Because written communication has nearly always been the medium for transmitting information in the business world, these essays are a step toward providing a seminal statement on the history and practice of business writing. The essays in this volume are: "Business Writing and the Spread of Literacy in Late Medieval England" (Malcolm Richardson);…

  6. El simbolismo animal en la cultura medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Carmen Morales Muñiz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordar un tema tan amplio y complejo como el de la simbología animal en los siglos medievales en un espacio tan corto, me obliga a seleccionar los puntos prioritarios a tratar. En primer lugar adelanto que el trabajo aquí presentado es parte de una línea de investigación más amplia sobre culturas zoológicas en la España medieval, entendiendo comparativamente a la cristiana, a la musulmana y a la judía. Como se sabe, la zoohistoria y sus implicaciones en la vida del Inombre —sobre todo esto último— es una especialidad cada vez más cultivada dentro de la investigación reciente, también para la Edad Media. La simbología, dentro de aquella especialidad, resulta uno de los aspectos más sugerentes, y en estas líneas queremos plantear los puntos más relevantes de esta contribución.

  7. Malocclusions in a juvenile medieval skull material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, E

    1983-01-01

    From a mostly medieval skull material--the "Schreiner collections" in Oslo--juvenile crania were selected as follows: Group A: Crania with complete and intact primary dentition. n = 20. Group B: Crania with early mixed dentition. Incisors only erupted or under eruption. n = 47. Group C: Crania with late mixed dentition. n = 14. The author recorded visually: Sagittal and transversal dental relation, frontal dental contact, anterior cross-bite, rotation and crowding. There was good basal stability. Sagittally 1 moderately postnormal dentition was recorded, transversally there were no anomalies. Slight anterior cross-bite was recorded in 1 case, anterior cross-bite of one and two lateral incisors respectively in 2 others, and tête-à-tête contact in 3 cases. Crowding was recorded in 6 cases, in one of them being general, in the others located solely in the mandibular incisor segment. Broken contact and more or less pronounced rotation occurred in these dentitions. Rotation was also recorded in 2 other cases. The prevalence of malocclusions of the type that can be related to continuing finger-sucking or sucking of dummylike objects was very low in this material. This observation prompted the author to discuss a hypothesis concerning the aetiology of dummy- and finger-sucking habits.

  8. Representations of Lancet or Phlebotome in Serbian Medieval Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajić, Sanja; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this study are representations of lancet or phlebotome in frescoes and icons of Serbian medieval art. The very presence of this medical instrument in Serbian medieval art indicates its usage in Serbian medical practices of the time. Phlebotomy is one of the oldest forms of therapy, widely spread in medieval times. It is also mentioned in Serbian medical texts, such as Chilandar Medical CodexNo. 517 and Hodoch code, i.e. translations from Latin texts originating from Salerno-Montpellier school. Lancet or phlebotome is identified based on archaeological finds from the Roman period, while finds from the Middle Ages and especially from Byzantium have been scarce. Analyses of preserved frescoes and icons has shown that, in comparison to other medical instruments, lancet is indeed predominant in Serbian medieval art, and that it makes for over 80% of all the representations, while other instruments have been depicted to a far lesser degree. Examination of written records and art points to the conclusion that Serbian medieval medicine, both in theory and in practice, belonged entirely to European traditions of the period.

  9. The Pleasure of Discovery: Medieval Literature in Adolescent Novels Set in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three recent novels for young adults set in medieval times, illustrating several ways that modern writers incorporate medieval material into fiction. Argues that pairing such novels with medieval texts such as "Beowulf" and "The Canterbury Tales" offers opportunities to explore traditional literary topics while providing a gateway into…

  10. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the numerical research output of crusade studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of medieval studies in general in the same period. It shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates on some...... of the methodological considerations necessary in carrying out this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output both...... in crusade studies in particular and in medieval studies in general. The article proposes further discussion on the “why” and “how” of this somewhat surprising result....

  11. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video describes the Category ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  12. Women performers and prostitutes in Medieval India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shadab

    2012-01-01

    Music and dance, the esoteric performing arts, were markers of culture in medieval India. A number of these differing forms developed into well-recognized and reputed arts over time. The practitioners were, accordingly, regarded as agents of refinement and culture. At the same time, music and dance were also among the most popular forms of entertainment and physical pleasure. This aspect remained crucial in classifying musicians, singers and dancers as entertainers, alongside prostitutes. While the labelling together might have reduced the status of performers at times, the labelling hardly remained fixed. Certain practitioners, even if involved in practices otherwise considered immoral, could remain within the elite circle, while for others the ‘evil’ characteristics got emphasized. There were, within the class of women who prostituted themselves, courtesans trained in the skills of music and dancing and educated in the fine arts, who were treated more as embodiments of culture. These categories—artists, skilled entertainers, courtesans—were quite fluid, with the boundaries seemingly fused together. Still, there were certainly some distinctions among the categories and those did not totally disappear, affording sanctity and purity to certain kinds of performers and allowing them to claim distinctiveness. Notably, the class of courtesans clearly stood apart from the common prostitutes. The attempt in this article is to look at different categories of women performers and prostitutes, their apparent coalescing boundaries and specialities as a separate group, their societal position, their shifting roles and the changes that affected their status. In this, it is worthwhile to consider the state’s attitude towards them, besides societal views that remained quite diverse.

  13. Una mención medieval de los ispallenses de Plinto (Nh.III, 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier CABALLERO CASADO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se plantea la identidad de los ispallenses citados por Plinto (NH, III, 24 en la lista de pueblos pertenecientes al Convento Jurídico Cesaraugustano con el topónimo Spalanam, señalado como límite común de las diócesis de Osea y Caesaraugusta en la División de Wamba, documento medieval de principios del siglo XII.A partir de la relación entre ambos topónimos y el texto del triffinium de Fuentes de Ebro (Zaragoza, se realiza un ensayo de localization de los ispallenses plinianos.ABSTRACT: In this paper we propose the identity between the ispallenses mentioned by Pliny's Natural History (III, 24 and the place-name Spallanam, mentioned as common boundery between the bishoprics of Osea and Caesaraugusta in the book División de Wamba, a medieval document probably written at the beginning of 12th. Century From the relationship between this two place-names and the text conserved in Fuentes de Ebro's (Zaragoza triffinium, we try to situate those plinian's ispallenses.

  14. Environmental imperatives reconsidered: demographic crises in western North America during the medieval climatic anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T L; Brown, G M; Raab, L M; McVickar, J L; Spaulding, W G; Kennett, D J; York, A; Wlaker, P L

    1999-04-01

    Review of late Holocene paleoenvironmental and cultural sequences from four regions of western North America show striking correlations between drought and changes in subsistence, population, exchange, health, and interpersonal violence during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (A.D. 800-1350). While ultimate causality is difficult to identify in the archaeological record, synchrony of the environmental and cultural changes and the negative character of many human responses--increased interpersonal violence, deterioration of long-distance exchange relationships, and regional abandonments--suggest widespread demographic crises caused by decreased environmental productivity. The medieval droughts occurred at a unique juncture in the demographic history of western North America when unusually large populations of both hunter-gathers and agriculturalists had evolved highly intensified economies that put them in unprecedented ecological jeopardy. Long-term patterns in the archaeological record are inconsistent with the predicted outcomes of simple adaptation or continuous economic intensification, suggesting that in this instance environmental dynamics played a major role in cultural transformations across a wide expanse of western North America among groups with diverse subsistence strategies. These events suggest that environment should not be overlooked as a potential cause of prehistoric culture change.

  15. Ideal kingship in the late medieval world: The Ottoman case

    OpenAIRE

    Yelçe, Zeynep Nevin; Yelce, Zeynep Nevin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of the ideal ruler as seen through the eyes of the members of late medieval societies. Throughout the study, main features attributed to the ideal ruler in various cultures have been pursued. Comparing the concepts and attributes apparent in these cultures, it has become possible to talk about a single ideal of kingship as far as the "Christian" and "Muslim" realms of the late medieval era is concerned. The early Ottoman enterprise has b...

  16. Proper Living - Exploring Domestic Ideals in Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2014-01-01

    Houses frame homes, households, and daily life, and it is reasonable to suggest that ideas of domestic space in medieval society, and ideas of how to live in an orderly and acceptable manner in the eyes of one’s peers and oneself are reflected in domestic architecture, its layout, fittings......, and ornaments. This paper addresses ideas of proper living in affluent rural and urban milieus in medieval Denmark, particularly as they are expressed through houses, inventories, and murals, and it also addresses current challenges in understanding the materialized ideas based on excavations and analysis...

  17. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly...... origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human...

  18. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  19. An Introduction to the Medieval English: The Historical and Literary Context, Traces of Church and Philosophical Movements in the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Zare Behtash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transition from Greek to medieval philosophy that speculated on religion, nature, metaphysics, human being and society was rather a rough transition in the history of English literature. Although the literature content of this age reflected more religious beliefs, the love and hate relationship of medieval philosophy that was mostly based on the Christianity with Greek civilization was exhibited clearly. The modern philosophical ideologies are the continuation of this period’s ideologies. Without a well understanding of the philosophical issues related to this age, it is not possible to understand the modern ones well. The catholic tradition as well as the religious reform against church called Protestantism was organized in this age. In Medieval Period, philosophy and theoretical thoughts related to the Christianity were well-organized and the philosophy, science and theoretical thoughts served religion. Philosophy had different forms and orientations in various stages of this period. One of these philosophical thoughts was the Augustinian philosophy which was strongly in favor of church with its different practices and styles. It used Platonic and Neo-Platonic traditions to prove that faith is the result of divine dispensations, not the result of human will power and wisdom. On the other hand, according to Aquinas, we experience different types of the effects that existed in the world around us. He believed that we assign an effective cause to each effect we experienced around us. Additionally, he claimed that reasoning was the only way to reach the real faith. In fact, philosophy of Medieval Period attempted to prove that religious assertions and ideologists were in search of matching their philosophical beliefs with the beliefs of Christianity. Christianity as the dominant factor in Middle English Literature helped English to be stablished as a literary language.

  20. Physical education of the medieval knight La educación física del caballero medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buenaventura DELGADO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medieval knight was required to perform the same physical exercices and have the same capabilities as Spartan, Athenian and Roman soldiers. They had to be agile, strong, fast and able to use weapons on foot as on horseback. To be pysically fit was as important as knowing history as explained by tutors and sung by jugglers in moments of leisure during which they learnt of legends, nationals heroes and the paradigms that distinguish nations. All the heroes praised through generations provide models shaped the collective personality of entire peoples. San Isidoro de Sevilla, Ramón Llull, King Alfonso X the Wise and Don Juan Manuel were the principal writers to exalt the figure of the knight and his education. During the XII, XIII, XIV and XV centuries and including the Renaissance, there were exhibitions of physical games, during which knights sought fame and fortune: jousts, tournaments, staged games, games using canes and processions of arms called «pasos honrosos» were undertaken with popular enthusiasm in Western and central Europe in the Byzantine Empire and throughout the Moslem world.Los ejercicios y habilidades físicas exigidos al caballero medieval fueron semejantes a los que se pedían al militar espartano, ateniense y romano. Debían ser ágiles, fuertes, rápidos y diestros en el manejo de las armas a pie y a caballo. Tan importante como una buena forma física era conocer la Historia cantada por ayos y juglares en los momentos de ocio, a través de la cual se familiarizaban con las tradiciones, leyendas, héroes nacionales y los paradigmas que distinguían a un pueblo de otro. El abanico de héroes alabados y ensalzados de generación en generación eran otros tantos modelos destinados a troquelar la personalidad colectiva de cada pueblo. San Isidoro de Sevilla, Ramón Llull, el rey Alfonso X el Sabio y Don Juan Manuel son los principales escritores interesados en ensalzar la figura del caballero y su educación. En los siglos

  1. The history of mathematics a brief course

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger L

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition ""An amazing assemblage of worldwide contributions in mathematics and, in addition to use as a course book, a valuable resource . . . essential."" -CHOICE This Third Edition of The History of Mathematics examines the elementary arithmetic, geometry, and algebra of numerous cultures, tracing their usage from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, India, China, and Japan all the way to Europe during the Medieval and Renaissance periods where calculus was developed. Aimed primarily at undergraduate students studying the history of

  2. Saving the Phenomena in Medieval Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeskin, K.

    2011-06-01

    Aristotle's theory of motion is based on two principles: (1) all motion to either from the midpoint of the Earth, toward it, or around it, and (2) circular motion must proceed around an immovable point. On this view, the heavenly bodies are individual points of light carried around by a series of concentric spheres rotating at a constant pace around the midpoint of the Earth. But even in Aristotle's day, it was known that this theory had a great deal of difficulty accounting for planetary motion. Ptolemy's alternative was to introduce epicycles and eccentric orbits, thus denying Aristotle's view of natural motion. There was no doubt that Ptolemy's predictions were far better than Aristotle's. But for the medievals, Aristotle's theory made better intuitive sense. Moreover, Ptolemy's theory raised the question of how one sphere could pass through another. What to do? The solution of Moses Maimonides (1138-1204) was to say that it is not the job of the astronomer to tell us how things actually are but merely to propose a series of hypotheses that allow us to explain the relevant data. This view had obvious theological implications. If astronomy could explain planetary motion in an acceptable way, there was reason to believe that the order or structure of the heavens is what it is by necessity. This suggests that God did not exercise any degree of choice in making it that way. But if astronomy cannot explain planetary motion, the most reasonable explanation is that we are dealing with contingent phenomena rather than necessary ones. If there is contingency, there is reason to think God did exercise a degree of choice in making the heavens the way they are. A God who exercises choice is much closer to the God of Scripture. Although Galileo changed all of this, and paved the way for a vastly different view of astronomy, the answer to one set of questions raises a whole different set. In short, the heavenly motion still poses ultimate questions about God, existence, and

  3. Dating mortars: three medieval Spanish architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in building archaeology is finding the age of elements and structures discovered. Mortars represent a class of material basically constituted by a mixture of different phases (i.e. binder, aggregates, water and are widely used for constructive uses and artworks. Current scientific literature regarding the possibility of accurate radiocarbon dating for mortars reports different and still contradictory results. In this study, a new protocol for radiocarbon dating of mortar developed at the Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE is used to perform 14C measurements on archaeological mortars coming from three medieval architectures of northern Spain (two churches and the walls of a castle. Results observed will be discussed and compared with independent age estimations (i.e. radiocarbon dating performed on organic materials found in the same study site, archaeological analyses in order to frame experimental observations in the actual site knowledge by means of a multidisciplinary approach.Una de las principales problemáticas a las que se enfrenta la arqueología de la arquitectura es datar los elementos y las estructuras. Las argamasas son un tipo de material constituido por una mezcla de diferentes elementos (agregados, agua y empleadas en muchos tipos de construcciones. Los estudios realizados hasta la actualidad en torno a la posibilidad de realizar dataciones radiocarbónicas precisas han proporcionado resultados contradictorios. El objetivo de este artículo es el de presentar un nuevo protocolo para datar la arquitectura histórica desarrollado por el Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Enviromental Heritage (CIRCE, basado en la realización de dataciones radiocarbónicas de argamasas a partir del análisis de tres arquitecturas medievales del norte del España, dos iglesias y la muralla de un castillo. Los resultados obtenidos han sido confrontados y comparados con otros

  4. Primstav and Apocalypse : Time and its Reckoning in Medieval Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Avery Myers

    2011-01-01

    This work is intended as an exploration of methods of time-reckoning and conception in Medieval Scandinavia. In the main this is tied to the dynamism between a duality: that of the cyclical and linear models of time’s progression. Involved in this study are sources verbal and pictoral.

  5. Evolution of Management Thought in the Medieval Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    The medieval times witnessed progress toward the growth of larger and more complex organizations and the application of increasingly sophisticated management techniques. Feudalism contributed the concept of decentralization. The concepts evolved by the Catholic Church can scarcely be improved on and are very much pertinent to the management of…

  6. Analysis of ancient and medieval glasses by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.; Penev, I.

    1984-01-01

    A scheme for instrumental neutron activation analysis of ancient and medieval glasses is proposed. The combination of three irradiations (short time, pile and epithermal) enables the determination of 34 elements. The accuracy of the method is evaluated by analyzing two glass standard reference materials. Results from the analysis of three glasses from different times are presented. (author)

  7. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  8. Medieval Day at Reynolds: An Interdisciplinary Learning Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    Medieval Day at Reynolds turned a typical Friday class day into an interdisciplinary learning event, which joined faculty and students into a community of learners. From classrooms issued tales of Viking and Mongol conquests, religious crusaders, deadly plague, and majestic cathedrals and art, all told by costumed faculty members with expertise in…

  9. Corruption as a Legacy of the Medieval University: Financial Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    Looking back upon the centuries one would suspect that in earlier ages universities of medieval France and Italy were very different from the multiplicity of organizational and institutional forms of higher education institutions in modern times, and yet one would be surprised how much these old "universitas" and modern universities have…

  10. Herbal diuretics in medieval Persian and Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Bosmia, Anand N; Fakhree, Mohammad A A; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Balch, Margaret Wood; Loukas, Marios; Khodadoust, Kazem; Khalili, Majid; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2015-06-01

    In accord with the notions of humoralism that prevailed in medieval medicine, therapeutic interventions, including diuretics, were used to restore the disturbed balance among the four humors of the human body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Most diuretics were derived from plants. The primary textual reference on herbal diuretics was Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, which was written during the first century CE. The authors reviewed the medieval medical texts written in Persian and Arabic and compiled a list of 135 herbal diuretics used by the medieval medical authorities for treating various ailments. Between the 8th and 11th centuries CE, Middle Eastern physicians systematically reviewed extant books on medicine and pharmacotherapy and compiled new and expanded lists of herbal medicines, diuretics in particular. Furthermore, they introduced new chemical methods of extraction, distillation, and compounding in the use of herbal medicines. Several herbal remedies now are considered as potentially safe and affordable alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals. Thus, research on medieval herbal therapies may prove to be relevant to the practice of current cardiovascular and renal pharmacotherapy. The authors propose that modern research methods can be employed to determine which of these agents actually are effective as diuretics.

  11. From the Dictionary of Medieval Latin in Czech Lands. Gracocenderius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 3/4 (2017), s. 455-470 ISSN 0024-4457 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ravens * ancient and medieval zoology * Latin names of birds * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Aristotle * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  12. Multi-Ethnicity and Material Exchangesin Late Medieval Tallinn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    his article examines the cultural and social dynamics of a multi-ethnic medieval town. Taking the lower town of Tallinn as a case study, this paper identifies the major urban ethnic groups living in the town and discusses their co-existence, self-definition, and processes of categorization...

  13. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  14. Review of Periodical Literature on the History of Education Published in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark; Kirke, Alice

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the periodical literature on the history of education published in 2016. It discusses general long-term trends in the field, but focuses mainly on the key areas of research in 2016 itself. The review is divided into several sections: ancient, medieval and early modern history; schooling and education policy; the history of…

  15. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  16. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Pejrani Baricco, Luisella; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  17. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vai

    Full Text Available In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  18. Sugli studi medievali e il mutamento digitale On the medieval studies and the digital change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La sezione raccoglie tre brevi comunicazioni, tenute nell’ambito del seminario Medium-Evo. Gli studi medievali e il mutamento digitale (Firenze, 2001 e dedicate rispettivamente ai periodici e alle forme di comunicazione del sapere (Giorgio Chittolini, al problema del reperimento delle risorse e della repertoriazione delle fonti (Paolo Delogu, ai contraccolpi dell’uso del mezzo informatico sulla scrittura della storia (Giuseppe Sergi.

    This section includes three short papers - presented at the seminar on Medium-Evo. Gli studi medievali e il mutamento digitale (Firenze, 2001 (Medium-Evo. Medieval studies and the digital change - which are respectively focused on periodicals, different types of learning communication (Giorgio Chittolini, problems linked to document searching and filing (Paolo Delogu, backlashes  coming from the use of computer in writing history (Giuseppe Sergi.

  19. Melancholia in medieval Persian literature: The view of Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-06-22

    "Melancholia" seems to be the oldest term used to describe the manifestations of depression. Throughout the history of medicine, melancholia has been the focus of consideration of many scholars who have provided varying definitions of this disorder and its manifestations. This continual process has resulted in the gradual development of the concept of melancholia over time. Persian scholars were among the scientists who have studied the melancholia and contributed to its concept. One figure, Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983 AD), a Persian physician whose reputation was based on the treatment of patients with mental problems, investigated this disorder. He described Melancholia and explained its clinical manifestations and treatment methods. Al-Akhawayni provided an early classification of the patients suffering from this disorder. Since the medieval Persian concept of melancholia is not well-known, this paper aims to review Al-Akhawayni's 10(th) century knowledge on melancholia which can represent the early concept of this disorder in the Near East.

  20. Medieval Settlement Formation in Catalonia: Villages, their Territories and communication paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi BOLÒS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses its attention on Catalonia and points to the importance of using several literary sources as a means of identifying the main characteristics of Catalan settlements throughout the Early Middle Ages (6th-10th Centuries. Apart from the need to use written and archaeological documents, the study highlights the importance of understanding and interpreting place-names and of reconstructing landscape history. Special emphasis is placed on the interest of interpreting by means of consulting documents, maps and orthophotomaps as witnesses that allow us to know the boundaries of the Early Medieval settlements. At the centre of these boundaries stand several small population centres (hamlets and a church. Several agricultural territories of various villages are reconstructed. Likewise, the study relates population with communication paths, churches and necropolis of the Early Middle Ages.

  1. Medieval Victoria-Gasteiz Interaction between virtual and augmented reality in the 16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Pérez-Valle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Vitoria-Gasteiz’s game provides information about the history and lifestyle of this town in the 16th century, which has been rebuilt through procedural software. This interactive application allows you to enjoy an experience that merges the virtual party with an ‘in situ’ visit to the city’s streets nowadays, enabling travel through time. The game becomes a competition in which users have to overcome challenges and could enjoy Augmented Reality’s benefits. The main goal of the project is the cultural heritage transmission. And this is done through one of the best ways to do this, in a funny way. Learn “playing”. Being education and tourism the main application fields.

  2. Daily life historyasmodern direction of urban history of Englandof High Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Okhrimenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Historiographical review of recent research is an important aspect of the scientific study of the problems of medieval urban history of England. In 2000s there was marked the beginning of years of studying the history of everyday of medieval towns. The most important works in this field are the studies of Professor C. Dyer. Studying the history of everyday life of the city the researcher has identified as «standards of living». One of the modern directions of the history of everyday life is a history of food. There is the significant research of Professor M. Carlin on the history of English feasting of urban residents of the Middle Ages. In the article Fast food and urban living standards in medieval England, she looked anew at the narrative sources XII-XIV centuries. Another area of daily life history is a history of clothes (fashion. L. A. Wilson in his work De novo modo: The birth of fashion in the Middle Ages analyzes comprehensively the written, visual, and archaeological evidence. Modern interpretations of medieval hygiene (including sanitation of medieval towns related to research in the area of a history body. Its appointed destination for British urban sources dealing D. Jorgensen, D. Keene, U. Ewert, G. Geltner, J. Lee etc. They revised the traditional view medievalists of the nineteenth century. At the present period the historiography of medieval towns of England are mostly social history. Towards the history of everyday life there is a tendency to positive characteristics of urban life in the English Middle Ages. Contemporary scholars refer to the current trends in the world. Active urbanization processes forced researchers to seek appeal of such a way of life in previous centuries, particularly in the Middle Ages. The key features of everyday modern city (commercialization, fast food, fashion, high standards of hygiene etc. historians find their roots in the past.

  3. Legal briefing: home birth and midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Fisch, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving home birth and midwifery in the United States. Specifically, we focus on new legislative, regulatory, and judicial acts that impact women's' access to direct entry (non-nurse) midwives. We categorize these legal developments into the following 12 categories. 1. Background and History 2. Certified Nurse-Midwives 3. Direct Entry Midwives 4. Prohibition of Direct Entry Midwives 5. Enforcement of Prohibition 6. Challenges to Prohibition 7. Forbearance without License 8. Voluntary Licensure 9. Unclear and Uncertain Status 10. Growth of DEM Licensure 11. Licensure Restrictions 12. Medicaid Coverage

  4. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  5. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  6. Medieval Pictorial Art and Medieval Spanish Literature: A Case in Point for the Use of the Visual Arts in the Literature Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Stanford E.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the connection between literature and the visual arts and its application in the foreign language literature class includes an illustration of how a medieval literary Spanish masterpiece becomes more clear when the text is compared with medieval pictorial art pieces. (four references) (Author/CB)

  7. The Legal Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, Giovanni; Contissa, Giuseppe; Schebesta, H.; Laukyte, Migle; Lanzi, Paola; Marti, Patrizia; Paola, Tomasello

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first release of the Legal Case, recently developed by the ALIAS Project and still under refinement. The Legal Case is a methodological tool intended to address liability issues of automated ATM systems: it provides for a legal risk management process that can be applied

  8. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  9. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  10. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Jäger, Günter; Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Economou, Christos; Benjak, Andrej; Busso, Philippe; Nebel, Almut; Boldsen, Jesper L; Kjellström, Anna; Wu, Huihai; Stewart, Graham R; Taylor, G Michael; Bauer, Peter; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Tucker, Katie; Roffey, Simon; Sow, Samba O; Cole, Stewart T; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes

    2013-07-12

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly of the ancient bacterial genome could be achieved through shotgun sequencing alone. The ancient M. leprae sequences were compared with those of 11 modern strains, representing diverse genotypes and geographic origins. The comparisons revealed remarkable genomic conservation during the past 1000 years, a European origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human pathogen evolution.

  11. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  12. Galeata: chronic migraine independently considered in a medieval headache classification

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Peral, Ángel Luís; de Frutos González, Virginia; Pedraza-Hueso, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is a quite recent concept. However, there are descriptions suggestive of episodic migraine since the beginning of scientific medicine. We aim to review main headache classifications during Classical antiquity and compared them with that proposed in the 11th century by Constantine the African in his Liber Pantegni, one of the most influential texts in medieval medicine. Method We have carried out a descriptive review of Henricum Petrum's Latin edition, year 1539. Re...

  13. Bohemian so-called surgical early medieval knives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jiří; Profantová, Naďa; Šilhová, Alena; Ottenwelter, Estelle

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 1 (2007), s. 932-937 ISSN 1335-1532. [Metallography 2007. Stará Lesná, 02.05.2007-04.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800020603; GA ČR GA404/05/0232 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : knife * medieval * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  15. The structure of the medieval town of Rupea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borcoman, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The town of Rupea, set up at the beginning of the 12th century, was the capital of the county of Rupea between 1337 and 1876. Its urban structure and organization prove that it belonged to group of Transylvania’s German medieval towns. Here, alongside with the German (established in the central area, Romanians lived in the outskirts. This structure was preserved until the early 1800s, and even until nowadays although the initial ethnical composition has altered.

  16. Waste Management and Attitudes Towards Cleanliness in Medieval Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíček Filip

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the relationships between people and waste in the Middle Ages, primarily in urban environments in Central Europe. At the center of interest are the attitudes of the inhabitants of medieval cities towards cleanliness and a description of different waste management practices. This paper also describes an experiment using ashes to launder clothing as one possible use of a particular waste material.

  17. Auditory Ossicles in Archaeological Skeletal Material from Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, M; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    Auditory ossicles were collected from two skeletal materials from early medieval Denmark. A total of 147 and 1,162 ossicles were obtained from the 2 materials, constituting 23% and 55% of the possible in vivo ossicles. The numbers and percentages found are among the highest reported from studies...... of archaeological skeletal material. Archaeological ossicles may be used in palaeopathological evaluation of chronic otitis media and otosclerosis, and morphometric studies of the ossicles might be valuable in analysis of population genetics and taxonomy....

  18. Corruption as a Legacy of the Medieval University

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2004-01-01

    Looking back upon the centuries one would suspect that in earlier ages universities of medieval France and Italy were very different from the multiplicity of organizational and institutional forms of higher education institutions in modern times, and yet one would be surprised how much these old universitas and modern universities have in common. The increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc as well as numerous other countries urges a better unders...

  19. Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been infecting humans throughout our evolution. However, not all people suffered with the same species or to the same intensity throughout this time. Our changing way of life has altered the suitability of humans to infection by each type of parasite. This analysis focuses upon the evidence for parasites from archaeological excavations at medieval sites across Europe. Comparison between the patterns of infection in the medieval period allows us to see how changes in sanitation, herding animals, growing and fertilizing crops, the fishing industry, food preparation and migration all affected human susceptibility to different parasites. We go on to explore how ectoparasites may have spread infectious bacterial diseases, and also consider what medieval medical practitioners thought of parasites and how they tried to treat them. While modern research has shown the use of a toilet decreases the risk of contracting certain intestinal parasites, the evidence for past societies presented here suggests that the invention of latrines had no observable beneficial effects upon intestinal health. This may be because toilets were not sufficiently ubiquitous until the last century, or that the use of fresh human faeces for manuring crops still ensured those parasite species were easily able to reinfect the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. "Fossils" of practical medical knowledge from medieval Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Efraim; Amar, Zohar

    2008-09-02

    To asses the scientific value of the practical medical fragments found in the Cairo Genizah (10th century), as a useful source for ethnopharmacological purposes (in exposing rare and usually inaccessible original medieval practical knowledge of medicinal substances to present-day researchers), and to reconstruct the practical drugs and their uses. A methodology distinguishing between theoretical (about 1500 fragments) and practical medical knowledge (about 230 fragments) was created and used. The information regarding the practical medicinal substances was extracted from prescriptions (140), lists of drugs (70) and few letters of physicians. The reconstructed lists of practical (278) and theoretical (414) drugs allow us to recognize and quantify the gap between them in medieval times (136). We propose that the data obtained from ancient prescriptions is comparable to ethnopharmacological surveys. The finding of plants such as myrobalan, saffron, licorice, spikenard and lentisk, all of which have scientifically proven anti-microbial/bacterial and anti-fungal activity, sheds a helpful light on the medical decision-making of the medieval practitioners in respect of the plants they applied as drugs. With the wealth of information meticulously assembled from these time capsules we expect to make a significant contribution to contemporary efforts at locating modern drugs in ancient roots and gauging their feasibility.

  1. Migration to the medieval Middle East with the crusades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D; Millard, Andrew R

    2009-11-01

    During the 12th and 13th centuries thousands of people moved from Europe to the Middle East to fight, undertake pilgrimage, or settle and make a new life. The aim of this research is to investigate two populations from the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, by determining who was born in Europe and who came from the Middle East. Oxygen and strontium stable isotope analyses were conducted on the enamel of teeth from skeletal remains excavated from Crusader contexts. Twenty individuals from the coastal city of Caesarea (10 high status and 10 low status), and two local Near Eastern Christian farmers from the village of Parvum Gerinum (Tel Jezreel) were analyzed as a control sample. Results were compared with known geographic values for oxygen and strontium isotopes. The population of the city of Caesarea appears to have been dominated by European-born individuals (probably 19/20, but at least 13/20), with few locals. This was surprising as a much higher proportion of locals were expected. Both controls from the farming village of Parvum Gerinum had spent their childhood in the area of the village, which matches our understanding of limited mobility among poor Medieval farmers. This is the first time that stable isotope analysis has been applied to the study of the migration of peoples between Medieval Europe and the Middle East at the time of the crusades. In view of these findings, we must now rethink past estimations of population social structure in Levantine coastal Medieval cities during the Crusader period.

  2. Ancient and medieval Iberia seen through glass: An archaeometric perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Ares, J. de; Nadine Schibille, N.

    2017-01-01

    The study of ancient and medieval glasses has identified distinct compositional groups as a result of the chemical characteristics of the raw materials used for its production. Archaeometric analysis can determine the provenance of the glass, and has demonstrated a large-scale production and commercialisation of raw glass throughout the Mediterranean during the ancient and medieval periods. Secondary workshops on the Iberian Peninsula imported raw glass from the Near East for the better part of the first millennium CE, following a similar pattern observed elsewhere in the Mediterranean region. However, there are some indications that point to a local production of glass and that deserve further investigation. In the ninth century, natron glass was replaced in al-Ándalus by plant ash and lead-rich glass that may represent a local production. Little is known about the production or use of glass in the Christian parts of the peninsula during this period. The increasing volume of analytical data on Spanish glass demonstrates the potential of an archaeometric approach to shed light not only on the production and trade of glass on the Iberian Peninsula but also on the ancient and medieval economy more generally. [es

  3. Cities and Socialization of Libraries in Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Bayır Toplu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, socialization of libraries in Medieval Europe has been examined by means of the growing of cities and movements of ideologies. Cities, as results of economic based changes, caused the apperance of merchantiles in produce and consumption flows. Cities, by selecting an area outside of feudal city walls, and by consisting new living habits which shows differances from village living habits took its place in Medieval Feudal Regime. While cities consist their conceits, conceits consists the specialisatians which identifies the city from the village. Technologic developments, innovations, the movements of different social classes, the changes in produce and consumption models, movements of ideologies; carried Medieval Europe to Enlighment Period after very long and difficult experiements. While the man in “Enlighment Period” ideologically based on rationalism and critical thinking; it realized knowledge as a product of rationalism. That realisation gave start to the socialisation of libraries and books and books which includes the “knowledge” stating with the innovation of press, the gobalization of books and the movements in cities gave speed to the interaction between cultures and effected the extansi-on of knowledge in a positive way. While knowledge was socialized by means of the opportunities of cities, libraries became space which knowledge can easily reachable by society. Cities arosed in Middle ageesand by effecting social structures, they became an indirect effect for reaching of libraries to society and moneyfree service.

  4. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  5. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  6. Iconología política en la Cataluña medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigarnau, Alfons

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Between the XIIIth and the XIV centuries, the so called Quatre grans cròniques (Four Great Chronicles are written in Mediaeval Catalonia. Three of the four authors of these documents show the historical facts as connected with and allowed by the Divine Providence. They develop a concept of History in which Space and time are categories necessarily moved by a supernatural force that gives them a reason for being, and the possibility of a free self-development. If we analyse these three major documents we will check an attempt of legitimate political power through a comparison between the present authority and the historical authority of the Jewish Kings of Israel, mainly David and Salomon. This is the "Icon of Political Power" that catalan medieval chroniclers want to reproduce.

    Entre los siglos XIII y XIV se escriben en Cataluña las llamadas Quatre grans cròniques. Tres de sus cuatro autores muestran la pretendida conexión de los hechos históricos con la Providencia divina. Desarrollan un concepto de Historia en el que el Espacio y el Tiempo son categorías necesariamente dominadas por fuerzas sobrenaturales. Al analizar estos documentos se registra un intento de legitimar el poder político a través del paralelismo entre la autoridad presente y la autoridad hostórica de los reyes de Israel, David y Salomón. Tras este intento de legitimación del poder político se encuentra, por tanto, una importante iconología del poder político en la Cataluña medieval.

  7. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  8. Introduction. G.J. Hoogewerff, Explorer in Art History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, Wessel; van Egmond, Anna-Maria; Chavannes-Mazel, Claudine A.

    2014-01-01

    G.J. Hoogewerff (1884-1963) was director of the Netherlands Historical Institute in Rome, professor at the University of Utrecht, and director of the Netherlands Art Historical Institute in Florence. In 2012, it was the 75th anniversary of the publication of his five-volume history of medieval

  9. A Short History of the Chemistry of Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedstein, Harriet G.

    1981-01-01

    Includes information on: (1) relationship of art and science; (2) paintings' early history; (3) Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Byzantine, and Medieval painting; (4) chemical analysis of pigments; (5) chemistry of early pigments; and (6) paint media. Tabular data are provided on chemical names for artists' pigments with their earliest known dates. (CS)

  10. Imperial Limes - Projections in Medieval Imperial Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Z. Zhekov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Roman imperial limes from I - V BC was the first state border in world history, which in some sense corresponds to the modern concept of political boundary. It represents sustainable political, military and economic barrier between the Romans and the rest of the world. With minor modifications it retains their basic strategic concept during the period as expressed from the emperors Augustus and Tiberius. Limes become powerful barrier that separates cultural Roman Hellenistic world of the wild barbarian but at the same time limits the constructed infrastructure of roads, forts and towns became a natural cultural, commercial and political mediator between these two initially hostile worlds. In border towns developed a lively trade between Romans and barbarians. Roman traders penetrate inside the barbarian lands getting to know their culture and history. Studying foreign peoples and countries they convey information gathered imperial legate of the Roman population. The same process was developed and of course in the opposite direction. Exchange of information on the other promotes mutual understanding and open living on both sides of the Roman Limes.

  11. Transferencias matrimoniales en el Occidente islámico medieval: las joyas como regalo de boda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomeño Rodríguez, Amalia

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes several legal cases concerning donations and loans of jewels in the context of the Islamic marriage in the Middle Ages. The bride receives gifts of jewels from her would-be husband that form part of her property thereafter. The father also offers a substantial contribution of jewels to her daughter, yet often this is given with the expectation of their being returned subsequent to the marriage ceremony. Two of the gifts studied here consist of a strand of pearls, gold earrings, and silver anklets. They are jewels described already in ethnographic studies as part of the adornment that the bride traditionally wears at weddings in the contemporary Maghreb.Este trabajo analiza varios casos en los que se reflejan problemas legales surgidos en torno a una donación o préstamo de joyas, dentro del contexto matrimonial islámico medieval. La novia, de hecho, recibe varios regalos que contienen joyas de manos de su marido, que formarán parte de sus propiedades después de su boda. Por otro lado, el padre entrega también un conjunto importante de joyas a su hija, pero es frecuente que le sean prestadas con la intención de que se le devuelvan posteriormente. Dos de los regalos que aquí se estudian contienen un sartal de aljófar, unos zarcillos de oro y unas ajorcas de plata. Todas ellas son joyas que han sido ya descritas en los trabajos de etnografía como parte de los adornos que la novia lleva tradicionalmente en su boda en el Magreb actual.

  12. Review of a monograph by P. N. Panchenko «State-legal regularities in the history and theory of state and law and criminal law». Moscow: «Jurisprudence» Publishers, 2014. 518 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy N. Gorshenkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of legislation imperfection in the sphere of normative legal acts adoption as it is studied in the reviewed monograph. The imperfection consists of ignoring the state and legal regularities. The author39s position is discussed that the normativelegal acts should meet not the legislatorsrsquo ambitions but the legitimate interests of citizens and the state. The author emphasizes the practical benefit of those legal measures that are proposed to stabilize the economy. The idea is developed of creating a general theory of crime and the author39s attitude to modern criminology. The author39s attempt is assessed to adjust the criminal law for the strategic challenges facing Russia in different spheres of life. nbsp

  13. Medico legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.

  14. La infanta Urraca y el cerco de Zamora en la historiografía medieval castellana y leonesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Prieto, Pablo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to compose a general panorama over the image of princess Urraca of Leon-Castile as it appears and evolves in the context of Medieval Castilian cronicles. Her outstanding role in Castilian politics of the late 11th century has been object to much attention on the part of historians ever since. In particular, she is to be remembered in connection to the murder of the Castilian king Sancho II, her brother, before the walls of Zamora. This crucial turning point in Iberian history was embroidered in legendary epics, leading to a wide accusation against Urraca as an inductor to her brother’s assassination. The present paper is concerned with a critical examination of the medieval cronicles, so as to verify and trace the progress and oscillations about the construction of Urraca’s posterity on behalf of Sancho’s death.

    El presente estudio pretende dibujar un panorama general sobre la imagen de la infanta castellana Urraca, tal como ésta se refleja y evoluciona en las principales fuentes historiográficas castellanas y leonesas de época medieval. Desde aquellos tiempos, los historiadores han prestado mucha atención a la importancia de Urraca en la política castellana del final del siglo XI. Se la recuerda especialmente por su relación con el asesinato de su hermano el monarca castellano Sancho II ante los muros de Zamora. Este acontecimiento crucial de la historia peninsular fue objeto de amplia elaboración épica, resultando en una acusación contra Urraca como inductora de la muerte de su hermano. Nuestro artículo propone un examen crítico de las crónicas medievales, al objeto de verificar y seguir la formación y las vacilaciones en la construcción de la posteridad de Urraca a cuenta de la muerte de Sancho.

  15. Affirmative Action in Medical Education: A Legal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Lelia B.; Helms, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes history of legal theory behind affirmative action, with examples from case law and Department of Education regulations, identifying legal pitfalls in admissions and financial aid, including categorization of students by race, racially disproportionate financial aid awards after accounting for need, racially disproportionate scholarship…

  16. "La Chanson de Roland" in the Elementary School Classroom: A Case for Medieval Literature and Young Language Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Karla L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes successful experiment in teaching of medieval literature to elementary French language classes in the Cincinnati public schools. Purpose was to strengthen linguistic awareness and expand social studies unit on medieval France. (BK)

  17. Map Resource Packet: Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This packet of maps is an auxiliary resource to the "World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven." The set includes: outline, precipitation, and elevation maps; maps for locating key places; landform maps; and historical maps. The list of maps are…

  18. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  19. Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference, Birmingham 3.–6. 7. 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráčková, Veronika; Baťa, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, 3-4 (2014), s. 414-417 ISSN 0018-7003. [Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference. Birmingham, 03.07.2014-06.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : conference * medieval * music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  20. The Case for Medieval Drama in the Classroom: An Approach through Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein, Leanore; Pare, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    Argues that medieval drama in performance suggests a number of important issues about the nature of literature, particularly about the way narrative and dramatic art can express the life of a community. Presents a series of exercises that start with familiar, nonthreatening situations in order to approach the richness of medieval plays and the…

  1. Farm Studies and Post-Medieval Rural Archaeology in Denmark: Comments on the Past, the Present and the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2012-01-01

    legislation and administrative practice, has left the post-medieval cultural heritage in a rather peculiar and to some extent neglected position. This paper will address research on post-medieval rural buildings and farms in particular and discuss the current challenges within post-medieval rural archaeology...

  2. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anatomical knowledge among medieval folk artists: osteological interpretation of two Dance of Death motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Culina, Tatjana; Suran, Andrea; Skrobonja, Ante

    2013-08-01

    Anatomy has a long history that started with dissection of animals and then expanded and flourished thanks to dissections performed on human bodies. Artists had a crucial role in uncovering the secrets of human anatomy. While most studies have focused on the influence of famous Renaissance artists on human anatomy studies, the anatomical drawings by pre-Renaissance artists and local craftsmen have remained in their shadow. One of the most popular artistic genres in which complete or parts of human skeletons appear is the Dance of Death (Danse Macabre). This article is an anthropological study of two medieval Dance of Death frescoes that are unusual in being relatively early as well as accurately datable. A comparative morphological analysis of the two late 15th century works present in Istria has been conducted. The two works were painted by two local masters and show how the artists filled the gaps in their knowledge of human anatomy mostly with insights into animal bones and imagination. Their artworks, even though only 16 years apart, demonstrate substantial differences in the representation of the skeletons. The article argues that the history of medicine and of art could make good use of osteology and physical anthropology in attempts to define and understand how anatomical knowledge developed among pre-Renaissance and post-Renaissance artists and local people. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  4. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  5. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  6. El comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval : rutas y papel económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Soyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen muy pocos estudios acerca de la esclavitud musulmana en Portugal. Cuando se trata el comercio de los esclavos en la historia portuguesa, generalmente los trabajos se refieren al comercio de los esclavos africanos que los navegantes portugueses comenzaron traer de vuelta a Europa desde el año 1441 en adelante, a pesar de que desde el siglo XI existía una pobulación de esclavos musulmanes —los llamados mouros cativos—. En este artículo propongo estudiar, de la forma la más detallada posible, las características y dinámicas del comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el reino cristiano de Portugal durante la Edad Media, tratando de responder a preguntas relevantes, como las de cuál era el origen y el papel económico de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval, qué sabemos del comercio de los esclavos en aquel reino, o a la cuestión de si Portugal fue un país exportador o importador de esclavos.Whilst the presence of Muslim slaves in medieval Spain has attracted considerable scholarly attention from historians both inside and outside of the Iberian Peninsula, the same cannot be said of the history of Muslim slaves in the medieval Christian kingdom of Portugal. Most studies of slavery in Portugal focus on captives from sub-Saharan Africa brought back by Portuguese slavers to Europe from 1441 onwards even though Muslim slaves were present in Portugal from the eleventh century at the very least. We know next-to-nothing about these Muslim slaves. This article proposes to examine in as much detail as possible the characteristics and dynamics of the commerce of Muslim slaves in medieval Portugal. It addresses problematic questions regarding the origins and economic role of Muslim slaves in premodern Portugal, the nature of slave trading and whether Portugal was an importer or exporter of slaves.

  7. Diabetes and related remedies in medieval Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Khademian, Sedigheh; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder presenting increased amounts of serum glucose and will cover 5.4% of population by year 2025. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the stand points on diagnosis, pathophysiology, non-pharmacological therapy and drug management of diabetes this disorder as described in medieval Persian medicine. To this, reports on diabetes were collected and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Traditional Persian Medicine. A search on databases as Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Scopus and Google scholar was also performed to reconfirm the Anti diabetic activities of reported herbs. The term, Ziabites, was used to describe what is now spoken as diabetes. It was reported that Ziabites, is highly associated with kidney function. Etiologically, Ziabites was characterized as kidney hot or cold dystemperament as well as diffusion of fluid from other organs such as liver and intestines into the kidneys. This disorder was categorized into main types as hot (Ziabites-e-har) and cold (Ziabites-e-barid) as well as sweet urine (Bole-e-shirin). Most medieval cite signs of Ziabites were remarked as unusual and excessive thirst, frequent urination and polydipsia. On the management, life style modification and observing the essential rules of prevention in Persian medicine as well as herbal therapy and special simple manipulations were recommended. Current investigation was done to clarify the knowledge of medieval scientists on diabetes and related interventions. Reported remedies which are based on centuries of experience might be of beneficial for- further studies to the management of diabetes. PMID:24741508

  8. The medieval feminine personage in the romance O guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Gurgel Lucena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We objectify to present a intertextual analysis of the literary text that contemplates a process of mythical constitution of the personages of the romance the Guarani (1857 of the writer Jose de Alencar. Focamos the analysis on the Cecília young for where we discover its “static” adaptation as medieval myth in the Brazilian romantic romance. The unconditional, protective and servile love of the Peri indian (One arquétipo of the medieval knight. conditions the construction of the loved one, therefore under the medieval myth of the gracious love, a personage is formed in function of the other, is opposing destinations that search the balance in the love. Exactly being something distant and inaccessible, as they present the trovadorescas Cantigas of love. In the theoretical recital, we have: MOISÉS (2004 - 2005 characterizing the mythos and the definitions of the plain and round personages; a platonic reference to the servile love in the Slap-up meal; Spalding (1973, Brunel (1988 for the dicionarizações concerning the thematic one and of the critical one; in the literary theory, Brunel, Pichois and Rousseau (1995, p.115: the myth, “a narrative set consecrated by the tradition”; in Samuel (2000, the mythical literariedade in the formation of a people; Bosi (1994, information on the indianismo and Coutinho (1988, gênese of our literariedade and the romantic romance. Thus, our work presents a result to the literary study: the thematic influence of the Average Age and its mythical love (gracious and servile in the composition of the indianista romance.

  9. The legal mentality and the succession of the law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rybakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340Subject. The peculiarities of the legal mentality and succession of law, their correlation and communication.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship of the legal mentality and development of the law.Methodology. The research is based on the method of legal analysis, formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The legal mentality and continuity in the law are linked and have common features. They are based on national law, are a reflection of him.Continuity in the law is objectively existing relationship between the various stages of its development, aimed at ensuring the continuity of national rights, preserving the past in the present.The basis of the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are objective factors. These phenomena are associated with the past, with the history of their own, caused by it. The development of law and legal awareness is provided not only in the change process, but in the process of preservation. The legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are genetic in nature. Communication legal mentality with continuity in the development of the law can clearly be seen in its functions: maintain the continuity of the existence of a particular community (homeostasis function, communication, preservation (protection, stabilization and preservation of justice, regulatory.Conclusions. There is an interaction between the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law. Mentality as a historically formed and stable matrix typification of behavior and thinking through the lawmaking process predetermines the preservation and use of the original legal material is proven to be effective. The stability of the legal positions, legal thinking, passed down from generation to generation are the basis of the continuity law. Stability of legal views, legal thinking, transferred from generation to generation are the basis succession of law. 

  10. The Works of Modern Russian Historians and the Historiography of Medieval Lithuania before and after the Red October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megem M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the views of modern Russian scholars A. Dvornichenko, M. Krom, A. Filyushkin, and S. Mikhalchenko on the pre-revolutionary and Soviet historiography of medieval Lithuania. Chronological problem analysis constitutes the methodological framework of the study. Special attention is paid to the priorities of the Russian scholars in the analysis of the pre-revolutionary and Soviet Lithuanian studies. It is shown that the disintegration of the Soviet Union marked a new period in research on the historiography of medieval Lithuania. The activation of historical and historiographical studies was a result of a revision of views of Lithuanian past. The authors believe that modern historiography exhibits a “nostalgic” attitude to pre-revolutionary works, while the reception of the later, Soviet-era publications is more critically inclined. Post-Soviet historians do not restrict themselves by describing previous historiography: they also consider factors behind the change in the attitudes to Lithuani an past. Thus, the scholars pay special attention to studying the connection between the political situation and the evolution of the views of Russian scholars on the events of Lithuanian history.

  11. Finding the Sacred Direction: Medieval Books on the Qibla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, M.

    2009-08-01

    Medieval Islamic scholars wrote a great number of books on the qibla, the Sacred Direction. These books had a huge readership and provided instructions for finding the direction of Mecca by either exact or approximate means. In principle, the qibla was a purely religious subject, but in practice its determination required the use of astronomy as an applied science. As so often, religion and politics had many points of contact and, in this case, it was generally political considerations that prevailed. Finally, the analysis of nautical charts can offer new perspectives. As yet, modern scholarship has not established the link between this area of study and the classical literature on this subject.

  12. Norse agriculture in Greenland? Farming in a remote medieval landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen

    The aim of the project Norse Farming in Greenland: Agriculture on the edge was to determine whether the Norse farmers actually cultivated crops in Greenland during colonisation in the Viking age and the medieval period. This was investigated by analysing macrofossils extracted from soil samples...... giving information about the local vegetation. Charred grains and threshing waste of barley was found in samples from four sites, strongly indicating that barley was cultivated in Greenland by the Norse farmers. The phosphate analyses showed no sign of any deliberate manuring of the infields as high...

  13. Two incrusted medieval swords from Zbaszyn, Lubusz voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głosek, Marian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two interesting medieval swords that can be dated between the end of the 12th century to the beginning of the 14th century AD. Both display, engraved in the fuller, inscriptions in silver and copper inlay, one of them a Latin text, the other heraldic symbols.

    Se presentan dos espadas medievales fechables entre finales del S. XII y principios del XIV, decoradas con damasquinados en plata y aleación de cobre. Una presenta un texto latino y mativos ornamentales; la otra, elementos heráldicos.

  14. Visitors’ Motivations, Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Castro Marim Medieval Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Márcia Barbeitos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tests the relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty using a structural equation model. Data have been collected through a questionnaire applied to visitors attending a local festival, Castro Marim Medieval Fair, which hosts every year between 45.000 and 60.000 visitors. Results show that satisfaction towards controlled variables of the event within the venue’s boundaries, such as animation, gastronomy, and handicraft, influences visitors’ overall satisfaction towards the event. On the other hand, they also reveal a direct relationship between overall satisfaction and loyalty. The study contributes to a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour and provides useful guidance to festival ideation and design.

  15. Three individuals, three stories, three burials from medieval Trondheim, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppersberger Hamre, Stian; Ersland, Geir Atle; Daux, Valérie; Parson, Walther; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the life stories of three individuals who lived in Trondheim, Norway, during the 13th century. Based on skeletal examinations, facial reconstructions, genetic analyses, and stable oxygen isotope analyses, the birthplace, mobility, ancestry, pathology, and physical appearance of these people are presented. The stories are discussed within the relevant historical context. These three people would have been ordinary citizens, without any privileges out of the ordinary, which makes them quite rare in the academic literature. Through the study of individuals one gets a unique look into the Norwegian medieval society.

  16. The ethics of heroism in medieval and American Indian tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A

    1990-01-01

    Oral-traditional stories detail their heroes' growth through a narrative pattern of exile and return that places the heroes in situations repeatedly challenging their strength and resolve. Through the motif of the quest, medieval and American Indian tales alike reaffirm general psychological truths that bear upon our understanding of human nature. Stories about heroes are stories about us: about our desires to grow up, to defeat death, to prove ourselves in difficult situations, and to achieve recognition or admiration among our peers (Becker, 1973, p. 4). In this way, medieval and American Indian tales are about self-actualization. They maintain that "one has within oneself proclivity toward growth and unity of personality ... and an automatic thrust toward expression" of these qualities (Yalom, 1980, p. 9). All forms of literature, however, reflect ideas peculiar to their cultures. The ways in which these basic human truths are represented in medieval and American Indian tales suggest the differing religious or social concerns that have informed these truths and have given them shape. To a large degree, the medieval knight's view of "self" and "other" encompasses the view that Western humanity has had (and continues to have) of itself. This is a view conditioned upon the superiority of the "self" as measured against the inferiority of the "other," reinforced through existing social (hierarchial) and religious (Judeo-Christian) codes of behavior. Such codes are not only inadequate to the task of interpreting American Indian perceptions of "self" and "other," they are inimical to the ethical foundation underlying them. Scott Momaday remarks that "you cannot understand how the Indian thinks of himself in relation to the world around him unless you understand his conception of what is appropriate; particularly what is morally appropriate within the context of that relationship" (Basso, 1984, p. 46). For the American Indian hero, self-actualization is self

  17. Finger printing of medieval investment cast idols by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Babu Rao, C.; Bhattacharya, D.K.; Raj, Baldev

    1993-01-01

    Among the various methods, radiography is an important technique that can be used to fingerprint an idol. This is because, these idols are cast structures, and radiography is the most reliable technique for the detection of internal features like casting defects. This paper presents the radiographic methodology adopted and the results of the studies to characterise radiographically three medieval cast idols belonging to different periods 9th, 13th, and 16th century obtained from the government museum Madras. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  19. Case Briefs in Legal English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Stĕpánka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A case brief can be described as a succinct summary of a case which specifies the facts, procedural history, legal issue(s, court decision and legal reasoning supporting the judgment, even though exact formats may vary. Case briefing is a demanding activity which is required from students during their law studies. The goal is to teach students to focus on the essential parts of the case and to obtain a thorough understanding of the case and the reasoning, which means the students need to employ their analytical and critical thinking skills.

  20. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  1. Legal regulation of the obligations in old romanian law, greek and roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Tutuianu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal history shows that those who are defined obligation Romans definition valid today as a relationship as we submit to a benefit from a third party. Their importance lies in the fact that although rooted in ancient as it spread in all legal systems, across time and still keeping the same legal and economic importance.

  2. Soil archives of a Fluvisol, part II. Archaeostratigraphical model of the subsurface of the medieval city centre of Vlaardingen, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiving, Sjoerd; De Ridder, Tim; van Dasselaar, Marcel; Prins, Maarten

    2017-04-01

    drowning phase in the 13th century, as a reaction to it, inhabitants started to raise the surface (Kluiving et al, 2016). In this presentation we discuss new coring and micromorphological data from the city center of Vlaardingen, and we aim to fine tune the flooding history in the town in the Late Medieval period in two approaches: 1. combining micromorphological results with new coring data: 2. testing archaeostratigraphical model of Vlaardingen Stadshart (Kluiving et al, 2016), focussing on Late Medieval fluvial systems, 2, 3 and 3.1. Reference Kluiving, S.J., Ridder, T. de, Dasselaar, M. van, Roozen, S. and Prins, M. 2016. Soil archives of a Fluvisol: subsurface analysis and soil history of the medieval city centre of Vlaardingen, the Netherlands - an integral approach. SOIL, 2, 271-285, 2016. doi:10.5194/soil-2-271-2016

  3. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet and diversity at later medieval Fishergate: the isotopic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müldner, Gundula; Richards, Michael P

    2007-10-01

    We present the results of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen for 155 individuals buried at the Later Medieval (13th to early 16th century AD) Gilbertine priory of St. Andrew, Fishergate in the city of York (UK). The data show significant variation in the consumption of marine foods between males and females as well as between individuals buried in different areas of the priory. Specifically, individuals from the crossing of the church and the cloister garth had consumed significantly less marine protein than those from other locations. Isotope data for four individuals diagnosed with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are consistent with a diet rich in animal protein. We also observe that isotopic signals of individuals with perimortem sharp force trauma are unusual in the context of the Fishergate dataset. We discuss possible explanations for these patterns and suggest that there may have been a specialist hospital or a local tradition of burying victims of violent conflict at the priory. The results demonstrate how the integration of archaeological, osteological, and isotopic data can provide novel information about Medieval burial and society. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Changing Settlements and Landscapes: Medieval Whittlewood, its Predecessors and Successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jones

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an interpretative synthesis of the development of a medieval landscape in the English Midlands. It explores its administrative organisation and divisions; the exploitation of its woodland, pasture, and arable resources; and the creation, growth, and decline of its villages, hamlets and farmsteads. It takes as its central theme two inter-related oppositions: continuity and change, moments and processes. In particular it examines the role these played in the development of varying settlement morphologies (the area under investigation contains both nucleated and dispersed settlement forms and in the introduction and demise of the open field system. The article is based on the investigation of twenty-one medieval villages and hamlets and their surrounding landscapes, straddling the Northamptonshire-Buckinghamshire boundary and previously falling within the royal forest of Whittlewood. This work was undertaken between 2000 and 2005 as part of an AHRC (formerly ARHB-funded research project. This enquiry, and the use it has made of the comparative method, has pinpointed moments of village and hamlet 'creation' and the alternative forms that these could take in their earliest phases. The subsequent development of these settlements has been charted, revealing the divergent paths they took towards the nucleated or dispersed plans they present when first mapped in the 17th, 18th or 19th centuries. This dynamic pattern of settlement has been set against a background of related changes to the authoritative landscape, which saw the fission and fusion of administrative units; to the economic landscape, which witnessed the development of the open field system and the re-organisation of woodland; and to social and cultural landscapes, affected inter alia by the growth and decline of population, and the imposition of Forest Law. The reconstruction of these medieval village territories has only been achieved by adopting an interdisciplinary

  7. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  8. Skin pathology and medical prognosis in medieval Europe: the secrets of Hippocrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman Smoller, L

    2000-12-01

    This article analyzes a medieval text known as The Secrets of Hippocrates. Neither secret (because of its wide circulation in manuscript and print) nor by Hippocrates, the work offered readers a means of offering a prognosis of impending death based on observable signs on the skin. Although the aphorisms that make up the text make little sense in a modern medical understanding, the Secrets of Hippocrates fits well within three medieval traditions: the tradition of secrets literature, the medieval medical tradition, and the tradition of medieval Christian views about the body. First, like other books of secrets, a genre to whose conventions the text closely adheres, the Secrets of Hippocrates offered a shortcut to socially useful knowledge: the ability to offer an accurate medical prognosis. Second, the treatise corresponded to the medieval physician's concern for the so-called nonnaturals, such as diet and exercise. Third, it fit with a medieval Christian notion that sickness and sin were related, as were sin and ugliness. Just as a leper's deformities were a window to his sinful soul, so skin pathologies could clue a medieval physician to the lethal disease hidden inside the body.

  9. Raman microscopy and x-ray fluorescence analysis of pigments on medieval and Renaissance Italian manuscript cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Lucia; Clark, Robin J H; Hark, Richard R

    2010-03-30

    Italian medieval and Renaissance manuscript cuttings and miniatures from the Victoria and Albert Museum were analyzed by Raman microscopy to compile a database of pigments used in different periods and different Italian regions. The palette identified in most manuscripts and cuttings was found to include lead white, gypsum, azurite, lazurite, indigo, malachite, vermilion, red lead, lead tin yellow (I), goethite, carbon, and iron gall ink. A few of the miniatures, such as the historiated capital "M" painted by Gerolamo da Cremona and the Petrarca manuscript by Bartolomeo Sanvito, are of exceptional quality and were analyzed extensively; some contained unusual materials. The widespread usage of iron oxides such as goethite and hematite as minor components of mixtures with azurite is particularly notable. The use of a needle-shaped form of iron gall ink as a pigment rather than a writing material was established by both Raman microscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the Madonna and Child by Franco de' Russi.

  10. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  11. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  12. Relevance of medieval, Egyptian and American dates to the study of climatic and radiocarbon variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, R.

    1990-01-01

    Basic radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology have been combined to yield calibrated dates that are more accurate than conventional radiocarbon dates. This has been shown to be true for medieval and Egyptian dynastic dating. Because radiocarbon is a cosmogenically produced radioisotope, heliomagnetic and geomagnetic fields play a major role in its synthesis in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Inasmuch as a calibrated radiocarbon record exists for nearly 10 000 years, we now seem to possess in the short-time variations of the production rate a history of solar activity expressed via heliomagnetic fields carried by the solar wind. In turn, solar activity has a controlling effect on climate on Earth within modifications provided by the complex interactions of the atmosphere-Earth-ocean system. Both radiocarbon measurements and other empirical research methods agree on variations of climate during historically more recent periods on Earth. This leads to the suggestion that the radiocarbon calibration curve may be also a significant indicator or tracer for climatic changes for the Holocene or the Neolithic-Mesolithic. (author)

  13. Neolithic and Medieval virus genomes reveal complex evolution of Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Kyora, Ben; Susat, Julian; Key, Felix M; Kühnert, Denise; Bosse, Esther; Immel, Alexander; Rinne, Christoph; Kornell, Sabin-Christin; Yepes, Diego; Franzenburg, Sören; Heyne, Henrike O; Meier, Thomas; Lösch, Sandra; Meller, Harald; Friederich, Susanne; Nicklisch, Nicole; Alt, Kurt W; Schreiber, Stefan; Tholey, Andreas; Herbig, Alexander; Nebel, Almut; Krause, Johannes

    2018-05-10

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most widespread human pathogens known today, yet its origin and evolutionary history are still unclear and controversial. Here, we report the analysis of three ancient HBV genomes recovered from human skeletons found at three different archaeological sites in Germany. We reconstructed two Neolithic and one medieval HBV genomes by de novo assembly from shotgun DNA sequencing data. Additionally, we observed HBV-specific peptides using paleo-proteomics. Our results show that HBV circulates in the European population for at least 7000 years. The Neolithic HBV genomes show a high genomic similarity to each other. In a phylogenetic network, they do not group with any human-associated HBV genome and are most closely related to those infecting African non-human primates. These ancient virus forms appear to represent distinct lineages that have no close relatives today and possibly went extinct. Our results reveal the great potential of ancient DNA from human skeletons in order to study the long-time evolution of blood borne viruses. © 2018, Krause-Kyora et al.

  14. Relevance of medieval, Egyptian and American dates to the study of climatic and radiocarbon variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    1990-04-24

    Basic radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology have been combined to yield calibrated dates that are more accurate than conventional radiocarbon dates. This has been shown to be true for medieval and Egyptian dynastic dating. Because radiocarbon is a cosmogenically produced radioisotope, heliomagnetic and geomagnetic fields play a major role in its synthesis in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Inasmuch as a calibrated radiocarbon record exists for nearly 10 000 years, we now seem to possess in the short-time variations of the production rate a history of solar activity expressed via heliomagnetic fields carried by the solar wind. In turn, solar activity has a controlling effect on climate on Earth within modifications provided by the complex interactions of the atmosphere-Earth-ocean system. Both radiocarbon measurements and other empirical research methods agree on variations of climate during historically more recent periods on Earth. This leads to the suggestion that the radiocarbon calibration curve may be also a significant indicator or tracer for climatic changes for the Holocene or the Neolithic-Mesolithic. (author).

  15. Ibn al-Haytham and His Influence on Post-Medieval Western Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    Born in Basra in 965, but doing most of his work in Cairo's Al-Azhar Mosque, Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen or Alhacen) wrote nearly one hundred works on topics as diverse as optics, poetry and politics. For nearly four hundred years his treatment of a particular geometry of reflection from flat and curved surfaces has been known as ''Alhazen's problem,'' and today al-Haytham is primarily known for his writings on geometrical optics, astronomy, and mathematics. However, as I will discuss, with his landmark seven-volume Kitāb al-Manāzir [Book of Optics], published sometime between 1028 and 1038, al-Haytham made intellectual contributions that subsequently were incorporated throughout the core of post-Medieval Western culture. His seminal work on the human vision system initiated what remains an unbroken chain of development that connects 21st century optical scientists with the 11th century Ibn al-Haytham. The noted science historian, David Lindberg, wrote that ''Alhazen was undoubtedly the most significant figure in the history of optics between antiquity and the seventeenth century.'' Impressive and accurate as that characterization is, our recent discoveries show that it significantly understates the impact that al-Haytham had on areas as wide-ranging as the theology, literature, art, and science of Europe. Portions of this work was done in collaboration with David Hockney.

  16. Scientific analysis of a calcified object from a post-medieval burial in Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Michaela; Berner, Margit; Krause, Heike; Kucera, Matthias; Patzak, Beatrix

    2016-09-01

    Calcifications commonly occur in association with soft tissue inflammation. However, they are not often discussed in palaeopathological literature, frequently due to problems of identification and diagnosis. We present a calcified object (40×27×27cm) found with a middle-aged male from a post-medieval cemetery in Vienna. It was not recognized during excavation, thus its anatomical location within the body remains unknown. The object was subject to X-ray, SEM and CT scanning and compared to historic pathological objects held in the collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna. Two of closest resemblance, a thyroid adenoma and goitre were subject to similar analytical techniques for comparison. Despite similarities between all objects, the structure of the object most closely conforms to a thyroid tumor. Nevertheless, due to similar pathophysiological pathways and biochemical composition of calcified soft tissue, a secure identification outside of its anatomical context is not possible. The research further highlights the fact that recognition of such objects during excavation is crucial for a more conclusive diagnosis. Historic medical records indicate that they were common and might therefore be expected to frequently occur in cemeteries. Consequently, an increasing the dataset of calcifications would also aid in extending the knowledge about diseases in past human populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teste Albumasare cum Sibylla: astrology and the Sibyls in medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, Laura Ackerman

    2010-06-01

    In the 1480s Dominican humanist Filippo de' Barbieri published an illustration of a supposedly ancient female seer called the 'Sybilla Chimica', whose prophetic text repeated the words of the ninth-century astrologer Abu Ma'shar. In tracing the origins of Barbieri's astrological Sibyl, this article examines three sometimes interlocking traditions: the attribution of an ante-diluvian history to the science of the stars, the assertion of astrology's origins in divine revelation, and the belief in the ancient Sibyls' predictions of the birth of Christ and other Christian truths. Medieval authors from the twelfth century on began to cite these traditions together, thereby simultaneously authorizing the use of astrology to predict religious changes and blurring the categories of natural and supernatural as applied to human understanding. This blending of astrology and prophecy appears notably in works by such authors as John of Paris, John of Legnano, Johannes Lichtenberger, and Marsilio Ficino. Ultimately the trajectory that produced Barbieri's astrological Sibyl would lead to a wave of astrological apocalyptic predictions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as to the harnessing of astrology for the defense of the faith in the form of an astrological natural theology, sacralizing science as well as nature.

  18. Melancholia in medieval Persian literature: The view of Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    “Melancholia” seems to be the oldest term used to describe the manifestations of depression. Throughout the history of medicine, melancholia has been the focus of consideration of many scholars who have provided varying definitions of this disorder and its manifestations. This continual process has resulted in the gradual development of the concept of melancholia over time. Persian scholars were among the scientists who have studied the melancholia and contributed to its concept. One figure, Al-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983 AD), a Persian physician whose reputation was based on the treatment of patients with mental problems, investigated this disorder. He described Melancholia and explained its clinical manifestations and treatment methods. Al-Akhawayni provided an early classification of the patients suffering from this disorder. Since the medieval Persian concept of melancholia is not well-known, this paper aims to review Al-Akhawayni’s 10th century knowledge on melancholia which can represent the early concept of this disorder in the Near East. PMID:25019055

  19. Kala-tau Hill as a Medieval Monument of Archaeology and Epigraphy in the Western Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdrafikov I.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a description of Starokalmashevo hillfort and the Starokalmashevo gravestone with an Arabic epitaph found in the mid-20th century in close proximity to the site of ancient settlement. They are here described not only as monuments of the Middle Ages, but also as objects of historical heritage testifying to the continuous process of ethno-culturogenesis in the Western Cis-Urals up to modern times. Research materials: The author considers the issues of medieval history, ethno- and cultural genesis of the Western Cis-Urals in light of the example of the Starokalmashevo hillfort, located on the hill of Kala-tau (Chekmagushevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the Starokalmashevo gravestone. The author provides a complex description of these archaeological and cultural monuments and points out the importance of preserving these objects as an integral part of the local population and the entire Volga-Ural region’s collective historical memory. Research novelty: The author presents new materials, including the stories of community elders about the origin of the above-mentioned archaeological sites. He analyzes the inscriptions on the tombstone, including its new reading, and draws a conclusion about the continuity of the population of this territory for a sustained period.

  20. Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia – the Hidayat of Akhawayni (? –983 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golzari SE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Samad EJ Golzari,1 Kazem Khodadoust,5 Farid Alakbarli,6 Kamyar Ghabili,2 Ziba Islambulchilar,3 Mohammadali M Shoja,1 Majid Khalili,1 Feridoon Abbasnejad,1 Niloufar Sheikholeslamzadeh,7 Nasrollah Moghaddam Shahabi,4 Seyed Fazel Hosseini,2 Khalil Ansarin11Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 2Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 4Students' Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 5Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences; 6Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; 7Faculty of Law, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranAbstract: Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni's Hidayat al-muta`allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni's teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular.Keywords: sleep paralysis, night-mare, Akhawayni, Persia

  1. The origin and chronology of medieval silver coins based on the analysis of chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pańczyk Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Central Europe coins - the Saxon coins, also called as the Otto and Adelheid denarii, as well as the Polish ones, the Władysław Herman and Bolesław Śmiały coins - were examined to determine their provenance and dating. Their attribution and chronology often constitute a serious problem for historians and numismatists. For hundreds of years, coins were in uncontrolled conditions and in variable environment. Destructed and inhomogeneous surface were the effect of corrosion processes. Electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS were applied. The results of these investigations are significant for our knowledge of the history of Central European coinage, especially of Polish coinage

  2. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr-1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr-1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr-1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km-2 yr-1, that by far outweigh bedrock denudation rates

  3. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  4. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.

  5. The legal framework for nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is presented of the legal framework within which civil nuclear power operations are conducted in Britain. The planning procedures are illustrated by reference to the consents history of one of the CEGB existing power stations - Sizewell 'A'. The process is traced through the stages of defining the need, identifying a site, making a formal application to build, Public Enquiry, site licensing and operational control. (U.K.)

  6. [Evidence of health culture in medieval statute of Budva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovic Karic, Grozdana; Milovic, Dorde

    2010-01-01

    The Statute of Budva dates from the time of Nemanjics. This medieval document was approved at the time Budva was under venetian dominion and remained in force until the end of the Venetian Republic. During 17th century the Statute was translated into the Italian language. The document includes regulations which indicate a concern for the health of the public. Among the regulations is one which prohibit the sale of fisch outside the stalls of the fishmarket presumably to ensure the sale of only fresh fish. Another regulation prohibits the sale of dead animals, the sale of dog's meat instead od wether meat. There is also language indicating a concern for protecting the cleanliness of brooks, rivers and wells. Corporal punishment is mentioned but only with regard to whipping and beheading.

  7. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Thermodynamic model of natural, medieval and nuclear waste glass durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability based on hydration of structural units has been applied to natural glass, medieval window glasses, and glasses containing nuclear waste. The relative durability predicted from the calculated thermodynamics correlates directly with the experimentally observed release of structural silicon in the leaching solution in short-term laboratory tests. By choosing natural glasses and ancient glasses whose long-term performance is known, and which bracket the durability of waste glasses, the long-term stability of nuclear waste glasses can be interpolated among these materials. The current Savannah River defense waste glass formulation is as durable as natural basalt from the Hanford Reservation (10 6 years old). The thermodynamic hydration energy is shown to be related to the bond energetics of the glass. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  9. Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kies, A.; Reitsamer, G.; Bauer, W.

    1985-01-01

    Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

  10. Gold and not so real gold in Medieval treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrenka Bogovic-Zeskoski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evidence diverse materials and processes used by artisans (and alchemists required to synthesize a visually viable replacement for gold. The emphasis of the research is upon the production of mosaic gold or porporina, a pigment that has survived into modern times, which was used as ink and as paint. Base metals, mostly tin, but also alloys were used both into foils coated with glazes and varnishes and as pigment. The research focuses upon recipes documented in treatises dating from Antiquity to the late Medieval period (ca. 1500 and an attempt is made to answer two questions. In the first place, why was there a need for a surrogate? Secondly, why are there so few tangible examples detected on surviving artifacts? In conclusion, an argument is offered pointing out that, although much can be learned by scientific examination of artifacts, textual analysis is equally important and necessary to unravel mysteries of ancient technologies

  11. Two medieval swords from the regional museum in Jagodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes two medieval swords (one found near Kalenić monastery and one near the Ćuprija town from the funds of the Department of Archaeology in the Regional Museum in Jagodina. He presents arguments in opposition to the typological classification existent in scholarly literature of the first one, and concludes that the both specimens most probably originate from the same workshop, as were being stamped with identical maker-marks. In the end the author draws one’s attention to circumstances of the site find of the first sword, and also points towards possible directions of research of the sacred topography of the Kalenić monastery environs.

  12. [Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan.

  13. A biological stone from a medieval cemetery in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus.

  14. The Relations between Astronomy and Music in Medieval Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardumyan, Arpi

    2015-07-01

    In Middle Ages Astronomy and Music were included in the four sciences, together with Mathematics and Geometry. From ancient times philosophers thought that harmony lies in the basis of world creation. The Earth was in the centre of the Universe, and the seven planets went around it, the Sun and the Moon in their number. Harmony was also in the basis of music, with seven sounds due to seven planets. It was considered that owing to harmonic rotation cosmic universal music appears, and it is not attainable for human ear as it is used to it. Medieval connoisseurs of music therapy believed that for healing a person his astrological data must first be cleared out, in order to define in which musical mode should sound the melody in order to treat him/her. Comparing music with astrology they considered easier to practise the first one because the celestial luminaries are much higher and farther from people.

  15. Orgin of Slag from Early Medieval Age Furnaces in Nitra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Dekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of archaeological artefacts from remains of Early Medieval Age furnaces excavated in Nitra are analysed. They are supposed to originate from slag of glass and iron production. Employing Mossbauer spectrometry, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. Some of the archeological artefacts including those that were supposed to originate from glass production show a presence of metallic iron and/or magnetic oxides. Based on the results of Mossbauer effect measurements performed at room temperature as well as 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature analytical evidence is provided that the iron sites identified are not as those usually encountered in glasses. Consequently, a conclusion is proposed that neither of the investigated furnaces was used for glass production.

  16. Provenance studies of pottery fragments from medieval Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, J.W.; Olmez, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of archeological pottery fragments, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been utilized to establish the elemental concentrations of up to 37 chemical elements for each of 53 archeological pottery samples from medieval Cairo, Egypt, and one additional sample of Chinese porcelain. These elemental concentrations have been utilized in a statistical analysis procedure in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. Multivariate analyses have been used to quantitatively determine these interrelationships. This methodology successfully separated the Egyptian samples into two broad categories: polychrome decorated ceramic ware and monochrome celadon ware. In addition the methodology successfully identified the one unique sample of Chinese porcelain. Several samples appeared to be either a mixture of categories or outliers in the data set and were not attributable to any distinct category. (author)

  17. Isidoro de Sevilla: el banco de datos medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Abad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available San Isidoro de Sevilla, el Doctor egregius de Ios siglos VI y VII, constituye una referencia medieval de suma importancia y en varios aspectos. Su obra enciclopédica, su pensamiento jurídico y filosófico, su conducción de los asuntos políticos, su apología de la iglesia como institución ecuménica, cuando apenas se dibujaban los primeros rasgos -impalpables casi - de la sociedad civil y del estado y la organizacJón del saber y del conocimiento llegados a su tiempo.Contenido: Presentación. El proyecto enciclopédico. Universo y sistema. Etimologías y otros textos. La ley y el gobierno. La filosofía. Comunidad y comunidades. Consideraciones finales

  18. Some early medieval swords in the Wallace Collection and elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edge, David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of eight early medieval swords shows that some were made from a single piece of steel, while others had a steel cutting edge welded on. Heat-treatment to harden the steel was undertaken in six out of seven cases; the other proved to be a modern replica.

    El análisis de ocho espadas altomedievales muestra que algunas de ellas fueron hechas a partir de una sola pieza de acero, mientras que a otras se les ha soldado un cortante filo de este material. El endurecimiento del acero mediante forja fue realizado en seis de siete casos, mientras que el restante se demostró que era una réplica moderna.

  19. Criminal Justice History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krause

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses studies on the history of crime and the criminal law in England and Ireland published during the last few years. These reflect the ›history of crime and punishment‹ as a more or less established sub-discipline of social history, at least in England, whereas it only really began to flourish in the german-speaking world from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, the legal history of the criminal law and its procedure has a strong, recently revived academic tradition in Germany that does not really have a parallel in the British Isles, whose legal scholars still evidence their traditional reluctance to confront penal subjects.

  20. Legal mentality: the interpretation of the scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор Олексійович Поліщук

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of the interpretation of «legal mentality ‘category in different scientific concepts. The most authoritative study of the mentality directions: social psychology, which is based on the sociological theory of E. Durkheim; general psychology, theory of archetypes as the basis of the «collective unconscious,» K. Jung, the concept of «social character», V. Rayh. Legal mentality – a deep, well-established system of views and opinions of a particular social group, class, stratum, people, nation or community to another institute of law, peculiarities of its application and role in society. The specifics of the legal mentality lies in its visual Depending on historical traditions and culture of a particular nation. This necessitates mandatory accounting features of the legal mentality of the people in the legislative process. Formation of legal culture of the people is impossible without its primer on its historical traditions, culture and language. Revival Ukrainian legal culture consistent with modern legal policy polyarchy. Despite the trend of integration of their own political, economic and legal systems in the European community of the European Union member states to carefully refer to the national legal traditions. National mentality and its features are reflected in the legal submissions which are contained in proverbs, sayings, myths, thoughts, tales, is the oral form of manifestation of the people's legal culture, as well as reflected in the customs, traditions, ways of working, which were made in the legal daily on throughout the history of the people. In addition, the features appear in the national legal notions and reactions in relation to such objects of political and legal reality as a state, local government, law, crime, punishment, the court, the trial, the political leaders, customs reform, civil servants, family, inheritance, labor, property, and so on. It is noted that in legal science

  1. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word 'melon' and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe.

  2. Investigation of medieval ceramics from Ras by physicochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindović Nataša D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although early medieval Serbian ceramic is well described by the archeologists and historians, knowledge of the Balkan ceramic production is still limited. Archaeometric study of ceramics provenance, technology of preparation and used pigments as well as influence of neighboring countries and specific characteristics of different workshops has never been performed so far. The detailed knowledge of the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of an archaeological artifact is critical in finding solutions to problems of restoration, conservation, dating and authentication in the art world. In this work we present results of systematic investigation of pottery shards from archeological site Ras. The term Ras, which signifies both the fortress and the region encompassing the upper course of Raška River, used to be the center of the medieval Serbian state. Both the ceramic body and the polychromatic glaze of the artifacts were studied by a multianalitical approach combining optical microscopy (OM, FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Mineralogical composition of pottery shards has been determined combining results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy, after deconvolution of the spectra, and XRPD analysis. Firing temperature has been estimated based on the mineralogical composition and positions of Si-O stretching (-1000 cm-1 and banding (-460 cm-1 vibrations. Investigated samples have been classified into two groups based on the mineralogical composition, cross sections and firing temperature. Larger group consists of samples of fine-grained, homogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures bellow 800 °C which indicates imported products. Second, smaller group consists of inhomogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures between 850 and 900 °C produced in the domestic workshops. The obtained results will be used to build up a national database for the compositions of bodies, glazes and pigments.

  3. Micromorphological Approaches to the Formation and Biographies of Early Medieval Towns in Northwest Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wouters, Barbora

    Even after decades of intensive research, the complex stratigraphy of many early medieval and Viking towns in continental Europe remains poorly understood. Debate continues about crucial aspects such as their origins, the changes they underwent through time and, in some cases, their supposed...... on - the youngest early medieval urban phases 7. Post-depositional transformations This framework makes it possible to gain a deeper, more detailed understanding of the sites’ evolution through time as well their spatial organisation, and to mutually compare them without losing sight of their individual...... idiosyncrasies. At the same time, this approach bypasses a generalising discourse of early medieval towns. By juxtaposing the results of these five case studies with existing debates on early medieval towns, a number of set historical narratives can be challenged....

  4. A medieval city within Assyrian walls: the continuity of the town of Arbil in Northern Mesopotamia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováček, K.; Amin, A.M.; Melčák, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, autumn (2013), s. 1-42 ISSN 0021-0889 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : medieval Arbil * North Mesopotamia * topography * remote sensing * archeology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. The Religious Significance of the Medieval Body and Flannery O'Connor's Fiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novak, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Flannery O'Connor based what she called her "anagogic vision" on the medieval way of seeing the world that allowed the reader of a text to discern "different levels of reality in one image or one situation...

  6. The language and style of Latin rubrics in medieval liturgical Easter drama

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vršecká-Kvízová, Kateřina

    -, č. 71 (2013), s. 267-280 ISSN 1376-7453 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Easter drama * Medieval Latin * Latin rubrics Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  7. Tablet-woven and tabby-woven braids from the Czech late medieval archaeological findings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2010), s. 47-51 ISSN 0860-0007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : textile fragments * tablet -woven braids * tabby-woven braids * late medieval Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. Walking the history of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nick

    2007-12-01

    The history of healthcare is complex, confusing and contested. In Walking London's medical history the story of how health services developed from medieval times to the present day is told through seven walks. The book also aims to help preserve our legacy, as increasingly former healthcare buildings are converted to other uses, and to enhance understanding of the current challenges we face in trying to improve healthcare in the 21st century. Each walk has a theme, ranging from the way hospitals merge or move and the development of primary care to how key healthcare trades became professions and the competition between the church, Crown and City for control of healthcare. While recognising the contributions of the 'great men of medicine', the book takes as much interest in the six ambulance stations built by the London County Council (1915) as the grandest teaching hospitals.

  9. The stars and the state: Astronomy, astrology, and the politics of natural knowledge in early medieval Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Kristina Mairi

    medieval Japan. As a result, specialists of astrology and astronomy employed a number of strategies to ensure a receptive audience for their work, at least among some members of the court. Many entered into client-patron relationships with the top level of the nobility, wherein knowledge and technical skill were traded for economic and social rewards. Two groups in particular, the members of the Bureau of Onmyo (Jp. Onmyō-ryō) and Buddhist monks, cultivated an aura of supernatural power and ritual efficacy. While the primary goal of this strategy might not have been debates over the stars at court, the use of this capital is clearly documented in the historical sources. Therefore, the social history of debates about astrology and astronomy in the Heian (794-1192) court provides valuable insight into the rise and social perception of the onmyōji, a group of specialists in divination, exorcism, and apotropaic ritual who loom large in the Japanese cultural imagination. In examining the social history of astrology and astronomy in Japan late classical and early medieval periods—how debates first arose then came to shape the very practices of astrology and astronomy themselves—this dissertation also demonstrates the vitality and political importance of these fields in the eighth through thirteenth centuries. In contrast to previous scholarship on the history of science in pre-modern Japan, this dissertation shows that astrology and astronomy were hardly stagnant during this period. It becomes clear, therefore, that the pursuit of natural knowledge in Japan, while it did not develop along expected Western or Chinese trajectories, was still an active part of the intellectual world in pre-modern Japan. Pre-modern Japan's "failure" to follow either of these paths was not in fact stagnation or devolution, but a separate trajectory shaped by the political and social realities of the early medieval period.

  10. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  11. Paradise, pleasure and desire: Edenic delight in some late-medieval dramatic fragments

    OpenAIRE

    James, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the biblical Paradise and its relationship with the concept of delight or pleasure. In the first section it discusses the changing descriptions and interpretations of Paradise, from the biblical text to later medieval works; it goes on to explore the Augustinian and Thomist philosophies of pleasure and delight. Finally it brings together three late-medieval dramatic texts, all of which share an interest in Paradise, and explores the ways in which these texts utilise the co...

  12. The trend of foreign direct investment movement: Did unintended nation brand of legal-families play an instrumental role?

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Chin-Bun; Kam, Oi-Yan

    2018-01-01

    Combining the suggestion from Fan (2006) that a nation can have a brand image without deliberating efforts of nation branding and the work from Klerman et al. (2011) on Colonial History and effects on legal systems, we view that legal-systems could be an unintended nation brand that could instrumentally affect foreign direct investment (FDI) activities. We classify 193 countries according to their Colonial History or no-Colonial History into 5 legal-families. Applying Generalised Methods of M...

  13. Two medieval doctors: Gilbertus Anglicus (c1180-c1250) and John of Gaddesden (1280-1361).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2013-02-01

    Biographies of medieval English doctors are uncommon and fragmentary. The two best-known English medieval physicians were Gilbertus Anglicus and John of Gaddesden. This paper brings together the known details of their lives, compiled from extant biographies and from internal references in their texts. The primary records of their writings exist in handwritten texts and thereafter in incunabula from the time of the invention of printing in 1476. The record of the lives of these two medieval physicians can be expanded, as here, by the general perspective of the life and times in which they lived. Gilbertus Anglicus, an often-quoted physician-teacher at Montpellier, wrote a seven-folio Compendium medicinae in 1271. He described pioneering procedures used later in the emergent disciplines of anaesthetics, cosmetic medicine and travel medicine. Gilbertus' texts, used extensively in European medical schools, passed in handwritten copies from student to student and eventually were printed in 1510. John of Gaddesden, an Oxford graduate in Arts, Medicine and Theology, wrote Rosa Anglica, published circa 1314. Its detailed text is an exemplar of the mixture of received Hippocratic and Galenic lore compounded by medieval astronomy and religious injunction, which mixture was the essence of medieval medicine. The writings of both these medieval English physicians formed part of the core curriculum that underpinned the practice of medicine for the next 400 years.

  14. Higher-than-present Medieval pine (Pinus sylvestris treeline along the Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kullman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upper treeline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. is renowned as a sensitive indicator of climate change and variability. By use of megafossil tree remains, preserved exposed on the ground surface, treeline shift over the past millennium was investigated at multiple sites along the Scandes in northern Sweden. Difference in thermal level between the present and the Medieval period, about AD 1000-1200, is a central, although controversial, aspect concerning the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate warming. Radiocarbon-dated megafossil pines revealed that the treeline was consistently positioned as much as 115 m higher during the Medieval period than today (AD 2000-2010, after a century of warming and substantial treeline upshift. Drawing on the last-mentioned figure, and a lapse rate of 0.6 °C/100 m, it may be inferred that Medieval summer temperatures were about 0.7 °C warmer than much of the past 100 years. Extensive pine mortality and treeline descent after the Medieval warming peak reflect substantially depressed temperatures during the Little Ice Age. Warmer-than-present conditions during the Medieval period concur with temperature reconstructions from different parts of northern Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and Greenland. Modern warming has not been sufficient to restore Medieval treelines. Against this background, there is little reason to view further modest warming as unnatural.

  15. The Germanists and the Historical School of Law: German Legal Science between Romanticism, Realism, and Rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dilcher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay, originally written in German as an introduction to a volume of collected papers, shows the influence of the Historical School of Law on legal, historical and social sciences in Germany throughout the 19th and even 20th centuries – a time span running contrary to the dominate view that sees the end of the School in the middle of the 19th century. In my view the School constitutes not only a method for developing norms of private law out of the historical materials of Roman and German-Germanic laws, but is based on a wider conception of culture, law and history that is also connected to the political positions of that time. In Savigny’s founding pamphlet, »The vocation of our time ...«, two major theoretical topics for this long-lasting influence can be found: The Romantic one, which views law as a part of culture and parallel to language and custom, based on the »spirit of the people«, and, on the other side, the rationality of the European tradition of Roman law, which was developed and administered by jurists. These two basic points, in part standing in contradiction to one another, form a fertile tension that provides an impulse to the intellectual discussions and new movements in jurisprudence and history analysed in the text. Realism, founded in the connection of both sciences to political and social life, builds a kind of »basso continuo« and acts as a counterbalance to the former two. And it is in this context that the works of Jacob Grimm, Puchta and Beseler, Heinrich Brunner, Georg von Below and others are analysed, in particular the works of Otto von Gierke and Max Weber. Finally, evidence is furnished that a new image of the medieval period, and its impact on law, as a centre of Western identity was outlined in the 20th century by authors like Ernst Kantorowicz, Fritz Kern, Otto Brunner and, last but not least, by Harold J. Berman (walking in the footsteps of Eugen Rosenstock- Huessy, all of whom were situated in

  16. Optical spectroscopy applied to the analysis of medieval and post-medieval plain flat glass fragments excavated in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Ceglia, A.; Terryn, H.; Nys, K.; Thienpont, H.

    2010-04-01

    Window glass fragments from four Belgian sites were studied and for a set of eighty-five samples the UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra were analyzed. This collection contains historical and archaeological finds originating from religious buildings namely the Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen (17th-20thc) and the Church of Our Lady in Bruges (16th-20thc) as well as from secular buildings as a private house/Antwerp (18th-1948) and the castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (1448-17thc). All sites contain material on the hinge point between the medieval and the industrial tradition. The variation in composition of the analyzed samples can be explained by the use of different glassmaking recipes, more specifically the use of different raw materials. The composition of window glass differs essentially in the type of flux, using a potash rich fluxing agent until the post-medieval times and industrial soda from the 19th century onwards. A second difference concerns the iron impurities in the glass. For all fragments a clear compositional classification could be made based on the iron concentration. These conclusions were based on archaeological research and drawn after submitting samples to expensive, complex, time-consuming and destructive chemical analyzing methods. Our study indicates that similar conclusions could be made applying the proposed optical based methodology for plain window glass. As a whole, the obtained results make it possible to cluster the fragments for a particular site based on three different sensing parameters: the UV absorption edge, the color and the presence of characteristic absorption bands. This information helps in identifying trends to date window glass collections and indicating the use of different raw materials, production technologies and/or provenance.

  17. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  18. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  20. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  1. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  2. Meeting the Needs for Legal Education in the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, A. Kenneth

    The purpose of this paper is to collect and analyze data related to the needs of the legal profession and the capacity of law schools to meet these needs in the southern states. The law schools in this southern region are educating more law students than at any time in history. But the need for legal services in the region and the large number of…

  3. “I” of the author of the 12th century: rhetoric and subjectivity of medieval literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgorukova Natalia Mikhailovna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to answer a series of questions relevant to the study of medieval literature: is it possible to create a typology of the medieval “I” and to distinguish rhetorical use of personal constructions from more subjective types which was the author's “I” in the 12th century. Is it possible to talk about subjectivity of medieval literature, and, if so, how is it expressed?

  4. About the social status of women in premedieval and medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to make the sociologically-anthropological retrospective view on a social status of women in the patriarchal premedieval and medieval Serbian society. The starting point for the realization of this aim is the status of a woman in a family, firstly in 'zadruga', after a short introduction to the historical context of it's origination. The following are considerations of legal, as well as religious conventions and practice, customs, differences between a social status of women, and differences between those who lived in towns and villages, with the emphasis on examples from relevant ethnographic and historygraphic material. In the end, an insight of the national poet's manner in showing female characters in the oldest epic poems, as the chosen segment of Serbian folklore creative work, that gives information about the topic. All considerate material indicates the complexity of the topic. The conclusion imposes that, although a woman is generally inferior and practically deprived, it's not justified to take generalizations about inferiority of a woman as completely true, disregarding vertical structure of a society, different life conditions for women in a village and in a town, as well as diversity of customs and life in different regions. Considered material points out to the complexity of the topic. To simply establish that a woman in premedieval and medieval Serbia is subordinated and 'the citizen of the second order' is simplifying, which sociology can't afford. Precisely the historygraphic and ethnographic material fully confirm that a woman was perceived as a second-class being, so her social reality is indeed certainly different than her father's, brother's or husband's reality. Mainly they determine her life, where tradition and religion help them greatly, affirming their superiority, hence her inferiority in society. 'Trapped' in the web of a patriarchal society, she's left with no choice but to apprehend herself in this manner

  5. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300-1458.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-09-01

    The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word 'gherkin' back to languages of the geographical nativity of C. sativus, the Indian

  6. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  7. On Legal Pluralism and Ghosts in the Sachsenspiegel and in Gaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Kannowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on legal pluralism. How did medieval societies incorporate both unwritten customs and written law at the same time? How did they constitute the process of finding justice? What is the essense of legal pluralism, and will it help us understand the situation of Taiwan’s indigenous population? We aim to solve these problems by taking a closer look at medieval Saxony: for around 400 years, both laws given by the authorities and traditional customs in Saxony worked fine in parallel. The latter were put into writing by the legal practitioner Eike von Repgow around 1230 for reasons unknown. We refer to his collection of laws and customs of the Saxons as the Sachsenspiegel (»Mirror of Saxons«. While Saxons certainly differed from Taiwan’s indigenous population for many reasons, such as the supposedly weaker egalitarianism among the Saxons than among at least some indigenous groups, the two show some remarkable similarities nonetheless. Just like the Taiwanese Gaya, the Sachsenspiegel’s spiritual origin raises the claim to validity. Furthermore, comparing the handling of a person’s sale of inherited property, the legal situations in the Sachsenspiegel and Taiwan’s unwritten customs resemble each other. The heir can transfer only property he acquired personally. Furthermore, the author discusses the different character of courts and procedure under oral law in contrast to written modern law. Finally, the paper concludes with some remarks about a learned commentary on the Sachsenspiegel written around 1325, combined with an outlook on the possible future of Taiwanese customs.

  8. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  9. [Acute scrotal pain in childhood: legal pitfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Pia; Hugemann, Christoph; Frohneberg, Detlef

    2017-12-01

    Acute scrotal pain in childhood is an emergency.Sudden scrotal pain may be caused by a variety of diseases. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the specific medical history and possible differential diagnoses in each case for fast and decisive action (e. g. in case of testicular torsion). As minors lack the capacity for consent, it is absolutely necessary to obtain consent from their legal guardian. However, obtaining consent in the available time frame can cause organisational challenges in an acute emergency, which may lead to situations in the daily routine where a therapeutic decision needs to be taken (including surgery) without legal security based on consent by the guardian. In some cases, the child's consent also needs to be taken into account, depending on its age and development.For the physician and surgeon in charge, the legal evaluation of the case at hand and therewith the obtainment of legal security are of great significance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Leprosy in Medieval Denmark--osteological and epidemiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldsen, Jesper L

    2009-12-01

    A total of 3033 skeletons from 11 medieval Danish cemeteries and 99 skeletons from the North Scandinavian medieval site of Westerhus were examined for seven lesions indicative of leprosy. The seven lesions are: rounding to the edge of the nasal aperture, degeneration of spina nasalis anterior, degeneration of the alveolar process of the pre-maxilla, porosity or perforation of the palatine process of maxilla, sub-periostal exostoses on the fibula, general swelling of the shaft of the fibula, and degeneration of the 5th metatarsal bone. The dichotomous scores of these lesions were used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the lesion scores in relation to leprosy and to estimate sample point prevalence of leprosy at death among adults. In turn the estimates of sensitivity and specificity were used to calculate an individual comprehensive statistic, lamda, indicating leprosy status. Among adults the lamda statistic did not associate with age at death, but this cannot be taken as a sign of lack of selective mortality for leprosy but a combination of the opposing effects of long waiting time before developing leprosy related lesions and short survival with these lesions. In urban communities sufferers of leprosy were institutionalized when the leprosarium was established (in Odense around 1275); in rural communities this did not happen but the pattern of burial does indicate an internal segregation of sufferers. In the early Middle Ages (AD 1150-1350) the point prevalence at death among adults of leprosy was higher in rural (25-40 percent) than in urban (10-20 percent) communities, and villages close to town showed lower frequencies of leprosy than villages situated further away from these centers. Leprosy declined in the late Middle Ages, first in towns and cities, later in rural communities. In Odense and Malmö it appears that leprosy was effectively eliminated by 1350 whereas there were still sufferers of leprosy at Øm Kloster around 1550. Leprosy appears to

  11. A Brief Journey into the History of the Arterial Pulse

    OpenAIRE

    A. Maziar Zafari; Nima Ghasemzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This paper illustrates the evolution of our knowledge of the arterial pulse from ancient times to the present. Several techniques for arterial pulse evaluation throughout history are discussed. Methods. Using databases including Worldcat, Pubmed, and Emory University Libraries' Catalogue, the significance of the arterial pulse is discussed in three historical eras of medicine: ancient, medieval, and modern. Summary. Techniques used over time to analyze arterial pulse and its charac...

  12. Healthscaping a medieval city: Lucca’s Curia viarum and the future of public health history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geltner, G.

    2013-01-01

    In early fourteenth-century Lucca, one government organ began expanding its activities beyond the maintenance of public works to promoting public hygiene and safety, and in ways that suggest both a concern for and an appreciation of population-level preventative healthcare. Evidence for this shift

  13. The effects of medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Limborg, Morten; Ferchaud, A.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River......, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally...... genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Results: Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence...

  14. Reflections on literary history and Netherlandic cultural identity in the medieval period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, F.P. van

    2000-01-01

    I have flown 4000 miles to share with you two interrelated questions I find extremely perplexing. The two questions are the following: Did Dutch literature have an identity of its own as early as the Middle Ages? And if so, does this bear any relation to characteristics that are considered

  15. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  16. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  17. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  18. The long-term impact of developmental stress. Evidence from later medieval and post-medieval London (AD1117-1853).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Episodes of ill-health in childhood can predispose affected individuals to further periods of illness and early adult mortality. This study uses nonspecific indicators of stress to examine how growth disruptions during infancy/early childhood, and late childhood/early adolescence affected adult longevity in later medieval and post-medieval London. Hazards analysis was used to evaluate the effect of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and the size of the anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (TR) diameters of the vertebral neural canal (VNC) on adult age-at-death. This was applied to skeletal samples from later medieval (n = 461) and post-medieval (n = 480) London. Growth disruptions during infancy/early childhood (LEH and AP VNC diameters) were not associated with longevity, or with impaired growth at later stages of development (TR VNC diameters). Growth disruptions during late childhood/early adolescence (TR VNC diameters) were associated with a significantly increased risk of adult mortality. Macroscopic hypoplasia represent short periods of stress during infancy/early childhood which did not disrupt future investments in growth or cause long-term damage to health. Small TR diameters represent chronic stress during late childhood/early adolescence which resulted in greater susceptibility to infections and increased risk of mortality. These interactions were influenced by sex and socioeconomic status, suggesting that socioeconomic circumstances in both childhood and adult life could influence exposure and resistance to stressors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Photovoltaic facilities, legal guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)

  20. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  1. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  2. Taming the unknown a history of algebra from antiquity to the early twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    What is algebra? For some, it is an abstract language of x's and y's. For mathematics majors and professional mathematicians, it is a world of axiomatically defined constructs like groups, rings, and fields. Taming the Unknown considers how these two seemingly different types of algebra evolved and how they relate. Victor Katz and Karen Parshall explore the history of algebra, from its roots in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China, and India, through its development in the medieval Islamic world and medieval and early modern Europe, to its modern form in the early twentieth century. Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further dev...

  3. Octoechos: A model and inspiration for Serbian medieval hymnographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotin-Golubović Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Octoechos is not merely a musical manual in everyday use during the service in Orthodox Church, but also a comprehensive anthology of church poetry. It contains poetical works of great Byzantine poets, such as John of Damascus, Joseph the Hymnographer, Andrew of Crete. The use of Octoechos during the service is strictly regulated by Typicon. After accepting the Orthodox rite, the Slavs were acquainted with Octoechos which has undoubtedly made a great impression on the attentive audiences present at the service. Octoechos has also influenced the work of medieval Serbian hymnographers all of whom were, as it is well known, pious men. The influence of the poetics typical of hymns of the Octoechos has already been present in the Akoluthia to St. Simeon written by St. Sava. In the hymnographical work of Theodosius this influence is even more present, especially in his Canons on the eight modes (echoi that follow the pattern of the supplicatory canons of the Octoechos. Ephraim, who was the Serbian patriarch in two turns (1375-1379, 1389-1392, wrote his church hymns and prayers following those of the Octoechos. Ephraim composed his stichera dedicated to Christ and Theotokos following the regular change of tones of the Octoechos. The spirit of Octoechos has also marked the work of the last Serbian anonymous hymnographers who wrote Akoluthia to the Translation of the holy relics of Saint Apostle Luke to Serbia and the Paraklisis to St. Luke (mid 15th century.

  4. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  5. Nobleza e iglesias propias en la Cantabria alto-medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel LORING GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La documentación altomedieval cántabra, o mejor de Liébana, Asturias de Santillana y Trasmiera, ofrece innumerables ejemplos de donaciones totales o parciales de iglesias a los monasterios de la región, de lo que se desprende que los donantes, en su mayoría laicos, eran propietarios de las mismas. Nos hallamos, por tanto, ante un fenómeno que con mayor o menor acierto se viene designando con la expresión de «iglesias propias», institución típicamente medieval que se caracteriza por el hecho de que la iglesia junto con sus bienes forma una unidad indisoluble dentro del patrimonio del fundador o del de sus descendientes. Estos pueden enajenarlas mediante cualquier negocio jurídico, designar el clero que la sirva y percibir todos o al menos parte de los ingresos producidos. Esta institución remonta sus orígenes al Bajo Imperio, concretamente es resultado de la cristianización del medio rural, donde por regla general las iglesias eran levantadas por los propietarios territoriales en sus dominios pasando a constituir una dependencia más de los mismos.

  6. Energy study of a medieval tower, restored as a museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Avgelis, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Santamouris, M. [National Kapodestrean University, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2003-10-01

    Museums are buildings of particular significance due to their function and their status. At the same time they are buildings in which the principles of energy conservation are rarely applied, sometimes without reason. It has been decided by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture to convert a medieval tower, built in the year 1344 as a fortress with 0.8-1.5 m thick walls and almost no windows, into a museum. The present paper discusses the difficulties that arise in the attempt to balance between the indoor climate conditions necessary to protect the exhibits and to provide comfortable conditions to the visitors, whilst respecting the aesthetics and the historical significance of the building. Furthermore, one needs to consider the difficult but necessary task of assessing factors such as the building's shell's thermal conductivity and capacity, the ventilation necessary as well as the indoor air movement, in order to determine the cooling loads. Finally, the challenge lies in designing and dimensioning an effective and efficient HVAC system, which should be as discrete as possible. The present paper aims to present the results of the study, to discuss the expected energy behaviour of the building and to comment on the options for introducing energy conservation techniques. (author)

  7. Sinusitis in people living in the medieval ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teul, Iwona; Lorkowski, Jacek; Lorkiewicz, Wieslaw; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Breathing vitally serves body homeostasis. The prevalence of upper airway infections is often taken as an indicator of overall health status of a population living at a given time. In the present study we examined the unearthed remains of skulls from the XIII-XV century inhabitants searching for signs of maxillary sinusitis. Maxillary sinuses of the skulls of 92 individuals were inspected macroscopically and, if necessary, endoscopically. Osseous changes, including the pitting and abnormal spicule formation were present in 69 cases (75.0 %). It was found that, overall, dental infection was a major cause of maxillary sinusitis (18.8 %). Severe bone changes were observed in the adults' skulls, but were also present in the sinus walls of children's skulls. Post-inflammatory changes were manifest as remodeling and damage to the sinus walls. The results indicate that both children and adults of the Middle Ages suffered from chronic sinusitis. These observations confirm that the climate, environment, and lifestyle of the medieval populations contributed to the morbidity of the upper respiratory tract.

  8. A medieval physician: Amirdovlat Amasiatsi (1420-1495).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Hakobyan, Tatevik

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to acquaint the reader with a medieval physician, Amirdovlat Amasiatsi, who lived and practiced in the 15th century Anatolia. Amirdovlat wrote several books on medicine mainly focusing on phytotherapy and pharmacology using medicinal plants, animal-derived products and minerals. All his works were written in Middle Armenian, spoken Armenian language of the time. In his writings, Amirdovlat described unique recipes that represent a portrayal of medical knowledge and practice at the time in Anatolia where he lived and worked. He discussed the physical and therapeutic properties as well as geographic distributions of various plants and minerals, using different languages, mainly Turkish, Greek, Arabic, French and Persian. Amirdovlat's works not only enhanced our understanding of Armenian medical practices but also provided great deal of information on those of Ancient Greco-Roman as well as Islamic world, demonstrating close relationship of Armenian medicine with Greco-Roman and Islamic medicine. Amirdovlat accomplished this by amalgamating the past and contemporary practices of his time. In this regard, Amirdovlat's works, in particular "Useless for the Ignorant", are very unique playing a significant role in preserving traditions and heritage of different cultures.

  9. Portraits of aging men in late medieval Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, Roisin

    2012-08-01

     This essay examines the human experience of aging in the distant past by investigating a group of aging men during the 14th century in an Italian city, Bergamo, using notarial "documents of practice" from that community. Studying the aging process and its effects on the lives of people in the medieval era has three-fold significance: it broadens our understanding of aging as a human construct and a human experience, challenges an antihistorical theory of aging, and reinforces the importance of studying the specific experiences of aging individuals in both the past and the present.     A qualitative study. Methods of analysis include nominative linkage and an investigation of the physical effects of aging on an individual, as seen in the documents of 1 long-lived notary.   Aging clerics and notaries in Bergamo took on positions of increasing authority in the church and related institutions in the last decades of their lives.   The documented activities of a group of affluent men in 14th-century Bergamo suggest that although there was little recorded discussion of "old age" as a life stage in that community, for these men, aging was a real social process with both positive and negative impacts on their lives. Giving a human face to these aging men of the distant past models an approach to the study of the aging process that has relevance for both historians and gerontologists alike.

  10. Mockers and mocked in Spanish medieval exemplary literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cándano Fierro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a brief account of comical motifs that appear in some medieval exempla collections, for instance the Disciplina clericalis and Conde Lucanor, with and approximation to a hybrid work, as Libro de Buen amor, by the Arcipreste de Hita. Tge purpose of these writings was to teach and moralize audiences and this is a notable from the very introduction on. However, authors or compilers never include in their preliminaries that the purpose of their writings is to amuse, make their readers laugh, reinterpret or decontextualize the world. The main objective of this investigation is to direct the analysis of exemplary works toward revealing their amusing or even comical side. Central to this study is a conceptual structure of the laughter phenomenon that has come forward from theoretical works by well-known authors such as Aristotle. Bergson, Ducrot and others. The subject matter is to emphasize the universality of the comical vein in the aforesaid writings, which has lasted up to the present.

  11. Education and transmission of knowledge in medieval India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The various regions of the Indian subcontinent came into contact with the Islamic cultural tradition in the seventh century CE. Indian scholars were able to leave a mark on the world of Islamic scholarship especially in the fields of ḥadīth and other connected disciplines, significantly underlining their recognition for contributions in the Islamic East. An attempt has been made to analyse and to understand the processes of transmission of knowledge through formal and informal means, including the transfer of accumulated experience to the next generation and even the passing of “intuitive knowledge” to the seeker of knowledge. It has been argued that the level of Indian scholarship in certain disciplines was at par with the level of scholarship in the Islamic East. It has also been examined that during the medieval period Sanskrit based studies flourished at important Hindu pilgrimage centres such as Benaras, often described by European travellers as the Athens of India. The Royal and private libraries functioned with firm footings. Finally, it is shown that education and transmission of knowledge was organized in a manner that owes much to the best of Greco-Arab tradition.

  12. The Name Day as a Part of Medieval Historiographical Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna F. Litvina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the ways in which the celebration of the name day (imeniny of Russian princes or their entourages was presented in the Russian chronicles. The custom of celebrating the name day was firmly rooted in the Russian princely environment. For a chronicle narrative, the very rootedness of this custom and the number of its associated actions plays an important role—it is this rootedness that makes stories told in the chronicles quite opaque to the modern reader. A prince’s Christian name and the day of his patron saint were considered to be important background knowledge for the audience of the medieval compiler. There were, apparently, clear ideas about appropriate behavior for prince or a person from his environment on his name day or on the eve of this day but, on the other hand, such assumptions explain why this kind of “normal” behavior rarely forms the subject of special reflection in the chronicles. It is not only a description of the celebration itself that might be very informative, whether it be a church service, a ceremonial feast with various relatives, or an exchange of gifts, but also the description of acts and deeds that were undertaken specifically on a prince’s name day. Therefore, particular attention is given here to stories about undue or inappropriate behavior on this special day. The paper deals with the function and nature of such episodes in the broader context of historiographical narrative.

  13. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements.

  14. AMS radiocarbon dating of mortar: The case study of the medieval UNESCO site of Modena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmine, Lubritto [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche & CIRCE lab, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Caroselli, Marta; Lugli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Marzaioli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica & CIRCE lab, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Nonni, Sara [Università degli Studi “Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Marchetti Dori, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Terrasi, Filippo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica & CIRCE lab, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, I-81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The carbon dioxide contributing to binder formation during the set of a lime mortar reflects the atmospheric {sup 14}C content at the time of construction of a building. For this reason, the {sup 14}C dating of mortars is used with increasing frequencies in archaeological and architectural research. Mortars, however, may also contain carbonaceous contaminants potentially affecting radiocarbon dating. The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) of the Second University of Naples (SUN) has recently obtained some promising results in mortar radiocarbon dating thanks to the development of a procedure (i.e. CryoSoniC/Cryo2SoniC) aiming to eliminate exogenous C contamination that may occur in a mortar. The construction history of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Modena (Italy) is still controversial and represents a challenging case study for the application of absolute dating methodologies for different reasons. From the point of view of {sup 14}C dating, for example, given the high percentage of carbonate aggregates composing these samples, Modena mortars represent an experimental test particularly indicative of exogenous carbon sources suppression ensuring methodology accuracy. In this paper several AMS Radiocarbon dates were carried out on lime lumps with the aim to: (i) verify procedure accuracy by a comparison of the results obtainable from lime lumps dated after different treatments (i.e. bulk lime lumps vs. CryoSoniC purified lime lumps); (ii) compare different building phases absolute chronology for the medieval UNESCO site of Modena, with that assumed by historical sources in order to assess preliminary the {sup 14}C dating feasibility for of the site. Historical temporal constraints and mortar clustering, based on petrography, have been applied to define a temporal framework of the analyzed structure. Moreover, a detailed petrographic characterization of mortars was used both as a preliminary tool for the choice of samples

  15. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-01-01

    The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351) was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75) and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246) cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143). The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133) was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  16. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon N DeWitte

    Full Text Available The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351 was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75 and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246 cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143. The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133 was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  17. Both "illness and temptation of the enemy": melancholy, the medieval patient and the writings of King Duarte of Portugal (r. 1433-38).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Iona

    2009-06-01

    Recent historians have rehabilitated King Duarte of Portugal, previously maligned and neglected, as an astute ruler and philosopher. There is still a tendency, however, to view Duarte as a depressive or a hypochondriac, due to his own description of his melancholy in his advice book, the Loyal Counselor. This paper reassesses Duarte's writings, drawing on key approaches in the history of medicine, such as narrative medicine and the history of the patient. It is important to take Duarte's views on his condition seriously, placing them in the medical and theological contexts of his time and avoiding modern retrospective diagnosis. Duarte's writings can be used to explore the impact of plague, doubt and death on the life of a well-educated and conscientious late-medieval ruler.

  18. Books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval/Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2015-01-01

    Chronologically organized list of books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014......Chronologically organized list of books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014...

  19. Carabelli's trait in contemporary Slovenes and inhabitants of a medieval settlement (Sredisce by the Drava River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamfelj, Iztok; Stefancić, Marija; Gaspersic, Dominik; Cvetko, Erika

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the total frequency, expression and asymmetry of Carabelli's trait in permanent dentitions of contemporary Slovenes and a medieval skeletal population from northeastern Slovenia. A total of 254 dental casts from contemporary Slovene children were examined. The population of a medieval settlement (10th-15th centuries), was represented by 94 skeletons. A modification of the method of Alvesalo and associates was used to classify Carabelli's trait on a five-grade scale. The trait was expressed on the upper first molars of 79.7% of the contemporary subjects and 75.8% of the medieval sample. Positive expressions of the trait were found in 10.1% of the contemporary subjects and 15.2% of the medieval sample. While the observed total frequency of the trait in both samples is characteristic of Europeans, the rates of positive expressions are surprisingly low but consistent with data from a recently published worldwide literature survey. Both populations showed a low rate of left-right fluctuating asymmetry of the trait. This finding might reflect a pronounced ability of individuals in the medieval population to buffer unfavourable influences from the environment and a relatively low level of environmental stress in the contemporary population.

  20. Investigation of original bricks from Ventspils castle for the purpose of restorations of medieval brick masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajare, D.; Shvinka, V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper mainly tries to characterize Middle Age brick taken from Ventspils Castle (13-17th century). To this aim, the following techniques were applied: visual inspection, X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, physical laboratory tests (water absorption, density, open porosity, saturation coefficient, Mage's index) and chemical analysis. The medieval bricks are still in good condition, any visible damages were not recognized in the course of visual inspection. According to the results of chemical analysis, three types of bricks made from different clays in different centuries were used. According to X-ray diffraction analysis data no one type of medieval bricks contains illite. So sintering temperature of the medieval bricks studied was higher than 900 deg C. The secondary calcite was formed in the structure of bricks from lime mortars under influence of water migration during several centuries. All medieval bricks studied are porous - open porosity of them amounts to 26-30 %. 14-15th century bricks have inclusions of chamotte additive, which makes the bricks less durable to soluble salts and frost, and of organic additive, that imparts the higher porosity. Mage's index for all medieval is less than 0.55, but saturation coefficient is close to 0,78 and it means that these bricks are not enough durable to soluble salts and frost

  1. The Function of the Medieval in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Nouvelle Heloise : A Rereading of the Abelard and Heloise Motif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Alicia C.

    2010-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau's critical rewriting in his Nouvelle H,lo medieval works-the letters of Ab,lard and H,lo medieval played in his own moral vision. This article both identifies a possible eighteenth-century

  2. „Incendula“ or „monedula“? An Enigmatic Bird Name in Medieval Latin-Written Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 74 (2016), s. 89-109 ISSN 1376-7453 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : latin lexicography * ancient and medieval zoology * ancient and medieval zoology * latin names of birds * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  3. Preliminary Investigations of The Bioarchaeology of Medieval Giecz (XI-XII C.: Examples of Trauma and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnew Amanda M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human skeletal remains from past populations are an invaluable source to objectively study biological history. The combined biological and cultural assessment of bioarchaeology offers a unique perspective on the adaptation of people to their environment. This study summarizes a portion of ongoing work to decipher trends related to health and lifestyle in early medieval (XI-XII c. Giecz, Poland. The skeletal assemblage from Giecz, the “Giecz Collection”, represents a community positioned at a major center of political, economic, and religious power during this important time in Polish history. Non-violent traumatic injuries were investigated to elucidate trends related to possible types and rigor of activities and linear femoral growth trends were analyzed to assess patterns of stress. Preliminary results suggest that all members of the community (men, women, and adolescents contributed to a lifestyle characterized by repetitive hard-work. Furthermore, it appears that most individuals suffered from health insults negatively affecting their development and perhaps their mortality.

  4. THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAMMAMS OF ALGERIA; ELEMENTS FOR A HISTORICAL STUDY OF BATHS ARCHITECTURE IN NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Cherif-Seffadj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Algerian medinas (Islamic cities have several traditional public baths (hammams. However, these hammams are the least known in the Maghreb countries. The first French archaeological surveys carried out on Islamic monuments and sites in Algeria, have found few historic baths in medieval towns. All along the highlands route, from Algiers (capital city of Algeria located in the North to Tlemcen (city in the Western part of Algeria, these structures are found in all the cities founded after the Islamic religion expanded in the Western North Africa. These buildings are often associated to large mosques. In architectural history, these baths illustrate original spatial and organizational compositions under form proportions, methods of construction, ornamental elements and the technical skills of their builders. The ancient traditions of bathing interpreted in this building type are an undeniable legacy. They are present through architectural typology and technical implementation reflecting the important architectural heritage of the great Roman cities in Algeria. Furthermore, these traditions and buildings evolved through different eras. Master builders, who left Andalusia to seek refuge in the Maghreb countries, added the construction and ornamentation skills and techniques brought from Muslim Spain, while the Ottomans contribution in the history of many urban cities is important. Hence, the dual appellation of the hammam as “Moorish bath” and “Turkish bath” in Algeria is the perfect illustration of the evolution of bath architecture in Algeria.

  5. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  6. Legal aspects of teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulsenheimer, K.; Heinemann, N.

    1997-01-01

    It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.) [de

  7. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    presente testamento de mi puno y letra para hacer constar mi ultima y firme voluntad para que sea cumplida fielmente conforme a las siguientes clausulas...ruego se le de fiel cumplimiento. Y para que asi conste, a todos los f ines legales pertinentes otorgo el presente testamrento bajo mi firma en el lugar...Transiers to ,- -Al" t’ het (4., m4 Us %put Ortronew. It 1111. tOOlise -ur" se me. thens 1 61%0 all rmv 14oo Act at anv &late ..t ..... i, 𔃺 le. ~~rt n the

  8. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  9. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  10. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: "Medieval" Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine's cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, "What happens if we leave Afghanistan," fuelled debate about the "medieval" practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband "lost his nose." This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word "medieval" can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an "eastern" practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful.

  11. Materiality of Body: The Material Practices of Life and Death in Medieval Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabast A. Muhammad Amin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the ways people understood their body during the medieval period in Britain. I bring together the multiple different ways in which the body was treated in death, I focus on the role and power of grave goods and evidence found in dead bodies for plasticity in life to embrace the complexity of the medieval body, I examine the cultural practice of nutrition and environment affected the bodily mold. Another point I take into consideration is the practice of dietary through differentiation between male and female body in which we explore how medieval people socially and culturally constructed body based on their notion and understanding of gender identity. In addition, religion had a great influence on people’s understanding to deal with dead bodies and I concentrate on how bodily resurrection impacted on people’s preparation for the Day of Judgment by placing the goods in burials.

  12. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  13. Perspectives of Medieval Persian Medicine on Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Parviz, Mohsen; Sheibani, Behnam; Schiess, Nicoline; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nazem, Esmail; Sadeghpour, Omid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) was the prevailing practice of medicine in the Eurasia region up through the 18th century, a practice of medicine stemming back to Hippocrates and to the 5000 year old civilization of the region. It is a school of medicine which touches on many a delicate points which may seem unimaginable within the realm of modern allopathic medicine. This practice of ancient medicine besides shedding light on various possible theoretical modern day disorders serves as a vast resource for therapeutics. In this paper, we present study of the manuscripts of this ancient medical practice in search of symptom presentations coinciding with presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper represents a comprehensive search through TPM texts and manuscripts with the intention to seek possible clues on MS from potentially valuable age-old resources. We predominantly focused our search on the works of five eminent physicians of Medieval Persia: Avicenna (980-1037 AD), Haly Abbas (949-982 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Averroes (1126-1198 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD). In this paper, the authors attempt a theory and conclude with high probability that a conjunction of a series of signs, symptoms found in TPM texts under the terms khadar, isterkha and falej form the symptoms and the disease pattern of modern day MS. This theory draws upon existent similarities in terms of disease pathology, disease patterns and predisposing factors seen between MS and the related morbidities within Persian Medicine. We recommend further examinations of such potentially valuable long-standing resources, examining the diagnoses and treatments as set forth by Persian Medicine through international collaboration within the global scientific community. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Microalgae on dimension stone of a medieval castle in Thuringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, C.; Stannek, L.; Fritzlar, D.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms are important primary producers on hard rock substrata as well as on building facades. These eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria, along with lichens, have also been recognized as important factors for rock weathering and stone decay. The rock substratum itself mostly provides extreme environmental conditions. Composition and diversity of sub-aeric phototrophic microbial communities is up to now poorly understood. Here we present a comparative study addressing the composition of algal biofilms on sandstone substrata based on the analysis of rDNA clone libraries from environmental samples and enrichment cultures. From a W-exposed, shaded wall area of a medieval castle ruin (Burg Gleichen, Thuringia, Germany cf. Hallmann et al., 2011), green algae like Prasiococcus, Prasiola and Elliptochloris could be retrieved. A ESE, sun-exposed wall section was colonized mainly by Apatococcus, Phyllosiphon and the lichen alga Trebouxia and Myrmecia. Accordingly, cyanobacterial communities show clear differences between both wall areas: the sun exposed area was dominated by Synechococcus-like organisms while on the W-exposed area cyanobacteria were almost absent. Just a few species, in particular Stichococcus-related strains, are ubiquitous in both areas. It is obvious that, apart from few generalists, different species colonize the wall areas that are situated in close vicinity, but provide different microclimatic conditions. These differences are discussed in view of biogenic weathering phenomena: certain microalgal species colonize crusts and scales along fracture planes and may contribute to rapid detachment and turnover of dimension stone surfaces. Hallmann, C., Fritzlar, D., Stannek, L., Hoppert, M. (2011) Ascomycete fungi on dimension stone of the "Burg Gleichen", Thuringia. Env. Earth Sci. 63, 1713-1722.

  15. Contemporary Legal Issues in Electronic Commerce in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TI Akomolede

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has no doubt added a great deal to the quality of human life today. It has knitted the world together as a global village. Many difficulties which hampered international and even national commercial transactions in the past have now been consigned to the dust-bin of history. The emergence of electronic commerce is as a result of the creation of the internet, through which commercial transactions are conducted between parties from different parts of the world and who may never see themselves in their lifetimes. However, the emergence of electronic commerce has also brought with it a number of legal and socio-economic problems, especially in the developing nations such as Nigeria – problems which pose significance challenges to the legal regime of electronic commerce in those countries. This paper examines these legal issues within the context of the current legal and regulatory framework for electronic commerce in Nigeria.

  16. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  17. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  18. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  19. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  20. History of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and various milestones of rheumatology from ancient to modern times. The origin of rheumatology can be traced to ancient times. Diseases such as gout and osteoarthritis were prevalent in ancient people. Many ancient skeletons show signs of gout and osteoarthritis. The ancient book on Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita, gives a vivid description of many variants of arthritis. Charaka, an eminent Ayurvedic physician, described rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Charaka Samhitha as "Vishkantha," meaning painful joints. The word rheumatology has its origin in the word "rheuma," which means flowing, and is mentioned in Hippocratic corpus. Hippocrates made several observations about gout, popularly known as "aphorisms of gout." Many famous paintings in the medieval era depict joint diseases. Hand lesions resembling those of RA are found in paintings of the Flemish school. "The virgin with canon van der paele," a painting by Jan Van Eyck (1436, shows thickened arteries in the temple, suggestive of temporal arthritis. The famous portrait of Federigo de Montefeltre, thought to have been painted by Joos (Justus van Gent, shows arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger. Rheumatology developed as a well-recognized specialty of medicine in the 20th century. American Physicians Bernard Comroe and Joseph Lee Hollander coined the term rheumatologist in 1940. Rheumatology has rapidly advanced during the last 50 years due to improved diagnosis as a result of progress in immunology, molecular biology, genetics and imaging.

  1. [Subjectivity and objectivity, semiotics and diagnosis. An approach to the medieval concept of illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, O

    1996-01-01

    Relying on their patients' complaints, medieval physicians did not discriminate theoretically between sickness and health. As for the types of illness, there were two different concepts of disease: The semiotic tracts (sphygmology, uroscopy, hematoscopy) describe signs of dyscrasia and locus affectus, while the medical handbooks combine symptoms like fever, pain, nausea, constipation etc. with the signs of pulse, urine and blood. The term "diagnosis" should be used only for this latter type of disease. Because of the ancient model of humoral pathology and because of the deductive construction of symptomatology, "medieval" illnesses cannot be compared with "ours".

  2. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  3. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...... a substantial part of the components of the decisions are prefabricated. With a risk of misplacing the responsibility, this may be called the “google syndrome”. The hidden algorithms may also constitute the basis for decisions concerning individuals (the passive aspect), the “profiling syndrome”. Based on big...

  4. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište, Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers, and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9. Recognizable among the glass vessels are bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska Mitrovica (fig. 10/3, Brestovik (fig. 13/3, Mirijevo (fig. 4/1, Vinča (figs. 4/2; 10/4, Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2 and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7. The available descriptions of vessels and archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1. Among

  5. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  6. Negligence--When Is the Principal Liable? A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D., Ed.

    Negligence, a tort liability, is defined, discussed, and reviewed in relation to several court decisions involving school principals. The history of liability suits against school principals suggests that a reasonable, prudent principal can avoid legal problems. Ten guidelines are presented to assist principals in avoiding charges of negligence.…

  7. Legal Remedies for the Reduction of Violence on Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Gloria S.

    In the wake of the United States Surgeon General's report which studied the impact of televised violence upon children and warned broadcasters that corrective action must soon be taken, the author explores the available legal channels for the reduction of violence on children's television. In an overview examining the history of violence in…

  8. Special Education in America: Its Legal and Governmental Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The text presents six chapters on the legal and governmental bases of special education. In the Introduction, F. Weintraub and J. Ballard cite the legislative and litigative history of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and briefly address information sources on such policy issues as procedural safeguards, underserved…

  9. Legalization of Cannabis in the USA : A System Dynamics Approach to Drug Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, R.; Thompson, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Colorado and Washington State have made history by approving measures to make marijuana sale and use legal for people over the age of 21, in direct opposition to federal law. While there is a sizable discussion of the actual repercussions that legal marijuana would entail, no one knows what will

  10. Arabicizing, Privileges, and Liturgy in Medieval Castilian Toledo: The Problems and Mutations of Mozarab Identification (1085-1436)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Aaron Michael

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to the history of Mozarabs (Christians with lineal roots in Muslim-ruled Iberia) in Castilian Toledo are framed within linear narratives of assimilation, treating the fates of their communal linguistic, legal, and liturgical traits--that is, the use of Arabic, the enjoyment of communal-specific juridical privileges, and the adherence to the traditional Spanish rite--as a metric for gauging the vitality of their identities. Having examined Arabic, Latin, and Romance documentary...

  11. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  12. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  13. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  14. On the Jewish Nature of Medieval Spanish Biblical Translations Linguistic Differences between Medieval and Post-Exilic Spanish Translations of the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzwald, Ora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A linguistic comparison of medieval Spanish translations of the Hebrew Bible and the Constantinople and Ferrara post exilic Ladino translations reveals systematic lexical and grammatical variations. These differences can be explained by the population groups to which the translations were targeted: Christian for the medieval translations; Jewish (or former converso for the post-exilic ones. The conclusion is that the medieval translations are not Jewish in nature and could therefore not have been a source for the post-exilic versions which were based on oral tradition.

    Una comparación lingüística de las traducciones hispano-medievales de la Biblia hebrea y las postexílicas de Constantinopla y Ferrara revela variaciones sistemáticas léxicas y gramaticales. Esas diferencias pueden explicarse por la audiencia a las que iban dirigidas dichas traducciones: cristiana, en el caso de las medievales; judía (o exconversa en el de las post-exílicas. La autora concluye que las traducciones medievales no son judías, por naturaleza, y en consecuencia, no podrían haber sido una fuente para las versiones post-exílicas que estaban basadas en la tradición oral.

  15. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muja, Cristina; Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100μm in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII th . XIII th ) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the multi

  16. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest (Romania); Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100{mu}m in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII{sup th} . XIII{sup th}) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the

  17. Is Medieval Warm Period (MWP) wetter in Nagaland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S.; Agarwal, D. S.; Bhattacharyya, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Dzukou Valley, Nagaland is one of the biodiversity rich regions in northeast India. It is house to 113 families of plants where primitive angiosperms and endemic plants species contribute 19% and 6% respectively to this unique floristic wealth. Floristic uniqueness of the valley is that 50 families are represented by single genus and 128 genuses are represented by single species. Present work is the first attempt to use soil organic matter (SOM) d13C and pollen data to understand climate vis-à-vis vegetation dynamics in an area where climatic changes were not strong enough to induce a significant change in vegetation cover. The d13C values in our study range from -29.1‰ to -27.7‰ during late Holocene. These values are typical of forest soils and suggest organic carbon derived exclusively from C3 vegetation. Generated proxy data reveals three phases of climatic and vegetational shifts in the region since 3100 yr BP. During the first phase from 3100 yr BP to 2300 yr BP isotope data shows higher values, indicating towards a comparatively dry climate and area was occupies by dry Pine-Oak forest. Subsequently in second phase from 2300 yr BP to 1060 yr BP increase in arboreal pollens (tree elements) and gradually decreasing trend in d13C values from 2300 to 1060 yrs BP by 1.4 ‰ indicate towards comparatively moist climatic conditions corresponding to Medieval Warm Period. Later on in the third phase from 1060 yr BP onwards climate again climate turned dry and continued till date as postulated from the increasing trend in d13C values and good recovery of Pinus-Oak forest pollens.This study holds its significance not only as the first attempt to address palaeoclimate and palaeo-vegetation study from Nagaland but also as the first attempt to use SOM d13C along with pollen data to understand the influence of fluctuating rainfall (in a high rainfall zone) in altering the floristic wealth of a region. This type of study is essentially needed to address several issues

  18. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  19. [Euthanasia: legal comparison in selected European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležal, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with the subject of euthanasia (all its forms) and other end-of-life decisions, such as assisted suicide, withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatments. Among other things, the article will also deal with the issue of the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request. Based on an empirical historical method, the article compares the various selected legal orders. From this analysis, it draws some conclusions that have an impact on ethical discourse. First of all, the terminology is defined in the article, which is very important in this area. Further, German law is being analysed, with emphasis on Nazi Germany. On that basis, the so-called reductio ad Hitlerum argument is rejected. Research continues and is followed by another states, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland. By analysing them, the following ethical arguments used in euthanasia debates are examined: the argument of a slippery slope and the argument of respect for autonomy. Finally, the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in the Pretty case is also analysed. On this case, we can demonstrate, how insufficient is argument of human dignity. The last part is dedicated to the Czech Republic and its legal order. Firstly, it focuses on the history of the legal regulation of euthanasia, but the main part deals with the current legal situation. In addition to the recent state of affairs, the bill of Death with dignity act is also being examined. At the end of the article it is pointed out that the Czech regulation is insufficient and changes are necessary. However, the proposed bill of Death with dignity act is not the right way to follow. Rather, it may be wise to adopt an amendment to the Penal Code that would introduce the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request.Key words: assisted suicide - euthanasia - Homicide by the Victims Request - medical futility - withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatment.

  20. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  1. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  2. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  3. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  4. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  5. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  6. Social inequality and death as illustrated in late-medieval death dances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractLate-medieval murals and books of the then-popular "dances of death" usually represented the living according to their social standing. These works of art thus provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationship between social inequality and death

  7. Location-based technology and game-based learning in secondary education: learning about medieval Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W.; Akkerman, S.; Huizenga, J.; van Zeijts, H.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile games in education are excellent ways to combine situated, active and constructive learning with fun. In the mobile city game Frequency 1550 teams -of four students each- step into the game's world. With help of the Internet, smart phones and GPS technology, Amsterdam changes into a medieval

  8. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than...

  9. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by {mu}-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, A. E-mail: zucc@ge.infn.it; Prati, P.; Bouquillon, A.; Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Migliori, A.; Cagnana, A.; Roascio, S

    2004-06-01

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument.

  10. Diet and mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: a study of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenbeck, Susanne; McManus, Ellen; Geisler, Hans; Grupe, Gisela; O'Connell, Tamsin

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates patterns of mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria through a combined study of diet and associated burial practice. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were analyzed in human bone samples from the Late Roman cemetery of Klettham and from the Early Medieval cemeteries of Altenerding and Straubing-Bajuwarenstrasse. For dietary comparison, samples of faunal bone from one Late Roman and three Early Medieval settlement sites were also analyzed. The results indicate that the average diet was in keeping with a landlocked environment and fairly limited availability of freshwater or marine resources. The diet appears not to have changed significantly from the Late Roman to the Early Medieval period. However, in the population of Altenerding, there were significant differences in the diet of men and women, supporting a hypothesis of greater mobility among women. Furthermore, the isotopic evidence from dietary outliers is supported by "foreign" grave goods and practices, such as artificial skull modification. These results reveal the potential of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis for questions regarding migration and mobility. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Material Culture and Diasporic Experiences: A Case of Medieval Hanse Merchantsin the Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The Hanseatic League, a late medieval merchant association with roots in northern German towns, is credited with the establishment of extensive economic and geographic connections and considerable impact on the development of urban culture around the Baltic and the North Sea. Its merchants...

  12. Druids, deer and ‘words of power’: coming to terms with evil in medieval Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.; van Doorn-Harder, N.; Minnema, L.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution describes what is understood by evil, as perceived within Irish medieval texts, both by the authors and by the groups described in the texts. It attempts to include the points of view of possible audiences or readers of the texts as well. The definition of evil employed here thus

  13. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by μ-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Prati, P.; Bouquillon, A.; Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Migliori, A.; Cagnana, A.; Roascio, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument

  14. Locomotory Apparatus and Health Status of the Early medieval population in Great Moravia (the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velemínský, P.; Stránská, Petra; Dobisíková, M.; Zikán, V.; Likovský, Jakub; Zítková, J.; Žaloudková, M.; Fialová, L.; Stloukal, M.; Poláček, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 40 (2005), s. 112-113 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologist. 06.04.05-09.04.05, Milwaukee] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : early medieval Slavonic population * ontogenesis * sexual dimorphism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  15. Restorian of outdoor plaster pavement floors in a medieval Czech castle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Drdácký, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2008), s. 81-98 ISSN 1355-6207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : floor plaster * metakaoline modified mortar * medieval castle rampart * non-standard testing Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. The Accreditation of Hildegard Von Bingen as Medieval Female Technical Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although scholars have acknowledged technical texts written during the Middle-Ages, there is no mention of "technical writer" as a profession except for Geoffrey Chaucer, and historically absent is the accreditation of medieval female writers who pioneered the field of medical-technical communication. In an era dominated by identifiable medieval…

  17. 'Fro Paris to Inglond'? The danse macabre in text and image in late-medieval England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the character, spread, development and influence of the Dance of Death or danse macabre theme in late-medieval England within its literary, socio- and art-historical context. It traces the origins of the theme and, following the deaths in 1422 of the English king Henry V and

  18. Conservation of a medieval climbing stem by freeze-drying and resin impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.; Eibner, C.

    1985-12-01

    The conservation of a climbing stem originating from a medieval mining adit is described. The fragile wet object was preserved by a combined process consisting of freeze-drying after a polyethylene glycol bath and consecutive resin impregnation with curing by gamma irradiation. The whole conservation process took 1 year. The result is discussed. (Author)

  19. Actively Engaging Students in Culture, Gender, and Class Issues in Medieval Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Colleen E.

    2017-01-01

    Students often find it difficult to understand literature of another era and a world that differs from their own. From interacting with illuminated manuscript pages to conducting a mock trial, this article discusses ways in which visual and active learning techniques can be used to engage students in medieval literature and culture.

  20. Early Medieval silver pearl from Lumbe's garden cemetery at Prague Castle: Composition, manufacture, deterioration, and conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, J.; Ottenwelter, Estelle; Šejvlová, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 174-183 ISSN 0039-3630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : medieval jewellery * Lumbe's Garden * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.578, year: 2016

  1. Managing Uncertainty through Profit sharing Contracts from medieval Italy to Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Organizational innovation is essential to economic development. But, the way successful societies have organized new ventures has been remarkably similar in both past and present. The commenda organizations of medieval Italy shared many characteristics with modern startups that are financed by

  2. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  3. The archaeology of early medieval violence: the mass grave at Budeč, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefan, I.; Stránská, Petra; Vondrová, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 351 (2016), s. 759-776 ISSN 0003-598X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Czech Republic * Bohemia * Budeč * tenth-eleventh centuries * early medieval * mass grave * violence * warfare Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.536, year: 2016

  4. [Caries of permanent dentition in medieval inhabitants of Wrocław].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniowski, Tomasz; Dabrowski, Paweł; Gawlikowska-Sroka, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The study of dentition plays an important role in the reconstruction of the diet and in assessment of the overall health and living conditions of paleopopulations. The aim of this study was to determine the condition of permanent dentition of medieval inhabitants of Wrocław basing on the prevalence and intensity of caries in permanent dentition. The material consisted of 1156 permanent teeth from 118 skulls recovered from two medieval cemeteries in Wrocław: the parish cemetery at the St. Elisabeth Church (13th-14th century) and the cemetery in Ołbin (12th-13th century). Two age classes were formed taking into account anthropologic assessment and group size. The younger class consisted of material up to the age of 35 years; the remaining skulls were assigned to the older class. The prevalence and incidence of caries was determined. The prevalence and intensity of caries was 56.91% and 15.7%, respectively. Carious lesions predominated in males and in the older age class. The prevalence and intensity of caries in permanent dentition did not differ from other medieval populations and increased with age. High prevalence of caries reflects a high proportion of carbohydrates in the diet of medieval inhabitants of Wrocław, their high socioeconomic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  5. Temporal trends in vertebral size and shape from medieval to modern-day.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Antti Junno

    Full Text Available Human lumbar vertebrae support the weight of the upper body. Loads lifted and carried by the upper extremities cause significant loading stress to the vertebral bodies. It is well established that trauma-induced vertebral fractures are common especially among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological factors that could have affected the prevalence of trauma-related vertebral fractures from medieval times to the present day. To determine if morphological differences existed in the size and shape of the vertebral body between medieval times and the present day, the vertebral body size and shape was measured from the 4th lumbar vertebra using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and standard osteometric calipers. The modern samples consisted of modern Finns and the medieval samples were from archaeological collections in Sweden and Britain. The results show that the shape and size of the 4th lumbar vertebra has changed significantly from medieval times in a way that markedly affects the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebral column. These changes may have influenced the incidence of trauma- induced spinal fractures in modern populations.

  6. Wrestling with Stephen and Matilda: Planning Challenging Enquiries to Engage Year 7 in Medieval Anarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    McDougall found learning about Stephen and Matilda fascinating, was sure that her pupils would also and designed an enquiry to engage them in "the anarchy" of 1139-1153 AD. Pupils enjoyed exploring "the anarchy" and learning about it enhanced their knowledge and understanding of the medieval period considerably. However,…

  7. "Quid dant artes nisi luctum?": Learning, Ambition, and Careers in the Medieval University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruolo, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    Focusing on the medieval university during its formative years (late 1100s and early 1200s), the author addresses questions such as "How did the ambitions of students and masters influence the organization and curriculum of these new institutions?" Concludes that society was served by these universities despite the indication that the…

  8. Studies on tofts, peasants and hierarchies in medieval rural Denmark - some comments from an archaeological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2013-01-01

    A classical starting point for an archaeological discussion of hierarchy in Danish settlement research is the toft, particularly its size and position in the spatial arrangement of the medieval village. The main concern of this article is to identify and discuss related problems, in particular...

  9. Climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age based on ostracod faunas and shell geochemistry from Biscayne Bay, Florida: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Dwyer, Gary S.; Swart, Peter K.; Willard, Debra A.; Albietz, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    An 800-year-long environmental history of Biscayne Bay, Florida, is reconstructed from ostracod faunal and shell geochemical (oxygen, carbon isotopes, Mg/Ca ratios) studies of sediment cores from three mudbanks in the central and southern parts of the bay. Using calibrations derived from analyses of modern Biscayne and Florida Bay ostracods, palaeosalinity oscillations associated with changes in precipitation were identified. These oscillations reflect multidecadal- and centennial-scale climate variability associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation during the late Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Evidence suggests wetter regional climate during the MCA and drier conditions during the LIA. In addition, twentieth century anthropogenic modifications to Everglades hydrology influenced bay circulation and/or processes controlling carbon isotopic composition.

  10. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  11. Non-invasive dendrochronology of late-medieval objects in Oslo: refinement of a technique and discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Aoife; Streeton, Noëlle L. W.

    2017-06-01

    A technique for non-invasive dendrochronological analysis of oak was developed for archaeological material, using an industrial CT scanner. Since 2013, this experience has been extended within the scope of the research project `After the Black Death: Painting and Polychrome Sculpture in Norway'. The source material for the project is a collection of late-medieval winged altarpieces, shrines, polychrome sculpture, and fragments from Norwegian churches, which are owned by the Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo. The majority cannot be sampled, and many are too large to fit into the CT scanner. For these reasons, a combined approach was adopted, utilizing CT scanning where possible, but preceded by an `exposed-wood' imaging technique. Both non-invasive techniques have yielded reliable results, and CT scanning has confirmed the reliability of the imaging technique alone. This paper presents the analytical methods, along with results from two of the 13 objects under investigation. Results for reliable dates and provenances provide new foundations for historical interpretations.

  12. The International Feast of the History. A Concrete Project for the Dissemination of History and Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Galletti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present a series of educational projects, new challenges and perspectives that the International Centre of methodology for teaching history and heritage (DiPaSt of the University of Bologna has undertaken in the last years regarding the teaching of history and heritage education. I would like to start by asking a question: can historical and cultural heritage act as a tool to compensate for the gaps, shortcomings, and the sense of loss, which afflict and define the society in which we live? In addition, this in turn leads us to another question: which tools and which methodologies can we use? Every time when a professor starts a new course of Medieval History or Methodologies of teaching history, most of the students tell him that they do not like history. Therefore, the professor usually spends half of the time of the course explaining why it is important to study and to teach history. Because history is not the merely textbook, or a sequence of dates, wars, battles. Nevertheless, history is us, we are history. For these reasons, fifteen years ago, a group of professors of the University of Bologna got together and created the “Feast of the history”. Nowadays, the Feast is widely recognized as one of the most important events in Europe.

  13. Mycobacterium leprae genomes from a British medieval leprosy hospital: towards understanding an ancient epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendum, Tom A; Schuenemann, Verena J; Roffey, Simon; Taylor, G Michael; Wu, Huihai; Singh, Pushpendra; Tucker, Katie; Hinds, Jason; Cole, Stewart T; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Stewart, Graham R

    2014-04-08

    Leprosy has afflicted humankind throughout history leaving evidence in both early texts and the archaeological record. In Britain, leprosy was widespread throughout the Middle Ages until its gradual and unexplained decline between the 14th and 16th centuries. The nature of this ancient endemic leprosy and its relationship to modern strains is only partly understood. Modern leprosy strains are currently divided into 5 phylogenetic groups, types 0 to 4, each with strong geographical links. Until recently, European strains, both ancient and modern, were thought to be exclusively type 3 strains. However, evidence for type 2 strains, a group normally associated with Central Asia and the Middle East, has recently been found in archaeological samples in Scandinavia and from two skeletons from the medieval leprosy hospital (or leprosarium) of St Mary Magdalen, near Winchester, England. Here we report the genotypic analysis and whole genome sequencing of two further ancient M. leprae genomes extracted from the remains of two individuals, Sk14 and Sk27, that were excavated from 10th-12th century burials at the leprosarium of St Mary Magdalen. DNA was extracted from the surfaces of bones showing osteological signs of leprosy. Known M. leprae polymorphisms were PCR amplified and Sanger sequenced, while draft genomes were generated by enriching for M. leprae DNA, and Illumina sequencing. SNP-typing and phylogenetic analysis of the draft genomes placed both of these ancient strains in the conserved type 2 group, with very few novel SNPs compared to other ancient or modern strains. The genomes of the two newly sequenced M. leprae strains group firmly with other type 2F strains. Moreover, the M. leprae strain most closely related to one of the strains, Sk14, in the worldwide phylogeny is a contemporaneous ancient St Magdalen skeleton, vividly illustrating the epidemic and clonal nature of leprosy at this site. The prevalence of these type 2 strains indicates that type 2F strains

  14. AMS radiocarbon dating of mortar: The case study of the medieval UNESCO site of Modena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmine, Lubritto; Caroselli, Marta; Lugli, Stefano; Marzaioli, Fabio; Nonni, Sara; Marchetti Dori, S.; Terrasi, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    The carbon dioxide contributing to binder formation during the set of a lime mortar reflects the atmospheric "1"4C content at the time of construction of a building. For this reason, the "1"4C dating of mortars is used with increasing frequencies in archaeological and architectural research. Mortars, however, may also contain carbonaceous contaminants potentially affecting radiocarbon dating. The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) of the Second University of Naples (SUN) has recently obtained some promising results in mortar radiocarbon dating thanks to the development of a procedure (i.e. CryoSoniC/Cryo2SoniC) aiming to eliminate exogenous C contamination that may occur in a mortar. The construction history of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Modena (Italy) is still controversial and represents a challenging case study for the application of absolute dating methodologies for different reasons. From the point of view of "1"4C dating, for example, given the high percentage of carbonate aggregates composing these samples, Modena mortars represent an experimental test particularly indicative of exogenous carbon sources suppression ensuring methodology accuracy. In this paper several AMS Radiocarbon dates were carried out on lime lumps with the aim to: (i) verify procedure accuracy by a comparison of the results obtainable from lime lumps dated after different treatments (i.e. bulk lime lumps vs. CryoSoniC purified lime lumps); (ii) compare different building phases absolute chronology for the medieval UNESCO site of Modena, with that assumed by historical sources in order to assess preliminary the "1"4C dating feasibility for of the site. Historical temporal constraints and mortar clustering, based on petrography, have been applied to define a temporal framework of the analyzed structure. Moreover, a detailed petrographic characterization of mortars was used both as a preliminary tool for the choice of samples and to infer

  15. Growth and health status of children and adolescents in medieval Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krenz-Niedbała Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subadult growth and health have been analyzed in three cemetery samples from medieval Poland, including two early-urban sites: Cedynia dated to the 10t-14th centuries AD, and Ostrów Lednicki dated to the 13th-15th centuries AD, and a rural site Słaboszewo dated to the 14th-17th centuries AD. The nutritional status was not expected to have substantially differed among the settlements, due to the culturally induced undiversified diet of children, and predominant share of medium-to-low status individuals. However, city life and village life were supposed to differ in factors correlated with the spread of infections, and as such it was expected to find significant differences in respiratory health among early-urban and rural dwellers.The prevalences of diet-dependent diseases, scurvy and rickets, were found to be statistically indistinguishable among the three studied populations, while higher frequency of skeletal signs of poor respiratory health was observed in early-urban Cedynia than rural Słaboszewo. Slightly lower prevalences of skeletal stress indicators were found for the rural than the early-urban site. Skeletal growth profiles and the dynamics of long bone growth were found to be remarkably similar for the early-urban samples (Cedynia and Ostrów Lednicki, with the rural subadults having the shortest diaphyseal lengths, and lower growth dynamics.It can be concluded that adverse factors associated with the urban settlement were more detrimental to respiratory health than those in the village. A variety of factors are potentially responsible for this pattern, including population density, building structure, quality of air and water, sanitation, and occupation. Perhaps, the key factor in response to environmental and socio-cultural constraints was the stability of living conditions in the village, which allowed the inhabitants to develop sufficient adaptive mechanisms. In contrast, the history of strongholds such as Cedynia was changeable

  16. Medieval Iceland, Greenland, and the New Human Condition: A case study in integrated environmental humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Steven; Ogilvie, A. E. J.; Ingimundarson, Jón Haukur; Dugmore, A. J.; Hambrecht, George; McGovern, T. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper contributes to recent studies exploring the longue durée of human impacts on island landscapes, the impacts of climate and other environmental changes on human communities, and the interaction of human societies and their environments at different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the paper addresses Iceland during the medieval period (with a secondary, comparative focus on Norse Greenland) and discusses episodes where environmental and climatic changes have appeared to cross key thresholds for agricultural productivity. The paper draws upon international, interdisciplinary research in the North Atlantic region led by the North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) and the Nordic Network for Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies (NIES) in the Circumpolar Networks program of the Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE). By interlinking analyses of historically grounded literature with archaeological studies and environmental science, valuable new perspectives can emerge on how these past societies may have understood and coped with such impacts. As climate and other environmental changes do not operate in isolation, vulnerabilities created by socioeconomic factors also beg consideration. The paper illustrates the benefits of an integrated environmental-studies approach that draws on data, methodologies and analytical tools of environmental humanities, social sciences, and geosciences to better understand long-term human ecodynamics and changing human-landscape-environment interactions through time. One key goal is to apply previously unused data and concerted expertise to illuminate human responses to past changes; a secondary aim is to consider how lessons derived from these cases may be applicable to environmental threats and socioecological risks in the future, especially as understood in light of the New Human Condition, the concept transposed from Hannah Arendt's influential framing of the human condition that is

  17. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  18. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  19. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  20. Flower symbolism and the cult of relics in medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Life of archbishop Eustathios I [Jevstatije] (1279-1286, deserving head of the medieval Serbian Church and a saint, is a very interesting source for studying the cult of relics with the Serbs. This is not surprising considering that the Life was penned by one of the most illustrious of Eustathios' successors on the church throne, Daniel II [Danilo], a learned Athonite and unquestionable master of the hagiographie literary genre. In his account of the life of his distinguished predecessor, Daniel describes extensively the events constituting the key stage in the glorification of a saint, namely Eustathios' death and posthumous occurrences at his grave. As most holy men, Eustathios foresaw his own death, and he departed from this world serenely. He was buried, with due honours, in the 'marble grave' he had prepared for himself in the cathedral church of Holy Saviour at Žiča. In keeping with the well-established saint-making process, a few years after the funeral 'extraordinary signs' began to occur at the archbishop's grave, in this particular case, candlelight and a multitude of murmuring voices followed by the miraculous cure of an incurably ill person. These occurrences preceded the great miracle which, to the best of my knowledge, is unparalleled in the medieval Serbian practice of relic veneration. Namely, 'one day they found growing from his marble grave three flowers endowed with wondrous beauty and impossible to liken to anything else. For, indeed, they were not of earthly humidity or of union with flowers that grow from earth; but, o wonder, how a dry stone standing for so long in the church could send forth fragrant flowers, to the renewal of the sanctified one's body'. Flower metaphors occur in the Service to the holy archbishop Eustathios, yet another piece penned by Daniel II, notably in his paraphrases of Psalm 92, 12-14 ('The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon. These that be

  1. The legacy of legal culture and Serbia's European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Slaviša

    2014-01-01

    the public interest is defined and normatively framed in line with these interests, there are diverse quasi-techniques which reflect the arbitrary application of law. The recent state-building legal history is characterized by a prominent legal discontinuity, which has two forms of expression: first, legal discontinuity is a result of frequent changes of different and often conflicting socio-political systems of government, which are necessarily accompanied by respective changes in the positive legislation; second, discontinuity may also be a result of frequent legislative changes within a specific type of legal system. Such practices give rise to contradictions and polarizations in the legal culture and legal socialization. The common feature of all legal systems (thus far is the problem of applying the law, or the applicability of the normative framework. The normative legal tradition is not accompanied by the consistent factual application of the envisaged norms. Frequently, there is a prominent incongruity between the norm and the actual state of affairs. In addition to undermining the important function of law, this phenomenon shows the prevalence of traditional legal heritage in Serbian social relations. In comparison to transition countries which have meanwhile been integrated into the European Union, the Serbian society is poverty-stricken, economically devastated, inadequately structured in terms of public/private interests, normatively underdeveloped and value-barren; as such, it is difficult to administer and hard to change. The heritage of socio-economic relations slows down the reception of the liberal-democratic system and the adjustment to the model of competitive market economy. The former model of irrational authority of a powerful leader and a single-party system has been transformed into the party-state system (partocracy involving the dominant role of the authoritarian party leadership, which slows down the development of independent, autonomous

  2. Formation of ideal of legal personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віта Олександрівна Сліпенчук

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In the process of transformation of Ukrainian society towards the assimilation and implementation of basic European values such as human rights, democracy and the rule of law the role of personality that respects the dignity of others and their right to free expression in its multifaceted manifestations becomes more important. Such definitions of it assume the character of the ideal to be pursued, but that has not received adequate expression in people's minds and in practice yet. Since this ideal inextricably links right and personality, enabling the operation of law due to the special qualities of the individual, it can be defined as the ideal of legal personality. It is the formation and realization of such ideal that becomes urgent practical task of our society, which in turn requires a comprehensive theoretical understanding. Recent research and publications analysis. It should be noted that some philosophical aspects of the meaning of legal personality and its formation are revealed in the works of Ukrainian researcher in the field of philosophy of law S.I. Maksimov. However, all actual researches are based on a certain cultural and ideological tradition. The research of  a Polish-American scholar in the history of philosophical and legal thought Andrzej Walicki pays attention to the ideological and methodological potential liberal legal philosophy of the late 19th - early 20th century in the Russian Empire, realization of which, unfortunately, failed because of the violent interruption of this tradition by Bolsheviks. Researches of philosophers of law of that period are of particular significance in this issue: Ukrainian by origin and outlook Bohdan Kistyakivskiy and one of the authors of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 Serhiy Gessen. It is reconstruction of the concept of "legal personality" in the views of philosophers of law of that period, which is really made for the first time, which will give, as

  3. Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    images brought into existence by the amalgamation of crusading and missionary ideology and the frontier experience. This is followed by studies on 'Practices,' which examines the chronicle's reflections of the diplomatic, religious, and military practices of the christianisation and colonisation...... chronicle, James A. Brundage; Part I Representations: Henry of Livonia and the ideology of crusading, Christopher Tyerman; Sacred history, profane history: uses of the Bible in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, Jaan Undusk; Henricus the ethnographer: reflections on ethnicity in the Chronicle of Livonia...

  4. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Legal regulation of home births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.

  6. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  7. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  8. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  9. Political space and boundaries in the late medieval juridical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Marchetti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In what Paolo Grossi calls «the sapiential Middle Ages» jurists engaged themselves in defining a set of rules aiming at the settlement of boundary disputes, which previously were not established by any normative text. The Corpus Iuris concerns nearly exclusively boundary disputes between private individuals. References to texts of the Roman law were meant to give ‘authority’ to resolutions often based upon customary praxis. The norms elaborated by Middle Ages jurists are thus given a formal legal shape; yet, they are linked to a perception of the boundaries between communities that was affected by the displacements, the customs, the common needs of everyday life. On the other side the existence of actual neat demarcations was linked to the exertion of certain rights and privileges rather than to an exclusive and absolute political claim.

  10. The International Legal Framework for Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    recommendations and guidance documents. The legislative history and overview of the salient provisions of the binding and non-binding instruments will increase the understanding of the evolving legal framework governing nuclear security and counter-terrorism, thereby assisting States, intergovernmental organizations and other stakeholders in the implementation of their provisions at the national, regional and international level

  11. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  12. THE ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN EARLY MEDIEVAL PERSIA (9TH-12TH CENTURY CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Shams, Mesbah; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman; Dalfardi, Behnam; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is supposed to be a post-renaissance described medical entity. Although it is often believed that John Fothergill (1712-1780) provided the first description of this condition in 1773, a review of the medieval Persian medical writings will show the fact that neuropathic pain was a medieval-originated concept. "Auojae Asab" [Nerve-originated Pain] was used as a medical term in medieval Persian medical literature for pain syndromes which etiologically originated from nerves. Physicians like Rhazes (d. 925 CE), Haly Abbas (d. 982 CE), Avicenna (d. 1037 CE), and Jorjani (d. 1137 CE) have discussed multiple aspects of nerve-originated pain including its classification, etiology, differentiating characteristics, different qualities, and pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. Recognizing medieval scholars' views on nerve-originated pain can lighten old historical origins of this concept.

  13. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  14. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  15. Legal Marketing and Lawyer's Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casolaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing strategies to the law firm represents a breakthrough in Italy which has struggled to establish itself as a result of a culture based on a strict code of ethics. However, in recent years there has been a turnaround and the benefits arising from the application to legal profession of the typical principles of enterprises are increasingly evident.   Il marketing legale e la comunicazione dell’avvocato L’applicazione delle strategie di marketing allo studio legale rappresenta un’innovazione che in Italia ha stentato a imporsi a causa di una cultura basata su una rigida deontologia. Tuttavia, negli ultimi anni vi è stata un’inversione di tendenza e i benefici derivanti dall’applicazione alla professione forense dei princìpi tipici delle imprese sono sempre più evidenti. Parole chiave: marketing, studio legale, comunicazione

  16. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  17. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  18. Crossdressing medieval troubadours, Castile to Brazil : Cristóbal de Castillejo (d. 1550) and Augusto de Campos (b. 1931)

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Rosenstein

    2014-01-01

    Starting out from a reading of Cristóbal de Castillejo's sixteenth-century sonnet referencing the medieval Occitan troubadours, "Garcilaso y Boscán, siendo llegados", this article reflects on cultural and temporal translations of medieval troubadour lyric. In the second part, it examines in more detail Augusto de Campos's modern Brazilian translations or "transcreations" of Arnaut Daniel's works – the only complete poetic translation in any language of his works.

  19. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  20. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910 in medieval central europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Krüttli

    Full Text Available Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72% exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic

  1. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  2. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  3. The Politics of Legal Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....

  4. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  5. Contesting Conceptual Boundaries: Byzantine Literature and Its History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis A. Agapitos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems of writing a history of Byzantine literature in the context of postmodern anxieties about canonization, authority and narrative histories of literature. An essential difficulty for such a project is the fact that Byzantine literature has been viewed as a continuation of or appendix to Ancient Greek literature, while, on the other, it has been divided into 'learned' and 'vernacular', the latter category having been defined as Modern Greek since the middle of the nineteenth century. The paper offers two sets of criteria for establishing new concepts of periodization and taxonomy. A series of examples are indicatively adduced in order to explain the scientific and ideological impasse in which Byzantine Studies have found themselves at the end of the previous century, while delineating a proposal for a different approach to content and structure of a wider synthesis. Writing a ‘new’ history of Byzantine literature is an experiment in proposing a radical paradigm shift by means of which this particular literary production in Medieval Greek can be studied within the broader context of Medieval European literatures as an integrated entity rather than as a separate and peripheral phase in the histories of Ancient or Modern Greek literature.

  6. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  7. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  8. Legal implications of genetics and crime research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two controversial topics dominate discussions of the legal implications of genetics and crime research; (1) the viability and politics of such research, which has sparked fervent debate in the USA; and (2) the current status of new or atypical criminal law defences, which would include a genetic-defect defence to criminal behaviour. This chapter begins by examining the scientifically discredited XYY chromosome syndrome defence, the major genetic-defect defence that defendants have attempted, albeit unsuccessfully. It then focuses on attorneys' efforts to test for evidence of genetic abnormality in the recent and highly publicized case involving convicted murderer Stephen Mobley, whose family history reveals four generations of violent, aggressive and behaviourally disordered men and women. Mobley is currently appealing his death sentence before the Georgia Supreme Court on the basis that the trial court denied his request both to have genetic testing performed and to have such testing allowed as evidence into court. This chapter concludes by emphasizing that the question is not whether genetic evidence will ever be admitted into court, but when and under what kinds of circumstances. No doubt, genetic evidence, and comparable kinds of biological evidence, will have a major impact on juries when such evidence is more fully accepted by the legal and scientific communities.

  9. Excavating a Silk Road City: the Medieval Citadel of Taraz, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Dawkes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The city of Taraz, located near the southern border with Uzbekistan, is one of the most significant historic settlements in Kazakhstan, and two seasons of fieldwork in the central market-place have revealed a substantial depth of medieval stratigraphy. Despite frequent mentions in Arabic and Chinese written sources, both the form and evolution of this important Silk Road city remain poorly understood. Evidence for a series of successive medieval buildings, including a bathhouse and a Zoroastrian flame shrine, was found in the area of the former citadel. These excavations, undertaken as a joint initiative between the Centre for Applied Archaeology and Kazakh archaeologists, were the first for 50 years in the city and form part of a wider public outreach programme.

  10. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.

  11. Classification of medieval ceramics in the Rhineland and neighbouring areas by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, H.; Hein, A.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is known to be well suited for provenance determinations of ceramics, since more than 25 minor and trace elements can be measured with precisions high enough to discriminate between different pottery production workshops. INAA-data are presented for more than 1500 shards, mostly wasters, produced in different places such as Brueggen/Elmpt, Brunssum/Schinveld, Frechen/Cologne, Hoehr-Grenzhausen, Mayen, Paffrath, Pingsdorf/Bruehl, Raeren and Siegburg, to name only the most important earthen and stoneware production centres of the Rhine area in medieval and post medieval times. It turned out, that the wares of these different centres, although by archeological criteria often very similar, can be clearly recognized by INAA. This large reference databank can now be used to determine export pieces from these centres and to trace trade relations in the Middle Ages. An examples of a provenance determination of questionable finds of Pingsdorf and Paffrath Ware from Emden is given. (author)

  12. Combined GPR and ERT exploratory geophysical survey of the Medieval Village of Pancorbo Castle (Burgos, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; Rubio-Melendi, David; Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio; González-Quirós, Andrés; Cimadevilla-Fuente, David

    2017-09-01

    Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) have been fruitfully employed for archaeological purposes. An area at the Pancorbo medieval site in Burgos (Spain) has been jointly explored by GPR and ERT in the search for the buried remains of the Pancorbo medieval village. After data collection, quality control and merging, a shallow depth of interest was identified and studied in detail. 3D resistivity simulation, considering sensible geometrical structures of the targets helped discover anomalies present in the area. On the other hand, visual GPR inspection was considerably enhanced by trace energy attribute analysis which provided a plan view of the existing anomalies. Two posterior archaeological excavations have a very good correlation between the identified anomalies and the excavated remains. The survey also provides hints for the continuation of the excavation.

  13. Red layered medieval stained glass window characterization by means of micro-PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Feliu, I., E-mail: iofeliu@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Capel, F. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Red layered medieval stained glass windows on a transparent greenish substrate are characteristic of European medieval cathedrals, but few compositional analyses have been performed on the coloured layers. The PIXE technique has been performed on a red layered stained glass window obtained during the restoration works carried out in Las Huelgas Monastery in Burgos (Spain). Protons of 3 MeV with a beam of 4 x 5 {mu}m{sup 2} were used to acquire elemental maps of a cross section of the sample, in order to observe the homogeneity of the layered structure and its substrate. In our work, copper was detected as in other layered glasses but a correspondence with lower amounts of zinc has also been determined. Both elements appear enriched in the red coloured layers, while the other quantified elements have the same relative composition along the sample. Corrosion layers, due to the lead supporting structure of the window, were also found.

  14. Three cases of feet and hand amputation from Medieval Estremoz, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Teresa; Liberato, Marco; Marques, Carina; Cunha, Eugénia

    2017-09-01

    Peri-mortem limb amputations are rarely reported in the paleopathological literature. The cases reported here concern severing of both hands and feet observed in three adult male skeletons, exhumed from the medieval Portuguese necropolis of Rossio do Marquês de Pombal, Estremoz, Portugal. The fact that they were found in the same site, in graves placed side by side, that all are young males, and that the three skeletons show similar perimortem injuries, make this a unique case meriting detailed analysis. Considering the lesions' location and pattern, as well as historical data, we hypothesize that this is a case of amputation as a consequence of judicial punishment. Estremoz was an important city in sustaining the Royal power at a regional scale during the medieval period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction of pulse laser radiation of 532 nm with model coloration layers for medieval stone artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colson, J. [University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nimmrichter, J. [Austrian Federal Office for the Care of Monuments, Department for Conservation and Restoration, Arsenal, Objekt 15, Tor 4, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kautek, W., E-mail: wolfgang.kautek@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    Multilayer polychrome coatings on medieval and Renaissance stone artefacts represent substantial challenges in laser cleaning. Therefore, polychromic models with classical pigments, minium (Pb{sub 2}{sup 2+}Pb{sup 4+}O{sub 4}), zinc white (ZnO), and lead white ((PbCO{sub 3}){sub 2}·Pb(OH){sub 2}) in an acrylic binder, were irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm. The studied medieval pigments exhibit strongly varying incubation behaviours directly correlated to their band gap energies. Higher band gaps beyond the laser photon energy of 2.3 eV require more incubative generation of defects for resonant transitions. A matching of the modification thresholds after more than four laser pulses was observed. Laser cleaning with multiple pulsing should not exceed ca. 0.05 J/cm{sup 2} when these pigments coexist in close spatial proximity.

  16. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.K.; Hansen, Tessa Kvist

    A new mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults was tested in a full scale experiment in Annisse Church, DK. The mortar consists of perlite, a highly porous aggregate, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar joints....... The lambda-value of the insulation mortar is 0.08 W/m K or twice the lambda-value for mineral wool. The water vapour permeability is equal to a medieval clay brick, and it has three times higher capacity for liquid water absorption. The mortar was applied to the top side of the vaults in a thickness of 10 cm......, despite a water vapour pressure gradient up to 500 Pa between the nave and attic. There was no reduction in energy consumption the first winter, possibly due to the increased heat loss related to the drying of the mortar....

  17. The effect of fires on the development and appearance of medieval towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kušar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of fires was one of the main dangers, which slowed down development of medieval towns. Frequent fires, whether they occurred due to carelessness, poorly maintained fireplaces and chimneys or military attacks, caused damage, particularly to those towns and buildings, which were constructed of inflammable materials such as timber and straw. In medieval times most towns were built using such materials, except those near the coast. Citizens tried to reduce fire hazards and the consequences of fires. With substitution of inflammable materials, apparatus and with the improved maintenance of fireplaces and chimneys, as well as other preventive measures, they influenced the development of towns and thus changed their architectural image.

  18. Universality of revealed Law and reflections on religions in Medieval Islamic philosophy: a few considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Barchiesi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By analysing some Medieval Islamic philosophical theories, this paper aims at investigating the approach adopted by authors such as Avicenna and Averroës in respect of religions different from those of origin (Judaism, Christianism, Zoroastrianism and Sabeism. Moreover, it reflects on the universality of Islamic religion. The author will examine these philosophers' thoughts on prophetic teaching, recalling the Platonic sources from which they were developed, she will motivate the relevance of such thoughts in political science and she will explain their purposes. Furthermore, through a comparison with several scholars who have focused on whether Islamic Law has a conventional or natural status, she will try to investigate the origins of this problem, by examining the universal message that those Islamic Medieval philosophers found in revealed Law and the reasons that led them to present it as addressed to the whole mankind.

  19. Legal abortion for mental health indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E

    2006-11-01

    Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.

  20. An early medieval symbol carved on a tree trunk. Pathfinder or territorial marker?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dreslerová, Dagmar; Mikuláš, Radek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 326 (2010), s. 1067-1075 ISSN 0003-598X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00020701; GA AV ČR IAA300130505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Central Europe * early medieval * wood carving * fossil oak * alluvial setting Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.969, year: 2010 http://antiquity.ac.uk/ant/084/ant0841067.htm

  1. Aristotle's carp as Claretus' bird comor? Tracing the origin of one medieval term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 111-123 ISSN 0567-8269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ancient and medieval zoology * Latin lexicography * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré * Claretus * carp * komor * comor Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics http://www.karolinum.cz/ink2_stat/index.jsp?include=AUC_clanek&id=2668&casopis=94&zalozka=0&predkl=0

  2. Arqueología Medieval en Guipúzcoa. Estado actual y perspectivas de futuro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercedes Urteaga Artigas

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available La Arqueología Medieval en Guipúzcoa tiene una larga trayectoria. Iniciada a principios de siglo, las actuaciones se han sucedido hasta el presente, de manera intermitente. En la actualidad presenta una evolución acelerada, ligada, sobre todo, a las intervenciones de salvamento. El futuro de la misma, parece especialmente vinculado a este tipo de actuaciones arqueológicas.

  3. Seismic Activity in Medieval Jeroným Mine, West Bohemia, During Period 2006-2009

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Lednická, Markéta; Knejzlík, Jaromír; Hrubešová, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2010), s. 67-77 ISSN 1896-3145. [Ochrona środowiska w górnictwie podziemnym, odkrywkowym i otworowym. Zawiercie, 19.05.2010-21.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/0089 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : medieval Jeroným mine * seismic load * numerical modelling of underground spaces Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  4. Reflexões sobre o gênero e o monacato hispânico medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Lopes Frazão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From a presentation of the main approaches to the study of medieval hispanic monasticism, this article provides theoretical and methodological reflections and exposes the dilemmas resulting from the use of gender category to the study of monastic life. Such reflections are associated with the research that I am developping, which is scoped to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla into two periods: 1076-1109 and 1227-1265.

  5. Environment and Economy of the Early Medieval Settlement in Žatec

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočár, P.; Čech, Petr; Kozáková, Radka; Kočárová, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, 1-2 (2010), s. 45-60 ISSN 1804-848X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800020706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Žatec * Early Medieval Period * plant macroremains * agriculture * cereals * pollen analysis * charcoal analysis * three field system Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2010-01-02-kocar.pdf

  6. Post-Mortem Projections: Medieval Mystical Resurrection and the Return of Tupac Shakur

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer-Hall, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Medieval hagiographies abound with tales of post-mortem visits and miracles by saints. The saint was a powerful religious individual both in life and in death, a conduit of divine grace and lightning rod for Christian fervour. With her post-mortem presence, the presumptive boundary between living and dead, spirit and flesh, is rent apart: showing the reality of the hereafter and shattering the fantasies of the mortal world. The phenomenon of a glorified individual returning to a worshipful co...

  7. Post-Mortem Projections: Medieval Mystical Resurrection and the Return of Tupac Shakur

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer-Hall, A.

    2012-01-01

    Medieval hagiographies abound with tales of post-mortem visits and miracles by saints. The saint was a powerful religious individual both in life and in death, a conduit of divine grace and lightning rod for Christian fervour. With her post-mortem presence, the presumptive boundary between living and dead, spirit and flesh, is rent apart: showing the reality of the hereafter and shattering the fantasies of the mortal world. The phenomenon of a glorified individual returning to ...

  8. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  9. The "Endura" of The Cathars' Heresy: Medieval Concept of Ritual Euthanasia or Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Tounta, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the medieval concepts on the voluntary death of severely sick people, as they emerge through the endura (endurance) of the heresy of the Cathars in France (twelfth to fourteenth centuries). The endura was the prerequisite act of repentance that would allow the fallen soul to return to heaven. The endura was a necessary act of repentance, after the performance of a ceremonial purification of the soul (consolamentum), and consisted of the patients' voluntary abstention from vital food. The consolamentum and endura could be performed in the final stage of a disease with the consent of the patients or their relatives. The role of the Cathar physician was only to determine the severity of the disease and the forthcoming death of the patient. The physician was not allowed to take steps that would deprive the life of the patient, and the performance of the ritual endura was duty of the spiritual leaders of the community. The modern ethical approach to this subject is dictated by the medieval belief on the salvation of the soul and tries to answer the question of whether the endura could be seen as a medieval concept of a ritual euthanasia or fell within the theological sin of suicide.

  10. Duration and severity of Medieval drought in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppe, J.A.; Brothers, D.S.; Kent, G.M.; Biondi, F.; Jensen, S.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2011-01-01

    Droughts in the western U.S. in the past 200 years are small compared to several megadroughts that occurred during Medieval times. We reconstruct duration and magnitude of extreme droughts in the northern Sierra Nevada from hydroclimatic conditions in Fallen Leaf Lake, California. Stands of submerged trees rooted in situ below the lake surface were imaged with sidescan sonar and radiocarbon analysis yields an age estimate of ∼1250 AD. Tree-ring records and submerged paleoshoreline geomorphology suggest a Medieval low-stand of Fallen Leaf Lake lasted more than 220 years. Over eighty more trees were found lying on the lake floor at various elevations above the paleoshoreline. Water-balance calculations suggest annual precipitation was less than 60% normal from late 10th century to early 13th century AD. Hence, the lake’s shoreline dropped 40–60 m below its modern elevation. Stands of pre-Medieval trees in this lake and in Lake Tahoe suggest the region experienced severe drought at least every 650–1150 years during the mid- and late-Holocene. These observations quantify paleo-precipitation and recurrence of prolonged drought in the northern Sierra Nevada.

  11. SharedCanvas: A Collaborative Model for Medieval Manuscript Layout Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albritton, Benjamin [Stanford University; Schwemmer, Rafael [e-codices; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model based on the principles of Linked Data that can be used to describe the interrelationships of images, texts and other resources to facilitate the interoperability of repositories of medieval manuscripts or other culturally important handwritten documents. The model is designed from a set of requirements derived from the real world use cases of some of the largest digitized medieval content holders, and instantiations of the model are intended as the input to collection-independent page turning and scholarly presentation interfaces. A canvas painting paradigm, such as in PDF and SVG, was selected based on the lack of a one to one correlation between image and page, and to fulfill complex requirements such as when the full text of a page is known, but only fragments of the physical object remain. The model is implemented using technologies such as OAI-ORE Aggregations and OAC Annotations, as the fundamental building blocks of emerging Linked Digital Libraries. The model and implementation are evaluated through prototypes of both content providing and consuming applications. Although the system was designed from requirements drawn from the medieval manuscript domain, it is applicable to any layout-oriented presentation of images of text.

  12. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North Atlantic region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/Ca ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm Period (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm periods (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.

  13. Los animales en el mundo medieval cristiano-occidental : actitud y mentalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Carmen Morales Muñiz

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza el peso que los animales tuvieron en la sociedad medieval y especialmente en la mentalidad del hombre. Se subraya la importancia que el uso material de los animales tuvo a la hora de conformar esa actitud. En la segunda parte del trabajo se profundiza en manifestaciones como la simbología o la magia en donde los animales jugaron un papel principal. Un último punto del trabajo comenta la hipótesis de J. Salisbury sobre el descubrimiento, a partir del siglo xii, del animal interior presente en los hombres.The present paper reviews the role played by animals in medieval society and mentality. In particular we stress the importance which the material use of each species had in determining specific roles. The second part of the work deals with symbolic and magical connotations, fields in which animáis played a most prominent role throughout medieval times. One final aspect comments on J. Salisbury's hypothesis of «the beast within man» which seems to date back to the tweifth century.

  14. Adolescent health in medieval Serbia: signs of infectious diseases and risk of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurić, M; Janović, A; Milovanović, P; Djukić, K; Milenković, P; Drasković, M; Roksandic, M

    2010-04-01

    Although pattern of health in adults has been frequently assessed in past human populations, health status of adolescents as a distinct life stage has usually been overlooked. Inconsistency in number and meaning of recognised age categories in anthropological literature, as well as chronological age ranges used to define them, further complicate the interpretation of adolescent health. In this study, we analysed signs of pathological conditions on skeletal remains of 81 adolescents from a medieval site of Stara Torina (northern Serbia). Diagnostic palaeopathological procedures comprised gross examination, digital radiography, and histological analysis. Skeletal signs of anaemia such as cribra orbitalia and other porotic phenomena as well as signs of non-specific bone infection were observed frequently, while evidence of bone trauma was recorded in a very low percentage of individuals. In addition, we recorded two conditions relatively rarely observed in palaeopathological contexts: a case of skull and vertebral asymmetry indicative of congenital muscular torticollis, and a case of a fibrous cortical defect on distal femur. Comparison with available information from other medieval adolescent samples from Serbia demonstrated that while mortality was relatively constant throughout the sample, Stara Torina showed a much higher occurrence of bone disease. Characteristics of observed skeletal conditions, supported by available historical reports, suggest that the health of medieval adolescents in the examined population was most significantly affected by infectious processes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of The Architecture of the Scottish Medieval Church 1100–1560

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available If ever a book could be described as a ‘magnum opus’ it is this: indeed it is a summa. Richard Fawcett has been publishing on Scottish medieval architecture, mainly ecclesiastical, for three decades, ranging from articles on minute changes in Gothic mouldings (the subject of his doctoral research at the University of East Anglia such as ‘Dunblane Cathedral: evidence for a change in the design of the nave’ (1982 to a survey of architecture between 370 and 1560, Scottish Architecture from the Accession of the Stewarts to the Reformation (1994. For much of that time he was an Inspector of Ancient Monuments for Historic Scotland, allowing him unfettered access to all the key monuments for most of which he has written authoritative guidebooks. However, besides Scotland, his knowledge of other European medieval architecture, especially in England, France and the Low Countries is encyclopaedic. His researches have made unsustainable the inferiorist attitude that Scottish medieval architecture was insular and backward, by pointing out countless foreign parallels, which demonstrate that Scotland’s patrons and masons were always aware of contemporary developments beyond its borders and shores. This monumental book brings together the fruits of these years of study into a rich synthesis. At last MacGibbon and Ross’ groundbreaking Ecclesiastical architecture of Scotland (1896-7 has been superseded.

  16. Alteration of medieval stained-glasses. Contribution to the long-term behaviour of vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpenich, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the behaviour of glasses during alteration have been studied in two different ways: 1)study of the alteration of medieval stained-glasses 2)experimental leaching of modelled glasses. Medieval stained-glasses have a silico-calcic and alkaline composition. It appears three different alteration modes for these glasses: 1)by condensation waters 2)by atmospheric agents 3)by porosity waters and humic acids. A chemical study of the altered areas has allowed to understand the alteration behaviour of a lot of elements: in particular transition elements, heavy metals and some rare earths. On the other hand, two vitrified wastes and a glass having the same composition of the potassic medieval stained-glasses have been leached in a static mode (pH=1 to 10, T=20 to 80 degrees Celsius, T=12 hours to 6 months). These experiments have revealed that the alteration mechanisms depend on the pH of the solution and on the chemical composition of the glass. An increasing durability of glasses in terms of the global polymerization degree has been revealed too. At last, the behaviours of glasses during alteration, observed with natural and experimental conditions, show that it is necessary to study natural analogous for predicting the long-term behaviour of vitrified wastes. (O.M.)

  17. Archaeology of Architecture and Archaeology of houses in Early Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe» dossier, the object of which is to explore the different approaches, methodologies and themes analysed in the study of early medieval architecture in western Europe. More specifically, in what follows, analysis is undertaken of the contexts which explain the recent development of studies on this topic, as well as the main contributions of the seven papers which form this dossier. In addition, the main historical and archaeological problems raised by the analysis of this material record are also discussed.En este trabajo se presenta el dossier «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe», que pretende explorar los distintos enfoques, metodologías y temáticas analizadas en el estudio de las arquitecturas altomedievales en el marco de Europa occidental. Más concretamente se analizan los contextos que explican el desarrollo reciente de los estudios sobre esta materia, las principales aportaciones de los siete trabajos que conforman este dossier y se discuten los principales problemas históricos y arqueológicos que plantea el análisis de este registro material.

  18. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  19. History Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  20. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.