WorldWideScience

Sample records for medicine in literature

  1. Medicinal behavior in Persian literature by emphasis on Ibn-Sina popular literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdouzan, Akbar; Vahabi, Fataneh

    2013-01-01

    Content of Persian literature comes from innocents, has special effect on social and individual people life. We understand worth of medical science, physician and sick people relationship in society and impact of religion behavior in treatment. Persian literature contains some recommendation that improve belief, trust, and secretary in medical society. In this article we chose some Persian literature about medicinal behavior and discuss trough: physician relationship with GOD and its impact on treatment, and sick people with others. We hope by studying this article physician can work better and sick people obey their orders more.

  2. Minorities in academic medicine: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivet, Marc A

    2010-04-01

    Given the considerable demographic changes occurring in the in the United States coupled with the urgent need for the field of medicine to continue to adapt to and better align with societal needs and expectations, a growing number of leaders in academic medicine have called for academic health centers to redouble their efforts to increase the diversity of students, faculty, and staff. Although it is laudable to call for increased attention and efforts to diversify, it is of paramount importance to review and distill what we have learned from past efforts so that future energy can be spent intelligently to ensure greater impact going forward. This article reviews the literature on both the barriers and facilitators for racial and ethnic minorities in academic medical careers and offers guidance for increasing the diversity of the nation's medical school faculty members and leadership. Copyright 2010 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Monotheistic and spiritual style literature in traditional medicine's resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Hossein; Afjei, Ebrahim; Hatami, Maryam; Hatami, Neda

    2014-04-01

    The basis for success of Iranian Gnostics, poets and scientists were moral teaching, attention to origin and searching for specific goals in creation of human and creatures as well as finding some of his essence in studying all phenomena regarding the creation of universe by divine attitude. There is no surprise that such relationship was bilateral and according to his promise to those who truly follow him such that he will show the right path of learning to human in order to obtain the secrets of life. This relationship has resulted in growth of famous Iranian scientists such as Rhazes, Ahvazi, Avicenna, Ferdousi and… at the beginning of the second millennium. Thus, goal of this research is to study the style of writing in original resources of traditional medicine. In order to increase the accuracy of this study, an electronic database version of traditional medicine resources has been prepared. Writing style of Alhavi book (by Rhazes), Kamel-al-Sanaah (by Ahvazi), Canon of Medicine (by Avicenna) and Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi (by Jorjani) was considered. This task was accomplished by searching using related key words such as God, creator, magnificent, omnipotent, transcendent, omniscient and many other similar words and then encoding them. Finally, content analysis of these words was performed. Hundreds of monotheistic words and many small and great texts related to monotheistic literature have been encountered in the literature, and some are mentioned in the following. Rhazes has started some parts of Alhavi by remembering the name of merciful God and saluting his prophets and has mentioned "God" for more than 570 times and the word "God willing" for more than 215 times. Ahvazi has written his book called Kamel-al-Sanaah by using monotheistic literature, so that both volumes of book are started by remembering the name of God and saluting his prophets. In the introduction of first volume of his book, he has acknowledged God due to conferring logic and wisdom to

  4. Breaking bad news in prenatal medicine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Spitz, Elisabeth; Vieux, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    The diagnosis of a fetal anomaly in perinatal medicine forces expectant parents and healthcare providers to face the difficult process of breaking bad news. This exploratory literature review was aimed at providing a medical and psychological view of the psychological experience in expectant parents and physicians in the context of prenatal diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. An exploratory search of PubMed and PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES databases performed by an interdisciplinary team composed of a physician and psychologists. Search terms were: prenatal diagnosis AND bad news; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological consequences; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological sequelae; prenatal diagnosis AND fetal abnormality. The processing of selected articles followed a standardised five-step procedure. A total of 860 articles were screened of which 32 were retained for analysis. Four main themes emerged from the explanatory content analysis: (1) parents' subjective experience; (2) physicians' subjective experience; (3) encounters between expectant parents and professionals; and (4) ethical challenges in breaking bad news in prenatal medicine. Expectant parents go through a complex and multidimensional experience when the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly is disclosed. Simultaneously, physicians consider breaking bad news as a very stressful event and are poorly prepared in this regard. A better knowledge of factors underlying psychological adjustment of the parental dyad and on the subjective experience of physicians delivering these diagnoses could enable better adaptation for both patients and professionals.

  5. Update in Hospital Medicine: Practical Lessons from the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Alfred; Miller, Chad; Sharpe, Bradley A; Thompson, Rachel E

    2018-02-27

    Hospital Medicine has a widening scope of practice. This article provides a summary of recent highimpact publications for busy clinicians who provide care to hospitalized adults. The authors reviewed articles published between March 2016 and March 2017 for the Update in Hospital Medicine presentations at the 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine and Society of General Internal Medicine annual meetings. Nine of the 20 articles presented were selected for this review based on the article quality and potential to influence practice. The key insights gained include: pulmonary embolism may be a more common cause of syncope and acute exacerbation of COPD than previously recognized; nonthoracic low-tesla MRI is safe following a specific protocol for patients with cardiac devices implanted after 2001; routine inpatient blood cultures for fever are of a low yield with a false positive rate similar to the true positive rate; chronic opioid use after surgery occurs more frequently than in the general population; high-sensitivity troponin and a negative ECG performed 3 hours after an episode of chest pain can rule out acute myocardial infarction; sitting at patients' bedsides enhances patients' perception of provider communication; 5 days of antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia is equivalent to longer courses; oral proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are as effective as IV PPIs after an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Recent research provides insight into how we approach common medical problems in the care of hospitalized adults. These articles have the potential to change or confirm current practices. © 2018 Society of Hospital Medicine

  6. The Phenomenon of Pathological Dissociation in the Ancient Chinese Medicine Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Hong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms and disorders have been reported in many different cultures. If pathological dissociation is naturally occurring and related to adverse experiences, such phenomena should have been witnessed and portrayed before the modern age. To investigate whether this is the case, the author made use of the rich ancient Chinese medicine literature and looked for descriptions of pathological dissociation in medical documents written by ancient Chinese medical practitioners. In this paper, the author presents six cases selected from the ancient Chinese medicine literature. The phenomenon of pathological dissociation is observed in these cases. This is the first report of case descriptions of pathological dissociation documented in Chinese cultures before 1900.

  7. Economic evaluation studies in nuclear medicine. A methodological review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, S.S.; Schwimmer, J.

    2000-01-01

    The growing need for evaluation of the utility of new nuclear medicine technologies has spawned a few economic studies ranging from preliminary indications of cost savings to complete decision analysis models incorporating costs and quality of life. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the methodological quality of economic analyses of nuclear medicine procedures which targeted cost-effectiveness or cost-utility issues published in the medical literature during the years 1985-1999. A computerized literature search was used to identify original investigations from the medical literature which included an economic analysis of a nuclear medicine procedure. Each economic analysis article was evaluated by two independent reviewers for adherence to ten accepted methodological criteria. Of the 29 articles meeting the search criteria, only six (21%) conformed to all ten methodological criteria. Published economic analyses of nuclear medicine procedures usually do not meet accepted methodological standards and could be significantly improved to achieve overall better quality relative to similar analyses in the literature from other medical fields. Continued improvement in the number and quality of economic studies is critically needed for the future competitiveness of nuclear medicine studies

  8. Botanical identification of medicinal roots collected and traded in Morocco and comparison to the existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouarghidi, Abderrahim; Martin, Gary J; Powell, Bronwen; Esser, Gabrielle; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2013-08-15

    A literature review revealed heavy reliance on a few key publications for identification of medicinal plant species from local or vernacular names and a lack of citation of voucher specimens in many publications. There is a need for more reliable and standardized data on the identity of species used for medicine, especially because local names vary from region to region. This is especially true in the case of medicinal roots, for which identification of species is difficult. This paper contributes to existing data on the species sold as medicinal roots (and other underground plant parts such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes and tubers) in Morocco. Data were collected in collaboration with herbalists in Marrakech and collectors in rural regions near Marrakech where species are collected from the wild. The ethno-medicinal uses of these species were also recorded. We identified the vernacular names for 67 medicinal roots (by free listing) used to treat a variety of human diseases. We were able to collect and identify one or more species for 39 of the recorded vernacular names. The ones we were not able to identify were either imported or no longer available in the markets. We collected more than one species for some of the vernacular names for a total of 43 species. We identified six new vernacular names and four species which had not been previously described in the literature. Our botanical identification matched at least one of the names listed in the literature 63% of the time and did not match any species listed in the literature 37% of the time. Of the three most commonly cited pieces of literature we compared to, we found the greatest overlap with the broader, more comprehensive work of Bellakhdar 1997 (as opposed to Benchâabane and Abbad 1997 which worked in a similarly focused geographical area). However there was only 63% agreement between Bellakhdar 1997 and our botanical identifications, and 29% of the time our identification didn't match even the genus of any

  9. Botanical identification of medicinal roots collected and traded in Morocco and comparison to the existing literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A literature review revealed heavy reliance on a few key publications for identification of medicinal plant species from local or vernacular names and a lack of citation of voucher specimens in many publications. There is a need for more reliable and standardized data on the identity of species used for medicine, especially because local names vary from region to region. This is especially true in the case of medicinal roots, for which identification of species is difficult. This paper contributes to existing data on the species sold as medicinal roots (and other underground plant parts such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes and tubers) in Morocco. Methods Data were collected in collaboration with herbalists in Marrakech and collectors in rural regions near Marrakech where species are collected from the wild. The ethno-medicinal uses of these species were also recorded. Results We identified the vernacular names for 67 medicinal roots (by free listing) used to treat a variety of human diseases. We were able to collect and identify one or more species for 39 of the recorded vernacular names. The ones we were not able to identify were either imported or no longer available in the markets. We collected more than one species for some of the vernacular names for a total of 43 species. We identified six new vernacular names and four species which had not been previously described in the literature. Our botanical identification matched at least one of the names listed in the literature 63% of the time and did not match any species listed in the literature 37% of the time. Of the three most commonly cited pieces of literature we compared to, we found the greatest overlap with the broader, more comprehensive work of Bellakhdar 1997 (as opposed to Benchâabane and Abbad 1997 which worked in a similarly focused geographical area). However there was only 63% agreement between Bellakhdar 1997 and our botanical identifications, and 29% of the time our identification didn

  10. Evidence based medicine and the plastic surgery literature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: All articles described as case reports and published in the Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery from January 2008 to December 2012 were evaluated to investigate their impact on evidence-based practice. Result: There were 28 case reports representing 44% of all articles published. Most articles ...

  11. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, E Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes ("seeds") as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ 9 -THC are investigated.

  12. Add-On Complementary Medicine in Cancer Care: Evidence in Literature and Experiences of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Rossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the literature an increasing number of cancer patients demand for complementary therapies during their disease. Research has demonstrated that some of these therapies are effective and safe as adjunctive treatments in specific symptoms of these patients. Methods: The aims of the paper are to review the main and recent papers of international literature on the effectiveness of complementary medicine (CM therapies on side effects of anti-cancer protocols and improvement in the quality of life of oncological patients, and to describe the integration of evidence-based acupuncture, herbal medicine and homeopathy treatments in Public Cancer Network of the region of Tuscany. Results: After the review of literature and the approval of a Regional Resolution, some CM will be introduced in Cancer Departments in Tuscany to additionally treat cancer-related symptoms and side effects of conventional cancer therapy: acupuncture for nausea and post-chemotherapy and post-surgery vomiting, pain, hot flashes of iatrogenic menopause, xerostomia; homeopathy for hot flashes of iatrogenic menopause and the side effects of radiotherapy; herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, mucositis, anxiety, and depression. Conclusions: The integration of evidence-based complementary treatments allows for an effective response to the demand coming from cancer patients and combines safety and equity of access in public health systems.

  13. Add-On Complementary Medicine in Cancer Care: Evidence in Literature and Experiences of Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elio; Di Stefano, Mariella; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Monechi, Maria Valeria; Baccetti, Sonia

    2017-01-24

    Background : According to the literature an increasing number of cancer patients demand for complementary therapies during their disease. Research has demonstrated that some of these therapies are effective and safe as adjunctive treatments in specific symptoms of these patients. Methods : The aims of the paper are to review the main and recent papers of international literature on the effectiveness of complementary medicine (CM) therapies on side effects of anti-cancer protocols and improvement in the quality of life of oncological patients, and to describe the integration of evidence-based acupuncture, herbal medicine and homeopathy treatments in Public Cancer Network of the region of Tuscany. Results : After the review of literature and the approval of a Regional Resolution, some CM will be introduced in Cancer Departments in Tuscany to additionally treat cancer-related symptoms and side effects of conventional cancer therapy: acupuncture for nausea and post-chemotherapy and post-surgery vomiting, pain, hot flashes of iatrogenic menopause, xerostomia; homeopathy for hot flashes of iatrogenic menopause and the side effects of radiotherapy; herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, mucositis, anxiety, and depression. Conclusions : The integration of evidence-based complementary treatments allows for an effective response to the demand coming from cancer patients and combines safety and equity of access in public health systems.

  14. Trends in publications on complementary and alternative medicine in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2015-06-01

    Public interest in and demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services have increased in recent years throughout the Western world. The aim of the study was to assess trends in publications on CAM in the medical literature between 1963 and 2012 and to compare them with overall trends in publications on medical issues. A search of the literature was conducted on CAM and integrative medicine using the PubMed and Google Scholar search engines with key search terms. Articles on CAM began to appear in the medical literature 50 years ago. Over the years there has been an increase in the number of publications. On PubMed the increase was from 15,764 to 144,288 articles from 1963 to 2012. In the decade between 1963 and 1972 publications on CAM comprised 0.81% of all the articles appearing in PubMed. Over the course of the 50 years, the percentage increased more than twofold to 1.92% from 2003 to 2012. On Google Scholar there were 27,170 citations related to CAM between 1963 and 1972. This increased to 2,521,430 between 2003 and 2012. Over the last 50 years there has been an increase in scientific publications on CAM in general, and on specific CAM treatments in particular.

  15. The Return to Literature-Making Doctors Matter in the New Era of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalik, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    The rapid explosion of medical knowledge of the 19th and 20th centuries required a transformation in medical education, which, to that point, had been marked by low educational standards. To combat the lack of regulation, the 1910 Flexner Report recommended sweeping reforms. By 1930, students hoping to enroll in a medical school would need to complete courses in chemistry, physics, and biology, leaving little room for the liberal arts.Medicine is once again changing. The impact of artificial intelligence is being felt across all medical fields, and the nature of physicians' jobs in the new landscape of intelligent machines will inevitably also have to change. What will the role of new physicians be? And how should medical education be amended to meet those needs?In 2017, the Georgetown University School of Medicine graduated the first group of students from its Literature and Medicine Track-the first U.S. medical school track dedicated to the study of literature. This Invited Commentary explores the work done in, and the scholarship resulting from, this novel educational program and suggests ways in which literature could be used to prepare future doctors for the evolving demands of the medical field.

  16. Levels of Evidence in the Clinical Sports Medicine Literature: Are We Getting Better Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Heather M; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Freedman, Kevin B

    2014-07-01

    There has been an increased emphasis on improving the level of evidence used as the basis for clinical treatment decisions. Several journals now require a statement of the level of evidence as a basic gauge of the study's strength. To review the levels of evidence in published articles in the clinical sports medicine literature and to determine if there has been an improvement in the levels of evidence published over the past 15 years. Systematic review. All articles from the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), Arthroscopy, and sports medicine-related articles from The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American (JBJS-A) were analyzed. Articles were categorized by type and ranked for level of evidence according to guidelines from the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Excluded were animal, cadaveric, and basic science articles; editorials; surveys; special topics; letters to the editor; and correspondence. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square. A total of 1580 articles over the 4 periods met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of level 1 and 2 studies increased from 6.8% to 12.6%, 22.9%, and 23.5%, respectively (P sports medicine literature over the past 15 years, particularly in JBJS-A and AJSM. The largest increase was seen in diagnostic studies, while therapeutic and prognostic studies demonstrated modest improvement. The emphasis on increasing levels of evidence to guide treatment decisions for sports medicine patients may be taking effect. © 2014 The Author(s).

  17. [Medical novels as a supplement to medical literature in the (postgraduate) study of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landex, Nadia Lander

    2011-12-05

    Medically relevant fiction and biographies are thought to possibly improve the reader's emotional competences, thus contributing to the (postgraduate) study of medicine. This paper evaluates whether medical novels might be relevant in the (postgraduate) study of medicine. The contents of four medical novels were evaluated qualitatively as regard to the professional and cultural contents and relevance. The medical novels were composed uniformly and considered to be both professional and cultural subjects. The professional subjects were mostly described correctly, and milieu and cultural subjects were realistic. The contents of the medical novels were relevant, but briefly described. Students of medicine and junior doctors may identify with the environment and the cultural subjects. It is not ruled out that medical novels can be used to acquire cultural competences, but - as regards professional knowledge - the study of professional literature will be more time-effective.

  18. An Analysis of the Top-cited Articles in Emergency Medicine Education Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan William Munzer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissemination of educational research is critical to improving medical education, promotion of faculty and, ultimately, patient care. The objective of this study was to identify the top 25 cited education articles in the emergency medicine (EM literature and the top 25 cited EM education articles in all journals, as well as report on the characteristics of the articles.Two searches were conducted in the Web of Science in June 2016 using a list of education related search terms. Nineteen EM journals were searched for education articles as well as all other literature for emergency medicine education-related articles. Articles identified were reviewed for citation count, article type, journal, authors, and publication year. With regards to EM journals, the greatest number of articles were classified as articles/reviews followed by research articles on topics such as deliberate practice (cited 266 times and cognitive errors (cited 201 times. In contrast, in the non-EM journals, research articles were predominant. Both searches found several simulation and ultrasound articles to be included. The most common EM journal was Academic Emergency Medicine (n = 18 and Academic Medicine was the most common non-EM journal (n=5. A reasonable number of articles included external funding sources (6 EM articles and 13 non-EM articles. This study identified the most frequently cited medical education journals in the field of EM education, published in EM journals as well as all other journals indexed in Web of Science. The results identify impactful articles to medical education, providing a resource to educators while identifying trends that may be used to guide emergency medicine educational research and publishing efforts.

  19. Communication Concepts for Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine: Consensus and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864..

  20. Evaluating the quality of systematic reviews in the emergency medicine literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K D; Travers, A; Dorgan, M; Slater, L; Rowe, B H

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the scientific quality of systematic reviews published in 5 leading emergency medicine journals. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were electronically searched to identify published systematic reviews. Searches were only conducted in emergency medicine journals during the past 10 years; 4 of the journals were also hand searched. Potential reviews were assessed independently by 2 reviewers for inclusion. Data regarding methods were extracted from each review independently by 2 reviewers. All systematic reviews were retrieved and rated for quality by using the 10 questions from the overview quality assessment questionnaire. Twenty-nine reviews were identified from more than 100 citations. The overall scientific quality of the systematic reviews was low (mean score, 2.7; 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 3.2; maximum possible score, 7.0). Selection and publication biases were rarely addressed in this collection of reviews. For example, the search strategies were only identified in 9 (31%) reviews, whereas independent study selection (6 [21%]) and quality assessment of included studies (9 [31%]) were infrequently performed. Overall, the majority of reviews had extensive flaws, and only 3 (10%) had minimal flaws. The results of the study indicate that many of the systematic reviews published in the emergency medicine literature contain major flaws; reviews with poor methodology may limit the validity of reported results. Further efforts should be made to improve the design, reporting, and publication of systematic reviews in emergency medicine.

  1. An Analysis of Literature Searching Anxiety in Evidence-Based Medicine Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chin Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is hurtling towards a cornerstone in lifelong learning for healthcare personnel worldwide. This study aims to evaluate the literature searching anxiety in graduate students in practicing EBM. Method The study participants were 48 graduate students who enrolled the EBM course at aMedical Universityin central Taiwan. Student’s t-test, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression, interviewing are used to evaluate the students’ literature searching anxiety of EBM course. The questionnaire is Literature Searching Anxiety Rating Scale -LSARS. Results The sources of anxiety are uncertainty of database selection, literatures evaluation and selection, technical assistance request, computer programs use, English and EBM education programs were disclosed. The class performance is negatively related to LSARS score, however, the correlation is statistically insignificant with the adjustment of gender, degree program, age category and experience of publication. Conclusion This study helps in understanding the causes and the extent of anxiety in order to work on a better teaching program planning to improve user’s searching skills and the capability of utilization the information; At the same time, provide friendly-user facilities of evidence searching. In short, we need to upgrade the learner’s searching 45 skills and reduce theanxiety. We also need to stress on the auxiliary teaching program for those with the prevalent and profoundanxiety during literature searching.

  2. China's research status in emergency medicine: a 15-year survey of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Jiang, Ting; Li, Chunyu; Chen, Jun; Cao, Kejiang; Qi, Lian-wen; Li, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Baoli; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the research status of emergency medicine in China through literature search of international emergency medicine journals and retrospectively compare the outputs of emergency medicine articles of the 3 major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK). Emergency medicine journals were selected category from Science Citation Index Expand. Articles from the ML, TW, and HK were retrieved from PubMed database. The total number of articles, publication types, research contents, impact factors (IF), and articles published in each journal were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons. A total of 1760 articles from 19 emergency medicine journals were searched, of which 395 were from ML, 1210 from TW, and 155 from HK. Accumulated IF of articles from TW (2451.109) was much higher than that of ML (851.832) and HK (328.579), whereas the average IF of articles from TW (2.02) was the lowest. The number of case reports was the highest, which was, 69 from ML, 637 from TW, and 25 from HK, respectively. Although emergency medicine was involved with multiple organs and multiple systems, the reports of trauma accounted for 25% of the research contents. The total number of articles from both China and the rest of the world increased significantly from 2000 to 2014, especially ML. The total number of articles from TW was still much more than that of ML and HK, whereas the quality of articles from TW was not as good as ML and HK. Case report had the highest share of publication types, whereas the proportions of meta-analysis and observational study were the lowest. As for research contents, the proportion of trauma was still the highest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SETTING THE AGENDA - DOES THE MEDICAL LITERATURE SET THE AGENDA FOR ARTICLES ABOUT MEDICINES IN THE NEWSPAPERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTRIGT, AM; DEJONGVANDENBERG, LTW; VOOGT, LM; WILLEMS, J; TROMP, TFJ; HAAIJER-RUSKAMP, FM

    The source of ideas and information on medicines most important to journalists in the Netherlands, and most commonly consulted by them, is known to be the scientific medical literature. In this study we therefore, explored the relation between the kind of medicines discussed in the scientific

  4. Radiation therapy using the wildlife medicine: a reasoned obtained study in cases of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, Michel de Campos; Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Vulcano, Luis Carlos; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho

    2016-01-01

    The cancer is the kind of tumor that affects both humans and animals and is responsible for more deaths worldwide. In wildlife, cancer is a problem found most often in zoo animals. Thus veterinary oncologists have researched and developed therapeutic approaches to many types of cancer over the years in both curative and palliative therapies including therein the application of radiation. The basic principle of radiotherapy is the effect of ionizing radiation on the tumor cells, causing them to death. However, its application in veterinary medicine for wildlife is not much reported in the literature, especially in Brazil. This study aims to describe and compare some of radiotherapy applications in different species of wildlife looking to improve her knowledge in veterinary medicine through a brief literature review. After the descriptions and comparisons, it is concluded that despite the number of cases taken for this study, all the cases mentioned had satisfactory results using radiation therapy and all the presented cases provided relevant information that can guide future researchers in this area, thus improving knowledge of this therapy and improve the quality of life of animals. (author)

  5. The Literature of Veterinary Medicine. CE 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie

    This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…

  6. An Analysis of the Top-cited Articles in Emergency Medicine Education Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzer, Brendan W; Love, Jeffery; Shipman, Barbara L; Byrne, Brendan; Cico, Stephen J; Furlong, Robert; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Santen, Sally A

    2017-01-01

    Dissemination of educational research is critical to improving medical education, promotion of faculty and ultimately patient care. The objective of this study was to identify the top 25 cited education articles in the emergency medicine (EM) literature and the top 25 cited EM education articles in all journals, as well as report on the characteristics of the articles. Two searches were conducted in the Web of Science in June 2016 using a list of education-related search terms. We searched 19 EM journals for education articles as well as all other literature for EM education-related articles. Articles identified were reviewed for citation count, article type, journal, authors, and publication year. With regards to EM journals, the greatest number of articles were classified as articles/reviews, followed by research articles on topics such as deliberate practice (cited 266 times) and cognitive errors (cited 201 times). In contrast in the non-EM journals, research articles were predominant. Both searches found several simulation and ultrasound articles to be included. The most common EM journal was Academic Emergency Medicine (n = 18), and Academic Medicine was the most common non-EM journal (n=5). A reasonable number of articles included external funding sources (6 EM articles and 13 non-EM articles.). This study identified the most frequently cited medical education articles in the field of EM education, published in EM journals as well as all other journals indexed in Web of Science. The results identify impactful articles to medical education, providing a resource to educators while identifying trends that may be used to guide EM educational research and publishing efforts.

  7. What makes a good clinical teacher in medicine? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkin, Gary; Wagner, Elizabeth; Harris, Ilene; Schiffer, Randolph

    2008-05-01

    The authors perform a review of the literature pertinent to the question, "What makes a good clinical teacher in medicine?" After framing the question, based on discussions of their own experiences with clinical teachers, the authors performed a search of the literature pertinent to the question, "What are the qualities of a good clinical teacher in medicine?" Between July and December, 2006, they reviewed titles from Index Medicus (1909-1966), PubMed (1966 to the present), PubMed Related Articles, and referenced articles. The initial selections were chosen by scanning pre-1966 Index Medicus title lists and post-1966 abstracts. Chosen articles were then read in their entirety, and those which described specific characteristics of clinical teachers were selected for inclusion. Qualitative analysis was used to identify themes. From 4,914 titles, 68 articles were selected for analysis-26 published before 1966, and 42 published after 1966. Four hundred eighty descriptors were identified and grouped into 49 themes, which were clustered into three main categories: physician, teacher, and human characteristics. Echoing the authors' intuitive descriptions, noncognitive characteristics dominated the descriptions and themes. Excellent clinical teaching, although multifactorial, transcends ordinary teaching and is characterized by inspiring, supporting, actively involving, and communicating with students. Faculty development programs and future research should focus on development of the noncognitive attributes of clinical teachers, as well as the knowledge and skills associated with effective teaching.

  8. Poetry for the uninitiated: Dannie Abse's "X-Ray" in an undergraduate medicine and literature class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigley, Sally Bishop

    2013-12-01

    I recently taught an upper-division Honors class in Medicine and Literature with students ranging from a pre-physician's assistant student and nursing student to English, French, History, and Technical Writing majors. The common thread connecting these students initially was their self-described fear of and helplessness with poetry. However, as the semester drew to a close, their class discussion and journals revealed not only increased comfort with poetry but also a preference for it. The information and insight they got from poetry, they said, were the reason they took a medical humanities course in the first place and commented that the poetry we read provoked more substantial "medicine and literature" discussions than prose. Poetry provides a good starting place to analyze complex human relationships, and the focus on language and form levels the intellectual playing field: students are all unfamiliar with how to do it and are learning a new skill together. This could be accomplished, of course, with a literary short story, but for the diverse population of students in this class, the brevity of poetry made it all the more appealing.

  9. The use of quality of life measures in oral medicine: a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riordain, R Ni

    2010-07-01

    To explore the use of patient reported quality of life measures in oral medicine, to highlight the importance of use of these measures in oral medicine practice and to provide guidance for the selection of such measures in the future.

  10. Electronic cigarettes and vaping: a new challenge in clinical medicine and public health. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Dominic L

    2013-11-18

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or vaping, in the United States and worldwide is increasing. Their use is highly controversial from scientific, political, financial, psychological, and sociological ideologies. Given the controversial nature of e-cigarettes and vaping, how should medical care providers advise their patients? To effectively face this new challenge, health care professionals need to become more familiar with the existing literature concerning e-cigarettes and vaping, especially the scientific literature. Thus, the aim of this article is to present a review of the scientific evidence-based primary literature concerning electronic cigarettes and vaping. A search of the most current literature using the pubmed database dating back to 2008, and using electronic cigarette(s) or e-cigarette(s) as key words, yielded a total of 66 highly relevant articles. These articles primarily deal with (1) consumer-based surveys regarding personal views on vaping, (2) chemical analysis of e-cigarette cartridges, solutions, and mist, (3) nicotine content, delivery, and pharmacokinetics, and (4) clinical and physiological studies investigating the effects of acute vaping. When compared to the effects of smoking, the scant available literature suggests that vaping could be a "harm reduction" alternative to smoking and a possible means for smoking cessation, at least to the same degree as other Food and Drug Administration-approved nicotine replacement therapies. However, it is unclear if vaping e-cigarettes will reduce or increase nicotine addiction. It is obvious that more rigorous investigations of the acute and long-term health effects of vaping are required to establish the safety and efficacy of these devices; especially parallel experiments comparing the cardiopulmonary effects of vaping to smoking. Only then will the medical community be able to adequately meet the new challenge e-cigarettes and vaping present to clinical medicine and public health.

  11. Nuclear medicine technologist education and training in Europe: literature and web-based findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ana C; Massa, Raquel C; Lucena, Filipa M; Vaz, Tânia R

    2015-06-01

    The education and training of a nuclear medicine technologist (NMT) is not homogeneous among European countries, which leads to different scope of practices and, therefore, different technical skills are assigned. The goal of this research was to characterize the education and training of NMT in Europe. This study was based on a literature research to characterize the education and training of NMT and support the historical evolution of this profession. It was divided into two different phases: the first phase included analysis of scientific articles and the second phase included research of curricula that allow health professionals to work as NMT in Europe. The majority of the countries [N=31 (89%)] offer the NMT curriculum integrated into the high education system and only in four (11%) countries the education is provided by professional schools. The duration in each education system is not equal, varying in professional schools (2-3 years) and high education level system (2-4 years), which means that different European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, such as 240, 230, 222, 210 or 180 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, are attributed to the graduates. The professional title and scope of the practice of NMT are different in different countries in Europe. In most countries of Europe, nuclear medicine training is not specific and curriculum does not demonstrate the Nuclear Medicine competencies performed in clinical practice. The heterogeneity in education and training for NMT is an issue prevalent among European countries. For NMT professional development, there is a huge need to formalize and unify educational and training programmes in Europe.

  12. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene: application possibilities in medicine and sports cardiology (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Malakhova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Formation of modern ideas about the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism on the functioning of various body systems including in athletes. Methods of research. Analysis and synthesis of the modern scientific literature data. Results. According to modern ideas of sport molecular genetics, individual differences in the expression degree of certain physical and mental qualities of a person are largely determined by DNA-polymorphisms. Specific features of angiotensin converting enzyme I/D gene polymorphism influence on life-supporting systems functioning of human, who do not engage in sports, have been revealed. This polymorphism is widely covered by professional athletes from the point of view of physical qualities development possibility, but at the same time, the risk of pathological conditions development, taking into account regular intensive physical exertion, has not sufficiently studied. Knowledge of the innate personal physical abilities will help to predict the strengths and weaknesses of a person's physical and adaptive capabilities and, accordingly, to make a timely correct prognosis for personal sports prospects and carry out competent selection of athletes. This approach will allow them to progress quickly and achieve high results in sport. Conclusions. A feature of genetic markers that do not change throughout life is the possibility of their determination immediately after child’s birth, thus, the prognosis for indicators development that are significant in the conditions of sport activities can be made much earlier. In the available to us literature, ACE I/D gene polymorphism is primarily evaluated from the perspective of speed-strength development of physical qualities, but at the same time, genetic testing of beginner athletes should allow us to identify a risk group relatively to a number of pathological conditions progression that are genetically determined. Thus, despite numerous studies that allow an

  13. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Theodoor; Bruxvoort, Katia; Maloney, Kathleen; Leslie, Toby; Barat, Lawrence M; Allan, Richard; Ansah, Evelyn K; Anyanti, Jennifer; Boulton, Ian; Clarke, Siân E; Cohen, Jessica L; Cohen, Justin M; Cutherell, Andrea; Dolkart, Caitlin; Eves, Katie; Fink, Günther; Goodman, Catherine; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Lal, Sham; Mbonye, Anthony; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Petty, Nora; Pontarollo, Julie; Poyer, Stephen; Schellenberg, David; Streat, Elizabeth; Ward, Abigail; Wiseman, Virginia; Whitty, Christopher J M; Yeung, Shunmay; Cunningham, Jane; Chandler, Clare I R

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR) that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions. Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators. Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges. Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic services may hold

  14. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoor Visser

    Full Text Available Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions.Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators.Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges.Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic

  15. Reliability of Manual Pulse Diagnosis Methods in Traditional East Asian Medicine: A Systematic Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Karen; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Little evidence shows the reliability of Chinese medicine pulse diagnosis. Regularly used in modern practice, it is believed to gather important diagnostic information. However, in the current evidence-based healthcare system, basing clinical decisions on unproven methods is problematic and obviously questions the relevancy of the procedure. Therefore, the literature on reliability of practitioners implementing the method was reviewed. Major medical databases and reference lists of identified articles were searched. All studies published in English that investigated manual pulse diagnosis applied to the radial artery by human testers were considered. Twelve eligible studies were included; three evaluated intra- and inter-rater pulse diagnosis reliability, and nine assessed inter-rater reliability. Acceptable levels of intra- and inter-rater reliability were achieved with operationally defined methods. Poor reliability was related to unclear definitions and terminology existing within the classical definitions, and with standardized systems to persisting imprecise descriptions that can be interpreted differently. Reliability of pulse qualities was influenced by sensation complexity and the amount of sensory input provided to the testers' fingers by the impulse. Consistent study limitations included small sample sizes; the possibility that testers' prior knowledge confounded the data; and, most notably, the fact that many studies did not consider intra-rater reliability. Assessing the effectiveness of interventions in clinical practice is guided by comparisons of markers to baseline. The absence of intra-rater results may therefore raise methodologic concerns for these types of studies. Strategies for future studies include using pulse methods with concrete operational definitions; investigating intra- and inter-rater reliability for extrapolation to clinical practice; similar training and experience in the method to control for tester variance; maintaining

  16. The international distribution of authorship in the Nuclear Medicine literature: a bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannigan, G.G.; Bartold, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: This study profiles the increasingly diverse international contributions to the specialty of Nuclear Medicine as measured by publication in the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Springer) and the Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine). These are the leading journals in the field, with 2001 impact factor scores of 3.617 and 3.772 respectively.1 Materials and Methods: We searched the MEDLINE database from 1988-2001, using the Limits (Journal) feature. 1988 is the first year that author affiliation information is reliably included on the MEDLINE record. The retrieved set of articles from the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and the Journal of Nuclear Medicine was limited to articles with abstracts, the goal being to count only substantive articles and to eliminate editorials, letters, and other brief communications. Since author affiliation information is neither standardized nor can it be sorted in MEDLINE, we manually counted and categorized publications by country of the first author as listed in the article. Microsoft Excel was used to tabulate and analyze the data. Results: 2,634 articles were analyzed for six years (1988, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 2001). Authors from 40 countries published in these two journals. In 1988, authors from seven countries (US, Japan, UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Canada) contributed ten or more articles, accounting for 80% of the articles . In 2001, authors from eleven countries contributed ten or more articles, accounting for 86% of the total (US, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Australia, France, UK, Spain, Finland); Conclusions: A previous study showed that, from 1980-97, seven countries accounted for 86% of the research articles in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine: US 60.2%, Japan 8.6%, and Canada, France, Germany, UK, Netherlands each 3.4%.2. In this study, for the six years included, authors from ten countries accounted for 86% of the research articles in the European Journal of

  17. National representation in the emergency medicine literature: a bibliometric analysis of highly cited journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Mao

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, significant growth has been seen in the field of emergency medicine. However, the national productivity to the field of emergency medicine remains unknown. This study aimed to reveal the national contributions in the field of emergency medicine. Articles published in 13 highly cited journals in emergency medicine in 2006 to 2010 were retrieved from PubMed and Science Citation Index. The number of total articles, the per-capita numbers, impact factors (IFs), and citations were tabulated to assess the contribution of different countries. A total number of 9775 articles were published in the 13 journals from 2006 to 2010 worldwide. West Europe, North America, and East Asia were the most productive regions. High-income countries published 87.9% of the total articles. United States published the most number of articles in 2006 to 2010 (4523/9775, or 46.3%), followed by United Kingdom, Australia, China, and Canada. Besides, United States also had the highest total IFs (8729.73) and total citations (22,117). When normalized to population size, Australia had the highest number of articles per million persons (26.00). Germany had the highest mean IF (2.27) and mean citations (6.87). United States is the most productive country in the field of emergency medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into can...

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Care: A Review of Case Series Published in the Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been widely used in cancer in China. Case series report a series of cases exposed to a certain intervention. To understand the current situation of case series of TCM for cancer, we performed this review. We included case series of cancer patients treated with TCM therapy. Electronic searches were conducted in four main Chinese databases until February 2011. A total of 1,217 reports of case series (92,945 patients were included. The top five types of cancer were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, leukemia, and esophageal cancer. Leukopenia and hiccup treated by TCM were the most common adverse reactions after surgery or induced by chemo/radiotherapy. More than half of the patients were treated with TCM therapies alone. The application of herbal medicines especially formula based on syndrome differentiation was highly prevalent, and the typical administration route was oral usage. 1,182 reports were published in a structured format. The quantity of TCM case series for cancer treatment is substantial. Further studies should focus on the most common types of cancer and the most frequently applied TCM therapies. We presented a recommendation from the methodological point of view for the format of reporting.

  20. A comparison between conflict of interest in Western and Islamic literatures in the realm of medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Parsa, Mojtaba; Aramesh, Kiarash; Larijani, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    In Western literatures, “conflict” is a general term that refers to discord between two or more entities. In Islamic jurisprudence, however, in addition to the term “conflict” (Taāruz), there is another term which is called tazāhum. The two terms, however, have different definitions. Conflict between two concepts, for instance, indicates that one is right and the other is wrong, while tazāhum does not necessarily have to be between right and wrong, and may appear between two equally right con...

  1. Animal-assisted interventions in internal and rehabilitation medicine: a review of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Lasa, S; Ferriero, G; Brigatti, E; Valero, R; Franchignoni, F

    2011-06-01

    While conventional wisdom has always affirmed the value of animals in promoting human well-being, only recently has their therapeutic role in medicine become the focus of dedicated research. Therapeutic modalities that use animals as a tool for improving the physical, emotional, cognitive and/or social functioning of humans are called animal-assisted interventions (AAI), and are classified into: animal-assisted activities (AAA); animal-assisted therapy (AAT); and service animal programs (SAP). The aim of this review is to analyze the papers published between 2001 and 2010 in the most influential medical journals dealing with AAI, and discuss their findings in the light of what may be of interest for internal medicine and rehabilitation. A total of 35 articles met the strict inclusion criteria for this review: 18 papers dealing with AAA, 8 with AAT, and 9 with SAP. The therapeutic outcomes associated with AAA are: enhancement of socialization; reduction of stress, anxiety and loneliness; improvement in mood and general well-being; and development of leisure/recreation skills. Regarding AAT, horses are often used as a complementary strategy to facilitate the normalization of muscle tone and improve motor skills in children with cerebral palsy and persons with lower limb spasticity. Finally, most SAP utilize dogs, that assist people with various disabilities in performing everyday activities, thus reducing their dependence on other persons. Further studies are needed to better define the fields and programs for the therapeutic use of animals and to increase their utilization in medicine, as a promising, complementary and natural means to improve both functional autonomy and quality of life.

  2. Use of Psychodrama in medicine in Brazil: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Liberali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To review the literature on experiences of the use of psychodrama in medical education in Brazil.Methods Papers published between 2003 and 2013 were identified in the main databases.Results Seven papers were identified. Role playing and sociodrama were the psychodrama techniques reported. They were used to address aspects of relationships such as emotions and behavior and to improve some communication and clinical skills. Psychodrama provided the students with opportunities for critical reflection, questioning of professional practices and sharing of experiences, and also decreased their anxiety and fear. Role playing was used among students and among teachers undergoing academic development, while sociodrama was only used among students.Conclusions There are still few papers reporting on experiences from the use of psychodrama in Brazilian medical schools.

  3. Web 2.0 applications in medicine: trends and topics in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    The World Wide Web has changed research habits, and these changes were further expanded when "Web 2.0" became popular in 2005. Bibliometrics is a helpful tool used for describing patterns of publication, for interpreting progression over time, and the geographical distribution of research in a given field. Few studies employing bibliometrics, however, have been carried out on the correlative nature of scientific literature and Web 2.0. The aim of this bibliometric analysis was to provide an overview of Web 2.0 implications in the biomedical literature. The objectives were to assess the growth rate of literature, key journals, authors, and country contributions, and to evaluate whether the various Web 2.0 applications were expressed within this biomedical literature, and if so, how. A specific query with keywords chosen to be representative of Web 2.0 applications was built for the PubMed database. Articles related to Web 2.0 were downloaded in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and were processed through developed hypertext preprocessor (PHP) scripts, then imported to Microsoft Excel 2010 for data processing. A total of 1347 articles were included in this study. The number of articles related to Web 2.0 has been increasing from 2002 to 2012 (average annual growth rate was 106.3% with a maximum of 333% in 2005). The United States was by far the predominant country for authors, with 514 articles (54.0%; 514/952). The second and third most productive countries were the United Kingdom and Australia, with 87 (9.1%; 87/952) and 44 articles (4.6%; 44/952), respectively. Distribution of number of articles per author showed that the core population of researchers working on Web 2.0 in the medical field could be estimated at approximately 75. In total, 614 journals were identified during this analysis. Using Bradford's law, 27 core journals were identified, among which three (Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Journal of Medical Internet Research, and Nucleic Acids

  4. Evidence-based medicine in bovine, equine and canine reproduction: quality of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, C; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate deficits and differences of published literature on reproduction in cattle, horses, and dogs. A literature search was conducted in the databases Medline and Veterinary Science. Approximately five times more articles on clinical bovine reproduction (n = 25 910) were found compared to canine (n = 5 015) and equine (n = 5 090) reproduction. For the evaluation of the literature, a checklist was used. A subset of 600 articles published between 1999 and 2008 was randomly selected. After applying exclusion criteria, a total of 268 trials (86 for cattle, 99 for horses, and 83 for dogs) were evaluated and used for further analysis. For the field of canine and equine reproduction, there were fewer clinical trials with a control group compared to bovine reproduction (cattle 66%, horses 41%, and dogs 41%). For all three species investigated, few publications were identified (4%) with the highest level of evidence, i.e., controlled, randomized, and blinded trials, or meta-analyses. In cattle 33% of the publications were graded adequate to draw sound conclusions; however, only 7 and 11% were graded adequate in dogs and horses, respectively. Therefore, the veterinarian should always assess the quality of information before implementing results into practice to provide best available care for the animals. In conclusion, improvement of the quality of well-designed, conducted and reported clinical trails in animal reproduction is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Misadministration of radiation therapy in veterinary medicine: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkans, M M; Gieger, T L; Nolan, M W

    2017-03-01

    Recent technical advancements in radiation therapy have allowed for improved targeting of tumours and sparing nearby normal tissues, while simultaneously decreasing the risk for medical errors by incorporating additional safety checks into electronic medical record keeping systems. The benefits of these new technologies, however, depends on their proper integration and use in the oncology clinic. Despite the advancement of technology for treatment delivery and medical record keeping, misadministration errors have a significant impact on patient care in veterinary oncology. The first part of this manuscript describes a medical incident that occurred at an academic veterinary referral hospital, in a dog receiving a combination of stereotactic radiation therapy and full-course intensity-modulated, image-guided radiation therapy. The second part of the report is a literature review, which explores misadministration errors and novel challenges which arise with the implementation of advancing technologies in veterinary radiation oncology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Patient-centered care in chronic disease management: a thematic analysis of the literature in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Catherine; Fortin, Martin; Haggerty, Jeannie; Loignon, Christine; Lambert, Mireille; Poitras, Marie-Eve

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to provide a synthesis of the results of the research and discourse lines on main dimensions of patient-centered care in the context of chronic disease management in family medicine, building on Stewart et al.'s model. We developed search strategies for the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases, from 1980 to April 2009. All articles addressing patient-centered care in the context of chronic disease management in family medicine were included. A thematic analysis was performed using mixed codification, based on Stewart's model of patient-centered care. Thirty-two articles were included. Six major themes emerged: (1) starting from the patient's situation; (2) legitimizing the illness experience; (3) acknowledging the patient's expertise; (4) offering realistic hope; (5) developing an ongoing partnership; (6) providing advocacy for the patient in the health care system. The context of chronic disease management brings forward new dimensions of patient-centered care such as legitimizing the illness experience, acknowledging patient expertise, offering hope and providing advocacy. Chronic disease management calls for the adaptation of the family physician's role to patients' fluctuating needs. Literature also suggests the involvement of the family physician in care transitions as a component of patient-centered care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting evidence based medicine in preclinical medical students via a federated literature search tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Samuel Mark; Howse, David; Bracke, Paul; Mendoza, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Medical educators are increasingly faced with directives to teach Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) skills. Because of its nature, integrating fundamental EBM educational content is a challenge in the preclinical years. To analyse preclinical medical student user satisfaction and feedback regarding a clinical EBM search strategy. The authors introduced a custom EBM search option with a self-contained education structure to first-year medical students. The implementation took advantage of a major curricular change towards case-based instruction. Medical student views and experiences were studied regarding the tool's convenience, problems and the degree to which they used it to answer questions raised by case-based instruction. Surveys were completed by 70% of the available first-year students. Student satisfaction and experiences were strongly positive towards the EBM strategy, especially of the tool's convenience and utility for answering issues raised during case-based learning sessions. About 90% of the students responded that the tool was easy to use, productive and accessed for half or more of their search needs. This study provides evidence that the integration of an educational EBM search tool can be positively received by preclinical medical students.

  8. Literature Review: Herbal Medicine Treatment after Large-Scale Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.

  9. Moxibustion in Early Chinese Medicine and Its Relation to the Origin of Meridians: A Study on the Unearthed Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiankang; Han, Li; Liu, Juntian; Yu, Mengyun

    2017-01-01

    Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–220 AD). There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui (马王堆) tomb, Hantanpo (旱滩坡) tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion. This research sorted moxibustion recordings from seven unearthed literatures and discovered that moxibustion had been developed into different modalities and utilized to treat many diseases at that time. In addition, the indications, contraindications of moxibustion, and the method of postmoxibustion care were also discussed. On this basis, some hints were provided to support the hypothesis that the practice of moxibustion led to the discovery of meridians. All our preliminary results in the research have drawn attention for this old therapy and given a new source for its application in clinic and scientific research. PMID:28298936

  10. Assessing the contribution of prescribing in primary care by nurses and professionals allied to medicine: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanbhro Sadiq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and timely access to effective and appropriate medication through primary care settings is a major concern for all countries addressing both acute and chronic disease burdens. Legislation for nurses and other professionals allied to medicine to prescribe exists in a minority of countries, with more considering introducing legislation. Although there is variation in the range of medicines permitted to be prescribed, questions remain as to the contribution prescribing by nurses and professionals allied to medicine makes to the care of patients in primary care and what is the evidence on which clinicians, commissioners of services and policy makers can consider this innovation. Methods A integrative review of literature on non-medical prescribing in primary care was undertaken guided by dimensions of health care quality: effectiveness, acceptability, efficiency and access. Results 19 papers of 17 empirical studies were identified which provided evidence of patient outcome of non medical prescribing in primary care settings. The majority were undertaken in the UK with only one each from the USA, Canada, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Only two studies investigated clinical outcomes of non-medical prescribing. Seven papers reported on qualitative designs and four of these had fewer than ten participants. Most studies reported that non medical prescribing was widely accepted and viewed positively by patients and professionals. Conclusions Primary health care is the setting where timely access to safe and appropriate medicines is most critical for the well-being of any population. The gradual growth over time of legislative authority and in the numbers of non-medical prescribers, particularly nurses, in some countries suggests that the acceptability of non-medical prescribing is based on the perceived value to the health care system as a whole. Our review suggests that there are substantial gaps in the knowledge base to help evidence

  11. Why teach literature and medicine? Answers from three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anne Hudson

    2013-12-01

    In this essay, I look back at some of the earliest attempts by the first generation of literature-and-medicine scholars to answer the question: Why teach literature and medicine? Reviewing the development of the field in its early years, I examine statements by practitioners to see whether their answers have held up over time and to consider how the rationales they articulated have expanded or changed in the following years and why. Greater emphasis on literary criticism, narrative ethics, narrative theory, and reflective writing has influenced current work in the field in ways that could not have been foreseen in the 1970s. The extraordinary growth of interest and work in the field nationally and, especially since 1996, internationally has included practitioners in many additional areas such as disability studies, film studies, therapeutic writing, and trauma studies. Along with the emergence of narrative medicine, this diverse community of scholars and practitioners-affiliated more through their use of narrative methodologies than the teaching of literature-makes the perennial challenge of evaluation and assessment even more complicated.

  12. Substandard and counterfeit medicines: a systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzaini, Tariq; Choonara, Imti; Sammons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the evidence available of poor-quality (counterfeit and substandard) medicines in the literature. Design Systematic review. Data sources Databases used were EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, including articles published till January 2013. Eligibility criteria Prevalence studies containing original data. WHO definitions (1992) used for counterfeit and substandard medicines. Study appraisal and synthesis Two reviewers independently scored study methodology against recommendations from the MEDQUARG Checklist. Studies were classified according to the World Bank classification of countries by income. Data extraction Data extracted: place of study; type of drugs sampled; sample size; percentage of substandard/counterfeit medicines; formulations included; origin of the drugs; chemical analysis and stated issues of counterfeit/substandard medicines. Results 44 prevalence studies were identified, 15 had good methodological quality. They were conducted in 25 different countries; the majority were in low-income countries (11) and/or lower middle-income countries (10). The median prevalence of substandard/counterfeit medicines was 28.5% (range 11–48%). Only two studies differentiated between substandard and counterfeit medicines. Prevalence data were limited to antimicrobial drugs (all 15 studies). 13 studies involved antimalarials, 6 antibiotics and 2 other medications. The majority of studies (93%) contained samples with inadequate amounts of active ingredients. The prevalence of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials was significantly higher when purchased from unlicensed outlets (pcounterfeit medicines. Most studies assessed only a single therapeutic class of antimicrobials. Conclusions The prevalence of poor-quality antimicrobial medicines is widespread throughout Africa and Asia in lower income countries and lower middle-income countries . The main problem identified was inadequate amounts of the active

  13. Mapping the Iranian Research Literature in the Field of Traditional Medicine in Scopus Database 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GhaedAmini, Hossein; Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Saghafi, Zahra; Bazrafshan, Azam; GhaedAmini, Alireza; GhaedAmini, Mohammadreza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to provide research and collaboration overview of Iranian research efforts in the field of traditional medicine during 2010-2014. This is a bibliometric study using the Scopus database as data source, using search affiliation address relevant to traditional medicine and Iran as the search strategy. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the Iranian authors. Highly cited articles (citations >10) were further explored to highlight the impact of research domains more specifically. About 3,683 articles were published by Iranian authors in Scopus database. The compound annual growth rate of Iranian publications was 0.14% during 2010-2014. Tehran University of Medical Sciences (932 articles), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (404 articles) and Tabriz Islamic Medical University (391 articles), were the leading institutions in the field of traditional medicine. Medicinal plants (72%), digestive system's disease (21%), basics of traditional medicine (13%), mental disorders (8%) were the major research topics. United States (7%), Netherlands (3%), and Canada (2.6%) were the most important collaborators of Iranian authors. Iranian research efforts in the field of traditional medicine have been increased slightly over the last years. Yet, joint multi-disciplinary collaborations are needed to cover inadequately described areas of traditional medicine in the country.

  14. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroezen, Marieke; van Dijk, Liset; Groenewegen, Peter P; Francke, Anneke L

    2011-05-27

    A growing number of countries are introducing some form of nurse prescribing. However, international reviews concerning nurse prescribing are scarce and lack a systematic and theoretical approach. The aim of this review was twofold: firstly, to gain insight into the scientific and professional literature describing the extent to and the ways in which nurse prescribing has been realised or is being introduced in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries; secondly, to identify possible mechanisms underlying the introduction and organisation of nurse prescribing on the basis of Abbott's theory on the division of professional labor. A comprehensive search of six literature databases and seven websites was performed without any limitation as to date of publication, language or country. Additionally, experts in the field of nurse prescribing were consulted. A three stage inclusion process, consisting of initial sifting, more detailed selection and checking full-text publications, was performed independently by pairs of reviewers. Data were synthesized using narrative and tabular methods. One hundred and twenty-four publications met the inclusion criteria. So far, seven Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries have implemented nurse prescribing of medicines, viz., Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Sweden, the UK and the USA. The Netherlands and Spain are in the process of introducing nurse prescribing. A diversity of external and internal forces has led to the introduction of nurse prescribing internationally. The legal, educational and organizational conditions under which nurses prescribe medicines vary considerably between countries; from situations where nurses prescribe independently to situations in which prescribing by nurses is only allowed under strict conditions and supervision of physicians. Differences between countries are reflected in the jurisdictional settlements between the nursing and medical professions concerning prescribing. In some

  15. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenewegen Peter P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of countries are introducing some form of nurse prescribing. However, international reviews concerning nurse prescribing are scarce and lack a systematic and theoretical approach. The aim of this review was twofold: firstly, to gain insight into the scientific and professional literature describing the extent to and the ways in which nurse prescribing has been realised or is being introduced in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries; secondly, to identify possible mechanisms underlying the introduction and organisation of nurse prescribing on the basis of Abbott's theory on the division of professional labor. Methods A comprehensive search of six literature databases and seven websites was performed without any limitation as to date of publication, language or country. Additionally, experts in the field of nurse prescribing were consulted. A three stage inclusion process, consisting of initial sifting, more detailed selection and checking full-text publications, was performed independently by pairs of reviewers. Data were synthesized using narrative and tabular methods. Results One hundred and twenty-four publications met the inclusion criteria. So far, seven Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries have implemented nurse prescribing of medicines, viz., Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Sweden, the UK and the USA. The Netherlands and Spain are in the process of introducing nurse prescribing. A diversity of external and internal forces has led to the introduction of nurse prescribing internationally. The legal, educational and organizational conditions under which nurses prescribe medicines vary considerably between countries; from situations where nurses prescribe independently to situations in which prescribing by nurses is only allowed under strict conditions and supervision of physicians. Conclusions Differences between countries are reflected in the jurisdictional settlements between the

  16. Global Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Literature From 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Torben K; Hansoti, Bhakti; Bartels, Susan; Hayward, Alison Schroth; Hexom, Braden J; Lunney, Kevin M; Marsh, Regan H; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Trehan, Indi; Chang, Julia; Levine, Adam C

    2017-09-01

    The Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) conducts an annual search of peer-reviewed and gray literature relevant to global emergency medicine (EM) to identify, review, and disseminate the most important new research in this field to a global audience of academics and clinical practitioners. This year 13,890 articles written in four languages were identified by our search. These articles were distributed among 20 reviewers for initial screening based on their relevance to the field of global EM. An additional two reviewers searched the gray literature. All articles that were deemed appropriate by at least one reviewer and approved by their editor underwent formal scoring of overall quality and importance. Two independent reviewers scored all articles. A total of 716 articles met our inclusion criteria and underwent full review. Fifty-nine percent were categorized as emergency care in resource-limited settings, 17% as EM development, and 24% as disaster and humanitarian response. Nineteen articles received scores of 18.5 or higher out of a maximum score of 20 and were selected for formal summary and critique. Inter-rater reliability testing between reviewers revealed Cohen's kappa of 0.441. In 2016, the total number of articles identified by our search continued to increase. The proportion of articles in each of the three categories remained stable. Studies and reviews with a focus on infectious diseases, pediatrics, and the use of ultrasound in resource-limited settings represented the majority of articles selected for final review. © 2017 The Authors. Academic Emergency Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM).

  17. Text Mining of the Classical Medical Literature for Medicines That Show Potential in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1 identification of candidate ancient terms; (2 systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3 preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae.

  18. [Implications of antiretroviral therapy in oral medicine--a review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rainer A

    2007-01-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapy leads to a chronification of HIV-infection resulting in a decline of lethality. The lifelong intake of antiinfectives, though, may result in drug side effects with clinical dental implications. Despite fundamental cellular alterations, including prolonged hemorrhage following surgical interventions, antiretrovirals of all classes, of protease inhibitors, (non-nucleoside) reverse transcriptase inhibitors and of fusion inhibitors may promote oral manifestions like oral ulcera, dysgeusia, salivary gland disorders, papilloma, (peri)oral paresthesia or aphtous stomatitis. Due to inhibitory effects especially of protease inhibitors of cy tochrome P450-isoenzyme CYP3A4 therapeutical interactions with psychotropics/sedatives, antifungal agents, corticoids and intiinfectives, particularly metronidazole, may raise. The application and prescription of systemically metabolized adjuvant drugs as well as the monitoring of the possible progression of HIV infection is a key task in the oral health care of HIV-seropositive patients calling for a close medical coordination of therapeutical interventions.

  19. Homelessness and Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Bisan A; White, Melissa H; Pitts, Stephen R; Wright, David W

    2017-12-09

    We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the demographics, prevalence, clinical characteristics, and evidence-based management of homeless persons in the emergency department (ED). Where appropriate, we highlight knowledge gaps and suggest directions for future research. We conducted a systematic literature search following databases: PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar for articles published between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2016. We supplemented this search by cross-referencing bibliographies of the retrieved publications. Peer-reviewed studies written in English and conducted in the United States that examined homelessness within the ED setting were included. We used a qualitative approach to synthesize the existing literature. Twenty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Based on our study objectives and the available literature, we grouped articles examining homeless populations in the ED into four broad categories: 1) prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of homeless ED visits, 2) ED utilization by homeless adults, 3) clinical characteristics of homeless ED visits, and 4) medical education and evidence-based management of homeless ED patients. Homelessness may be underrecognized in the ED setting. Homeless ED patients have distinct care needs and patterns of ED utilization that are unmet by the current disease-oriented and episodic models of emergency medicine. More research is needed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of homelessness in the ED and to develop evidence-based treatment strategies in caring for this vulnerable population. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. [Anorexia nervosa in German medical literature 1900 to 1945. The role of anorexia nervosa in the origin of psychosomatic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, T

    1992-01-01

    German-language publications on anorexia nervosa and Simmonds' disease from between 1900 and 1945 are reviewed in order to trace factors inherent in medical thinking which have mostly hindered German-language medicine in understanding anorexia nervosa. It is demonstrated that a) the few German-language physicians who did describe central and possible characteristics of a.n. (weight-phobia, overactivity, bulimia, self-induced vomiting) were enabled to do so by valuing detailed clinical description, also of psychic characteristics, and an interest in the neuroses; b) the concept of anorexia nervosa was better known than previously assumed, though largely misunderstood; c) typical diagnostic misinterpretations led to typical biases in the description of the syndrome; d) in Germany more than in other countries a.n. was confounded with Simmonds' disease; and e) in addition to other factors, one reason for this lay in the 'holistic' ideal of psychosomatic medicine in the 1930s.

  1. Over-the-counter medicine abuse ? a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from pharmacies can help individuals self-manage symptoms. However, some OTC medicines may be abused, with addiction and harms being increasingly recognised. This review describes the current knowledge and understanding of OTC medicine abuse. Approach: Comprehensive search of international empirical and review literature between 1990 and 2011. Findings: OTC medicine abuse was identified in many countries and although implicated products...

  2. Over-the-counter medicine abuse: a review of the\\ud literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from pharmacies can help individuals self-manage symptoms. However, some OTC medicines may be abused, with addiction and harms being increasingly recognised. This review describes the current knowledge and understanding of\\ud OTC medicine abuse.\\ud \\ud Approach: Comprehensive search of international empirical and review literature between 1990 and 2011.\\ud \\ud Findings: OTC medicine abuse was identified in many countries and although im...

  3. Community pharmacist's responsibilities with regards to traditional medicine/complementary medicine products: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Harnett, Joanna; Hu, Hao

    The use of Traditional Medicine/Complementary Medicine (TM/CM) products has gained popularity in many countries. There is a growing body of evidence to support that concomitant use of TM/CM products with certain pharmaceutical medicines may adversely affect treatment outcomes. There is a general consensus that pharmacists have a role to play in the safe and appropriate use of these products. However, the extent of their involvement and responsibilities are not yet defined. Clear guidelines that inform their duty of care are essential for pharmacists to establish their role in the management of TM/CM product use. The purpose of this study was to determine pharmacist's responsibilities with regards to TM/CM products that have been discussed in the literature since 2000. A literature search in 3 electronic databases (Web of Science, Science Direct and PubMed) was used to extract publications from 2000 to 2015 that related pharmacist to TM/CM products. Out of the 2859 publications extracted for abstract review, 171 documents were selected for full text assessment. 41 publications which reported findings from exploratory studies or discussed pharmacists' responsibilities towards TM/CM products were selected for inclusion in this study. Seven major responsibilities were frequently discussed in the literature: (1) to acknowledge the use; (2) to be knowledgeable about the TM/CM products; (3) to ensure safe use of TM/CM products; (4) to document the use of TM/CM products; (5) to report ADRs related to TM/CM products; (6) to educate about TM/CM products; and (7) to collaborate with other health care professionals. Various forms and levels of pharmacists' responsibilities with TM/CM products have been mentioned in the literature. Subsequent work towards a common consensus must take into account three influential factors strategically: the scope of TM/CM products, objectives of pharmacists' involvement and the perspectives of key stakeholders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  4. Scientific publications in laboratory medicine from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A ten-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hua; Cui, Wei; Yao, Yun-Tai; Jiang, Qi-Qi

    2010-10-09

    We investigated scientific publications in laboratory medicine originating from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan over the past 10 years. The information about articles published in the included journals were determined by computer-searching on PubMed and data were extracted independently and analyzed in relation to the number of articles. From 2000 to 2009 there were 1166 articles published in laboratory medicine journals from the major Chinese regions (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). This exceeded Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and France from 2005 onwards. Also, the number of articles from mainland China exceeded those from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 2004 onwards. The average impact factor (IF) from Hong Kong ranked the first, followed by mainland China, and then Taiwan. Clinica Chimica Acta seems to be the most popular laboratory medicine journal among Chinese authors. Over the past 10 years, Chinese authors have been more and more active in the field of laboratory medicine. Mainland China seems to have caught up to Hong Kong and Taiwan regarding publication of papers in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar

  6. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from East Asia: A 10-year survey of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from East Asia haven?t been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from East Asia. Methods: Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. Results: There were 3076 publications from East Asia (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from...

  7. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liao, Zhuan; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2010-10-01

    People of Chinese ethnicity are the largest population in the world. Critical care medicine in China is developing rapidly and has achieved great advances in recent 20 years. The research contribution in critical care medicine among Chinese individuals in the three major regions of China--Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW)--is unknown. Articles published in 18 journals on critical care medicine originating from ML, TW, and HK from 1999 to 2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Science Citation Index Expanded. Quantity and quality analyses were conducted for the total numbers of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were 932 articles from ML (268), TW (506), and HK (158) from 1999 to 2008. The annual total numbers of articles of the three regions increased gradually from 1999 to 2008 (from 57 to 157). From 2002 onward, the number of articles published from ML exceeded that from HK, but TW still has the dominance in both annual and total number of articles published compared with ML and HK. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (1676.67) was higher than that from ML (708.25) and HK (449.51). TW had the highest average IF of 3.31 followed by HK of 2.85 and ML of 2.64. HK had the highest average citations of each article of 10.73, followed by TW of 6.74 and ML of 5.34. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions. The total numbers of articles in China increased markedly from 1999 to 2008. TW published the most number of articles, clinical trials, and randomised controlled trials among the three regions. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions.

  8. Critical developments of 2017: a review of the literature from selected topics in transfusion. A committee report from the AABB Clinical Transfusion Medicine Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Melissa M; Kelley, James; Klapper, Ellen; Friedman, David F; Goel, Ruchika; Heddle, Nancy M; Hopkins, Courtney K; Karp, Julie Katz; Pagano, Monica B; Perumbeti, Ajay; Ramsey, Glenn; Roback, John D; Schwartz, Joseph; Shaz, Beth H; Spinella, Philip C; Cohn, Claudia S; Cohn, Claudia S; Cushing, Melissa M; Kelley, James; Klapper, Ellen

    2018-03-09

    The AABB compiles an annual synopsis of the published literature covering important developments in the field of Transfusion Medicine. For the first time, an abridged version of this work is being made available in TRANSFUSION, with the full-length report available as an Appendix S1 (available as supporting information in the online version of this paper). Papers published in 2016 and early 2017 are included, as well as earlier papers cited for background. Although this synopsis is comprehensive, it is not exhaustive, and some papers may have been excluded or missed. The following topics are covered: duration of red blood cell storage and clinical outcomes, blood donor characteristics and patient outcomes, reversal of bleeding in hemophilia and for patients on direct oral anticoagulants, transfusion approach to hemorrhagic shock, pathogen inactivation, pediatric transfusion medicine, therapeutic apheresis, and extracorporeal support. This synopsis may be a useful educational tool. © 2018 AABB.

  9. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from East Asia: A 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from East Asia haven't been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from East Asia. Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. There were 3076 publications from East Asia (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from South Korea). There were a significant decrease in publications from Japan (p = 0.024) and significant increases from China (p = 0.000) and South Korea (p = 0.009). From 2006, the number of articles from China exceed Japan. China had the highest total impact factor (6618.48) and citation (18416), followed by Japan (4566.03; 15440) and South Korea (1998.19; 5599). Japan had the highest mean impact factor (5.00) and citations (16.91), followed by South Korea (4.51; 12.64) and China (3.85; 10.71). China and South Korea`s contributions to critical care medicine had significant increases during the past 10 years, while Japan had a significant decrease. China was the most productive region in East Asia since 2006. Japan had the highest quality research output.

  10. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  11. Evidence-based medicine training in undergraduate medical education: a review and critique of the literature published 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Tannery, Nancy H; Chen, H Carrie; ten Cate, Olle; O'Brien, Bridget

    2013-07-01

    To characterize recent evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational interventions for medical students and suggest future directions for EBM education. The authors searched the MEDLINE, Scopus, Educational Resource Information Center, and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases for English-language articles published between 2006 and 2011 that featured medical students and interventions addressing multiple EBM skills. They extracted data on learner and instructor characteristics, educational settings, teaching methods, and EBM skills covered. The 20 included articles described interventions delivered in 12 countries in classroom (75%), clinic (25%), and/or online (20%) environments. The majority (60%) focused on clinical students, whereas 30% targeted preclinical students and 10% included both. EBM skills addressed included recognizing a knowledge gap (20%), asking a clinical question (90%), searching for information (90%), appraising information (85%), applying information (65%), and evaluating practice change (5%). Physicians were most often identified as instructors (60%); co-teachers included librarians (20%), allied health professionals (10%), and faculty from other disciplines (10%). Many studies (60%) included interventions at multiple points during one year, but none were longitudinal across students' tenures. Teaching methods varied. Intervention efficacy could not be determined. Settings, learner levels and instructors, teaching methods, and covered skills differed across interventions. Authors writing about EBM interventions should include detailed descriptions and employ more rigorous research methods to allow others to draw conclusions about efficacy. When designing EBM interventions, educators should consider trends in medical education (e.g., online learning, interprofessional education) and in health care (e.g., patient-centered care, electronic health records).

  12. Review of Literature on Mentorship Networks in Medicine: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Jennifer Judith

    Mentorship is imperative in medical training and conceptual frameworks for mentoring continue to evolve. This study is an integrated review of the literature on mentoring networks. A systematic review of the literature on mentoring networks identified 943 articles from multiple databases. 24 relevant articles under went qualitative analysis. An iterative approach was taken to formulate themes, subthemes and codes. Three major themes were identified. The first theme was that group or peer networks meet evolving and dynamic or changing needs through training and career development. A prominent subtheme was identified which was the need for mentees to be the architects or directors of their evolving mentorship networks. The second theme identified was that mentorship networks offered a solution to barriers associated with the dyad model of mentorship. The third theme was the importance of the informality or "voluntary marriages", as distinguished from structured formal programs, to create meaningful mentorship networks. Future directions of study include examining how to empower mentees to facilitate and direct their mentorship networks.

  13. Quality of reporting in abstracts of RCTs published in emergency medicine journals: a protocol for a systematic survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germini, Federico; Marcucci, Maura; Fedele, Marta; Galli, Maria Giulia; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Salvatori, Valentina; Veronese, Giacomo; Worster, Andrew; Thabane, Lehana

    2017-04-27

    The quality of reporting of abstracts of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in major general medical journals and in some category-specific journals was shown to be poor before the publication of the ConsolidatedStandards of ReportingTrials (CONSORT) extension for abstracts in 2008, and an improvement in the quality of reporting of abstracts was observed after its publication. The effect of the publication of the CONSORT extension for abstracts on the quality of reporting of RCTs in emergency medicine journals has not been studied. In this paper, we present the protocol of a systematic survey of the literature, aimed at assessing the quality of reporting in abstracts of RCTs published in emergency medicine journals and at evaluating the effect of the publication of the CONSORT extension for abstracts on the quality of reporting. The Medline database will be searched for RCTs published in the years 2005-2007 and 2014-2015 in the top 10 emergency medicine journals, according to their impact factor. Candidate studies will be screened for inclusion in the review. Exclusion criteria will be the following: the abstract is not available, they are published only as abstracts, still recruiting, or duplicate publications. The study outcomes will be the overall quality of reporting (number of items reported) according to the CONSORT extension and the compliance with its individual items. Two independent reviewers will screen each article for inclusion and will extract data on the CONSORT items and on other variables, which can possibly affect the quality of reporting. This is a library-based study and therefore exempt from research ethics board review. The review results will be disseminated through abstract submission to conferences and publication in a peer-reviewed biomedical journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventions promoting the acceptance and uptake of generic medicines: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U D; Kan, S W; Scahill, S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to undertake a narrative review of the literature regarding strategies and interventions promoting the acceptance and uptake of generic medicines. A literature search was performed between November 2011 and January 2012 to identify published full text original research articles documenting interventions to promote the use of generic medicines. Keywords used were: "generic medicine", "generic drug", "intervention", "promotion", "acceptance", "uptake", "generic/therapeutic substitution" and their related root words. The electronic databases comprised of Embase (1980 - present), Google, Google Scholar, Medline (1948 - present), PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link and The Cochrane Library. An interpretative narrative synthesis was undertaken and emergent themes analysed and reported. Eighteen studies were included in the final analysis. There were seven main themes which including; education, financial incentives, advertising to promote generic medicines, free generic medicine trials, administrative forms and medicines use review (MUR). These themes were further classified into subthemes. Education was subdivided into consumer and physician education. Financial incentives included the influence of financial incentives on both consumers and physicians. The subthemes in the financial incentives category included the changes in co-payment for consumers, reward payment for physicians and fund-holding schemes. Advertising included the sub-themes of print media and the use of anthropomorphic images, while free generic medicines trial was made up of free vouchers for generic medicines and generic medicines sampling system. The studies have mixed results; some interventions in some settings were useful, while others were not. Not all interventions consistently improved the uptake of generic medicines. There was limited literature available and further work is required to develop a range of interventions to support the uptake of generic

  16. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%-40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms

  17. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John’s wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve

  18. A literature review of the cost-effectiveness of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical speciality that uses tiny quantities of radioactivity to produce diagnostic images. It also has a role in therapy for some thyroid diseases and certain tumours. Surveys have shown that nuclear medicine procedures are used significantly less in the UK than in many other countries in Europe. One reason may be that there is inadequate information about the clinical utility of these techniques, particularly their cost-effectiveness in clinical management. To establish what evidence was currently available about the cost-effectiveness of nuclear medicine, the British Nuclear Medicine Society commissioned a worldwide literature review in diseases of the heart, kidney, lung, bone, brain, bowel and thyroid. This volume summarises the findings of the independent study and gives details of the background, clinical utility and limitations of the different nuclear medicine procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of each disease reviewed. (author)

  19. Radiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)

  20. The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal marijuana has already been legalized in over 23 states with more considering legalization. Despite the trend toward legalization, to date, there has been no systematic review of the existing literature for the efficacy of medicinal marijuana for many of the conditions for which it is proposed to treat. This study seeks to understand the current literature regarding the use of medicinal marijuana in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data Sources: PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched until April 2014 for articles outlining outcomes of case files, control studies, and observational studies regarding the efficacy of medicinal marijuana in treating PTSD. Various combinations of the following search terms were used: marijuana, medicinal marijuana, cannabis, cannabinoid, PTSD, efficacy, trial, and neurobiology. Study Selection: Full text of each article was reviewed, and those directly addressing the question of efficacy of medicinal marijuana on PTSD symptomatology were included. Data were extracted from a total of 46 articles. Results: Analysis revealed that most reports are correlational and observational in basis with a notable lack of randomized, controlled studies. Many of the published studies suggest a decrease in PTSD symptoms with marijuana use. Though the directionality of cannabis use and PTSD could not be fully differentiated at this time, there appears to also be a correlation between PTSD and problematic cannabis use. Despite this finding, there is a growing amount of neurobiological evidence and animal studies suggesting potential neurologically based reasons for the reported efficacy. Conclusions: Posttraumatic stress disorder is 1 of the approved conditions for medicinal marijuana in some states. While the literature to date is suggestive of a potential decrease in PTSD symptomatology with the use of medicinal marijuana, there is a notable lack of large-scale trials, making any final conclusions difficult

  1. The European General Practice Research Network presents a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity in family medicine and long term care, following a systematic review of relevant literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Manceau, Benedicte; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Lingner, Heidrun; Czachowski, Slawomir; Munoz, Miguel; Argyriadou, Stella; Claveria, Ana; Le Floch, Bernard; Barais, Marie; Bower, Peter; Van Marwijk, Harm; Van Royen, Paul; Lietard, Claire

    2013-05-01

    Multimorbidity is a new concept encompassing all the medical conditions of an individual patient. The concept links into the European definition of family medicine and its core competencies. However, the definition of multimorbidity and its subsequent operationalization are still unclear. The European General Practice Research Network wanted to produce a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity. Systematic review of literature involving eight European General Practice Research Network national teams. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane (1990-2010). Only articles containing descriptions of multimorbidity criteria were selected for inclusion. The multinational team undertook a methodic data extraction, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The team identified 416 documents, selected 68 abstracts, included 54 articles, and found 132 definitions with 1631 different criteria. These criteria were aggregated into 11 themes that led to the following definition: Multimorbidity is defined as any combination of chronic disease with at least one other disease (acute or chronic) or biopsychosocial factor (associated or not) or somatic risk factor. Any biopsychosocial factor, any risk factor, the social network, the burden of diseases, the health care consumption, and the patient's coping strategies may function as modifiers (of the effects of multimorbidity). Multimorbidity may modify the health outcomes and lead to an increased disability or a decreased quality of life or frailty. This study has produced a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity. The resulting improvements in the management of multimorbidity, and its usefulness in long term care and in family medicine, will have to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of cholecystitis with Chinese herbal medicines: A systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Guan-Liang; Liu, Xing; Liu, Jia; Zhu, De-Zeng; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis. METHODS: The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM). Eight databases including MEDLINE, EMbase, Cochrane Central (CCTR), four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals, Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center, were searched. Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected, categorized according to study design, the strength of evidence, the first author’s hospital type, and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies. No article was of level I evidence, and 9.26% were of level II evidence. The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI), MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%, 0.68% and 7.29%, respectively. Typically, the articles featured in case reports of illness, examined from the perspective of EBM, were weak in both quality and evidence level, which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals, the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China. CONCLUSION: The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence, and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation. PMID:22529700

  3. Electronic Cigarettes and Vaping: A New Challenge in Clinical Medicine and Public Health.A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic L. Palazzolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use in the United States and worldwide is increasing. These devices closely mimic smoking of conventional cigarettes and can be used by consumers as a substitute for their smoking and nicotine addiction. Reasons for their popularity are that vendors of e-cigarettes have previously marketed their product as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, and as a possible smoking cessation tool. Rather than inhaling harmful smoke from burning tobacco, users of electronic cigarettes inhale a potentially less harmful vaporized mist primarily consisting of propylene glycol, nicotine, and water in a process referred to as vaping. Furthermore, the e-cigarette web pages are full of anecdotal claims from ex-smokers on how e-cigarettes helped them to give up traditional cigarettes in favor of these electronic devices. Government agencies and the medical community are skeptical, indicating that there is not enough empirically-derived evidence to substantiate such claims. While vaping e-cigarettes appear to do very little to abate nicotine addiction, and almost certainly carry unknown potential dangers, its supporters believe it is a safer alternative to smoking cigarettes. However, before e-cigarettes and vaping can be considered as a viable harm reduction clinical approach to smoking cessation, the medical community must first face the challenges e-cigarettes and vaping present to public health. For example, what should the primary medical focus be for a patient who has successfully transitioned from conventional cigarettes to e-cigarettes? Should it be to maintain smoking abstinence or should it be to quit vaping? Would it not be prudent for a patient who is unwilling to quit smoking or to give up nicotine to vape instead of smoke? Given these circumstances, how should medical care providers advise their patients? To effectively face these challenges, health care professionals need to become more familiar with the

  4. OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE APPLICATIONS IN ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner AYDIN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteopathic medicine is among the fastest-growing sectors of health care. From its beginning, it has undertaken an active role in promoting athletic participation at all levels, as a means of healthy lifestyle. Its role in athletes may be of particular importance for performance improvement, prevention of and recovery from injury, and ultimately for successful competition outcomes. It is projected that by 2020, approximately 100,000 physicians of osteopathic medicine will be practicing in the United States. Despite its growing popularity, osteopathic medicine is not as widely understood as traditional medicine, also known as allopathic medicine. Manipulation, a component of osteopathic medicine, is often a subject of debate, especially concerning evidence-based medicine. Questions as such are raised: What is the purpose of osteopathic manipulation? Who would benefit from it? What harm may cause the practice? This article attempts to answer these questions by discussing the philosophy of osteopathic medicine, to delineate the differences between osteopathic physicians and other performers of manual medicine, by reviewing some of the current literature. The article particularly focuses on the use of manipulation in the athletic setting. Implementation of osteopathic principles and practices, which may include manual medicine, can then be applied to aid in the prevention of or recovery from illnesses or sports injuries.

  5. Reviewing literature: basic advice for nuclear medicine technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, Brian F

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine technologists may not have had opportunity to read periodic journals on a regular basis and may feel intimidated by the content, style and jargon used in many journal articles. By becoming familiar with the style of articles and having some grasp of the basic concepts underlying statistical description of data errors and their relation to hypothesis testing, the technologist can begin to appreciate the content in journals. In particular they should appreciate that journal articles are open to debate and do not necessarily represent 'truth' (Au)

  6. [Literature survey on botanical origin and clinical application of traditional Tibetan medicine "Shengdeng"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Dao; Meng, Xian-Hua; Zhang, Ying-Shan; Chen, Gen-Ping; Huang, Yu-Lan

    2012-10-01

    "Shengdeng" is its Tibetan transliteration referring to many medicines. Tibetan doctors and pharmacists in different areas use different drugs in formulation and clinical application, which are easily confused. In order to grasp the formula and clinical application accurately, we conduct a literature survey on history and current state of botanical origin and clinical application of "Shengdeng", making clear the application of various herbs named "Shengdeng" and providing reference to all Tibetan researchers and clinical workers in formulation and clinical application.

  7. [Systematic evaluation on clinical literature related with treatment of Parkinson's disease with traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-min; Tang, Xiang-jiang; Lao, Ying-rong

    2005-07-01

    To analyze the quality of scientific research design of clinical literature related with treatment of Parkinson's disease with traditional Chinese medicine, so as to objectively evaluate the therapeutic effect of TCM. According to principles of evidence-based medicine, clinical epidemiology/design measurement evaluation (DME), the "Table of Systematic Evaluation of Quality and Information Collection for TCM Clinical Research Literature" were established and used to evaluate clinical control trial literature related with treatment of Parkinson's disease with TCM published during 1979 to 2000. The method of randomization was not described in 66.7% of the literature. Although randomized design was declared in 33.3 %, problems or mistakes of randomized allocation still existed in them. No record about the state of dropped out or absconded cases in follow-up study and without any record of samples screening presented in all literature. There were some problems of key links concerning samples' homogeneity, outcome indexes selection, conclusion deduction and so on, which could also influence the quality and reliability of randomized controlled trials. Methodological design of clinical research of TCM on Parkinson's disease should be strengthened.

  8. Updates in Psychosomatic Medicine: 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenreich, Oliver; Huffman, Jeff C; Sharpe, Michael; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Chwastiak, Lydia A; Cohen, Mary Ann; Dickerman, Anne; Fitz-Gerald, Mary Joe; Kontos, Nicholas; Mittal, Leena; Nejad, Shamim H; Niazi, Shehzad; Novak, Marta; Philbrick, Kemuel; Rasimas, Joseph J; Shim, Jewel; Simpson, Scott A; Walker, Audrey; Walker, Jane; Wichman, Christina L; Zimbrean, Paula; Söllner, Wolfgang; Stern, Theodore A

    2015-01-01

    The amount of literature published annually related to psychosomatic medicine is vast; this poses a challenge for practitioners to keep up-to-date in all but a small area of expertise. To introduce how a group process using volunteer experts can be harnessed to provide clinicians with a manageable selection of important publications in psychosomatic medicine, organized by specialty area, for 2014. We used quarterly annotated abstracts selected by experts from the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine and the European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine in 15 subspecialties to create a list of important articles. In 2014, subspecialty experts selected 88 articles of interest for practitioners of psychosomatic medicine. For this review, 14 articles were chosen. A group process can be used to whittle down the vast literature in psychosomatic medicine and compile a list of important articles for individual practitioners. Such an approach is consistent with the idea of physicians as lifelong learners and educators. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Medicine in the notaphily].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Rade R; Stanković-Babić, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Apart from literature, painting and philately, some of the greatest names of medicine found their place in the field of numismatics. They popularised their people and nations, as well as the medical science worldwide. The paper exhibits banknotes with the portraits of famous and world-wide recognised people in world and national history. Among these are the poet and pediatrician, Jovan Jovanović Zmaj; the doctor and botanist, Josif Pancić; the academic painter, Nadezda Petrović, as well as the motifs from our national history. The banknotes from China with the image of the surgeon, Dr. Sun Yat Sen, from Spain with the portrait of the histologist Dr. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, from Austria with the face of the Nobel Prize winner and psychiatrist, Dr. Julius Wagner Jauregg and from France with the portrait of the great scientist, Louis Pasteur are also presented. These are some of the examples of great names of medicine, who brought world fame to their nations and medical science, and who were, apart from literature, painting, philately, interested in numismatics.

  10. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  11. Scientific publications from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in integrative and complementary medicine journals: a ten-year literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Tao, Kun-Ming; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers from China, the largest user of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), have been publishing an increasing number of scientific articles in world-famous CAM journals in recent years. However, the status of CAM research in the three major regions of China, the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong has, until now, not been reported. In this study, we compared articles from these three regions published in international CAM journals from 2000 to 2009 using PubMed database and the Journal Citation Reports. The study results showed that the number of published articles from Mainland China increased significantly from 2000 to 2009, particularly since 2005. Meanwhile, the number of published articles from Taiwan also increased, whereas those from Hong Kong remained steady. Clinical trials and randomized controlled trials from Chinese authors both took a small percentage of the total. The impact factors of the journals in which these articles were published suggested similar academic levels whereas the average number of citation of articles from the Mainland was less than those from the other two regions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine and Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine were the most popular journals for Chinese authors.

  12. Advanced polymers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Puoci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an up-to-date overview of the diverse medical applications of advanced polymers. The book opens by presenting important background information on polymer chemistry and physicochemical characterization of polymers. This serves as essential scientific support for the subsequent chapters, each of which is devoted to the applications of polymers in a particular medical specialty. The coverage is broad, encompassing orthopedics, ophthalmology, tissue engineering, surgery, dentistry, oncology, drug delivery, nephrology, wound dressing and healing, and cardiology. The development of polymers that enhance the biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices and the incorporation of polymers within biosensors are also addressed. This book is an excellent guide to the recent advances in polymeric biomaterials and bridges the gap between the research literature and standard textbooks on the applications of polymers in medicine.

  13. Machine Learning in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rahul C.

    2015-01-01

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games – tasks which would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in healthcare. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades – and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. PMID:26572668

  14. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Naseem; AlBedah,Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have ...

  16. Primary Identity in Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    , for example, social class affiliations leads to political literary criticism, viewing the same characters as first and foremost family members is, by and large, apolitical, relating rather to issues of human fulfillment or frustration rather than different kinds of justice. Literature, Frye tells us, expands...... viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss......, in relation to Frye’s works, the idea that the primary identities of characters in literature were and, to a considerable extent, continue to be those of family-member identities. As such, literature should not be appropriated to a political context too readily. Whereas viewing characters in terms of...

  17. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  18. Fuzzy Logic in Medicine and Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medicine and bioinformatics. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. We then recall the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets as points in a fuzzy hypercube and present two concrete illustrations in medicine (drug addictions and in bioinformatics (comparison of genomes.

  19. Java brucea and Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of cholesterol granuloma in the suprasellar and sellar regions: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Cao, Yang; Zhai, Lin-Zhu

    2017-02-01

    A cholesterol granuloma (CG) is usually found in the middle ear, papilla, orbits, petrous apex, and choroid plexus, but is highly uncommon in the skull. In spite of benign clinicopathological lesions, bone erosion can be seen occasionally in the patient with CG. The optimal treatment strategy is radical surgery, but complete excision is usually impossible due to anatomical restrictions and a risk of injury to the key structures located nearby. Here, we report a patient with CGs in the suprasellar and sellar regions who was successfully treated with Java brucea and Chinese herbal medicine. A 31-year-old man presenting with progressive decreased vision in both eyes was analyzed. A skull magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a low-density tumor in the uprasellar and sellar regions and histopathological examination revealed a CG. The patient was referred the surgery and radiotherapy. In the meantime, brucea soft capsules and herbal medicine combined were administered to him. The related clinical symptoms and signs resolved significantly after several months, as his therapy progressed. The patient showed no sign of recurrence during the treatment period. Furthermore, he was still alive and disease-free at 37 months of follow-up visit. Overall, brucea soft capsules and a Chinese herbal formula treatment combined could be beneficial in improving the patient's quality of life with CG in the skull.

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Food Therapy, and Hypertension Control: A Narrative Review of Chinese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.

  1. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  2. Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  3. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  4. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY The concept that the mind is important ...

  5. Nuclear Medicine in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that uses radionuclides for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and it is one of the most important peaceful applications of nuclear sciences. Nuclear Medicine has a short history both in Turkey and in the world. The first use of I-131 for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis in Turkey was in 1958 at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. In 1962, Radiobiological Institute in Ankara University Medical School was established equipped with well-type counters, radiometers, scalers, external counters and a rectilinear scanner. In 1965, multi-probe external detection systems, color dot scanners and in 1967, anger scintillation camera had arrived. In 1962, wet lab procedures and organ scanning, in 1965 color dot scanning, dynamic studies (blood flow - renograms) and in 1967 analogue scintillation camera and dynamic camera studies have started. In 1974, nuclear medicine was established as independent medical specialty. Nuclear medicine departments have started to get established in 1978. In 1974, The Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine (TSNM) was established with 10 members. The first president of TSNM was Prof. Dr. Yavuz Renda. Now, in the year 2000, TSNM has 349 members. Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine is a member of European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) and WFNMB Asia-Oceania. Since 1974, TSNM has organized 13 national Nuclear Medicine congresses, 4 international Nuclear Oncology congresses and 13 nuclear medicine symposiums. In 1-5 October 2000, 'The VII th Asia and Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology' was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Since 1992, Turkish Journal of Nuclear Medicine is published quarterly and it is the official publication of TSNM. There are a total of 112 Nuclear Medicine centers in Turkey. There are 146 gamma cameras. (52 Siemens, 35 GE, 16 Elscint, 14 Toshiba, 10 Sopha, 12 MIE, 8 Philips, 9 Others) Two cyclotrons are

  6. Radioisotopes in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A number of advances in diverse fields of science and technology and the fruitful synchronization of many a new development to address the issues related to health care in terms of prognosis and diagnosis resulted in the availability of host of modern diagnostic tools in medicine. Nuclear medicine, a unique discipline in medicine is one such development, which during the last four decades has seen exponential growth. The unique contribution of this specialty is the ability to examine the dynamic state of every organ of the body with the help of radioactive tracers. This tracer application in nuclear medicine to monitor the biological molecules that participate in the dynamic state of body constituents has led to a whole new approach to biology and medicine. No other technique has the same level of sensitivity and specificity as obtained in radiotracer technique in the study of in-situ chemistry of body organs. As modem medicine becomes oriented towards molecules rather than organs, nuclear medicine will be in the forefront and will become an integral part of a curative process for regular and routine application. Advances in nuclear medicine will proceed along two principal lines: (i) the development of improved sensitive detectors of radiation, powerful and interpretable data processing, image analysis and display techniques, and (ii) the production of exotic and new but useful radiopharmaceuticals. All these aspects are dealt with in detail in this talk

  7. Immoral behaviour in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmon, P; Tabak, N

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize a social phenomenon that exists in Israel: immoral medicine. In recent years, nurses have been exposed to many instances of immoral medicine in hospitals. We want to protest about the demands for money from patients who are waiting for surgical intervention, arouse the medical community's conscience concerning these immoral activities, and improve professional and moral behaviour.

  8. [Complementary medicine in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Moshe; Gamus, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been an increase in the use and popularity of complementary medicine in Israel. Currently, there are over 100 complementary medicine clinics in the public health sector supported by the four health funds and most hospitals in Israel. The number of visits to those clinics reaches close to 3 million visits annually. This reflects an extensive system of care that Israelis utilize in addition to the conventional heaLthcare system. However, the communication between the two systems is still Limited and the education of complementary medicine providers is not regulated by the Ministry of Health. Concurrently, there are a growing number of physicians who expand the knowledge on these therapies and actually integrate them in patients' care. This issue describes experiences and knowledge related to the integration of complementary medicine in the Israeli healthcare system and provides additional research data in support of further integration of complementary medicine within conventional healthcare.

  9. Diversity in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, David

    2018-01-08

    The wide world of medicinal chemistry: We look back at our activities in 2017, particularly the expansion of the journal's scope to nanomedicine and why we need a more inclusive medicinal chemistry journal. Additionally, we look at upcoming special issues and developments for ChemPubSoc Europe in 2018. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [The sick child in modern literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, Dietrich

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between literature and medicine consists of many dimensions and has a long tradition--from antiquity up to the present, medicine itself has a literary or artistic nature, is both "art" (ars) and "science" (scientia), combines natural sciences and humanities. The whole world of medicine has been represented in literary texts. Literature has often taken the disease and therapy of children as their subject. These representations can be classified in eight dimensions: 1. pathophenomenology, 2. etiology, 3. subjectivity of the patient, 4. image of the physician, 5. diagnostics and therapy, 6. medical institution, 7. social reactions, 8. symbolism. Sickness and health of the child, in their natural and cultural breadth, remind medicine of its fundamentally scientific and humanistic nature. Health and disease are concerned with life and death, and are closely connected to the physical, social, psychic, and spiritual nature of humans.

  11. PACS in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2000-01-01

    PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is being rapidly spread and installed in many hospitals, but most of the system do not include nuclear medicine field. Although additional costs of hardware for nuclear medicine PACS is low, the complexity in developing viewing software and little market have made the nuclear medicine PACS not popular. Most PACS utilize DICOM 3.0 as standard format, but standard format in nuclear medicine has been Interfile. Interfile should be converted into DICOM format if nuclear images are to be stored and visualized in most PACS. Nowadays, many vendors supply the DICOM option in gamma camera and PET. Several hospitals in Korea have already installed nucler PACS with DICOM, but only the screen captured images are supplied. Software for visualizing pseudo-color with color lookup tables and expressing with volume view should be developed to fulfill the demand of referring physicians and nuclear medicine physicians. PACS is going to integrate not only radiologic images but also endoscopic and pathologic images. Web and PC based PACS is now a trend and is much compatible with nuclear medicine PACS. Most important barrier for nuclear medicine PACS that we encounter is not a technical problem, but indifference of investor such as administrator of hospital or PACS. Now it is time to support and invest for the development of nuclear medicine PACS

  12. Conceitos de automação na medicina laboratorial: revisão de literatura Concepts in laboratory medicine automation: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Aguiar Campana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, a introdução da automação na medicina laboratorial foi destacada como a espinha dorsal na busca de eficiência e viabilidade das empresas atuantes nesse setor e expandiu-se em todas as fases dos processos no laboratório clínico: pré-analítica, analítica e pós-analítica. A implementação de um processo de automação laboratorial deve levar em consideração o posicionamento estratégico da empresa e sua forma de atuação. Diferentes modelos de processos automatizados funcionam para diferentes negócios, definidos pelo mix de exames, volume de processamento, atributos estratégicos necessários, capacidade de investimento, entre outros. Este artigo tem como principal objetivo apresentar uma breve revisão dos processos automatizados disponíveis em medicina laboratorial.In the last decades, the introduction of automation in laboratory medicine has played a major role in the search for efficiency and viability promoted by enterprises from this sector. Additionally, it has been expanded to all phases and processes within clinical laboratories: pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical. Automation program implementation must take into account the company's strategic planning and business approach. Different automated processes cater for different business platforms, which are defined by test mix, workflow volume, required strategic characteristics, investment capacity, among others. This article aims at briefly reviewing the automation processes available in laboratory medicine.

  13. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which requires the most regu- lar and precise evaluation of physiological function for complete assessment of the patient. The very nature of respiratory physiology requires the availability of a range of technological devices. Physiological measurements that may be.

  14. Radiation therapy using the wildlife medicine: a reasoned obtained study in cases of literature; Utilizacao da radioterapia na medicina de animais selvagens: um estudo fundamentado em casos obtidos da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettorato, Michel de Campos; Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Vulcano, Luis Carlos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia

    2016-03-15

    The cancer is the kind of tumor that affects both humans and animals and is responsible for more deaths worldwide. In wildlife, cancer is a problem found most often in zoo animals. Thus veterinary oncologists have researched and developed therapeutic approaches to many types of cancer over the years in both curative and palliative therapies including therein the application of radiation. The basic principle of radiotherapy is the effect of ionizing radiation on the tumor cells, causing them to death. However, its application in veterinary medicine for wildlife is not much reported in the literature, especially in Brazil. This study aims to describe and compare some of radiotherapy applications in different species of wildlife looking to improve her knowledge in veterinary medicine through a brief literature review. After the descriptions and comparisons, it is concluded that despite the number of cases taken for this study, all the cases mentioned had satisfactory results using radiation therapy and all the presented cases provided relevant information that can guide future researchers in this area, thus improving knowledge of this therapy and improve the quality of life of animals. (author)

  15. Systematic Reviews in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B

    2016-02-01

    The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Sports Health and KSSTA on the PRISMA and AMSTAR. The average PRISMA score by year varied from 85% to 89%, and the average AMSTAR score varied from 70% to 76%. Systematic reviews

  16. Extracting relations from traditional Chinese medicine literature via heterogeneous entity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Huaiyu; Moens, Marie-Francine; Luyten, Walter; Zhou, Xuezhong; Mei, Qiaozhu; Liu, Lu; Tang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a unique and complex medical system that has developed over thousands of years. This article studies the problem of automatically extracting meaningful relations of entities from TCM literature, for the purposes of assisting clinical treatment or poly-pharmacology research and promoting the understanding of TCM in Western countries. Instead of separately extracting each relation from a single sentence or document, we propose to collectively and globally extract multiple types of relations (eg, herb-syndrome, herb-disease, formula-syndrome, formula-disease, and syndrome-disease relations) from the entire corpus of TCM literature, from the perspective of network mining. In our analysis, we first constructed heterogeneous entity networks from the TCM literature, in which each edge is a candidate relation, then used a heterogeneous factor graph model (HFGM) to simultaneously infer the existence of all the edges. We also employed a semi-supervised learning algorithm estimate the model's parameters. We performed our method to extract relations from a large dataset consisting of more than 100,000 TCM article abstracts. Our results show that the performance of the HFGM at extracting all types of relations from TCM literature was significantly better than a traditional support vector machine (SVM) classifier (increasing the average precision by 11.09%, the recall by 13.83%, and the F1-measure by 12.47% for different types of relations, compared with a traditional SVM classifier). This study exploits the power of collective inference and proposes an HFGM based on heterogeneous entity networks, which significantly improved our ability to extract relations from TCM literature. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Nuclear Medicine in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine in China was established in 1956, when the first course, Biomedical Applications of Isotopes, was offered in our country by the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). In 1958, several courses in Clinical Nuclear Medicine brought up the first generation of Nuclear Medicine physicians in China. 99m Tc and 113m In generators were supplied in 1972. The first gamma camera was imported in 1972 and the first homemade gamma camera was installed in 1977. The Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine commenced publication in 1981. The first single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) camera was imported in 1983. At present, there are 800 Nuclear Medicine departments in China with a total of 6,000 staff. Beijing and Shanghai each have a cyclotron of 30 MeV, imported from Belgium, consequently gallium-68, thallium-201, indium-111, iodine-123 are all available for production. There is currently one operating PET camera facility in China, in the Shandong province. A second PET/cyclotron facility is currently being developed in the Nuclear Medicine Department, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University. The most common clinical Nuclear Medicine applications are in oncological, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders

  18. The European General Practice Research Network Presents a Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine and Long Term Care, Following a Systematic Review of Relevant Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Reste, J.Y.; Nabbe, P.; Manceau, B.; Lygidakis, C.; Doerr, C.; Lingner, H.; Czachowski, S.; Munoz, M.; Argyriadou, S.; Claveria, A.; Le Floch, B.; Barais, M.; Bower, P.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; van Royen, P.; Lietard, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multimorbidity is a new concept encompassing all the medical conditions of an individual patient. The concept links into the European definition of family medicine and its core competencies. However, the definition of multimorbidity and its subsequent operationalization are still

  19. Intertextuality in the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Albay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature is not the product of a specific nation; rather it is a combination of the experiences of all nations. So to speak, there is inheritance amongst the literary texts all over the world literature. Thinking of the global changes and technological development, it is quite easy to see the issue of interaction between the nations which is called “intertextuality”. This concept appears in a literary work within different interactions. Especially the religions, trade, wars, social and or economic movement, internet and technology have significant roles in this because this interaction is provided through these factors in the society. Now that, the society is mirrored up in the literature, these affects necessarily will be seen in the literature and the scholars deal with finding formic, contently and stylistic resemblances among the cultures and literary areas in a literary work. In this study, two aspects of these interactions in the literature will be handled as theme-based and form-based. The stylistic resemblances will be treated under the form-based part.

  20. Developments in Surge Research Priorities: A Systematic Review of the Literature Following the Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Melinda J; DeAugustinis, Matthew L; Velasquez, Christina A; Singh, Sonal; Kelen, Gabor D

    2015-11-01

    In 2006, Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) published a special issue summarizing the proceedings of the AEM consensus conference on the "Science of Surge." One major goal of the conference was to establish research priorities in the field of "disasters" surge. For this review, we wished to determine the progress toward the conference's identified research priorities: 1) defining criteria and methods for allocation of scarce resources, 2) identifying effective triage protocols, 3) determining decision-makers and means to evaluate response efficacy, 4) developing communication and information sharing strategies, and 5) identifying methods for evaluating workforce needs. Specific criteria were developed in conjunction with library search experts. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases were queried for peer-reviewed articles from 2007 to 2015 addressing scientific advances related to the above five research priorities identified by AEM consensus conference. Abstracts and foreign language articles were excluded. Only articles with quantitative data on predefined outcomes were included; consensus panel recommendations on the above priorities were also included for the purposes of this review. Included study designs were randomized controlled trials, prospective, retrospective, qualitative (consensus panel), observational, cohort, case-control, or controlled before-and-after studies. Quality assessment was performed using a standardized tool for quantitative studies. Of the 2,484 unique articles identified by the search strategy, 313 articles appeared to be related to disaster surge. Following detailed text review, 50 articles with quantitative data and 11 concept papers (consensus conference recommendations) addressed at least one AEM consensus conference surge research priority. Outcomes included validation of the benchmark of 500 beds/million of population for disaster surge capacity, effectiveness of simulation- and Internet

  1. Integrative mining of traditional Chinese medicine literature and MEDLINE for functional gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Zhaohui; Feng, Yi

    2007-10-01

    The amount of biomedical data in different disciplines is growing at an exponential rate. Integrating these significant knowledge sources to generate novel hypotheses for systems biology research is difficult. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a completely different discipline, and is a complementary knowledge system to modern biomedical science. This paper uses a significant TCM bibliographic literature database in China, together with MEDLINE, to help discover novel gene functional knowledge. We present an integrative mining approach to uncover the functional gene relationships from MEDLINE and TCM bibliographic literature. This paper introduces TCM literature (about 50,000 records) as one knowledge source for constructing literature-based gene networks. We use the TCM diagnosis, TCM syndrome, to automatically congregate the related genes. The syndrome-gene relationships are discovered based on the syndrome-disease relationships extracted from TCM literature and the disease-gene relationships in MEDLINE. Based on the bubble-bootstrapping and relation weight computing methods, we have developed a prototype system called MeDisco/3S, which has name entity and relation extraction, and online analytical processing (OLAP) capabilities, to perform the integrative mining process. We have got about 200,000 syndrome-gene relations, which could help generate syndrome-based gene networks, and help analyze the functional knowledge of genes from syndrome perspective. We take the gene network of Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYD syndrome) and the functional analysis of some genes, such as CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone), PTH (parathyroid hormone), PRL (prolactin), BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset) and BRCA2 (breast cancer 2, early onset), to demonstrate the preliminary results. The underlying hypothesis is that the related genes of the same syndrome will have some biological functional relationships, and will constitute a functional network. This paper presents

  2. The 'gender puzzle' of alternative medicine and holistic spirituality: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Yael; Simchai, Dalit

    2014-07-01

    Both as producers and consumers women are more likely than men to engage with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and 'New Age' holistic spiritualities. We conducted a literature review of sociological and anthropological articles, with the aim of studying why women in particular use and practice these alternatives, and whether using them presents an opportunity to challenge the conventional gender order and unequal power relations. A systematic search of nine databases, complemented by an informal search resulted in the identification of 114 articles, of which 27 were included in the review. The search period was limited to 2000-2013. Thematic analysis of the literature indicated three major trends: women draw on traditional female resources and perceived 'feminine' characteristics; the realm of CAM and holistic spirituality challenges power relations and gender inequalities in healthcare, wellbeing, and employment, and may serve as an emancipating, empowering alternative; however, factors such as lack of political support, legitimacy, and a solid institutional base for the field of CAM and holistic spirituality, and its use by predominantly white middle- and upper-class women, work against significant change in the realm of healthcare and limit gendered social change. We suggest that the empowerment women experience is a form of feminine strength and personal empowerment that stems from power-from-within, which is not directed toward resistance. The literature review reveals some lacunae in the literature that call for future gendered research: the lack of quantitative studies, of data concerning the financial success of CAM practitioners, of studies linking CAM with a feminist-oriented analysis of the medical world, of understanding gender perceptions in the holistic milieu and CAM, and of studies conducted from an intersectionality perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leadership in literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Business students nowadays are not, for the most part, poets. A growing proportion come to business school with a background in investment banking or management consulting and an undergraduate business major, rather than a degree in the arts and sciences. MBA students are already very familiar with business. A number of scholars and businesspeople have begun to question the scientific model that dominates business research and teaching. Formalized management tools work well enough if you're studying techniques for financial valuation, but less so when you're studying leadership and organizational behavior. Some argue that students could learn a lot more about these subjects if they took a course in literature. Examples from fiction can be as instructive as any business textbook. HBR senior editor Diane Coutu recently met with Joseph Badaracco, Jr., for a wide-ranging discussion of what leaders can learn from literature. For the past decade, Badaracco, the John Shad Professor of Business Ethics at Harvard Business School, has used classical literature to provide well-rounded, complex pictures of leaders in all walks of life-particularly leaders whose psychological and emotional challenges parallel those of senior executives. Fiction provides some of the most powerful and engaging case studies ever written. Unlike contemporary management literature, which is relentlessly upbeat, classical literature is unsparingly realist. Leaders often struggle and sometimes fail-and the stakes are high. When business leaders read about the conflicts of literary characters, they can better understand their own circumstances. We pay far too little attention to the inner lives of leaders. Business school courses seem to suggest that you can treat executives like lab animals and control their behavior through their environment. But behaviorism is not enough. Literature suggests that leaders should learn more about themselves if they want to succeed.

  4. [Medicine in sports or sport medicine?] ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M

    2001-01-01

    Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.

  5. Emergency medicine in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight.

  6. Challenges in sexual medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have...... placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain...... several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field...

  7. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  8. Acupuncture in Military Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Soldiers and family members, and to reduce excessive use, or supplement judicious use of pain medications. The Acupuncture in Modern Medicine336 Army ... acupuncture . Acupuncture in Military Medicine http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/55146 331 3. A Holistic approach to pain Complementary and integrative (CI...medical care. More than other CI therapies, acupuncture has undergone a significant integration particularly as a complement to traditional pain manage

  9. Robotics in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  10. Biomarkers in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G

    2017-02-08

    This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.

  11. Traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy for HIV/AIDS: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas WB

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allopathic practitioners in India are outnumbered by practitioners of traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy (TIMH, which is used by up to two-thirds of its population to help meet primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas. India has an estimated 2.5 million HIV infected persons. However, little is known about TIMH use, safety or efficacy in HIV/AIDS management in India, which has one of the largest indigenous medical systems in the world. The purpose of this review was to assess the quality of peer-reviewed, published literature on TIMH for HIV/AIDS care and treatment. Results Of 206 original articles reviewed, 21 laboratory studies, 17 clinical studies, and 6 previous reviews of the literature were identified that covered at least one system of TIMH, which includes Ayurveda, Unani medicine, Siddha medicine, homeopathy, yoga and naturopathy. Most studies examined either Ayurvedic or homeopathic treatments. Only 4 of these studies were randomized controlled trials, and only 10 were published in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Overall, the studies reported positive effects and even "cure" and reversal of HIV infection, but frequent methodological flaws call into question their internal and external validity. Common reasons for poor quality included small sample sizes, high drop-out rates, design flaws such as selection of inappropriate or weak outcome measures, flaws in statistical analysis, and reporting flaws such as lack of details on products and their standardization, poor or no description of randomization, and incomplete reporting of study results. Conclusion This review exposes a broad gap between the widespread use of TIMH therapies for HIV/AIDS, and the dearth of high-quality data supporting their effectiveness and safety. In light of the suboptimal effectiveness of vaccines, barrier methods and behavior change strategies for prevention of HIV infection and the cost and side effects of antiretroviral

  12. Illustration in children's literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Pascolati

    2017-01-01

    Since the origins of children's literature, the image plays an important role in the construction of the meanings of this literary text, but its participation in the children's book goes from mere coadjuvant to primacy in relation to the written word. In line with the growth of the publishing production of picture books, its presence in the classroom and theoretical-critical reflections about its contribution to literary reading, I develop here some ideas about different roles played by the i...

  13. Illustration in children's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pascolati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the origins of children's literature, the image plays an important role in the construction of the meanings of this literary text, but its participation in the children's book goes from mere coadjuvant to primacy in relation to the written word. In line with the growth of the publishing production of picture books, its presence in the classroom and theoretical-critical reflections about its contribution to literary reading, I develop here some ideas about different roles played by the illustration in children's literature. To do so, I analyze some books in which the images have a preponderant role in the narrative progression, the construction of characters and the revelation of the child's perspective on the world.

  14. LITERATURE IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundi Rahayu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of literature in the ELT classroom has been re-assessed by many experts, and now many of them view literary texts as providing rich linguistic input, in addition to effective stimuli for students to express themselves in other languages. In this way, literature can be a potential source of learner motivation. Literary texts offer a rich source of linguistic input and can help learners to practice the four language skills -speaking, listening, reading and writing- in addition to exemplifying grammatical structures and presenting new vocabulary. It is found out as well that literary texts provide opportunities for multi-sensorial classroom experiences and can appeal to learners with different learning styles.

  15. Birds in portuguese literature

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Soares, Filipa

    2016-01-01

    UID/ELT/00657/2013 WOS:000374914600004 IF/00222/2013 Birds are emblematic natural elements of landscapes. Readily noticeable and appreciated due to their songs and flight, they have been thoroughly used as components of literary scenarios. This paper analyses their representations in a broad corpus (144 writings by 67 writers) since the nineteenth century, divided in three time-periods. It aims to understand which wild birds are represented in Portuguese literature, how those represe...

  16. Futurism in Spanish Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Gülümser İLKER

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century, a group of authors, poets and artists known as “Vanguardistas” (modernists paved the way for modern movements in art and literature in Spain. Inspired by the Italian poet Filippo Tomasso Marinetti, the Futurism movement quickly showed its influence in Spain as well as other countries. It rose to prominence due to its original and dynamic perceptions as well as its appreciation of modernism. As the world is constantly changing, old traditions, lifestyles, outdated ideas as well as previous attitudes, perceptions, styles and movements in literature and art should be abandoned in favor of newer, more original and current ones. This point of view is especially clear in the works of Ramón Gómez de la Serna. Italian Futurism suggests that previous ideas, literary styles and lifestyles cannot have strong links with the present and it is a challenge that makes it difficult to open the doors for the future. Based on this idea and adding different points of view, the Spanish writers aimed at building an original Futurism with its roots in the past but focusing on the future. Spanish intellectuals protested the oppression and censorship of the ruling order in that period, benefiting from the innovative style and perceptions of Futurism in literature.

  17. Whistleblowing in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J J

    2004-02-01

    Although medical centres have established boards, special committees, and offices for the review and redress of breaches in ethical behaviour, these mechanisms repeatedly prove themselves ineffective in addressing research misconduct within the institutions of academic medicine. As the authors see it, institutional design: (1) systematically ignores serious ethical problems, (2) makes whistleblowers into institutional enemies and punishes them, and (3) thereby fails to provide an ethical environment. The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine.

  18. Essentials of periodontal medicine in preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkle Gulati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer′s disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

  19. Polypharmacy in Zoological Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Hunter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypharmacy is a term that describes the inappropriate, concurrent use of multiple drugs in an individual patient. Zoological medicine practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human and extrapolate their use to non-approved species often with little species-specific pharmacological evidence to support their decisions. When considering polypharmacy, even less information exists concerning multi-drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or potential drug-drug interactions in non-domestic species. Unfortunately, captive, zoological species are susceptible, just like their domestic counterparts, to chronic diseases and co-morbidities that may lead to the usage of multiple drugs. Polypharmacy is a recognized and important issue in human medicine, as well as an emerging issue for veterinarians; thus, this paper will discuss the novel, potential risks of polypharmacy in zoological medicine. Hopefully, this discussion will help bring the attention of veterinarians to this issue and serve as an interesting discussion topic for pharmacologists in general.

  20. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  1. Physics in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Simon R; Phelps, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Physics in Nuclear Medicine - by Drs. Simon R. Cherry, James A. Sorenson, and Michael E. Phelps - provides current, comprehensive guidance on the physics underlying modern nuclear medicine and imaging using radioactively labeled tracers. This revised and updated fourth edition features a new full-color layout, as well as the latest information on instrumentation and technology. Stay current on crucial developments in hybrid imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT), and small animal imaging, and benefit from the new section on tracer kinetic modeling in neuroreceptor imaging.

  2. Antibiotics in laboratory medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorian, Victor

    2005-01-01

    ... in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U.S. government employees are not covered by the above-mentioned copyright. Printed in the USA Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Antibiotics in laboratory medicine / [edited by] Victor Lorian. - 5th ed...

  3. Cytomics in predictive medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnok, Attila; Valet, Guenther K.

    2004-07-01

    Predictive Medicine aims at the detection of changes in patient's disease state prior to the manifestation of deterioration or improvement of the current status. Patient-specific, disease-course predictions with >95% or >99% accuracy during therapy would be highly valuable for everyday medicine. If these predictors were available, disease aggravation or progression, frequently accompanied by irreversible tissue damage or therapeutic side effects, could then potentially be avoided by early preventive therapy. The molecular analysis of heterogeneous cellular systems (Cytomics) by cytometry in conjunction with pattern-oriented bioinformatic analysis of the multiparametric cytometric and other data provides a promising approach to individualized or personalized medical treatment or disease management. Predictive medicine is best implemented by cell oriented measurements e.g. by flow or image cytometry. Cell oriented gene or protein arrays as well as bead arrays for the capture of solute molecules form serum, plasma, urine or liquor are equally of high value. Clinical applications of predictive medicine by Cytomics will include multi organ failure in sepsis or non infectious posttraumatic shock in intensive care, or the pretherapeutic identification of high risk patients in cancer cytostatic. Early individualized therapy may provide better survival chances for individual patient at concomitant cost containment. Predictive medicine guided early reduction or stop of therapy may lower or abrogate potential therapeutic side effects. Further important aspects of predictive medicine concern the preoperative identification of patients with a tendency for postoperative complications or coronary artery disease patients with an increased tendency for restenosis. As a consequence, better patient care and new forms of inductive scientific hypothesis development based on the interpretation of predictive data patterns are at reach.

  4. [Integrative medicine development in China: enlightenment from Kampo medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng-fei

    2011-10-01

    Japanese Kampo medicine has made huge progress in the 300-year development, especially in Kampo education, research and development of Kampo medicinal drugs, and industrialization and internationalization of Kampo medicine in recent 30 years. Based on the study of Japanese Kampo medicine, this article discussed some characteristics of Kampo medicine. For example, the emphasis of Kampo medicine research is the effectiveness and scientificalness; classical prescriptions are the main application in Kampo medicine while it also values correspondence between prescription and syndrome as well as abdomen examination; Kampo medicine emphasized the continuity of education after graduation; international development is accelerating in the research of Kampo medicinal drugs. Such a development strategy of Kampo medicine may benefit the development of integrative medicine in China.

  5. In vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine. Pediatric experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, W.A.; Hendee, W.R.; Gilday, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic tests in children is increasing and interest in these is evidenced by the addition of scientific sessions devoted to pediatric medicine at annual meetings of The Society of Nuclear Medicine and by the increase in the literature on pediatric dosimetry. Data presented in this paper describe the actual pediatric nuclear medicine experience from 26 nationally representative U.S. hospitals and provide an overview of the pediatric procedures being performed the types of radiopharmaceuticals being used, and the activity levels being administered

  6. Evidence-Based Advances in Ferret Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh; Chassang, Lucile; Zoller, Graham

    2017-09-01

    This literature review covers approximately 35 years of veterinary medicine. This article develops the current state of knowledge in pet ferret medicine regarding the most common diseases according to evidence-based data and gives insight into further axis of research. Literature review was conducted through identification of keywords (title + ferret) with Web-based database searching. To appreciate the methodological quality and the level of evidence of each article included in the review, full-text versions were reviewed and questions addressed in the articles were formulated. Analysis of the articles' content was performed by the authors, and relevant clinical information was extracted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Developments in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, H.

    1977-01-01

    The article reports on the first international meeting about radiopharmaceutical chemistry in the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island/USA, from 21st to 24th September, 1976. The meeting report is preceded by the explanation of the terms 'radiopharmaceutical chemistry' and 'nuclear medicine' and a brief survey of the history. The interdisciplinary connection of the spheres of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, nuclear medicine, and data processing is also briefly shown. This is necessary before radiodiagnosis can be made for a patient. (RB) [de

  8. Nuclear medicine in sports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anshu Rajnish

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99m Tc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph

  9. Nuclear medicine in obstetrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.

    1981-01-01

    The possible deleterious effects from the exposition to radiation in the field of obstetrics are studied. The radiological protection since the first week of development until a mature fetus is discussed. The use of nuclear medicine in the diagnostic and treatment in obstetrics is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  11. Literature: What Kind of Literature for Ethical Education in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I attempt in this paper to answer the question “What kind of literature is needed for ethical education in Africa, especially in this era of globalization?” I proceed to examine three identifiable kinds of literature in Africa: Oral literature in local African and modern European languages, written literature in local African languages ...

  12. Nuclear medicine in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shihchen; Liu, Xiujie

    1986-01-01

    Since China first applied isotopes to medical research in 1956, over 800 hospitals and research institutions with 4000 staff have taken up nuclear technology. So far, over 120 important biologically active materials have been measured by radioimmunoassay in China, and 44 types of RIA kit have been supplied commercially. More than 50,000 cases of hyperthyroidism have been treated satisfactorily with 131 I. Radionuclide imaging of practically all organs and systems of the human body has been performed, and adrenal imaging and nuclear cardiology have become routine clinical practice in several large hospitals. The thyroid iodine uptake test, renogram tracing and cardiac function studies with a cardiac probe are also commonly used in most Chinese hospitals. The active principles of more than 60 medicinal herbs have been labelled with isotopes in order to study the drug metabolism and mechanism of action. Through the use of labelled neurotransmitters or deoxyglucose, RIA, radioreceptor assay and autoradiography, Chinese researchers have made remarkable achievements in the study of the scientific basis of acupuncture analgesia. In 1980 the Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine was founded, and since 1981 the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine has been published. Although nuclear medicine in China has already made some progress, when compared with advanced countries, much progress is still to be made. It is hoped that international scientific exchange will be strengthened in the future. (author)

  13. Sports Medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  14. Preventive medicine in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    This invited commentary imagines two futures for preventive medicine and public health in the Year 2030. Using satire, the commentary describes one future in which large corporations control public health and another where a robust public sector plays the leading role. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Nuclear medicine in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumplova, H.

    1982-01-01

    The methods of nuclear medicine are outlined used for examining children. The problems are discussed of children's exposure in isotope methods, diagnostic localization methods, in central nervous system examinations, skeleton, hematopoietic organs, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory organs, blood circulation system, and thyroid examinations. (J.B.)

  16. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-07-30

    Jul 30, 2015 ... Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Image in medicine. A male patient aged 20 years, visited us for routine oral examination. Incidentally, a well-demarcated ...

  17. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

  18. ISSUES IN MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEI1994. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. The crisis in outh African family practice. Athe veil of apartheid, academic boycotts and sanc- tions is slowly lifted off South Africa, the damage that has been done is gradually being assessed. Perhaps the worst hit medical discipline has been South. African family practice and primary care.

  19. Whistleblowing in academic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J

    2004-01-01

    The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine. PMID:14872069

  20. Nuclear medicine in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affram, R.K.; Kyere, K.; Amuasi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The background to the introduction and application of radioisotopes in medicine culminating in the establishment of the nuclear Medicine Unit at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana, has been examined. The Unit has been involved in important clinical researches since early 1970s but routine application in patient management has not always been possible because of cost per test and lack of continuous availability of convertible currency for the purchase of radioisotopes which are not presently produced by the National Nuclear Research Institute at Kwabenya. The capabilities and potentials of the Unit are highlighted and a comparison of Nuclear Medicine techniques to other medical diagnostic and imaging methods have been made. There is no organised instruction in the principles of medical imaging and diagnostic methods at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital which has not promoted the use of Nuclear Medicine techniques. The development of a comprehensive medical diagnostic and imaging services is urgently needed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-01-22

    Jan 22, 2016 ... 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital, Mohammed V University of Rabat, Morocco ... Pan African Medical Journal – ISSN: 1937- 8688 (www.panafrican-med-journal.com). Published in ... F18-FDG PET-CT coronal fusion image: pathological lymph nodes are identified ...

  2. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... Oral lesions in Tuberculosis. Sandhya Gokavarapu1, Prashanth Panta2,&. 1Basavatarakam Indo Americal Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India, 2Department of Oral Medicine and. Radiology, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Narsapur road, Sangareddy (502294), ...

  3. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    21 oct. 2015 ... Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Image en medicine. Le canal de Wharton draine les secrétions de la glande sous- maxillaire. Les étiologies de la ...

  4. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  5. Text Mining Genotype-Phenotype Relationships from Biomedical Literature for Database Curation and Precision Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Singhal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature. In this paper we propose a high-performance machine learning approach to automate the extraction of disease-gene-variant triplets from biomedical literature. Our approach is unique because we identify the genes and protein products associated with each mutation from not just the local text content, but from a global context as well (from the Internet and from all literature in PubMed. Our approach also incorporates protein sequence validation and disease association using a novel text-mining-based machine learning approach. We extract disease-gene-variant triplets from all abstracts in PubMed related to a set of ten important diseases (breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, Alzheimer's disease, hemochromatosis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis. We then evaluate our approach in two ways: (1 a direct comparison with the state of the art using benchmark datasets; (2 a validation study comparing the results of our approach with entries in a popular human-curated database (UniProt for each of the previously mentioned diseases. In the benchmark comparison, our full approach achieves a 28% improvement in F1-measure (from 0.62 to 0.79 over the state-of-the-art results. For the validation study with UniProt Knowledgebase (KB, we present a thorough analysis of the results and errors. Across all diseases, our approach returned 272 triplets

  6. Text Mining Genotype-Phenotype Relationships from Biomedical Literature for Database Curation and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Ayush; Simmons, Michael; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-11-01

    The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature. In this paper we propose a high-performance machine learning approach to automate the extraction of disease-gene-variant triplets from biomedical literature. Our approach is unique because we identify the genes and protein products associated with each mutation from not just the local text content, but from a global context as well (from the Internet and from all literature in PubMed). Our approach also incorporates protein sequence validation and disease association using a novel text-mining-based machine learning approach. We extract disease-gene-variant triplets from all abstracts in PubMed related to a set of ten important diseases (breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, Alzheimer's disease, hemochromatosis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis). We then evaluate our approach in two ways: (1) a direct comparison with the state of the art using benchmark datasets; (2) a validation study comparing the results of our approach with entries in a popular human-curated database (UniProt) for each of the previously mentioned diseases. In the benchmark comparison, our full approach achieves a 28% improvement in F1-measure (from 0.62 to 0.79) over the state-of-the-art results. For the validation study with UniProt Knowledgebase (KB), we present a thorough analysis of the results and errors. Across all diseases, our approach returned 272 triplets (disease

  7. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  8. Prospects in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pink, V.; Johannsen, B.; Muenze, R.

    1990-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, a sequence of revolutioning research up to the simple and efficient application in routine has always then taken place when in an interdisciplinary teamwork new radiochemical tracers and/or new instrumentation had become available. At present we are at the beginning of a phase that means to be in-vivo-biochemistry, the targets of which are molecular interactions in the form of enzymatic reactions, ligand-receptor interactions or immunological reactions. The possibility to use positron-emitting radionuclides of bioelements in biomolecules or drugs to measure their distribution in the living organism by positron-emission tomography (PET) is gaining admittance into the pretentious themes of main directions of medical research. Diagnostic routine application of biochemically oriented nuclear medicine methods are predominantly expected from the transmission of knowledge in PET research to the larger appliable emission tomography with gamma-emitting tracers (SPECT). (author)

  9. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  10. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  11. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  12. Hypnosis in contemporary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James H

    2005-04-01

    Hypnosis became popular as a treatment for medical conditions in the late 1700s when effective pharmaceutical and surgical treatment options were limited. To determine whether hypnosis has a role in contemporary medicine, relevant trials and a few case reports are reviewed. Despite substantial variation in techniques among the numerous reports, patients treated with hypnosis experienced substantial benefits for many different medical conditions. An expanded role for hypnosis and a larger study of techniques appear to be indicated.

  13. Laser In Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.

    1982-12-01

    Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.

  14. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giussani, Augusto [BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Protection and Health; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Research Unit Medical Raditation Physics and Diagnostics

    2013-08-01

    Presents the most recent developments in nuclear medicine imaging, with emphasis on the latest research findings. Considers the latest advances in imaging systems, image reconstruction, noise correction, and quality assurance. Discusses novel concepts, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA project. Lists rules of thumb for imaging of use to both beginners and experienced researchers. This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  15. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, Augusto; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Presents the most recent developments in nuclear medicine imaging, with emphasis on the latest research findings. Considers the latest advances in imaging systems, image reconstruction, noise correction, and quality assurance. Discusses novel concepts, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA project. Lists rules of thumb for imaging of use to both beginners and experienced researchers. This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  16. [Ethics in contemporary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Serrano, Octavio; Durante-Montiel, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Medical practice has been traditionally ruled by the principles of medical ethics and the scientific aspects that define it. However, today's medical practice is largely influenced by other aspects such as: economic interests, abuse of therapeutics, defensive medicine, unnecessary surgeries and conflicts of interests without excluding alterations in the application of the informed consent, the relation with the pharmaceutical industry, respect of confidentiality, organizational ethics, and the ethical practice that escapes the will of the medical professional.

  17. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.

  18. Thermal imaging in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Ogorevc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Body temperature monitoring is one of the oldest and still one of the most basic diagnostic methods in medicine. In recent years thermal imaging has been increasingly used in measurements of body temperature for diagnostic purposes. Thermal imaging is non-invasive, non-contact method for measuring surface body temperature. Method is quick, painless and patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation or any other body burden.Application of thermal imaging in medicine: Pathological conditions can be indicated as hyper- or hypothermic patterns in many cases. Thermal imaging is presented as a diagnostic method, which can detect such thermal anomalies. This article provides an overview of the thermal imaging applications in various fields of medicine. Thermal imaging has proven to be a suitable method for human febrile temperature screening, for the detection of sites of fractures and infections, a reliable diagnostic tool in the detection of breast cancer and determining the type of skin cancer tumour. It is useful in monitoring the course of a therapy after spinal cord injury, in the detection of food allergies and detecting complications at hemodialysis and is also very effective at the course of treatment of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. With thermal imaging is possible to determine the degrees of burns and early detection of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot phenomenon. The most common and the oldest application of thermal imaging in medicine is the field of rheumatology.Recommendations for use and standards: Essential performance of a thermal imaging camera, measurement method, preparation of a patient and environmental conditions are very important for proper interpretation of measurement results in medical applications of thermal imaging. Standard for screening thermographs was formed for the human febrile temperature screening application.Conclusion: Based on presented examples it is shown that thermal imaging can

  19. Trends in nuclear medicine in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas; Zaknun, John; Bastos, Fernando Mut; Pynda, Yaroslav

    2011-12-01

    This article describes trends in nuclear medicine in the developing world as noted by nuclear medicine professionals at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The trends identified are based on data gathered from several sources, including information gathered through a database maintained by the IAEA; evaluation of country program frameworks of various IAEA Member States; personal interactions with representatives in the nuclear medicine field from different regions of the world; official proceedings and meeting reports of the IAEA; participation in numerous national, regional, and international conferences; discussions with the leadership of major professional societies; and relevant literature. The information presented in this article relied on both objective and subjective observations. The aims of this article were to reflect on recent developments in the specialty of nuclear medicine and to envision the directions in which it is progressing. These issues are examined in terms of dimensions of practice, growth, and educational and training needs in the field of nuclear medicine. This article will enable readers to gain perspective on the status of nuclear medicine practice, with a specific focus on the developing world, and to examine needs and trends arising from the observations.

  20. Nanoscience in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N R

    2007-08-01

    Nanotechnology, as an enabling technology, has the potential to revolutionize veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, identity preservation of animal history from birth to a consumer's table, the security of animal food products, major impact on animal nutrition scenarios ranging from the diet to nutrient uptake and utilization, modification of animal waste as expelled from the animal, pathogen detection, and many more. Existing research has demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animals to seek and destroy targeted cells. Thus, building blocks do exist and are expected to be integrated into systems over the next couple of decades on a commercial basis. While it is reasonable to presume that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will revolutionize veterinary medicine in the future, there is a huge concern, among some persons and organizations, about food safety and health as well as social and ethical issues which can delay or derail technological advancements.

  1. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  2. Quality control in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leme, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: objectives of the quality control in nuclear medicine; the necessity of the quality control in nuclear medicine; guidelines and recommendations. An appendix is given concerning the guidelines for the quality control and instrumentation in nuclear medicine. (M.A.) [pt

  3. [Ethical medicine in Paracelsus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, D V

    1997-01-01

    The last decades have been an increasing interest in medical ethics. Paracelsus occupies an important place in the development of ethics in medicine in the crucial cultural passage between Middle Ages and Renaissance. Paracelsus' biography is in itself connected with ethical choices and theories. In his medical doctrines ethics is rooted in the belief in a strict correspondence between micro- and macrocosmos. Love is the basis on which a correct doctor-patient relationship can be built. Ilnesses are but episodes in the human life, and care for both spiritual and bodily health should dominate the entire life, and not ony the crucial moments of birth, sickness and death.

  4. Text Mining for Precision Medicine: Bringing Structure to EHRs and Biomedical Literature to Understand Genes and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael; Singhal, Ayush; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The key question of precision medicine is whether it is possible to find clinically actionable granularity in diagnosing disease and classifying patient risk. The advent of next-generation sequencing and the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have provided clinicians and researchers a wealth of data and made possible the precise characterization of individual patient genotypes and phenotypes. Unstructured text-found in biomedical publications and clinical notes-is an important component of genotype and phenotype knowledge. Publications in the biomedical literature provide essential information for interpreting genetic data. Likewise, clinical notes contain the richest source of phenotype information in EHRs. Text mining can render these texts computationally accessible and support information extraction and hypothesis generation. This chapter reviews the mechanics of text mining in precision medicine and discusses several specific use cases, including database curation for personalized cancer medicine, patient outcome prediction from EHR-derived cohorts, and pharmacogenomic research. Taken as a whole, these use cases demonstrate how text mining enables effective utilization of existing knowledge sources and thus promotes increased value for patients and healthcare systems. Text mining is an indispensable tool for translating genotype-phenotype data into effective clinical care that will undoubtedly play an important role in the eventual realization of precision medicine.

  5. Handbooks in radiology: Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    This series of handbooks covers the basic facts, major concepts and highlights in seven radiological subspecialties. ''Nuclear Medicine'' is a review of the principles, procedures and clinical applications that every radiology resident and practicing general radiologist should know about nuclear medicine. Presented in an outline format it covers all of the organ systems that are imaged by nuclear medicine

  6. [Rapid development of cosmetic medicine in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kaihua; Pan, Baohua; Xia, Wei

    2006-04-01

    To review and summarize the development during the last 20 years and the current status of cosmetic medicine, i.e., cosmetic surgery, in China, for the healthier development of this specialty in the future. Literature concerned was reviewed, including conference abstracts, papers, and publications, and the present status and problems were analyzed. Cosmetic medicine was recognized as an independent specialty and gained its clear definition. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the changing medical modules and the developing science and civilization. This trend fulfilled the need of the people. The related problems consisted of a high complication rate, confusion of management, and insufficient specific knowledge in part of the providers. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the civilization development. For the healthy development of this specialty, scientific management and systemic education for the providers are crucial. Only those who have the plastic surgery background are able to participate in this practice.

  7. [Technical medicine in ancient comedy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Alfageme, I

    1995-01-01

    The texts of Greek comedy offer a panoramic vision of the evolution of medicine between the fifth and the third centuries. They provide an excellent way to understand the prejudices and the bases of technical medicine and its relationship with popular medicine. Comedy also shows us a vivid portrait of the physician and his position in Greek society.

  8. VLSI in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1989-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 17: VLSI in Medicine deals with the more important applications of VLSI in medical devices and instruments.This volume is comprised of 11 chapters. It begins with an article about medical electronics. The following three chapters cover diagnostic imaging, focusing on such medical devices as magnetic resonance imaging, neurometric analyzer, and ultrasound. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the impact of VLSI in cardiology. The electrocardiograph, implantable cardiac pacemaker, and the use of VLSI in Holter monitoring are detailed in these chapters. The

  9. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  10. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Infectious component of the pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS in terms of evidence-based medicine principles (review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Bezrukov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The first clinical cases of obsessive-compulsive di­sorder and/or tic disorder in children with acute sudden onset associated with infectious diseases have been named pediatric infection-triggered autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders (PITANDS. The relationship of such neuropsychiatric manifestations with preceding infectious diseases caused by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was the most important, and it has been called paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS. Due to the low level of evidence of the research on the relationship of infectious agents with neurological and behavioral symptoms with an acute onset, since 2014 another syndrome is diagnosed in children — pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS. Currently, the question about infectious etiology, pathogenesis and autoimmune mechanisms of these paediatric neuropsychiatric syndromes are still debatable.

  12. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  13. Literatura e medicina: o território partilhado Literature and medicine: the shared territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Scliar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do texto do escritor português José Cardoso Pires, "De Profundis: Valsa Lenta", em que o autor descreve a afasia pela qual passou em conseqüência de acidente vascular cerebral, são feitas considerações sobre o enfoque da doença por escritores e por médicos. As diferenças apontadas, em termos da forma e do conteúdo dos textos que, na literatura e na medicina, descrevem a doença, enquadram-se no conflito entre as duas culturas, tal como descrito por C. P. Snow, sendo característico da crescente especialização. A inclusão de textos literários no treinamento de médicos e de profissionais da saúde pode ajudar a superar esse hiato, facilitando o entendimento da doença em sua dimensão mais ampla e contribuindo para um melhor relacionamento profissional-paciente.The text De Profundis: Valsa Lenta (De Profundis: Slow Waltz, by Portuguese author José Cardoso Pires, describing the aphasia he experienced after a stroke, was used as a starting point to study the different approaches writers and physician have regarding the disease. The differences in form and content of texts describing the disease in literature and medicine fit in the conflict between the two cultures, as described by C.P. Snow, and are typical of the increasing specialization. The addition of literary texts in training programs for doctors and health professionals may help overcome this gap, making it easier to understand the disease in its broader dimension and collaborating to improve the relationship between patients and professionals.

  14. Organic bioelectronics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, S; Melican, K; Nilsson, K P R; Richter-Dahlfors, A

    2017-07-01

    A major challenge in the growing field of bioelectronic medicine is the development of tissue interface technologies promoting device integration with biological tissues. Materials based on organic bioelectronics show great promise due to a unique combination of electronic and ionic conductivity properties. In this review, we outline exciting developments in the field of organic bioelectronics and demonstrate the medical importance of these active, electronically controllable materials. Importantly, organic bioelectronics offer a means to control cell-surface attachment as required for many device-tissue applications. Experiments have shown that cells readily attach and proliferate on reduced but not oxidized organic bioelectronic materials. In another application, the active properties of organic bioelectronics were used to develop electronically triggered systems for drug release. After incorporating drugs by advanced loading strategies, small compound drugs were released upon electrochemical trigger, independent of charge. Another type of delivery device was used to achieve well-controlled, spatiotemporal delivery of cationic drugs. Via electrophoretic transport within a polymer, cations were delivered with single-cell precision. Finally, organic bioelectronic materials are commonly used as electrode coatings improving the electrical properties of recording and stimulation electrodes. Because such coatings drastically reduce the electrode impedance, smaller electrodes with improved signal-to-noise ratio can be fabricated. Thus, rapid technological advancement combined with the creation of tiny electronic devices reacting to changes in the tissue environment helps to promote the transition from standard pharmaceutical therapy to treatment based on 'electroceuticals'. Moreover, the widening repertoire of organic bioelectronics will expand the options for true biological interfaces, providing the basis for personalized bioelectronic medicine. © 2017 The

  15. Nanomedicine, nanotechnology in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells. Operating at nanoscale allows to exploit physical properties different from those observed at microscale such as the volume/surface ratio. The investigated diagnostic applications can be considered for in vitro as well as for in vivo diagnosis. In vitro, the synthesised particles and manipulation or detection devices allow for the recognition, capture, and concentration of biomolecules. In vivo, the synthetic molecular assemblies are mainly designed as a contrast agent for imaging. A second area exhibiting a strong development is "nanodrugs" where nanoparticles are designed for targeted drug delivery. The use of such carriers improves the drug biodistribution, targeting active molecules to diseased tissues while protecting healthy tissue. A third area of application is regenerative medicine where nanotechnology allows developing biocompatible materials which support growth of cells used in cell therapy. The application of nanotechnology to medicine raises new issues because of new uses they allow, for instance: Is the power of these new diagnostics manageable by the medical profession? What means treating a patient without any clinical signs? Nanomedicine can contribute to the development of a personalised medicine both for diagnosis and therapy. There exists in many countries existing regulatory frameworks addressing the basic rules of safety and effectiveness of nanotechnology based medicine, whether molecular assemblies or medical devices. However, there is a need to clarify or to

  16. Literature review of visual representation of the results of benefit-risk assessments of medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgreen, Christine E; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Lieftucht, Alfons; Phillips, Lawrence D; Hughes, Diana; Talbot, Susan; Asiimwe, Alex; Downey, Gerald; Genov, Georgy; Hermann, Richard; Noel, Rebecca; Peters, Ruth; Micaleff, Alain; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ashby, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    The PROTECT Benefit-Risk group is dedicated to research in methods for continuous benefit-risk monitoring of medicines, including the presentation of the results, with a particular emphasis on graphical methods. A comprehensive review was performed to identify visuals used for medical risk and benefit-risk communication. The identified visual displays were grouped into visual types, and each visual type was appraised based on five criteria: intended audience, intended message, knowledge required to understand the visual, unintentional messages that may be derived from the visual and missing information that may be needed to understand the visual. Sixty-six examples of visual formats were identified from the literature and classified into 14 visual types. We found that there is not one single visual format that is consistently superior to others for the communication of benefit-risk information. In addition, we found that most of the drawbacks found in the visual formats could be considered general to visual communication, although some appear more relevant to specific formats and should be considered when creating visuals for different audiences depending on the exact message to be communicated. We have arrived at recommendations for the use of visual displays for benefit-risk communication. The recommendation refers to the creation of visuals. We outline four criteria to determine audience-visual compatibility and consider these to be a key task in creating any visual. Next we propose specific visual formats of interest, to be explored further for their ability to address nine different types of benefit-risk analysis information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Reading Popular Islamic Literature: Continuity And Change In Indonesian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rokib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, literature on Islamic themes has become increasingly popular in Indonesia. It is commonly categorized as Islamic literature identified by Islamic texts and symbols on the book cover and its content. The literary works have been popular as reflected in the record sales figures. Previously, some literary works dealing with Islamic themes failed to gain public attention. Interestingly, those works are not mentioned by people as Islamic literature. This paper aims to discuss some questions on why are some literary works on Islamic theme mentioned as Islamic while others are not? Is there Islamic literature within Indonesian literature? What are the differences between Islamic literature and kitab literature (sastra kitab written by Muslim scholars in the Malay world? By exploring the social context of reader responses toward selected literary works on Islam, this study reveals that the label of Islamic literature is created to confront opposite themes in Indonesian literature. The term Islamic literature remains a problematic and debatable issue related to literature based on Islamic themes in both old and modern Indonesian literature.

  18. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A N; Kambhampati, C; Monson, J R T; Drew, P J

    2004-09-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting.

  19. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  20. Nuclear medicine in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Slawek, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the same way that the symptoms between different diseases in psychiatry overlap, functional brain research frequently shows the same pattern of changes across diagnostic borders; on the other hand, many the other tests, e.g. psychological tests, present the same problem as mentioned above; therefore: The psychiatrist seldom applies to an NM specialist to obtain a diagnosis; instead, a nuclear medicine report will rather confirm, or less frequently exclude, the psychiatrist's diagnosis. Ideally, psychiatric patients should be rescanned after the treatment, and changes in perfusion and/or metabolism discussed between psychiatrist and NM specialist. As shown above, there are few practical applications of nuclear medicine due to low specificity and low spatial resolution, although in the aspect of functional imaging it is still superior to CT/MRI, even in their functional modalities. On the other hand, its investigational potential is still growing, as there is no imaging technique in sight which could replace metabolic and receptor studies, and also because the scope of functional imaging in psychiatric diseases is spreading from its traditional applications, like dementia or depression, towards many poorly investigated fields e.g. hypnosis, suicidal behaviour or sleep disorders. (author)

  1. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. X-ray appearance of subcutaneous gemstones as part of alternative/holistic medicine: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Jerri; Hallengren, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a case of a deceased man with numerous subcutaneous nodules identified as foreign bodies on radiographic films. The foreign bodies were gemstones inserted underneath the skin as a form of holistic medicine. The X-ray findings of this case and a review of the literature for similar subcutaneously implanted foreign bodies used in holistic, alternative, or folk medicine are presented. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  4. Nuclear Medicine and Application of Nuclear Techniques in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiharto, Kunto

    1996-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques medicine covers not only nuclear medicine and radiology in strict sense but also determination of body mineral content by neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence technique either in vitro or in vivo, application of radioisotopes as tracers in pharmacology and biochemistry, etc. This paper describes the ideal tracer in nuclear medicine, functional and morphological imaging, clinical aspect and radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Nuclear technique offers facilities and chances related to research activities and services in medicine. The development of diagnostic as well as therapeutic methods using monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioisotope will undoubtedly play an important role in the disease control

  5. COMPETENCE IN MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira MD.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical competence is the result of a lifelong evolving process, based on the development of efficiency, experience and ethical principles. Efficiency in medical practice depends on scientific knowledge, technical abilities and communication skills. Experience is a process of personal refinement, breeding knowledge and wisdom. Finally, medical ethics is founded on the quest for justice, compassion and love. Didactically, we can distinguish three phases in the professional evolution of a physician: a Professional infancy, or linear vision: the physician restricts his attention to the morbid process only, often neglecting the patient in his totality. His approach is almost exclusively technical, with limited perception of medicine as an art. b Professional maturity or humanistic vision: it results from the evolution of personality, culture and experience of the physician, who foccuses now on the patient as a whole with his disease(s. c Professional excellence, or holistic vision, the highest stage: when the physician's integrated dimensions and wisdom are projected into the patient, fostering the natural conditions for optimal healing. We conclude that the practice of medicine is best fulfilled when both, art and cience, are considered and exercised together by the doctor.

  6. Index of international publications in aerospace medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The 5th edition of the Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine is a comprehensive : listing of international publications in clinical aerospace medicine, operational aerospace medicine, : aerospace physiology, environmental medicine...

  7. Index of international publications in aerospace medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine is a comprehensive listing of international publications in clinical aerospace medicine, operational aerospace medicine, aerospace physiology, environmental medicine/physiology, diving med...

  8. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players like the medical fraternity. Aims The present study aimed to determine who holds the true ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the thinking and opinion on the true ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results Many more role players are active in today’s traditional medicines manufacturing industry than merely the traditional healer and the traditional fraternity. The literature on traditional medicines fails to show the public the true meaning of traditional medicine in modern-day South Africa and to whom it really belongs. An in-depth analysis and understanding of the Regulations of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007, and of the definitions traditional philosophy and traditional medicines as reflected by the Act are totally missing from the literature. Such an investigation will aid in uncovering the true ownership of traditional medicines. Conclusion There is a clear differentiation between the dominant (real traditional medicines and the inferior pre-modern traditional products of the traditional healer. The title deed or card and transport of traditional medicine are held by various public and private institutions and other

  9. Personalized medicine in rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłak, Anna; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Raciborski, Filip

    2016-01-01

    In the era of the 21 st century, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is still poorly characterized. Rheumatoid arthritis is a common but heterogeneous disease, not only in the course and clinical symptoms, but also in the clinical response to treatment. Now it is known that early, correct diagnosis and starting treatment with disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs), of which methotrexate (MTX) remains the gold standard in the treatment of RA, is crucial in order to prevent joint destruction, functional disability and an unfavourable disease outcome. Early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is significant in so much as the primary treatment can be started better. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies, which help determine the genetic profile of individual patients, may bring us closer to personalized medicine. Further studies on RA should allow for the identification of disease-specific genes at the stage when their tolerance by the organism is still preserved (before auto-aggression develops).

  10. [Geriatric medicine in future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, M

    1989-01-01

    Geriatrics in future will be most concerned with persons aged 80 years or more (very elderly) in Japan. Clinical and pathological features of very elderly patients were reported with comparison to the 65-79 age group. Many very elderly do not show clear-cut clinical signs and symptoms, but have serious underlying diseases. We propose here a concept of "clinical threshold". On evaluating the laboratory data, we must consider the grades of "activity of daily living (ADL)" of the aged patients, because ADL may significantly modify the test results. Furthermore in clinical practice, we should pay attention to both the psychosocial states and physical findings of the patients. "The old age syndrome" proposed by Parker is useful in geriatric medicine. Extensive studies on dementia, especially of Alzheimer's type are required urgently. Molecular biology approaches to this disease have shown great advances in geriatrics. To prevent geriatric disease, well-controlled exercise and diet are important as well as reasonable psychosocial integrity.

  11. Computational Mathematics in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AI requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is very necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as may be Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-
    Monotonic Logic, and so on [2]. Among the things that AI needs to represent are Categories, Objects, Properties, Relations between objects, Situations, States, Time, Events, Causes and effects, Knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in AI can be classified in two general types
    [3, 4], Search Problems and Representation Problem. There exist different ways to reach this objective. So, we have [3] Logics, Rules, Frames, Associative Nets, Scripts, and so on, many times interconnect. Also it will be very useful, in the treatment of the problems of uncertainty and causality, the introduction of Bayesian Networks and particularly, a principal tool as the Essential Graph. We attempt here to show the scope of application of such versatile methods, currently fundamental in Medicine.

  12. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physics technologies in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Kreis, Roland; Wildermuth, Simon; Buck, Alfred; Von Schulthess, Gustav K

    2002-01-01

    Modern medicine is a large consumer of physics technologies. The series of lectures covers medical imaging starting with an overview and the history of medical imaging. Then follows four lectures covering x-ray imaging positron emission tomography imaging blood flow by ultrasound magnetic resonance 10 June 2002 100 Years of Medical Imaging Pr. Gustav K. von Schulthess MD, PhD, University of Zurich History and overview of Medical Imaging 11 June 2002 X-rays: still going strong Dr. Simon Wildermuth, MD, University Hospital Zurich Multidetector computed tomography: New developments and applications Since its introduction in 1992, spiral computed tomography (CT) scanners constructed with a single row of detectors have revolutionized imaging of thoracic and abdominal diseases. Current state-of-the-art models use up to 16 detectors and are capable of acquiring 16 contiguous slices of data with each gantry rotation; systems with 32 data acquisition units (and more) are currently in development. The principal advan...

  14. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  15. [Endemic plants for medicine use in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gang-Qiang; Li, Hai-Tao; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Li-Xia; Li, Ya-Jing; Huang, Lu-Qi; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Based on plant species databases, species lists and literature records, general situation of the Chinese medicinal endemic plant (vascular plant) has been systematically summarized, and its quantity and distribution characteristics of Chinese medicinal endemic plants are presented in this paper. The results showed that 3 150 endemic species are Chinese medicinal plants belonging to 785 genera in 153 families, which includes 38 species of 22 genera in 12 families of pteridophyta, 42 species of 14 genera in7 families of gymnosperms, and 3 070 species of 749 genara in 134 families of angiosperms. The top four families involving medicinal endemic species are Asteraceae (218 species), Ranunculaceae (182 species), Labiatae (151 species), and Liliaceae (133 species). The top four provincial administration distributed medicinal endemic species are Sichuan (1 568 species), Yunnan (1 533 species), Guizhou (955 species) and Hubei (930 species).On the regional scale, the most abundant one is the southwest region (2 465 species), followed by the central region (1 226 species) and the northwest region (949 species). Localization characteristics for domestication and artificial cultivation of medicinal endemic species are more prominent due to their narrower and limited distribution areas, indicating it is possible for these species acting as local potential resource for reasonable economic development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Coordination compounds in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisson, S.; Berning, D.; Wei Jia; Dangshe Ma

    1993-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals, drugs containing a radionuclide, are used routinely in nuclear medicine departments for the diagnosis of disease and are under investigation for use in the treatment of disease. Nuclear medicine takes advantage of both the nuclear properties of the radionuclide and the pharmacological properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Herein lies the real strength of nuclear medicine, the ability to monitor biochemical and physiological functions in vivo. This review discusses the coordination chemistry that forms the basis for nuclear medicine applications of the FDA-approved radiopharmaceuticals that are in clinical use, and of the most promising diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals that are in various stages of development. 232 refs

  17. Nuclear Medicine week in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    During the week of 6-12 October 2003 the IAEA organized a Research Coordination Meeting on 'Relationship between lower Respiratory Tract Infection, Gastroesophageal reflux and bronchial Asthma in children' at Hospital San Ignacio in Bogota. Besides there were four workshops in Bogota; workshops on Bone infection and Bone scan in Pediatric ortopaedics at Hospital Militar and Fundacion CardioInfantil, a workshop for Nuclear Medicine Technologists and a workshop on Sentinel Lymph Node mapping and Surgical Gamma Probe Application at Institute of Oncology. A nuclear cardiology workshop was organized in Medellin, and finally crowning them all was the 9th Congress of the Colombian Association of Nuclear Medicine at Cali from 10-12 October, 2003; probably the largest and best Colombian nuclear medicine congress every held in the country. A workshop was also organized in Cali for nuclear medicine technologists in conjunction with the Annual Convention. It was a mix of IAEA's Technical Cooperation and Regular Budget activities along with the activities of Colombian Association of Nuclear Medicine, bringing in absolute synergy to galvanize the entire nuclear medicine community of the country. The week saw nuclear medicine scientists from more than 20 IAEA Member States converging on Colombia to spread the message of nuclear medicine, share knowledge and to foster International understanding and friendship among the nuclear medicine people of the world

  18. [Problems in medicinal materials research of new traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Ting; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Medicinal materials research and development of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is the premise and foundation of new drug research and development, it throughout the whole process of new drug research. Medicinal materials research is one of the main content of the pharmaceutical research of new drug of TCM, and it is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. This article through the analysis of the present problems existing in the development of TCM research of new drug of TCM, from medicine research concept, quality stability, quality standard, etc are expounded, including medicine research idea value medicine study should focus on the important role and from the purpose for the top-level design of new drug research problem. Medicinal materials quality stability should pay attention to the original, medicinal part, origin, processing, storage, planting (breeding), and other aspects. Aspect of quality standard of medicinal materials should pay attention to establish the quality standards of conform to the characteristics of new drug of TCM. As the instruction of TCM new drug research and development and the scientific nature of the review, and provide the basis for medicinal material standards.

  19. Towards personalized medicine in mycobacterial diseases; from bench to bedside

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Mirsaeidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mycobacterial disease is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Personalized medicine is a rapidly advancing field of medicine. It uses all available omics in order to make accurate decisions about prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Personalized medicine may be helpful to design more efficient strategies for prevention of mycobacterial diseases and for offering better treatment options. Methods: A literature search was conducted using sea...

  20. Personalized medicine in Europe: not yet personal enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Antonello; Sarkozy, François; Ryll, Bettina; Siebert, Uwe

    2017-04-19

    Personalized medicine has the potential to allow patients to receive drugs specific to their individual disease, and to increase the efficiency of the healthcare system. There is currently no comprehensive overview of personalized medicine, and this research aims to provide an overview of the concept and definition of personalized medicine in nine European countries. A targeted literature review of selected health databases and grey literature was conducted to collate information regarding the definition, process, use, funding, impact and challenges associated with personalized medicine. In-depth qualitative interviews were carried out with experts with health technology assessment, clinical provisioning, payer, academic, economic and industry experience, and with patient organizations. We identified a wide range of definitions of personalized medicine, with most studies referring to the use of diagnostics and individual biological information such as genetics and biomarkers. Few studies mentioned patients' needs, beliefs, behaviour, values, wishes, utilities, environment and circumstances, and there was little evidence in the literature for formal incorporation of patient preferences into the evaluation of new medicines. Most interviewees described approaches to stratification and segmentation of patients based on genetic markers or diagnostics, and few mentioned health-related quality of life. The published literature on personalized medicine is predominantly focused on patient stratification according to individual biological information. Although these approaches are important, incorporation of environmental factors and patients' preferences in decision making is also needed. In future, personalized medicine should move from treating diseases to managing patients, taking into account all individual factors.

  1. Traditional medicine in Syria: folk medicine in Aleppo governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachkar, Amal; Jaddouh, Ahmad; Elsheikh, Muhammad Salem; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The use of Traditional Arabic Medicine (TAM) for various diseases has been popular but scarcely studied in Syria. In the present study, we carried out ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research on the plants traditionally used to cure various diseases in northern Syria. The information was collected from the city and villages of the Aleppo governorate "Mohaafazah" in the north of Syria, collecting data directly on the basis of a detailed survey of inhabitants and herbalists. In this survey, we found that hundreds of plant species are still in use in TAM for the treatment of various diseases. We selected the most common 100 species, used in the treatment of more than 25 diseases. Among these plants, 53 are used for treating gastrointestinal disorders, 38 for respiratory system diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and cough, 34 for skin diseases, 21 for diabetes, 17 for kidney and urinary disorders, 16 for cardiac disorders, 14 for infertility and sexual impotency, 13 for treating liver diseases, 13 for several types of cancer, 9 for enhancing breast milk excretion, 8 for weight loss, 5 for reducing cholesterol, and three for weight gain. Plants were collected and identified: scientific Latin names, local names, the used parts of the plant, the herbal preparations and the local medical uses are described. Scientific literature concerning the activity of the investigated species is also reported and discussed according to their traditional uses.

  2. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  3. Evidence-Based Advances in Reptile Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A; Perry, Sean M

    2017-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine allows veterinarians to practice high-quality medicine, because the basis for all decision making is quantitative, objective, and reproducible. Case reports and case series are limited in their scope and application. Cross-sectional studies, likewise, cannot provide answers to specific variable testing with a temporal application. It is essential for the reptile specialty to expand into case-control studies, cohort studies, and experimental/intervention studies. Unfortunately, much of the reptile literature remains limited to descriptive studies. This article reviews current evidence-based topics in reptile medicine and shares how everyone practicing in the field can contribute to improving this specialty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infection imaging in nuclear medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Regardless of advances in medicine, infection continues to play a major role in patients' morbidity and mortality. Nuclear medicine techniques have an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of harbouring infection. Many different agents may be used in an attempt to image infection. ere are ...

  5. "Humanities in medicine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbach, V

    1999-01-01

    Progress in medicine and medical technology along with economic constraints have led to increasing structural change in the hospital sector over the past years. As a result of these changes, the social needs of the patients are in danger of being eclipsed by the requirements of the optimization of hospital processes. Cultural activities can be a meaningful way to offset such changes. They stimulate individuals, promote well-being and prompt discussion. Cultural activities in hospitals are directed at patients, hospital employees and people in the community. In Germany, the 'National Association for Culture and Health MediArt' founded in 1995 has been responsible for the UNESCO project "Art in Hospitals" 1988-1997. This paper provides a snapshot of German hospitals that have integrated cultural activities in an exemplary fashion. The activities include such events as 'international cultural days', 'theatre groups', 'dance workshops', 'clinclowns'. Participants include professionals, employees, patients and visitors from the community. The activities are organized by individuals and/or cultural departments created to act as 'health centres' for musical, theatrical, dance and plastic art events.

  6. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Cancer is increasingly prevalent in our society. There is a life-time risk that 1 in 3 Australian men and 1 in 4 Australian women will get cancer before the age of 75 years. Overall, 27% of the deaths in NSW are currently related to cancer. The common cancers for men are prostate, lung, melanoma, colon, rectum and bladder. For women the common cancers are breast, colon, melanoma, lung and unknown primary. However, overall lung cancer remains the major cause of cancer deaths (20%) followed by colorectal (13%), unknown site (8%), breast and prostate. Breast and lung cancer are the major causes of death in women. Recent information on 5 year survivals reveal good 5 year survival rates for breast (78.6%), prostate (72.4%) and melanoma (92%), while some tumours such as lung cancer (10.7%) have poor survival. Colon cancer has intermediate survival (57.1%). Projections for cancer incidence suggests rates of cancer will increase for colorectal cancer, melanoma, lung cancer in females but decrease for breast, lung in males and prostate cancer. Major strategic directions in cancer research are understanding carcinogenesis, identification of high risk groups, screening and early detection, chemo-prevention, new cancer therapies, combined modality therapy and quality of life issues. Nuclear medicine will play an important part in many of these areas

  7. Maladministrations in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Maladministration has been defined as the mistaken administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a patient. Examples include the administration of the wrong radiopharmaceutical or the wrong activity to the correct patient or the administration of the correct radiopharmaceutical to the wrong patient. Although maladministrations are rare, lessons can be learnt from the incidents that do occur. Medical maladministrations and other radiation incidents are discussed by members of the NSW Hospital and University Radiation Safety Officers Group (HURSOG) at their bi-monthly meetings. During the three years of 1997-1999 fourteen incidents of maladministrations in nuclear medicine were reported. Analysis of these reports indicated that eight (57 %) were due to the wrong radiopharmaceutical having been administered. This usually occurred because the technologist had selected the wrong lyophilised agent when the radiopharmaceutical was being prepared, or selected the wrong vial of the reconstituted agent. For example, in one instance a vial of MAG3 was reconstituted instead of a vial of HMPAO. These mistakes occurred even though the vials were clearly labelled and sometimes had different coloured labels. Of the remaining 6 cases, two involved the wrong activity being administered due to a mis-read dose calibrator, two involved the wrong procedure being performed following a breakdown in communication and the final two incidents resulted in the wrong patient being administered the radiopharmaceutical. In order to minimise the possibility of recurrence of these incidents the NSW Radiation Advisory Council asked the NSW Branch of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine and HURSOG to jointly convene a Working Party to prepare Guidelines for the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. The Guidelines specify: 1. the procedure for the validation of the requested investigation on the request form 2. who should reconstitute, dispense and administer radiopharmaceuticals

  8. Neuroimaging in sleep medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Petit, Dominique; Mazza, Stéphanie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Maquet, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    The development of neuroimaging techniques has made possible the characterization of cerebral function throughout the sleep-wake cycle in normal human subjects. Indeed, human brain activity during sleep is segregated within specific cortical and subcortical areas in relation to the sleep stage, sleep physiological events and previous waking activity. This approach has allowed sleep physiological theories developed from animal data to be confirmed, but has also introduced original concepts about the neurobiological mechanisms of sleep, dreams and memory in humans. In contrast, at present, few neuroimaging studies have been dedicated to human sleep disorders. The available work has brought interesting data that describe some aspects of the pathophysiology and neural consequences of disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea and narcolepsy. However, the interpretation of many of these results is restricted by limited sample size and spatial/temporal resolution of the employed technique. The use of neuroimaging in sleep medicine is actually restrained by concerns resulting from the technical experimental settings and the characteristics of the diseases. Nevertheless, we predict that future studies, conducted with state of the art techniques on larger numbers of patients, will be able to address these issues and contribute significantly to the understanding of the neural basis of sleep pathologies. This may finally offer the opportunity to use neuroimaging, in addition to the clinical and electrophysiological assessments, as a helpful tool in the diagnosis, classification, treatment and monitoring of sleep disorders in humans.

  9. Medicine in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  10. Integrative holistic medicine in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelson, Carolyn J; Manahan, Bill

    2009-05-01

    Minnesota has played a leading role in the integrative holistic medicine movement in the United States for more than 2 decades. This article defines integrative holistic medicine and describes how it is practiced. It also discusses the reasons why institutions and providers here and elsewhere in the country have embraced this approach to patient care.

  11. Surgical Lasers In Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, H. C.

    1987-03-01

    Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.

  12. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner.

  13. Radiation protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.; Kletter, H.; Dudczak, R.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation burden of medical personnel is low in trained medical staff. Higher doses can occur with therapeutic application of unsealed or sealed sources, if adequate shielding is not possible or not cared for or if radiation protection measures are not observed in work with higher activities of radionuclides. More important than immoderate structural alterations for shielding purposes is individual inspection with advice on the working place and optimisation of working methods, also in regard to the radiation protection. This is possible only by cooperation and by discussing risks and problems between the radiation protection officer and the working personnel in an overt manner, assuring the mutual understanding. Radiation protection concerning medical uses of radiation in the whole population and in patients especially is determined by the necessity of indication for the medical application of radiation, by quality control and lastly by the correct interpretation of results or consequences. The latter necessitates a good collaboration between nuclear medicine specialists and clinicians because of the individual particularity of the patient which must be considered in the evaluation of results. (Author)

  14. An analysis of application of health informatics in Traditional Medicine: A review of four Traditional Medicine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Ikram, Raja Rina; Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Abdullah, Noraswaliza

    2015-11-01

    This paper shall first investigate the informatics areas and applications of the four Traditional Medicine systems - Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine and Traditional Malay Medicine. Then, this paper shall examine the national informatics infrastructure initiatives in the four respective countries that support the Traditional Medicine systems. Challenges of implementing informatics in Traditional Medicine Systems shall also be discussed. The literature was sourced from four databases: Ebsco Host, IEEE Explore, Proquest and Google scholar. The search term used was "Traditional Medicine", "informatics", "informatics infrastructure", "traditional Chinese medicine", "Ayurveda", "traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine", and "traditional malay medicine". A combination of the search terms above was also executed to enhance the searching process. A search was also conducted in Google to identify miscellaneous books, publications, and organization websites using the same terms. Amongst major advancements in TCM and Ayurveda are bioinformatics, development of Traditional Medicine databases for decision system support, data mining and image processing. Traditional Chinese Medicine differentiates itself from other Traditional Medicine systems with documented ISO Standards to support the standardization of TCM. Informatics applications in Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine are mostly ehealth applications that focus more on spiritual healing, Islamic obligations and prophetic traditions. Literature regarding development of health informatics to support Traditional Malay Medicine is still insufficient. Major informatics infrastructure that is common in China and India are automated insurance payment systems for Traditional Medicine treatment. National informatics infrastructure in Middle East and Malaysia mainly cater for modern medicine. Other infrastructure such as telemedicine and hospital information systems focus its

  15. Nuclear medicine in emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, L.; Rambaldi, P.F.; Cuccurullo, V.; Varetto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The role of a procedure depends not only on its own capabilities but also on a cost/effective comparison with alternative technique giving similar information. Starting from the definition of emergency as a sudden unexpected occurrence demanding immediate action, the role of nuclear medicine (NM) is difficult to identify if it is not possible to respond 24h a day, 365 days a year, to clinical demands. To justify a 24 h NM service it is necessary to reaffirm the role in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the spiral CT era, to spread knowledge of the capabilities of nuclear cardiology in reliability diagnosis myocardial infraction (better defining admission and discharge to/from the emergency department), to increase the number of indications. Radionuclide technique could be used as first line, alternative, complementary procedures in a diagnostic tree taking into account not only the diagnosis but also the connections with prognosis and therapy in evaluating cerebral pathologies, acute inflammation/infection, transplants, bleeding, trauma, skeletal, hepatobiliary, renal and endocrine emergencies, acute scrotal pain

  16. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H

    2003-10-01

    Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.

  17. Eminence-based medicine versus evidence-based medicine: level V evidence in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Ganley, Theodore J; Kapur, Rahul; Kelly, John; Sennett, Brian J; Bernstein, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Through extensive survey analysis, we investigated expert opinion in sports medicine. The study had 3 purposes: to provide clinical guidance for cases in which the correct action is not necessarily apparent, to examine expert opinion itself, and to delineate areas of future study. A total of 500 members of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine evaluated a set of 25 statements on unresolved issues in sports medicine. The following 10 statements were deemed false: "It's okay for 12-year-old pitchers to throw curve balls; it's the pitch count that matters"; "Resistance training ('weight lifting') should be avoided until physeal closure"; "Jogging during pregnancy is to be avoided"; "At an athletic event, if sideline coverage is offered by an emergency medical technician and athletic trainer, there is little additional benefit from having a physician present"; "Contact sport athletes who sustain a second concussion should be excluded from contact sports permanently"; "The utility of pre-season medical screening is derived from the history; as such, student-athletes should complete a questionnaire, with physical examination reserved for only those with a positive relevant history"; "Femoroacetabular impingement is a myth-the designation of anatomic variation as disease"; "An AC (acromioclavicular) separation in a contact athlete should not be treated surgically if the athlete won't give up the sport; it will fail"; "Ankle taping induces weakness and atrophy of the dynamic stabilizers of the ankle"; "Only autografts should be used in ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) surgery, as allografts have an unnecessary high failure rate in clinical practice." One statement was accepted as true: "Surgery to treat anterior (patello-femoral) knee pain in a patient with normal patellar mechanics and stability is contraindicated." In short, expert opinion may be a helpful adjunct to clinical practice. Expert opinion

  18. [Strengthen researches on translational medicine and regenerative medicine in burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-sheng

    2010-06-01

    Translational medicine and regenerative medicine are presently the hottest areas in medical research. Translational medicine is regarded as a two-way model of medical research, i.e. bench to bedside and bedside to bench. The purpose of translational research is to test novel therapeutic strategies developed through experimentation in human beings, and to facilitate the transformation of findings resulting from basic research to clinical practice. Regenerative medicine is to search for effective biotherapy methods to promote self repair and regeneration; or to construct new tissues and organs to improve or restore the function of the injured tissues and organs. To strengthen researches on translational medicine and regenerative medicine in burns may promote the application of new clinical therapeutic strategies, and supply effective therapeutic measures for treatment of severe burns.

  19. Nuclear Medicine Practice in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirangu, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that relies on the use of nuclear technology in the diagnosis and treatment (therapy) of diseases. Nuclear medicine uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body, tissue or cell. This uptake is then imaged by the use of detectors mounted in gamma cameras or PET (positron emission tomography) devices.. Unlike other radiation applications for medical use, nuclear medicine uses open (unsealed) sources of radiation. In a country with an estimated population of 48 million in 2017, Kenya has only two (2) nuclear medicine facilities (units). Being a relatively new medical discipline in Kenya, several measures have been taken by the clinical nuclear medicine team to create awareness at various levels

  20. Management of Breast Milk Oversupply in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Marya; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Babaeian, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive explanation about milk oversupply is not available in the current literature because few studies have been done on this topic. In traditional Persian medicine, milk oversupply and its management have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate milk oversupply from the perspective of medieval Persian practitioners. In this study, some main medical resources of traditional Persian medicine such as Al-Havi and the Canon of Medicine were studied to extract valuable information about milk oversupply. Etiology of milk overproduction according to traditional Persian medicine is based on humors theory and cannot be easily compared with current medical concepts. Diet modifications and natural remedies have been applied for managing this condition but the majority of traditional Persian medicine interventions for reducing milk oversupply have not been scientifically investigated in modern medicine. The knowledge of milk oversupply in traditional Persian medicine may be helpful to conduct further related studies.

  1. [Analysis of Medication Laws for Chinese Medicine Treating Hypertension Patients with Yin Defi- ciency Yang Hyperactivity Syndrome Based on Literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Hou, Ya-zhu; Wang, Xian-liang; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2016-04-01

    To analyze medication laws of Chinese medicine (CM) treatment in hypertension patients with yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Jan. 1979-Dec 2014), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP, Jan 1989-Dec2014), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Jan.1978-Dec.2014), Wanfang Database (Jan 1990-Dec 2014) were retrieved by using "hypertension", "CM", "Chinese herbs", "syndrome" as keywords. Totally 149 literatures concerning CM treatment for hypertension patients with yin deficiency yanghyperactivity syndrome were included in this study. The herbs database was established by SPSS20.0,and correlation laws were analyzed by SAS9.3. With the Pajek3.1, results were presented visually withcomplex networks. There were 149 literatures including 131 kinds of herbs with 1,598 frequencies. The conventional compatibility program of herbs for asthenic yin and predominant yang syndrome of hypertension were two toothed achyranthes root, tall gastrodia rhizome, Cassia obtusifolia L., eucommiabark, baikal skullcap root, and so on, about 29 kinds. Of them, core herbs were two toothed achyranthes root, tall gastrodia rhizome, Cassia obtusifolia L., poria, prepared rhizome of rehmannia, oriental water-plantain tuber, asiatic cornelian cherry fruit, Uncariae Rhynchophylla, common yam rhizome, the rootbark of the peony tree, and so on. Medication laws of CM treatment in hypertension patientswith yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome obtained by analysis of complex networks reflected thetherapeutics of nourishing yin to suppress yang, which could further provide reference for clinical studies.

  2. Applications of electrochemistry in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Mordechay

    2013-01-01

    Medical Applications of Electrochemistry, a volume of the series Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of modern science by indicating the many current issues in medicine that are susceptible to solution by electrochemical methods. This book also suggests how personalized medicine can develop.

  3. Peptide radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, D.; Vermeij, P.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the labelling of peptides that are recognised to be of interest for nuclear medicine or are the subject of ongoing nuclear medicine research. Applications and approaches to the labelling of peptide radiopharmaceuticals are discussed, and drawbacks in their development considered. (orig.)

  4. SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VHADA

    complete refusal to willing to work with all aspects. The major uses of the medicinal plants ranged from pain killer to malaria and cancer treatment. CONCLUSION: This study signals the information and identification of varieties and usage of medicinal plants in the study area. The scientific validity of these remedies, however ...

  5. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  6. USING LITERATURE IN GEOGRAPHY LESSONS

    OpenAIRE

    ROXANA HOBAI

    2015-01-01

    Including in a novel information about relief, climate, vegetation, fauna and various aspects of socio-economic life can make literature a real source of geographical information. Using realistic literary works in Geography lessons has multiple benefits, which are not limited only to geographical knowledge. In this paper there are some fragments from literature, suggestions of activities about how to integrate the fragments during Ge...

  7. Audiovisual readings. Literature in cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Dorak-Wojakowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book entitled Literature – new media. Homo irretitus in the literary culture of the 20th and 21st centuries (Literatura – nowe media. Homo irretitus w kulturze literackiej XX i XXI wieku deals with the clash between literature and new media. The book constitutes an academic guide to the world of intermedia narration and cyber-literature. It may serve students, teachers and form tutors as a source of additional knowledge on the convergence of media. The authors reflect widely upon the transformation of both literary creation and the theory dealing with the art of language, as well as upon the changes in the study of literature, books and reading in the 21st century.

  8. A Peer Reviewed of General Literature on Chlorophytum borivilianum Commercial Medicinal Plant

    OpenAIRE

    R HAQUE; S SAHA; T BERA

    2011-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes (Liliaceae) is a very popular herb in traditional Indian medicine and constitute a group of herbs used as ?Rasayan? or adaptogen Thirteen species of Chlorophytum have been reported from India [2,14,17,18, ] All these species differ in appearance, native species are sold as ?Safed musli? in the Indian drug market. Major biochemical constituents of safed musli are carbohydrates 42%, protein 80-90%, fibres 3 - 4%, saponins 2 -17% and alkaloids 15 - ...

  9. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-01-08

    Jan 8, 2016 ... TSH secreting adenoma: a rare cause of severe headache. Serdar Olt1,&, Mehmet Şirik2. 1Adıyaman University Medical Faculty Department of Internal Medicine, Adıyaman, Turkey, 2Adıyaman University Medical Faculty Department of. Radiology, Adıyaman, Turkey. &Corresponding author: Serdar Olt, ...

  10. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Pearled papules over tattoo: Molluscum cotagiosum. Ricardo Ruiz-Villaverde1,&, Daniel Sánchez-Cano2. 1Dermatology Unit. Complejo Hospitalario de Jaen, Jaen, Spain, 2Internal Medicine. Hospital Santa Ana, Motril, Granada, Spain. &Corresponding author: Ricardo Ruiz-Villaverde, Dermatology Unit. Complejo ...

  11. Dendrimers in Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Linping; Ficker, Mario; Christensen, Jørn Bolstad

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are three-dimensional macromolecular structures originating from a central core molecule and surrounded by successive addition of branching layers (generation). These structures exhibit a high degree of molecular uniformity, narrow molecular weight distribution, tunable size and shape ...... as challenging issues surrounding the future development of dendrimer-based medicines....

  12. Traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: Herbal medicine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and the scarcity of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in many ... increasingly used in the international literature to distinguish between different uses of ... disinfectants and other chemicals, oxygen therapy, electric shock therapy and immune.

  13. Ayurvedic literature in Urdu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S A; Bhatnagar, V K; Ali, M

    1998-07-01

    Urdu is a distinct literary language began to develop in India during Mughal empire. Lots of people read, write and speak, this language in Indian subcontinent. This brief article will shed light on the seven rare books in Urdu compiled and published in the period from 19th century to the first half of the current century. Some books may not have high value but the struggle of the scholars, is appreciable.

  14. Selery medicinal plants in the Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performed studies determined the real number of species of medicinal plants in Apiaceae family growing on the Donbass territory. The study of literature and conducted field experiments revealed the presence of 41 species of medicinal plants of the celery family (Apiaceae Lindl., among which 11 cultivated species. There was a brief description of botanical species studied, the typical place of growth, and the presence of biologically active compounds that determine the medicinal properties of the studied taxons. The studied plants have various quantitative and spatial relationship: 6 species are rare and are considered as protected plants, 2 species does not grow in Luhansk, 3 — in the Donetsk region, 4 species are considered to be adventitious for our region. Medicinal plants of the family celery cover a wide range of various diseases due to the large number of various biologically active substances and, primarily, essential fatty oils, flavonoids, vitamins and coumarins. It is worth noting that there no agricultural enterprises specialized on medicinal plants cultivating.

  15. The Holocaust in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Anne; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of instructional resources for teaching about the Holocaust in secondary schools. Included are textbooks, multi-disciplinary units, eyewitness accounts, fiction, poetry, anthologies, and audio visual materials. (JDH)

  16. Practical occupational medicine in "practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Larsen, Anders; Schmidt, Jan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, the practice of occupational medicine tends to be carried out by specialists in occupational medicine and less so by family physicians. The provision of health service to workers is therefore limited. This constraint may also apply in other developed countries and even more in countries...... with few occupational health resources. This Editorial argues that family physicians are indeed in a position where they can make a major positive difference for their working patients and for the enterprises where they work. Without specialist knowledge in occupational medicine, the family physician...... exposed workers. Such involvement would expand the coverage of occupational health service to patients/workers on a global scale....

  17. Herbal Prescriptions and Medicinal Herbs for Parkinson-Related Rigidity in Korean Medicine: Identification of Candidates Using Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyun; Hwang, Min Seob; Park, Hye Jin; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2018-03-27

    Dongeuibogam (DongYiBaoGian), one of the most important books in Korean medicine, comprises a comprehensive summary of all traditional medicines of North-East Asia before the 17th century. This medicinal literature was mined to establish a list of candidate herbs to treat Parkinson-related rigidity. A systematic search for terms describing Parkinson-related rigidity and candidate prescriptions for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity in the Dongeuibogam was performed. A high-frequency medicinal herb combination group and candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were also selected through an analysis of medicinal herb combination frequencies. The existing literature pertaining to the potential effects of candidate herbs for Parkinson-related rigidity was reviewed. Ten medicinal herb candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were selected, and their respective precedent studies were analyzed.

  18. Therapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Sadeghi, R.; Takavar, A.; Fard, A.; Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Although there have been very significant development in the field of radionuclide therapy within the past 10 years, radionuclide therapy in the form of 131 I, 33 P,.... have been in use for over 46 years. Palliation of bone pain is a good example for radionuclide therapy. It has an especial role in advanced metastatic cancer. 32 P, 89 Sr-Cl, 186 Re-HEDP, 133 Sm-EDTMP, and 117 mSn-DTPA are used in these patients. They are usually effective and help to maintain a painless life for patients with advanced cancer. Although this kind of therapy is not as rapid as radiotherapy, its effect lasts longer. In addition re-treatment with these agents is safe and effective. Radioimmunotherapy is a new exciting technique in the radionuclide therapy. In this technique monoclonal antibodies or their fragments are labeled with a suitable radionuclide, these antibodies can irradiate tumor cells over a distance of some fraction of a millimeter. Bulky tumors are obviously unsuitable targets for Rit. Several antibodies specific for Cd 20 (B1 and 1 F 5) and CD 37 (Mb-1) labeled with 131 I have been used for hematologic malignancies with good response. Several antigens associated with carcinomas of various histologic types have been targeted for therapeutic purposes by antibodies labeled with different radionuclides. Other routes of administration like intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and intravesical have been used with different rates of success. Pre targeting techniques can be used to reduce unwanted radioactive concentration in normal tissues. The avidin-biotin system is an example, which exploits the high-affinity binding between avidin and biotin, and was first used with anti-Cea antibody. Radiation synovectomy is another aspect of radionuclide therapy 198 Au colloid, 90 Y resin colloid, and 165 Dy-FHMA are some of the radionuclides used in the field of hematology. There has been significant advances in the field of therapy in nuclear medicine in recent years, which are briefly

  19. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  20. [Falsified medicines in parallel trade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenfuß, Heide

    2017-11-01

    The number of falsified medicines on the German market has distinctly increased over the past few years. In particular, stolen pharmaceutical products, a form of falsified medicines, have increasingly been introduced into the legal supply chain via parallel trading. The reasons why parallel trading serves as a gateway for falsified medicines are most likely the complex supply chains and routes of transport. It is hardly possible for national authorities to trace the history of a medicinal product that was bought and sold by several intermediaries in different EU member states. In addition, the heterogeneous outward appearance of imported and relabelled pharmaceutical products facilitates the introduction of illegal products onto the market. Official batch release at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut offers the possibility of checking some aspects that might provide an indication of a falsified medicine. In some circumstances, this may allow the identification of falsified medicines before they come onto the German market. However, this control is only possible for biomedicinal products that have not received a waiver regarding official batch release. For improved control of parallel trade, better networking among the EU member states would be beneficial. European-wide regulations, e. g., for disclosure of the complete supply chain, would help to minimise the risks of parallel trading and hinder the marketing of falsified medicines.

  1. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines.

  2. Nuclear medicine in developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nofal, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Agency activities in nuclear medicine are directed towards effectively applying techniques to the diagnosis and management of patients attending nuclear medicine units in about 60 developing countries. A corollary purpose is to use these techniques in investigations related to control of parasitic diseases distinctive to some of these countries. Through such efforts, the aim is to improve health standards through better diagnosis, and to achieve a better understanding of disease processes as well as their prevention and management. Among general trends observed for the region: Clinical nuclear medicine; Radiopharmaceuticals; Monoclonal antibodies; Radioimmunoassay (RIA); Nuclear imaging

  3. Humility in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Becoming a physician comes with privilege and exciting opportunities. The rigor of academic medicine can be challenging. The ability to have humility as a physician is not only a sign of a good doctor, but it can be one of the most challenging attributes to maintain. My surgeon, Dr. Steven Kopits, embodied what it means to be a humble, yet accomplished physician. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  5. The place of avicenna in the history of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Jamal

    2009-04-01

    Avicenna, a Muslim scientist of the tenth and eleventh centuries has an important place in the history of medicine in Iran and the world. Furthermore, the modern medicine is laid upon the infrastructure of his medicine. In this article, the position of Avicenna in the medical history and the scientific influence of his medical works in particular Al-Canon in the development of medical literature and medical educational programs have been studied in a historical approach. In reviewing the position of Avicenna in the history of medicine in the Islamic world and the Europe, it was concluded that during 11th to 17th centuries, the scientific and educational activities of medicine in the world were moving on the pivot of Avicenna medicine or was under its intensive influence.

  6. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT...... AND METHODS: This thesis investigated 900 forensic cases that were CT-scanned and autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, from 2006-2011. The scanner was a Siemens Somatom Spirit dual-slice CT-scanner with a Siemens Syngo MultiModality workstation. Contrast enhancement...

  7. Social Media in IS Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of ‘digital living’ is to a high extent influenced by the introduction of new media into society. Especially, social media are affecting the digital world of today and are setting the agenda for social connectedness in private, public and commercial networks. Based in an initial...... desire to explore a research agenda for the workings of social media in network structures a look into the literature on social media within the field of Information Systems sparked an interest in exploring a new research perspective for social media. Reviewing the IS literature it is apparent...... that the perspective of the ‘media’ as an artifact of social media has been neglected in existing literature. Based in this, this paper proposes research possibilities for investigating the ‘media’ of social media as well as some theoretical considerations that could aid the investigation. Finally, potential outcomes...

  8. Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dylst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

  9. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational - Medicine Prize Related The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to people and ... this page MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Educational". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media ...

  10. Regulatory problems in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergrift, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Governmental involvement in the practice of medicine has increased sharply within the past few years. The impact on health care has, for the most part, been in terms of financial interactions between health care facilities and federally funded health services programs. One might say that this type of governmental involvement has indirect impact on the medical and/or technical decisions in the practice of nuclear medicine. In other areas, however, governmental policies and regulations have had a more direct and fundamental impact on nuclear medicine than on any other medical specialty. Without an understanding and acceptance of this situation, the practice of nuclear medicine can be very frustrating. This chapter is thus written in the hope that potential frustration can be reduced or eliminated

  11. A Literature Study on Usage of and Satisfaction Levels with Combined Treatment Including Oriental and Western Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Jung-Hun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to summarize and analyze the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine. Methods: We searched studies on the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine over the past 10 yrs (2001-2011 from 3 Korean databases (National Assembly Library, Research Information Service System, and National Discovery for Science Leaders. The reviewers also conducted a summarizing analysis by sampling the literature according to the type of study, study period, region, study subjects, sample size, type of sampling, research method, data analysis, study instruments, main results, etc. Results: When the main results of six studies on combined treatment usage and satisfaction levels were considered together, the most important decisive factor in determining the usage of combined treatment was the illness of the patient, followed by the patient’s occupation, sex, age, education, marital status, religion, treatment cost, and treatment results. In addition, the most important factor that determined satisfaction levels with combined treatment was age, followed by education, religion, income, health status, treatment procedures, staff attitude, and cleanliness. Conclusions: Elderly patients with musculoskeletal, cerebro-vascular, and circulatory system illnesses are more likely to prefer combined treatment over independent Oriental or Western treatment and are more likely to request specialized, adjusted medical care.

  12. Digital filtering in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.

    1982-01-01

    Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine

  13. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  14. Knowledge Management in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaza, A.

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a significant increase in the demand for medical radiation services following the introduction of new techniques and technologies that has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. The diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nuclear medicine techniques play a pivotal role in the management of these diseases, improving the quality of life of patients by means of an early diagnosis allowing opportune and proper therapy. On the other hand, inappropriate or unskilled use of these technologies can result in potential health hazards for patients and staff. So, there is a need to control and minimize these health risks and to maximize the benefits of radiation in medicine. The present study aims to discuss the role of nuclear medicine technology knowledge and scales in improving the management of patients, and raising the awareness and knowledge of nuclear medicine staff regarding the use of nuclear medicine facilities. The practical experience knowledge of nuclear medicine staff in 50 medical centers was reviewed through normal visiting and compared with the IAEA Published documents information. This review shows that the nuclear medicine staff has good technology knowledge and scales during managing patients as compared to IAEA Published information regarding the radiation protection measures and regulation. The outcome of the study reveals that competent authority can improve radiation safety in medical settings by developing and facilitating the implementation of scientific evidence-based policies and recommendations covering nuclear medicine technology focusing in the public health aspects and considering the risks and benefits of the use of radiation in health care. It could be concluded that concerted and coordinated efforts are required to improve radiation safety, quality and sustain ability of health systems

  15. DYSTOPIAN FURCATIONS IN MODERN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUBILAY AKMAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern literature of the 20th century had provided several “dystopian furcations” in the history of Western literature, represented most typically by G. Orwell, A. Huxley, Y. Zamiatin and R. R. Bradbury. What were the motivating factors behind these lines of dystopia? In this paper, we are going to discuss the phenomenon of dystopia in modern literature, based on the critical heritage of modern social theory and philosophy. Where does appear the differences between utopia and dystopia? Are the fictional worlds of More, Campanella and Bacon entirely different from the dark illustrations imagined by Orwell, Bradbury, Zamiatin and Huxley? Is there something common inside the imaginary “mechanisms” of utopian and dystopian fictions? These are the core questions we will discuss around this paper

  16. Nanotechnologies in regenerative medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, 3-4 (2010), s. 144-156 ISSN 1364-5706 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR KAN201110651 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520804; EC FP6 project ENIMET(XE) LSHM-CT-2005-019063 Program:1M; GA; KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Nanotechnology * regenerative medicine * nanofibers Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2010

  17. Nuclear Medicine in Surgical Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirangu, D.T.

    2009-01-01

    Defines nuclear medicine as a branch that utilizes nuclear technology for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.The principles of nuclear medicine are; it uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body or tissue. it is imaged by use the use of detectors mounted in gamma cameras or PET (Position emission tomography) devices

  18. Stylistic Embedding in Yoruba Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabode, Afolabi

    The process of embedding, a term used in generative grammar to refer to a construction in which a sentence is included within another sentence, is examined as it occurs in Yoruba literature. Examples are drawn from Yoruba praise poetry, in both written and oral form and within Yoruba novels. Forms of embedding identified include those to draw…

  19. Medicine poisoning in suicidal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušic Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigations shows that on every realized suicide comes 8 to 25 non realized attempts. Individuals which tried suicide with medicine poisoning mostly quote that they have been overwhelmed with feelings and thoughts which was unbearable in that moment. They wished to escape from that unbearable situation or they lost self control. Between individuals whom tried suicide with medicine poisoning, desire to really die, to disappear was very rare. Mostly it was wish 'just to sleep a little, to take a rest, make pause'. Aim of work: to identified most frequently method for suicidal attempt in both sex and resources which was used in these purposes. Results: most frequently method for suicidal attempt for both sex in our investigation was medicine poisoning - 91,1%, veins cutting - 5,4% and jump from height - 3,6%. Mostly used medicines were anxiolytics - 55,4%, combination of different drugs - 25,0%, antidepressants - 8,9%, neuroleptics - 7,1%, drugs and alcohol - 3,6%. Most frequent method for suicidal attempt in both sex was medicine poisoning. From drugs most frequently used drugs were anxiolytics and in minimum percent combination of drugs and alcohol. After suicidal attempt 90% of individuals experienced relief because their suicidal attempt was unsuccessful. In 3% individuals there was new suicidal attempt on same way, medicine poisoning.

  20. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  1. Sleep Medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S; BaHammam, Ahmed S

    2017-04-15

    The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia began in the mid to late 1990s. Since its establishment, this specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Based on the available data, sleep disorders are prevalent among the Saudi population, and the demand for sleep medicine services is expected to increase significantly. Currently, two training programs are providing structured training and certification in sleep medicine in this country. Recently, clear guidelines for accrediting sleep medicine specialists and technologists were approved. Nevertheless, numerous obstacles hamper the progress of this specialty, including the lack of trained technicians, specialists, and funding. Increasing the awareness of sleep disorders and their serious consequences among health care workers, health care authorities, and insurance companies is another challenge. Future plans should address the medical educational system at all levels to demonstrate the importance of early detection and the treatment of sleep disorders. This review discusses the current position of and barriers to sleep medicine practice and education in Saudi Arabia. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  2. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu; Jie Du

    2017-01-01

    Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale c...

  3. Exploring Mathematical Concepts in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribs Zaleta, Christopher M.; Ruebel, Kim K.

    2008-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of linking math and literature. However, the focus is usually on the incorporation of reading into a math class--how a teacher might use picture books, problems, or stories, in general, to bring enthusiasm and engagement into the math classroom. In this article, the authors propose that teachers think about…

  4. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Firenzuoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated.

  5. Role of honey in modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of honey has a very long history. Honey has been used since ancient time due to its nutritional and therapeutic values. There had been varied ways of consumption honey including its use as a sweetener and flavoring agent. Honey is produced all over the world. The most important nutriment of honey is carbohydrates present in the form of monosaccharides, fructose and glucose. Honey plays an important role as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial agent and augments the adherence of skin grafts and wound healing process. The role of honey has been acknowledged in the scientific literature and there is convincing evidence in support of its antioxidant and antibacterial nature, cough prevention, fertility and wound healing properties. However, its use has been controversially discussed and has not been well accepted in the modern medicine. The aim of this review was explore and highlight the role of honey in modern medicine.

  6. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Suryawati, Suryawati; Suardi, Hijra Novia

    2015-01-01

    The herbal medicine has been widely used in children for the treatment of several symptoms and the prevention of diseases before accessing the hospital for professionals help. There are 3 kinds of marketed herbal medicine including empirical based herbal medicine (jamu), standardized herbal medicine (obat herbal terstandar) and clininically tested herbal medicine (fitofarmaka). This study aimed to investigate the utilization of the marketed herbal medicine along with non marketed ones which w...

  7. Creative Literature in Canada Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Grace, Ed.; McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The contents of this booklet were presented at a symposium on Canadian creative literature at the University of Toronto in March 1974. Included are five papers, summaries of two talks (one by Bill Sault on the oral tradition of Canada's native peoples and one by Robert Weaver on discovering and encouraging Canadian writers) and of a panel…

  8. Evidence-Based Advances in Avian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-09-01

    This article presents relevant advances in avian medicine and surgery over the past 5 years. New information has been published to improve clinical diagnosis in avian diseases. This article also describes new pharmacokinetic studies. Advances in the understanding and treatment of common avian disorders are presented in this article, as well. Although important progress has been made over the past years, there is still much research that needs to be done regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of avian diseases and evidence-based information is still sparse in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear Medicine Practice in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndrirangu, T.T.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that relies on the use of nuclear technology in the diagnosis and treatment (therapy) of diseases. Nuclear medicine uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body, tissue or cell. Unlike other radiation applications for medical use, nuclear medicine uses open (unsealed) sources of radiation. The tracer is introduced into the body of the patient through several routes (oral, intravenous, percutaneous, intradermally, inhalation, intracapsular etc) and s/he becomes the source of radiation. Early diagnosis of diseases coupled with associated timely therapeutic intervention will lead to better prognosis. In a country with an estimated population of 42 million in 2017, Kenya has only two (2) nuclear medicine facilities (units) that is Kenyatta National Hospital - Public facility and Aga Khan University Hospital which is a Private facility. Being a relatively new medical discipline in Kenya, several measures have been taken by the clinical nuclear medicine team to create awareness at various levels. Kenya does not manufacture radiopharmaceuticals. We therefore have to import them from abroad and this makes them quite expensive, and the process demanding. There is no local training in nuclear medicine and staff have to be sent abroad for training, making this quite expensive and cumbersome and the IAEA has been complimenting in this area. With concerted effort by all stakeholders at the individual, national and international level, it is possible for Kenya to effectively sustain clinical nuclear medicine service not only as a diagnostic tool in many disease entities, but also play an increasingly important role in therapy

  10. Pattern Classification in Kampo Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yakubo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification is very unique in traditional medicine. Kampo medical patterns have transformed over time during Japan’s history. In the 17th to 18th centuries, Japanese doctors advocated elimination of the Ming medical theory and followed the basic concepts put forth by Shang Han Lun and Jin Gui Yao Lue in the later Han dynasty (25–220 AD. The physician Todo Yoshimasu (1702–1773 emphasized that an appropriate treatment could be administered if a set of patterns could be identified. This principle is still referred to as “matching of pattern and formula” and is the basic concept underlying Kampo medicine today. In 1868, the Meiji restoration occurred, and the new government changed its policies to follow that of the European countries, adopting only Western medicine. Physicians trained in Western medicine played an important role in the revival of Kampo medicine, modernizing Kampo patterns to avoid confusion with Western biomedical terminology. In order to understand the Japanese version of traditional disorders and patterns, background information on the history of Kampo and its role in the current health care system in Japan is important. In this paper we overviewed the formation of Kampo patterns.

  11. Medicines in My Home: Information for Adults on Using Over-the-Counter Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicines In My Home More about using medicines safely Medicines in My Home: www.fda.gov/medsinmyhome FDA Consumer Medicine Education: www.fda.gov/usemedicinesafely National Council on Patient Information and ...

  12. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-03-05

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches, make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by the increase in expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as the decrease in the expression and activity of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. [Standardization of names in prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Dong-He; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Bai, Xue; Yang, Wen-Hua; Qi, Shu-Ya; Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Xue, Chun-Miao; Mao, Liu-Ying; Cao, Jun-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Chinese medicine prescriptions are a type of medical documents written by doctors after they understand the patients' conditions for syndrome differentiation. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis for pharmacy personnel to dispense medicines and guide patients to use drugs. It has the legal, technical and economic significances. Chinese medicine prescriptions contain such information of names, quantity and usage. Whether the names of drugs in Chinese medicine prescriptions are standardized or not is directly related to the safety and efficacy of the drugs. At present, nonstandard clinical prescriptions are frequently seen. With "Chinese medicine prescription", "names of drug in Chinese medicine prescription" and "standards of Chinese medicine prescription" as key words, the author searched CNKI, Wanfang and other databases, and consulted nearly 100 literatures, so as to summarize current names of drugs in traditional Chinese medicine prescription, analyze the reasons, and give suggestions, in the expectation of standardizing the names of drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Mediastinitis in cardiac surgery: A review of the literature | Kunal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mediastinitis in cardiac surgery: A review of the literature. ... International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... Conventional treatment are surgical revision with open dressings or closed irrigation, or reconstruction with vascularized soft tissue flap and novel treatment such as vacuum-assisted closure and their ...

  15. Geant4 in Scientific Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, M G; Bell, Z W; Dressendorfer, P V

    2009-01-01

    The Geant4 reference paper published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods A in 2003 has become the most cited publication in the whole Nuclear Science and Technology category of Thomson-Reuter's Journal Citation Reports. It is currently the second most cited article among the publications authored by two major research institutes, CERN and INFN. An overview of Geant4 presence (and absence) in scholarly literature is presented; the patterns of Geant4 citations are quantitatively examined and discussed.

  16. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Adelson, Wendi J

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how various systems in medicine are limiting representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Flat and decreasing percentages of Underrepresented Minorities in Medicine (URMM), especially in the black and Native American populations, is concerning for family medicine since members from URMM groups care for minority and underserved populations in greater numbers. Underrepresentation is not only noted in the medical community but also in our medical schools when it comes to numbers of URMM faculty. The changing definition of "disadvantaged" in medical school admissions has also played a part in limiting URMM representation. In addition, the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) excludes black, Latino, and Native American students in greater numbers. The authors support these arguments with evidence from the medical literature. Although unintentional, these systems effectively limit representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Effective changes are suggested and can be implemented to ensure that URMM individuals have equal representation in careers in medicine.

  17. Publication productivity in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Cheryl; Currie, Geoff

    2015-06-01

    Publications form the knowledge base of any profession. Patterns in professional publications provide insight into the profession's maturity and global status. To our knowledge, publication productivity in nuclear medicine technology has not been reported. A recent study on publication productivity in radiography and radiation therapy provided interesting insight; however, a sampling bias resulted in study flaws. The most productive medical radiation technologists were determined by collecting data from 7 key, international peer-reviewed journals for the medical radiation sciences over a 5-y period. A full list of the technologists' publications, for the 5-y period, was obtained using a PubMed and ResearchGate search, and the authors were analyzed. In total, 165 medical radiation technologists were identified who had published 3 or more articles between 2009 and 2013. Of these authors, 55.2% (91/165) were radiographers, 35.2% (58/165) were radiation therapists, and 9.6% (16/165) were nuclear medicine technologists. Overall, the majority of the most prolific authors were academics (104/165; 63.0%). After we applied a correction factor (the productivity per member of the registered workforce), radiography had the fewest authors publishing, compared with the relative workflow sizes. Nuclear medicine technologists demonstrated a high degree of productivity both absolutely and relatively. Consequently, nuclear medicine technologists have a productive research culture and command a large footprint within and outside the key medical radiation science journals. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. The Morehouse Human Values in Medicine Program, 1978-80: Reinforcing a Commitment to Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathryn; Axelsen, Diana

    1982-01-01

    A program in human values in medicine begun in 1978 at Morehouse College's School of Medicine is discussed. The Human Values in Medicine Program draws on the Humanities--particularly philosophy, literature, and art--and secondarily on the social sciences. (MLW)

  19. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghedira Kamel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans, facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge.

  20. Historic images in nuclear medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-01-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution...... set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone...

  1. USING LITERATURE IN GEOGRAPHY LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA HOBAI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Including in a novel information about relief, climate, vegetation, fauna and various aspects of socio-economic life can make literature a real source of geographical information. Using realistic literary works in Geography lessons has multiple benefits, which are not limited only to geographical knowledge. In this paper there are some fragments from literature, suggestions of activities about how to integrate the fragments during Geography lessons and the results of these activities. The activities are from fifth to twelfth grade, passing through a first example of water pollution resulting from a Hercules labour, through the lyricism of the aurora borealis description, through the dramatic life of a refugee from Darfur, through the Dobrudgea winter landscape, through the grey urban landscape of Bucharest in the 90s and so on. Students were put into learning situations that stimulated their creativity, developed communication competencies and enriched their general knowledge.

  2. Theranostics in nuclear medicine practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Anna; Eppard, Elisabeth; Kürpig, Stefan; Bundschuh, Ralph A; Schönberger, Stefan; Gonzalez-Carmona, Maria; Feldmann, Georg; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Essler, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The importance of personalized medicine has been growing, mainly due to a more urgent need to avoid unnecessary and expensive treatments. In nuclear medicine, the theranostic approach is an established tool for specific molecular targeting, both for diagnostics and therapy. The visualization of potential targets can help predict if a patient will benefit from a particular treatment. Thanks to the quick development of radiopharmaceuticals and diagnostic techniques, the use of theranostic agents has been continually increasing. In this article, important milestones of nuclear therapies and diagnostics in the context of theranostics are highlighted. It begins with a well-known radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer and then progresses through various approaches for the treatment of advanced cancer with targeted therapies. The aim of this review was to provide a summary of background knowledge and current applications, and to identify the advantages of targeted therapies and imaging in nuclear medicine practices. PMID:29042793

  3. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [CFC gases in medicinal sprays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P H; Svendsen, U G

    1989-03-20

    In 1987, approximately 1.18 million aerosol dispensers for medicinal use were sold in Denmark. These contained approximately 29 tons of completely halogenized CFC gases ("Freon") and the preparations were employed for the treatment of bronchial asthma and rhinitis. The possibilities of substitutes are discussed in this article. Preparations are already available which do not contain CFC. Producers of CFC are also attempting to develop new aerosol gases which do not damage the environment. Perhaps these will be found in medicinal preparations in the future.

  5. Fallacies in astronomy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, Edwin E

    2005-01-01

    Both in astronomy and in medicine research, fallacies occur occasionally. Sometimes these fallacies are due to 'subconscious cheating' or the 'file drawer effect' (filing away unfavourable results instead of publishing), but it is difficult to know whether a fallacy has occurred and, if so, why. I give two examples from the past where, in my opinion, fallacies have occurred: a quadratic distance-redshift law and a periodicity in galaxy pair redshift differences. I then discuss the current quasi steady state cosmology, which is very unorthodox but it is not yet clear if fallacies have occurred. I finish with examples from medicine research, where fallacies are particularly troublesome and some countermeasures are attempted

  6. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  7. The evolution of sports medicine in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Benedict

    2013-10-01

    Sports medicine is a relatively new subspecialty in Singapore. This commentary chronicles its evolution in Singapore from 1969, through various milestones, to the present day. The first sports medicine clinic in Singapore was established in 1971 at Farrer Park. Notable institutions that followed include the Sports Medicine and Research Centre (1973), Soldier Performance Centre, Changi Sports Medicine Centre (2003), Singapore Sports Medicine Centre (2006), and other multidisciplinary centres of restructured hospitals. Formal groundwork to establish sports medicine as a subspecialty began in 2005, with its first trainee commencing traineeship at the Changi Sports Medicine Centre in 2007, and culminated in the subspecialty register at the beginning of 2011. Also captured in this discussion are the broader scopes of sports medicine, including military sports medicine, the sports sciences, exercise medicine, and event medical coverage.

  8. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  9. Developing Critical Consciousness: Resistance Literature in a Chicano Literature Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    Starting from a framework that emphasizes indigenous heritage, high school teacher Curtis Acosta and students in the Chicano/Raza Studies classes engage with literature that reflects the students' lives, families, and histories. Doing so encourages students to visualize and affirm academic identities while they confront current issues of…

  10. Botanical drugs in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2016-12-24

    China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems. This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine (TSM). Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications. A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common. The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine. This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  11. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in DNA technology have revolutionized the scope and practice of forensic medicine. From the days of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to short tandem repeats (STRs), the current focus is on the next generation genome sequencing. It has been almost a decade...... sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this chapter, we provide an overview on conventional DNA diagnostics and the possible applications of single cell sequencing and NGS in forensic medicine....

  12. Quality assurance in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paras, P.

    1978-01-01

    Quality assurance practices must be followed throughout the entire nuclear medicine process, from the initial decision to perform a particular procedure, through the interpretation and reporting of the results. The various parameters that can be defined and measured in each area must be monitored by quality control tests to assure the excellence of the total nuclear medicine process. The presentation will discuss each of the major areas of nuclear medicine quality control and their interaction as a part of the entire system. Quality control testing results and recommendations for measurements of radioactivity distribution will be described with emphasis on imaging equipment and dose calibrating instrumentation. The role of the health physicist in a quality assurance program will be stressed. (author)

  13. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeburrun, V.

    2013-04-01

    Radiation protection in nuclear medicine in this project is concerned with the reduction of doses to workers, patients and members of the public. Protection of workers is achieved by adopting good personal habits, good housekeeping, proper use of personal protective devices and equipment, attend training and have continuous education. Exposure to radiation of workers and the members of the public are minimised by proper management of radioactive waste and safe transport of radioactive material. The design and shielding of a nuclear medicine department shall further provide for the protection of the worker, the patient and the general public. Protection of patient is achieved by justifying the procedure, delivering the minimum radiation dose possible to the patient while obtaining the best image quality and applying guidance levels. Special considerations shall be given to pregnant and breast-feeding patients. Quality assurance programme through image quality, radiopharmaceutical quality and patient records on nuclear medicine procedures shall provide assurance to the patient. (au)

  14. Brazilian Literature in African Descent Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Fonseca, Maria Nazareth

    2016-01-01

    The essay argues about the meanings given to the terms "black literature," African-Brazilian literature", "Afro-descendant literature" and "black-Brazilian literature" present in anthologies of black African-Brazilian poetry in Brazil. It also discusses the ways these directions are presented in the writers' texts published in the anthologies highlighted in this study.

  15. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnomedical survey of the Manzini region of Swaziland was carried out. Traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed in their homesteads where they practiced traditional medicine. Ethnomedical uses of plants used were collected from the wild with the assistance of the TMPs who gave information on them.

  16. An introductory course in philosophy of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, A

    2004-06-01

    Philosophy of medicine, narrowly defined as ontology and epistemology of medicine, is a well developed research field, yet education in this field is less well developed. The aim of this paper is to present an educational development in philosophy of medicine-an introductory course in philosophy of medicine. Central features of the course are described. Participants (medical undergraduate students) scored high on average. The conclusion is that further such educational ventures in philosophy of medicine should be developed and implemented.

  17. Mitochondria in biology and medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2012-01-01

    pathologies (Luft, 1994). Since 1959, the understanding of mitochondrial cytopathies has evolved immensely and mitochondrial cytopathies are now known to be the largest group of metabolic diseases and to be resulting in a wide variety of pathologies. "Mitochondria in Biology and Medicine" was the title...... of the first annual conference of Society of Mitochondrial Research and Medicine - India. The conference was organized by A. S. Sreedhar, Keshav Singh and Kumarasamy Thangaraj, and was held at The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) Hyderabad, India, during 9-10 December 2011. The conference...

  18. Complementary medicines: When regulation results in revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The regulatory practices include all the steps from the development and manufacture of the active ingredients until the medicines reach the consumer. The Medicines Control Council (MCC) is mandated to regulate medicines in South Africa. Complementary medicines were previously perceived to be unregulated, although ...

  19. Osteopathic Emergency Medicine Programs Infrequently Publish in High-Impact Emergency Medicine Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin, Sean M; Lin, Christina; Carlson, Jestin N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Both the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) require core faculty to engage in scholarly work, including publication in peer-reviewed journals. With the ACGME/AOA merger, we sought to evaluate the frequency of publication in high-impact peer-reviewed EM journals from authors affiliated with osteopathic emergency medicine (EM) programs. Methods: We performed a retrospective literature re...

  20. Virtue Ethics in Monetized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    This review essay situates Abraham Nussbaum's The Finest Traditions of Our Calling (2016) within the contemporary genre of physician memoirs that shade into critiques of institutional medicine. Nussbaum's primary concern is the demoralization of medicine as it becomes increasingly monetized; patients are reduced to body parts and reimbursement schedules. He argues that physicians continue to have considerable choice in how they practice, despite institutional constraints. For bioethics, Nussbaum's advocacy of virtue ethics is notable. His book is a moving testimonial to contemporary problems, but also a manifesto for possibilities of change at the individual level.

  1. Research methods in complementary and alternative medicine: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Andrade, Fabiana; Schlechta Portella, Caio Fabio

    2018-01-01

    The scientific literature presents a modest amount of evidence in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). On the other hand, in practice, relevant results are common. The debates among CAM practitioners about the quality and execution of scientific research are important. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather, synthesize and describe the differentiated methodological models that encompass the complexity of therapeutic interventions. The process of bringing evidence-based medicine into clinical practice in CAM is essential for the growth and strengthening of complementary medicines worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutron use in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidez, J.; May, R.; Moss, R. [HFR-Unit, European Commission, IAM, Petten (Netherlands); Askienazy, S. [Departement Central de Medicine Nucleaire et Biophysique, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris (France); Hildebrand, J. [Neurology Department, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-07-01

    Neutrons produced by research reactors are being used in nuclear medicine and other medical applications in several ways. The High Flux Reactor (HFR) based in Petten (The Netherlands), owned by the European Commission, has been working increasingly in this field of health care for the European citizen. On the basis of this experience, a survey has been carried out on the main possibilities of neutrons used in nuclear medicine. The most important and most well known is the production of radioisotopes for diagnosis and therapy. Ten million patients receive nuclear medicine in Europe each year, with more than 8 million made with the products issued from research reactors. The survey of the market and the techniques (cyclotron, PET) shows that this market will continue to increase in the future. The direct use of reactors in medicine is actually made by the Boron Neutron capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of glioblastoma, which kills about 15.000 people in Europe each year. For this promising technique, HFR is the most advanced for experimental possibilities and treatment studies. Medical research is also made in other promising fields: the use beam tubes for characterizing of prostheses and bio-medical materials, alpha-immuno therapy products, new types of radioisotopes, new types of illness to be treated by BNCT, etc. (author)

  3. Neutron use in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; May, R.; Moss, R.; Askienazy, S.; Hildebrand, J.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrons produced by research reactors are being used in nuclear medicine and other medical applications in several ways. The High Flux Reactor (HFR) based in Petten (The Netherlands), owned by the European Commission, has been working increasingly in this field of health care for the European citizen. On the basis of this experience, a survey has been carried out on the main possibilities of neutrons used in nuclear medicine. The most important and most well known is the production of radioisotopes for diagnosis and therapy. Ten million patients receive nuclear medicine in Europe each year, with more than 8 million made with the products issued from research reactors. The survey of the market and the techniques (cyclotron, PET) shows that this market will continue to increase in the future. The direct use of reactors in medicine is actually made by the Boron Neutron capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of glioblastoma, which kills about 15.000 people in Europe each year. For this promising technique, HFR is the most advanced for experimental possibilities and treatment studies. Medical research is also made in other promising fields: the use beam tubes for characterizing of prostheses and bio-medical materials, alpha-immuno therapy products, new types of radioisotopes, new types of illness to be treated by BNCT, etc. (author)

  4. The Brazilian medicinal chemistry from 1998 to 2008 in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [A química medicinal brasileira de 1998 a 2008 nos periódicos Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters e European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Vasconcellos da Silva; Renato Saldanha Bastos; Angelo da Cunha Pinto

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present the Brazilian publications, the research groups involved, the contributions per states and the main diseases studied from 1998 to 2008 in the following periodicals: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

  5. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Pfeiferová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Contribution summarizes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. Contribution describes relationships between systems/projects collecting grey literature and position grey literature in the Czech Digital Library. Contribution is especially focused on a project “The Digital Library for Grey Literature –Functional Model and Pilot Implementation”, which solves the State Technical Library.

  6. Milestones in Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Anne S.

    This book includes more than 500 entries describing advances in the treatment of disease and the understanding of human health. The emphasis is on significant advances in diseases, treatments, and health issues. Topics included are: alternative or nonwestern medicine; anesthesia and analgesia; antibiotics; cancer; cell biology and physiology;…

  7. Nuclear medicine in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villadolid, Leland.

    1978-01-01

    This article traces the history of nuclear medicine in the country from the time the first radioisotope laboratory was set up by the Philippine General Hospital about 1955, to the not too satisfactory present facilities acquired by hospitals for diagnosis, treatment and investigation of diseases. It is in research, the investigation of disease that is nuclear medicine's most important area. The Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) has pioneered in the conducting of courses in the medical uses of radioisotopes. The local training of nuclear manpower has been continued and updated and foreign fellowships are availed of through the cooperation of IAEA. Quite a number are already trained also in the allied fields that support the practice of nuclear medicine. However the brain drain has seriously affected the number of trained staff of medical units. Discussed and presented is the growth of the medical use of radioisotopes which are locally produced by PAEC. In order to benefit from the full advantage that nuclear medicine can do to a majority of Filipinos, the government should extend its financial support in acquiring such facilities to equip strategic hospitals in the country and support training programs. The Philippine has the expertise to start the expansion but only with adequate provision of funds will our capacity turn into reality. (RTD)

  8. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Urology has long been the only medical field for shock waves in medicine. Meanwhile shock waves have been used in orthopedics and traumatology to treat insertion tendinitis, avascular necrosis of the head of femur and other necrotic bone alterations. Another field of shock wave application is the treatment of tendons, ...

  9. Dietary advice in family medicine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual basis of dietary advice in family medicine. Given the large number of illnesses and diseases encountered in family practice for which diet and nutrition are relevant interventions, food-related advice is an important part of daily practice. To enhance the

  10. Biomarkers of diseases in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biomarkers have gained immense scientific and clinical value and interest in the practise of medicine. .... extent and characteristics of the disease detected ..... marker for cancer. In colon cancer, the tumour suppressor genes CDKN2A, MGMT and MLH1, as well as other genes (e.g., TIMP-3, p14ARF,. APC, MINT31, MINT2 ...

  11. Quality control in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear medicine comprises diagnosis and therapy of the diseases with radiopharmaceuticals. The ambition of all specialists in our country is their activity to reach European standards. In this connection, a Commission for external audit was formed to evaluate the quality of work in the centers of nuclear medicine. This Commission create a long-lasting programme based on the objective European criteria and the national standard of nuclear medicine, having in mind to increase quality of the work and the expert evaluation of activity in every center. The program comprises measures for quality control of instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, performed investigations, obtained results and the whole organization from the receiving of the isotopes to the results of the patients. The ambition is most of the centers to fulfill the requirements. As a conclusion it could be said that not only the quality of everyday nuclear medicine work is enough to increase the prestige of the specialty. It is also necessary we to have understanding expert and financial support from corresponding institutions, incl. Ministry of health for a delivery of a new, contemporary instrumentation with new possibilities. Thus it would be possible Bulgarian patients to reach the high technology apparatuses for an early functional diagnosis of the diseases and optimal treatment, which possibility have the patients from the developed countries. (author)

  12. Spotlight on acupuncture in laboratory animal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magden ER

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth R Magden Department of Veterinary Sciences, Michale E Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, TX, USA Abstract: Acupuncture has been practiced for thousands of years, although it is only in the past century that science has worked to unravel the mechanisms behind its use. Literature supporting the efficacious use of acupuncture to treat a variety of conditions has been and continues to be published, including the randomized controlled studies we all appreciate when practicing evidence-based medicine. The use of acupuncture in veterinary medicine has paralleled the trends observed in people, with an increasingly common use to remedy specific medical conditions. These conditions are commonly related to neurological dysfunction or orthopedic pain. Although pain relief is the most common use of acupuncture, numerous other conditions have been shown to improve with this therapy. Laboratory animals are also benefiting from acupuncture. Its use is starting to be incorporated into research settings, although there is still further progress to be made in this field. Acupuncture has been shown to improve clinical conditions and quality of life in laboratory animals, and should be considered as a tool to treat laboratory animals with conditions known to benefit from therapy. Here we review the history, mechanisms of action, and use of acupuncture to treat veterinary patients and laboratory animals. Keywords: acupuncture, laboratory animals, nonhuman primates

  13. Quality of natural product clinical trials: a comparison of those published in alternative medicine versus conventional medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Zara Risoldi; Gregory, Philip; Wilson, Amy

    2011-06-01

    To compare the quality of natural product clinical trials published in alternative medicine journals versus those published in conventional medicine journals. Systematic search and review of the literature. Randomized controlled trials of natural products were included if they were published in English between 2003 and 2008. Articles were categorized by their journal of publication (alternative medicine versus conventional medicine). Two independent reviewers evaluated study quality using guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. The results with respect to the primary outcome (positive or negative) were also assessed. Thirty articles were evaluated, 15 published in alternative medicine journals and 15 in conventional medicine journals. Of articles published in alternative medicine journals, 33.33% (n = 5) were considered low quality, and none were considered high quality. Of articles published in conventional medicine journals, 26.67% (n = 4) were considered low quality and 6.67% (n = 1) were considered high quality. Two thirds of all trials reviewed were of unclear quality, due to inadequate reporting of information relating to the study's methodology. Similar proportions of positive and negative primary outcomes were found in alternative and conventional medicine journals, and low-quality articles were not more likely to report a positive primary outcome (Fisher's exact test, two-tailed p = .287). The quality of natural product randomized controlled trials was similar among alternative and conventional medicine journals. Efforts should be made to improve the reporting of natural product clinical trials for accurate determinations of study quality to be possible.

  14. Pulmonary explorations in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.

    1987-01-01

    Ten years ago specialists in Nuclear Medicine from the South of France formed an Association called ACOMEN. The objectives were to create a permanent exchange of ideas between members and a close collaboration with physicians. The group objectives have led to a combination of efforts on the behalf of each one to clarify our techniques for physicians having recourse to this speciality as well as the various categories of students passing through the Nuclear Medicine Departments. Different groups within the ACOMEN were assigned to specific subjects. Each group was in charge of building the framework of a certain topic, which was then illustrated by selected documents contributed by all members. A slide collection, complete with an explanatory booklet is the final result of this collaboration. Thus anyone concerned in any way, with nuclear medicine, is able to quickly become familiar with the techniques of the speciality, to be aware of its possibilities and its limitations and to update his hnowledge. One realizes that the first theme selected was not the easiest; pulmonary radionuclide explorations are, as everyone knows, variable and even personalized. However, the choice was deliberate. The difficulty should stimulate those responsible for the other themes as well as the people working with them. There is already a slide collection available to anyone who wishes to learn about the use of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases [fr

  15. The Crisis in Osteopathic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher T.; Price, Albert

    1992-01-01

    In three decades, the osteopathic profession has moved from primarily manipulative therapy to full-service health care, replacing primary care emphasis with specialization. The profession should return to its original mission of primary care, establish links with allopathic medicine, and support new national policy for primary health care.…

  16. Computer networks in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noelpp, U.B.

    1986-01-01

    For multi-camera and multi-computer departements it is advantageous to connect the computers into a network. Care should be taken to choose an open and reliable solution. For long term, Ethernet is probably a good choice. Several manufactureres already offer networks with big differences. Own Experience shows that networks in nuclear medicine are manageable. (Author)

  17. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  18. Images compression in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, M.S.; Furuie, S.S.; Moura, L.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of two methods for images compression in nuclear medicine was evaluated. The LZW precise, and Cosine Transformed, approximate, methods were analyzed. The results were obtained, showing that the utilization of approximated method produced images with an agreeable quality for visual analysis and compression rates, considerably high than precise method. (C.G.C.)

  19. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    compared to urology where shock waves are used for disintegration. [Shrivastava S K and Kailash 2005 Shock wave treatment in medicine; J. Biosci. 30 269–275]. 1. Introduction. Extracorporeal generated shock waves have been intro- duced for medical therapy approximately 20 years back to disintegrate kidney stones.

  20. Skin Aging Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirbeigi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.

  1. Gender Medicine and Pharmacoeconomics: A Narrative Review of the International Literature of the Last 5 Years. A Revision of Evidences about the Relationship Between Gender and Economic Consumption in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Delia; Simoni, Lucia; Zagni, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    The influence of patient gender on the economic impact of health care has increasingly been examined in the recent literature. Gender appears to have an impact on healthcare resource consumption, due to possible differences in the patient's response to a chosen therapeutic management strategy or to a healthcare intervention. The present work is aimed at collecting and reviewing evidences about the relationship between gender and economic consumption in health based on worldwide scientific literature published in the last 5 years. We conducted a narrative review of evidence from an initial pool of 904 articles, selecting information about gender-specific economic impact in any therapeutic area. After title, abstract and full text review, 111 articles were relevant to the paper scope. The reviewed studies seem to be confirming that a difference exists between males and females in the economic implications of healthcare management and that those differences are particularly relevant for cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies. Preliminary evidence suggests overall healthcare costs are slightly higher in females than males, while some specific and non-quantitative items of resource consumption, such as quality of prescriptions, might favour male patients. Results do not allow to clearly claiming an overall cost shift towards males or females, since their polarization varies depending on the considered cost item or event category. Studies suggested the presence of a gender difference in overall healthcare resource consumption and costs. Nevertheless, these aspects still lack thorough examination in literature and further analyses would be required on longer time periods. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people?s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair qua...

  3. Alternative medicine and anesthesia: Implications and considerations in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Panda, Aparajita

    2012-10-01

    Nowadays, herbal medicines are widely used by most of the people, including the pre-surgical population. These medicines may pose numerous challenges during perioperative care. The objective of the current literature review is to dwell upon the impact of the use of herbal medicines during the perioperative period, and to review the strategies for managing their perioperative use. The data was generated from various articles of different journals, text books, web source, including, Entrez Pubmed, Medscape, WebMD, and so on. Selected only those herbal medicines for which information on, safety, usage, and precautions during the perioperative period was available. Thereafter, the information about safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics from selected literature was gathered and analyzed. The whole review focused on the fact that these commonly used alternative medicines could sometimes pose as a concern during the perioperative period, in various ways. These complications could be due to their direct action, pharmacodynamic effect, or pharmacokinetic effect. In view of the serious impacts of herbal medicine usage in perioperative care, the anesthesiologist should take a detailed history, especially stressing on the use of herbal medicine during the preoperative anesthetic assessment. The anesthesiologist should also be aware of the potential perioperative effects of those drugs. Accordingly, steps should to be taken to prevent, recognize, and treat the complications that may arise due to their use or discontinuation.

  4. Behavioral medicine in China: history, current status, and future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bo; Ji, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral medicine in China has developed quickly in the last three decades. We briefly summarized the history, the main scope and achievements, and the future development of behavioral medicine in China. We did a literature search and discussed with senior scholars in behavioral medicine in China. The concept and main scope of behavioral medicine in China have been developed largely in accordance with the international perspective. Research in behavioral medicine in China significantly contributed to the better understanding of the relationship between various health behavioral factors and psychosomatic disorders and possible mechanisms of this relationship. The following aspects will be the main areas to be further developed in behavioral medicine in China: (1) Basic theories of behavioral medicine and theoretical mechanisms of higher nervous activities in human behavior regulation. (2) Etiology, pathogenesis, and mechanisms of common diseases that are closely related to human lifestyle behaviors. (3) Assessment criteria for unhealthy and disease-related behaviors. (4) Behavioral therapy of psychosomatic disorders, and rehabilitation technologies of disability. (5) Application of major findings from research of behavioral medical science in clinical practice and in health promotion of the whole society. Behavioral medicine in China, as a multidisciplinary subject, plays a relevant role in preventing behavior-related psychosomatic diseases and in promoting health of the public.

  5. Literature in English Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to show that literature can and should be part of foreign language teaching. It argues that adopting language-based approaches to studying literary texts will help foreign language learners to find the way into the text, to become actively involved in the text, to improve their knowledge of the language, and to develop their literary awareness. The application of language-based approaches is illustrated on three extracts from the novel To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woo...

  6. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  7. Evaluation of medicinal interventions for the management of oral submucous fibrosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Kamran Habib; Patil, Shankargouda; Habib, Syed Rashid; Pejcic, Ana; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2014-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic, progressive scarring disease associated with both significant morbidity including pain and limited mouth opening and an increased risk for malignancy. This systematic review evaluated the different medicinal (i.e. nonsurgical) interventions available for the management of oral submucous fibrosis. An automated literature searches of online databases from January 1960 to December 2013 were performed and only studies with high level of evidence based on the guidelines of the Oxford Centre for evidence-based medicine were selected. Thirteen studies (3 randomized controlled trials and 10 clinical trials/controlled clinical trials) were included and drugs like steroids, hyaluronidase, human placenta extracts, chymotrypsin and collagenase, pentoxifylline, nylidrin hydrochloride, iron and multivitamin supplements including lycopene were used. There is a clear lack of evidence on the available drug treatment for oral submucous fibrosis and further high quality randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the different therapeutic agents.

  8. Benzamides used in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguelles, Maria G.; Luppi Berlanga, Ignacio S.; Torres, Enrique A.

    1999-01-01

    The synthesis and the characterization of [ 125 I]N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide, [ 131 I]N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide, [ 125 I]N-2-piperindinylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide and [ 131 I]N-(2-piperidinylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide are described as well as the purification and separation of the molecules by thin layer chromatography and HPLC. Biodistribution studies show that these labelled benzamides have good affinity to brain tissues. (author)

  9. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-11-09

    Nov 9, 2013 ... Anthraquinones have a direct toxic effect on the epithelial cells of the colon that results in the production of lipofuscin, the dark pigment seen in macrophages in melanosis coli. Long-term use of anthranoids is generally believed to be necessary to cause melanosis coli. However, it was established that this.

  10. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  11. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Perspectives in regenerative medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ray Banerjee, Ena

    2014-01-01

    The information given in this book tries to capture the essence of the sheer dynamicity of the cell along with useful tips on how to address critical rate limiting steps in the process of exploration and investigation of its capacity to regenerate, rebuild and replenish from within. The definitions of stem cells, stemness, and the niche concept continue to undergo revisions. In adult vertebrates, hematopoietic and some non-hematopoietic progenitors are synthesized within specialized niches of bone marrow. They migrate to designated tissues, and are either trans-differentiated or become quiescent and settle down. These form the stem cell niche reservoir in all tissues. Not only the primary hematopoietic tissue but all organs and tissues are also capable of generating progenitors which are either synthesized from these migrants or are direct recruits from other tissues. In the niches, the cells settle down and await their turn to either make more clones like themselves or differentiate and mobilize in an exigen...

  13. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of ...

  14. Computers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter determines: capture and observation of images in computers; hardware and software used, personal computers, networks and workstations. The use of special filters determine the quality image

  15. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    1996-01-01

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author)

  16. [Recent advances in internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Düring, Stephan; Mavrakanas, Thomas; Muller, Halima; Primmaz, Steve; Grosgurin, Olivier; Louis Simonet, Martine; Marti, Christophe; Nendaz, Mathieu; Serratrice, Jacques; Stirnemann, Jérome; Carballo, Sebastian; Darbellay Farhoumand, Pauline

    2018-01-17

    In medicine, there are progresses which radically transform practices, change recommendations and win unanimous support in the medical community. There are some which divide, questioning principles that seemed established. There are also small advances, which can answer the questions that internists ask themselves in the daily care of their patients. Here are several articles published in 2017, read and commented for you by hospitalists, selected according to their impact on the medical world.

  17. Sports medicine in New Zealand.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, C J

    1992-01-01

    Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...

  18. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    3 mai 2016 ... The Achilles tendon is the largest and strongest tendon in the body. It was in 1883 that Pollailon described first surgical intervention inaugurating the era of surgical treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures. "Open surgical" repair appears to be the surest way for ensuring a solid contact of the ends, allowing a ...

  19. 30 days in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouthwash reduces oral gonorrhoea. Gargling daily with the antiseptic mouthwash, Listerine, may control oral gonorrhoea, according to a study in Australia. Researchers in. Melbourne looked at 196 gay or bisexual men positive for Neisseria gonorrhoea, who presented at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre for treatment.

  20. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    atopic dermatitis although its incidence has increased in adults, predominantly due to HIV infection. Concretly when MC lesions affect perineal area, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) may be suspected. Common STD should be rule out. In our patient the appearance of molluscum lesions on the tattoo may be due to.

  1. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Caudal regression is a rare syndrome which has a spectrum of congenital malformations ranging from simple anal atresia to absence of sacral, lumbar and possibly lower thoracic vertebrae. It results from a disturbance in the fetal mesoderm in early pregnancy. (< 4th week of gestation). Maternal diabetes, genetic ...

  2. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-19

    Nov 19, 2012 ... ... which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Pan Africa Medical Journal – ISSN: 1937- 8688 (www.panafrican-med-journal.com). Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net).

  3. Cavitation in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, Christopher Earls

    2015-10-06

    We generally think of bubbles as benign and harmless and yet they can manifest the most remarkable range of physical effects. Some of those effects are the stuff of our everyday experience as in the tinkling of a brook or the sounds of breaking waves at the beach. But even these mundane effects are examples of the ability of bubbles to gather, focus and radiate energy (acoustic energy in the above examples). In other contexts that focusing of energy can lead to serious technological problems as when cavitation bubbles eat great holes through ships' propeller blades or cause a threat to the integrity of the spillways at the Hoover Dam. In liquid-propelled rocket engines, bubbles pose a danger to the stability of the propulsion system, and in artificial heart valves they can cause serious damage to the red blood cells. In perhaps the most extraordinary example of energy focusing, collapsing cavitation bubbles can emit not only sound, but also light with black body radiation temperatures equal to that of the sun (Brennen 1995 Cavitation and bubble dynamics). But, harnessed carefully, this almost unique ability to focus energy can also be put to remarkably constructive use. Cavitation bubbles are now used in a remarkable range of surgical and medical procedures, for example to emulsify tissue (most commonly in cataract surgery or in lithotripsy procedures for the reduction of kidney and gall stones) or to manipulate the DNA in individual cells. By creating cavitation bubbles non-invasively thereby depositing and focusing energy non-intrusively, one can generate minute incisions or target cancer cells. This paper will begin by briefly reviewing the history of cavitation phenomena and will end with a vision of the new horizons for the amazing cavitation bubble.

  4. Reproductive Medicine in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Norin

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of amphibians includes ovulation, spermiation, fertilization, oviposition, larval stage and development, and metamorphosis. A problem at any stage could lead to reproductive failure. To stimulate reproduction, environmental conditions must be arranged to simulate changes in natural habits. Reproductive life history is well documented in amphibians; a thorough knowledge of this subject will aid the practitioner in diagnosis and treatment. Technologies for artificial reproduction are developing rapidly, and some protocols may be transferable to privately kept or endangered species. Reproductive tract disorders are rarely described; no bacterial or viral diseases are known that specifically target the amphibian reproductive system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  6. Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S

    2001-02-01

    Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state.

  7. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, V.; Hanson, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

  8. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative. Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any ...

  9. Nuclear medicine in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Meguerian, B.A.; Moura Filho, R.S. de

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is done of radionuclide applications in pediatrics. The following subjects are commented: radioisotopic investigations of cardiovascular system; pulmonary system; liver; urinary tract; brain; subarachnoide space; thyroid and skeleton. (M.A.) [pt

  10. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    . This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the ...

  11. Radiological Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valetin, J.

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to underpin the Commission's 2007 Recommendations with regard to the medical exposure of patients, including their comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research. It addresses the proper application of the fundamental principles (justification, optimisation of protection, and application of dose limits) of the Commission's 2007 Recommendations to these individuals. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints, because such limits would often do more harm than good. Often, there are concurrent chronic, severe, or even life-threatening medical conditions that are more critical than the radiation exposure. The emphasis is then on justification of the medical procedures and on the optimisation of radiological protection. In diagnostic and interventional procedures, justification of procedures (for a defined purpose and for an individual patient), and management of the patient dose commensurate with the medical task, are the appropriate mechanisms to avoid unnecessary or unproductive radiation exposure. Equipment features that facilitate patient dose management, and diagnostic reference levels derived at the appropriate national, regional, or local level, are likely to be the most effective approaches. In radiation therapy, the avoidance of accidents is a predominant issue. With regard to comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research, dose constraints are appropriate. Over the last decade, the Commission has published a number of documents that provided detailed advice related to radiological protection and safety in the medical applications of ionising radiation. Each of the publications addressed a specific topic defined by the type of radiation source and the medical discipline in which the source is applied, and was written with the intent of communicating directly with the relevant medical practitioners and supporting medical staff. This report

  12. [Surgical laboratory in pregraduate medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Jurado, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Surgical laboratory in pregraduate students in medicine is beneficial and improves learning processes in cognitive aspects and skills acquisition. It is also an early initiation into scientific research. The laboratory is the introductory pathway into basic concepts of medical science (meaningful learning). It is also where students gain knowledge in procedures and abilities to obtain professional skills, an interactive teacher-student process. Medicine works rapidly to change from an art to a science. This fact compromises all schools and medical faculties to analyze their actual lesson plans. Simulators give students confidence and ability and save time, money and resources, eliminating at the same time the ethical factor of using live animals and the fear of patient safety. Multimedia programs may give a cognitive context evolving logically with an explanation based on written and visual animation followed by a clinical problem and its demonstration in a simulator, all before applying knowledge to the patient.

  13. Prognostic methods in medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, P. J.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    1999-01-01

    Prognosis--the prediction of the course and outcome of disease processes--plays an important role in patient management tasks like diagnosis and treatment planning. As a result, prognostic models form an integral part of a number of systems supporting these tasks. Furthermore, prognostic models

  14. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    6 janv. 2015 ... Abdelkarim Shimi et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  15. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    24 juin 2015 ... Meriem Abdellaoui et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  16. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-06-10

    Jun 10, 2014 ... known hypertensive on medications,also being managed for diverticulosis and Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy.Respiratory rate was. 26cycles per minute with crepitations in the left mid-and lower lung zones. Bilateral pedal oedema was found but the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems were normal.

  17. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    indicated Meckel's diverticulitis without gastric or pancreatic metaplasia. Figure 1: giant inflamed Meckels diverticulum with mushroom appearance. Pan African Medical Journal – ISSN: 1937- 8688 (www.panafrican-med-journal.com). Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

  18. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-24

    Aug 24, 2015 ... assumes a risk factor due to alteration of the patient's body image and consequent reduction in self-esteem. Figure 1: the appearance of the patient with Poland's syndrome. A: absence of the left pectoral muscles, superior localized left small nipple-areola complex; B: left anterior chest- wall depression and ...

  19. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    a bilateral exposure keratitis complicated by an abscess and corneal perforation. The ocular surface is protected by the tear film, the blinking of eyelids and the lid closure. The tear film provides lubrication of the cornea and also contains antimicrobial substances. Use of muscle relaxants and sedation in patients on ventilator.

  20. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-02-09

    Feb 9, 2015 ... Youssef Omor et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  1. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Hassen Ben Ghezala et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  2. Forensic science in medicine:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We shOuld be knowledgeable of the workings of the criminal justice system and court procedure and etiquette, and sensitive to issues such as burden of proof, preservation of chain of custody of specimens and other evidentiary items and issues of consent and confidentiality in criminal proceedings. LEGAL FRAMEWORK.

  3. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    26 mars 2016 ... We report the case of a 21-year-old man who injured his right hand in a fall from his motorbike, causing a trans-scaphoid perilunate fracture-dislocation associated with vertical fracture of the pyramid. (A and B). On day 2, patient underwent a bloody reduction (C) of disorganized carpal bones with ...

  4. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    psychomotor development of patients is usually normal and the majority of cases are mild. Most cases are sporadic but familial forms with apparently autosomal dominant transmission have been reported (7-8%). However, the concordance rate of isolated trigonocephaly in monozygotic twins is 43%, suggesting that both.

  5. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-05-08

    May 8, 2015 ... Dermoscopy was objectived telangectasic vessel at the periphery of lesions (D). No other contributory medical history or similar cases in the family were reported by the patient. With the above features a clinical differential diagnosis of multiple basal cell carcinoma (BCC), multiples trichoepitheliomas or.

  6. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    18 nov. 2015 ... Rim Lahianiet et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  7. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    10 févr. 2016 ... Abstract. We report the case of a 25-year-old patient who suffered a ski accident that causing a serious knees sprain. The patient underwent immobilization by plaster knees. After 12 rehabilitation sessions, good progress was noticed in terms of pain. However, the patient is unstable when walking and a.

  8. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-01

    Oct 1, 2015 ... Asma Gargoura et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  9. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    9 févr. 2013 ... Sofia Jayi et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution. License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided ...

  10. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-05-08

    May 8, 2015 ... With the above features a clinical differential diagnosis of multiple basal cell carcinoma (BCC), multiples trichoepitheliomas or. Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis was considered. Histopathological examination of the lesions was in favor of nodular BCC then another skin biopsy objectified Horn cysts ...

  11. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... Mouna Bouaddi et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  12. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... Complete acute uterine inversion. Lawrence Mbuagbaw1,&, Patrick Mbah Okwen1. 1Centre for the Development of Best Practices in Health (CDBPH), Yaoundé Central Hospital, Avenue Henri Dunant, Messa, PO Box 87, Yaoundé,. Cameroon. &Corresponding author: Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Centre for the ...

  13. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    29 avr. 2016 ... Sami Aziz Brahmi et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  14. 30 days in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-04

    Jan 4, 2018 ... of cancer among people who consumed large amounts of coffee than among those who drank little. Coffee drinkers also have a 29% lower risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a 27% lower risk of liver fibrosis and a 39% lower risk of liver cirrhosis. The outcomes are mixed for coffee in pregnancy, ...

  15. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    10 mai 2016 ... ... objectified pin migration to the cervical spine. It pierced left C7-T1 vertebral foramen contacting the medullary sheath with consequent threat to vital or functional prognosis. The patient underwent urgent removal of osteosynthesis material in the. Department of Neurosurgery. The evolution was marked by ...

  16. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Biopsies of the tumor in the scalp revealed moderately- differentiated epidermoid carcinoma, which were considered to be cutaneous metastases. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and thoracoabdominal pelvic scanner objectivated a tumoral mass of lung (D) with ocular, hepatica and bone metastasis. Lung biopsy.

  17. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iamong

    2016-08-30

    Aug 30, 2016 ... A differential diagnosis of lichen planus, oral lichenoid reaction and discoid lupus erythematosis were considered. On microscopic examination, there was focal perivascular infiltrate and plasma cells in the connective tissue. After correlating clinically, a diagnosis of "lichenoid reaction" was confirmed.

  18. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... Prashanth Panta et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  19. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-20

    Nov 20, 2015 ... Fouad Hajjiet et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  20. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... Mouna Sghir et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution. License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  1. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Samar Younes et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original.

  2. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-16

    Oct 16, 2015 ... Naima Bouznad et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  3. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2 août 2014 ... Mina Laghmar et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, ...

  4. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-29

    Jan 29, 2015 ... usually asymptomatic, as the structure and function of vital organs are generally unaffected. However, in 25% of the cases, the syndrome coexists with primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome), then characterized by chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis and susceptibility to infections. A random X-ray test ...

  5. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... Rare case of pure medial subtalar dislocation in a basketball player. Abdellatif Benabbouha1,&, Nacer Ibou1. 1Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique I, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohamed V, Rabat, Maroc. &Corresponding author: Abdellatif Benabbouha, Service de Chirurgie ...

  6. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-01-20

    Jan 20, 2016 ... assumptions: a fornix rupture, renal cystic hygroma or duplicity. Finally retrograde pyelography of the ureter allowed settling for anurinoma because it highlighted the extravasations of contrast product. The treatment consisted of the establishment of a J stent left in place until drainage of the collection.

  7. [Nikola Tesla in medicine, too].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzek, Branko; Jakobović, Zvonimir

    2007-12-01

    Using primary and secondary sources we have shown in this paper the influence of Nikola Tesla's work on the field of medicine. The description of his experiments conduced within secondary-school education programs aimed to present the popularization of his work in Croatia. Although Tesla was dedicated primarily to physics and was not directly involved in biomedical research, his work significantly contributed to paving the way of medical physics particularly radiology and high-frequency electrotherapy.

  8. Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    27 pages, 10 figures, 26 references; International audience; Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the ...

  9. Perspectives in football medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldén, M; Hägglund, M; Bengtsson, H; Ekstrand, J

    2018-04-12

    The high injury rate among men's professional football players is well-known. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) launched an injury study already in 2001. This study, the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study (ECIS), currently includes data from a total of 51 clubs from 18 European countries with more than 14,000 registered injuries. With the 21 st  World Cup (WC) in Russia just around the corner, we have from our study identified a higher match injury rate and a higher proportion of severe injuries in the European Championships compared to the preceding club competitive seasons. Moreover, we have also recently showed that the muscle injury rate is higher when players are given a recovery window of five days or less between two matches. Considering the congested match schedule of the upcoming WC, it is therefore likely that injuries and fatigue once again will be a topic of discussion this summer.

  10. Sustainability in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ruth; Coffin, Janis; George, Sierra

    2013-01-01

    Given the current state of the U.S. healthcare system, with increasingly complicated regulations and paperwork and decreasing reimbursements, the question arises: Is it possible to provide safe, high-quality healthcare and reduce costs? Furthermore, is it possible to care for the health of your patients while simultaneously caring for the financial health of your practice and promoting improvement in the overall health of the planet? This article will review some steps currently being taken by various companies and hopefully stimulate ideas for changes you may want to consider for your own practice, hospital, or institution.

  11. Future Perspectives in Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, Leh-Kiong Anne; Guilleminault, Christian

    2017-01-01

    "Sleep Medicine" is now a specialty in its own right. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the very negative impact sleep disorders have on learning, education, safety, and quality of life. Technological advances will help us to break down diagnoses (e.g., narcolepsy has now been subdivided into types 1 and 2, depending upon the hypocretin levels in the spinal fluid) and to discover relationships to other bodily systems (e.g., type 1 narcolepsy potentially being an autoimmune disorder). The modern lifestyle of many, as characterized by a shortening of sleep periods, shift work, jet lag, and the need to be constantly available, means that advances in sleep medicine may result in a major understanding of more balanced "work-rest lifestyle" modifications. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Antioxidants in Translational Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.; Stocker, Roland; Vollbracht, Claudia; Paulsen, Gøran; Riley, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging molecules or antioxidants exert health-promoting effects and thus their consumption as food additives and nutraceuticals has been greatly encouraged. Antioxidants may be beneficial in situations of subclinical deficiency and increased demand or acutely upon high-dose infusion. However, to date, there is little clinical evidence for the long-term benefit of most antioxidants. Alarmingly, recent evidence points even to health risks, in particular for supplements of lipophilic antioxidants. Recent Advances: The biological impact of ROS depends not only on their quantities but also on their chemical nature, (sub)cellular and tissue location, and the rates of their formation and degradation. Moreover, ROS serve important physiological functions; thus, inappropriate removal of ROS may cause paradoxical reductive stress and thereby induce or promote disease. Critical Issues: Any recommendation on antioxidants must be based on solid clinical evidence and patient-relevant outcomes rather than surrogate parameters. Future Directions: Such evidence-based use may include site-directed application, time-limited high dosing, (functional) pharmacological repair of oxidized biomolecules, and triggers of endogenous antioxidant response systems. Ideally, these approaches need guidance by patient stratification through predictive biomarkers and possibly imaging modalities. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1130–1143. PMID:26154592

  13. Antioxidants in Translational Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald H H W; Stocker, Roland; Vollbracht, Claudia; Paulsen, Gøran; Riley, Dennis; Daiber, Andreas; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2015-11-10

    It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging molecules or antioxidants exert health-promoting effects and thus their consumption as food additives and nutraceuticals has been greatly encouraged. Antioxidants may be beneficial in situations of subclinical deficiency and increased demand or acutely upon high-dose infusion. However, to date, there is little clinical evidence for the long-term benefit of most antioxidants. Alarmingly, recent evidence points even to health risks, in particular for supplements of lipophilic antioxidants. The biological impact of ROS depends not only on their quantities but also on their chemical nature, (sub)cellular and tissue location, and the rates of their formation and degradation. Moreover, ROS serve important physiological functions; thus, inappropriate removal of ROS may cause paradoxical reductive stress and thereby induce or promote disease. Any recommendation on antioxidants must be based on solid clinical evidence and patient-relevant outcomes rather than surrogate parameters. Such evidence-based use may include site-directed application, time-limited high dosing, (functional) pharmacological repair of oxidized biomolecules, and triggers of endogenous antioxidant response systems. Ideally, these approaches need guidance by patient stratification through predictive biomarkers and possibly imaging modalities.

  14. Some medicinal plants used in Yemeni herbal medicine to treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot study examined the extent and the type of medicinal plants used for treating malaria. 492 informants were interviewed in 13 villages located on the coastal plain of four provinces. Nineteen plants belonging to fourteen families were recorded each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used.

  15. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  16. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...

  17. Overview of accelerators in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    Accelerators used for medicine include synchrotrons, cyclotrons, betatrons, microtrons, and electron, proton, and light ion linacs. Some accelerators which were formerly found only at physics laboratories are now being considered for use in hospital-based treatment and diagnostic facilities. This paper presents typical operating parameters for medical accelerators and gives specific examples of clinical applications for each type of accelerator, with emphasis on recent developments in the field

  18. Informal Networks in Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bdeir, Fadl; Crawford, John W; Hossain, Liaquat

    2017-06-01

    Our study of informal networks aimed to explore information-sharing environments for the management of disaster medicine and public health preparedness. Understanding interagency coordination in preparing for and responding to extreme events such as disease outbreaks is central to reducing risks and coordination costs. We evaluated the pattern of information flow for actors involved in disaster medicine through social network analysis. Social network analysis of agencies can serve as a basis for the effective design and reconstruction of disaster medicine response coordination structures. This research used new theoretical approaches in suggesting a framework and a method to study the outcome of complex inter-organizational networks in coordinating disease outbreak response. We present research surveys of 70 health professionals from different skill sets and organizational positions during the swine influenza A (H1N1) PDM09 2009 pandemic. The survey and interviews were designed to collect both qualitative and quantitative data in order to build a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the inter-organizational networks that evolved during the pandemic. The degree centrality of the informal network showed a positive correlation with performance, in which the ego's performance is related to the number of links he or she establishes informally-outside the standard operating structure during the pandemic. Informal networks facilitate the transmission of both strong (ie, infections, confirmed cases, deaths in hospital or clinic settings) and weak (ie, casual acquaintances) ties. The results showed that informal networks promoted community-based ad hoc and formal networks, thus making overall disaster medicine and public health preparedness more effective. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:343-354).

  19. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-11-04

    The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge about the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of the four plant excipients. The broth dilution antibacterial assay and the DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assay were used to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the plants, respectively. Ethanol, warm water and cold water extracts were prepared from the dried seeds/fruits of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica and Monodora myristica, and tested in the assays. A. melegueta and P. guineense seemed to act as pharmacoenhancers, since they have been shown to inhibit specific CYP-enzymes. A. melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants as excipients could rely on their taste properties. The present study suggests that there may be more than one simple explanation for the use of these four plants as excipients. Plausible explanations have been proven to be: (1) a way to increase the effect of the medicine, (2) a way to make the medicine more palatable or (3) a way to preserve the activity of the medicinal preparation over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  2. Nuclear medicine in bone diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feine, U.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.

    1985-01-01

    This book on nuclear medicine in bone diagnostics and other complementary imaging methods is composed out of the 51 presentations of the 2nd Tuebinger bone symposium held on the 11th and 12th January 1985; it gives an overview of newer methods of nuclear medicine and other imaging methods such as magnetic-resonance tomography and sonography. While the 1st Tuebinger Symposium in January 1981 dealt with the clinical application of classical bone scintigraphy and the possibilities of the results of differential diagnosis, the present book is concerned with indications, alternative radiopharmaceuticals for skeleton scintigraphy and other techniques. The intention is to give a survey of the developments made over the last few years. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge....... melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants...... as excipients could rely on their taste properties. Conclusion The present study suggests that there may be more than one simple explanation for the use of these four plants as excipients. Plausible explanations have been proven to be: (1) a way to increase the effect of the medicine, (2) a way to make...

  4. What are the core elements of patient-centred care? A narrative review and synthesis of the literature from health policy, medicine and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alison; Marshall, Amy; Bassett, Katherine; Zeitz, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    To identify the common, core elements of patient-centred care in the health policy, medical and nursing literature. Healthcare reform is being driven by the rhetoric around patient-centred care yet no common definition exists and few integrated reviews undertaken. Narrative review and synthesis. Key seminal texts and papers from patient organizations, policy documents, and medical and nursing studies which looked at patient-centred care in the acute care setting. Search sources included Medline, CINHAL, SCOPUS, and primary policy documents and texts covering the period from 1990-March 2010. A narrative review and synthesis was undertaken including empirical, descriptive, and discursive papers. Initially, generic search terms were used to capture relevant literature; the selection process was narrowed to seminal texts (Stage 1 of the review) and papers from three key areas (in Stage 2). In total, 60 papers were included in the review and synthesis. Seven were from health policy, 22 from medicine, and 31 from nursing literature. Few common definitions were found across the literature. Three core themes, however, were identified: patient participation and involvement, the relationship between the patient and the healthcare professional, and the context where care is delivered. Three core themes describing patient-centred care have emerged from the health policy, medical, and nursing literature. This may indicate a common conceptual source. Different professional groups tend to focus on or emphasize different elements within the themes. This may affect the success of implementing patient-centred care in practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Nuclear Medicine in Pediatric Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Ornella; Stellin, Giovanni; Zucchetta, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    Accurate cardiovascular imaging is essential for the successful management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Echocardiography and angiography have been for long time the most important imaging modalities in pediatric cardiology, but nuclear medicine has contributed in many situations to the comprehension of physiological consequences of CHD, quantifying pulmonary blood flow symmetry or right-to-left shunting. In recent times, remarkable improvements in imaging equipments, particularly in multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have led to the progressive integration of high resolution modalities in the clinical workup of children affected by CHD, reducing the role of diagnostic angiography. Technology has seen a parallel evolution in the field of nuclear medicine, with the advent of hybrid machines, as SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners. Improved detectors, hugely increased computing power, and new reconstruction algorithms allow for a significant reduction of the injected dose, with a parallel relevant decrease in radiation exposure. Nuclear medicine retains its distinctive capability of exploring at the tissue level many functional aspects of CHD in a safe and reproducible way. The lack of invasiveness, the limited need for sedation, the low radiation burden, and the insensitivity to body habitus variations make nuclear medicine an ideal complement of echocardiography. This is particularly true during the follow-up of patients with CHD, whose increasing survival represent a great medical success and a challenge for the health system in the next decades. Metabolic imaging using 18 FDG PET/CT has expanded its role in the management of infection and inflammation in adult patients, particularly in cardiology. The same expansion is observed in pediatric cardiology, with an increasing rate of studies on the use of FDG PET for the evaluation of children with vasculitis, suspected valvular infection or infected prosthetic devices. The

  6. Lasers in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, M W

    1996-01-01

    Since their introduction, great enthusiasm has greeted the application of lasers to medicine and dentistry. The future is exciting. Research will someday take us to the days of the "Star Trek" laser-scan tooth or bone repair procedures. Lasers are very specific in their application. Choose this new technology carefully, making choices and purchases based on quality scientific research and ongoing analysis and review.

  7. Medicine in John Locke's philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M A

    1990-12-01

    John Locke's philosophy was deeply affected by medicine of his times. It was specially influenced by the medical thought and practice of Thomas Sydenham. Locke was a personal friend of Sydenham, expressed an avid interest in his work and shared his views and methods. The influence of Sydenham's medicine can be seen in the following areas of Locke's philosophy: his "plain historical method"; the emphasis on observation and sensory experience instead of seeking the essence of things; the rejection of hypotheses and principles; the refusal of research into final causes and inner mechanisms; the ideal of irrefutable evidence and skepticism on the possibilities of certainty in science. The science which for Locke held the highest paradigmatic value in his theory of knowledge was precisely medicine. To a great extent, Locke's Essay on Human Understanding can be understood as an attempt to justify, substantiate, and promote Sydenham's medical method. This method, generalized, was then proposed as an instrument for the elaboration of all natural sciences.

  8. Interdisciplinarity in Translational Medicine: A Bibliometric Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Translational research (TR) is the process of bringing innovations from basic science into applied science, usually referring to the practice of medicine. It has been assumed that cross-disciplinary collaboration, or interdisciplinarity research (IDR), is essential to translation. Yet there is a gap in the literature regarding the interaction…

  9. [Pastoral care in palliative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, S

    2006-11-01

    The orientation of life before death towards a quality as high as possible leads to an understanding of palliative medicine not as a pure medical discipline but rather as an integral approach of different disciplines, professions and services, combining several sectors and not being restricted to professionals. Within this change of patterns the pastoral care contribution is developed from professional clinical pastoral care, at first the pastoral care attitude in palliative medicine, challenged by the irritating expectation which dying and death every time demands of all involved. Basics of general mourning research and tasks of bereavement counselling are explained for elaboration as well as theological basics of a Christian human dignity concept. Different competence areas of pastoral care are linked to the dimensions of myth, ethos and rite. Finally a couple of tasks and challenges concerning interreligious cooperation, the cooperating with relatives and volunteers as well as structural questions of pastoral care are mentioned.

  10. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  11. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  12. Cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine. Firstly, we evaluated the methodologic quality of studies in reproductive medicine. Insight into the quality of economical analysis in reproductive medicine is important for valuing the performed studies and to assess whether these

  13. Teaching Literature in the Brave New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, George

    1974-01-01

    Argues that teachers must provide students with a rationale for studying literature in this media dominated age and suggests a technique for teaching literature through the use of "Brave New World." (RB)

  14. Discourse Analysis in Stylistics and Literature Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mick

    1990-01-01

    A review of research regarding discourse analysis in stylistics and literature instruction covers studies of text, systematic analysis, meaning, style, literature pedagogy, and applied linguistics. A 10-citation annotated bibliography and a larger unannotated bibliography are included. (CB)

  15. Effects of an evidence-based medicine workshop on Japanese pharmacy students' awareness regarding the importance of reading current clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoto; Murai, Yuriko; Yoshida, Makiko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Mano, Nariyasu

    2015-01-01

    Drug literature evaluation has been taught at pharmacy schools in the United States, allowing pharmacy students to learn how to read clinical literature critically. In advanced pharmacy practice experiences, preceptors often assign pharmacy students to journal clubs in which they repeatedly train how to read such literature. This enables them to understand the importance of reading clinical literature prior to graduation. The objective of this study was to create evidence-based medicine (EBM) workshop that would enhance Japanese pharmacy students' awareness regarding the importance of reading up-to-date clinical literature. The EBM workshop were designed as a one-day workshop consisting of student presentations regarding their opinions about reading clinical literature, a lecture on methods for reading required literature critically, and small group discussions using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) Method. To evaluate the effectiveness of the EBM workshop, students were administered questionnaire surveys both before and after the workshop. The students also took a 15-question test on EBM. Regarding the questionnaires, students were asked to respond to dichotomous items (yes/no) and to indicate on a 7-point Likert scale the extent to which they agreed with statements about clinical literature. Student responses to both the pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were then compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the EBM workshop. A total of 37 students participated in the EBM workshop. Significant improvement was seen between the pre- and post-workshop questionnaires in responses regarding whether they thought that pharmacists should read clinical literature regularly (pre-workshop: 5.70 ± 0.17 versus 6.51 ± 0.13 post-workshop; p read clinical literature (1.81 ± 0.15 versus 3.92 ± 0.18; p importance of reading up-to-date clinical literature. It is therefore expected that students who participated in our EBM workshop will contribute to improvements in

  16. Technetium in chemistry and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, E.; Nicolini, M.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-01-01

    This volume explores the potential of technetium radiopharmaceuticals in clinical nuclear medicine. The authors examine the capabilities of synthetic inorganic chemists to synthesize technetium radiopharmaceuticals and the specific requirements of the nuclear medicine practitioner. Sections cover the chemistry of technetium, the production of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium, and the use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine

  17. The application of nuclear-medicine methods in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpraga, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Dodig, D.

    1996-01-01

    X-radiography and ultrasound imaging are well established and widely used in veterinary practice, but it is not the same situation with radioisotope imaging. In veterinary practice the above mentioned methods of nuclear medicine are developed only in two countries in Europe. That is not doubt due, so bar, to the difficulties in obtaining satisfactory supply of radioisotopes and to the relatively high cost of scanning equipment. However, in collaboration with the Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Medicine of the Medical Faculty in Zagreb, Croatia, we have chance to develop the use of those methods in clinical veterinary practice in Zagreb. That is way in this paper an overview of the application of radioisotopes imaging in veterinary medicine is given. In small animals skeletal changes, lung perusions, brain lesions, space occupying lesions in the liver and its function and hearth function can be usefully searched by a gamma camera and its associated computer. In equine practice scintigraphy of bones, liver, hearth, pulmonary circulation and ventilation is described. The largest amount of radioactive material is used during gamma camera scanning of the skeletons of horses. In this cases the radiation dose 1-2 m from the animal is approximately 3 μSv/h. That is why the protection of personal involved in radioisotope scanning in veterinary medicine must be also regulated by low of radiation protection. Also, the animals should be confined to a controlled area for 2-3 days after scanning before being returned to their owners. After this period the area must be cleaned. (author)

  18. Literature in EFL/ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed; Derakhshan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature on how literature can be integrated as a language teaching material in EFL/ESL classes. First, it tracks down the place of literature in language classes from the early Grammar Translation Method (GTM) to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) era. The paper then discusses the reasons for the demise and…

  19. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  20. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy in internal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faggioli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Capillaroscopy is an actual inexpensive imaging technique, used to examine, non-invasively and safely, the morphology of nailfold dermal papillary capillaries. Many studies agree in the statement that the capillaroscopy is one of the gold standard methods for non-invasive examination of the microcirculation and it plays an important role in screening in Raynaud’s phenomenon and in monitoring of systemic sclerosis and other rheumatologic diseases. There are also many reports on the possible use of nailfold capillaroscopy in the diagnosis and monitoring of many other diseases in internal medicine.

  1. The Placenta: Applications in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, James Alexander; Jones, Ian A; Danilkovich, Alla; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Placenta has a long history of use for treating burns and wounds. It is a rich source of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins, tissue reparative growth factors, and stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recent data show its therapeutic potential for orthopaedic sports medicine indications. To provide orthopaedic surgeons with an anatomic description of the placenta, to characterize its cellular composition, and to review the literature reporting the use of placenta-derived cells and placental tissue allografts for orthopaedic sports medicine indications in animal models and in humans. Systematic review. Using a total of 63 keyword combinations, the PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched for published articles describing the use of placental cells and/or tissue for orthopaedic sports medicine indications. Information was collected on placental tissue type, indications, animal model, study design, treatment regimen, safety, and efficacy outcomes. Results were categorized by indication and subcategorized by animal model. Outcomes for 29 animal studies and 6 human studies reporting the use of placenta-derived therapeutics were generally positive; however, the placental tissue source, clinical indication, and administration route were highly variable across these studies. Fourteen animal studies described the use of placental tissue for tendon injuries, 13 studies for osteoarthritis or articular cartilage injuries, 3 for ligament injuries, and 1 for synovitis. Both placenta-derived culture-expanded cells (epithelial cells or MSCs) and placental tissue allografts were used in animal studies. In all human studies, commercial placental allografts were used. Five of 6 human studies examined the treatment of foot and ankle pathological conditions, and 1 studied the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A review of the small number of reported studies revealed a high degree of variability in placental cell types, placental tissue preparation, routes

  2. Anorexia: Highlights in Traditional Persian medicine and conventional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Anorexia and impaired appetite (Dysorexia) are common symptoms with varying causes, and often need no serious medical intervention. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high mortality rate. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), anorexia is a condition in which anorexic patients lose appetite due to dystemperament. This review aims to discuss the common points of traditional and conventional approaches rather than introducing Persian medical recommendations suitable for nowadays use. For this purpose, Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, main TPM resources and important databases were reviewed using the related keywords. Despite complex hormonal explanation, etiology of AN in conventional approach is not completely understood. In TPM approach, the etiology and recommended interventions are thoroughly defined based on humoral pathophysiology. In TPM approach, disease states are regarded as the result of imbalances in organs' temperament and humors. In anorexia with simple dystemperament, the physician should attempt to balance the temperament using foods and medicaments which have opposite quality of temperament. Lifestyle, spiritual diseases (neuro - psychological) and gastrointestinal worms are the other causes for reducing appetite. Also, medicines and foods with warm temperaments (such as Pea soup and Mustard) are useful for these patients (cold temperament). Although the pathophysiology of AN in TPM is different in comparison with conventional views, TPM criteria for treatment this disorder is similar to those of current medicine. Recommending to have spiritual support and a healthy lifestyle are common in both views. Simple safe interventions recommended by TPM may be considered as alternative medical modalities after being confirmed by well-designed clinical trials.

  3. Anorexia: Highlights in Traditional Persian medicine and conventional medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Anorexia and impaired appetite (Dysorexia) are common symptoms with varying causes, and often need no serious medical intervention. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high mortality rate. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), anorexia is a condition in which anorexic patients lose appetite due to dystemperament. This review aims to discuss the common points of traditional and conventional approaches rather than introducing Persian medical recommendations suitable for nowadays use. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, main TPM resources and important databases were reviewed using the related keywords. Results: Despite complex hormonal explanation, etiology of AN in conventional approach is not completely understood. In TPM approach, the etiology and recommended interventions are thoroughly defined based on humoral pathophysiology. In TPM approach, disease states are regarded as the result of imbalances in organs’ temperament and humors. In anorexia with simple dystemperament, the physician should attempt to balance the temperament using foods and medicaments which have opposite quality of temperament. Lifestyle, spiritual diseases (neuro – psychological) and gastrointestinal worms are the other causes for reducing appetite. Also, medicines and foods with warm temperaments (such as Pea soup and Mustard) are useful for these patients (cold temperament). Conclusion: Although the pathophysiology of AN in TPM is different in comparison with conventional views, TPM criteria for treatment this disorder is similar to those of current medicine. Recommending to have spiritual support and a healthy lifestyle are common in both views. Simple safe interventions recommended by TPM may be considered as alternative medical modalities after being confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. PMID:29387569

  4. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2014-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance natural materials like living tissue.

  5. Integrating Children's Literature in Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynsey; Feng, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this professional development project was to train teachers in using children's literature for math instruction and to also examine its effect on student math learning at an elementary school. Teachers were taught how to use children's literature to instruct and enhance their math curriculum through the use of literature pieces,…

  6. Recent Advances in Antiepileptic Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchishi, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. The limited supply, high cost as well as low efficacy and adverse side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a matter of major concern. Herbal medicine has always been traditionally part of treatment of epilepsy. Herbal medicines are generally well tolerated, with fewer side effects. To highlight some herbal extracts that have been studied for their anticonvulsant activity in animal models, literature search from PubMed and Science Direct, was performed. The keywords for the search consisted of combinations of the following terms: Herbal antiepileptic and/or anticonvulsant, botanicals + epilepsy. Literature published in the last five years was considered. Eighteen (18) anticonvulsant herbal agents are reported and discussed. Experiments mostly consisted of phenotypic screens in rodents, with little diversity in screening methods. In most experiments, the tested extracts prolonged the time to onset of seizures and decreased their duration. Most experimenters implicate potentiation of GABAergic activity as the mode of action of the extracts, even though some experimenters did not fully characterise the bioactive chemical composition of their extracts. Potential herbal remedies have shown positive results in animal models. It remains unclear how many make it into clinical trials and eventually making part of the AED list. More rigorous research, applying strict research methodology with uniform herbal combinations, as well as clinical studies are urgently needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun

    2017-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed

  9. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  10. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  11. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity

  12. "The medicine from behind": The frequent use of enemas in western African traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; van Onselen, Sabine; Myren, Britt; Towns, Alexandra; Quiroz, Diana

    2015-11-04

    Purgative enemas form an integral part of African traditional medicine. Besides possible benefits, serious health risks of rectal herbal therapy have been described in literature. To design appropriate health education programs, it is essential to understand traditional herbal practices and local perceptions of health and illness. Little is known about the herbal ingredients of enemas in Sub-Saharan Africa and consumers' personal reasons to use them. To analyze the importance of enema use with regard to plant species used and illnesses treated in West and Central Africa, to understand the local health beliefs that underlie frequent enema use and to evaluate which recipes and practices could be beneficial or harmful. We extracted data from 266 ethnobotanical questionnaires on medicinal (in particular women's health and childcare) and ritual plant use in Ghana, Benin and Gabon. Plants mentioned during interviews were vouchered and identified in herbaria. Health issues treated by means of enemas were ranked according to the number of plant species used for a specific illness. We compared our results with findings of medical research on benefits and risks of enema use in Sub-Saharan Africa. We recorded ca. 213 different plant species used in hundreds of recipes for rectal insertions, mostly in Ghana and Gabon. Stomachache, abdominal pain, female infertility and birth facilitation were treated with the highest number of plants species. Cleansing the intestines of young children to promote their health by getting rid of 'dirt', instead of treating constipation, was an important cultural practice that required the rectal application of herbal medicine, as well as other cultural bound health issues like stimulating children to walk at an early age. Tradition, the bitter taste of herbal medicine and the rapid effect of enemas were frequently mentioned reasons for enema use. Literature indicates that although enemas can help to improve the hygienic conditions of a household

  13. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  14. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  15. Frameworks for Evaluating Medicines in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2017-10-01

    To summarise contemporary approaches to evaluating medicines in children, emphasizing topics that are often misunderstood by one or more stakeholder groups. A narrative review that integrates the literature with experience in multiple settings. Children and young people need specific approaches to research about drugs because of growth and development. Specific approaches include practicalities such as the volume, frequency and technique of blood samples, and recruitment, including consent by proxy decision-makers and assent by children/young people. The design of drug development programmes includes working with children/young people from an early stage and minimising the burden of research through careful design while optimizing the contribution of extant, high quality information (including extrapolation).Regulators, academics, the pharmaceutical industry and other communities are well-placed to support pediatric drug development. Regulatory challenges include legislation that drives the extension to children of medicines used in adults (rather than a focus on the needs of children) and diversity between jurisdictions. Academics can improve the impact of their work by ensuring that data can be used in drug development programmes after they have answered a well-defined study question. Pharmaceutical companies, and public research funders can promote good return on the investment made in research (including the investment made by children/young people) by supporting data management to allow data reuse. a greater understanding of pediatric issues is relevant to diverse research communities that work to advance pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fractals in biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Ossadnik, S. M.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    Our purpose is to describe some recent progress in applying fractal concepts to systems of relevance to biology and medicine. We review several biological systems characterized by fractal geometry, with a particular focus on the long-range power-law correlations found recently in DNA sequences containing noncoding material. Furthermore, we discuss the finding that the exponent alpha quantifying these long-range correlations ("fractal complexity") is smaller for coding than for noncoding sequences. We also discuss the application of fractal scaling analysis to the dynamics of heartbeat regulation, and report the recent finding that the normal heart is characterized by long-range "anticorrelations" which are absent in the diseased heart.

  17. Consent in medicine and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, A A; Mackay, G M

    1995-08-01

    Last year's football World Cup serves to highlight the confusion now surrounding the classical aim of both sport and sports medicine, namely a healthy mind in a healthy body. The recent focus on violent injuries and the exponential increase in medical litigation suggests that this relationship is not so clearly defined. One cornerstone of this traditional relationship is the concept of informed consent. We review the legal position of consent in sport, especially soccer, which still awaits clarification and draw clear parallels with surgical consent.

  18. Peptide radioimmunoassays in clinical medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geokas, M.C.; Yalow, R.S.; Straus, E.W.; Gold, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay technique, first developed for the determination of hormones, has been applied to many substances of biologic interest by clinical and research laboratories around the world. It has had an enormous effect in medicine and biology as a diagnostic tool, a guide to therapy, and a probe for the fine structure of biologic systems. For instance, the assays of insulin, gastrin, secretin, prolactin, and certain tissue-specific enzymes have been invaluable in patient care. Further refinements of current methods, as well as the emergence of new immunoassay techniques, are expected to enhance precision, specificity, reliability, and convenience of the radioimmunoassay in both clinical and research laboratories

  19. Absorbed Doses to Patients in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Mattsson, Soeren; Nosslin, Bertil; Johansson, Lennart

    2004-09-01

    The work with a Swedish catalogue of radiation absorbed doses to patients undergoing nuclear medicine investigations has continued. After the previous report in 1999, biokinetic data and dose estimates (mean absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and effective dose) have been produced for a number of substances: 11 C- acetate, 11 C- methionine, 18 F-DOPA, whole antibody labelled with either 99m Tc, 111 In, 123 I or 131 I, fragment of antibody, F(ab') 2 labelled with either 99m Tc, 111 In, 123 I or 131 I and fragment of antibody, Fab' labelled with either 99m Tc, 111 In, 123 I or 131 I. The absorbed dose estimates for these substances have been made from published biokinetic information. For other substances of interest, e.g. 14 C-urea (children age 3-6 years), 14 C-glycocholic acid, 14 C-xylose and 14 C-triolein, sufficient literature data have not been available. Therefore, a large number of measurements on patients and volunteers have been carried out, in order to determine the biokinetics and dosimetry for these substances. Samples of breast milk from 50 mothers, who had been subject to nuclear medicine investigations, have been collected at various times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the mother. The activity concentration in the breast milk samples has been measured. The absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the child who ingests the milk have been determined for 17 different radiopharmaceuticals. Based on these results revised recommendations for interruption of breast-feeding after nuclear medicine investigations are suggested

  20. Fauna used in popular medicine in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo RN

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Brazilian Traditional Medicine. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine both in rural and urban areas of the country. In this paper we summarize current knowledge on zootherapeutic practices in Northeast of Brazil, based on information compiled from ethnobiological scientific literature. Methods In order to examine the diversity of animals used in traditional medicine in Northeast of Brazil, all available references or reports of folk remedies based on animals sources were examined. 34 sources were analyzed. Only taxa that could be identified to species level were included in assessment of medicinal animal species. Scientific names provided in publications were updated. Results The review revealed that at least 250 animal species (178 vertebrates and 72 invertebrates) are used for medicinal purposes in Northeast of Brazil. The inventoried species comprise 10 taxonomic categories and belong to 141 Families. The groups with the greatest number of species were fishes (n = 58), mammals (n = 47) and reptiles (n = 37). The zootherapeutical products are used for the treatment of different illnesses. The most widely treated condition were asthma, rheumatism and sore throat, conditions, which had a wide variety of animals to treat them with. Many animals were used for the treatment of multiple ailments. Beyond the use for treating human diseases, zootherapeutical resources are also used in ethnoveterinary medicine Conclusion The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expressive and demonstrate the importance of zootherapy as alternative therapeutic in Northeast of Brazil. Although widely diffused throughout Brazil, zootherapeutic practices remain virtually unstudied. There is an urgent need to examine the ecological, cultural, social, and public health implications associated with fauna usage, including a full inventory of the animal species used for

  1. Medicines access programs to cancer medicines in Australia and New Zealand: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Piyush; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Oehmen, Raoul; Vitry, Agnes

    2018-03-01

    Medicines Access Programs (MAP) offer access to publicly unfunded medicines at the discretion of pharmaceutical companies. Limited literature is available on their extent and scope in Australia and New Zealand. This study aims to identify MAPs for cancer medicines that were operational in 2014-15 in Australia and New Zealand and describe their characteristics. A preliminary list of MAPs was sent to hospital pharmacists in Australia and New Zealand to validate and collect further information. Pharmaceutical companies were contacted directly to provide information regarding MAPs offered. Key stakeholders were interviewed to identify issues with MAPs. Fifty-one MAPs were identified covering a range of indications. The majority of MAPs were provided free of charge to the patient for medicines that were registered or in the process of being registered but were not funded. Variability in the number of MAPs across institutions and characteristics was observed. Australia offered more MAPs than New Zealand. Only two of 17 pharmaceutical companies contacted agreed to provide information on their MAPs. Eight stakeholder interviews were conducted. This identified that while MAPs are widely operational there is lack of clinical monitoring, inequity to access, operational issues and lack of transparency. Our results suggest a need for a standardised and mandated policy to mitigate issues with MAPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic imaging in internal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines medical diagnostic techniques. Topics considered include biological considerations in the approach to clinical medicines; infectious diseases; disorders of the heart; disorders of the vascular system; disorders of the respiratory system; diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract; disorders of the alimentary tract; disorders of the hepatobiliary system and pancreas; disorders of the hematopoietic system; disorders of bone and bone mineralization; disorders of the joints, connective tissues, and striated muscles; disorders of the nervous system; miscellaneous disorders; and procedures in diagnostic imaging

  3. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Asase, A; Akwetey, G

    2015-01-01

    . This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses...... of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica....... The materia medica of the Fante, Ga and Ashanti of Ghana has changed considerably over time. The "forgotten" historical uses warrant further studies to determine the pharmacological activity of these plants. This could provide the foundation for reconstruction of historical medicinal plant uses in evidence...

  4. [Are there counterfeit medicines in Croatia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Sinisa; Milcić, Neven; Sokolić, Milenko; Sucić, Anita Filipović; Martinac, Adrijana Ilić

    2010-01-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a growing problem in the world, for their use may endanger patient's health and therefore they pose an enormous public health risk. The manufacture of counterfeit medicines usually involves organised crime groups which place the counterfeit medicines on the market for reasons of profit. Detection and prevention of trade in counterfeit medicines requires close cooperation between medicine regulatory authorities, police, customs, judiciary and pharmaceutical industry. To this day, there have been no recorded cases of counterfeit medicines in the legal supply chain in Croatia. However, medicines without marketing authorisation in Croatia, originating from different countries, could be found on the illegal market. Most frequently, this includes medicines for the treatment of erectile dysfunction such as: sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil. In this study, 26 medicines for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, seized in illegal supply chain, were tested. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for identification and quantification of active substances in the tested samples. It was determined that 13 out of 26 samples did not comply with declared composition of medicine and quality specification. Furthermore, two samples did not contain declared active substance vardenafil and that may indicate that these medicines are counterfeit.

  5. Re-Viewing Literature in Hermeneutic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Smythe PhD, RN, RM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In academia there seems to be a taken for granted assumption that there is one way to do a literature review. This paper argues that the manner of reviewing literature needs to be congruent with the particular research methodology. As an example, the authors explicate reviewing literature in hermeneutic research. The paper begins by discussing philosophical assumptions. The authors then offer personal accounts of their experiences of working with literature in ways that are congruent with hermeneutic methodology. It is argued that the key purpose of exploring literature in hermeneutic research is to provide context and provoke thinking. Literature, which can include anything that provokes thinking on the phenomenon of interest, becomes an essential dialogical partner from which scholarly thinking and new insights emerge. In conclusion distinguishing hallmarks of ways of working hermeneutically with literature are articulated

  6. [Italy's Slow Medicine: a new paradigm in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Antonio; Vernero, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    Italy's Slow Medicine was founded in 2011 as a movement aimed to promote processes of care based on appropriateness, but within a relation of listening, dialogue and decision sharing with the patient. The mission of Slow Medicine is synthetized by three key words: measured, because it acts with moderation, gradually and without waste; respectful, because it is careful in preserving the dignity and values of each person; and equitable, because it is committed to ensuring access to appropriate care for all. In a short time, the association spreads at national and international level, gathering the needs of change of a growing number of health professionals, patients and citizens, committed to manage health problems with a new cultural and methodological paradigm. Medicine is soaked with inappropriateness, wastes, conflicts of interest, and many clichés induce professionals and patients to consume more and more healthcare services in the illusion that it is always better doing more for improving health. Moreover, the dominant reductionist cultural model, on which the concept of health and disease is based today, considers man as a machine, investigated by a growing number of specialists, particularly interested in the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases. The interest is mainly focused on technologies, while the person along with the relations with his/her family and the social environment are completely neglected. The systemic approach adopted by Slow Medicine, on the contrary, teaches us that health and disease are complex phenomena and the life of a person is more than the sum of the chemical reactions that occur in its cells. At different levels of complexity, in fact, new and unexpected properties appear, such as thinking, emotions, pleasure, health. These properties are not detectable in the individual elements and can only be studied using methods of analysis and knowledge belonging to other domains of knowledge, such as humanity sciences: philosophy

  7. Transfusion medicine in American undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Julie K; Weston, Christine M; King, Karen E

    2011-11-01

    Blood transfusion is the most common procedure performed in American hospitals, and transfusions are commonly ordered by physicians without formal training in transfusion medicine. Several transfusion medicine curricula have been proposed, including those developed through the Transfusion Medicine Academic Awards (TMAA). To our knowledge, no comprehensive study has assessed how transfusion medicine is incorporated into undergraduate medical education. We conducted an online survey to determine the manner in which transfusion medicine is incorporated into American undergraduate medical education. The survey was e-mailed to administrators of medical education at all of the 129 American medical schools accredited by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Eighty-six (67%) of the 129 identified medical school administrators responded. Seventy-one (83%) of the 86 administrators reported that their undergraduate medical education curriculum provides didactic lectures in transfusion medicine, with 48% of medical schools providing 1 or 2 hours of lecture-based instruction. A minority reported small group sessions devoted to transfusion medicine topics. While a slim majority reported the availability of transfusion medicine electives, only one of 84 administrators reported that such a rotation is required. Seventy-six of 83 (92%) administrators were unfamiliar with either the 1989 or the 1995 TMAA transfusion medicine curricula. Transfusion medicine content in American undergraduate medical education is variable and the influence of the TMAA program on contemporary medical school curricula is questionable. Future efforts in this area should focus on standardizing and improving undergraduate medical education in transfusion medicine. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Feedback in the emergency medicine clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aaron W; Kman, Nicholas E; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2011-11-01

    Feedback is a technique used in medical education to help develop and improve clinical skills. A comprehensive review article specifically intended for the emergency medicine (EM) educator is lacking, and it is the intent of this article to provide the reader with an in-depth, up-to-date, and evidence-based review of feedback in the context of the EM clerkship. The review article is organized in a progressive manner, beginning with the definition of feedback, the importance of feedback in medical education, the obstacles limiting the effective delivery of feedback, and the techniques to overcome these obstacles then follows. The article concludes with practical recommendations to implement feedback in the EM clerkship. To advance the literature on feedback, the concept of receiving feedback is introduced. The published literature regarding feedback is limited but generally supportive of its importance and effectiveness. Obstacles in the way of feedback include time constraints, lack of direct observation, and fear of negative emotional responses from students. Feedback should be timely, expected, focused, based on first-hand data, and limited to behaviors that are remediable. Faculty development and course structure can improve feedback in the EM clerkship. Teaching students to receive feedback is a novel educational technique that can improve the feedback process. Feedback is an important educational technique necessary to improve clinical skills. Feedback can be delivered effectively in the EM clerkship.

  9. Feedback in the Emergency Medicine Clerkships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorabh Khandelwal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Feedback is a technique used in medical education to help develop and improve clinical skills. A comprehensive review article specifically intended for the emergency medicine (EM educator is lacking, and it is the intent of this article to provide the reader with an in-depth, up-to-date, and evidence-based review of feedback in the context of the EM clerkship. Methods: The review article is organized in a progressive manner, beginning with the definition of feedback, the importance of feedback in medical education, and the obstacles limiting the effective delivery of feedback, and the techniques to overcome these obstacles then follows. The article concludes with practical recommendations to implement feedback in the EM clerkship. To advance the literature on feedback, the concept of receiving feedback is introduced. Results: The published literature regarding feedback is limited but generally supportive of its importance and effectiveness. Obstacles in the way of feedback include time constraints, lack of direct observation, and fear of negative emotional responses from students. Feedback should be timely, expected, focused, based on first-hand data, and limited to behaviors that are remediable. Faculty development and course structure can improve feedback in the EM clerkship. Teaching students to receive feedback is a novel educational technique that can improve the feedback process. Conclusion: Feedback is an important educational technique necessary to improve clinical skills. Feedback can be delivered effectively in the EM clerkship. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:537–542.

  10. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.; Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.; Thomas, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A knowledge of the radiation dose received by different organs in the body is essential to an evaluation of the risks and benefits of any procedure. In this paper, current methods for internal dosimetry are reviewed, as they are applied in nuclear medicine. Particularly, the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system for dosimetry is explained, and many of its published resources discussed. Available models representing individuals of different age and gender, including those representing the pregnant woman are described; current trends in establishing models for individual patients are also evaluated. The proper design of kinetic studies for establishing radiation doses for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. An overview of how to use information obtained in a dosimetry study, including that of the effective dose equivalent (ICRP 30) and effective dose (ICRP 60), is given. Current trends and issues in internal dosimetry, including the calculation of patient-specific doses and in the use of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, are also reviewed

  11. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. [Trends in labor medicine in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Hernández, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Labor medicine is the natural field for searching the relation between society, work and disease. It is also the field for preventing labor diseases, and for the application resulting from search as protection measures in the laboral services. At present, tendencies in laboral medicine services are multidisciplinary where the specialists need to development competences in epidemiology, clinics, investigation, toxicology, dermatology and many other fields.

  13. Positron in nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a rapid expansion of clinical indications of positron emission tomography (PET) based imaging in assessing a wide range of disorders influencing their clinical management. This is primarily based upon a large dataset of evidence that has been generated over the years. The impact has been most remarkable in the field of cancer, where it takes a pivotal role in the decision making (at initial diagnosis, early response assessment and following completion of therapeutic intervention) of a number of important malignancies. The concept of PET based personalized cancer medicine is an evolving and attractive proposition that has gained significant momentum in recent years. The non-oncological applications of PET and PET/CT are in (A) Cardiovascular Diseases (e.g. Myocardial Viability, Flow reserve with PET Perfusion Imaging and atherosclerosis imaging); (B) Neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Dementia, Epileptic Focus detection, Parkinson's Disease, Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders and Psychiatric diseases); (C) Infection and Inflammatory Disorders (e.g. Pyrexia of Unknown origin, complicated Diabetic Foot, Periprosthetic Infection, Tuberculosis, Sarcoidosis, Vasculitic disorders etc). Apart from these, there are certain novel clinical applications where it is undergoing critical evaluation in various large and small scale studies across several centres across the world. The modality represents a classical example of a successful translational research of recent times with a revolutionary and far-reaching impact in the field of medicine. (author)

  14. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references

  15. Radiochemistry in nuclear medicine. Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samochocka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals play a kay role in nuclear medicine, both in diagnostics and therapy. Incorporation of radionuclides into biomolecules, and syntheses of radiolabelled compounds of high biological selectivity are a task for radiochemists working in the multidisciplinary field of radiopharmaceutical chemistry. The most commonly used radionuclide, 99m Tc, owes this popularity to its both nearly ideal nuclear properties in respect to medical imaging, and availability from inexpensive radionuclide generators. Also numerous other radionuclides are widely used for medical imaging and therapy. Labelling of biomolecules with radioiodine and various positron emitters is getting increasingly important. This review describes some chemical and radiochemical problems we meet while synthesizing and using 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals and radioiodine-labelled biomolecules. Also represented are the recent developments in the design and use of the second generation radiopharmaceuticals based on bifunctional radiochelates. Several principal routes of fast chemical synthesis concerning incorporation of short-lived positron emitters into biomolecules are outlined as well. The search for chemical structures of high biological selectivity, which would be activated by slow neutrons, is related to the method of Neutron Capture Therapy, an interesting option in nuclear medicine. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial outcomes in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.; Woloszko, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter and is frequently generated in the environment of a strong electric field. The result consists of highly reactive species--ions, electrons, reactive atoms and molecules, and UV radiation. Plasma Medicine unites a number of fields, including Physics, Plasma Chemistry, Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine. The treatment modality utilizes Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP), which is able to sterilize and treat microbes in a nonthermal manner. These gas-based plasma systems operate at close to room temperature and atmospheric pressure, making them very practical for a range of potential treatments and are highly portable for clinical use throughout the health care system. The hypothesis is that gas based plasma kills bacteria, fungus, and viruses but spares mammalian cells. This paper will review systematic work which shows examples of systems and performance in regards to antimicrobial effects and the sparing of mammalian cells. The mechanism of action will be discussed, as well as dosing for the treatment of microbial targets, including sterilization processes, another important healthcare need. In addition, commercial systems will be overviewed and compared, along with evidence-based, patient results. The range of treatments cover wound treatment and biofilms, as well as antimicrobial treatment, with little chance for resistance and tolerance, as in drug regimens. Current clinical studies include applications in dentistry, food treatment, cancer treatment, wound treatment for bacteria and biofilms, and systems to combat health care related infections.

  17. Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Medicine in Jimma Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Locally available and widely used medicinal plants would need to be identified and a list compiled as well as propagated to alleviate the risk of extinction due to accelerated urbanization, recurring drought and deforestation. This study was conducted to document locally available medicinal plants and ...

  18. [Integration of complementary medicine in hospital departments: implementation model and research outline in the Cardiology Department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Elad; Dubretzki-Mery, Idit; Attias, Samuel; Ben-Arye, Eran; Kreindler, Gur; Avneri, Ofri; Ben Ezra, Amichai; Arnon, Zahi; Grinberg, Ina; Rosenshein, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Systematic integration of complementary medicine in hospital departments for inpatients is rarely discussed in the medical literature. Positive outcomes from trials in this setting should encourage evaluation of complementary medicine services in hospitals. To identify the potential role of complementary medicine in the Cardiology Department, characterize its implementation process, and conduct a feasibility study in this context. A narrative overview of the implementation process of complementary medicine in the Cardiology Department was used alongside a statistical analysis of a feasibility trial This was in order to determine the sample size for a larger pragmatic trial that will assess the effectiveness of complementary medicine, as compared to standard of care, in relieving common symptoms of patients hospitalized in the Cardiology Department. Focus groups consisting of representatives from the Cardiology Department, and the Complementary Medicine Service identified areas for possible integration of complementary medicine in the Cardiology Department. A literature review was conducted in order to assess complementary medicine effectiveness and safety in this setting. Consequently, appropriate treatment protocols were developed. The Complementary Medicine team participated in cardiology patient rounds, and presentations on complementary medicine were provided to the cardiology staff. Treatment indications, and contraindications were mutually developed, and questionnaires to assess treatment effectiveness were developed. A feasibility trial was completed for 237 patients who were treated with complementary medicine. Integration of complementary medicine in an inpatient setting is possible following a carefully structured implementation process that is shared by champions from the medical department and the Complementary Medicine Service. Results from the feasibility trial indicate the potential positive role that complementary medicine treatments have on common

  19. Statistical Methods in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shein-Chung Chow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials, information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physician—scientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change are reviewed.

  20. Radiation exposure in diagnostic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, S.; Michalczak, H.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1995-01-01

    This volume includes the manuscripts of the papers read at the conference as well as a summary and assessment of its results. The scientific discussions were centred upon the following issues: - International surveys and comparisons of rdiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, frequency of the individual diagnostic procedures and age distribution of patients examined; - policies and regulations for the radiation protection of patients, charcteristic dosimetric values and practical usefulness of the effective dose concept during medical examinations; - assessments of the relative benefits and risks and measures to reduce the radiation exposure in the light of quality assurance aspects. The main objective of this conference not only was to evaluate the risks from diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine but also to encourgage a critical analysis and adjustment of examination routines followed in everyday practice. Among the measures recommended were quality assurance, maintenace of international standards, development of guidelines, introduction of standard doses, improved training and professional education of personnel as well as surveys and analyses of certain examination procedures associated with substantial radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Complementary medicine in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Atzeni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for chronic conditions has increased in recent years. CAM is immensely popular for musculoskeletal conditions and patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA frequently try CAM. This review summarises the trial data for or against CAM as a symptomatic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Collectively the evidence demonstrates that some CAM modalities show significant promise, e.g. acupuncture, diets, herbal medicine, homoeopathy, massage, supplements. However, for the great majority of these therapies no evidencebased (clinical randomized trials results are available. CAM is usually used in addition to, and not as a substitute for conventional therapies. The motivation of patients to try CAM is complex; the willingness to take control of their healthcare, the desire to try everything available, the mass-media pressure and the erroneous notion that CAM is without risks. In fact, none of these treatments is totally devoid of risks. While the use of complementary and alternative modalities for the treatment of RA continues to increase, rigorous clinical trials examining their efficacy are needed before definitive recommendations regarding the application of these modalities can be made.

  2. [Ethical issues in transfusion medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, J-D; Danic, B; Cabaud, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-09-01

    Ethics is on the cross road of off values that are present along the ways of transfusion medicine. This is an important tool to afford opinions as well as debates that always emerge when discussing transfusion medicine. The wording is particularly important; this was one among several others that characterized the soul of Jean-Jacques Lefrère when he opened the doors of the ethical issues of transfusion medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactive and stable elements' concentration in medicinal plants from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, F.V.; Silva, P.S.C.; Damatto, S.R.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Mazzilli, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early days of mankind, plants have been used as food and for medicinal purposes. Still, little information exists in literature about the activity concentration of 238 U and 232 Th decay products, as well as stable element concentrations in Brazilian plants. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, and chemical concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Cs, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in ten samples commonly used in Brazilian medicinal plants. (author)

  4. Epistemologic inquiries in evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Ashcroft, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Since the term "evidence-based medicine" (EBM) first appeared in the scientific literature in 1991, the concept has had considerable influence in many parts of the world. Most professional societies, the public,and funding agencies have accepted EBM with remarkable enthusiasm. The concept of evidence-based practice is now applied in management, education, criminology, and social work. Yet, EBM has attracted controversy: its critics allege that EBM uses a narrow concept of evidence and a naive conception of the relationships between evidence, theory, and practice. They also contend that EBM presents itself as a radical restructuring of medical knowledge that discredits more traditional ways of knowing in medicine, largely in the interests of people with a particular investment in the enterprise of large-scale clinical trials. Because EBM proposes aspecific relationship between theory, evidence, and knowledge, its theoretical basis can be understood as an epistemological system. Undertaking epistemological inquiry is important because the adoption of a particular epistemological view defines how science is conducted. In this paper, we challenge this critical view of EBM by examining how EBM fits into broad epistemological debates within the philosophy of science. We consider how EBM relates to some classical debates regarding the nature of science and knowledge. We investigate EBM from the perspective of major epistemological theories (logical-positivism/inductivism, deductivism/falsificationism/theory-ladeness of observations, explanationism/holism, instrumentalism, underdetermination theory by evidence). We first explore the relationship between evidence and knowledge and discuss philosophical support for the main way that evidence is used in medicine: (1) in the philosophical tradition that "rational thinkers respect their evidence," we show that EBM refers to making medical decisions that are consistent with evidence, (2) as a reliable sign, symptom, or mark to

  5. Training in Addiction Medicine in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Paul S.; Murnion, Bridin P.

    2011-01-01

    Barriers to entering addiction medicine (AM) have led to a persisting workforce shortage. To address this problem, the Chapter of Addiction Medicine (AChAM) was formed in 2001 as a subdivision of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP). Through consultation, AChAM has identified the scope of practice and offered fellowship to suitable…

  6. The Importance of Medicinal Chemistry Knowledge in the Clinical Pharmacist's Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João Paulo S

    2018-03-01

    Objective. To show why medicinal chemistry must be a key component of the education of pharmacy students, as well as in the pharmacist's practice. Findings. Five case reports were selected by their clinically relevant elements of medicinal chemistry and were explained using structure-activity relationship data of the drugs involved in the case easily obtained from primary literature and in medicinal chemistry textbooks. Summary. This paper demonstrates how critical clinical decisions can be addressed using medicinal chemistry knowledge. While such knowledge may not explain all clinical decisions, medicinal chemistry concepts are essential for the education of pharmacy students to explain drug action in general and clinical decisions.

  7. Radiosanitary control in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine has recently modified radiosanitary control standards for the three sectors involved: patients, personnel and general population. Nuclear Medicine does not constitute an important source of radiation, including patients and population, compared with radiology. The basic problems of radiosanitary controls are: the absorbed dose and the patient. Low risk deferred stochastic effects may appear with correct use of these controls. On the other hand, risk of stochastic consequences and non stochastic complications appear with incorrect applications. The following aspects should be considered for correct uses: A-1- The critical organ, which is not always the one under study. 2-The rest of the organism, specially the more sensitive organs. B- The radiopharmaceutical used, considering the following periods: physical, biological and effective. C-Technical and human resources that include quality control for the equipment. Radiosanitary control aims at a common objetive: dose limitation to the patient, personnel and general population. For this, it is necessary to accomplish the training programme for proffesional and technical personnel about quality control and to stablish basic standards for the equipment. Current law and regulations assign to the National Atomic Energy Comission the responsibility for controlling the use of radioisotopes and radiations in order to safeguard the health and life of the population. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. Special monitoring in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, C.C.; Puerta, J.A.; Morales, J.

    2006-01-01

    Colombia counts with around 56 centers of Nuclear Medicine, 70 Nuclear Doctors and more of 100 Technologists in this area. The radioisotopes more used are the 131 I and the 99m Tc. The radiological surveillance singular in the country is carried out for external dosimetry, being the surveillance by incorporation of radioactive materials very sporadic in our media. Given the necessity to implement monitoring programs in the incorporation of radionuclides of the occupationally exposed personnel, in the routine practice them routine of Nuclear Medicine, it was implemented a pilot program of Special Monitoring with two centers of importance in the city of Medellin. This program it was carried out with the purpose of educating, to stimulate and to establish a program of reference monitoring with base in the National Program of Monitoring in the radionuclides Incorporation that serves like base for its application at level of all the services of Nuclear Medicine in the country. This monitoring type was carried out with the purpose of obtaining information on the work routine in these centers, form of manipulation and dosage of the radionuclides, as well as the administration to the patient. The application of the program was carried out to define the frequency of Monitoring and analysis technique for the implementation of a program of routine monitoring, following the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection. For their application methods of activity evaluation were used in urine and in 7 workers thyroid, of those which only two deserve an analysis because they presented important activities. The measures were carried out during one month, every day by means in urine samples and to the most critic case is practiced two thyroid measures, one in the middle of the period and another when concluding the monitoring. To the other guy is practiced an activity count in thyroid when concluding the monitoring period. The obtained result of the

  9. Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Breidenbach, Joana; Nyíri, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Abu-Lughod, Lila 1991 “Writing against Culture,” in Richard Fox (ed.), Recapturing Anthropology. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research, pp. 137–162. Abu-Lughod, Lila 1995 “The Objects of Soap Opera: Egyptian Television and the Cultural Politics of Modernity Through the Prism of the Local,” in Daniel Miller (ed.), Worlds Apart: Modernity Through the Prism of the Local. London: Routledge, pp. 190–210. Abu-Lughod, Lila 1997 “The Interpretation of Culture(s) After Television,” Representations...

  10. [Physiotherapy in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessizius, S

    2014-10-01

    A high amount of recently published articles and reviews have already focused on early mobilisation in intensive care medicine. However, in the clinical setting the problem of its practicability remains as each professional group in the mobility team has its own expectations concerning the interventions made by physiotherapy. Even though there are as yet no standard operation procedures (SOP), there do exist distinctive mobilisation concepts that are well implemented in certain intensive care units (http://www.fruehmobilisierung.de/Fruehmobilisierung/Algorithmen.html). Due to these facts and the urgent need for SOPs this article presents the physiotherapeutic concept for the treatment of patients in the intensive care unit which has been developed by the author: First the patients' respiratory and motor functions have to be established in order to classify the patients and allocate them to their appropriate group (one out of three) according to their capacities; additionally, the patients are analysed by checking their so-called "surrounding conditions". Following these criteria a therapy regime is developed and patients are treated accordingly. By constant monitoring and re-evaluation of the treatment in accordance with the functions of the patient a dynamic system evolves. "Keep it simple" is one of the key features of that physiotherapeutic concept. Thus, a manual for the classification and the physiotherapeutic treatment of an intensive care patient was developed. In this article it is demonstrated how this concept can be implemented in the daily routine of an intensive care unit. Physiotherapy in intensive care medicine has proven to play an important role in the patients' early rehabilitation if the therapeutic interventions are well adjusted to the needs of the patients. A team of nursing staff, physiotherapists and medical doctors from the core facility for medical intensive care and emergency medicine at the medical university of Innsbruck developed the

  11. Globalization and medicine in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, David L; Murphy, John W; Belgrave, Linda Liska

    2007-05-01

    In a qualitative study of urban Trinidadians who work in the medical industry, the concept of medical globalization was provisionally analysed. Two research questions were addressed: what is globalization, in the context of mainstream medicine, and how is this process manifested in everyday practices? Four fundamental principles of medical globalization emerged from in-depth interviews and analysis of observational materials: (1) the notion of history as an autonomous force with globalization as the latest stage, (2) the expansion of 'Total Market' philosophy as a driving social force, (3) the fragmentation of society into atomistic, self-interested, and competitive individuals, and (4) the adoption of a 'centralised' set of ideals as the normative core necessary for social order. In this paper, findings from this investigation and their implications are discussed. In particular, medical globalization is linked with major themes in medical sociological theory including dualism and medicalization.

  12. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

  13. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future

  14. Assessing Team Leadership in Emergency Medicine: The Milestones and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D.; Branzetti, Jeremy B.; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. Objective This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. Methods We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Results Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Conclusions Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature. PMID:27413434

  15. Assessing Team Leadership in Emergency Medicine: The Milestones and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Branzetti, Jeremy B; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2016-07-01

    Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature.

  16. The characteristics of the medicinal plants used in the herbal medicine оf type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Kalmykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: consider the rational combination of the herbs in fytocomplexes applied in the rehabilitation of the type 2 diabetes. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the use of herbal medicine in the complex rehabilitation for patients with diabetes. Results: modern views on the necessity and the features of the use of herbal remedies especially in the diabetes type 2 are presented; the main medicinal plants used in this pathology are described. The main attention is paid to the peculiarities of forming up an integrated cure that contains a mixture of several kinds of medicinal plants. The classification of herbal drugs used for diabetes is given. Conclusions: advantages of application of collection of medicinal plants over synthetic drugs in the complex treatment of the type 2 diabetes are proved.

  17. The Transmission of Chinese Medicine in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation ...

  18. Tramadol use in zoologic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Cox, Sherry K

    2011-01-01

    Numerous analgesics are available for use in animals, but only a few have been used or studied in zoologic species. Tramadol is a relatively new analgesic that is available in an inexpensive, oral form, and is not controlled. Studies examining the effect of tramadol in zoologic species suggest that significant differences exist in pharmacokinetics parameters as well as analgesic dynamics. This article reviews the current literature on the use of tramadol in humans, domestic animals, and zoologic species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Competency in Podiatric Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Richard H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Council on Podiatry Education evaluates colleges of podiatric medicine with on-site accreditation teams, and has established criteria and guidelines for colleges of podiatric medicine. A Delphi technique survey, need for defining competency, and establishment of educational objectives are discussed. (MLW)

  20. Promoting nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.; Nofal, M.

    1986-01-01

    After a short review of the applications of nuclear medicine in diagnosis and treatment of diseases or in medical research the ways and the means of IAEA's support in helping developing countries to set up nuclear medicine capabilities in their hospitals are described. Some trends and new directions in the field of nuclear medicine and the problems related to the implementation of these techniques in developing countries are presented