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Sample records for medical careers questionnaire

  1. Factors influencing the career interest of medical graduates in obstetrics and gynaecology in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christy Y Y; Cheung, Charleen S Y; Hui, Annie S Y

    2016-04-01

    The trend of declining interest of medical graduates in pursuing obstetrics and gynaecology as a career has been observed in many overseas studies. This study aimed to evaluate the career interest of the most recent medical graduates in Hong Kong, especially their level of interest in obstetrics and gynaecology, and to identify key influential factors for career choice and career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology. All medical graduates from the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the University of Hong Kong who attended the pre-internship lectures in June 2015 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The main outcome measures were the level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology, the first three choices of specialty as a career, key influential factors for career choice, and key influential factors for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology. Overall, 73.7% of 323 new medical graduates participated in the study and 233 questionnaires were analysed. The median score (out of 10) for the level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology was 3. There were 37 (16.2%) participants in whom obstetrics and gynaecology was among their first three choices, of whom 29 (78.4%) were female. Obstetrics and gynaecology ranked as the eighth most popular career choice. By factor analysis, the strongest key influential factor for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology was clerkship experience (variance explained 28.9%) and the strongest key influential factor for career choice was working style (variance explained 26.4%). The study confirmed a low level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology among medical graduates and a decreasing popularity of the specialty as a career choice. The three key influential factors for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology and career choice were working style, clerkship experience, and career prospects.

  2. A comprehensive medical student career development program improves medical student satisfaction with career planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Brian J; Hammoud, Maya M; Middleton, Eric; Moroney, Donney; Schigelone, Amy

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) initiated a new career development program (CDP). The CDP incorporates the 4-phase career development model described by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Careers in Medicine (CiM). The CDP offers self-assessment exercises with guidance from trained counselors for 1st- and 2nd-year medical students. Career exploration experiences include Career Seminar Series luncheons, shadow experiences with faculty, and a shadow program with second-year (M2) and fourth-year (M4) medical students. During the decision-making phase, students work with trained faculty career advisors (FCA). Mandatory sessions are held on career selection, preparing the residency application, interviewing, and program evaluation. During the implementation phase, students meet with deans or counselors to discuss residency application and matching. An "at-risk plan" assists students who may have difficulty matching. The CiM Web site is extensively used during the 4 stages. Data from the AAMC and UMMS Graduation Questionnaires (GQ) show significant improvements for UMMS students in overall satisfaction with career planning services and with faculty mentoring, career assessment activities, career information, and personnel availability. By 2003, UMMS students had significantly higher satisfaction in all measured areas of career planning services when compared with all other U.S. medical students.

  3. Career exploration behavior of Korean medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Hyejin An; Seung-Hee Lee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study is to analyze the effects of medical students? social support and career barriers on career exploration behavior mediated by career decision-making self-efficacy. Methods We applied the t-test to investigate the difference among the variables based on gender and admission types. Also, we performed path analysis to verify the effect of perceived career barriers and social support on career exploration behavior with career decision efficacy as a mediator. Results First, we no...

  4. Career exploration behavior of Korean medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin An

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study is to analyze the effects of medical students’ social support and career barriers on career exploration behavior mediated by career decision-making self-efficacy. Methods We applied the t-test to investigate the difference among the variables based on gender and admission types. Also, we performed path analysis to verify the effect of perceived career barriers and social support on career exploration behavior with career decision efficacy as a mediator. Results First, we noted statistically significant gender and admission type difference in social support, career barriers and career exploration behaviors. Second, social support and career barriers were found to influence career exploration behavior as a mediating variable for career decision-making self-efficacy. Conclusion Social support and career barriers as perceived by medical students influenced their career exploration behavior, with their decision-making self-efficacy serving as a full mediator. Therefore, this study has educational implications for career program development and educational training for career decision-making self-efficacy.

  5. Career exploration behavior of Korean medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyejin; Lee, Seung-Hee

    2017-09-01

    This study is to analyze the effects of medical students' social support and career barriers on career exploration behavior mediated by career decision-making self-efficacy. We applied the t-test to investigate the difference among the variables based on gender and admission types. Also, we performed path analysis to verify the effect of perceived career barriers and social support on career exploration behavior with career decision efficacy as a mediator. First, we noted statistically significant gender and admission type difference in social support, career barriers and career exploration behaviors. Second, social support and career barriers were found to influence career exploration behavior as a mediating variable for career decision-making self-efficacy. Social support and career barriers as perceived by medical students influenced their career exploration behavior, with their decision-making self-efficacy serving as a full mediator. Therefore, this study has educational implications for career program development and educational training for career decision-making self-efficacy.

  6. Career choices of today's medical students: where does surgery rank?

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    Boyle, E; Healy, D; Hill, A D K; O'Connell, P R; Kerin, M; McHugh, S; Coyle, P; Kelly, J; Walsh, S R; Coffey, J C

    2013-09-01

    The national junior doctor recruitment crisis prompts an appraisal of medical student attitudes to different career pathways. The purpose of this study was to perform a national review of surgical career intentions of Irish final year medical students. Ethical and institutional approval was obtained at each study location. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to final year students. Domains assessed included demographics, career plans and reasons associated. Anonymised responses were collated and evaluated. Categorical data were compared with Fisher's exact test. Responses were obtained from 342 students in four medical schools of whom 78.6% were undergraduates. Over half (53%) were Irish, with Malaysia, Canada and the USA the next most common countries of origin. Only 18% of students intended to pursue surgery, with 60% stating they did not plan to, and 22% undecided. Of those who plan not to pursue surgery, 28% were unsure about a speciality but the most common choices were medicine (39%), general practice (16%) and paediatrics (8%). Reasons for not picking a career in surgery included long hours and the unstructured career path. Suggestions to improve uptake included earlier and more practical exposure to surgery, improved teaching/training and reduction in working hours. In this study 18% of final year medical students identified surgery as their chosen career pathway. Although lifestyle factors are significant in many students' decision, perceived quality and duration of surgical training were also relevant and are modifiable factors which, if improved could increase interest in surgery as a career.

  7. Influence of Course in Medical Ethics and Law on Career Plans of Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Yann; Lin, Lih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Han; Chan, Tzu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background: The significant increase in medical disputes and lawsuits in recent years in Taiwan has severely affected behavior and ecology in medical practice. For this reason, we designed integrated courses on ethics and law and conducted a questionnaire-based career plan study to understand whether these issues influence their specialty…

  8. Medical students' career expectations and interest in opting for a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Henry; Dell-Kuster, Salome; Rosenthal, Rachel

    2014-02-24

    Whilst surgery will face an imminent workforce shortage, an increasing majority of students decide against a surgical career. This study evaluated the current career expectations of medical students and tested a hands-on virtual reality (VR) intervention as a tool to increase their interest in surgery. Randomly selected medical students of the University of Basel received a short questionnaire to rank their interest in five different postgraduate working environments prior to a lecture. After the lecture they participated in a hands-on VR demonstration. Thereafter an online questionnaire regarding workplace expectations, surgery and VR was sent to the students. The online questionnaire response rate was 87% (225/258). Before using the VR intervention, a nonsurgical career was preferred by the majority of students, followed by a surgical career, cross-disciplinary specialties, research and, finally, nonclinical work. Surgery (n = 99, 44%) and emergency medicine (n = 111, 49%) were rated as incompatible with a good work-life balance. Further drawbacks to surgery were apprehension of competitive mentality, unclear career perspectives and longer working hours. The VR intervention had limited impact on re-ranking the five working sectors and slightly increased the students' interest in surgery. Students' work environment expectations, their declining interest in a surgical career and the increasing need for surgeons represent challenges for surgical societies to address, in order to improve the attractiveness of surgery amongst students. VR sessions may be integrated as part of the actions required to improve students' interest in a surgical career and should be further evaluated within controlled study designs.

  9. The Relationship between Management, Career Planning and Career Development of Medical and Non-medical Faculty Members of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province, Iran

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    G Sajjadikhah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: There are many mechanisms for the development of human resources, which career development is one of its central components. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to career development faculty members (Medical and Non-medical of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, Iran. Methods: The present paper was a cross-sectional, descriptive correlation method study.  The study population consisted of 535 faculty members (medical, government, NGOs in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer province, Iran, of which 400 participants were randomly selected for the present study. Data were collected through standard questionnaires as a research tool, of career development, career planning and career management for data analysis and statistical tests including linear regression, t-test, regression, and correlation coefficient was used. Results: Career development status and its related factors (Career management and career planning scientific faculty members was desirable. The findings show that between career planning and career management, career development, a significant positive correlation was observed (P

  1. Competencies for the contemporary career: Development and preliminary validation of the Career Competencies Questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Huibers, M.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2013-01-01

    A new and promising area of research has recently emerged in the field of career development: career competencies. The present article provides a framework of career competencies that integrates several perspectives from the literature. The framework distinguishes between reflective, communicative,

  2. Promoting Psychiatry as a Career Option for Ghanaian Medical Students through a Public-Speaking Competition

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    Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…

  3. Doctors who considered but did not pursue specific clinical specialties as careers: questionnaire surveys.

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    Goldacre, Michael J; Goldacre, Raph; Lambert, Trevor W

    2012-04-01

    To report doctors' rejection of specialties as long-term careers and reasons for rejection. Postal questionnaires. United Kingdom. Graduates of 2002, 2005 and 2008 from all UK medical schools, surveyed one year after qualification. Current specialty choice; any choice that had been seriously considered but not pursued (termed 'rejected' choices) with reasons for rejection. 2573 of 9155 respondents (28%) had seriously considered but then not pursued a specialty choice. By comparison with positive choices, general practice was under-represented among rejected choices: it was the actual choice of 27% of respondents and the rejected choice of only 6% of those who had rejected a specialty. Consideration of 'job content' was important in not pursuing general practice (cited by 78% of those who considered but rejected a career in general practice), psychiatry (72%), radiology (69%) and pathology (68%). The surgical specialties were the current choice of 20% of respondents and had been considered but rejected by 32% of doctors who rejected a specialty. Issues of work-life balance were the single most common factor, particularly for women, in not pursuing the surgical specialties, emergency medicine, the medical hospital specialties, paediatrics, and obstetrics and gynaecology. Competition for posts, difficult examinations, stressful working conditions, and poor training were mentioned but were mainly minority concerns. There is considerable diversity between doctors in their reasons for finding specialties attractive or unattractive. This underlines the importance of recruitment strategies to medical school that recognize diversity of students' interests and aptitudes.

  4. Medical student service learning program teaches secondary students about career opportunities in health and medical fields.

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    Karpa, Kelly; Vakharia, Kavita; Caruso, Catherine A; Vechery, Colin; Sipple, Lanette; Wang, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Engagement of academic medical centers in community outreach provides the public with a better understanding of basic terms and concepts used in biomedical sciences and increases awareness of important health information. Medical students at one academic medical center initiated an educational outreach program, called PULSE, that targets secondary students to foster their interest in healthcare and medicine. High school student participants are engaged in a semester-long course that relies on interactive lectures, problem-based learning sessions, mentoring relationships with medical students, and opportunities for shadowing healthcare providers. To date, the curriculum has been offered for 7 consecutive years. To determine the impact that participation in the curriculum has had on college/career choices and to identify areas for improvement, an electronic questionnaire was sent to former participants. Based on a 32% response rate, 81% of former participants indicated that participation in the course influenced their decision to pursue a medical/science-related career. More than half (67%) of respondents indicated intent to pursue a MD/PhD or other postgraduate degree. Based on responses obtained, additional opportunities to incorporate laboratory-based research and simulation sessions should be explored. In addition, a more formalized mentoring component has been added to the course to enhance communication between medical students and mentees. Health/medicine-related educational outreach programs targeting high school students may serve as a pipeline to introduce or reinforce career opportunities in healthcare and related sciences. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Development of a career coaching model for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yera Hur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Deciding on a future career path or choosing a career specialty is an important academic decision for medical students. The purpose of this study is to develop a career coaching model for medical students. Methods: This research was carried out in three steps. The first step was systematic review of previous studies. The second step was a need assessment of medical students. The third step was a career coaching model using the results acquired from the researched literature and the survey. Results: The career coaching stages were defined as three big phases: The career coaching stages were defined as the “crystallization” period (Pre-medical year 1 and 2, “specification” period (medical year 1 and 2, and “implementation” period (medical year 3 and 4. Conclusion: The career coaching model for medical students can be used in programming career coaching contents and also in identifying the outcomes of career coaching programs at an institutional level.

  6. Career choices for cardiology: cohort studies of UK medical graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors’ early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Methods Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974–2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Results One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors’ ‘domestic circumstances’ were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while ‘enthusiasm/commitment’, ‘financial prospects’, ‘experiences of the job so far’ and ‘a particular teacher/department’ were important. Conclusions Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early

  7. Gender differences in medical students’ motives and career choice

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    Heiligers Phil JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association. 58% of these students responded (N = 2397. Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%. For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation. Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a

  8. Factors influencing medical students in pursuing a career in surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many factors play a role in the decision of a medical student to pursue a career in surgery. With a decline in numbers of applications into surgical programmes seen globally, the aim of this study was to determine the factors that influence medical students in pursuing a career in surgery. Methods: A descriptive ...

  9. Which Female Medical Students Select a Career in Surgery.

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    Burnley, Cynthia S.; Burkett, Gary L.

    A study examined characteristics of female medical students who indicated an intention to specialize in surgery, traditionally a male-dominated field. Family backgrounds, career motivations, and career orientations from this group were compared with the same characteristics of female medical students selecting other fields of specialization. Data…

  10. Career preference and medical students' biographical characteristics and academic achievement

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    Soethout, M.B.M.; Heijmans, M.W.; ten Cate, O.T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We know that medical students' biographical characteristics and academic achievement influence career preference. Less is known about the differential association of these characteristics with preference for distinct specialties at different stages of medical training. Aim: To

  11. The influence of gender and personality traits on the career planning of Swiss medical students.

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    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus

    2003-10-11

    Since the 1990s, as many women as men have been entering and graduating from medical schools in Western countries. Up to date, prospective studies of physicians' career paths are lacking. This paper presents the data of the first assessment of a longitudinal survey of a cohort of Swiss medical school graduates, evaluated with regard to how gender and personality traits contribute to their academic achievement and further career planning. In 2001, 719 graduate students (52.9% females, 47.1% males) returned a postal questionnaire comprising sections on personality traits, career motivation, and career planning. Female graduates scored higher on traits such as helpfulness, relationship consciousness, empathy, family responsibility, and job security. Male students scored higher on traits such as independence, decisiveness, self-confidence, activity, income, and prestige. Women were further advanced in the writing of their thesis (p = 0.04), chose different topics (p extrinsic career motivation predict advanced academic achievement, whereas self-esteem and intrinsic career motivation influence the choice of speciality. The results indicate that women plan their career more purposefully than men, and that not only gender but also personality traits and career motivation play an important role in academic achievement and career planning.

  12. Neurology as career option among postgraduate medical students

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    Namit B Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the context of inadequacy of neurology workforce in India, it is important to understand factors that post-graduate medical students consider for and against choosing neurology as their career option. Understanding these factors will help in planning strategies to encourage students to pursue a career in neurology. At present, there is a paucity of studies addressing this issue in India. Aims and Objectives: (1 To analyze factors, which post-graduate students consider for and against choosing neurology as a career specialty. (2 To access the level and quality of neurology exposure in the current MBBS and MD curricula. Materials and Methods: Statewide questionnaire based study was conducted in the state of Maharashtra for students eligible to take DM neurology entrance examination (MD Medicine and MD Pediatrics. Results: In this survey, 243 students were enrolled. Factors bringing students to neurology were - intellectual challenge and logical reasoning (72%, inspired by role model teachers (63%, better quality-of-life (51% and scope for independent practice without expensive infrastructure (48%. Factors preventing students from taking neurology were - perception that most neurological diseases are degenerative (78%, neurology is mainly an academic specialty (40%, neurophobia (43% and lack of procedures (57%. Inadequate exposure and resultant lack of self-confidence were common (31%, 70-80%. 84% of the students felt the need for a short term certification course in neurology after MD. Conclusions: To attract more students to neurology, "role model" teachers of neurology could interact and teach students extensively. Neurologists′ efforts to shed their diagnostician′s image and to shift their focus to therapeutics will help change the image of neurology. Out-patient neurology clinics should be incorporated early in the student′s career. Procedures attract students; hence, they should be made conversant with procedures and

  13. Factors influencing the decision to pursue emergency medicine as a career among medical students in Singapore.

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    Chew, Shi Hao; Ibrahim, Irwani; Yong, Yan Zhen; Shi, Lu Ming; Zheng, Qi Shi; Samarasekera, Dujeepa D; Ooi, Shirley Beng Suat

    2018-03-01

    The introduction of the residency programme in Singapore allows medical students to apply for residency in their graduating year. Our study aimed to determine the interest levels and motivating factors for pursuing emergency medicine (EM) as a career among medical students in Singapore. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to Year 1-5 medical students in 2012. Participants indicated their interest in pursuing EM as a career and the degree to which a series of variables influenced their choices. Influencing factors were analysed using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 800 completed questionnaires were collected. 21.0% of the participants expressed interest in pursuing EM. Perceived personality fit and having done an elective in EM were strongly positive influencing factors. Junior medical students were more likely to cite the wide diversity of medical conditions and the lack of a long-term doctor-patient relationship to be negative factors, while senior medical students were more likely to cite personality fit and perceived prestige of EM as negative factors. Careful selection of EM applicants is important to the future development of EM in Singapore. Our study showed that personality fit might be the most important influencing factor in choosing EM as a career. Therefore, greater effort should be made to help medical students explore their interest in and suitability for a particular specialty. These include giving medical students earlier exposure to EM, encouraging participation in student interest groups and using appropriate personality tests for career guidance. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  14. Differences in medical students' academic interest and performance across career choice motivations.

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    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Hwang, Jee Y; Kwon, Bum S

    2016-02-15

    To investigate medical students' career choice motivation and its relationship with their academic interest and performance. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample (n=207) of medical students at a private medical school in Korea, stratified by year of medical course. Data about participant demographics, career choice motivation and academic interest were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The item on career choice motivation enquired about the respondents' main reason for applying for medical school among 8 possible response options, which comprised two components of career choice motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. The participants' levels of academic interest were measured in a Likert-type question. Participants' academic interest and Grade Point Averages (GPAs) were compared across the groups of different career motivations along with analyses of their admission scores for baseline comparisons. A total of 195 students completed the questionnaire (94%response rate). Seventy-four percent, (n=145; the intrinsic group) of the participants chose reasons related to intrinsic motivation, 22% (n=42; the extrinsic group) chose reasons pertaining to extrinsic motivation, and 4% (n = 8) chose other reasons for applying to medical school. The intrinsic group outperformed the extrinsic group in their GPAs, although their prior academic achievements did not differ significantly. The intrinsic group showed significantly higher levels of academic interest and also performed better in the admission interviews. Our study illustrates differences in medical students' academic interest and performance across career choice motivations. Further research is warranted to establish the predictive power of medical students' career choice motivation and academic interest on their academic performance.

  15. Development of a systematic career coaching program for medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to develop a systematic career-coaching program (SCCP) that can be used by medical teaching schools to address a growing need for career-coaching. The program objectives were to help students (1) develop a comprehensive self-understanding of their aptitudes, interests, and personality traits; (2) explore possible career choices and decide on a career path; and (3) develop the competencies needed to prepare for their future careers. Methods The SCCP was based on the ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model and decision-making questioning model. Medical professionals, medical education and career counseling experts, and students participated in designing the program. Results The SCCP describes coaching content, tools, operational methods, and appropriate timing, and identifies the professionals and specialists who can offer their expertise in the different coaching phases. It is designed to allow medical schools to offer the program in segments or in its entirety, depending on the curriculum and environment. Conclusion The SCCP represents a viable career-coaching program for medical students that can be applied in part or in its entirety, depending on a medical school’s curriculum and educational environment. PMID:29510607

  16. Development of a systematic career coaching program for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yera Hur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to develop a systematic career-coaching program (SCCP that can be used by medical teaching schools to address a growing need for career-coaching. The program objectives were to help students (1 develop a comprehensive self-understanding of their aptitudes, interests, and personality traits; (2 explore possible career choices and decide on a career path; and (3 develop the competencies needed to prepare for their future careers. Methods The SCCP was based on the ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation model and decision-making questioning model. Medical professionals, medical education and career counseling experts, and students participated in designing the program. Results The SCCP describes coaching content, tools, operational methods, and appropriate timing, and identifies the professionals and specialists who can offer their expertise in the different coaching phases. It is designed to allow medical schools to offer the program in segments or in its entirety, depending on the curriculum and environment. Conclusion The SCCP represents a viable career-coaching program for medical students that can be applied in part or in its entirety, depending on a medical school’s curriculum and educational environment.

  17. Development of a systematic career coaching program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A Ra; Kwon, Mihye

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a systematic career-coaching program (SCCP) that can be used by medical teaching schools to address a growing need for career-coaching. The program objectives were to help students (1) develop a comprehensive self-understanding of their aptitudes, interests, and personality traits; (2) explore possible career choices and decide on a career path; and (3) develop the competencies needed to prepare for their future careers. The SCCP was based on the ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model and decision-making questioning model. Medical professionals, medical education and career counseling experts, and students participated in designing the program. The SCCP describes coaching content, tools, operational methods, and appropriate timing, and identifies the professionals and specialists who can offer their expertise in the different coaching phases. It is designed to allow medical schools to offer the program in segments or in its entirety, depending on the curriculum and environment. The SCCP represents a viable career-coaching program for medical students that can be applied in part or in its entirety, depending on a medical school's curriculum and educational environment.

  18. Why a Medical Career and What are Pros and Cons of medical profession?

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    Sahadeb Prasad Dhungana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Medicine is one of the noblest of all professions and is one of the rapidly expanding fields with increasing number of private medical colleges in the past few years. Several international studies over the years have explored perceptions and preferences of students in choosing a career in medicine. This study was done with the objective to assess students' views regarding selection of medicine as a career.   Methods: A survey study was conducted at Lumbini Medical College Teaching Hospital (LMCTH where 300 students of both sexes were asked to fill a structured questionnaire.   Results: All medical students mentioned that they selected the medical profession because of personal interest. Of them, 285 (95% students believed this profession offers services to humanity. However, 240 (80% students felt that their family had an influence in their career selection. Among discouraging factors, 234 (78% students mentioned that medical training is difficult and prolonged, 210 (70% students said that the course is too expensive, 225 (75% students felt that there is too much competition while 186 (62% students expressed that doctors have excessive working hours and lack social life. Major factors in choosing LMCTH as study destination were compulsion because of failure to enroll at other colleges 180(60%, easy access to admission 120 (40%, cheaper than other medical colleges 165 (55% and location near to hometown 24 (8%. Some of the discouraging factors were limited facilities 210 (70%, insufficient faculty members 270 (90%, newly established college and uncertain future 90 (30%.   Conclusion: Study concluded that reasons for joining medical profession are primarily based on personal interest, respect and honor, family influence and service to humanity; however, long working hours, prolonged training, expensive study, discourages many students.

  19. Behavioral Exploration of Career and Specialty Choice in Medical Students

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    Borges, Nicole J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the process by which students naturally construct and internalize their educational experiences relating to career development is important to career counseling. The author investigated how exploratory behaviors during a community-based field experience course contributed to the vocational development of 1st-year medical students.…

  20. Improving the attractiveness of an emergency medicine career to medical students: An exploratory study.

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    Celenza, Antonio; Bharath, Jude; Scop, Jason

    2012-12-01

    To describe perceptions of medical students and emergency doctors towards careers in emergency medicine (EM), and to identify influences on career choice. A prospective, cross-sectional questionnaire study was performed in three EDs. The instrument used Likert-type items addressing: factors important in the choice of a career, factors offered by a career in EM, and opinions of EM. EM consultants and registrars and a cohort of final-year medical students participated. Overall, 22 consultants, 30 registrars and 164 students completed the questionnaire (77.1% overall response). Student interest in an EM career increased from 10/161 (6.2% [95% CI 3.0-11.1%]) before, to 26/137 (19.0% [95% CI 12.8-26.6%]) after an EM attachment (P = 0.0014). The highest proportion of students chose work-life balance as being an important factor for career choice (143/163 students, 87.7% [95% CI 81.2-92.6%]). Compared with consultants and registrars, students had negative perceptions about lifestyle factors that EM offered, as well as about the future of the specialty, job security and workplace stress. Some students also preferred careers with opportunities for research, subspecialty practice, and better pay and conditions, yet perceived EM as not offering these factors. Students considered EM as an acute, procedural, public hospital specialty, with diverse patient problems and minimal continuity of care. Smaller proportions of students considered these factors important for career choice. Increasing the attractiveness of a career in EM requires changing student perceptions of lifestyle and satisfaction benefits, access to EM subspecialties, increasing ED research, information about job security, and improved work conditions. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  1. Prepared to practice? Perception of career preparation and guidance of recent medical graduates at two campuses of a transnational medical school: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Sameer S; McGowan, Yvonne; McGee, Hannah; Whitford, David L

    2016-02-09

    Graduating medical students enter the workforce with substantial medical knowledge and experience, yet little is known about how well they are prepared for the transition to medical practice in diverse settings. We set out to compare perceptions of medical school graduates' career guidance with their perceptions of preparedness to practice as interns. We also set out to compare perceptions of preparedness for hospital practice between graduates from two transnational medical schools. This was a cross-sectional study. A Preparedness for Hospital Practice (PHPQ) survey and career guidance questionnaire was sent to recent medical graduates, incorporating additional free text responses on career preparation. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and tests of association including Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Forty three percent (240/555) of graduates responded to the survey: 39 % of respondents were domestic (Dublin, Ireland or Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain) and interning locally; 15 % were overseas students interning locally; 42 % were overseas students interning internationally and 4 % had not started internship. Two variables explained 13 % of the variation in preparedness for hospital practice score: having planned postgraduate education prior to entering medical school and having helpful career guidance in medical school. Overseas graduates interning internationally were more likely to have planned their postgraduate career path prior to entering medical school. Dublin graduates found their career guidance more helpful than Bahrain counterparts. The most cited shortcomings were lack of structured career advice and lack of advice on the Irish and Bahraini postgraduate systems. This study has demonstrated that early consideration of postgraduate career preparation and helpful medical school career guidance has a strong association with perceptions of preparedness of medical graduates for hospital practice. In an era of increasing

  2. The medical instructional questionnaire used to assess the quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medical instructional questionnaire used to assess the quality of South ... led to the development of a questionnaire to measure students' perceptions of their ... use of the instrument is the provision of more specific feedback to preceptors ...

  3. Enhancing the Motivation for Rural Career: The Collaboration between the Local Government and Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the responses to the following questions "Rural practice is interesting" (p motivation of medical students and their interest in a rural career. While collaboration between the local government and medical school rarely occurs in planning medical education programs, this approach may offer a promising way to foster local health professionals.

  4. The influence of rural clinical school experiences on medical students' levels of interest in rural careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Watts, Lisa; Forster, Lesley; McLachlan, Craig S

    2014-08-28

    Australian Rural Clinical School (RCS) programmes have been designed to create experiences that positively influence graduates to choose rural medical careers. Rural career intent is a categorical evaluation measure and has been used to assess the Australian RCS model. Predictors for rural medical career intent have been associated with extrinsic values such as students with a rural background. Intrinsic values such as personal interest have not been assessed with respect to rural career intent. In psychology, a predictor of the motivation or emotion for a specific career or career location is the level of interest. Our primary aims are to model over one year of Australian RCS training, change in self-reported interest for future rural career intent. Secondary aims are to model student factors associated with rural career intent while attending an RCS. The study participants were medical students enrolled in a RCS in the year 2013 at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) and who completed the newly developed self-administered UNSW Undergraduate Destinations Study (UDS) questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline and after one year of RCS training on preferred location for internship, work and intended specialty. Interest for graduate practice location (career intent) was assessed on a five-variable Likert scale at both baseline and at follow-up. A total of 165 students completed the UDS at baseline and 150 students after 1 year of follow-up. Factors associated with intent to practise in a rural location were rural background (χ2 = 28.4, P influence practice intent (toward rural practice) and interest levels (toward greater interest in rural practice).

  5. A levels and intelligence as predictors of medical careers in UK doctors: 20 year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Smithers, Eleni; Partridge, Philippa; Keeling, A; Fleming, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess whether A level grades (achievement) and intelligence (ability) predict doctors' careers. Design Prospective cohort study with follow up after 20 years by postal questionnaire. Setting A UK medical school in London. Participants 511 doctors who had entered Westminster Medical School as clinical students between 1975 and 1982 were followed up in January 2002. Main outcome measures Time taken to reach different career grades in hospital or general practice, postgraduate qualifications obtained (membership/fellowships, diplomas, higher academic degrees), number of research publications, and measures of stress and burnout related to A level grades and intelligence (result of AH5 intelligence test) at entry to clinical school. General health questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory, and questionnaire on satisfaction with career at follow up. Results 47 (9%) doctors were no longer on the Medical Register. They had lower A level grades than those who were still on the register (P < 0.001). A levels also predicted performance in undergraduate training, performance in postregistration house officer posts, and time to achieve membership qualifications (Cox regression, P < 0.001; b=0.376, SE=0.098, exp(b)=1.457). Intelligence did not independently predict dropping off the register, career outcome, or other measures. A levels did not predict diploma or higher academic qualifications, research publications, or stress or burnout. Diplomas, higher academic degrees, and research publications did, however, significantly correlate with personality measures. Conclusions Results of achievement tests, in this case A level grades, which are particularly used for selection of students in the United Kingdom, have long term predictive validity for undergraduate and postgraduate careers. In contrast, a test of ability or aptitude (AH5) was of little predictive validity for subsequent medical careers. PMID:12869457

  6. Psychiatry as a career choice: Perception of students at a private medical college in South India

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    Animesh Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: People with mental illness are often subjected to stigma and discrimination. The poor popularity of Psychiatry as a field of specialty has been a global concern. Any preconceived notions, perceptions and formative influences among medical students could have strong influence on their future choice of career. This study aimed to determine the students′ perception of Psychiatry as career choice and the factors influencing their perception and career choice. Subjects and Methods: Following approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and necessary permissions, consenting medical students at a private medical college in Mangalore, India were surveyed using a pilot-tested questionnaire. The responses were compiled and data analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 10. Chi-square test was performed and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 250 participants, 152 (60.8% were males while 96 (38.4% were females aged 17-25 years. Only 28 (11.2% wanted to pursue Psychiatry as a career while 97 (38.8% considered it as an option although not their first choice. There was no association between gender and completion of Psychiatry postings on the decision regarding Psychiatry as a career. However, an exposure to a mentally ill person had a statistically significant association with Psychiatry as career choice (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Very few students aspire for Psychiatry. Targeted interventions including focused approach and creating an interest during undergraduate posting may inspire more students to take up Psychiatry.

  7. The effect of gender bias on medical students and career choices: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKANKSHA GARG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor, Gender equality amongst healthcare professionals is no doubt paramount to allow both equal opportunity and provision of good quality healthcare. The General Medical Council encourages that all colleagues should be treated fairly, but studies have previously demonstrated gender bias against female medical students (1. Whether this might have any impact on the students’ decision-making process and career pathways has yet to be explored. We aimed to evaluate whether doctors gave students gender-specific advice and the extent to which this advice influenced the students. Furthermore, we explored whether students felt their gender affected their career choices. We carried out a cross-sectional national study of British clinical medical students. A standardised questionnaire was completed by 94 students (54.3% female. The response rate was 88.7%. Results showed that 43.6% (n=41 of students received career advice based purely on their gender, and 63.4% (n=26 of these said that this would influence their career choices. Importantly, 82.9% (n=34 of the students who received gender-specific advice were female. Additionally, 41.2% (n=21 of females felt their gender would restrict their career choices compared with only 11.6% (n=5 of males (p=0.00142. 37.3% (n=19 of females thought their gender would unfairly disadvantage their career progression compared to 4.65% (n=2 of males (p=0.00016. Our results highlighted that doctors gave more gender-specific advice to females compared to males, and that this advice significantly impacts students’ decision making process. Furthermore, females disproportionately felt their careers would be disadvantaged and restricted compared with males. This shows an enormous disparity between male and female attitudes towards medical careers. This can have both long and short-term effects on training, career choices and patient interaction. Further research investigating why females feel their gender will

  8. Newly qualified doctors' views on the significance and accessibility of career advice during medical training in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Syed Imran; Norcini, John J; Borleffs, Jan C C

    2013-01-01

    Career advice is an important instrument to help students with the proper specialty selection. The study aims (1) to explore the views of newly graduated doctors in Saudi Arabia about their experience with the current status of career support system during medical training and (2) to identify cross-cultural similarities and differences. A cross-sectional design study was conducted using a questionnaire to elicit the responses of participants from newly qualified doctors concerning the availability and significance of career advice. SPSS (version 11.0; Chicago, IL) was used to analyze the data and statistical tests, such as chi-square and unpaired t tests, were used to analyze the observations. A response rate of 94.7% was obtained. Among this group, 102 were males and 78 were females. Only 53% did receive career advice. The majority of men felt that career advice during medical studies was inadequate, while women were less negative (69% versus 32%; p = 0.0001). Furthermore, men were more disappointed about the possibilities for career advice after graduating than women (34% versus 13%, p = 0.0001). The results show that only half of newly graduated doctors had received any career advice during medical training. As the health care system cannot afford the potential waste of time and resources for doctors, career guidance should begin in undergraduate training so that the process of thinking about their future career starts longtime before they make their career choice.

  9. Inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career

    OpenAIRE

    Apturkar, D. K.; Dandekar, Usha K.; Dandkar, Kundankumar Narayan; Jorwekar, Golul Jayant; Baviskar, Padmakar Kashinath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is acute shortage of teachers in medical field and very few new members are joining this noble profession. The shortage of medical teachers is resulting in decrease of teaching quality, decrease in number of medical seats and the country is losing its education standard worldwide.Aims: To find out the view and inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career.Objectives: It is an attempt to find possible reasons preventing or stimulating the undergra...

  10. Factors influencing French medical students towards a career in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Olivier; Guicherd, William; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Bonin, Bernard; Seed, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh; Howard, Rob

    2012-09-01

    There is a need to increase the recruitment to psychiatry in France. Our aim in this study was to compare factors influencing career choice between French medical students considering and not considering psychiatry as a specialty. Quantitative cross-sectional online survey on 145 French students in their last year of medical school. 22.7% of our sample considered choosing a career in psychiatry. A preference for a career in psychiatry was associated with more frequent history of personal/familial mental illness, higher ratings of psychiatric teaching, more weeks of compulsory psychiatry teaching and placement, during which students had more often met patients in recovery and been asked their opinion on patients. Students considering psychiatry as a career also emphasized more the need for a good work-life balance, and presented better attitudes toward psychiatry. Improving opportunities of interactions between students and psychiatrists or psychiatric patients might help to improve recruitment in psychiatry.

  11. Gender differences in motives and career choice of medical students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Emmerik, H. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Insight in the choices of medical students concerning their future career is an actual issue, since the population is changing towards a majority of female students. We focus here on insight in the effect of gender and life-stage on students’ preferences concerning a medical specialty,

  12. Career preferences and the work-family balance in medicine: gender differences among medical specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiliger, P J; Hingstman, L

    2000-05-01

    In this article career preferences of medical specialists in the Netherlands are analysed, based on a survey among the members of medical associations of five specialties. Four different career preferences were offered, each of which implied a possible variation in working hours. A questionnaire was sent to a random selected group of working specialists in general practice, internal medicine, anaesthesiology, ophthalmology and psychiatry. Logistic regressions were used to predict career preferences. Besides individual characteristics, work and home domain characteristics were taken into the analysis. Not surprisingly, the preference for career change in respect of working hours is higher among full-time MDs, especially women, than among part-time workers. In contradiction to what was expected, home domain characteristics did not predict a part-time preference for female, but for male MDs. One home domain characteristic, children's age, did predict the male part-time preference. Further gender differences were found in respect of the fit between actual and preferred working hours (A/P-fit). The majority of male MDs with a full-time preference had achieved an A/P-fit, whereas significantly less female MDs achieved their preferences. It was found that hospital-bound specialists are less positive towards part-time careers than other specialists. Furthermore, the change of working hours would imply a reduction in FTE for all specialties, if all preferences were met. Especially in hospital-bound specialisms it was not confirmed that the reduction in FTE would be low; this was found only in respect of interns. It may be concluded that individual preferences in career paths are very diverse. Personnel policy in medical specialties, especially in hospitals, will have to cope with changes in traditional vertical and age-related career paths. Flexible careers related to home domain determinants or other activities will reinforce a life cycle approach, in which the centrality

  13. What factors influence British medical students' career intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Michael; Fanshawe, Angela; Patel, Vanash; Goswami, Karan; Chilvers, Geoffrey; Ting, Michelle; Pilavakis, Yiannis; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence career choice in UK medical students. Students at seven institutions were invited to rate how important various factors were on influencing their career choices and how interested they were in pursuing different specialties. The influence of interpersonal relationship networks on career choice was also evaluated. 641 responses were collected. 44% (283) were male, 16% (105) were graduates and 41% (263) were final-year students. For Dermatology (p = 0.009), Paediatrics (p = 0.000), Radiology (p = 0.000), Emergency Medicine (p = 0.018) and Cardiothoracic Surgery (p = 0.000), there was a clear correlation between completing a clinical attachment and an interest in pursuing the specialty. Perceived characteristics of the speciality, individually and in clusters were considered important by specific subgroups of students, such as those interested in surgery. These students considered prestige (p = 0.0003), role models (p = 0.014), financial rewards after training (p = 0.0196) and technical challenge (p = 0.0011) as important factors. Demographics such as sex and age played a significant role in career choice. Interpersonal relationship networks do not have a significant influence on career intentions. This study shows that the career intentions of British medical students are influenced by their undergraduate experience and by the weight they place on different specialty-related factors.

  14. Perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices of medical students in a medical school in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yueh-Chin; Lin, Ching-Yi; Huang, Chien-Ning; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-11-01

    The trend of medical career choice in the younger generation has resulted in deficiency of manpower in the four major disciplines of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics, which will threaten people's health care in Taiwan. However, perceptions of gender awareness and factors affecting the career choices of medical students have not been investigated systemically in Taiwan. To explore the perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices, we recruited 280 1(st)- and 7(th)-year male and female medical students at a Medical University for the study. A modified Nijmegen questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale containing medical curricula (18 items), gender awareness (13 items), and career inclination (9 items) was adopted as the investigation tool in our study. The response rate was 75% (224/280). With regard to gender, the 1(st)-year male students had greater confidence in being a physician than the female students (p gender was more prominent in the 7(th)-year than in the 1(st)-year students (p gender and "female physicians are more empathetic and provide more communications than male physicians". Factors influencing career choices of medical students, including "personal interests/talents" and "academic achievement of the specialty," were not significantly different by gender. Factors included "training and learning environments of the specialty", "risk of lawsuit", and "economic incentive" were more appreciated by the senior than the junior students (p gender or seniority. The 7(th)-year students had experiences in clinical medicine and had different considerations in career choice in comparison to the 1(st)-year students, and gender played a role in senior students. In addition, the senior rather than the junior students regarded "training and learning environments", "risk of lawsuit", and "economic incentive" as more important factors affecting the career choices, and male students paid more attention to these

  15. General Practice as a career choice among undergraduate medical students in Greece

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    Stefanadis Christodoulos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although General Practice (GP was recognized as a medical specialty in Greece in 1986, the number of GPs is insufficient to cover needs and only few medical graduates choose GP as a career option. In the present study we investigated the profile of medical students in terms of their decisions regarding specialization and the possible association of career choices different from GP with the status of undergraduate training regarding GP. Methods The sample consisted of final year students in the Medical School of the University of Athens, Greece. Students filled in a self-reported questionnaire focusing on medical specialization, and GP in particular. Results Response rate was 82.5% with 1021 questionnaires collected, out of 1237 eligible medical students. Only 44 out of the 1021 (4.3% respondents stated that GP is -or could be- among their choices for specialty. The most popular medical specialty was General Surgery (10.9%, followed by Cardiology (9.6%, Endocrinology (8.7% and Obstetrics-Gynaecology (8.3%. The most common criterion for choosing GP was the guaranteed employment on completion of the residency (54.6% while a 56.6% of total respondents were positive to the introduction of GP/FM as a curriculum course during University studies. Conclusion Despite the great needs, GP specialty is currently not a career option among undergraduate students of the greater Medical University in Greece and is still held in low esteem. A university department responsible for undergraduate teaching, promotion and research in GP (where not available is essential; the status of undergraduate training in general practice/family medicine seems to be one of the most important factors that influence physician career choices regarding primary care specialties.

  16. Who wants to be a surgeon? Patterns of medical student career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Otis C; Addison, Ben; Poole, Phillippa

    2014-11-07

    NZ needs a surgical workforce with the capacity to meet the increasing health demands of an aging population. This study determined longitudinal patterns of medical student interest in a surgical career and factors influencing that choice. We studied medical students entering the Auckland medical programme from 2006-2008 who completed an entry and exit questionnaire on career intentions. Four notional groups were created, depending on the level of interest at entry and at exit. Demographic factors for each category were compared. Analysis of influencing factors was also undertaken. Of 488 students, 310 (64%) completed both an entry and exit questionnaire. Over 50% of students had a strong interest in a surgical career at entry, dropping to 26% at exit. The 'Never Evers' (No interest at entry /No interest at exit) made up 39%,'Divergers' (Strong/No) 35%, 'Die Hards' (Strong/Strong) 18%, and 'Convertibles' (No/Strong) 8%. Less interest in a surgical career was seen among female (P=0.001) and older students (P=0.017). Influencing factors differentiating the 'Die Hards' from the 'Divergers' were work hours and flexibility (less influence among 'Die Hards'), with procedural nature and consultants/mentors (higher). There is a significant reduction in interest in a surgical career over the course of the undergraduate programme, especially among female and older students. Yet the level appears sufficient for available training places. Consultant role models are an important career influence. Lack of flexibility in work and training programmes continue to provide challenges in creating a diverse surgical workforce.

  17. Factors associated with the choice of general medicine as a career among Japanese medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM) in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach‘s alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others) as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Results Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: ‘Admission from hometown’ (β=0.189, P=0.001), ‘Student preparing for the entrance exam’ (β=0.172; P=0.001), ‘Intent for rural practice’ (β=0.123, P=0.016), and ‘Work–life balance’ (β=0.126, P=0.013). While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were ‘Presence of medical relatives’ (β=−0.107, P=0.037) and ‘Scientific orientation’ (β=−0.125, P=0.013). Conclusions Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their choice of career

  18. Factors associated with the choice of general medicine as a career among Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM) in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others) as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: 'Admission from hometown' (β=0.189, P=0.001), 'Student preparing for the entrance exam' (β=0.172; P=0.001), 'Intent for rural practice' (β=0.123, P=0.016), and 'Work-life balance' (β=0.126, P=0.013). While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were 'Presence of medical relatives' (β=-0.107, P=0.037) and 'Scientific orientation' (β=-0.125, P=0.013). Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their choice of career, we may be able to increase enthusiasm for this specialty.

  19. Factors associated with the choice of general medicine as a career among Japanese medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach‘s alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Results: Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: ‘Admission from hometown’ (β=0.189, P=0.001, ‘Student preparing for the entrance exam’ (β=0.172; P=0.001, ‘Intent for rural practice’ (β=0.123, P=0.016, and ‘Work–life balance’ (β=0.126, P=0.013. While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were ‘Presence of medical relatives’ (β=−0.107, P=0.037 and ‘Scientific orientation’ (β=−0.125, P=0.013. Conclusions: Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their

  20. Career satisfaction among medical school professors: a case study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Maria da Silva Campos Costa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the career satisfaction of medical school professors in relation to initial motivation, satisfaction factors, and the desire to remain in the profession. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative methodology was used, based on questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with faculty members at a federal institution of higher education in Brazil. RESULTS: For 42.86% of the sample, teaching began while they were medical students; 80% had chosen teaching either as a vocation or due to influence from families or professors; 20% chose teaching as a professional opportunity. The majority, 57.14%, stated they were happy with teaching, and 51.42% did not plan to leave the career. Factors involved in satisfaction with teaching were: the possibility of remaining up-to-date in the medical profession, the feeling of doing their duty, their contribution to training future doctors, and contact with young people and the university setting. Factors leading to dissatisfaction were pedagogical (33.33%, economic (30.95%, institutional (14.28%, and relational (14.28%. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects expressed a positive attitude towards teaching, and because of their great personal satisfaction with the career, they did not plan to leave it. These findings should shed light on factors that interfere with career satisfaction and help increase those that promote satisfaction, thus improving the productivity and well-being of medical professors.

  1. Medical students' perceptions of a career in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, Sody; Press, Yan; Weissman, Charles; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Yaffa; Weiss, Yoram G; Tandeter, Howard

    2018-02-12

    In Israel, there is a shortage of family medicine (FM) specialists that is occasioned by a shortage of students pursuing a FM career. A questionnaire, based on methods adapted from marketing research, was used to provide insight into the medical specialty selection process. It was distributed to 6 th -year medical students from two Israeli medical schools. A response rate of 66% resulted in collecting 218 completed questionnaires. Nineteen of the students reported that they were interested in FM, 68% of them were women. When compared to students not interested in FM, the selection criteria of students interested in FM reflected greater interest in a bedside specialty which provides direct long-term patient care. These latter students were also more interested in a controllable lifestyle that allowed time to be with family and children and working outside the hospital especially during the daytime. These selection criteria aligned with their perceptions of FM, which they perceived as providing them with a controllable lifestyle, allowing them to work limited hours with time for family and having a reasonable income to lifestyle ratio. The students not interested in FM, agreed with those interested in FM, that the specialty affords a controllable lifestyle and the ability to work limited hours Yet, students not interested in FM more often perceived FM as being a boring specialty and less often perceived it as providing a reasonable income to lifestyle ratio. Additionally, students not interested in FM rated the selection criteria, academic opportunities and a prestigious specialty, more highly than did students interested in FM. However, they perceived FM as neither being prestigious nor as affording academic opportunities CONCLUSION: This study enriches our understanding of the younger generation's attitudes towards FM and thus provides administrators, department chairs and residency program directors with objective information regarding selection criteria and the

  2. What determines medical students' career preference for general practice residency training?: a multicenter survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Kenya; Murata, Akiko; Tahara, Masao; Komiyama, Manabu; Ichikawa, Shuhei; Takemura, Yousuke C; Onishi, Hirotaka

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have systematically explored factors affecting medical students' general practice career choice. We conducted a nationwide multicenter survey (Japan MEdical Career of Students: JMECS) to examine factors associated with students' general practice career aspirations in Japan, where it has been decided that general practice will be officially acknowledged as a new discipline. From April to December 2015, we distributed a 21-item questionnaire to final year medical students in 17 medical schools. The survey asked students about their top three career preferences from 19 specialty fields, their demographics and their career priorities. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the effect of each item. A total of 1264 responses were included in the analyses. The top three specialty choice were internal medicine: 833 (65.9%), general practice: 408 (32.3%), and pediatrics: 372 (29.4%). Among demographic factors, "plan to inherit other's practice" positively associated with choosing general practice, whereas "having physician parent" had negative correlation. After controlling for potential confounders, students who ranked the following items as highly important were more likely to choose general practice: "clinical diagnostic reasoning (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.65, 95% CI 1.40-1.94)", "community-oriented practice (aOR: 1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.57)", and" involvement in preventive medicine (aOR: 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.38)". On the contrary, "acute care rather than chronic care", "mastering advanced procedures", and "depth rather than breadth of practice" were less likely to be associated with general practice aspiration. Our nationwide multicenter survey found several features associated with general practice career aspirations: clinical diagnostic reasoning; community-oriented practice; and preventive medicine. These results can be fundamental to future research and the development of recruitment strategies.

  3. Factors considered by undergraduate medical students when selecting specialty of their future careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Awad Ali Mohamed Ahmed; Khan, Waleed Shabeer; Abdelrazig, Yousif Mohammed; Elzain, Yamin Ibrahim; Khalil, Hassan Osman; Ahmed, Omer Bakri Elsayed; Adam, Omeralfaroug Ahmed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how medical students select their areas of specialization is the key to achieve a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The objective is to identify the number of medical students who have decided their postgraduate specialty career, their career specialties preference, and factors that may influence their decision to select a particular specialty. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2013 at Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire comprising demographic data and questions about future specialties preferences and factors influencing those preferences was distributed to 887 male and female students, (from first to fifth academic years) recruited in the study. Response rate was 73% with 647 questionnaires collected, out of 887 eligible medical students. Of the returned questionnaires, 604 were valid. The majority of students (541, 89.6%) have chosen a specialty. Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties. The least selected specialty was anaesthesiology. A significant association was found between gender and specialty choice using Chi-square test (p = 0.00). There was no association between undergraduate level and specialty choice (p = 0.633). The most common reason for choosing a specific specialty was "Personal Interest" (215, 39.7%) followed by being "Helpful to the community" (144, 26.6%). Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties.

  4. [Intersection between gender and socioeconomic status in medical sciences career choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia

    2006-01-01

    Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.

  5. Critical factors in career decision making for women medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Joanna; Poole, Phillippa; Diener, Scott

    2003-04-01

    Within the next 30 years there will be equal numbers of women and men in the medical workforce. Indications are that women are increasing their participation in specialties other than general practice, although at a slower rate than their participation in the workforce as a whole. To inform those involved in training and employment of medical women, this study investigated the influencing factors in career decision making for female medical graduates. A total of 305 women medical graduates from the University of Auckland responded to a mail survey (73% response rate) which examined influences on decision making, in both qualitative and quantitative ways, as part of a larger survey. Most women were satisfied with their careers. The principal component analysis of the influencing factors identified four distinct factors important in career choice - interest, flexibility, women friendliness and job security, although the first two of these were rated more highly than the others. Barriers to full participation by medical women in training and employment need to be systematically examined and removed. This is not only to allow women themselves to reach their full potential, but for workforce and socio-economic reasons. Initiatives that allow and value more flexible training and work practices, particularly through the years of child raising, are necessary for women and the health care workforce at large.

  6. Factors influencing medical students' choice of emergency medicine as a career specialty-a descriptive study of Saudi medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaneen, Hadeel; Alhusain, Faisal; Alshahri, Khalid; Al Jerian, Nawfal

    2018-03-07

    Choosing a medical specialty is a poorly understood process. Although studies conducted around the world have attempted to identify the factors that affect medical students' choice of specialty, data is scarce on the factors that influence the choice of specialty of Saudi Arabian medical students, in particular those planning a career in emergency medicine (EM). In this study, we investigated whether Saudi medical students choosing EM are influenced by different factors to those choosing other specialties. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAUHS), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire distributed among all undergraduate and postgraduate medical students of both sexes in the second and third phases (57% were males and 43% were females). A total of 436 students answered the questionnaire, a response rate of 53.4%. EM group was most influenced by hospital orientation and lifestyle and least influenced by social orientation and prestige provided by their specialty. Unlike controllable lifestyle (CL) group and primary care (PC) group, EM reported lesser influence of social orientation on their career choice. When compared with students primarily interested in the surgical subspecialties (SS), EM group were less likely to report prestige as an important influence. Moreover, students interested in SS reported a leaser influence of medical lifestyle in comparison to EM group. When compared with CL group, EM group reported more interest in medical lifestyle. We found that students primarily interested in EM had different values and career expectations to other specialty groups. The trends in specialty choice should be appraised to meet future needs.

  7. Exploration of Global Health Careers Across the Medical Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Ernest; Mallol, Vanessa; Hannaford, Alisse; Pean, Christian; Kutua, Rehema; de Haydu, Christopher; Anandaraja, Natasha; Asgary, Ramin; Elahi, Ebrahim; Hexom, Braden; Landrigan, Philip; Shirazian, Taraneh; Katz, Craig

    Despite expansion of interest among American medical students in global health (GH), academic medical centers face multiple obstacles to the development of structured GH curricula and career guidance. To meet these demands we sought to provide a systematic analysis of the accounts of GH experts. We developed a collaborative, interview-based, qualitative analysis of GH experiences across six career-related themes that are relevant to medical students interested in GH: justification, medical education, economics, research prospects, law and ethics, and work-life balance. Seven GH faculty members were interviewed for 30-90 minutes using sample questions as guidelines. We applied a grounded theory approach to analyze the interview transcripts to discover an emerging theory pertinent to GH trainees. Regarding justification, 4 respondents defined GH as work with the underserved irrespective of geographic location; 5 respondents found sustainability imperative; and all respondents believe GH creates better physicians. Respondents identified many physician competencies developed through GH medical education, with 5 respondents agreeing that work with underserved populations has transformative potential. Concerning economics, 3 respondents acknowledged GH's popularity among trainees, resulting in increased training opportunities, and 2 respondents emphasized an associated deficiency in program quality. All respondents described career models across specialties. Four respondents noted funding challenges when discussing research prospects. Within the theme of laws and ethics, 4 respondents perceived inadequate accountability, and 6 respondents identified ways to create accountability. Finally, 6 respondents recognized family demands can compromise one's GH career and thus work-life balance. Despite diverse perspectives on the meaning and sustainability of GH work, this analysis provides a nascent framework that may inform curricular development for GH trainees. Suggestions

  8. Inclination towards research and the pursuit of a research career among medical students: an international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tam Cam; Ng, Sheryl; Chen, Cynthia; Yong, Sook Kwin; Koh, Gerald C H; Tan, Say Beng; Malhotra, Rahul; Altermatt, Fernando; Seim, Arnfinn; Biderman, Aya; Woolley, Torres; Østbye, Truls

    2018-05-02

    Involvement of clinicians in biomedical research is imperative for the future of healthcare. Several factors influence clinicians' inclination towards research: the medical school experience, exposure to research article reading and writing, and knowledge of research. This cohort study follows up medical students at time of graduation to explore changes in their inclination towards research and pursuing a research career compared to their inclination at time of entry into medical school. Students from medical schools in six different countries were enrolled in their first year of school and followed-up upon graduation in their final year. Students answered the same self-administered questionnaire at both time points. Changes in inclination towards research and pursuing a research career were assessed. Factors correlated with these changes were analysed. Of the 777 medical students who responded to the study questionnaire at entry into medical school, 332 (42.7%) completed the follow-up survey. Among these 332 students, there was no significant increase in inclination towards research or pursuing a research career over the course of their medical schooling. Students from a United States based school, in contrast to those from schools other countries, were more likely to report having research role models to guide them (51.5% vs. 0%-26.4%) and to have published in a peer-reviewed journal (75.7% vs. 8.9%-45%). Absence of a role model was significantly associated with a decrease in inclination towards research, while an increased desire to learn more about statistics was significantly associated with an increase in inclination towards pursuing a research career. Most medical students did not experience changes in their inclination towards research or pursuing a research career over the course of their medical schooling. Factors that increased their inclination to undertaking research or pursuing a research career were availability of a good role model, and a good

  9. Does a PBL-based medical curriculum predispose training in specific career paths? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigarides, Jordan; Wingfield, Laura R; Kulendran, Myutan

    2017-01-07

    North American medical schools have used problem-based learning (PBL) structured medical education for more than 60 years. However, it has only recently been introduced in other medical schools outside of North America. Since its inception, there has been the debate on whether the PBL learning process predisposes students to select certain career paths. To review available evidence to determine the predisposition of specific career paths when undertaking a PBL-based medical curriculum. The career path trajectory was determined as measured by official Matching Programs, self-reported questionnaires and surveys, and formally defined career development milestones. A systematic literature review was performed. PubMed, Medline, Cochrane and ERIC databases were analysed in addition to reference lists for appropriate inclusion. Eleven studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of studies showed that PBL did not predispose a student to a career in a specific speciality (n = 7 out of 11 studies, 64%). However, three studies reported a significantly increased number of PBL graduates working in primary care compared to those from a non-PBL curriculum. PBL has been shown not to predispose medical students to a career in General Practice or any other speciality. Furthermore, a greater number of similar studies are required before a definitive conclusion can be made in the future.

  10. Medical student experiences in prison health services and social cognitive career choice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Ron; Hu, Wendy; Reath, Jennifer; Abbott, Penelope

    2018-01-02

    One of the purposes of undergraduate medical education is to assist students to consider their future career paths in medicine, alongside the needs of the societies in which they will serve. Amongst the most medically underserved groups of society are people in prison and those with a history of incarceration. In this study we examined the experiences of medical students undertaking General Practice placements in a prison health service. We used the theoretical framework of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to explore the potential of these placements to influence the career choices of medical students. Questionnaire and interview data were collected from final year students, comprising pre and post placement questionnaire free text responses and post placement semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis, with reference to concepts from the SCCT Interest Model to further develop the findings. Clinical education delivered in a prison setting can provide learning that includes exposure to a wide variety of physical and mental health conditions and also has the potential to stimulate career interest in an under-served area. While students identified many challenges in the work of a prison doctor, increased confidence (SCCT- Self-Efficacy) occurred through performance success within challenging consultations and growth in a professional approach to prisoners and people with a history of incarceration. Positive expectations (SCCT- Outcome Expectations) of fulfilling personal values and social justice aims and of achieving public health outcomes, and a greater awareness of work as a prison doctor, including stereotype rejection, promoted student interest in working with people in contact with the criminal justice system. Placements in prison health services can stimulate student interest in working with prisoners and ex-prisoners by either consolidating pre-existing interest or expanding interest into a field they had not

  11. Conscientious objection in medical students: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Sophie Lm

    2012-01-01

    To explore attitudes towards conscientious objections among medical students in the UK. Medical students at St George's University of London, Cardiff University, King's College London and Leeds University were emailed a link to an anonymous online questionnaire, hosted by an online survey company. The questionnaire contained nine questions. A total of 733 medical students responded. Nearly half of the students in this survey stated that they believed in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to any procedure. Demand for the right to conscientiously object is greater in Muslim medical students when compared with other groups of religious medical students. Abortion continues to be a contentious issue among medical students and this may contribute to the looming crisis in abortion services over the coming years. This project sheds some light on how future doctors view some of their ethical rights and obligations. Using empirical evidence, it reveals that conscientious objection is an issue in the UK medical student body today. These data could help anticipate problems that may arise when these medical students qualify and practise medicine in the community. Clearer guidance is needed for medical students about the issue of conscientious objection at medical school.

  12. The current status of education and career paths of students after completion of medical physicist programs in Japan: a survey by the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Noriyuki; Karasawa, Kumiko; Sumida, Iori; Arimura, Hidetaka; Yamada, Syogo

    2015-07-01

    To standardize educational programs and clinical training for medical physics students, the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification (JBMP) began to accredit master's, doctorate, and residency programs for medical physicists in 2012. At present, 16 universities accredited by the JBMP offer 22 courses. In this study, we aimed to survey the current status of educational programs and career paths of students after completion of the medical physicist program in Japan. A questionnaire was sent in August 2014 to 32 universities offering medical physicist programs. The questionnaire was created and organized by the educational course certification committee of the JBMP and comprised two sections: the first collected information about the university attended, and the second collected information about characteristics and career paths of students after completion of medical physicist programs from 2008 to 2014. Thirty universities (16 accredited and 14 non-accredited) completed the survey (response rate 94 %). A total of 209, 40, and 3 students graduated from the master's, doctorate, and residency programs, respectively. Undergraduates entered the medical physicist program constantly, indicating an interest in medical physics among undergraduates. A large percentage of the students held a bachelor's degree in radiological technology (master's program 94 %; doctorate program 70 %); graduates obtained a national radiological technologist license. Regarding career paths, although the number of the graduates who work as medical physicist remains low, 7 % with a master's degree and 50 % with a doctorate degree worked as medical physicists. Our results could be helpful for improving the medical physicist program in Japan.

  13. The effects of patients initiated aggression on Chinese medical students' career planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhonghui; Li, Jing; Chen, Yuhua; Cui, Kaijun

    2017-12-28

    Patient initiated aggression is common among Chinese health-care workers, reaching over 10,000 incidents annually (Jinyang web. http://6d.dxy.cn/article/55497 . 2013), and the tense doctor-patient relationship generates stress among medical students. Because of the paucity of data (few surveys pay attention to the effects of violence perpetrated by patients on medical students), this study aimed to characterize patient initiated aggression against medical students. In this cross-sectional survey conducted at a medical school in West China in 2015, 157 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire and the Short Form-36, which assesses quality of life. The associations between patient initiated aggression exposure and medical students' career planning or quality of life were assessed using a chi-square test. Of the 157 medical students, 48 (30.6%) reported having suffered patient initiated aggression at least once during the previous year in the form of mental abuse (20.4%), offensive threat (14.6%), physical violence (8.3%), sexual harassment (verbal: 8.3% or physical: 1.6%), and extreme violence (physical violence leading to surgical treatment or hospitalization) (0.6%). Insufficient communication was the primary reason cited (27.2%). Emotional attack (mental abuse and offensive threat) occurrence differed among age groups (χ 2  = 9.786, P = 0.020) and was ubiquitous among those aged >30 years old. Women were more likely than men to suffer physical violence (χ 2  = 6.796, P = 0.009). Patient initiated aggression was not significantly associated with medical students' career planning or quality of life. In this study, patient initiated aggression, albeit common, as in the rest of China, did not appear to be associated with medical students' career planning or quality of life. However, the characteristics described can inform policymaking and the design of programs to minimize patient initiated aggression occurrence.

  14. Exploring the ideas and expectations of German medical students towards career choices and the speciality of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Frauke A E; Ludwig, Karin V; Kinas-Gnadt Olivares, Clara L; Graef-Calliess, Iris-Tatjana

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ideas and expectations of medical students toward their career choices and the speciality of psychiatry. A total of 323 students of the Hannover Medical School filled in a questionnaire about their career choices, preferred medical specialization, factors of influence on career choices and attitude towards psychiatry. The three most important factors of influence appeared to be: (1) work-life balance, (2) flexible working hours, (3) career prospects. Although expectations towards the professional life of psychiatrists were quite positive among the students, there was only a small number of students (n = 53 of 318 respondents, 17%) interested in specializing in psychiatry. Important reasons for choosing psychiatry included personal experience with somatic or mental health issues and practical experience in psychiatry. Most of the students experienced clinical exposure to psychiatry but at a much later period in the curriculum. For a career choice of psychiatry as a speciality it seems to be important to start psychiatric education in medical school early. The positive aspects of the professional life in psychiatry, such as flexible working hours, career prospects and good work-life balance should be more emphasized.

  15. Becoming a general practitioner--which factors have most impact on career choice of medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiolbassa, Kathrin; Miksch, Antje; Hermann, Katja; Loh, Andreas; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie; Goetz, Katja

    2011-05-09

    In Germany, there is a shortage of young physicians in several specialties, the situation of general practitioners (GP) being especially precarious. The factors influencing the career choice of German medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors influencing medical students' specialty choice laying a special focus on general practice. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2010, students at the five medical schools in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) filled out an online-questionnaire. On 27 items with 5-point Likert scales, the students rated the importance of specified individual and occupational aspects. Furthermore, students were asked to assign their intended medical specialty. 1,299 students participated in the survey. Thereof, 1,114 students stated a current choice for a specialty, with 708 students choosing a career in one of the following 6 specialties: internal medicine, surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, paediatrics, anaesthetics and general practice. Overall, individual aspects ('Personal ambition', 'Future perspective', 'Work-life balance') were rated as more important than occupational aspects (i.e. 'Variety in job', 'Job-related ambition') for career choice. For students favouring a career as a GP individual aspects and the factor 'Patient orientation' among the occupational aspects were significantly more important and 'Job-related ambition' less important compared to students with other specialty choices. This study confirms that future GPs differ from students intending to choose other specialties particularly in terms of patient-orientation and individual aspects such as personal ambition, future perspective and work-life balance. Improving job-conditions in terms of family compatibility and work-life balance could help to increase the attractiveness of general practice. Due to the shortage of GPs those factors should be made explicit at an early stage at medical school to increase

  16. Becoming a general practitioner - Which factors have most impact on career choice of medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Germany, there is a shortage of young physicians in several specialties, the situation of general practitioners (GP being especially precarious. The factors influencing the career choice of German medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors influencing medical students' specialty choice laying a special focus on general practice. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2010, students at the five medical schools in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany filled out an online-questionnaire. On 27 items with 5-point Likert scales, the students rated the importance of specified individual and occupational aspects. Furthermore, students were asked to assign their intended medical specialty. Results 1,299 students participated in the survey. Thereof, 1,114 students stated a current choice for a specialty, with 708 students choosing a career in one of the following 6 specialties: internal medicine, surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, paediatrics, anaesthetics and general practice. Overall, individual aspects ('Personal ambition', 'Future perspective', 'Work-life balance' were rated as more important than occupational aspects (i.e. 'Variety in job', 'Job-related ambition' for career choice. For students favouring a career as a GP individual aspects and the factor 'Patient orientation' among the occupational aspects were significantly more important and 'Job-related ambition' less important compared to students with other specialty choices. Conclusions This study confirms that future GPs differ from students intending to choose other specialties particularly in terms of patient-orientation and individual aspects such as personal ambition, future perspective and work-life balance. Improving job-conditions in terms of family compatibility and work-life balance could help to increase the attractiveness of general practice. Due to the shortage of GPs those factors should

  17. Gender-related perceptions of careers in surgery among new medical graduates: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Edward F; Tang, Siau-Wei; Ravindra, Pravisha; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    Despite promotional measures at a national level, female surgeons account for only 10% of the consultant workforce in the United Kingdom. With rising proportions of female medical graduates, it is important that surgery continues to recruit the most able candidates regardless of sex. This study investigates the differing perceptions of surgical careers among recent medical school graduates and identifies factors discouraging female doctors from pursuing a career in surgery. Newly qualified graduates from the University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, UK, were invited to complete a nonmandatory questionnaire investigating career intentions and factors influencing this. Two hundred and eight questionnaires were returned (a 66% response rate). Male respondents were significantly more likely to rate surgery as an attractive or very attractive career (P = .0116). Overall, only 33 (25%) female doctors expressed interest in a surgical career as opposed to 33 (42%) male doctors (P = .010). Frequently cited reasons included no interest in surgery itself (21%) and negative attitudes toward women in surgery among the surgical teams (18%). Irrespective of career interests, 59% of male and 68% of female respondents believed surgery was not a career welcoming women (P = .186). Reasons included difficulty maintaining family life, limited flexible training, and lack of role models. This study identifies significant sex differences in the perception of surgical careers. The majority believes surgery does not welcome female trainees. Future strategies to promote surgery must address attitudes and behaviors in both sexes while taking active steps to support female surgeons during their training and in the workplace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a questionnaire to assess medical competencies: Reliability and validity of the Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Marianne; Forster, Johannes; Biller, Silke; Fabry, Götz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: While preparing a graduate survey for medical education in 2008 we realized that no instrument existed that would be suitable to evaluate whether the learning outcomes outlined in the Medical Licensure Act (ÄAppO) would be met. Therefore we developed the Freiburg Questionnaire to Assess Competencies in Medicine (Freiburger Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Kompetenzen in der Medizin, FKM)1 which has been revised and extended several times since then. Currently the FKM includes 45 items which are assigned to nine domains that correspond to the CanMEDS roles: medical expertise, communication, team-work, health and prevention, management, professionalism, learning, scholarship, and personal competencies. Methods: In order to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire we have repeatedly surveyed medical students and residents since May 2008. In this article we report on the results of a cross-sectional study with 698 medical students from the preclinical and clinical years. In addition, we report the results of a survey of 514 residents who were up to two years into their residency. Results and conclusions: In summary, results show that the scales of the FKM are reliable (Cronbach’s α between .68 and .97). Significant differences in means between selected groups of students support the measure’s construct validity. Furthermore, there is evidence that the FKM might be used as a screening tool e.g. in graduate surveys to identify weaknesses in the medical education curriculum. PMID:21818241

  19. Provision of medical student teaching in UK general practices: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alex; Rosenthal, Joe; Al-Seaidy, Marwa; Gray, Denis Pereira; McKinley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly provided in general practice. To meet this demand, the English Department of Health recommends that 50% of all medical students should train for general practice after qualification. Currently 19% of medical students express general practice as their first career choice. Undergraduate exposure to general practice positively influences future career choice. Appropriate undergraduate exposure to general practice is therefore highly relevant to workforce planning Aim This study seeks to quantify current exposure of medical students to general practice and compare it with past provision and also with postgraduate provision. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire in the UK. Method A questionnaire regarding provision of undergraduate teaching was sent to the general practice teaching leads in all UK medical schools. Information was gathered on the amount of undergraduate teaching, how this was supported financially, and whether there was an integrated department of general practice. The data were then compared with results from previous studies of teaching provision. The provision of postgraduate teaching in general practice was also examined. Results General practice teaching for medical students increased from teaching in 1968 to 13.0% by 2008; since then, the percentage has plateaued. The total amount of general practice teaching per student has fallen by 2 weeks since 2002. Medical schools providing financial data delivered 14.6% of the clinical curriculum and received 7.1% of clinical teaching funding. The number of departments of general practice has halved since 2002. Provision of postgraduate teaching has tripled since 2000. Conclusion Current levels of undergraduate teaching in general practice are too low to fulfil future workforce requirements and may be falling. Financial support for current teaching is disproportionately low and the mechanism counterproductive. Central intervention may be required to solve

  20. Gendered career considerations consolidate from the start of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, Margret; Verdonk, Petra; Bor, Hans; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-09-13

    To explore changes in specialty preferences and work-related topics during the theoretical phase of Dutch medical education and the role of gender. A cohort of medical students at Radboudumc, the Netherlands, was surveyed at start (N=612, 69.1% female) and after three years (N=519, 69.2% female), on specialty preferences, full-time or part-time work, motivational factors, and work-life issues. Chi square tests were performed to analyze gender-differences, and logistic regression to explore the influence of gender on considerations. A total of 214 female and 78 male students completed both surveys. After three years, the male students remained highly interested in surgery, but the female students increasingly preferred gynecology. These initial preferences were predictive. Four out of five male students versus three out of five female students continued to show a full-time preference. Women increasingly preferred part-time work. After three years, the combination of work, care, and patient contact motivated female students more, whereas salary remained more important to male students. Female students indicated that their future careers would influence their family life; male students assumed having a family would only affect their partners' careers. Against an international background of the feminization of medicine, our study shows that career considerations are reinforced early in medical studies. Women prefer to work fewer hours and anticipate care tasks more often. Students' preferences reflect Dutch cultural norms about working men and women. Therefore, guidance in choice-making much earlier in medical education can create opportunities.

  1. Career destinations, views and future plans of the UK medical qualifiers of 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn; Lambert, Trevor; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To report the career destinations, views and future plans of a cohort of senior doctors who qualified in the 1980s. Postal questionnaire survey of all doctors who qualified from all UK medical schools in 1988. The response rate was 69%. We estimated that 81% of the total cohort was working in the NHS, 16 years after qualification; and that at least 94% of graduates who, when students, were from UK homes, were working in medicine. Of NHS doctors, 30% worked part-time. NHS doctors rated their job satisfaction highly (median score 19.9, scale 5-25) but were less satisfied with the amount of leisure time available to them (median score 5.4, scale 1-10). NHS doctors were very positive about their careers, but were less positive about working hours and some other aspects of the NHS. Women were more positive than men about working conditions; general practitioners were more positive than hospital doctors. Twenty-five percent reported unmet needs for further training or career-related advice, particularly about career development. Twenty-nine percent intended to reduce their hours in future, while 6%, mainly part-time women, planned to increase their hours. Overall, 10% of NHS doctors planned to do more service work in future and 24% planned to do less; among part-time women, 18% planned to do more and only 14% less. These NHS doctors, now in their 40s, had a high level of satisfaction with their jobs and their careers but were less satisfied with some other aspects of their working environment. A substantial percentage had expectations about future career development and change.

  2. Perception of 1 st year medical students towards career choices and specialty of psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Kumar Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortage of psychiatrists is a worldwide phenomenon. If the factors that attract or repel students towards a specialty can be identified, it may be possible to encourage them towards it. Choice of specialty as a career depends on the complex interplay of experiences before, during or after exposure to the specialty. Objectives: The aim was to understand perceptions of 1 st year medical students regarding career choices and the specialty of psychiatry through a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Materials and Methods: Perceptions of 137 1 st year medical students from the Government Medical College were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. Students provided their opinions about future career choices; perspective of these specialties in terms of financial reward, reputation, work-life balance, challenging aspect, ability to help patients effectively and emotional stability; their preferences in life and interaction with psychiatrist and its impact. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc analysis by Tukey-Kramer test. Results: Surgery was a high priority for 69 (50% while psychiatry was a high priority only for 11 (8%. Surgery was highest for financial reward and reputation, but lowest for work-life balance. Psychiatry had higher emotional stability, however, its the reputation was lower than surgery, medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology and paediatrics. Students preferred reputation (41% over social service opportunities (43%, work-life balance (16%, and high-income (11%. Interaction with psychiatrist increased inclination for psychiatry in 69% (9/13 students. Conclusions: Psychiatry is not a preferred specialty among 1 st year medical students due to its poor reputation.

  3. Greek medical students' career choices indicate strong tendency towards specialization and training abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Efthimios D; Msaouel, Pavlos; Koussidis, George A; Keramaris, Nikolaos C; Bessas, Zacharias; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the career choices, location preferences and criteria among medical students in Greece. We applied a questionnaire-based analysis using a sample of 591 students of four out of seven Greek Medical Schools. The sample included students of all academic years. The vast majority of students wish to specialize (97.6%), while general practice gathered a very low percentage (1.7%). The scientific challenge (61.4%) and interaction with patients (60.6%) seem to be the major influencing factors for most of the students' specialty preferences, whilst less common variables influencing career choice are the high demand/supply ratio for certain health services (40.4%), the income potential (31.4%), the active tempo (26.2%) and prestige (15%). 70.3% of those asked consider the possibility of specializing abroad. The low concern of Greek medical students for general practice reveals today's drastic deficiency in Greek primary health care. Such a situation will escalate, unless targeted strategies to produce more general practitioners are adopted. Furthermore, the results reflect a lower education and organizing level urging students to specialize abroad. The National Health System (NHS) should be reformed towards a rationalistic distribution of the medical specialties and medical workforce.

  4. Perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices of medical students in a medical school in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Chin Chung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trend of medical career choice in the younger generation has resulted in deficiency of manpower in the four major disciplines of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics, which will threaten people's health care in Taiwan. However, perceptions of gender awareness and factors affecting the career choices of medical students have not been investigated systemically in Taiwan. To explore the perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices, we recruited 280 1st- and 7th-year male and female medical students at a Medical University for the study. A modified Nijmegen questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale containing medical curricula (18 items, gender awareness (13 items, and career inclination (9 items was adopted as the investigation tool in our study. The response rate was 75% (224/280. With regard to gender, the 1st-year male students had greater confidence in being a physician than the female students (p < 0.05, and female students subjectively suggested an advantage to communicate with patients or colleagues (p < 0.05. Faculty attitude in treating students differently by gender was more prominent in the 7th-year than in the 1st-year students (p < 0.001, and they felt male preceptors typically were more enthusiastic to teach and to rank higher grades to female than to male students; however, this was not observed among female preceptors. Both male and female students showed a low level of agreement that clinical skills and performance of a physician were significantly different by gender and “female physicians are more empathetic and provide more communications than male physicians”. Factors influencing career choices of medical students, including “personal interests/talents” and “academic achievement of the specialty,” were not significantly different by gender. Factors included “training and learning environments of the specialty”, “risk of lawsuit”, and

  5. What do UK medical students value most in their careers? A discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Johnston, Peter; Watson, Verity; Krucien, Nicolas; Skåtun, Diane

    2017-08-01

    Many individual- and job-related factors are known to influence medical careers decision making. Previous research has extensively studied medical trainees' (residents') and students' views of the factors that are important. However, how trainees and students trade off these factors at times of important careers-related decision making is under-researched. Information about trade-offs is crucial to the development of effective policies to enhance the recruitment and retention of junior doctors. Our aim was to investigate the strength of UK medical students' preferences for the characteristics of training posts in terms of monetary value. We distributed a paper questionnaire that included a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to final-year medical students in six diverse medical schools across the UK. The main outcome measure was the monetary value of training post characteristics, based on willingness to forgo and willingness to accept extra income for a change in each job characteristic calculated from regression coefficients. A total of 810 medical students answered the questionnaire. The presence of good working conditions was by far the most influential characteristic of a training position. Medical students consider that, as newly graduated doctors, they will require compensation of an additional 43.68% above average earnings to move from a post with excellent working conditions to one with poor working conditions. Female students value excellent working conditions more highly than male students, whereas older medical students value them less highly than younger students. Students on the point of completing medical school and starting postgraduate training value good working conditions significantly more than they value desirable geographical location, unit reputation, familiarity with the unit or opportunities for partners or spouses. This intelligence can be used to address the crisis in workforce staffing that has developed in the UK and opens up fruitful

  6. Career choices for public health: cohort studies of graduates from UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Michael J; Laxton, Louise; Lambert, Trevor W; Webster, Premila

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe UK-trained doctors' early intentions about seeking careers in public health and their eventual speciality destinations. Analysis of longitudinal studies of medical graduates from all UK medical schools in selected year-of-qualification cohorts from 1974 to 2008; data collected by postal questionnaires at various times after qualifying; and selection, for this paper, of doctors who expressed an early preference for a career in public health and/or who eventually practised in it. Of all doctors eventually practising in public health, for whom we had early choices, public health had been the unreserved first choice of 8% (10/125) in their first post-qualification year, 27% (33/122) in their third year and 59% (51/86) in their fifth year. Including first choices for public health 'tied' with an equal preference for a different speciality, and doctors' second and third choices for public health, 19% (24/125) of practising public health doctors had considered public health as a possible career in their first post-graduation year, 41% (50/122) in the third and 83% (71/86) in the fifth year. Comparisons with other specialities show that doctors in public health chose their speciality relatively late after qualification.

  7. Career choices for radiology: national surveys of graduates of 1974-2002 from UK medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.; Lambert, T.W.; Goldacre, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To report on trends in career choices for radiology among UK medical graduates. Materials and methods: One and 3 years after graduation, and at longer time intervals thereafter, postal questionnaire surveys were sent to all doctors who graduated from UK medical schools in 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 and 2002. Doctors were asked to specify their choice of long-term career and to identify factors influencing their choice. Employment details were also collected. Results were analysed using χ 2 statistics and binary logistic regression. Results: Seventy-four percent (24,621/33,412) and 73% (20,720/28,459) of doctors responded 1 and 3 years after graduation. Choices for radiology in year 1 increased significantly over time (1.7% of 1974 graduates to 3.2% of 2002 graduates; χ 2 test for trend = 15.3, p < 0.001). In particular, there has been a steady increase from the cohorts of 1993 onwards. Thirty-eight percent of those who chose radiology in year 1, and 80% who chose radiology in year 3, were still working in radiology 10 years after graduation. Hours and working conditions influenced long-term career choices more for radiology than for other careers. Conclusions: The proportion of UK trained junior doctors who want to become radiologists has increased in recent years. However, although medical school intake and the numbers making an early choice for radiology have risen, it is unclear whether sufficient UK graduates will be attracted to radiology to fulfil future service requirements from UK trained graduates alone

  8. The Relationship between Management, Career Planning and Career Development of Medical and Non-medical Faculty Members of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    G Sajjadikhah; S Salajegheh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: There are many mechanisms for the development of human resources, which career development is one of its central components. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to career development faculty members (Medical and Non-medical) of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, Iran. Methods: The present paper was a cross-sectional, descriptive correlation method study.  The study population consisted of 535 faculty members (medical, govern...

  9. Specific Disgust Sensitivities Differentially Predict Interest in Careers of Varying Procedural-Intensity among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Windsor, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Mismatches between the needs of public health systems and student interests have led to renewed study on the factors predicting career specializations among medical students. While most work examines career and lifestyle values, emotional proclivities may be important; disgust sensitivity may help explain preferences for careers with greater and…

  10. Australian medical students and their choice of surgery as a career: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Megan; Arora, Manit; Diwan, Ashish D

    2014-09-01

    Surgery is an emotionally, physically and mentally challenging profession, and medical students factor in many variables when choosing surgery as a career choice. The aim of this study is to review the available literature on the factors influencing Australian medical students' choice of surgery as their career. A search of EMBASE and MEDLINE with the search terms 'medical students' AND 'surgery'; 'medical students' AND 'career pathways'; 'medical students' AND 'career choices' was conducted. Additionally, Google Scholar and the reference list of some articles were canvassed for suitable areas of study. Lifestyle factors were the main reason influencing medical student's career choices. A balance between work, family and lifestyle was found to be important, and a surgical career choice was not always compatible with this. In particular, female students placed more importance on family and lifestyle factors when opting for non-surgical careers. Positive exposure and/or experiences in a surgical environment, perceived prestige and perceived financial reward were associated with surgical career choice. There is a need to better understand the factors influencing surgical and non-surgical career choice among Australian medical students, and develop appropriate interventions to promote surgery as a career. This article does not discuss personality traits of people who go into surgery. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. [Gender-specific evaluation of student's career planning during medical study in terms of orthopaedic trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, S C; Antony, P; Ruesseler, M; Pfeifer, R; Drescher, W; Simon, M; Pape, H-C; Knobe, M

    2011-08-01

    Due to recent changes in the medical licencing act as well as to the introduction of a new model-course programme for medical studies, careers in medicine have become increasingly more attractive. However, there is still a dramatic shortage in younger generation physicians, especially within the surgical fields. The goal of this cross-sectional study was the gender-specific assessment of the ideal career wishes of students during medical school, with a focus being placed in orthopaedic trauma surgery. During the winter semester of 2010/2011 an online questionnaire (www.surveymonkey.com) was created for students enrolled in their 3rd to 12th semester (n=887). The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions [Likert scale (LS); 5 = agree, 1 = disagree] along with 10 free response questions. The scope of these questions ranged from personal career goals, within the context of their learning environment, to general life goals and planning. With regard to career choice, a differentiation was made between students' ideal career choices/subjects (IS), which were based solely on personal affinity, and so-called reality-based subjects (RS), which students considered more practical and to which they were more likely to apply in the future. The response rate was 36,4% (n=323, 23,4 years, 6.3 semesters, 226 [70.0%] female [f] and 97 [30.0%] male [m]). A total of 206 students (63.8%; m=55.7% vs. f=66.7%; p=0.047) were able to pinpoint an IS, this percentage increased with increasing semester number (p=0.048). Overall, 29.1% of students indicated that their IS lay in the field of orthopaedic trauma, while 20.0% of men and 19.1% of women saw it as a realistic career path (RS). Throughout the course of their studies, from the 3rd semester to their practical year, a declining tendency was observed regarding the agreement between ideal and realistic career paths. Particularly evident was a decreasing interest in the field of orthopaedic trauma, beginning around the 9th semester and

  12. Environmental health engineering students\\' attitudes toward their education program and career in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirnasab

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing numbers of medical sciences graduates is counted to be one of the problems in the society, so that there is concerning about their majors and future careers among them. This study was performed with the aim of determining environmental health students' attitude toward their majors and future careers, which was carried out in Yazd University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Method: This analytical, descriptive study was performed in 2015. The samples were Environmental Health students of Yazd University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was 102. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing 20 questions and analyzed by SPSS software version 21, multiple linear regression test, one-sample t-test and Chi-Square test. Results: The mean and standard deviation of environmental students' attitude toward their majors and future careers were 3.16 and 0.66, respectively. Attitude scores more than 3 were considered positive and less than 3 were negative. The mean scores of attitude was significantly higher than 3 (P=0.012. In this study, there was a significant relationship between students’ attitude and location status (P=0.003. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the students of environment health had a good perspective towards their future careers and majors of study. A proper distribution of human resources, providing financial support of employment, establishing counselling and supporting centers among students for future career is recommended to improve their attitudes.

  13. The Career in Medical Physics — Profession and Vocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergieva, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose is to present the career development in medical physics in sense of motto of conference: Women in Nuclear Meet Atoms for Peace. All of us have someone, who has treated for cancer at some moment in his life. Only one knows that between most visible healthcare staff in radiotherapy (clinicians, nurses and radiographers) have medical physicists. The main objective of duties of medical physicists is to ensure, that the equipment and processes using in treatment planning and delivery will produce the desire dose distribution in the patients with acceptable accuracy. I have studied physics in the University as a favorite subject. The key moment to find medical physics as my profession was training sessions on dosimetry conducted in Radiotherapy Department. The critical role and importance of the work doing by medical physicists have made a big impression on me. I have become a volunteer and later on I have received a position as a medical physicist in hospital. The training period as a fellow in IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory was important period, which gave me that close connection to people, that I need at that time and become a milestone in my carrier. I learned a lot and felt an enormous motivation to improve myself. Today I am familiar with most innovative radiotherapy techniques using for treatment of cancer and gratitude of patients make me more and more confident, that medical physics is not only my profession but and my vocation. The motto of conference sound actually, when the most disputable problem is: “It’s crucial to get more women in nuclear science, because the gender gap persists”. The efforts of IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano to create gender balance should be highly appreciated: “As Director General, I will do my best during my tenure to improve this situation”. (author)

  14. Canadian National Guidelines and Recommendations for Integrating Career Advising Into Medical School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Kelly; Harris, June; Dalgarno, Nancy

    2017-11-01

    Career planning, decision making about specialty choice, and preparation for residency matching are significant sources of stress for medical students. Attempts have been made to structure and formalize career advising by including it in accreditation standards. There is an expressed need for national guidelines on career advising for medical students. The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Implementation Project was created to ensure Canadian medical trainees receive the best education possible. From this, a diverse sub-working group (SWG), representing different Canadian regions, was formed to review career advising processes across the country. The SWG developed, through a modified formal consensus methodology, a strategy for medical student career advising that is adaptable to all schools in alignment with existing accreditation standards. The SWG outlined five guiding principles and five essential elements for Canadian universities offering an MD degree with recommendations on how to integrate the elements into each school's career advising system. The five essential elements are a structured approach to career advising, information about available career options, elective guidance, preparation for residency applications, and social accountability. This Perspective endorses the view of the FMEC PG Implementation Project that national guidelines are important to ensure Canadian medical schools are consistently meeting accreditation standards by providing reliable and quality career advising to all medical students. The SWG's position, based on national and provincial feedback, is that these guidelines will stimulate discourse and action regarding the requirements and processes to carry out these recommendations nationwide and share across borders.

  15. Intended location of future career practice among graduating medical students: perspective from social cognitive career theory in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, B P; Amatya, A

    2013-09-01

    Medical workforce shortages and mal-distributions world-wide make understanding how, where and what our future doctors wish to practice is increasingly important. Understanding of factors such as available infrastructure, provision of incentives and many others influences the decisions of doctors to leave or to stay. Therefore the strategies effective for retention, is imperative in conducting the study based on a sound theoretical framework in predicting future medical workforce needs. The study used the theoretical framework of Social Cognitive Career Theory to identify the predictors on future practice location. The study was cross-sectional descriptive in design targeting the Nepalese medical students in the final year and doing internships in Nepal. Anonymous self administered questionnaire was distributed among 480 students but 393 students were involved due to non response and incompleteness. Findings of the study were presented in frequency tables for univariate descriptive analysis and bivariate findings were presented by cross tabulation. About two thirds 259 (65.9%) of the participants had chosen within country location for future practice. Among those who had chosen within country choice, about an equal percentage of the respondents had chosen rural 131 (50.8%) and urban 128 (49.2%) location. Among those who had chosen within country for future practice location, less than one fifth of the participants had chosen private sector for future practice. Majority of the medical graduates wish to practice within country location. Most of which chose public sector for future practice. None of the SCCT construct had any significant association within country location.

  16. [Present status of Japanese neurologists from the questionnaire survey - to support women doctor's career advancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaura, Hikoaki

    2013-01-01

    Childcare issue and family care issue are critical factors for women doctors to make a career as a neurologist in Japan. To know the actual business conditions of Japanese neurologists an online questioner survey was conducted. Answers were obtained from 737 members of Japanese Society of Neurology and 21 neurological medical facilities. Most of the answers were form members at three major metropolitan areas such as Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya. Nobody from some prefectures was replied any answer. Almost sixty percent woman doctors had to change their working style from full time to part time at their child raising period and had difficulty with returning to full time job. Some neurologists have answered they used paid vacation to care their families and they felt they could not keep it for a longer period. At 70 percent of medical facilities sick child day care center were not operated. Opinions form members extremely varied from "In the first place woman doctors are unnecessary"to "With the help of the partner I have survived my child raising period".

  17. Academic achievement, depression and anxiety during medical education predict the styles of success in a medical career: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkiewicz, Maciej; Tartas, Malgorzata; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Our study investigated the styles of success in the medical career in young physicians, in comparison with the same subjects examined 4-10 years earlier. The participants were first studied when they applied to the medical university (1999). Questionnaires were sent to all students each year (2000-2005). Fifty-four medical doctors participated in the first phase of the study completed a questionnaire four years after graduation. The current questionnaire included measures of burnout, satisfaction with medicine as a career, quality of life (QOL) and postgraduate examination results. Previous questionnaires had included measures of academic achievement, depression and anxiety. We can describe three different styles of success, which can be predicted during medical education. Physicians with the best professional competence have the lowest income. However, physicians with the lowest professional competence gain the highest income. Those with the highest QOL (general well-being and life satisfaction) have the lowest professional stress and vulnerability to burnout. Anxiety and academic achievement (during the second and fourth year of study) are the significant predictors of specific style belonging. Our results may be useful to medical school admissions and resident selection committees to identify candidates at risk for less satisfaction or less competence.

  18. Doctors' views about training and future careers expressed one year after graduation by UK-trained doctors: questionnaire surveys undertaken in 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Jenny J; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2014-12-21

    The UK medical graduates of 2008 and 2009 were among the first to experience a fully implemented, new, UK training programme, called the Foundation Training Programme, for junior doctors. We report doctors' views of the first Foundation year, based on comments made as part of a questionnaire survey covering career choices, plans, and experiences. Postal and email based questionnaires about career intentions, destinations and views were sent in 2009 and 2010 to all UK medical graduates of 2008 and 2009. This paper is a qualitative study of 'free-text' comments made by first-year doctors when invited to comment, if they wished, on any aspect of their work, education, training, and future. The response rate to the surveys was 48% (6220/12952); and 1616 doctors volunteered comments. Of these, 61% wrote about their first year of training, 35% about the working conditions they had experienced, 33% about how well their medical school had prepared them for work, 29% about their future career, 25% about support from peers and colleagues, 22% about working in medicine, and 15% about lifestyle issues. When concerns were expressed, they were commonly about the balance between service provision, administrative work, and training and education, with the latter often suffering when it conflicted with the needs of medical service provision. They also wrote that the quality of a training post often depended on the commitment of an individual senior doctor. Service support from seniors was variable and some respondents complained of a lack of team work and team ethic. Excessive hours and the lack of time for reflection and career planning before choices about the future had to be made were also mentioned. Some doctors wrote that their views were not sought by their hospital and that NHS management structures did not lend themselves to efficiency. UK graduates from non-UK homes felt insecure about their future career prospects in the UK. There were positive comments about

  19. Doctors currently in jobs with academic content and their future intentions to pursue clinical academic careers: questionnaire surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to report on doctors' descriptions of their current post at about 12 years after qualification, in respect of academic content, and to compare this with their long-term intentions. By academic content, we mean posts that are designated as clinical academic posts or clinical service posts that include research and/or teaching commitments. Questionnaire survey. All UK medical graduates of 1996 contacted in 2007, graduates of 1999 in 2012, and graduates of 2000 in 2012. UK. Responses about current posts and future intentions. Postal and email questionnaires. The response rate was 61.9% (6713/10844). Twenty eight per cent were working in posts with academic content (3.3% as clinical academics, 25% in clinical posts with some academic content). Seventeen per cent of women were working in clinical posts with some teaching and research, compared with 29% of men. A higher percentage of men than women intended to be clinical academics as their eventual career choice (3.9% overall, 5.4% of men, 2.7% of women). More doctors wished to move to a job with an academic component than away from one (N = 824 compared with 236). This was true for both men (433 compared with 118) and women (391 compared with 118). Women are under-represented both in holding posts with academic content and in aspirations to do so. It is noteworthy that many more doctors hoped to move into an academic role than to move out of one. Policy should facilitate this wish in order to address current shortfalls in clinical academic medicine.

  20. Measuring Student Career Interest within the Context of Technology-Enhanced STEM Projects: A Cross-Project Comparison Study Based on the Career Interest Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Kermish-Allen, Ruth; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2016-12-01

    This article describes Energy for ME and Going Green! Middle Schoolers Out to Save the World, two Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education programs with the common goal of improving students' attitudes about scientific careers. The authors represent two project teams, each with funding from the National Science Foundation's ITEST program. Using different approaches and technology, both projects challenged students to use electricity monitoring system data to create action plans for conserving energy in their homes and communities. The impact of each project on students' career interests was assessed via a multi-method evaluation that included the Career Interest Questionnaire (CIQ), a measure that was validated within the context of ITEST projects and has since become one of the instruments used most commonly across the ITEST community. This article explores the extent to which the CIQ can be used to document the effects of technology-enhanced STEM educational experiences on students' career attitudes and intentions in different environments. The results indicate that the CIQ, and the Intent subscale in particular, served as significant predictors of students' self-reported STEM career aspirations across project context. Results from each project also demonstrated content gains by students and demonstrated the impact of project participation and gender on student outcomes. The authors conclude that the CIQ is a useful tool for providing empirical evidence to document the impact of technology-enhanced science education programs, particularly with regard to Intent to purse a STEM career. The need for additional cross-project comparison studies is also discussed.

  1. The Net Present Value and Other Economic Implications of a Medical Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Uwe E

    2017-07-01

    College graduates' career choices are driven by a complex mixture of factors, one of which is economics. The author comments on the report by Marcu and colleagues in this issue, which focuses strictly on the economics of this decision. Specifically, Marcu and colleagues modeled career choices as long-term financial investments in human capital, which consists of the knowledge and clinical skills physicians gain in undergraduate and graduate medical education. They distill the numerous factors that shape the economics of career choice into a commonly used criterion for long-term financial investments of any kind-namely, the so-called net present value (NPV) of the investment. For them, that investment is the decision to pursue a medical career rather than the next best nonmedical, alternative career. This NPV calculation determines the increase or decrease in wealth, relative to that of the next best alternative career, that a college graduate is thought to experience as of the moment she or he enters medical school simply by choosing a medical career rather than the next best alternative. Marcu and colleagues use this human capital model to explore how different plans to finance a medical school education impact the NPV, all other parameters being equal. The author of this Commentary explains in layman's terms how the NPV is calculated and then raises a number of other issues concerning the economics of a medical career, including medical school tuition, residents' salaries, and investments in human capital as tax deductible.

  2. The Career and Work Adaptability Questionnaire (CWAQ): A First Contribution to Its Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Laura; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Soresi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, occupational changes have the rapidly changing job market has begun to demand that people more actively construct their professional lives and acquire career adaptability. The aim of the present study was to develop a specific, new instrument, "Career and Work Adaptability", to assess degree of adaptability in…

  3. An Expanded Conceptual Framework of Medical Students' Primary Care Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarrwaller, Eva; Audétat, Marie-Claude; Sommer, Johanna; Maisonneuve, Hubert; Bischoff, Thomas; Nendaz, Mathieu; Baroffio, Anne; Junod Perron, Noëlle; Haller, Dagmar M

    2017-11-01

    In many countries, the number of graduating medical students pursuing a primary care career does not meet demand. These countries face primary care physician shortages. Students' career choices have been widely studied, yet many aspects of this process remain unclear. Conceptual models are useful to plan research and educational interventions in such complex systems.The authors developed a framework of primary care career choice in undergraduate medical education, which expands on previously published models. They used a group-based, iterative approach to find the best way to represent the vast array of influences identified in previous studies, including in a recent systematic review of the literature on interventions to increase the proportion of students choosing a primary care career. In their framework, students enter medical school with their personal characteristics and initial interest in primary care. They complete a process of career decision making, which is subject to multiple interacting influences, both within and outside medical school, throughout their medical education. These influences are stratified into four systems-microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem-which represent different levels of interaction with students' career choices.This expanded framework provides an updated model to help understand the multiple factors that influence medical students' career choices. It offers a guide for the development of new interventions to increase the proportion of students choosing primary care careers and for further research to better understand the variety of processes involved in this decision.

  4. Motivation of French medical students to pursue surgical careers: results of national survey of 1742 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Jeremie H; Karila, Laurent; Kerneis, Solen; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2010-06-01

    Analyze the aspirations and personal motivations behind the choice of surgical specialties in a large sample of students in their 6th year of medical school. In December 2008, 2588 students participated in a nation-wide mock exam, before taking the National Ranking Exam. When they looked for their grades on the web, the students were prompted to answer a questionnaire containing socio-demographic questions concerning their choice and motivation to pursue a career in a surgical specialty. The survey called also for listing the three main factors (out of a list of 11) motivating their choice. Students originated from 39 medical schools. Of the 2588 students, 1427 (55%) were women. The response rate to the questionnaire was 1742/2588=67%. Two hundred and twenty students (13%) did not express any specific professional orientation. Of the 1522 responses obtained, 522 students wanted to become surgeons. Gender was a determining factor as 44% of male students (n=252) versus 29% of female students wanted to become a surgeon; Pprivate practice (n=280, 18%) and life style (n=175, 11%) were the motivations most often cited to back their choice. One third of medical students want to become surgeons. Feminization, life style and income are the principal factors influencing the choice of the type of surgical subspecialization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Plastic Surgery Inclusion in the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Perception, Challenges, and Career Choice—A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom, McGill University (Canada, and a control group (non-medical staff. The questions were about plastic surgery: (1 source of information and basic understanding; (2 undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3 factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group. The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2 and level of significance p≤0.05. Results. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n=171/332, 52% (McGill n=72/132, 54%. Birmingham students (14% considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p<0.025. Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p<0.001 while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p<0.001. McGill students (67% more than Birmingham (49%, p<0.010 considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p<0.01 but an optional module for Birmingham (61%. A similar proportion (18% from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in

  6. Reducing the physician workforce crisis: Career choice and graduate medical education reform in an emerging Arab country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Halah; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Shaban, Sami; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In today's interdependent world, issues of physician shortages, skill imbalances and maldistribution affect all countries. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a nation that has historically imported its physician manpower, there is sustained investment in educational infrastructure to meet the population's healthcare needs. However, policy development and workforce planning are often hampered by limited data regarding the career choice of physicians-in-training. The purpose of this study was to determine the specialty career choice of applicants to postgraduate training programs in the UAE and factors that influence their decisions, in an effort to inform educational and health policy reform. To our knowledge, this is the first study of career preferences for UAE residency applicants. All applicants to residency programs in the UAE in 2013 were given an electronic questionnaire, which collected demographic data, specialty preference, and factors that affected their choice. Differences were calculated using the t-test statistic. Of 512 applicants, 378 participated (74%). The most preferred residency programs included internal medicine, pediatrics, emergency medicine and family medicine. A variety of clinical experience, academic reputation of the hospital, and international accreditation were leading determinants of career choice. Potential future income was not a significant contributing factor. Applicants to UAE residency programs predominantly selected primary care careers, with the exception of obstetrics. The results of this study can serve as a springboard for curricular and policy changes throughout the continuum of medical education, with the ultimate goal of training future generations of primary care clinicians who can meet the country's healthcare needs. As 65% of respondents trained in medical schools outside of the UAE, our results may be indicative of medical student career choice in countries throughout the Arab world.

  7. [Development, factor-analytical control and psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire on specialty choices among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, K; Buchholz, A; Loh, A; Kiolbassa, K; Miksch, A; Joos, S; Götz, K

    2012-07-01

    A questionnaire was developed and validated which assesses factors influencing career choices of medical students and their perception of possibilities in general practice. The first questionnaire version, which was developed based on a systematic literature review, was checked for comprehensibility and redundancy using concurrent think aloud. The revised version was filled out by a pilot sample of medical students and the factor structure was assessed using principal component analysis (PCA). The final version was filled out in an online survey by medical students of all 5 Medical Faculties in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The factor structure was validated with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Reliability was assessed as internal consistency using Cronbach's α. The questionnaire comprises 2 parts: ratings of (A) the individual importance and of (B) the possibilities in general practice on 5-point scales. The first version comprising 118 items was shortened to 63 items after conducting interviews using concurrent think aloud. A further 3 items giving no information were removed after piloting the questionnaire on 179 students. The 27 items of part A were structured in 7 factors (PCA): image, personal ambition, patient orientation, work-life balance, future perspectives, job-related ambition, and variety in job. This structure had a critical fit in the CFA applied to the final version filled out by 1 299 students. Internal consistency of the factors was satisfactory to very good (Cronbach's α=0.55-0.81). The questionnaire showed good psychometric properties. Further, not assessed factors influence career choice resulting in unexplained variance in our dataset and the critical fit of the model. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Career intentions and dropout causes among medical students in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizullina, Kamila; Kausova, Galina; Kalmataeva, Zhanna; Nurbakyt, Ardak; Buzdaeva, Saule

    2013-01-01

    The number of new entrants to higher medical schools of Kazakhstan increased by 1.6 times from 2007 to 2012. However, it is not known how it will affect the shortage of human resources for health. Additionally, human resources for health in rural areas of Kazakhstan are 4 times scarcer than in urban areas. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intentions of students toward their professional future and readiness to work in rural areas, as well as to determine the causes for dropping out from medical schools. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 medical universities in Almaty during the academic year 2011-2012. The study sample included medical students and interns. In total, 2388 students participated in the survey. The survey tool was an anonymous questionnaire. The students of the first years of studies compared with those of later years of studies were more optimistic about the profession and had more intentions to work in the medical field. Only 8% of the students reported a wish to work in rural localities. On the other hand, 4% of the students did not plan to pursue the profession. On the average, every third medical student dropped out on his/her own request. Associations between intentions to work according to the profession and the year of studies, faculty, and residence area before enrolling in a medical school were documented. The majority of the students who came from rural areas preferred to stay and look for work in a city, which might contribute to an unequal distribution of physicians across the country.

  9. A questionnaire survey of medical cooperation by the Iwaki medical association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    It has been pointed out that currently, Iwaki City faces an insufficiency of doctors working at hospitals, compared with before. Such an insufficiency became more remarkable after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, as about 30,000 people relocated to Iwaki City from the evacuation areas. In this regard, the Iwaki Medical Association conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate the problems of medical cooperation and utilize the data to improve medical cooperation within hospitals and clinics. A total of 159 doctors answered the questionnaires: 64% were community physicians, 36% were doctors working at hospitals, and 42% were physicians. About 60% of the doctors were satisfied with the present medical cooperation. Home health care was performed by 25% of the doctors working at hospitals and 45% of the community physicians. Approximately 80% of the doctors felt the need for additional physicians to perform home health care, although more than half of the doctors answered that they do not perform it. Various problems exist in the context of medical cooperation, but many doctors still hope for its improvement, according to the answers in the questionnaires. Efforts have to be exerted further in order to enhance medical cooperation among the health care team. (author)

  10. [A questionnaire survey of medical cooperation by the Iwaki Medical Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Yasuhiko

    2013-12-01

    It has been pointed out that currently, Iwaki City faces an insufficiency of doctors working at hospitals, compared with before. Such an insufficiency became more remarkable after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, as about 30,000 people relocated to Iwaki City from the evacuation areas. In this regard, the Iwaki Medical Association conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate the problems of medical cooperation and utilize the data to improve medical cooperation within hospitals and clinics. A total of 159 doctors answered the questionnaires: 64% were community physicians, 36% were doctors working at hospitals, and 42% were physicians. About 60% of the doctors were satisfied with the present medical cooperation. Home health care was performed by 25% of the doctors working at hospitals and 45% of the community physicians. Approximately 80% of the doctors felt the need for additional physicians to perform home health care, although more than half of the doctors answered that they do not perform it. Various problems exist in the context of medical cooperation, but many doctors still hope for its improvement, according to the answers in the questionnaires. Efforts have to be exerted further in order to enhance medical cooperation among the health care team.

  11. A mixed methods analysis of experiences and expectations among early-career medical oncologists in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W K Tim; Kirby, Emma; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David; Francis, Kay; Karapetis, Christos S; Karikios, Deme; Harrup, Rosemary; Lwin, Zarnie

    2018-01-26

    A viable and sustainable medical oncology profession is integral for meeting the increasing demand for quality cancer care. The aim of this study was to explore the workforce-related experiences, perceptions and career expectations of early-career medical oncologists in Australia. A mixed-methods design, including a survey (n  =  170) and nested qualitative semistructured interviews (n  =  14) with early-career medical oncologists. Recruitment was through the Medical Oncology Group of Australia. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed and for the survey results, logistic regression modeling was conducted. Early-career medical oncologists experienced uncertainty regarding their future employment opportunities. The competitive job market has made them cautious about securing a preferred job leading to a perceived need to improve their qualifications through higher degree training and research activities. The following themes and trends were identified from the qualitative and quantitative analyses: age, career stage and associated early-career uncertainty; locale, professional competition and training preferences; participation in research and evolving professional expectations; and workload and career development opportunities as linked to career uncertainty. Perceived diminished employment opportunities in the medical oncology profession, and shifting expectations to be "more qualified," have increased uncertainty among junior medical oncologists in terms of their future career prospects. Structural factors relating to adequate funding of medical oncology positions may facilitate or inhibit progressive change in the workforce and its sustainability. Workforce planning and strategies informed by findings from this study will be necessary in ensuring that both the needs of cancer patients and of medical oncologists are met. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Perceptions of medical students and their mentors in a specialised programme designed to provide insight into non-traditional career paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Anna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This pilot study explores the perceptions of medical students and their individual mentors who advised them in a specialised programme where students gained insight into non-tradition career paths. Methods Twelve medical students in years 3-6 at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden were recruited to the Prominentia mentor programme where they were individually paired with mentors who met with them to discuss and advise them on non-traditional career paths. Application letters of students to join the programme as well as electronically distributed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to assess the perceptions of mentors and students to the programme. Both the questionnaire and the interview transcripts were thematised using content analysis. Results In terms of expectations and requests, the application letters showed that all students specified their career goals and the type of mentor they desired. Whereas mentors in general had fewer requests and some had no specific demands. In light of perceived effects, all mentors felt they discussed future careers with their students and the majority of students responded the same way, with some interesting deviations. Most discussed topics during meetings were: future career, medical education, combinations of private life and work, and work environment. Conclusions This pilot study revealed that students appreciated receiving inspiration and seeing career path opportunities outside academic medicine as well as receiving support in personal and professional development and guidance about the students’ role as a doctor. However, discrepancies were found regarding how mentors and students respectively perceived the mentor programme.

  13. The Role of the Future Career Prospects in Students’ Educational Motivation of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akbari Booreng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : One of the important factors affecting on students’ educational success is their educational motivation. This study was designed and performed for investigating the role of the future career prospects in students’ educational motivation.   Methods : This was a cross sectional analytic study. For this purpose according to Cochrane formula, 285 participants were selected based on the random-cluster method out of all students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014 academic year. The questionnaires of mental illustration of the future career and educational motivation were used to gather data. The collected data were analyzed through Structural Equation-Finding Method by using PLS software.   Results : The findings of the present study showed that the used model had a suitable fitting. All direct and indirect paths were significant and confirmed (p<0.01, but the direct path of mental illustration of the future career to demotivation. The results also revealed that the students of Anesthesiology had less motivation compared to the students of medicine, health and laboratory sciences. Moreover, the students of operating room had more extrinsic motivation than nursing students. The students of operating room had less intrinsic motivation than the students of medicine.   Conclusion : With regard to the results of this study and the role of future career prospects in the students’ educational motivation, it seemed that providing a situation for students’ mental illustration of their future career by instructors and university lecturers was necessary.

  14. Choice and rejection of psychiatry as a career: surveys of UK medical graduates from 1974 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Michael J; Fazel, Seena; Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Recruitment of adequate numbers of doctors to psychiatry is difficult. To report on career choice for psychiatry, comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other clinical careers. Questionnaire studies of all newly qualified doctors from all UK medical schools in 12 qualification years between 1974 and 2009 (33 974 respondent doctors). One, three and five years after graduation, 4-5% of doctors specified psychiatry as their first choice of future career. This was largely unchanged across the 35 years. Comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other careers, factors with a greater influence on psychiatrists' choice included their experience of the subject at medical school, self-appraisal of their own skills, and inclinations before medical school. In a substudy of doctors who initially considered but then did not pursue specialty choices, 72% of those who did not pursue psychiatry gave 'job content' as their reason compared with 33% of doctors who considered but did not pursue other specialties. Historically, more women than men have chosen psychiatry, but the gap has closed over the past decade. Junior doctors' views about psychiatry as a possible career range from high levels of enthusiasm to antipathy, and are more polarised than views about other specialties. Shortening of working hours and improvements to working practices in other hospital-based specialties in the UK may have reduced the relative attractiveness of psychiatry to women doctors. The extent to which views of newly qualified doctors about psychiatry can be modified by medical school education, and by greater exposure to psychiatry during student and early postgraduate years, needs investigation.

  15. Choice and rejection of psychiatry as a career: surveys of UK medical graduates from 1974 to 2009†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Michael J.; Fazel, Seena; Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruitment of adequate numbers of doctors to psychiatry is difficult. Aims To report on career choice for psychiatry, comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other clinical careers. Method Questionnaire studies of all newly qualified doctors from all UK medical schools in 12 qualification years between 1974 and 2009 (33 974 respondent doctors). Results One, three and five years after graduation, 4–5% of doctors specified psychiatry as their first choice of future career. This was largely unchanged across the 35 years. Comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other careers, factors with a greater influence on psychiatrists’ choice included their experience of the subject at medical school, self-appraisal of their own skills, and inclinations before medical school. In a substudy of doctors who initially considered but then did not pursue specialty choices, 72% of those who did not pursue psychiatry gave ‘job content’ as their reason compared with 33% of doctors who considered but did not pursue other specialties. Historically, more women than men have chosen psychiatry, but the gap has closed over the past decade. Conclusions Junior doctors’ views about psychiatry as a possible career range from high levels of enthusiasm to antipathy, and are more polarised than views about other specialties. Shortening of working hours and improvements to working practices in other hospital-based specialties in the UK may have reduced the relative attractiveness of psychiatry to women doctors. The extent to which views of newly qualified doctors about psychiatry can be modified by medical school education, and by greater exposure to psychiatry during student and early postgraduate years, needs investigation. PMID:23099446

  16. Measurement Invariance in Careers Research: Using IRT to Study Gender Differences in Medical Students' Specialization Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Tara S.; Thompson, Lori Foster; Meade, Adam W.; Newton, Dale A.; Grayson, Martha S.

    2008-01-01

    The current study demonstrates the use of item response theory (IRT) to conduct measurement invariance analyses in careers research. A self-report survey was used to assess the importance 1,363 fourth-year medical students placed on opportunities to provide comprehensive patient care when choosing a career specialty. IRT analyses supported…

  17. Subject preferences of first- and second-year medical students for their future specialization at Chitwan Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Chitwan, Nepal - a questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Rajesh K; Paudel, Keshab R; Shah, Dev K; Sah, Ajit K; Basnet, Sangharshila; Sah, Phoolgen; Adhikari, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The selection of a discipline for future specialization may be an important factor for the medical students' future career, and it is influenced by multiple factors. The interest of students in the early stages can be improved in subjects related to public health or of academic importance, as per need. A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 265 first- and second-year medical students of Chitwan Medical College, Nepal to find out their subject of preference for postgraduation and the factors affecting their selection along with their interesting basic science subject. Only the responses from 232 completely filled questionnaires were analyzed. The preference of the students for clinical surgical (50.9%), clinical medical (45.3%), and basic medical (3.9%) sciences for postgraduation were in descending order. The most preferred specialty among male students was clinical surgical sciences (56.3%), and among female students, it was clinical medical sciences (53.6%). Although all the students responded to their preferred specialty, only 178 students specified the subject of their interest. General surgery (23.4%), pediatrics (23.4%), and anatomy (2.4%) were the most favored subjects for postgraduation among clinical surgical, clinical medical, and basic medical sciences specialties, respectively. More common reasons for selection of specific subject for future career were found to be: personal interests, good income, intellectual challenge, and others. Many students preferred clinical surgical sciences for their future specialization. Among the reasons for the selection of the specialty for postgraduation, no significant reason could be elicited from the present study.

  18. Views of junior doctors about whether their medical school prepared them well for work: questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Kathryn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from medical student to junior doctor in postgraduate training is a critical stage in career progression. We report junior doctors' views about the extent to which their medical school prepared them for their work in clinical practice. Methods Postal questionnaires were used to survey the medical graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation, and graduates of 2000, 2002 and 2005 three years after graduation. Summary statistics, chi-squared tests, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the results. The main outcome measure was the level of agreement that medical school had prepared the responder well for work. Results Response rate was 63.7% (11610/18216 in year one and 60.2% (8427/13997 in year three. One year after graduation, 36.3% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.0 of 1999/2000 graduates, 50.3% (48.5, 52.2 of 2002 graduates, and 58.2% (56.5, 59.9 of 2005 graduates agreed their medical school had prepared them well. Conversely, in year three agreement fell from 48.9% (47.1, 50.7 to 38.0% (36.0, 40.0 to 28.0% (26.2, 29.7. Combining cohorts at year one, percentages who agreed that they had been well prepared ranged from 82% (95% CI: 79-87 at the medical school with the highest level of agreement to 30% (25-35 at the lowest. At year three the range was 70% to 27%. Ethnicity and sex were partial predictors of doctors' level of agreement; following adjustment for them, substantial differences between schools remained. In years one and three, 30% and 34% of doctors specified that feeling unprepared had been a serious or medium-sized problem for them (only 3% in each year regarded it as serious. Conclusions The vast knowledge base of clinical practice makes full preparation impossible. Our statement about feeling prepared is simple yet discriminating and identified some substantial differences between medical schools. Medical schools need feedback from graduates about

  19. Examining Career Success of Minority and Women Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs): A LEADS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a critical segment in prehospital medical care. This study examined EMT-paramedic career success focused on minorities and women, as part of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). The LEADS data come from a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the…

  20. Australia's rural medical workforce: Supply from its medical schools against career stage, gender and rural-origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between career stage and rural medical workforce supply among Australian-trained medical graduates. Descriptive analysis using the national Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) longitudinal study. Australian-trained GPs and other specialists who participated in the MABEL study, 2008-2013. Proportions of GPs and specialists working in rural locations, according to career stage (establishing, early, mid and late), gender and childhood-origin type (rural versus metropolitan). Logistic regression models revealed that establishing- and early-career GPs had significantly higher likelihood (OR 1.67 and 1.38, respectively) of working rurally, but establishing and early-career doctors were significantly less likely (OR 0.34 and 0.43, respectively) to choose general practice, contributing proportionally fewer rural GPs overall (OR 0.77 and 0.75, respectively) compared to late-career doctors. For specialists, there were no significant associations between career cohorts and rural practice. Overall, there was a significantly lower likelihood (OR 0.83) of establishing-career doctors practising rurally. Women were similarly likely to be rural GPs but less likely to be rural specialists, while rural-origin was consistently associated with higher odds of rural practice. The supply of Australia's rural medical workforce from its medical schools continues to be challenging, with these data highlighting both their source and associations with doctors at different career stages. Despite large investments through rural medical training and rural workforce recruitment and retention policies, these data confirm continued reliance on internationally trained medical graduates for large proportions of rural supply is likely. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. [The differences in speciality preferences and career determinant factors between first- and fifth-year medical school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Asuka; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Abe, Masanori; Kusunoki, Tomo; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the imbalance in the medical workforce has caused a deterioration of rural medicine. We explored the differences in speciality preferences and career determinant factors among students to identify keys to increase the recruitment of physicians to rural areas. We conducted a survey of first- and fifth-year medical students, using a questionnaire enquiring about their specialty preference and career determinant factors. The data were analyzed with a chi-square test. A higher percentage of first-year students preferred to be basic medicine scientists, while fifth-year students considered internal medicine subspecialities, obstetrics and gynecology, anesthesia, and ophthalmology to be the most desirable. The factor analysis yielded five factors responsible for these findings; high social approval of the specialty, working hours, income, advice from senior classmates and doctors, and the work environment. The percentage of students who considered rural practice as a choice for thier future plan and had an awareness of the collapse of rural medicine was lower in the fifth-year students than in the first-year students. To increase the medical work force in provincial areas, it is necessary to strengthen not only the medical system with regard to general medicine, but also to offer better medical education in rural areas. More information about rural practice should therefore be transmitted to medical students.

  2. Career Choices and Career Progression of Junior Doctors in Dermatology: Surveys of UK Medical Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Atena; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W

    2018-01-01

    To report UK-trained doctors' career choices for dermatology, career destinations, and factors influencing career pathways. Multicohort multipurpose longitudinal surveys of UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1974 and 2015. In all, 40,412 doctors (58% of graduates) responded in year 1, 31,466 (64%) in year 3, and 24,970 (67%) in year 5. One year after graduation, 1.7% of women and 0.6% of men made dermatology their first choice but by five years after graduation the respective figures were 1.0% and 0.7%. Compared to their predecessors, its popularity fell more substantially from years 1 to 5 among recent graduates (2005-15), particularly for women (from 2.1% in year 1 to 0.8% in year 5) compared with a fall from 0.8% to 0.5% among men. The most important factor influencing dermatology choice was "hours/working conditions": in year one, 69% regarded this as important compared with 31% of those choosing other hospital physician specialties. Only 18% of respondents who chose dermatology at year 1 eventually worked in it; however, almost all practising dermatologists (94%), 10 years after qualifying, had made their future career decision by year 5. Dermatology is popular among female UK graduates. Most dermatologists made their career decision late but decisively.

  3. Career Choices and Career Progression of Junior Doctors in Dermatology: Surveys of UK Medical Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Barat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report UK-trained doctors’ career choices for dermatology, career destinations, and factors influencing career pathways. Methods. Multicohort multipurpose longitudinal surveys of UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1974 and 2015. Results. In all, 40,412 doctors (58% of graduates responded in year 1, 31,466 (64% in year 3, and 24,970 (67% in year 5. One year after graduation, 1.7% of women and 0.6% of men made dermatology their first choice but by five years after graduation the respective figures were 1.0% and 0.7%. Compared to their predecessors, its popularity fell more substantially from years 1 to 5 among recent graduates (2005–15, particularly for women (from 2.1% in year 1 to 0.8% in year 5 compared with a fall from 0.8% to 0.5% among men. The most important factor influencing dermatology choice was “hours/working conditions”: in year one, 69% regarded this as important compared with 31% of those choosing other hospital physician specialties. Only 18% of respondents who chose dermatology at year 1 eventually worked in it; however, almost all practising dermatologists (94%, 10 years after qualifying, had made their future career decision by year 5. Conclusion. Dermatology is popular among female UK graduates. Most dermatologists made their career decision late but decisively.

  4. Flexible but boring: medical students' perceptions of a career in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Australia will continue to face a general practitioner (GP) shortage unless a significant number of medical students make general practice their chosen career. Perceptions regarding general practice may influence career choices. Thus this study investigated what Australian medical students perceived to be the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a career in general practice via an anonymous online survey. Fifty-one students indicated general practice to be their first ranked career preference, 200 indicated a career other than general practice, and 106 were undecided. Two-hundred and two students reported having been on a GP placement, whereas 88 students had not. Flexibility, continuity of patient care and work-life balance were the three most common stated advantages to pursuing a career in general practice whereas general practice being boring, poorly paid, and of low prestige were the three most common disadvantages stated. Some disadvantages stated by those with a non-GP preference were not stated by those with a GP preference (e.g. lack of procedural skills, lack of career advancement opportunities). Students with more than 80 h of GP placement experience were more likely to list the advantages of work-life balance and a diversity of problems/illnesses/patients than those with no placement experience but were also more likely to list the disadvantage of low prestige. Negative stereotypes regarding general practice continue to exist which may influence students' career choices.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Determinants of Career Satisfaction in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia A. Reed, PhD

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Context: There is evidence of significant career dissatisfaction among practicing physicians and those considering medicine as a profession. Most research on career satisfaction has examined practicing physicians. This study was undertaken to look at determinants of satisfaction in those at the earliest stage of their medical careers – medical students. Methods: As part of a larger study, students comprising one class at the University of Washington School of Medicine were surveyed three times over the course of their medical education. For the present study we examined measures specifically related to determinants of career satisfaction. Findings: Over time, students’ sense of the importance of most measured determinants of satisfaction showed significant change, the majority of which were in the direction of decreased importance. However, most of the change was relative. That is, factors that students considered to be most important at the start of medical school continued to be most important throughout the educational experience and those factors students considered to be least important at Year 1 continued to be least important at Years 2 and 4. Discussion: These findings have implications for medical education, a time when students are forming expectations that will impact their career satisfaction. In addition to information on career satisfaction, students should understand the professional values of medicine, their own values and expectations, current practice patterns, economics, and the role of advocacy.

  6. Factors of the medical career choice within the context of ukrainian healthcare reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymar, Lesia; Omelchuk, Sergii

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The article is dedicated to the motives of medical career choice studied by Ukrainian and foreign scientists, and by the authors themselves. The authors define the main motives, grouped into the pragmatic, social, scientific and professional ones, paying particular attention to the proposed reforms of the Healthcare of Ukraine "Health 2020". The aim: The study has been aimed at detection of the medical career choice factor groups and their possible correction during the medical training, defining possible influence of the Ukrainian Healthcare reformation onto alterations of the medical career choice. Materials and methods: This article is based on bibliosemantic, dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. Review and conclusion: The authors have analyzed medical career motives according to the A. Maslow hierarchy of needs, comparing the present motives with the motives to be changed after reforming the Ukrainian healthcare. The authors conclude that according to the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the medical career choice corresponding to the first, second and third needs level would be directly related to the pragmatic, social and scientific motives, further disappointment in career, low professional performance and professional "burnout". The career choice corresponding to the last levels of the needs hierarchy is related to the professional motives and self-actualization, but, due to the applicants' age and financial status of medical specialists in Ukraine, is not likely to occur. Positive changes in medical specialists' salary rise, social protection offered by the State and state support of the profession will provide for correction of motives onto the higher level, in this way, benefiting the patients.

  7. A three-year prospective longitudinal cohort study of medical students' attitudes toward anatomy teaching and their career aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Aneel; Boutefnouchet, Tarek; Yong, Xu; Abrahams, Peter; Joplin, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Today's medical students are faced with numerous learning needs. Continuously developing curricula have reduced time for basic science subjects such as anatomy. This study aimed to determine the students' views on the relevance of anatomy teaching, anatomical knowledge, and the effect these have on their career choices. A Likert scale questionnaire was distributed to second year medical students [response rate 91% (n = 292/320)]. The same questionnaire was subsequently distributed to the cohort three years later when they were final year students [response rate 37% (n = 146/392)]. Students in both the cohorts of study agreed strongly that clinically correlated anatomical teaching was relevant to clinical practice (92% and 86% of second and final year respondents, respectively) and helped them during their clinical placements (73% and 92%, respectively). Only 28% of the second year and 31% of the final year students agreed that their anatomy teaching prepared them to interpret clinical images (P = 0.269). Only 14% of the final year students felt confident in their knowledge of anatomy. Of the final year students, 30% felt that they had enough opportunity to scrub in the operating room. Nearly half of those students who would consider surgery as a career (19%) think that they will eventually become surgeons (11%). This data suggests that modern anatomy curriculum should focus on clinical correlations and clinical image interpretation. Students would value more opportunities to participate in surgeries. Vertical integration of anatomy teaching throughout the full medical course may be useful. Copyright 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. The quality of translated medical research questionnaires | Fourie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various steps researchers follow when translating their questionnaires or other texts are considered, ... The design, translation approach and quality of the original translations are explained, along with the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Self-efficacy reduces the impact of social isolation on medical student's rural career intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Pit, Sabrina Winona; McLachlan, Craig S

    2018-03-20

    Social isolation in medical students is a subjective experience that may influence medical career decision making. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intentions following a rural clinical placement, however its impact on social isolation during a rural clinical placement has not been previously modeled. The objective of this study is to explore whether self-perception of social isolation is associated with rural career intent in rural medical students. Secondly, to determine whether self-efficacy influences the association between social isolation and rural career intent. 2015 data, from a cross-sectional survey of the National Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) study. Among 619 medical students attending rural clinical schools (RCS), rural career intent was assessed. This included intended rural location for either postgraduate medical specialist or generalist training or completion of that training. Self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice were based on a validated scale consisting of six questions. Social isolation was measured asking students whether they felt socially isolated during their RCS placement. 31.3% of surveyed students self-reported feeling socially isolated during their rural placement. Social isolation was associated with reduced rural career intent after controlling for gender, rural background, RCS preference, RCS support and wellbeing. In step-wise logistic regression the association between social isolation and rural intent disappeared with the inclusion of rural self-efficacy. Social isolation during a rural clinical placement is commonly reported and is shown to reduce rural career intent. High levels of rural clinical self-efficacy reduce the effects of social isolation on future rural workforce intentions.

  10. Analysis of medical students' needs for development of a career guidance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyejin; Kim, Eunjeong; Hwang, Jinyoung; Lee, Seunghee

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for the development of a career guidance program through a demand survey. For this purpose, three study topics were examined: Is there a difference between the satisfaction and importance of a career program? Is there a difference between the satisfaction and importance of a career program by gender, grade level? and What type of mentor and the mentoring way of medical students demanded? The subjects were 380 students at Seoul National University College of Medicine. The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, paired t-test, and Borich's formula. By t-test with matched samples for satisfaction-importance, We noted statistically significant differences in all domains. In particular, the difference was greater in the second year. According to the needs analysis, the most urgent program is meeting with seniors in various career areas. Also, medical students hope for mentor from clinical professors of the university and successful medical practitioners, and personal counseling. These results show that medical students need a career guidance program. The findings of the study can be used to guide the development of career education programs and curriculum for medicine students.

  11. Career intentions of medical students in the setting of Nepal's rapidly expanding private medical education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Ian; Shrestha, Suvash; Reich, Nicholas G; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-08-01

    The number of medical students trained in Nepal each year has increased nearly fifty-fold in the last 15 years, primarily through the creation of private medical schools. It is unknown where this expanding cohort of new physicians will ultimately practice. We distributed an anonymous survey to students in their last 2 years of medical school at four medical schools in Nepal to examine two dimensions of career intention: the intention to practice in Nepal and the intention to practice in rural areas. Eighty-five per cent of the eligible study population participated, for a total of 469 medical students. Of these, 88% thought it was likely they would practice in Nepal and 88% thought it likely they would practice in urban areas. Those students who indicated a greater likelihood of practicing abroad came from families with higher incomes, were more likely to think earning a good salary was very important to their decision to become a physician, and were less likely to think they could earn a good salary in Nepal. Students whose tuition was paid by the government were no more likely to indicate an intention to practice in Nepal than students paying their own tuition at private medical schools. Students who indicated a greater likelihood of practicing in rural areas were more likely to be male, to have gone to a government secondary school, to have been born in a village, or to have received a scholarship from the Ministry of Education that requires rural service. Based on our findings, we suggest the following policy changes: (1) medical schools consider selecting for students from rural backgrounds or government secondary schools who are more likely to intend to practice in rural areas, and (2) increase the number of post-graduate positions--weighted toward rural health needs--to retain students in Nepal.

  12. MD/MBA Students: An Analysis of Medical Student Career Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windsor Westbrook Sherrill, Ph.D., MBA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing number of medical schools are offering dual degree MD/MBA programs. Career choices and factors influencing students to enter these programs provide an indicator of the roles in which dual degree students will serve in health care as well as the future of dual degree programs. Purpose: Using career choice theory as a conceptual framework, career goals and factors influencing decisions to enter dual degree programs were assessed among dual degree medical students. Methods: Students enrolled at dual degree programs at six medical schools were surveyed and interviewed. A control group of traditional medical students was also surveyed. Results: Factors influencing students to seek both medical and business training are varied but are often related to a desire for leadership opportunities, concerns about change in medicine and job security and personal career goals. Most students expect to combine clinical and administrative roles. Conclusions: Students entering these programs do so for a variety of reasons and plan diverse careers. These findings can provide guidance for program development and recruitment for dual degree medical education programs

  13. MD/MBA Students: An Analysis of Medical Student Career Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windsor Westbrook Sherrill, Ph.D., MBA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing number of medical schools are offering dual degree MD/MBA programs. Career choices and factors influencing students to enter these programs provide an indicator of the roles in which dual degree students will serve in health care as well as the future of dual degree programs. Purpose: Using career choice theory as a conceptual framework, career goals and factors influencing decisions to enter dual degree programs were assessed among dual degree medical students. Methods: Students enrolled at dual degree programs at six medical schools were surveyed and interviewed. A control group of traditional medical students was also surveyed. Results: Factors influencing students to seek both medical and business training are varied but are often related to a desire for leadership opportunities, concerns about change in medicine and job security and personal career goals. Most students expect to combine clinical and administrative roles. Conclusions: Students entering these programs do so for a variety of reasons and plan diverse careers. These findings can provide guidance for program development and recruitment for dual degree medical education program

  14. MD/MBA Students: An Analysis of Medical Student Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Windsor Westbrook

    2004-12-01

    An increasing number of medical schools are offering dual degree MD/MBA programs. Career choices and factors influencing students to enter these programs provide an indicator of the roles in which dual degree students will serve in health care as well as the future of dual degree programs. Using career choice theory as a conceptual framework, career goals and factors influencing decisions to enter dual degree programs were assessed among dual degree medical students. Students enrolled at dual degree programs at six medical schools were surveyed and interviewed. A control group of traditional medical students was also surveyed. Factors influencing students to seek both medical and business training are varied but are often related to a desire for leadership opportunities, concerns about change in medicine and job security and personal career goals. Most students expect to combine clinical and administrative roles. Students entering these programs do so for a variety of reasons and plan diverse careers. These findings can provide guidance for program development and recruitment for dual degree medical education programs.

  15. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the male students but 12 of the female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). Conclusion. This study indicates that paediatrics is popular among female students and that several factors influence choice of this specialty. Understanding these factors may ...

  16. Why medical students do not choose a career in geriatrics: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiboom, A.A.; de Vries, H.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Scheele, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the demand for doctors specialised in the medical care of elderly patients is increasing, the interest among medical students for a career in geriatrics is lagging behind. Methods: To get an overview of the different factors reported in the literature that affect the (low) interest

  17. A study of the factors influencing school-going students considering medical careers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-08-01

    Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school.

  18. Inspiring Careers in STEM and Healthcare Fields through Medical Simulation Embedded in High School Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…

  19. Career motivation and burnout among medical students in Hungary - could altruism be a protection factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrffy, Zsuzsa; Birkás, Emma; Sándor, Imola

    2016-07-18

    Burnout is a major issue among medical students. Its general characteristics are loss of interest in study and lack of motivation. A study of the phenomenon must extend beyond the university environment and personality factors to consider whether career choice has a role in the occurrence of burnout. Quantitative, national survey (n = 733) among medical students, using a 12-item career motivation list compiled from published research results and a pilot study. We measured burnout by the validated Hungarian version of MBI-SS. The most significant career choice factor was altruistic motivation, followed by extrinsic motivations: gaining a degree, finding a job, accessing career opportunities. Lack of altruism was found to be a major risk factor, in addition to the traditional risk factors, for cynicism and reduced academic efficacy. Our study confirmed the influence of gender differences on both career choice motivations and burnout. The structure of career motivation is a major issue in the transformation of the medical profession. Since altruism is a prominent motivation for many women studying medicine, their entry into the profession in increasing numbers may reinforce its traditional character and act against the present trend of deprofessionalization.

  20. The effect of the Formative evaluation on the medical student's career emotion, practicing skills and social adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Ji[1; Hua Tian[2; Tao Dong[3

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the knowledge economy, social professional quality of talent has an increasingly demanding. Medical students is China' s medical and health undertakings reserve personnel, it plays an important role for better protection of people' s health by strengthening vocational personality training medical students and improving professional quality. Therefore, we must pay attention to the medical student' s career awareness, ethics, professionalism, career aspirations and career interests of education on medical students to develop a healthy personality of the medical profession, and lay the foundation for the sustainable development of medical and health services.

  1. A new model to understand the career choice and practice location decisions of medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, P; Greenhill, J; Worley, P S

    2009-01-01

    Australian medical education is increasingly influenced by rural workforce policy. Therefore, understanding the influences on medical graduates' practice location and specialty choice is crucial for medical educators and medical workforce planners. The South Australian Flinders University Parallel Rural Community Curriculum (PRCC) was funded by the Australian Government to help address the rural doctor workforce shortage. The PRCC was the first community based medical education program in Australia to teach a full academic year of medicine in South Australian rural general practices. The aim of this research was to identify what factors influence the career choices of PRCC graduates. A retrospective survey of all contactable graduates of the PRCC was undertaken. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS 14.0 for Windows. Qualitative data were entered into NVIVO 7 software for coding, and analysed using content analysis. Usable data were collected from 46 of the 86 contactable graduates (53%). More than half of the respondents (54%) reported being on a rural career path. A significant relationship exists between being on a rural career pathway and making the decision prior to or during medical school (p = 0.027), and between graduates in vocational training who are on an urban career path and making a decision on career specialty after graduation from medical school (p = .004). Graduates in a general practice vocational training program are more likely to be on a rural career pathway than graduates in a specialty other than general practice (p = .003). A key influence on graduates' practice location is geographic location prior to entering medical school. Key influences on graduates choosing a rural career pathway are: having a spouse/partner with a rural background; clinical teachers and mentors; the extended rural based undergraduate learning experience; and a specialty preference for general practice. A lack of rural based internships and specialist training

  2. Psychological factors determining success in a medical career: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartas, Malgorzata; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Systemic review of predictors of success in medical career is an important tool to recognize the indicators of proper training. To determine psychological factors that predict success in a medical career. The success is defined as professional competence, satisfaction with medicine as a career, occupational stress and burnout and quality of life (QOF). Part I (1999-2005), medical students were examined each subsequent year, beginning with admission. Assessment included academic achievement (high school final examination results, entrance exam results, academic results during medical school) and psychological characteristics (sense of coherence (SOC), depression, anxiety, coping styles, value system and need for social approval). Part II (2008-2009), the same participants completed an Internet survey 4 years after graduation. Results of the postgraduate medical exam were taken under consideration. Academic achievement predicts only professional competence. Coping styles are significant indicators of satisfaction with medicine as a career. SOC, while assessed with anxiety and depression during studies, enabled us to recognize future QOF of medical graduates. Professional stress is not predictable to such an extent as other success indicators. There are significant psychological qualities useful to draw the outline of the future job and life performance of medical graduates.

  3. Information on actual medication use and drug-related problems in older patients: questionnaire or interview?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeboordse, Floor; Grundeken, Lucienne H; van den Eijkel, Lisanne P; Schellevis, François G; Elders, Petra J M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2016-04-01

    Information on medication use and drug-related problems is important in the preparation of clinical medication reviews. Critical information can only be provided by patients themselves, but interviewing patients is time-consuming. Alternatively, patient information could be obtained with a questionnaire. In this study the agreement between patient information on medication use and drug-related problems in older patients obtained with a questionnaire was compared with information obtained during an interview. General practice in The Netherlands. A questionnaire was developed to obtain information on actual medication use and drug-related problems. Two patient groups ≥65 years were selected based on general practitioner electronic medical records in nine practices; I. polypharmacy and II. ≥1 predefined general geriatric problems. Eligible patients were asked to complete the questionnaire and were interviewed afterwards. Agreement on information on medication use and drug-related problems collected with the questionnaire and interview was calculated. Ninety-seven patients participated. Of all medications used, 87.6 % (95 % CI 84.7-90.5) was reported identically in the questionnaire and interview. Agreement for the complete medication list was found for 45.4 % (95 % CI 35.8-55.3) of the patients. On drug-related problem level, agreement between questionnaire and interview was 75 %. Agreement tended to be lower in vulnerable patients characterized by ≥4 chronic diseases, ≥10 medications used and low health literacy. Information from a questionnaire showed reasonable agreement compared with interviewing. The patients reported more medications and drug-related problems in the interview than the questionnaire. Taking the limitations into account, a questionnaire seems a suitable tool for medication reviews that may replace an interview for most patients.

  4. Primary care careers among recent graduates of research-intensive private and public medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Phillip A; Xu, Shuai; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-06-01

    Despite a growing need for primary care physicians in the United States, the proportion of medical school graduates pursuing primary care careers has declined over the past decade. To assess the association of medical school research funding with graduates matching in family medicine residencies and practicing primary care. Observational study of United States medical schools. One hundred twenty-one allopathic medical schools. The primary outcomes included the proportion of each school's graduates from 1999 to 2001 who were primary care physicians in 2008, and the proportion of each school's graduates who entered family medicine residencies during 2007 through 2009. The 25 medical schools with the highest levels of research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2010 were designated as "research-intensive." Among research-intensive medical schools, the 16 private medical schools produced significantly fewer practicing primary care physicians (median 24.1% vs. 33.4%, p schools. In contrast, the nine research-intensive public medical schools produced comparable proportions of graduates pursuing primary care careers (median 36.1% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.87) and matching in family medicine residencies (median 7.4% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.37) relative to the other 66 public medical schools. To meet the health care needs of the US population, research-intensive private medical schools should play a more active role in promoting primary care careers for their students and graduates.

  5. Primary care specialty career choice among Canadian medical students: Understanding the factors that influence their decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Heather Ann; Glicksman, Jordan T; Brandt, Michael G; Doyle, Philip C; Fung, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    To identify which factors influence medical students' decision to choose a career in family medicine and pediatrics, and which factors influence their decision to choose careers in non-front-line specialties. Survey that was created based on a comprehensive literature review to determine which factors are considered important when choosing practice specialty. Ontario medical school. An open cohort of medical students in the graduating classes of 2008 to 2011 (inclusive). The main factors that influenced participants' decision to choose a career in primary care or pediatrics, and the main factors that influenced participants' decision to choose a career in a non-front-line specialty. A total of 323 participants were included in this study. Factors that significantly influenced participants' career choice in family medicine or pediatrics involved work-life balance (acceptable hours of practice [ P = .005], acceptable on-call demands [ P = .012], and lifestyle flexibility [ P = .006]); a robust physician-patient relationship (ability to promote individual health promotion [ P = .014] and the opportunity to form long-term relationships [ P  < .001], provide comprehensive care [ P = .001], and treat patients and their families [ P = .006]); and duration of residency program ( P = .001). The career-related factors that significantly influenced participants' decision to choose a non-front-line specialty were as follows: becoming an expert ( P  < .001), maintaining a focused scope of practice ( P  < .001), having a procedure-focused practice ( P = .001), seeing immediate results from one's actions ( P  < .001), potentially earning a high income ( P  < .001), and having a perceived status among colleagues ( P  < .001). In this study, 8 factors were found to positively influence medical students' career choice in family medicine and pediatrics, and 6 factors influenced the decision to choose a career in a non-front-line specialty. Medical students can be

  6. Career preferences of final year medical students at a medical school in Kenya--A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossajee, Hussein; Obonyo, Nchafatso; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2016-01-11

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended physician to population ratio is 23:10,000. Kenya has a physician to population ratio of 1.8:10,000 and is among 57 countries listed as having a serious shortage of health workers. Approximately 52% of physicians work in urban areas, 6% in rural and 42% in peri-urban locations. This study explored factors influencing the choice of career specialization and location for practice among final year medical students by gender. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on final year students in 2013 at the University of Nairobi's, School of Medicine in Kenya. Sample size was calculated at 156 students for simple random sampling. Data collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the population, first and second choices for specialization. Outcome variables collected were factors affecting choice of specialty and location for practice. Bivariate analysis by gender was carried out between the listed factors and outcome variables with calculation of odds ratios and chi-square statistics at an alpha level of significance of 0.05. Factors included in a binomial logistic regression model were analysed to score the independent categorical variables affecting choice of specialty and location of practice. Internal medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynaecology and Paediatrics accounted for 58.7% of all choices of specialization. Female students were less likely to select Obs/Gyn (OR 0.41, 95% CI =0.17-0.99) and Surgery (OR 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.86) but eight times more likely to select Paediatrics (OR 8.67, 95% CI = 1.91-39.30). Surgery was primarily selected because of the 'perceived prestige of the specialty' (OR 4.3 95% CI = 1.35-14.1). Paediatrics was selected due to 'Ease of raising a family' (OR 4.08 95% CI = 1.08-15.4). Rural origin increased the odds of practicing in a rural area (OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.04-6.04). Training abroad was more likely

  7. Becoming a general practitioner - Which factors have most impact on career choice of medical students?

    OpenAIRE

    Loh Andreas; Hermann Katja; Miksch Antje; Kiolbassa Kathrin; Szecsenyi Joachim; Joos Stefanie; Goetz Katja

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In Germany, there is a shortage of young physicians in several specialties, the situation of general practitioners (GP) being especially precarious. The factors influencing the career choice of German medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors influencing medical students' specialty choice laying a special focus on general practice. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2010, students at the five medical schools in ...

  8. Influences on final year medical students' attitudes to general practice as a career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Johanna E; Hudson, Ben; Wilkinson, Tim J

    2014-03-01

    General practice is under-represented in student career choices. This study aimed to identify and explore factors that influence the attitudes of final year medical students to general practice as a career. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews of focus groups of final year undergraduate medical students at the University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were used to interpret the data. General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in influencing medical students' attitudes to general practice as a career. Students identified their general practice placement during medical school training and personal contact with their own GP as principal factors. The media portrayal of general practice and the attitudes of friends and family were also influential. Students were positively influenced when they were made to feel part of the team, involved with consultations, allowed to carry out practical procedures under supervision, and witnessed what they perceived as good medical practice during clinical placements. Positive experiences often occurred later in training, when students felt more confident of their clinical abilities. While students reported occasional negative comments about general practice by some hospital doctors, these had a lesser role in influencing their perceptions of general practice compared with their own experiences, both as students and patients. GPs have a strong influence, positively and negatively, on the attitudes of medical students to general practice as a career. Effective influences include being made to feel welcome, involved, valued, and given legitimate roles during clinical placements.

  9. Relationship between decile score of secondary school, the size of town of origin and career intentions of New Zealand medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Clinton J; Shulruf, Boaz; Poole, Phillippa J

    2010-09-01

    New Zealand is facing a general practice workforce crisis, especially in rural communities. Medical school entrants from low decile schools or rural locations may be more likely to choose rural general practice as their career path. To determine whether a relationship exists between secondary school decile rating, the size of the town of origin of medical students and their subsequent medical career intentions. University of Auckland medical students from 2006 to 2008 completed an entry questionnaire on a range of variables thought important in workforce determination. Analyses were performed on data from the 346 students who had attended a high school in New Zealand. There was a close relationship between size of town of origin and decile of secondary school. Most students expressed interests in a wide range of careers, with students from outside major cities making slightly fewer choices on average. There is no strong signal from these data that career specialty choices will be determined by decile of secondary school or size of town of origin. An increase in the proportion of rural students in medical programmes may increase the number of students from lower decile schools, without adding another affirmative action pathway.

  10. Portfolio careers for medical graduates: implications for postgraduate training and workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Harris A; Mitchell, Rob D; Milford, Will; Vaswani, Nitin; Moylan, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Portfolio careers in medicine can be defined as significant involvement in one or more portfolios of activity beyond a practitioner's primary clinical role, either concurrently or in sequence. Portfolio occupations may include medical education, research, administration, legal medicine, the arts, engineering, business and consulting, leadership, politics and entrepreneurship. Despite significant interest among junior doctors, portfolios are poorly integrated with prevocational and speciality training programs in Australia. The present paper seeks to explore this issue. More formal systems for portfolio careers in Australia have the potential to increase job satisfaction, flexibility and retention, as well as diversify trainee skill sets. Although there are numerous benefits from involvement in portfolio careers, there are also risks to the trainee, employing health service and workforce modelling. Formalising pathways to portfolio careers relies on assessing stakeholder interest, enhancing flexibility in training programs, developing support programs, mentorship and coaching schemes and improving support structures in health services.

  11. Validation of an abbreviated Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9 among patients on antihypertensive medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desrosiers Marie-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM Version 1.4 is a reliable and valid instrument to assess patients' satisfaction with medication, providing scores on four scales – side effects, effectiveness, convenience and global satisfaction. In naturalistic studies, administering the TSQM with the side effects domain could provoke the physician to assess the presence or absence of adverse events in a way that is clinically atypical, carrying the potential to interfere with routine medical care. As a result, an abbreviated 9-item TSQM (TSQM-9, derived from the TSQM Version 1.4 but without the five items of the side effects domain was created. In this study, an interactive voice response system (IVRS-administered TSQM-9 was psychometrically evaluated among patients taking antihypertensive medication. Methods A total of 3,387 subjects were invited to participate in the study from an online panel who self-reported taking a prescribed antihypertensive medication. The subjects were asked to complete the IVRS-administered TSQM-9 at the start of the study, along with the modified Morisky scale, and again within 7 to 14 days. Standard psychometric analyses were conducted; including Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients, structural equation modeling, Spearman correlation coefficients and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results A total of 396 subjects completed all the study procedures. Approximately 50% subjects were male with a good racial/ethnic mix: 58.3% white, 18.9% black, 17.7% Hispanic and 5.1% either Asian or other. There was evidence of construct validity of the TSQM-9 based on the structural equation modeling findings of the observed data fitting the Decisional Balance Model of Treatment Satisfaction even without the side effects domain. TSQM-9 domains had high internal consistency as evident from Cronbach's alpha values of 0.84 and greater. TSQM-9 domains also demonstrated good test

  12. The influence of international medical electives on career preference for primary care and rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Iain R; Walters, Lucie

    2015-11-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between medical students who undertake international medical electives (IMEs) in resource poor settings and their reported career preference for primary care in underserved areas such as rural practice. This study examines whether a similar correlation exists in the Australian medical school context. Data was extracted from the Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) of Australian medical students that completed commencing student and exit questionnaires between 2006 and 2011. Student responses were categorized according to preferred training program and preferred region of practice at commencement. The reported preferences at exit of students completing IMEs in low and middle income countries (LMIC) were compared to those completing electives in high income countries (HIC). The effect of elective experience for students expressing a preference for primary care at commencement was non-significant, with 40.32 % of LMIC and 42.11 % of HIC students maintaining a preference for primary care. Similarly there were no significant changes following LMIC electives for students expressing a preference for specialist training at commencement with 11.81 % of LMIC and 10.23 % of HIC students preferring primary care at exit. The effect of elective experience for students expressing a preference for rural practice at commencement was non-significant, with 41.51 % of LMIC and 49.09 % of HIC students preferring rural practice at exit. Similarly there were no significant changes following LMIC electives for students expressing a preference for urban practice at commencement, with 7.84 % of LMIC and 6.70 % of HIC students preferring rural practice at exit. This study did not demonstrate an association between elective experience in resource poor settings and a preference for primary care or rural practice. This suggests that the previously observed correlation between LMIC electives and interest in primary care in

  13. Dynamics of career choice among students in undergraduate medical courses. A BEME systematic review : BEME Guide No. 33

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querido, S.; Vergouw, D.; Wigersma, L.; Batenburg, R.; de Rond, M.; ten Cate, TJ

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the lack of a theoretically embedded overview of the recent literature on medical career decision-making, this study provides an outline of these dynamics. Since differences in educational routes to the medical degree likely affect career choice dynamics, this study focuses on

  14. Dynamics of career choice among students in undergraduate medical courses. A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 33.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querido, S.J.; Vergouw, D.; Wigersma, L.; Batenburg, R.S.; Rond, M.E.J. de; Cate, O.T.J. ten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the lack of a theoretically embedded overview of the recent literature on medical career decision-making, this study provides an outline of these dynamics. Since differences in educational routes to the medical degree likely affect career choice dynamics, this study focuses on

  15. Gendered career considerations consolidate from the start of medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, M.; Verdonk, P.; Bor, H.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in specialty preferences and work-related topics during the theoretical phase of Dutch medical education and the role of gender. METHODS: A cohort of medical students at Radboudumc, the Netherlands, was surveyed at start (N=612, 69.1% female) and after three years

  16. Deciding upon a career within the medical field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guntern, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The admission procedure for medical programs is a challenging topic. The challenge for universities is to accept those applicants who have the best chances of successfully completing the medical studies and who will also enter the advanced training programs after graduation. The overall goal of this

  17. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  18. The choice of surgery as a future career specialty among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the factors affecting the choice of surgery as a future career specialty among medical interns in a regional hospital in Nigeria. Method: A total of 74 junior doctors who completed internship training at the university of Benin teaching Hospital in 2012 were interviewed in this cross sectional study.

  19. A study of the factors influencing school-going students considering medical careers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school. METHODS: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland hosts an annual "Introduction to Medicine" programme for senior school children. Attendees were surveyed using a Likert scale to examine the factors influencing the group in choosing to study medicine, and pursue surgery as their ultimate career choice. RESULTS: A total of 128 completed the survey, giving a response rate of 100%. The opportunity to help others was most the most influential factors cited by students (97%). Males were significantly more likely to have an interest in a career in surgery rather than medicine (p = 0.003), and ranked "financial reward" (p = 0.036) as a more significant factors in influencing career choice than did females. CONCLUSIONS: A clear understanding of these factors influencing our students in their career choices and a strategy of recruitment based on these is imperative in order to optimize recruitment of students most suited to working as doctors.

  20. A Medical School's Organizational Readiness for Curriculum Change (MORC): Development and Validation of a Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Broers, N.J.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Because successful change implementation depends on organizational readiness for change, the authors developed and assessed the validity of a questionnaire, based on a theoretical model of organizational readiness for change, designed to measure, specifically, a medical school's

  1. Subject preferences of first- and second-year medical students for their future specialization at Chitwan Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Chitwan, Nepal – a questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha RK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rajesh K Jha,1 Keshab R Paudel,1 Dev K Shah,2 Ajit K Sah,1 Sangharshila Basnet,1 Phoolgen Sah,1 Sandeep Adhikari1 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Physiology, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Nepal Introduction: The selection of a discipline for future specialization may be an important factor for the medical students' future career, and it is influenced by multiple factors. The interest of students in the early stages can be improved in subjects related to public health or of academic importance, as per need. Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 265 first- and second-year medical students of Chitwan Medical College, Nepal to find out their subject of preference for postgraduation and the factors affecting their selection along with their interesting basic science subject. Only the responses from 232 completely filled questionnaires were analyzed. Results: The preference of the students for clinical surgical (50.9%, clinical medical (45.3%, and basic medical (3.9% sciences for postgraduation were in descending order. The most preferred specialty among male students was clinical surgical sciences (56.3%, and among female students, it was clinical medical sciences (53.6%. Although all the students responded to their preferred specialty, only 178 students specified the subject of their interest. General surgery (23.4%, pediatrics (23.4%, and anatomy (2.4% were the most favored subjects for postgraduation among clinical surgical, clinical medical, and basic medical sciences specialties, respectively. More common reasons for selection of specific subject for future career were found to be: personal interests, good income, intellectual challenge, and others. Conclusion: Many students preferred clinical surgical sciences for their future specialization. Among the reasons for the selection of the specialty for postgraduation, no significant reason could be elicited from the present study. Keywords: career, surgical

  2. Satisfaction with medication in coronary disease treatment: psychometrics of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Ana Carolina Sauer; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2016-06-07

    to psychometrically test the Brazilian version of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication - TSQM (version 1.4), regarding ceiling and floor effect, practicability, acceptability, reliability and validity. participants with coronary heart disease (n=190) were recruited from an outpatient cardiology clinic at a university hospital in Southeastern Brazil and interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction with medication using the TSQM (version 1.4) and adherence using the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale and proportion of adherence. The Ceiling and Floor effect were analyzed considering the 15% worst and best possible TSQM scores; Practicability was assessed by time spent during TSQM interviews; Acceptability by proportion of unanswered items and participants who answered all items; Reliability through the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Validity through the convergent construct validity between the TSQM and the adherence measures. TSQM was easily applied. Ceiling effect was found in the side effects domain and floor effect in the side effects and global satisfaction domains. Evidence of reliability was close to satisfied in all domains. The convergent construct validity was partially supported. the Brazilian TSQM presents evidence of acceptability and practicability, although its validity was weakly supported and adequate internal consistency was observed for one domain. realizar o teste psicométrico da versão brasileira do Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication - TSQM (versão 1.4) [Questionário Satisfação com Tratamento Medicamentoso] com relação aos efeitos de teto e chão, praticidade, aceitabilidade, confiabilidade e validade. os participantes com doença cardíaca coronária (n=190) foram recrutados num ambulatório de cardiologia de um hospital universitário no sudeste do Brasil e entrevistados para avaliar satisfação em relação ao tratamento medicamentoso através da TSQM (versão 1.4) e ades

  3. Dynamics of career choice among students in undergraduate medical courses. A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Sophie J; Vergouw, David; Wigersma, Lode; Batenburg, Ronald S; De Rond, Marlies E J; Ten Cate, Olle T J

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of a theoretically embedded overview of the recent literature on medical career decision-making, this study provides an outline of these dynamics. Since differences in educational routes to the medical degree likely affect career choice dynamics, this study focuses on medical career decision-making in educational systems with a Western European curriculum structure. A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase) was conducted from January 2008 to November 2014. A panel of seven independent reviewers performed the data extraction, quality assessment and data synthesis using the Bland-Meurer model of medical specialty choice as a reference. Fifty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Factors associated with specialty preference or career choice can be classified in five main categories: (1) medical school characteristics (e.g., curriculum structure), (2) student characteristics (e.g., age, personality), (3) student values (e.g., personal preference), (4) career needs to be satisfied (e.g., expected income, status, and work-life balance), and (5) perception of specialty characteristics (e.g., extracurricular or curricular experiences). Especially career needs and perceptions of specialty characteristics are often associated with medical career decision-making. Our results support that medical career decisions are formed by a matching of perceptions of specialty characteristics with personal needs. However, the process of medical career decision-making is not yet fully understood. Besides identifying possible predictors, future research should focus on detecting interrelations between hypothesized predictors and identify the determinants and interrelations at the various stages of the medical career decision-making process.

  4. Professional career management and personal development for the employees of the Romanian medical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Dumitrescu Catalina-Oana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to inform as many persons as possible on the present situation of doctors in Romania, to present more theoretical and practical elements that lead to the development of a sustainable career in the Romanian medical system. So I tried to get as much information about the current situation of the medical system, to obtain a certain confirmation of what was said by those working in the system. Gradually, I found out about the hospital problems, the insufficient budget allocated annually by the mismanagement, media campaigns of doctor denigration, the increasingly precarious health conditions of Romanians, the colossal businesses of the pharmaceutical industry, the heavily discussed and postponed Health Law, that managed to pull a lot of people in the street, and many other items that are not only intended to sound an alarm regarding the condition of medical workers in Romania. Besides the researches and the relationships on the medical education status, the situation of available positions, the distribution of doctors, their salaries, the legal and ethical operating framework, I undertook also a study among physicians (especially those being at their early career to find out the elements that led them to choose this career and what is the current situation of medical career in Romania. For this, I chose questions that reflect the doctors’ satisfaction at workplace and how performance is influenced by the satisfaction level obtained from the medical services provided in the Romanian healthcare facilities. The study had both expected results, already knowing the current situation, but also unexpected, given the expectations of doctors. In more detail, there is a large number of young doctors that before thinking about work at a prestigious hospital abroad, think to what extent the current workplace in Romania offers support for family, pension, holidays etc. Thus, we considered appropriate to bring up within the paper

  5. "It's Every Family's Dream": Choice of a Medical Career Among the Arab Minority in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael

    2016-10-01

    Application to medical studies and the choice of medicine as a career are influenced by many factors, some internal (academic ability, intellectual curiosity, interests) and some external (parental pressure, peer pressure, teacher and school expectations). Ethnicity plays a role in motivational orientation and belonging to an ethnic minority group may influence both internal and external motives and priorities in choosing medicine as a career. In this article, we present a qualitative study of the motives that impel Arab physicians in Israel to choose a medical career. As a theoretical framework, we apply self-determination theory (SDT) (Ryan and Deci in Am Psychol 55:68-78, 2000), consisting of three principal categories situated along a continuum: Amotivation, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. We show that extrinsic motivation is dominant among Arab physicians in Israel, demonstrating specifically the unique political context and cultural characteristics of Arab society in Israel. These findings, and the attention to the unique motivations of people from different ethnic minority groups who choose medical career, may increase the number of physicians from minority groups, a step known to decrease health gaps in multi-cultural contexts.

  6. The impact of intramural grants on educators' careers and on medical education innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Shelley R; Chang, Anna; Loeser, Helen; Cooke, Molly; Wang, Jason; Teherani, Arianne

    2015-06-01

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Haile T. Debas Academy of Medical Educators Innovations Funding program awards competitive grants to create novel curricula and faculty development programs, compare pedagogical approaches, and design learner assessment methods. The authors examined the principal investigators' (PIs') perceptions of the impact of these intramural grants on their careers and on medical education innovation. At 12 months (project completion) and 24 months (follow-up), PIs submit a progress report describing the impact of their grant on their careers, work with collaborators, subsequent funding, project dissemination, and the UCSF curriculum. The authors analyzed these reports using qualitative thematic analysis and achieved consensus in coding and interpretation through discussion. From 2001 to 2012, the program funded 77 PIs to lead 103 projects, awarding over $2.2 million. The authors analyzed reports from 88 grants (85.4%) awarded to 68 PIs (88.3%). PIs noted that the funding led to accelerated promotion, expanded networking opportunities, enhanced knowledge and skills, more scholarly publications and presentations, extramural funding, and local and national recognition. They also reported that the funding improved their status in their departments, enhanced their careers as medical educators, laid the foundation for subsequent projects, and engaged an array of stakeholders, including trainees and junior faculty. These modest intramural education grants not only created innovative, enduring programs but also promoted educators' professional identity formation, fostered collaborations, supported junior faculty in finding their desired career paths, provided advancement opportunities, and raised the local and national profiles of recipients.

  7. Validation of Medical Tourism Service Quality Questionnaire (MTSQQ) for Iranian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qolipour, Mohammad; Torabipour, Amin; Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Malehi, Amal Saki

    2017-03-01

    Assessing service quality is one of the basic requirements to develop the medical tourism industry. There is no valid and reliable tool to measure service quality of medical tourism. This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of a Persian version of medical tourism service quality questionnaire for Iranian hospitals. To validate the medical tourism service quality questionnaire (MTSQQ), a cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 Iraqi patients referred to hospitals in Ahvaz (Iran) from 2015. To design a questionnaire and determine its content validity, the Delphi Technique (3 rounds) with the participation of 20 medical tourism experts was used. Construct validity of the questionnaire was assessed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data were analyzed by Excel 2007, SPSS version18, and Lisrel l8.0 software. The content validity of the questionnaire with CVI=0.775 was confirmed. According to exploratory factor analysis, the MTSQQ included 31 items and 8 dimensions (tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, exchange and travel facilities, technical and infrastructure facilities and safety and security). Construct validity of the questionnaire was confirmed, based on the goodness of fit quantities of model (RMSEA=0.032, CFI= 0.98, GFI=0.88). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.837 and 0.919 for expectation and perception questionnaire. The results of the study showed that the medical tourism SERVQUAL questionnaire with 31 items and 8 dimensions was a valid and reliable tool to measure service quality of medical tourism in Iranian hospitals.

  8. Career Salience and Gender-Role Attitudes in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    Work and family form a core relationship in people's lives and many individuals struggle to balance these responsibilities. To explore this balance, some of the issues surrounding attitudes toward gender equality and work-family commitment as related to medical students, are examined in this report. The research focused on patterns of commitment…

  9. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.

  10. Effect of two Howard Hughes Medical Institute research training programs for medical students on the likelihood of pursuing research careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di; Meyer, Roger E

    2003-12-01

    To assess the effect of Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) two one-year research training programs for medical students on the awardees' research careers. Awardees of the HHMI Cloister Program who graduated between 1987 and 1995 and awardees of the HHMI Medical Fellows Program who graduated between 1991 and 1995 were compared with unsuccessful applicants to the programs and MD-PhD students who graduated during the same periods. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess research career outcomes while controlling for academic and demographic variables that could affect selection to the programs. Participation in both HHMI programs increased the likelihood of receiving National Institutes of Health postdoctoral support. Participation in the Cloister Program also increased the likelihood of receiving a faculty appointment with research responsibility at a medical school. In addition, awardees of the Medical Fellows Program were not significantly less likely than Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) and non-MSTP MD-PhD program participants to receive a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award, and awardees of the Cloister Program were not significantly less likely than non-MSTP MD-PhD students to receive a faculty appointment with research responsibility. Women and underrepresented minority students were proportionally represented among awardees of the two HHMI programs whereas they were relatively underrepresented in MD-PhD programs. The one-year intensive research training supported by the HHMI training programs appears to provide an effective imprinting experience on medical students' research careers and to be an attractive strategy for training physician-scientists.

  11. Factors influencing medical students' choice of future specialization in medical sciences: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey from medical schools in china, malaysia and regions of South asian association for regional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Mitra, Kasturi; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Poudel, Bibek

    2014-03-01

    In future, increase in the number of healthcare professionals is dependent on the career interest among present undergraduate medical students. Based on their interest to pursue their specialty, the availability of medical doctors in each specialty could be done. This study was to find out future career interest and factors that influence undergraduate medical students to choose their future specialization. The study was carried out among first-year medical students from five countries. The students were asked to complete an 8-item questionnaire. Two thousand one hundred fifty three participants were enrolled in the study. Data were analyzed in Microsoft-Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Of the 2153 participants, only 1470 responded. Among the 1470 participants, 169 participants were excluded due to the ambiguity in responses, finally making it to 1301participants. Among them, Anatomy (49.3%) followed by Biochemistry (26.7%) and Physiology (24%) were the most preferred subjects. Anatomy was the most preferred basic science subject among the other subjects and the students were interested to pursuing surgery in future. Furthermore, the most preferred future specialties were surgery, internal medicine and pediatrics with gender variations; males preferring surgery and females in obstetrics and gynecology.

  12. Medical students, money, and career selection: students' perception of financial factors and remuneration in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Dante J; Regehr, Glenn; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2009-02-01

    Medical students have had a declining interest in family medicine as a career. Some studies have shown a small inverse relationship between debt levels and primary care, but it is unclear how students perceive remuneration in different specialties and how these perceptions might influence career choice. Medical students at one school were surveyed to understand their perceptions of physician remuneration and to gain insight into how these perceptions might affect career selection. Response rate was 72% (560/781 students). Students' estimates of physician income were accurate throughout training, with the overall estimate for family medicine being lower than the actual income by only $10,656. The vast majority of students agreed with the statement that family physicians get paid too little (85%-89% of each class). The importance of payment as a factor in career decision making increased with higher debt and with advancing training. Students are able to accurately predict income by specialty from an early stage of training and have a negative perception of income in family medicine. The perception that family physicians make too little money could be an important driver--or at least a modifier--in the lack of interest in family medicine.

  13. Determinants of career choices among women and men medical students and interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, S; Saltman, D; Straton, J; Young, B; Paul, C

    1994-09-01

    Women continue to be poorly represented in medical specialties other than general practice. A cross-sectional design was used to explore the development of career plans as medical training progressed; men and women students were compared in their first (n = 316), final (n = 295) and intern (n = 292) years. Women at each stage of training were significantly more likely to choose general practice as the field in which they were most likely to practise. There was little evidence that these differences were influenced by experience during training: women were as likely to choose general practice in first year as in the intern year. The most important determinant of career choice appeared to be the flexibility of training and of practice of medicine: variables such as the opportunity for part-time training, flexible working hours and part-time practice were important determinants of career choice and were of more importance to women than to men. The study also found high rates of discrimination or harassment reported by women medical students and interns. The results indicate the need for continued debate about these issues within medicine and the development of more flexible styles of medical training and practice.

  14. Long-term impact of a preclinical endovascular skills course on medical student career choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason T; Son, Ji H; Chandra, Venita; Lilo, Emily; Dalman, Ronald L

    2011-10-01

    Surging interest in the 0 + 5 integrated vascular surgery (VS) residency and successful recruitment of the top students in medical school requires early exposure to the field. We sought to determine the impact of a high-fidelity simulation-based preclinical endovascular skills course on medical student performance and ultimate career specialty choices. Fifty-two preclinical medical students enrolled in an 8-week VS elective course from 2007 to 2009. Students completed a baseline and postcourse survey and performed a renal angioplasty/stent procedure on an endovascular simulator (pretest). A curriculum consisting of didactic teaching covering peripheral vascular disease and weekly mentored simulator sessions concluded with a final graded procedure (posttest). Long-term follow-up surveys 1 to 3 years after course completion were administered to determine ultimate career paths of participants as well as motivating factors for career choice. Objective and subjective performance measured on the simulator and through structured global assessment scales improved in all students from pre- to posttest, particularly with regard to technical skill and overall procedural competency (P choices including surgical subspecialties (64%), radiology (10%), and cardiology (6%). Most respondents indicated major reasons for continued interest in VS were the ability to practice endovascular procedures on the simulator (92%) and mentorship from VS faculty (70%). Basic endovascular skills can be efficiently introduced through a simulation-based curriculum and lead to improved novice performance. Early exposure of preclinical medical students provides an effective teaching and recruitment tool for procedural-based fields, particularly surgical subspecialties. Mentored exposure to endovascular procedures on the simulator positively impacts long-term medical student attitudes toward vascular surgery and ultimate career choices. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by

  15. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students. PMID:27013852

  16. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.

  17. [The constructivist epistemological belief about scientific knowledge varies according to the year of training in medical students but not in students of other health careers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Ximena; Villalón, Francisco; Vera, Soledad; Conget, Paulette

    2017-09-01

    To optimize the teaching-learning process it is fundamental to know the representations that students have regarding knowledge. Epistemological beliefs are implicit theories that guide the practical actions of people. To characterize and compare epistemological beliefs regarding the nature and acquisition of scientific knowledge of health career students. Between 2012 and 2013, 726 students coursing first, third or fifth year from six health careers answered a validated questionnaire that includes closed and open questions aimed to characterize their epistemological beliefs about scientific knowledge. Irrespective of the career, when students had to select predefined answers, most of them appeared as constructivists (61%). On the other hand, when they had to argue, the majority seemed objectivist (47%). First-year medical students have the highest frequency of constructivist epistemological beliefs (56%). Paradoxically, the lowest percentage is found (34%) in the fifth year. The students of the health careers, in particular those of Medicine, recognize that knowledge is not acquired immediately (83%) and that its distribution is shared (92%). Discordance between selections and arguments suggests that epistemological sophistication is achieved declaratively but not practically. The lower proportion of students who presented constructivist beliefs in the fifth year compared to first year of Medicine could be associated with the pedagogical approaches used in the different cycles of the career.

  18. Attitudes, motivators, and barriers to a career in surgery: a national study of U.K. undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul A; Mason, John; Vimalachandran, Dale; McNally, Scarlett

    2014-01-01

    Numerous factors influence the career choices of undergraduate medical students, although little work has focused specifically on the surgical specialties. We aimed to investigate medical students' early experiences of surgery along with the motivators and barriers to selecting a surgical career. All final-year medical students were invited to participate in an online survey. A range of quantitative data (expressed as a proportion of total respondents) and qualitative data (grouped and thematically analyzed) were collected to evaluate students' attitudes to careers in surgery and potential influences on these. A total of 482 students from 20 medical schools throughout England and Wales completed the survey. Overall, 91% of respondents had work experience before medical school, in which the greatest satisfaction was reported in the 21% who undertook placements in surgery. In addition, 58% expressed a desire to spend time working abroad and 59% to undertake a period of research; the primary motivator for both was career/professional development. Surgery was the most popular career choice amongst respondents. The 2 most important factors in decisions pertaining to their career were reported as interest in the specialty and work-life balance. Students draw career advice from numerous sources, most commonly mentors (49%) and student surgical societies (46%). Only 1% wanted more website information, with personal contact being paramount. It is vital for the continuing strength of the profession and the quality of surgery for the public that we continue to attract the best undergraduates into careers in surgery. Surgeons of all grades must be aware that how they are perceived by students affects future career choices. Early experiences of surgery are fundamental in assisting medical students to make informed career choices. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Newly qualified doctors' views on the significance and accessibility of career advice during medical training in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehmood, Syed Imran; Norcini, John J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Career advice is an important instrument to help students with the proper specialty selection. The study aims (1) to explore the views of newly graduated doctors in Saudi Arabia about their experience with the current status of career support system during medical training and (2) to

  20. Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry as a Career Choice before and after an Undergraduate Psychiatry Internship in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…

  1. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  2. Supporting transitions in medical career pathways: the role of simulation-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Patey, Rona; Thomas, Ian; Walker, Kenneth; O'Connor, Paul; Russ, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Transitions, or periods of change, in medical career pathways can be challenging episodes, requiring the transitioning clinician to take on new roles and responsibilities, adapt to new cultural dynamics, change behaviour patterns, and successfully manage uncertainty. These intensive learning periods present risks to patient safety. Simulation-based education (SBE) is a pedagogic approach that allows clinicians to practise their technical and non-technical skills in a safe environment to increase preparedness for practice. In this commentary, we present the potential uses, strengths, and limitations of SBE for supporting transitions across medical career pathways, discussing educational utility, outcome and process evaluation, and cost and value, and introduce a new perspective on considering the gains from SBE. We provide case-study examples of the application of SBE to illustrate these points and stimulate discussion.

  3. Design and validation of a questionnaire on nursing competence in the notification of medication incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Diego, Isabel; de Andrés-Gimeno, Begoña; Ruiz-Antorán, Belén; Layunta, Rocío; Serrano-Gallardo, Pilar

    To design and perform a face and content validation of a questionnaire to measure the competence of hospital RN to report medication incidents. Content and face questionnaire validation descriptive study. A review of the literature was performed for the creation of ítems. A panel of six experts assessed the relevance of the inclusion of each ítem in the questionnaire by calculating the position index; ítems with position index >0.70 were selected. The questionnaire was piloted by 59 RN. Finally, a meeting was convened with experts, in order to reduce the length of the piloted questionnaire through review, discussion and decision by consensus on each item. From the literature review, a battery of 151 ítems grouped into three elements of competence: attitudes, knowledge and skills was created. 52.9% (n=80) of the ítems received a position index > 0.70. The response rate in the pilot study was 40.65%. The median time to complete the questionnaire was 23:35minutes. After reduction by the experts, the final questionnaire comprised 45 ítems grouped into 32 questions. The NORMA questionnaire, designed to explore the competence of hospital RN to report medication incidents, has adequate face and content validity and is easy to administer, enabling its institutional implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. General Practitioner Education Reform in China: Most Undergraduate Medical Students do not Choose General Practitioner as a Career Under the 5+3 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to train more high-level general practitioners (GPs to work in primary care institutions, China launched the 5+3 model in 2015 as a way to educate GPs nationwide. In this study, we investigated the awareness of the 5+3 model, career choices after graduation, and influences on GP career choice of undergraduate medical students from Zhengzhou University. Methods: The study population consisted of 288 undergraduate medical students from Zhengzhou University. We explored the students׳ awareness of the 5+3 model, career choices after graduation, influences on general practitioner career choice and mental status by using a self-report questionnaire and the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Results: We found 34.2% of students did not understand the new policy. Only 23.2% of students would choose to work as a GP after graduation, and those tended to be female, to have a monthly family income less than 4000 ¥, or to be from rural areas. Only 10% of undergraduate medical students expressed a preference to work at primary care institutions. The participants showed higher anxiety and stress scores than did a previously published group of Chinese college students, and those who chose to pursue higher education had more anxiety and stress than those who decided to become general practitioners. Discussion: More efforts should be made to popularize the 5+3 model and mental intervention among medical students. More efforts should be tried to increase the income/welfare benefits and strengthen the infrastructure of primary care institutions to attract more medical students. Keywords: 5+3 model, General practitioner, Health care reform, Hierarchical medical system

  5. Introduction of a medical questionnaire concerning long-term sick leave

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure a closer follow-up of those on long-term sick leave, the Organization will introduce a new medical questionnaire to be sent to employed members of the personnel. This questionnaire consisting of four questions (concerning the diagnosis, pending and future examinations and treatments, the prognostic and the possibility to resume work) will be sent from the Consulting Medical Practitioner to all employed members of the personnel following two consecutive months of sick leave and, thereafter, periodically on a case by case basis. The employed member of the personnel is requested to submit the medical questionnaire to his/her medical practitioner (or the specialist taking care of him/her) in order to complete and return it to the Consulting Medical Practitioner. It should be noted that this questionnaire does not exempt, in any way, the employed member of personnel from providing a medical certificate for all absence due to illness of more than three consecutive calendar days. The procedure to...

  6. A "ton of feathers": gender discrimination in academic medical careers and how to manage it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Szalacha, Laura; Barnett, Rosalind; Caswell, Cheryl; Inui, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of gender discrimination among a limited sample of women in academic medicine, specifically, the role of discrimination in hindering careers, coping mechanisms, and perceptions of what institutions and leaders of academic medicine can do to improve the professional workplace climate for women. In-depth, semistructured telephonic individual interviews of 18 women faculty who experienced or may have experienced discrimination in the course of their professional academic medical careers from 13 of the 24 institutions of the National Faculty Survey. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding. Themes expressed by multiple faculty were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Forty percent of respondents ranked gender discrimination first out of 11 possible choices for hindering their career in academic medicine. Thirty-five percent ranked gender discrimination second to either "limited time for professional work" or "lack of mentoring." Respondents rated themselves as poorly prepared to deal with gender discrimination and noted effects on professional self-confidence, self-esteem, collegiality, isolation, and career satisfaction. The hierarchical structure in academe is perceived to work against women, as there are few women at the top. Women faculty who have experienced gender discrimination perceive that little can be done to directly address this issue. Institutions need to be proactive and recurrently evaluate the gender climate, as well as provide transparent information and fair scrutiny of promotion and salary decisions. According to this subset of women who perceive that they have been discriminated against based on gender, sexual bias and discrimination are subtly pervasive and powerful. Such environments may have consequences for both women faculty and academic medicine, affecting morale and dissuading younger trainees from entering academic careers. Medical schools

  7. The cost of pursuing a medical career in the military: a tale of five specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, William A; Morgan, Jessica A; Weeks, William B

    2010-08-01

    The physician payment system is a focus of potential reform in the United States. The authors explored the effects of the military's method of physician payment on physicians' returns on educational investment for several specialties. This retrospective, observational study used national data from 2003 and standard financial techniques to calculate the net present value-the current value of an expected stream of cash flows at a particular rate of interest-of the educational investments of medical students in ten 30-year career paths: either military or civilian careers in internal medicine, psychiatry, gastroenterology, general surgery, or orthopedics. At a 5% discount rate, in the civilian world, the lowest return on an educational investment accrued to psychiatrists ($1.136 million) and the highest to orthopedists ($2.489 million), a range of $1.354 million. In the military, the lowest returns accrued to internists ($1.377 million) and the highest to orthopedists ($1.604 million); however, the range was only $0.227 million, one-sixth that found in the civilian sector. The authors also found that most military physicians do not remain in the military for their full careers. Choosing a military career substantially decreases the net present value of an educational investment for interventionalists, but it does so only modestly for primary care physicians. Further, a military career path markedly diminishes specialty-specific variation in the net present values of educational investment. Adopting a military structure for engaging medical students might help reverse the current trend of declining interest in primary care.

  8. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Louis J; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A; Gordon, James A; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K-12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  9. Case study: a midclerkship crisis-lessons learned from advising a medical student with career indecision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B; Cayea, Danelle; Shochet, Robert B; Wright, Scott M

    2010-04-01

    Advising medical students is a challenging task. Faculty who serve as advisors for students require specific skills and knowledge to do their jobs effectively. Career choice is one of the many complex issues about which medical students often seek assistance from a faculty advisor. The authors present a case of a third-year medical student with career indecision, with a focus on the various factors that may be influencing her thinking about career choice. Key advising principles are provided as a framework for the discussion of the case and include reflection, self-disclosure, active listening, support and advocacy, confidentiality, and problem solving. These principles were developed as part of the Advising Case Conference series of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Colleges Advisory Program. Emergent themes from the case included a student's evolving professional identity, a student's distress and burnout, lifestyle considerations, and advisor bias and self-awareness. The authors propose reflective questions to enhance meaningful discussions between the advisor and student and assist in problem solving. Many of these questions, together with the key advising principles, are generalizable to a variety of advising scenarios between advisors and learners at all levels of training.

  10. [Is it Possible to Arouse Interest in a Career in Traumatology with a Curricular Course in Medical School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, A; Lammerding-Köppel, M; Zundel, S; Stöckle, U; Bahrs, C; Gonser, C

    2016-12-01

    Background: There is a serious lack of young doctors in trauma surgery, which has intensified in recent years. The reasons are complex. Studies have shown that the interest in starting a career in surgery significantly decreases during medical school. To counteract the lack of young talent in the clinic, interest in the subject should be aroused in medical school. The aim of the present study was to evaluate current teaching at our university, where trauma surgery is a curricular subject with mandatory attendance for all medical students. Material and Methods: The current curriculum is intended for medicine students in their fifth year. The curriculum comprises lectures, practical courses and observation modules held in small groups. Students are provided with an experienced surgeon as teacher and mentor for the whole week. A teaching and training centre is available for the practical courses. In an anonymised questionnaire, students were asked about their overall assessment and the training success of practical and theory-oriented modules, as well as their specific interest in traumatology. Results: The evaluated curriculum gave very good results, with an overall rating of 1.53 (average) on a 6-point Likert scale in the overall assessment. It could be shown that students previously not interested in starting a career in trauma surgery showed significantly more interest in the subject after the curriculum. The practical parts scored best in the individual assessment. Conclusion: We showed that intensive teaching can arouse interest in traumatology in students who had been indifferent to orthopaedics and traumatology. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Testing the Validity of the Emotional and Personality-Related Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire in Turkish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztemel, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties of high school students in Turkish culture, using the model proposed by Saka and Gati. A sample of 523 high school students filled out the Turkish version of the Emotional and Personality-Related Aspects of Career Decision-Making…

  12. Development and Validation of the Motivations for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS Questionnaire in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Goel

    Full Text Available Understanding medical students' motivation to select medical studies is particularly salient to inform practice and policymaking in countries-such as India-where shortage of medical personnel poses crucial and chronical challenges to healthcare systems. This study aims to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the motivation of medical students to select medical studies.A Motivation for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS questionnaire was developed using extensive literature review followed by Delphi technique. The scale consisted of 12 items, 5 measuring intrinsic dimensions of motivations and 7 measuring extrinsic dimensions. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, validity, reliability and data quality checks were conducted on a sample of 636 medical students from six medical colleges of three North Indian states.The MSMS questionnaire consisted of 3 factors (subscales and 8 items. The three principal factors that emerged after EFA were the scientific factor (e.g. research opportunities and the ability to use new cutting edge technologies, the societal factor (e.g. job security and the humanitarian factor (e.g. desire to help others. The CFA conducted showed goodness-of-fit indices supporting the 3-factor model.The three extracted factors cut across the traditional dichotomy between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and uncover a novel three-faceted motivation construct based on scientific factors, societal expectations and humanitarian needs. This validated instrument can be used to evaluate the motivational factors of medical students to choose medical study in India and similar settings and constitutes a powerful tool for policymakers to design measures able to increase selection of medical curricula.

  13. Professional career management and personal development for the employees of the Romanian medical system

    OpenAIRE

    Mirica Dumitrescu Catalina-Oana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform as many persons as possible on the present situation of doctors in Romania, to present more theoretical and practical elements that lead to the development of a sustainable career in the Romanian medical system. So I tried to get as much information about the current situation of the medical system, to obtain a certain confirmation of what was said by those working in the system. Gradually, I found out about the hospital problems, the insufficient budg...

  14. Gender difference in preference of specialty as a career choice among Japanese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Japan, the absolute deficiency of doctors and maldistribution of doctors by specialty is a significant problem in the Japanese health care system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to specialty preference in career choice among Japanese medical students. Methods A total of 368 medical students completed the survey giving an 88.2 % response rate. The subjects comprised 141 women aged 21 ± 3 (range, 18–34) years and 227 men aged 22 ± 4 ...

  15. A medical school's organizational readiness for curriculum change (MORC): development and validation of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jippes, Mariëlle; Driessen, Erik W; Broers, Nick J; Majoor, Gerard D; Gijselaers, Wim H; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-09-01

    Because successful change implementation depends on organizational readiness for change, the authors developed and assessed the validity of a questionnaire, based on a theoretical model of organizational readiness for change, designed to measure, specifically, a medical school's organizational readiness for curriculum change (MORC). In 2012, a panel of medical education experts judged and adapted a preliminary MORC questionnaire through a modified Delphi procedure. The authors administered the resulting questionnaire to medical school faculty involved in curriculum change and tested the psychometric properties using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and generalizability analysis. The mean relevance score of the Delphi panel (n = 19) reached 4.2 on a five-point Likert-type scale (1 = not relevant and 5 = highly relevant) in the second round, meeting predefined criteria for completing the Delphi procedure. Faculty (n = 991) from 131 medical schools in 56 countries completed MORC. Exploratory factor analysis yielded three underlying factors-motivation, capability, and external pressure-in 12 subscales with 53 items. The scale structure suggested by exploratory factor analysis was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach alpha ranged from 0.67 to 0.92 for the subscales. Generalizability analysis showed that the MORC results of 5 to 16 faculty members can reliably evaluate a school's organizational readiness for change. MORC is a valid, reliable questionnaire for measuring organizational readiness for curriculum change in medical schools. It can identify which elements in a change process require special attention so as to increase the chance of successful implementation.

  16. Debt on graduation, expected place of practice, and career aspirations of Auckland Medical School students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, G; Fitzjohn, J

    2001-10-26

    To determine the debt level that current Auckland medical students expect to graduate with, and evaluate this debt in the context of their career aspirations and intended place of practice. Simple check-box and fill-in-the-blank surveys were distributed to Auckland University medical students in Years 1 through to 5 during their second week of scheduled lectures in March 2000. Students were asked to provide demographic details, then complete sections on debt and career aspirations. 70% of Auckland medical students participated. Average expected debt was between $60000 to $70000. Predicted size of graduation debt was significantly related with plans to practice medicine overseas, and this trend was especially strong among females. In addition, Maori and Polynesian students bear a disproportionate level of the student debt burden compared to Pakeha and Asian groups. 77% of students indicated a preference for working in private or hospital specialty work. Student debt will have major effects on the composition of the New Zealand medical workforce over coming years. More attention must be paid to the national picture of medical student indebtedness if adequate workforce planning is to be possible.

  17. Educational Debt in the Context of Career Planning: A Qualitative Exploration of Medical Student Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie P; Wilbanks, Deana M; Salinas, Diana F; Doberneck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenon: Medical students in the United States face increasing educational debt because medical education costs have risen while public investment in higher education has declined. Contemporary students borrow more money and accumulate debt far surpassing that of previous generations of physicians, and both interest rates and terms of loan repayment have changed significantly in the last decade. As a result, the experiences of medical students differ from the experiences of physician educators. Little is known about how contemporary medical students view their debt in the context of career planning. Understanding contemporary U.S. medical students' lived experiences of educational debt is important, because high debt levels may affect medical students' well-being and professional development. The study's purpose was to explore contemporary students' views of their debt in the context of career planning. In 2012, 2nd-year medical students enrolled in a health policy course at one medical school were invited to write an essay about how debt influences their career choices. The authors analyzed 132 essays using immersion and crystallization and iterative, team-based coding. Code-recode strategies, member checking, and reflexivity ensured validity and rigor. Three themes emerged about the meaning of debt: debt symbolizes lack of social investment, debt reinforces a sense of entitlement, and debt is a collective experience. Four approaches to debt management emerged: anticipation, avoidance, acceptance, and disempowerment. Insights: Medical students' views of debt are more complex than previously reported. Medical educators should recognize that many students experience debt as a stressor, acknowledge students' emotions about debt, and invite discussion about the culture of entitlement in medical education and how this culture affects students' professionalism. At the same time, educators should emphasize that students have many repayment options and that regardless

  18. Medical students' perceptions of general practice as a career; a phenomenological study using socialisation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Katherine; Alberti, Hugh

    2018-04-23

    The ageing population and push to community care has significantly increased the workload of General Practitioners (GPs) in the UK and internationally. In an attempt to tackle this, NHS England has promised 5000 more GPs by 2020/21; however, recruitment is in crisis with GP training posts remaining unfilled. Little research has been carried out to assess the fundamental questions of what medical students' perceptions of General Practice are and what shapes their perceptions at medical school. We aimed to explore medical students' conceptualisations of being a GP and specifically the role of the medical school in shaping their perceptions. Two focus groups of year one and year four medical students were undertaken using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Our study has revealed that medical students perceive General Practice to lack prestige and challenge. These perceptions come, at least in part, from a process of socialisation within medical school, whereby medical students internalise and adopt their role models' perceptions and values, and the values portrayed by the hidden curriculum in their medical school culture. Perceived external pressures to pursue a career in General Practice can have a negative influence and medical schools should be made aware of this.

  19. Evaluation of Self Medication Amongst Nursing Students of Bastar Region: A Questionnaire Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sajid Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  Self-medication provides low cost alternative for expensive medical management but inappropriate use can cause problems. For Nursing undergraduates such practice has special significance since they have medical knowledge but very superficial and also its application is limited.  Hence the present study was planned to evaluate the status of students studying in different years of B.Sc. Nursing.To determine the prevalence, attitude and knowledge of self medication amongst the students of Government Nursing College, Jagdalpur(ChhatisgarhThis questionnaire based study was performed on 142 Nursing students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year aged between17-24 years. Mean age was found to be 20.5 years (±2.5years. A prevalidated questionnaire was distributed amongst the participants after explaining the purpose of the study and taking informed consent. The results obtained from this study showed that out of 142 students 120 (84.50 % students used self medicationCommonest source of information for self medication were seniors and colleagues 40(33.33%, and the most common indication for self medication was common cold 41(34.16 %.D’cold Total 49(40.83% was the most common medication used as self medication .Only 16 (13.33% students were having the knowledge about content, dose, duration of therapy and adverse drug reaction of the medication that they used. The most common source to obtain medicines for self medication was pharmaceutical store 80 (66.67 %.The findings from this study highlights the striking prevalence of self medication among nursing students, the lack of knowledge and the risks associated with them. We recommend that a global approach must be taken to prevent this problem from escalating which would involve awareness and education regarding the implications of self medication, strategies to prevent the supply of medicines without prescription by pharmacies and strict rules regarding pharmaceutical advertising.

  20. Formal public health education and career outcomes of medical school graduates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Krousel-Wood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data are available evaluating the associations of formal public health education with long-term career choice and professional outcomes among medical school graduates. The objective of this study was to determine if formal public health education via completion of a masters of public health (MPH degree among US medical school graduates was associated with early and long-term career choice, professional satisfaction, or research productivity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 1108 physicians (17.1% completed a MPH degree who had 10-20 years of follow-up post medical school graduation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to their counterparts with no MPH, medical school graduates with a MPH were more likely to have completed a generalist primary care residency only [relative risk (RR 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.35-2.29], obtain employment in an academic institution (RR 1.81; 95% CI 1.33-2.37 or government agency (RR 3.26; 95% CI 1.89-5.38, and practice public health (RR 39.84; 95% CI 12.13-107.38 or primary care (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18-2.05. Furthermore, medical school graduates with a MPH were more likely to conduct public health research (RR 8.79; 95% CI: 5.20-13.82, receive NIH or other federal funding (RR 3.11, 95% CI 1.74-5.33, have four or more peer-reviewed publications (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.56-2.60, and have five or more scientific presentations (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.70-2.98. CONCLUSION: Formal public health education via a MPH was associated with career choice and professional outcomes among physicians.

  1. Measuring Student Career Interest within the Context of Technology-Enhanced STEM Projects: A Cross-Project Comparison Study Based on the Career Interest Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Kermish-Allen, Ruth; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2016-01-01

    This article describes Energy for ME and Going Green! Middle Schoolers Out to Save the World, two Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education programs with the common goal of improving students' attitudes about scientific careers. The authors represent two project teams, each with funding from the National Science…

  2. The careers of women graduates from St Mary's Hospital Medical School, London, 1961--72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, H E

    1979-07-01

    The careers of women doctors who qualified from St Mary's Hospital Medical School between 1961 and 1972 inclusive have been studied. Thirty-eight per cent were in full-time work, 47% were working part-time, and 15% were not practising medicine at the time of the survey. Those working full-time were predominantly single women and married women with no children. With the birth of children most women stopped working for a time, and 38% of those whose children were all under school age were not working. However, 90% returned to medicine, usually to part-time jobs that were compatible with family responsibilities. Eighty-six per cent of the respondents held one or more postgraduate qualifications. More of those with higher qualifications were in full-time work than was the case for women with a basic medical degree only, and fewer were not practising medicine. An equal proportion of single and married women intended to make their career in general practice. Fewer married women than single women chose a hospital career, because the possibilities of part-time work in this field were seen as limited.

  3. Vocational interest types of medical students and its usage in student career counseling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Lee, Keumho

    2012-12-01

    It is very important to consider student's personality, aptitudes, and interest to choose an appropriate major or career. This study explored three overarching topics: Are there difference in vocational interest types by gender? Do students' vocational interest type concur with type related to medicine? Are the results of Strong Interest Inventory useful in student career counseling? The subjects were 124 freshmen in Konyang University College of Medicine. The Strong Interest Inventory (Korean version) was used. This were divided into three scales: general occupational themes (GOT), basic interest scales (BIS), and personal style scales (PSS). The data were analyzed by the frequency analysis, chi-square test and t-test. From GOT six interest types, male and female showed significant differences in realistic (t=2.71, p=0.008), artist (t=-3.33, p=0.001), and social (t=-2.08, p=0.039) types. From PSS, the score of work style was below 50 points, it is mean they prefer to work alone, with the ideas, materials rather than work with people. Investigative type was the most frequent type (63.7%) and social type was the least (8.1%). The interest test results were very useful in student career counseling with professors (n=53). The satisfaction survey results showed 58.5% of professors were very satisfied as the data was "helpful in understanding the students," "useful in leading natural conversation (41.5%)," and "helpful in creating rapport (39.6%)." Strong vocational interest types explains an individual's career interests, and reflect the characteristics of medical students are. The finding of the study can be used to provide student counseling and developing a tailored student career guidance program.

  4. Agreement between questionnaire and medical records on some health and socioeconomic problems among poisoning cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathelrahman Ahmed I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between questionnaire and medical records on some health and socioeconomic problems among poisoning cases. Methods Cross-sectional sample of 100 poisoning cases consecutively admitted to the Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia during the period from September 2003 to February 2004 were studied. Data on health and socioeconomic problems were collected both by self-administered questionnaire and from medical records. Agreement between the two sets of data was assessed by calculating the concordance rate, Kappa (k and PABAK. McNemar statistic was used to test differences between categories. Results Data collected by questionnaire and medical records showed excellent agreement on the "marital status"; good agreements on "chronic illness", "psychiatric illness", and "previous history of poisoning"; and fair agreements on "at least one health problem", and "boy-girl friends problem". PABAK values suggest better agreements' measures. Conclusion There were excellent to good agreements between questionnaire and medical records on the marital status and most of the health problems and fair to poor agreements on the majority of socioeconomic problems. The implications of those findings were discussed.

  5. Career opportunities and benefits for young oncologists in the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Gilberto; Lambertini, Matteo; Kourie, Hampig Raphael

    2016-01-01

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) is one of the leading societies of oncology professionals in the world. Approximately 30% of the 13 000 ESMO members are below the age of 40 and thus meet the society's definition of young oncologists (YOs). ESMO has identified the training...... and development of YOs as a priority and has therefore established a comprehensive career development programme. This includes a leadership development programme to help identify and develop the future leaders in oncology. Well-trained and highly motivated future generations of multidisciplinary oncologists...... are essential to ensure the optimal evolution of the field of oncology with the ultimate goal of providing the best possible care to patients with cancer. ESMO's career development portfolio is managed and continuously optimised by several dedicated committees composed of ESMO officers and is directly...

  6. Why medical students do not choose a career in geriatrics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiboom, Ariadne A; de Vries, Henk; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Scheele, Fedde

    2015-06-05

    While the demand for doctors specialised in the medical care of elderly patients is increasing, the interest among medical students for a career in geriatrics is lagging behind. To get an overview of the different factors reported in the literature that affect the (low) interest among medical students for a career in geriatrics, a systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC. Quality assessment criteria were applied. Twenty studies met the criteria and were included in the review. In relation to the nature of the work, the preference of medical students is young patients, and acute somatic diseases that can be cured. The complexity of the geriatric patient deters students from choosing this specialty. Exposure by means of pre-clinical and particularly clinical education increases interest. The lack of status and the financial aspects have a negative influence on interest. Exposure to geriatrics by means of education is necessary. The challenge in geriatric education is to show the rewarding aspects of the specialty.

  7. [Problems in career planning for novice medical technologists in Japanese national hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Shu; Tsutaya, Shoji; Akimoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Keiya; Yabaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    Skills and knowledge regarding many different types of test are required for medical technologists (MTs) to provide accurate information to help doctors and other medical specialists. In order to become an efficient MT, specialized training programs are required. Certification in specialized areas of clinical laboratory sciences or a doctoral degree in medical sciences may help MTs to realize career advancement, a higher earning potential, and expand the options in their career. However, most young MTs in national university hospitals are employed as part-time workers on a three-year contract, which is too short to obtain certifications or a doctoral degree. We have to leave the hospital without expanding our future. We need to take control of our own development in order to enhance our employability within the period. As teaching and training hospitals, national university hospitals in Japan are facing a difficult dilemma in nurturing MTs. I hope, as a novice medical technologist, that at least university hospitals in Japan create an appropriate workplace environment for novice MTs.

  8. Assessing Saudi medical students learning approach using the revised two-factor study process questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed; Almarzuqi, Ahmed; Almogheer, Rakan; Alharbi, Omar; Jalal, Abdulaziz; Alorainy, Majed

    2017-08-17

    To assess learning approaches of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd-year medical students by using revised two-factor study process questionnaire, and to assess reliability and validity of the questionnaire. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2014. The revised two-factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) was completed by 610 medical students of both genders, from foundation (first year), central nervous system (second year), medicine and surgery (third year) courses. The study process was evaluated by computing mean scores of two research study approaches (deep & surface) using student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance. The internal consistency and construct validity of the questionnaire were assessed using Cronbach's α and factor analysis. The mean score of deep approach was significantly higher than the surface approach among participants(t (770) =7.83, p= 0.000) for the four courses. The mean scores of deep approach were significantly higher among participants with higher grade point average (F (2,768) =13.31, p=0.001) along with more number of study hours by participants (F (2,768) =20.08, p=0.001). The Cronbach's α-values of items at 0.70 indicate the good internal consistency of questionnaire used. Factor analysis confirms two factors (deep and surface approaches) of R-SPQ-2F. The deep approach to learning was the primary approach among 1st, 2nd and 3rd-year King Saud University medical students. This study confirms reliability and validity of the revised two-factor study process questionnaire. Medical educators could use the results of such studies to make required changes in the curriculum.

  9. Career preferences of final year medical students at a medical school in Kenya?A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dossajee, Hussein; Obonyo, Nchafatso; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended physician to population ratio is 23:10,000. Kenya has a physician to population ratio of 1.8:10,000 and is among 57 countries listed as having a serious shortage of health workers. Approximately 52?% of physicians work in urban areas, 6?% in rural and 42?% in peri-urban locations. This study explored factors influencing the choice of career specialization and location for practice among final year medical students by gender. Methods A...

  10. A questionnaire survey of medical physicist and quality manager for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Teiji; Ashino, Yasuo; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of medical physicists and quality managers for radiation therapy was performed by the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) Future Planning Committee. We mailed the questionnaire to 726 radiotherapy facilities with the answers returned from 353 radiotherapy facilities. The result showed 178 facilities were staffed by radiotherapy workers who were licensed medical physicists or quality managers. A staff of 289 was licensed radiotherapy workers. Most of the staff were radiotherapy technologists. Quality control for radiation therapy was rated satisfactory according to each facility's assessment. Radiation therapy of high quality requires continued education of medical physicists and quality managers, in addition to keeping up with times for quality control. (author)

  11. Developing a Questionnaire for Iranian Women's Attitude on Medical Ethics in Vaginal Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee Rabor, Firoozeh; Taghipour, Ali; Mirzaee, Moghaddameh; Mirzaii Najmabadi, Khadigeh; Fazilat Pour, Masoud; Fattahi Masoum, Seyed Hosein

    2015-12-01

    Vaginal delivery is one of the challenging issues in medical ethics. It is important to use an appropriate instrument to assess medical ethics attitudes in normal delivery, but the lack of tool for this purpose is clear. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of women's attitude on medical ethics application in normal vaginal delivery. This methodological study was carried out in Iran in 2013 - 2014. Medical ethics attitude in vaginal delivery questionnaire (MEAVDQ) was developed using the findings of a qualitative data obtained from a grounded theory research conducted on 20 women who had vaginal childbirth, in the first phase. Then, the validation criteria of this tool were tested by content and face validity in the second phase. Exploratory factor analysis was used for construct validity and reliability was also tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the third phase of this study. SPSS version 13 was used in this study. The sample size for construct validity was 250 females who had normal vaginal childbirth. In the first phase of this study (tool development), by the use of four obtained categories and nine subcategories from grounded theory and literature review, three parts (98-items) of this tool were obtained (A, B and J). Part A explained the first principle of medical ethics, part B pointed to the second and third principles of medical ethics, and part J explained the fourth principle of medical ethics. After evaluating and confirming its face and content validity, 75 items remained in the questionnaire. In construct validity, by the employment of exploratory factor analysis, in parts A, B and J, 3, 7 and 3 factors were formed, respectively; and 62.8%, 64% and 51% of the total variances were explained by the obtained factors in parts A, B and J, respectively. The names of these factors in the three parts were achieved by consideration of the loading factor and medical ethics principles. The subscales of

  12. The report of medical exposures in diagnostic radiology. Pt. 1. The questionnaire of medical exposure and standard radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Iwasaki, Takanobu; Segawa, Hiroo; Yasuda, Sadatoshi; Kusuhara, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    We had made reports of patient radiation exposure for doctors to judge adaptation of medical radiation rightly. By these reports the doctors can be offered data of exposure dose and somatic effect. First, we sent out questionnaires so that we grasped the doctor's understanding about radiation exposure. Consequently we understood that the doctors had demanded data of exposure dose and somatic effect. Secondly, by the result of questionnaires we made the tables of exposure dose about radiological examination. As a result we have be able to presume exposure dose about high radiation sensitive organization as concrete figures. (author)

  13. Subject preferences of first- and second-year medical students for their future specialization at Chitwan Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Chitwan, Nepal – a questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Rajesh K; Paudel, Keshab R; Shah, Dev K; Sah, Ajit K; Basnet, Sangharshila; Sah, Phoolgen; Adhikari, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The selection of a discipline for future specialization may be an important factor for the medical students’ future career, and it is influenced by multiple factors. The interest of students in the early stages can be improved in subjects related to public health or of academic importance, as per need. Methods A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 265 first- and second-year medical students of Chitwan Medical College, Nepal to find out their subject of preference for postgraduation and the factors affecting their selection along with their interesting basic science subject. Only the responses from 232 completely filled questionnaires were analyzed. Results The preference of the students for clinical surgical (50.9%), clinical medical (45.3%), and basic medical (3.9%) sciences for postgraduation were in descending order. The most preferred specialty among male students was clinical surgical sciences (56.3%), and among female students, it was clinical medical sciences (53.6%). Although all the students responded to their preferred specialty, only 178 students specified the subject of their interest. General surgery (23.4%), pediatrics (23.4%), and anatomy (2.4%) were the most favored subjects for postgraduation among clinical surgical, clinical medical, and basic medical sciences specialties, respectively. More common reasons for selection of specific subject for future career were found to be: personal interests, good income, intellectual challenge, and others. Conclusion Many students preferred clinical surgical sciences for their future specialization. Among the reasons for the selection of the specialty for postgraduation, no significant reason could be elicited from the present study. PMID:26635491

  14. "Flipped classroom" for academic and career advising: an innovative technique for medical student advising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Richard; Laughlin, Brady S; Smith, Kathy W; Siwik, Violet P; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Fantry, George T

    2018-01-01

    Career advising for medical students can be challenging for both the student and the adviser. Our objective was to design, implement, and evaluate a "flipped classroom" style advising session. We performed a single-center cross-sectional study at an academic medical center, where a novel flipped classroom style student advising model was implemented and evaluated. In this model, students were provided a document to review and fill out prior to their one-on-one advising session. Ninety-four percent (95% CI, 88%-100%) of the medical students surveyed felt that the advising session was more effective as a result of the outline provided and completed before the session and that the pre-advising document helped them gain a better understanding of the content to be discussed at the session. Utilization of the flipped classroom style advising document was an engaging advising technique that was well received by students at our institution.

  15. A Spanish-language patient safety questionnaire to measure medical and nursing students' attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José J; Navarro, Isabel M; Guilabert, Mercedes; Poblete, Rodrigo; Franco, Astolfo L; Jiménez, Pilar; Aquino, Margarita; Fernández-Trujillo, Francisco J; Lorenzo, Susana; Vitaller, Julián; de Valle, Yohana Díaz; Aibar, Carlos; Aranaz, Jesús M; De Pedro, José A

    2015-08-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire for assessing attitudes and knowledge about patient safety using a sample of medical and nursing students undergoing clinical training in Spain and four countries in Latin America. In this cross-sectional study, a literature review was carried out and total of 786 medical and nursing students were surveyed at eight universities from five countries (Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Spain) to develop and refine a Spanish-language questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about patient safety. The scope of the questionnaire was based on five dimensions (factors) presented in studies related to patient safety culture found in PubMed and Scopus. Based on the five factors, 25 reactive items were developed. Composite reliability indexes and Cronbach's alpha statistics were estimated for each factor, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess validity. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was refined using confirmatory models, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the variance-covariance matrix (as input). Multiple linear regression models were used to confirm external validity, considering variables related to patient safety culture as dependent variables and the five factors as independent variables. The final instrument was a structured five-point Likert self-administered survey (the "Latino Student Patient Safety Questionnaire") consisting of 21 items grouped into five factors. Compound reliability indexes (Cronbach's alpha statistic) calculated for the five factors were about 0.7 or higher. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses indicated good model fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.9). Item-total correlations were higher than 0.3 in all cases. The convergent-discriminant validity was adequate. The questionnaire designed and validated in this study assesses nursing and medical students' attitudes and knowledge about patient safety. This instrument could be used to indirectly evaluate whether or

  16. Validation of the generic medical interview satisfaction scale: the G-MISS questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice-Szamburski, Axel; Michel, Pierre; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal

    2017-02-14

    Patients have about seven medical consultations a year. Despite the importance of medical interviews in the healthcare process, there is no generic instrument to assess patients' experiences in general practices, medical specialties, and surgical specialties. The main objective was to validate a questionnaire assessing patients' experiences with medical consultations in various practices. The G-MISS study was a prospective multi-center trial that enrolled patients from May to July 2016. A total of 2055 patients were included from general practices, medical specialties, and surgical specialties. Patients filled out a questionnaire assessing various aspects of their experience and satisfaction within 1 week after their medical interview. The validation process relied on item response theory. Internal validity was examined using exploratory factorial analysis. The statistical model used the root mean square error of approximation, confirmatory fit index, and standard root mean square residual as fit indices. Scalability and reliability were assessed with the Rasch model and Cronbach's alpha coefficients, respectively. Scale properties across the three subgroups were explored with differential item functioning. The G-MISS final questionnaire contained 16 items, structured in three dimensions of patients' experiences: "Relief", "Communication", and "Compliance". A global index of patients' experiences was computed as the mean of the dimension scores. All fit indices from the statistical model were satisfactory (RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.06). The overall scalability had a good fit to the Rasch model. Each dimension was reliable, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.73 to 0.86. Differential item functioning across the three consultation settings was negligible. Patients undergoing medical or surgical specialties reported higher scores in the "Relief" dimension compared with general practice (83.0 ± 11.6 or 82.4 ± 11.6 vs. 73.2 ± 16

  17. Medical school faculty discontent: prevalence and predictors of intent to leave academic careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Steven R; Fernandez, Genaro; Crane, Lori A

    2007-10-14

    Medical school faculty are less enthusiastic about their academic careers than ever before. In this study, we measured the prevalence and determinants of intent to leave academic medicine. A 75-question survey was administered to faculty at a School of Medicine. Questions addressed quality of life, faculty responsibilities, support for teaching, clinical work and scholarship, mentoring and participation in governance. Of 1,408 eligible faculty members, 532 (38%) participated. Among respondents, 224 (40%; CI95: 0.35, 0.44) reported that their careers were not progressing satisfactorily; 236 (42%; CI95: 0.38, 0.46) were "seriously considering leaving academic medicine in the next five years." Members of clinical departments (OR = 1.71; CI95: 1.01, 2.91) were more likely to consider leaving; members of inter-disciplinary centers were less likely (OR = 0.68; CI95: 0.47, 0.98). The predictors of "serious intent to leave" included: Difficulties balancing work and family (OR = 3.52; CI95: 2.34, 5.30); inability to comment on performance of institutional leaders (OR = 3.08; CI95: 2.07, 4.72); absence of faculty development programs (OR = 3.03; CI95: 2.00, 4.60); lack of recognition of clinical work (OR = 2.73; CI95: 1.60, 4.68) and teaching (OR = 2.47; CI95: 1.59, 3.83) in promotion evaluations; absence of "academic community" (OR = 2.67; CI95: 1.86, 3.83); and failure of chairs to evaluate academic progress regularly (OR = 2.60; CI95: 1.80, 3.74). Faculty are a medical school's key resource, but 42 percent are seriously considering leaving. Medical schools should refocus faculty retention efforts on professional development programs, regular performance feedback, balancing career and family, tangible recognition of teaching and clinical service and meaningful faculty participation in institutional governance.

  18. [ISMP-Spain questionnaire and strategy for improving good medication practices in the Andalusian health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Marín, V; Corral-Baena, S; Domínguez-Guerrero, F; Santos-Rubio, M D; Santana-López, V; Moreno-Campoy, E

    2012-01-01

    To describe the strategy employed by Andalusian public health service hospitals to foster safe medication use. The self-evaluation questionnaire on drug system safety in hospitals, adapted by the Spanish Institute for Safe Medication Practices was used as a fundamental tool to that end. The strategy is developed in several phases. We analyse the report evaluating drug system safety in Andalusian public hospitals published by the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption in 2008 and establish a grading system to assess safe medication practices in Andalusian hospitals and prioritise areas needing improvement. We developed a catalogue of best practices available in the web environment belonging to the Andalusian health care quality agency's patient safety observatory. We publicised the strategy through training seminars and implemented a system allowing hospitals to evaluate the degree of compliance for each of the best practices, and based on that system, we were able to draw up a map of centres of reference. We found areas for improvement among several of the questionnaire's fundamental criteria. These areas for improvement were related to normal medication procedures in daily clinical practice. We therefore wrote 7 best practice guides that provide a cross-section of the assessment components of the questionnaire related to the clinical process needing improvement. The self-evaluation questionnaire adapted by ISMP-Spain is a good tool for designing a systematic, rational intervention to promote safe medication practices and intended for a group of hospitals that share the same values. Copyright © 2011 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  20. Career advising in family medicine: a theoretical framework for structuring the medical student/faculty advisor interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods: At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results: The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion: This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine.

  1. Patient-Centered Medical Home Exposure and Its Impact on PA Career Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayingo, Gerald; Gilani, Owais; Kidd, Vasco Deon; Warner, Mary L

    2016-10-01

    The transformation of primary care (PC) training sites into patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) has implications for the education of health professionals. This study investigates the extent to which physician assistant (PA) students report learning about the PCMH model and how clinical exposure to PCMH might impact their interest in a primary care career. An electronic survey was distributed to second-year PA students who had recently completed their PC rotation from 12 PA programs. Descriptive statistics and ordered logistic regression analyses were used to characterize the results. A total of 202 second-year PA students completed the survey. When asked about their knowledge of the new health care delivery models, 30% of the students responded they had received instruction about the PCMH. Twenty- five percent of respondents stated they were oriented to new payment structures proposed in the Affordable Care Act and quality improvement principles. Based on their experiences in the primary care clerkship, 64% stated they were likely to pursue a career in primary care, 13% were not likely, and 23% were unsure. Predictors of interest in a primary care career included: (1) age greater than 35 years, (2) being a recipient of a NHSC scholarship, (3) clerkship site setting in an urban cluster of 2,500 to 50,000 people, (4) number of PCMH elements offered at site, and (4) positive impression of team-based care. PA students lack adequate instruction related to the new health care delivery models. Students whose clerkship sites offered greater number of PCMH elements were more interested in pursuing a career in primary care.

  2. A Multivariate Analysis of Personality, Values and Expectations as Correlates of Career Aspirations of Final Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E.; Searle, Judy; Creed, Peter A.; Ng, Shu-Kay

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the career intentions of 179 final year medical students who completed an online survey that included measures of personality, values, professional and lifestyle expectations, and well-being. Logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of preferred medical specialty, practice location and hours of work.…

  3. Competencies of Career-Entry Medical Technology Graduates of Lyceum of Batangas: Basis for Enhancement of the Internship Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Anacleta P.

    2010-01-01

    The role of medical technologists in the years due to changes in the laboratory environment. curriculum is needed to prepare graduates for changes in laboratory medicine. It is the ultimate goal of the College to prepare students for career entry positions as medical technology professionals. The curriculum should be designed to prepare the…

  4. Self-Medication and Contributing Factors: A Questionnaire Survey Among Iranian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Abdarzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a serious danger in every health sector which potentially brings harmful side effects for the society. The aim of this research was to investigate self-medication and its contributing factors among residents of Yazd province in Iran in 2014. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 580 families living in Yazd in the time period of study were contributed to fill out the questions organized in two sections of demographic and self-medication factors. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 through appropriate descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: Self-medication was reported in 53.4% of the cases. The most frequent self-prescribed medications were related to pain killer drugs (26.6%. There was a significant statistical relation between self-medication and households’ age, occupation and income, level of parents’ education, number of children and place of residence. Among different reasons for self-medication the most important one was reported to be accessibility (3.44+1.3. Conclusion: Due to the considerable prevalence of self-medication and its harmful effects on every society, such an issue should be appropriately controlled through legal regulations particularly in the area of selling dangerous drugs. Furthermore, provision of proper information and warning the population about harmful side effects can be helpful in this regard. 

  5. Patients' acceptance of medical photography in a French adult and paediatric dermatology department: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacard, F; Maruani, A; Delaplace, M; Caille, A; Machet, L; Lorette, G; Samimi, M

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing use of medical photography by dermatologists, no study on patients' perceptions of photography in dermatology has been performed to date. Firstly, to evaluate patients' perceptions of medical photography. Secondly, to assess whether perceptions differed between patients in our adult department and parents accompanying a child in our paediatric department. An opinion survey was conducted at the Hospital of Tours (France) among adult patients (adult department) and accompanying parents (paediatric department) by completion of a questionnaire after any medical photography had been performed. We collected 272 questionnaires regarding 158 adults and 114 children. A camera used only in the department, and storage of the images in the department's records were the most accepted modalities (> 90%), especially in the paediatric survey. Respondents agreed with the sharing of the images with other practitioners and in medical meetings (> 85%) rather than distribution via publications (58·3%), e-mails (45·5%), health magazines (44·3%) and websites (32·0%). Most (78·8%) considered that the consent form should list all the possible uses of the images. Need for renewed consent for each use of the images was significantly more often expressed in the paediatric than the adult survey (44·5% vs. 24·5%, P = 0·001). More than 95% of respondents considered medical photography to be useful for improving diagnosis, monitoring of skin disease and aiding teaching. These findings could be used to improve practice, to increase the acceptability of medical photography and for devising a standardized consent form for medical practitioners performing medical photography. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Encouraging French medical students to choose a career in psychiatry: how and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Olivier; Van Effenterre, Aude; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for psychiatrists in France. This paper reviews the reasons for French medical students choosing psychiatry and the rationale and mechanisms for encouraging them towards this medical speciality. The main factors associated with choosing psychiatry as a career are the quantity and quality of undergraduate training and placements in psychiatry, better attitudes towards psychiatry and more emphasis on a positive life/work balance. The quality of postgraduate training can also influence students' decisions. Medical students should be encouraged to choose psychiatry first to counterbalance the existing stigma towards mental illness within the society, but also towards psychiatry within the medical profession, and second because of the current decline in French medical demography. Ways to improve recruitment are a selection process that favours a large number of psychiatric trainees, and an increase in the quality and quantity of training. Providing medical students with relevant information about training in psychiatry, notably through a national trainees' association, will not only improve the quality of care by increasing recruitment in psychiatry, but also ensure that all future doctors are familiar with and develop positive attitudes towards mental health issues.

  7. Performance curves of medical researchers during their career: analysis of scientific production from a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Antoine; Herquelot, Eléonore; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Malbezin, Muriel; Claris, Olivier

    2017-02-24

    To establish the pattern of change in individual scientific production over the career of medical researchers. Retrospective cohort based on prospectively collected data in a hospital information system. Multicentre university hospital in France. Two distinct populations of 1835 researchers (full professors vs non-academic physicians) having produced 44 723 publications between 1995 and 2014. Annual number of publications referenced in Medline/PubMed with a sensitivity analysis based on publications as first/last author and in high impact journals. The individual volume of publications was modelled by age using generalised estimating equations adjusted for birth cohort, biomedical discipline and academic position of researchers. Averaged over the whole career, the annual number of publications was 5.28 (95% CI 4.90 to 5.69) among professors compared to 0.82 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.89) among non-academic physicians (pscientific production between 25 and 35 years (adjusted incidence rate ratio 102.20, 95% CI 60.99 to 171.30), a maturation phase with a slower increase from 35 to 50 years (2.10, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.51) until a stabilisation phase with constant production followed by a potential decline at the end of career (0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.06). The non-academic physicians experienced a slower pace of learning curve at the beginning of their careers (42.38, 95% CI 25.37 to 70.81) followed by a smaller increase in the annual number of publications (1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.51). Compared to full professors, non-academic physicians had a poor capacity to publish, indicating a low productivity when medical doctors have limited time or little interest in undertaking research. This finding highlights the potential for rethinking the missions of medical doctors towards an enlargement of scientific prerogatives in favour of progress in global knowledge. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  8. [Development and validation of a questionnaire on perception of portfolio by undergraduate medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Arnoldo; Méndez, Benjamín; de la Fuente, Paloma; Padilla, Oslando; Benaglio, Carla; Sirhan, Marisol; Labarca, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Portfolio is an innovative instrument that promotes reflection, creativity and professionalism among students. To describe the development and validation process of a questionnaire to evaluate the use of portfolio in undergraduate medical students. Focus groups with students and teachers were employed to identify aspects related with portfolio in undergraduate teaching. The Delphi technique was used to prioritize relevant aspects and construct the questionnaire. The validated questionnaire, consisting of 43 items and 6 factors, was applied to 97 students (response rote of 99.9%) in 2007 and 100 students (99.2%) in 2008. Each question had to be answered using a Likert scale, from 0 (completely disagree) to 4 (completely agree) The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated. The questionnaire showed a high reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.9). The mean total scores obtained in 2007 and 2008 were 106.2 ± 21.2 (61.7% of the maximal obtainable score) and 104.6 ± 34.0 (60.8% of the maximal obtainable score), respectively No significant differences were seen in the analysis by factors. Changes in portfolio during 2008 showed differences in items related with organization, evaluation and regulation. The questionnaire is a valid and highly reliable instrument, measuring perceptions about the portfolio by undergraduate medical students. The students perceived an improvement in their creativity and professionalism as one of the strengths of portfolio. The weaknesses identified during the implementation process helped us to focus changes in organization and evaluation to improve the portfolio as a dynamic process.

  9. Factors influencing the choice of ophthalmology as a career among medical students of king saud bin abdulaziz university Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Abdullah AlSalman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Choosing a future speciality for medical students can be frightening as well as confusing. Identifying factors that influence medical students' future career choice is critical and can play an important role in shaping the future workforce. Aims: The study aims to determine factors associated with medical students' preference of Ophthalmology as a future career choice at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out among Saudi students of both genders who were enrolled in KSAU-HS (clinical phase during the study. Subjects and Methods: A validated questionnaire was sent through E-mail to 302 eligible students, of which 275 participated, with a response rate of (91%. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was carried out for all categorical variables. In addition, data were compared using Chi-square test; all tests were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 28 students (10.2% considered Ophthalmology as their first choice, while it was the second choice for four students (1.5%. Among all the participants, factors that attracted medical students to consider Ophthalmology as a career choice included the high income (54%, private sector opportunities (40%, part-time opportunities (40% and leisure (34%. Whereas, the difficulty of getting into the Ophthalmology Residency Programme (53% was the most important factor that pushed students away from choosing Ophthalmology. Conclusions: Multiple factors influenced the KSAU-HS medical students' choice of when choosing a future speciality. Knowing these factors can help in directing work-force to choose specialities that are currently limited in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Medical students' personal values and their career choices a quarter-century later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, M; Brigham, T P; Gottheil, E; Xu, G; Glaser, K; Veloski, J J

    1998-08-01

    A longitudinal study of 391 physicians tested two hypotheses regarding personal values and career choices: that higher preference for social values would be associated with physicians' being more interested in "people-oriented" rather than "technology-oriented" specialties and that higher preference for economic values would be associated with expectations of high income. The physicians (344 men, 47 women) were graduates of Jefferson Medical College in 1974 and 1975 who completed the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values during medical school. Analysis showed that physicians currently in the "people-oriented" specialties scored significantly higher on the Social Value scale than their peers in "technology-oriented" specialties. A moderate but statistically significant correlation was found between scores on the Economic Value scale and expectations of higher income. The findings suggest that physicians' personal values are relevant to their career decisions such as specialty choice and expectations of income. The findings have implications with regard to two major issues in the evolving health care system, namely, the distribution of physicians by specialty and cost containment.

  11. Identity work and illness careers of patients with medically unexplained symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2018-01-01

    often experience being met with mistrust and feel their identity threatened as a consequence of being illegitimately ill. There is a strong tendency in health care towards assessment thorough standardized so-called assessment packages. The study used a case study approach. Ethnographic fieldwork......This article reports a case study of the illness career and identity work of patients who have had medically unexplained symptoms for many years with a particular emphasis on their interactions with a specialized and standardized health care system. Patients with medically unexplained symptoms...... assessment with limited time can lead to a diagnostic limbo and that patients and health care professionals keep on searching for legitimate explanations for the patients' still unexplained symptoms. Consequently the patients were left in a constant identity negotiation....

  12. Development and validation of a generic questionnaire for the implementation of complex medical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer, Lena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: The implementation of complex medical interventions in daily practice is often fraught with difficulties. According to the iterative phase model proposed by the British Medical Research Council (MRC, the development, implementation and evaluation of complex interventions should be theory-driven. A conceptual model that seems to be a promising framework is the Theory of planned behaviour (TPB. In our study we aimed to develop and validate a generic and multifaceted questionnaire based on the TPB to detect physicians’ willingness to implement complex medical interventions and the factors influencing this willingness.Methods: The questionnaire was developed according to the literature and was informed by previous qualitative research of our department. It was validated on the example of an electronic library of decision aids, arriba-lib. The sample consisted of 181 General Practitioners (GPs who received a training regarding arriba-lib and subsequently filled in the questionnaire, assessing the TPB variables attitude, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control and intention. Follow-up assessments were conducted after two (assessing retest reliability and eight weeks (assessing target behaviour. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis investigating the factorial structure of our questionnaire according to the TPB. Beside the calculation of the questionnaire’s psychometric properties we conducted a structural equation model and an ordinal regression to predict actual behaviour regarding the installation and application of arriba-lib.Results: The postulated three factorial model (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control of our questionnaire based on the TPB was rejected. A two factorial model with a combined factor subjective norm/perceived behaviour control was accepted. The explained variance in the ordinal regression was low (Nagelkerke’s R=.12. Neither attitude nor intention were able to predict

  13. How we created a peer-designed specialty-specific selective for medical student career exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Elizabeth M; O'Donnell, Erin P; Starr, Stephanie R

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, medical students have recognized and advocated for opportunities to explore various specialties earlier in their medical education. A brief literature review, however, reveals little consensus on the best approach to introduce students to different fields during their preclinical years. We present one of the first reports of a student-led effort to design and implement a preclinical specialty-specific elective. At Mayo Medical School, for two consecutive years the student president of the Pediatric Interest Group has created a peer-designed weeklong group elective ("selective") experience consisting of workshops, faculty and resident panel discussions, and clinical shadowing experiences based on a student needs assessment. Each year, more than 25% of the first- and second-year medical student body participated. The majority of students who completed the selective agreed that this experience heightened their interests and expanded their knowledge about pediatrics. The pediatric group selective has provided students with important resources for their medical education and future careers. Students found the group selective beneficial to their learning experience and recommend continuing to offer it in the future.

  14. Utilization of information technology in medical education: a questionnaire survey of students in a Malaysian institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjahan, M I; Lim, T A; Yeong, S W; Foong, A L S; Ware, J

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain a self-reported assessment of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by medical students at the International Medical University, Malaysia. Students' perceived skills and extent of usage of ICT were evaluated using a questionnaire. Chi-square analysis were performed to ascertain the association between variables. Further statistical testing using Chi-square test for trend was done when one of the variables was ordered, and Spearman rank correlation when both variables were ordered. Overall, (98%) of students responded to the questionnaire. Twenty seven students (5.7%) did not use a computer either in the university or at home. Most students surveyed reported adequate skills at word processing (55%), e-mailing (78%) and surfing the internet (67%). The results suggests that in order to increase the level of computer literacy among medical students, positive steps would need to be taken, for example the formal inclusion of ICT instruction in the teaching of undergraduate medicine. This will enhance medical students' ability to acquire, appraise, and use information in order to solve clinical and other problems quickly and efficiently in the course of their studies, and more importantly when they graduate.

  15. Are medical students influenced by preceptors in making career choices, and if so how? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, P; Prideaux, D; Greenhill, J; Sweet, L

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly medical students undertake clinical training in distributed learning environments. The driving factor for this is predominantly to address medical workforce shortages. In these environments students are often taught by private practitioners, residents, house staff and registrars, as well as faculty. Through a mix of short- and long-term preceptorships, clerkships and rotations, medical students are exposed to a wider range of preceptors, mentors and role models than has traditionally been the case. The aim of this systematic review was to understand if and how medical students' career choices are influenced by their interactions with preceptors. A search of Ovid Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Eric and CIHNAL was undertaken. The search was structured around the key terms: Medical Student, Career Choice and Preceptor, and variants of these terms. Search limits were set to English-language publications between 1995 and 2010. A total of 36 articles met the selection criteria from the 533 citations sourced from the search. Required preceptorships as short as 3 weeks' duration influence the career choice of students when they rate the preceptor as a high quality teacher. Preceptors who are judged (by students) as high quality teachers have the greatest influence on student career choice by up to four-fold. When students judged a preceptor as being a negative role model, a poor teacher or lacking discipline specific knowledge they will turn away from that field. The positive influence of relationships between preceptors and students on career choice is strongest where there is continuity of preceptors, continuity of care, and continuity of patient interactions. The longer the duration of the preceptorship the greater the influence on student career choice, particularly in primary cares environments. This review adds to the literature by identifying how differing components and combinations of components of a preceptorship influence medical

  16. Teaching and evaluation methods of medical ethics in the Saudi public medical colleges: cross-sectional questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most influential Muslim countries being as the host of the two most holy places for Muslims, namely Makkah and Madina. This was reflected in the emphasis on teaching medical ethics in a lecture-based format as a part of the subject of Islamic culture taught to medical students. Over the last few years, both teaching and evaluation of medical ethics have been changing as more Saudi academics received specialized training and qualifications in bioethics from western universities. Methods This study aims at studying the current teaching methods and evaluation tools used by the Saudi public medical schools. It is done using a self-administered online questionnaire. Results Out of the 14 medical schools that responded, the majority of the responding schools (6; 42.8%), had no ethics departments; but all schools had a curriculum dedicated to medical ethics. These curricula were mostly developed by the faculty staff (12; 85.7%). The most popular teaching method was lecturing (13; 92.8%). The most popular form of student assessment was a paper-based final examination (6; 42.8%) at the end of the course that was allocated 40% or more of the total grade of the ethics course. Six schools (42.8%) allocated 15-30% of the total grade to research. Conclusion Although there is a growing interest and commitment in teaching ethics to medical students in Saudi schools; there is lack of standardization in teaching and evaluation methods. There is a need for a national body to provide guidance for the medical schools to harmonize the teaching methods, particularly introducing more interactive and students-engaging methods on the account of passive lecturing. PMID:24020917

  17. Bullying of medical students in Pakistan: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies from other countries have shown that bullying, harassment, abuse or belittlement are a regular phenomenon faced not only by medical students, but also junior doctors, doctors undertaking research and other healthcare professionals. While research has been carried out on bullying experienced by psychiatrists and psychiatry trainees in Pakistan no such research has been conducted on medical students in this country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on final year medical students in six medical colleges of Pakistan. The response rate was 63%. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported that they had faced bullying or harassment during their medical education, about 28% of them experiencing it once a month or even more frequently. The overwhelming form of bullying had been verbal abuse (57%, while consultants were the most frequent (46% perpetrators. Students who were slightly older, males, those who reported that their medical college did not have a policy on bullying or harassment, and those who felt that adequate support was not in place at their medical college for bullied individuals, were significantly more likely to have experienced bullying. CONCLUSION: Bullying or harassment is faced by quite a large proportion of medical students in Pakistan. The most frequent perpetrators of this bullying are consultants. Adoption of a policy against bullying and harassment by medical colleges, and providing avenues of support for students who have been bullied may help reduce this phenomenon, as the presence of these two was associated with decreased likelihood of students reporting having being bullied.

  18. Questionnaire survey and technical guideline of blood irradiation on medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Hasegawa, Hironori; Okumura, Masahiko; Sonoda, Tatsuo; Osada, Koji.

    1997-01-01

    We know that transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) is a serious side effect associated with blood transfusion and the onset is independent on the immunological conditions of patients. We have only prophylactic treatment against TA-GVHD. The most reliable method is to irradiate the blood for transfusion. In Japanese medical facilities, however, the risk of TA-GVHD is poorly understood and actual conditions of the blood irradiation are unclear. We sent a questionnaire to randomly selected 426 medical facilities in Japan, which had the department of radiology, to investigate the actual conditions of blood irradiation for transfusion and the problems on the irradiation dose measurement of the external apparatus for blood irradiation. The questionnaire involved 19 questions about the blood irradiation for transfusion. The survey took place for one month (June 1-June 30, 1995). Replies were obtained from a total of 306 medical facilities (72%). The results showed that blood irradiation was done by several methods in the 75% of the medical facilities, and the external irradiation apparatus was used in 83%. Some problems were shown, including irradiation period, cost of the irradiation, the operating procedure of the apparatus, requested number of the irradiation, and the request after usual hours. There was no significant problem on the irradiation dose, irradiation method, etc. We also sent a questionnaire to 74 facilities of the Red Cross Blood Center, in which the frequency of blood irradiation have increased since May, 1976. The X-ray apparatus as the external irradiation apparatus has practical advantages; lower cost, compact and out of the legal control on the ionizing radiation, however, it has some problems on the uniformity of the absorption dose when a single X-ray tube-type apparatus is used. We discuss about the possible onset of TA-GVHD or other accidents by the incorrect irradiation of the blood preparations. (K.H.)

  19. A Spanish-language patient safety questionnaire to measure medical and nursing students' attitudes and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Mira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a questionnaire for assessing attitudes and knowledge about patient safety using a sample of medical and nursing students undergoing clinical training in Spain and four countries in Latin America. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a literature review was carried out and total of 786 medical and nursing students were surveyed at eight universities from five countries (Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Spain to develop and refine a Spanish-language questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about patient safety. The scope of the questionnaire was based on five dimensions (factors presented in studies related to patient safety culture found in PubMed and Scopus. Based on the five factors, 25 reactive items were developed. Composite reliability indexes and Cronbach's alpha statistics were estimatedfor each factor, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess validity. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was refined using confirmatory models, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the variance-covariance matrix (as input. Multiple linear regression models were used to confirm external validity, considering variables related to patient safety culture as dependent variables and the five factors as independent variables. RESULTS: The final instrument was a structured five-point Likert self-administered survey (the "Latino Student Patient Safety Questionnaire" consisting of 21 items grouped into five factors. Compound reliability indexes (Cronbach's alpha statistic calculated for the five factors were about 0.7 or higher. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses indicated good model fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.9. Item-total correlations were higher than 0.3 in all cases. The convergent-discriminant validity was adequate. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire designed and validated in this study assesses nursing and medical students' attitudes and knowledge about patient safety. This

  20. Psychosocial and career outcomes of peer mentorship in medical resident education: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethrick, Helen; Nowell, Lorelli; Oddone Paolucci, Elizabeth; Lorenzetti, Liza; Jacobsen, Michele; Clancy, Tracey; Lorenzetti, Diane L

    2017-08-31

    Many medical residents lack ready access to social and emotional supports that enable them to successfully cope with the challenges associated with medical residency. This absence of support has been shown to lead to high levels of burnout, decreased mental wellbeing, and difficulty mastering professional competencies in this population. While there is emerging evidence that peer mentoring can be an important source of psychosocial and career-related support for many individuals, the extent of the evidence regarding the benefits of peer mentorship in medical residency education has not yet been established. We describe a protocol for a systematic review to assess the effects of peer mentoring on medical residents' mental wellbeing, social connectedness, and professional competencies. Studies included in this review will be those that report on peer-mentoring relationships among medical residents. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies will be eligible for inclusion. No date or language limits will be applied. We will search EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, Education Research Complete, and Academic Research Complete databases to identify relevant studies. Two authors will independently assess all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion and study quality and extract study data in duplicate. This is the first systematic review to explicitly explore the role of peer mentoring in the context of medical residency education. We anticipate that the findings from this review will raise awareness of the benefits and challenges associated with peer-mentoring relationships, further the development and implementation of formal peer-mentoring programs for medical residents, and, through identifying gaps in the existing literature, inform future research efforts. This protocol has not been registered in PROSPERO or any other publicly accessible registry.

  1. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Tuva Kolstad; Rø, Karin Isaksson; Vaglum, Per Jørgen Wiggen; Moum, Torbjørn; Røvik, Jan Ole; Gude, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Tyssen, Reidar

    2016-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=-0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, pwork-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found.

  2. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERTZBERG, Tuva Kolstad; RØ, Karin Isaksson; VAGLUM, Per Jørgen Wiggen; MOUM, Torbjørn; RØVIK, Jan Ole; GUDE, Tore; EKEBERG, Øivind; TYSSEN, Reidar

    2015-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=−0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, pseparate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  3. Utility of the comprehensive marijuana motives questionnaire among medical cannabis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Bonar, Erin E; Arnedt, J Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A; Walton, Maureen A; Ilgen, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, 36-item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) among a sample of medical cannabis patients. Study participants were adults ages 21years or older with scheduled appointments to obtain new or renewed medical cannabis certification from clinics in one Midwestern state (n=1116). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate properties of the CMMQ. Multiple regressions were used to estimate associations between motives and cannabis use, physical health functioning, and mental health functioning. Fit indices were acceptable, and factor loadings ranged from 0.57 to 0.94. Based on regression analyses, motives accounted for 7% of the variance in recent cannabis use, and independent of cannabis use, accounted for 5% and 19% of physical and mental health functioning, respectively. Regression analyses also revealed that distinct motives were associated with cannabis use and physical and mental health functioning. Among adults seeking medical cannabis certification, the factor structure of the CMMQ was supported, and consistent with prior studies of adolescents and young adults using cannabis recreationally. Thus, individuals who use cannabis medically may have diverse reasons for use that extend beyond the management of medical symptoms. In addition, coping and sleep-related motives may be particularly salient for this population. Findings support the utility of the CMMQ in future research on medical cannabis use; however, expansion of the scale may be needed to address medical motives for use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Psychometric analysis of the Swedish version of the General Medical Council's multi source feedback questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jan-Eric; Wallentin, Fan Yang; Toth-Pal, Eva; Ekblad, Solvig; Bertilson, Bo Christer

    2017-07-10

    To determine the internal consistency and the underlying components of our translated and adapted Swedish version of the General Medical Council's multisource feedback questionnaires (GMC questionnaires) for physicians and to confirm which aspects of good medical practice the latent variable structure reflected. From October 2015 to March 2016, residents in family medicine in Sweden were invited to participate in the study and to use the Swedish version to perform self-evaluations and acquire feedback from both their patients and colleagues. The validation focused on internal consistency and construct validity. Main outcome measures were Cronbach's alpha coefficients, Principal Component Analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis indices. A total of 752 completed questionnaires from patients, colleagues, and residents were analysed. Of these, 213 comprised resident self-evaluations, 336 were feedback from residents' patients, and 203 were feedback from residents' colleagues. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the scores were 0.88 from patients, 0.93 from colleagues, and 0.84 in the self-evaluations. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis validated two models that fit the data reasonably well and reflected important aspects of good medical practice. The first model had two latent factors for patient-related items concerning empathy and consultation management, and the second model had five latent factors for colleague-related items, including knowledge and skills, attitude and approach, reflection and development, teaching, and trust. The current Swedish version seems to be a reliable and valid tool for formative assessment for resident physicians and their supervisors. This needs to be verified in larger samples.

  5. Questionnaire-based evaluation of mobile phone interference with medical-electrical equipment in Swedish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiinberg, Stig; Samuelsson, Göran; Larsson, Stefan; Nilsson, Barbro; Jönsson, Patrik X; Ivarsson, Bodil; Olofsson, Per-Åke

    2017-08-09

    National recommendations in Sweden recommend a safety distance of 3 meter (m) between mobile phones and medical-electrical (ME) equipment in hospitals. A questionnaire was used to investigate how often mobile phones were reported to interfere with ME products in clinical practice across Sweden. The results confirmed that ME equipment can be affected by mobile phone use but, the risk of the patient's outcome being affected were minimal; no cases were identified which led to injury or death. In conclusion, the results support recommendations for a general safety distance of 0.5 m between mobile phones and ME equipment in care environments.

  6. A survey of how and why medical students and junior doctors choose a career in ENT surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, M; Mandavia, R; Syed, I; Qureshi, A; Hettige, R; Wong, B Y W; Saeed, S; Cartledge, J

    2016-11-01

    To ascertain determinants of an interest in a career in ENT surgery through a survey of medical students and junior doctors. A survey was administered, comprising Likert scales, forced response and single option questions, and free text responses, at five different courses or events for those interested in a career in ENT. The survey had an 87 per cent response rate; respondents consisted of 43 applicants for national selection, 15 foundation doctors and 23 medical students. The most important factors that encourage ENT as a career included: the variety of operative procedures, work-life balance, inherent interest in this clinical area and inspirational senior role models. Exposure to ENT in undergraduate or post-graduate training is critical in deciding to pursue this specialty. It is important to promote those aspects of ENT surgery that attract people to it, and to argue for greater exposure to ENT during undergraduate and post-graduate training.

  7. [Diagnosis on the unique curriculum of the medical career at the National University of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Guzmán, Rosalinda; Urrutia Aguilar, María Esther

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the Plan Unico de Estudios of the medical career was the result of five years of collegiate work in which commissions consisting of academic staff of different departments from the faculty of medicine at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) participated. The most significant conclusions derived from this analysis are: to adjust the graduate’s profile in order to face the emerging health problems of the twenty-first century in our country; to update the academic curricula of the different subjects, including new ones; to create a nuclear curricula; as well as to strengthen the basic-clinic and the clinic-basic. With regard to the teaching/learning process, we acknowledged the need to develop self-cognitive and self-motivational skills in students as well as to consider a different evaluation for students and teachers.

  8. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work–Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Villablanca, Amparo C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work–life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school.

  9. Burnout Syndrome Among Medical Practitioners Across India: A Questionnaire-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langade, Deepak; Modi, Pranav D; Sidhwa, Yazad F; Hishikar, Namita A; Gharpure, Amit S; Wankhade, Kalpana; Langade, Jayshree; Joshi, Kedar

    2016-09-08

    Excessive and prolonged work-related stress has always been a cause for burnout among healthcare professionals. This has led to emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion. This survey was conducted to assess the burnout among medical practitioners using the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (aMBI) and Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12) scales. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 482 registered medical practitioners across India. A questionnaire consisting of 25 socio-demographic and occupational questions related to aMBI and BCSQ-12 scales was used to assess the burnout. The distribution of responses for each variable was examined using frequencies and percentages among the subgroups to find out the burnout levels of various components of the scales. High burnout levels were uniformly recorded for the entire population. For the aMBI, 45.02% (n = 217) and 65.98% (n = 318) of the participants scored high on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scales, respectively, whereas 87.14% (n = 420) scored low on the personal accomplishment scale and 62.86% (n = 303) and 11.41% (n = 55) had medium and low scores on the satisfaction with the medical practice scale. The BCSQ-12 scale showed the mean values of 15.89, 11.56, and 10.28 on a scale of 28 for overload, lack of development, and neglect subtypes, respectively, whereas, satisfaction with the financial compensation item showed a mean value of 3.79 on a scale of seven. All these values indicate high levels of burnout. The results suggest high levels of burnout in all domains of aMBI and BCSQ-12 scales in all the occupational and socio-demographic groups of medical practitioners and warrant immediate actions to address this issue.

  10. “Flipped classroom” for academic and career advising: an innovative technique for medical student advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Richard; Laughlin, Brady S; Smith, Kathy W; Siwik, Violet P; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Fantry, George T

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Career advising for medical students can be challenging for both the student and the adviser. Our objective was to design, implement, and evaluate a “flipped classroom” style advising session. Methods We performed a single-center cross-sectional study at an academic medical center, where a novel flipped classroom style student advising model was implemented and evaluated. In this model, students were provided a document to review and fill out prior to their one-on-one advising session. Results Ninety-four percent (95% CI, 88%–100%) of the medical students surveyed felt that the advising session was more effective as a result of the outline provided and completed before the session and that the pre-advising document helped them gain a better understanding of the content to be discussed at the session. Conclusion Utilization of the flipped classroom style advising document was an engaging advising technique that was well received by students at our institution. PMID:29785150

  11. Consultant medical trainers, modernising medical careers (MMC and the European time directive (EWTD: tensions and challenges in a changing medical education context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Heather

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analysed the learning and professional development narratives of Hospital Consultants training junior staff ('Consultant Trainers' in order to identify impediments to successful postgraduate medical training in the UK, in the context of Modernising Medical Careers (MMC and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD. Methods Qualitative study. Learning and continuing professional development (CPD, were discussed in the context of Consultant Trainers' personal biographies, organisational culture and medical education practices. We conducted life story interviews with 20 Hospital Consultants in six NHS Trusts in Wales in 2005. Results Consultant Trainers felt that new working patterns resulting from the EWTD and MMC have changed the nature of medical education. Loss of continuity of care, reduced clinical exposure of medical trainees and loss of the popular apprenticeship model were seen as detrimental for the quality of medical training and patient care. Consultant Trainers' perceptions of medical education were embedded in a traditional medical education culture, which expected long hours' availability, personal sacrifices and learning without formal educational support and supervision. Over-reliance on apprenticeship in combination with lack of organisational support for Consultant Trainers' new responsibilities, resulting from the introduction of MMC, and lack of interest in pursuing training in teaching, supervision and assessment represent potentially significant barriers to progress. Conclusion This study identifies issues with significant implications for the implementation of MMC within the context of EWTD. Postgraduate Deaneries, NHS Trusts and the new body; NHS: Medical Education England should deal with the deficiencies of MMC and challenges of ETWD and aspire to excellence. Further research is needed to investigate the views and educational practices of Consultant Medical Trainers and medical trainees.

  12. [Aspirations of medical students: "planning for a secure career" - results of an online-survey among students at five medical schools in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, K; Miksch, A; Hermann, K; Loh, A; Kiolbassa, K; Joos, S; Steinhäuser, J

    2011-02-01

    In times of shortage of doctors, expectations and interests of the future generation of doctors towards their career aspiration is of major importance. The aim of this study was to analyze expectations of medical students at the five medical schools in the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) concerning their career choice and factors influencing it. Between January and February 2010, 1299 medical students (out of 12 062 medical students at the five medical schools) participated in an online-survey. In addition to sociodemographic items, career choice and aspects of planning reliability were raised. Three quarters of the students assign a medical profession for their future occupation. There is a dominance of internal medicine (n = 152), gynaecology (n = 127), paediatrics (n = 125), surgery (n = 115), anaesthesiology (n = 101), and family medicine (n = 88). The time point of decision varies between the different undergraduate years of medical school and specialty. Students at the beginning of their studies seem to be interested mostly in surgery. During medical school the interests towards internal medicine grows. Regarding planning dependability important aspects for medical students were to work in a job that has a future (61.2 % fully agree), to have a safe job (57.7 %), and to have a safe income (57.1 %). Less important seems to be to have good opportunity to earn money (29.6 %). Interest in a certain specialty changes markedly at during medical school. Factors such as economical guarantee, good future prospects and also the studies itself have an essential impact for students on choosing a specific career. Strategies to face physicians' shortage in different specialties need to be close to the needs and expectations of future physicians. This is not only valid for the undergraduate time period but also for the work circumstances of their future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Association of Research Self-Efficacy with Medical Student Career Interests, Specialization, and Scholarship: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S. Beth; Prayson, Richard A.; Dannefer, Elaine F.

    2015-01-01

    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal…

  14. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Satele, Daniel; Boone, Sonja; Tan, Litjen; Sloan, Jeff; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of burnout and other forms of distress across career stages and the experiences of trainees and early career (EC) physicians versus those of similarly aged college graduates pursuing other careers. In 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted a national survey of medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians (≤ 5 years in practice) and of a probability-based sample of the general U.S. population. All surveys assessed burnout, symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, quality of life, and fatigue. Response rates were 35.2% (4,402/12,500) for medical students, 22.5% (1,701/7,560) for residents/fellows, and 26.7% (7,288/27,276) for EC physicians. In multivariate models that controlled for relationship status, sex, age, and career stage, being a resident/fellow was associated with increased odds of burnout and being a medical student with increased odds of depressive symptoms, whereas EC physicians had the lowest odds of high fatigue. Compared with the population control samples, medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians were more likely to be burned out (all P prevalence of burnout, depressive symptoms, and recent suicidal ideation are relatively small. At each stage, burnout is more prevalent among physicians than among their peers in the U.S. population.

  15. Indian medical students in public and private sector medical schools: are motivations and career aspirations different? - studies from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Minj, Christie; Chhari, Neeraj; De Costa, Ayesha

    2013-09-15

    In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India's large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions.

  16. Indian medical students in public and private sector medical schools: are motivations and career aspirations different? – studies from Madhya Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India’s large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Methods Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. Results There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. Conclusion There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions. PMID:24034988

  17. [Questionnaire survey on medical care for male urethritis in community clinics in Shiga prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroto; Araki, Isao; Kageyama, Susumu; Baba, Masato; Nakano, Etsuji; Okada, Yusaku

    2014-01-01

    Six regional medical associations in Shiga prefecture agreed to cooperate in an investigation of medical care for male gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis. In June 2011, we sent a questionnaire to 372 medical offices in Shiga prefecture, and analyzed replies of respondents. Ten urologists and 175 non-urologists responded to the survey (response rate 49.7%). Among 185 physicians, 52 (10 urologists and 42 nonurologists) have treated male patients with gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis. More than 20% (42/175) of non-urological clinics are involved in the medical management. At initial diagnosis for sexually transmitted male urethritis, all urologists select the nucleic acid amplification method (100%), whereas many non-urologists do not (35%). For the treatment of chlamydial urethritis, non-urologists select levofloxacin (LVFX, 52.8%) rather than azithromycin (AZM, 22.0%), whereas urologists use AZM (78.0%) mostly but do not use LVFX (0%) (p = 0.023). For the treatment of gonococcal urethritis, non-urologists prefer oral new quinolones (53.1%) compared to urologists (25.0%) (p = 0. 74). For cure judgment of gonoccocal and chlamydial urethritis, many non-urologists rely on the improvement of subjective symptoms (50 and 47%), but urologists do not (10 and 0%) (p = 0.022 and 0.026, respectively). As for recognition of the clinical guideline for sexually transmitted disease, most urologists (90%) know it, but few non-urologists (13%) do (p urethritis in Shiga prefecture. It is important to standardize the medical care for sexually transmitted male urethritis by familiarizing non-urological practitioners with the clinical guideline.

  18. Nurses' perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses' survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Nurses are highly aware of adherence issues faced by their patients; further patient

  19. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  20. Reliability and validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication among Portuguese-speaking Brazilian patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer Liberato, Ana Carolina; Cunha Matheus Rodrigues, Roberta; Kim, MyoungJin; Mallory, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) among patients with hypertension. Understanding the patient experience with treatment satisfaction will contribute to improved medication adherence and control of hypertension. Hypertension is a serious problem in Brazil that is associated with chronic illness controlled, in part, by consistent adherence to medications. Patient satisfaction with medication treatment is associated with adherence to medication. The Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) is a promising instrument for measuring medication; however, to date there has been no report of the reliability and validity of the instrument with Portuguese-speaking adults with hypertension in Brazil. Cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study. A convenience sample of 300 patients with hypertension in an outpatient setting in the southeast region of São Paulo state in Brazil completed the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4). The instrument, comprised of four subscales, was evaluated for reliability using correlation analyses and internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine factorial validity. Correlational analyses, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis demonstrate adequate support for the four-factor dimensionality, reliability and factorial validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4). This study provides modest evidence for internal consistency and factorial validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) in Portuguese-speaking adult Brazilians with hypertension. Future testing should focus on extending reliability testing, discriminant validity and potential translation and literacy issues in this population. Within known limitations, clinicians will

  1. Early career retention of Malawian medical graduates: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Kate L; Ulaya, Godwin; Lagarde, Mylene; Gwesele, Lyson; Dzowela, Titha; Hanson, Kara; Muula, Adamson S

    2015-01-01

    There have been longstanding concerns over Malawian doctors migrating to high-income countries. Early career is a particularly vulnerable period. After significant policy changes, we examined the retention of recent medical graduates within Malawi and the public sector. We obtained data on graduates between 2006 and 2012 from the University of Malawi College of Medicine and Malawi Ministry of Health. We utilised the alumni network to triangulate official data and contacted graduates directly for missing or uncertain data. Odds ratios and chi-squared tests were employed to investigate relationships by graduation year and gender. We traced 256 graduates, with complete information for more than 90%. Nearly 80% of registered doctors were in Malawi (141/178, 79.2%), although the odds of emigration doubled with each year after graduation (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.54-2.56, P < 0.0001). Of the 37 graduates outside Malawi (14.5%), 23 (62.2%) were training in South Africa under a College of Medicine sandwich programme. More than 80% of graduates were working in the public sector (185/218, 82.6%), with the odds declining by 27% for each year after graduation (odds ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.86, P < 0.0001). While most doctors remain in Malawi and the public sector during their early careers, the odds of leaving both increase with time. The majority of graduates outside Malawi are training in South Africa under visa restrictions, reflecting the positive impact of postgraduate training in Malawi. Concerns over attrition from the public sector are valid and require further exploratory work. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. From "uncertifiable" medical practice to Berlin Clinic of Women Doctors: the medical career of Franziska Tiburtius (M.D. Zurich, 1876).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P

    1999-01-01

    Problems in gender expectations and relationships complicated increasing professionalization of medical arts at an important point of transformation toward the modern industrial European state. Subordination of women's work in these processes altered possible outcomes for German society in general and for female medical careers in particular. Franziska Tiburtius was one of twenty German women who graduated from the coeducational medical school in Zurich, Switzerland, in the nineteenth century. She was a founder of the Clinic of Women Doctors despite prohibitions against certifying women as physicians. Imperial Germany was the last Western nation to admit women to full medical practice in 1899.

  3. Viewpoints of the interns on their future career in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asefzadeh

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The imbalance between the public needs and the number of the medical graduates has created problems in recruitment of young physicians who are trained to provide medical and health services in the country. Purpose To assess the attitudes of interns at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences toward'i their future profession in 200I-2002. Methods This descriptive study assesses the viewpoints of all I20 interns through a self-administered questionnaire. Results The findings indicated that 77.5% of the students were in the age range of 22 to 27 with the average of 26. ./ years. of all cases 67.5% wished to continue their training to become a specialist and 6.7% decided to work as a general practitioner. of all students, 95.8% expected their future income to be low, to an extent which will not provide a comfortable life for them. of all cases. 89.2% believed that the present system of medical education does not give them the necessary capabilities and skills to practice efficiently in the future. Conclusion. The students• viewpoints on fulfillment of their economic needs and provision of a comfortable life for them and their families were negative; however, regarding fulfillment of their mental and emotional needs and participation in a scientific field, they were positive. Key word: intern, Medical profession

  4. Use of technical skills and medical devices among new registered nurses: A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertsson, Mona; Gustafsson, Margareta; Blomberg, Karin; Holmström, Inger K; Allvin, Renée

    2015-12-01

    One comprehensive part of nursing practice is performing technical skills and handling of medical equipment. This might be challenging for new registered nurses (RNs) to do in patient-safe way. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the extent to which new RNs perform various technical skills and handle medical devices in different settings, and to investigate their possibility for continued learning in this respect. A further aim was to describe their perceptions of incident reporting related to technical skills and medical devices. A cross-sectional study with descriptive and comparative design. RNs who recently graduated from a nursing programme at three Swedish universities and had worked as a RN for up to 1 year were included in the study (n=113, response rate 57%). Data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire. Half of the RNs reported that they performed several of the listed tasks every day or every week, regardless of workplace. These tasks were most frequently performed in surgical departments. The majority of the participants (76%) stated a need of continued practical training. However, less than half of them (48%) had access to a training environment. Several participants (43%) had been involved in incidents related to technical skills or medical devices, which were not always reported. Nearly a third of the participants (31%) did not use the existing guidelines when performing technical skills, and reflection on performance was uncommon. This study highlights the importance of shared responsibilities between nurse educators and health care employers to provide learning opportunities for new RNs in technical skills, to maintain patient safety. To increase the safety culture where nursing students and new RNs understand the importance of using evidence-based guidelines and taking a reflective approach in the performance of technical tasks is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender difference in preference of specialty as a career choice among Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-11-10

    In Japan, the absolute deficiency of doctors and maldistribution of doctors by specialty is a significant problem in the Japanese health care system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to specialty preference in career choice among Japanese medical students. A total of 368 medical students completed the survey giving an 88.2 % response rate. The subjects comprised 141 women aged 21 ± 3 (range, 18-34) years and 227 men aged 22 ± 4 (range, 18-44) years. Binary Logistic regression analysis was performed using specialty preferences as the criterion variable and the factors in brackets as six motivational variables (e.g., Factor 1: educational experience; Factor 2: job security; Factor 3: advice from others; Factor 4: work-life balance; Factor 5: technical and research specialty; and Factor 6: personal reasons). Women significantly preferred pediatrics, obstetrics & gynecology, and psychology than the men. Men significantly preferred surgery and orthopedics than the women. For both genders, a high odds ratio (OR) of "technical & research specialty" and a low OR for "personal reasons" were associated with preference for surgery. "Technical & research specialty" was positively associated with preference for special internal medicine and negatively for pediatrics. "Work-life balance" was positively associated with preference for psychology and negatively for emergency medicine. Among the women only, "technical & research specialty" was negatively associated with preference for general medicine/family medicine and obstetrics & gynecology, and "job security" was positively associated for general medicine/family medicine and negatively for psychology. Among men only, "educational experience" and "personal reasons" were positively, and "job security" was negatively associated with preference for pediatrics. For both genders, "work-life balance" was positively associated with preference for controllable lifestyle specialties. We

  6. [Validity of a standard questionnaire to assess physical activity for specific medical checkups and health guidance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity of a standard questionnaire to assess amount of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). A total of 483 men and women, aged 20 to 69 years, participated. The standard questionnaire included 3 items about exercise, PA, and walking speed. All questions were designed to require an answer of Yes or No. Subjects were classified into one of four groups regarding the number of Yes answers to the three questions, giving activity levels of 0 to 3. The amount of PA was measured objectively with a tn-axial accelerometer which could also calculate daily step counts, and the amounts of PA under 3 metabolic equivalents (METs) and at 3 METs or more. VO2peak. was measured by incremental cycle exercise tests with indirect calorimetry. The daily step counts, the amount of PA at 3 METs or more, and the VO2peak. were significantly higher in subjects who answered Yes to each question than in those who answered No. Sensitivity and specificity of each question were 62-73% and 45-71% for the amount of PA established with the "Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion 2006 (EPAR2006)". The sum of sensitivity and specificity was the highest when the cutoff value was activity level 2 (sensitivity 73%, specificity 68%). Sensitivity and specificity for VO2max established by EPAR2006 were lower than those for the amount of PA. These results suggest that only answering simple questions with a standard questionnaire is sufficient for estimation of PA levels for specific medical checkups and health guidance, even though the accuracy is somewhat limited.

  7. Get on your boots: preparing fourth-year medical students for a career in surgery, using a focused curriculum to teach the competency of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Charles S; Connolly, Annamarie; Halvorson, Eric G; Rowland, Pamela; Meyers, Michael O; Mayer, David C; Drake, Amelia F; Sheldon, George F; Meyer, Anthony A

    2012-10-01

    Few educational programs exist for medical students that address professionalism in surgery, even though this core competency is required for graduate medical education and maintenance of board certification. Lapses in professional behavior occur commonly in surgical disciplines, with a negative effect on the operative team and patient care. Therefore, education regarding professionalism should begin early in the surgeon's formative process, to improve behavior. The goal of this project was to enhance the attitudes and knowledge of medical students regarding professionalism, to help them understand the role of professionalism in a surgical practice. We implemented a 4-h seminar, spread out as 1-h sessions over the course of their month-long rotation, for 4th-year medical students serving as acting interns (AIs) in General Surgery, a surgical subspecialty, Obstetrics/Gynecology, or Anesthesia. Teaching methods included lecture, small group discussion, case studies, and journal club. Topics included Cognitive/Ethical Basis of Professionalism, Behavioral/Social Components of Professionalism, Managing Yourself, and Leading While You Work. We assessed attitudes about professionalism with a pre-course survey and tracked effect on learning and behavior with a post-course questionnaire. We asked AIs to rate the egregiousness of 30 scenarios involving potential lapses in professionalism. A total of 104 AIs (mean age, 26.5 y; male to female ratio, 1.6:1) participated in our course on professionalism in surgery. Up to 17.8% of the AIs had an alternate career before coming to medical school. Distribution of intended careers was: General Surgery, 27.4%; surgical subspecialties, 46.6%; Obstetrics/Gynecology, 13.7%; and Anesthesia, 12.3%. Acting interns ranked professionalism as the third most important of the six core competencies, after clinical skills and medical knowledge, but only slightly ahead of communication. Most AIs believed that professionalism could be taught and

  8. An overiew of non medical prescribing across one strategic health authority: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtenay Molly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 50,000 non-medical healthcare professionals across the United Kingdom now have prescribing capabilities. However, there is no evidence available with regards to the extent to which non-medical prescribing (NMP has been implemented within organisations across a strategic health authority (SHA. The aim of the study was to provide an overview of NMP across one SHA. Methods NMP leads across one SHA were asked to supply the email addresses of NMPs within their organisation. One thousand five hundred and eighty five NMPs were contacted and invited to complete an on-line descriptive questionnaire survey, 883 (55.7% participants responded. Data was collected between November 2010 and February 2011. Results The majority of NMPs were based in primary care and worked in a team of 2 or more. Nurse independent supplementary prescribers were the largest group (590 or 68.6% compared to community practitioner prescribers (198 or 22.4%, pharmacist independent supplementary prescribers (35 or 4%, and allied health professionals and optometrist independent and/or supplementary prescribers (8 or 0.9%. Nearly all (over 90% of nurse independent supplementary prescribers prescribed medicines. Approximately a third of pharmacist independent supplementary prescribers, allied health professionals, and community practitioner prescribers did not prescribe. Clinical governance procedures were largely in place, although fewer procedures were reported by community practitioner prescribers. General practice nurses prescribed the most items. Factors affecting prescribing practice were: employer, the level of experience prior to becoming a non-medical prescriber, existence of governance procedures and support for the prescribing role (p  Conclusion NMP in this strategic health authority reflects national development of this relatively new role in that the majority of non-medical prescribers were nurses based in primary care, with fewer pharmacist and

  9. An overiew of non medical prescribing across one strategic health authority: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Molly; Carey, Nicola; Stenner, Karen

    2012-06-01

    Over 50,000 non-medical healthcare professionals across the United Kingdom now have prescribing capabilities. However, there is no evidence available with regards to the extent to which non-medical prescribing (NMP) has been implemented within organisations across a strategic health authority (SHA). The aim of the study was to provide an overview of NMP across one SHA. NMP leads across one SHA were asked to supply the email addresses of NMPs within their organisation. One thousand five hundred and eighty five NMPs were contacted and invited to complete an on-line descriptive questionnaire survey, 883 (55.7%) participants responded. Data was collected between November 2010 and February 2011. The majority of NMPs were based in primary care and worked in a team of 2 or more. Nurse independent supplementary prescribers were the largest group (590 or 68.6%) compared to community practitioner prescribers (198 or 22.4%), pharmacist independent supplementary prescribers (35 or 4%), and allied health professionals and optometrist independent and/or supplementary prescribers (8 or 0.9%). Nearly all (over 90%) of nurse independent supplementary prescribers prescribed medicines. Approximately a third of pharmacist independent supplementary prescribers, allied health professionals, and community practitioner prescribers did not prescribe. Clinical governance procedures were largely in place, although fewer procedures were reported by community practitioner prescribers. General practice nurses prescribed the most items. Factors affecting prescribing practice were: employer, the level of experience prior to becoming a non-medical prescriber, existence of governance procedures and support for the prescribing role (p < 0.001). NMP in this strategic health authority reflects national development of this relatively new role in that the majority of non-medical prescribers were nurses based in primary care, with fewer pharmacist and allied health professional prescribers. This

  10. Students' perception of the educational environment in medical college: a study based on DREEM questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Asmita Ashok; Chaudhari, Vijaya Laxman

    2016-09-01

    The educational environment (EE) plays a very important role in effective student learning. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) is a validated tool to assess the EE. This study aimed to collect baseline information about our medical student's perception of the EE, and to identify areas of strengths and weaknesses as well as scope for improvements in the current EE. Medical students and interns were included in this cross-sectional study. The DREEM questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions about the EE, which has five domains: students' perceptions of learning; students' perceptions of teachers; students' academic self-perceptions; students' perceptions of atmosphere; and students' social self-perceptions. Students were asked to respond using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data was analyzed using suitable tests and statistical significance was set at plearning (28.99/48), while their social self-perception (17.48/28) was not too bad and perception of teachers (26.71/44) moved in the right direction. The fifth semester students perceived EE more positively than other semester students. The present study revealed that all students perceived their EE positively. The positive points were that teachers were knowledgeable, that students had good friends, and they were confident about passing their exams. Problem areas observed were authoritarian teachers, overemphasis on factual learning, overly teacher-centered teaching, teachers getting angry, and the need for a support system for stressed students.

  11. Information-seeking behavior during residency is associated with quality of theoretical learning, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice: a strobe-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3-6; range, 1-10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33-4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09-4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46-11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the specialty (OR, 3.33; 95

  12. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  13. Predicting medical specialists' working (long) hours: Testing a contemporary career model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, B.R.; Eisinga, R.N.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    With the feminization (in numbers) of several professions, changing gender role prescriptions regarding parenthood and an increased attention for work-life balance, career theorists recently addressed the need for a more contemporary career model taking a work-home perspective. In this study, we

  14. "A good career choice for women": female medical students' mentoring experiences: a multi-institutional qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B; Mechaber, Hilit F; Reddy, Shalini T; Cayea, Danelle; Harrison, Rebecca A

    2013-04-01

    The career decisions, practice patterns, and approach to patient care of current female students, who make up close to 50% of medical school classes, will have a profound impact on the profession. This study explores the role gender plays in the mentoring experiences of female medical students. In 2011, the authors conducted focus groups with 48 third- and fourth-year female medical students at four U.S. medical schools. Using a template organizing style, they derived themes in an iterative process to explore female medical students' mentoring relationships and the impact of gender on those relationships. The authors identified four major themes: (1) Optimal mentoring relationships are highly relational. Students emphasized shared values, trust, and a personal connection in describing ideal mentoring relationships. (2) Relational mentoring is more important than gender concordance. Students identified a desire for access to female mentors but stated that when a mentor and mentee developed a personal connection, the gender of the mentor was less important. (3) Gender-based assumptions and stereotypes affect mentoring relationships. Students described gender-based assumptions and expectations for themselves and their mentors. (4) Gender-based power dynamics influence students' thinking about mentoring. Students stated that they were concerned about how their mentors might perceive their professional decisions because of their gender, which influenced what they disclosed to male mentors and mentors in positions of power. Gender appears to play a role in female medical students' expectations and experience with mentoring relationships and may influence their decision making around career planning.

  15. A modified version of the Greek Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire for hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Alikari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to the therapeutic regimen is an increasingly growing problem especially among patients undergoing hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to modify the Greek version of Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (GR-SMAQ for patients undergoing hemodialysis (GR-SMAQ-HD and explore its validity and reliability. Between June 2016 and November 2016 a group of patients undergoing hemodialysis (N=107 completed the Greek version of SMAQ. The study was carried out in three Dialysis Units of Hospitals of Athens and Peloponnese region, Greece. The form of GR-SMAQ was modified specifically for renal patients while four additional items were added so as the tool study all aspects of adherence to hemodialysis regimen. Construct validity was checked through exploratory factor analysis with principal Component Analysis with the Equamax method. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were tested. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 21. The significance level was set up at 5%. The Greek version of SMAQ for patients undergoing hemodialysis includes eight questions. Three factors emerged from factor analysis. Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.742 for the whole scale and for each subscale was for Medication Adherence 0.75, for Attendance at hemodialysis session 0.856 and for Diet/Fluid restriction was 0.717. The total mean score was 6.29 (±1.82. GR-SMAQ-HD is a reliable and valuable tool that can be used by hemodialysis nurses and students of nursing for detection of adherence levels in clinical practice.

  16. Gender difference in preference of specialty as a career choice among Japanese medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, the absolute deficiency of doctors and maldistribution of doctors by specialty is a significant problem in the Japanese health care system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to specialty preference in career choice among Japanese medical students. Methods A total of 368 medical students completed the survey giving an 88.2 % response rate. The subjects comprised 141 women aged 21 ± 3 (range, 18–34 years and 227 men aged 22 ± 4 (range, 18–44 years. Binary Logistic regression analysis was performed using specialty preferences as the criterion variable and the factors in brackets as six motivational variables (e.g., Factor 1: educational experience; Factor 2: job security; Factor 3: advice from others; Factor 4: work-life balance; Factor 5: technical and research specialty; and Factor 6: personal reasons. Results Women significantly preferred pediatrics, obstetrics & gynecology, and psychology than the men. Men significantly preferred surgery and orthopedics than the women. For both genders, a high odds ratio (OR of “technical & research specialty” and a low OR for “personal reasons” were associated with preference for surgery. “Technical & research specialty” was positively associated with preference for special internal medicine and negatively for pediatrics. “Work-life balance” was positively associated with preference for psychology and negatively for emergency medicine. Among the women only, “technical & research specialty” was negatively associated with preference for general medicine/family medicine and obstetrics & gynecology, and “job security” was positively associated for general medicine/family medicine and negatively for psychology. Among men only, “educational experience” and “personal reasons” were positively, and “job security” was negatively associated with preference for pediatrics. For both genders,

  17. SATISFACTION LEVEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS WORKING IN TEACHING INSTITUTIONS : A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Sudeshna Chatterjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a resource-limited and high-burden disease setting, satisfied health professional is an asset in terms of maximized productivity, efficiency and quality health care. Job Satisfaction Index is a validated measure to identify the components that influence those issues. A multi-faceted structured questionnaire study was conducted upon a cross-section of medical educators (n=160 serving two tertiary care teaching institutions under different management set-up. Multiple demographic features were independent variables whereas three (3 critical areas of satisfaction index (SI were outcome variables. All participants were interviewed using 15 item Likert response-based, modified job satisfaction scale. It was observed that total SI scores among doctors representing the private group remained marginally higher (P<0.05 while compared to the other group. The comparative analysis of SI scores in critical areas like availability of academic supports and job security remained higher among the private doctors than that of the government ones though not significant. However the private doctors remained marginally satisfied in terms of working environment. The study outcome necessitates appropriate intervention measures at the organizational levels.

  18. Validation of questionnaire-reported hearing with medical records: A report from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Weiss

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is a potential late effect after childhood cancer. Questionnaires are often used to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors and it is important to know if they can provide valid measures of hearing loss. We therefore assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing in childhood cancer survivors using medical records as reference.In this validation study, we studied 361 survivors of childhood cancer from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS who had been diagnosed after 1989 and had been exposed to ototoxic cancer treatment. Questionnaire-reported hearing was compared to the information in medical records. Hearing loss was defined as ≥ grade 1 according to the SIOP Boston Ototoxicity Scale. We assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing overall and stratified by questionnaire respondents (survivor or parent, sociodemographic characteristics, time between follow-up and questionnaire and severity of hearing loss.Questionnaire reports agreed with medical records in 85% of respondents (kappa 0.62, normal hearing was correctly assessed in 92% of those with normal hearing (n = 249, and hearing loss was correctly assessed in 69% of those with hearing loss (n = 112. Sensitivity of the questionnaires was 92%, 74%, and 39% for assessment of severe, moderate and mild bilateral hearing loss; and 50%, 33% and 10% for severe, moderate and mild unilateral hearing loss, respectively. Results did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, and survivor- and parent-reports were equally valid.Questionnaires are a useful tool to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors, but underestimate mild and unilateral hearing loss. Further research should investigate whether the addition of questions with higher sensitivity for mild degrees of hearing loss could improve the results.

  19. Validation of questionnaire-reported hearing with medical records: A report from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Katrin; Grotzer, Michael; Kompis, Martin; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hearing loss is a potential late effect after childhood cancer. Questionnaires are often used to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors and it is important to know if they can provide valid measures of hearing loss. We therefore assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing in childhood cancer survivors using medical records as reference. Procedure In this validation study, we studied 361 survivors of childhood cancer from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS) who had been diagnosed after 1989 and had been exposed to ototoxic cancer treatment. Questionnaire-reported hearing was compared to the information in medical records. Hearing loss was defined as ≥ grade 1 according to the SIOP Boston Ototoxicity Scale. We assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing overall and stratified by questionnaire respondents (survivor or parent), sociodemographic characteristics, time between follow-up and questionnaire and severity of hearing loss. Results Questionnaire reports agreed with medical records in 85% of respondents (kappa 0.62), normal hearing was correctly assessed in 92% of those with normal hearing (n = 249), and hearing loss was correctly assessed in 69% of those with hearing loss (n = 112). Sensitivity of the questionnaires was 92%, 74%, and 39% for assessment of severe, moderate and mild bilateral hearing loss; and 50%, 33% and 10% for severe, moderate and mild unilateral hearing loss, respectively. Results did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, and survivor- and parent-reports were equally valid. Conclusions Questionnaires are a useful tool to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors, but underestimate mild and unilateral hearing loss. Further research should investigate whether the addition of questions with higher sensitivity for mild degrees of hearing loss could improve the results. PMID:28333999

  20. Association of research self-efficacy with medical student career interests, specialization, and scholarship: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S Beth; Prayson, Richard A; Dannefer, Elaine F

    2015-05-01

    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory-Short Form (CRAI-SF) items at matriculation (n = 128) or graduation (n = 111) during 2009-2013. Parametric statistics were used to compare CRAI-SF scales to domains proposed in SCCT: trainees' characteristics (gender, training level, advanced degree), career interests, career intentions (medical specialty), and performance (peer-reviewed publications and required thesis topic). A number of lessons emerged in using theory to frame the evaluation of a complex educational program. Graduates rated their research self-efficacy significantly higher on all six CRAI-SF scales with large effect sizes (>.90) on five scales (Conceptualizing a Study, Study Design and Analysis, Responsible Research Conduct, Collaborating with Others, and Reporting a Study). Women and men did not have significantly different scores on CRAI-SF scales (p > .05), suggesting that the research program provides adequate supports for women students. Most thesis projects addressed clinical (36.9 %, n = 41) or translational (34.2 %, n = 38) research topics. The CRAI-SF discriminated between medical school matriculates and graduates, suggesting that research self-efficacy increases with mastery experiences. No significant relationships occurred between CRAI-SF scores and graduates' thesis topics or chosen clinical specialty. Correlations demonstrated significant relationships between graduates' perceptions of research self-efficacy and their interest in clinical research careers.

  1. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Ana; Pagano, Tatiana; Matsutani, Luciana A; Ferreira, Elizabeth A G; Pereira, Carlos A B; Marques, Amélia P

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG) and Control Group (CG) (n=75 in each group). The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05) and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curve--sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC). The significance level was 0.05. The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8 ± 8.1; FG: 47.0 ± 7.7 years). A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pquality of life in fibromyalgia patients, and we suggest that both should be used in parallel because they evaluate relevant and complementary aspects of quality of life.

  2. Perceptions of Pakistani medical students about drugs and alcohol: a questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Majid; Shah, Zaman; Saleem, Ayesha; Siddiqi, Maham T; Shaikh, Kashif S; Salahuddin, Farah F; Siwani, Rizwan; Naqvi, Haider

    2006-10-25

    Drug abuse is hazardous and known to be prevalent among young adults, warranting efforts to increase awareness about harmful effects and to change attitudes. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of a group of medical students from Pakistan, a predominantly Muslim country, regarding four drugs namely heroin, charas, benzodiazepines and alcohol. In total, 174 self-reported questionnaires were received (87% response rate). The most commonly cited reasons for why some students take these drugs were peer pressure (96%), academic stress (90%) and curiosity (88%). The most commonly cited justifiable reason was to go to sleep (34%). According to 77%, living in the college male hostel predisposed one to using these drugs. Sixty percent of students said that the drugs did not improve exam performance, while 54% said they alleviated stress. Seventy-eight percent said they did not intend to ever take drugs in the future. Females and day-scholars were more willing to discourage a friend who took drugs. Morality (78%), religion (76%) and harmful effects of drugs (57%) were the most common deterrents against drug intake. Five suggestions to decrease drug abuse included better counseling facilities (78%) and more recreational facilities (60%). Efforts need to be made to increase student awareness regarding effects and side effects of drugs. Our findings suggest that educating students about the adverse effects as well as the moral and religious implications of drug abuse is more likely to have a positive impact than increased policing. Proper student-counseling facilities and healthier avenues for recreation are also required.

  3. Perceptions of Pakistani medical students about drugs and alcohol: a questionnaire-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Farah F

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug abuse is hazardous and known to be prevalent among young adults, warranting efforts to increase awareness about harmful effects and to change attitudes. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of a group of medical students from Pakistan, a predominantly Muslim country, regarding four drugs namely heroin, charas, benzodiazepines and alcohol. Results In total, 174 self-reported questionnaires were received (87% response rate. The most commonly cited reasons for why some students take these drugs were peer pressure (96%, academic stress (90% and curiosity (88%. The most commonly cited justifiable reason was to go to sleep (34%. According to 77%, living in the college male hostel predisposed one to using these drugs. Sixty percent of students said that the drugs did not improve exam performance, while 54% said they alleviated stress. Seventy-eight percent said they did not intend to ever take drugs in the future. Females and day-scholars were more willing to discourage a friend who took drugs. Morality (78%, religion (76% and harmful effects of drugs (57% were the most common deterrents against drug intake. Five suggestions to decrease drug abuse included better counseling facilities (78% and more recreational facilities (60%. Conclusion Efforts need to be made to increase student awareness regarding effects and side effects of drugs. Our findings suggest that educating students about the adverse effects as well as the moral and religious implications of drug abuse is more likely to have a positive impact than increased policing. Proper student-counseling facilities and healthier avenues for recreation are also required.

  4. Current status of medical oncology in Japan--reality gleaned from a questionnaire sent to designated cancer care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Yuichi; Sekine, Ikuo; Iwasawa, Shunichiro; Kurimoto, Ryota; Sakaida, Emiko; Tamura, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    Medical oncology in Japan has a relatively short history, with specialist certification starting in 2006, resulting in 867 certified medical oncologists as of 2014. Although the national government has appointed 397 Designated Cancer Care Hospitals, little is known about the actual situations of medical oncology services at these institutions. Questionnaires regarding the presence of a medical oncology department, the number of physicians in the department, the presence of certified medical oncologists and the degree of the medical oncologists' responsibilities for drug therapies in adults with solid cancers were sent to all 397 institutions between 21 January and 1 May 2013. The response rate was 68.0%. Among the responses, 39.4% of the institutions had medical oncology departments with a median of three physicians. Most of the medical oncology departments were primarily responsible, as evaluated according to patient number, for the treatment of limited disease categories. The medical oncologists were significantly more responsible for molecular-targeted therapy than for chemotherapy in head and neck cancer or for cytokine therapy in renal cell carcinoma. The wide variety of adverse events associated with molecular-targeted therapy might have enhanced the roles of medical oncologists. As the proportion of hospitals with a medical oncology department increased according to the number of certified medical oncologists working at the institution, cultivating medical oncologists seems to be an urgent task for advancing medical oncology in Japan. The present study provides fundamental data for the future development of medical oncology in Japan. The present study is to uncover the current situation of medical oncology in Japan. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A factor analytic study of adult career concerns, career status and career resilience

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    D. Litt. et Phil. Factor analytic techniques were used to investigate the psychometric properties of three measuring instruments, namely the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (Super, Thompson & Lindeman, 1988), the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (Holland & Gottfredson, 1994), and the Career Resilience Questionnaire (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998). The analyses served the purpose of elucidating the conceptual meanings of the constructs of career concerns, career status and career resil...

  6. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayhan, Rakib U; Zheng, Yin; Uddin, Ebsan; Timbol, Christian; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; Baraniuk, James N

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a "Cloud" database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel) which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient's progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data.

  7. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakib Uddin RAYHAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Material and Methods: Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a “Cloud” database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. Results: This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient’s progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Conclusions: Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data.

  8. Beyond the Standard Curriculum: A Review of Available Opportunities for Medical Students to Prepare for a Career in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ankit; DeNunzio, Nicholas J.; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E., E-mail: Ariel.hirsch@bmc.org

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Results: Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students.

  9. Beyond the standard curriculum: a review of available opportunities for medical students to prepare for a career in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; DeNunzio, Nicholas J; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E

    2014-01-01

    To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Beyond the Standard Curriculum: A Review of Available Opportunities for Medical Students to Prepare for a Career in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ankit; DeNunzio, Nicholas J.; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Results: Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students

  11. Medical student experience in surgery influences their career choices: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dominic C; Salciccioli, Justin D; Walton, Sarah-Jane; Pitkin, Joan; Shalhoub, Joseph; Malietzis, George

    2015-01-01

    Student experiences during surgical rotations may dictate interest in future surgical careers. The objective of this study was to systematically examine the effect of surgical experience (SE) on student attitudes toward surgical careers and also to identify variables influencing the educational value of SE. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted by 2 independent researchers searching Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Studies assessing SE during the students' surgical rotations were identified. The quality of the included studies was assessed using a validated quality index. Factors affecting student surgical rotation experience and perceptions of surgical careers were recorded. Overall, 204 studies were identified; 20 unique studies met the inclusion criteria with a median cohort size of 169 (interquartile range: 107-262) respondents. Most were cross-sectional surveys (n = 16/20) and administered to clinical students (n = 16/20). All studies investigating the effect of SE on career choices (n = 8) found that positive experiences during the surgical placement were associated with an increased interest in surgical careers. The operating theater experience was identified as a defining feature of overall SE. Involvement in operative procedures, a welcoming environment, and avoidance of syncopal events positively influenced the SE, particularly in those who actively sought educational opportunities. Study limitations included single-center and single-year cohort designs (70%) with the use of nonvalidated research tools (95%). A systematic review of the literature highlights a number of factors associated with a positive surgical rotation, which may lead to more students deciding to pursue a career in surgery. Understanding the factors that contribute to these decisions through multicenter studies using validated research

  12. A mid year comparison study of career satisfaction and emotional states between residents and faculty at one academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Kristen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME new requirements raise multiple challenges for academic medical centers. We sought to evaluate career satisfaction, emotional states, positive and negative experiences, work hours and sleep among residents and faculty simultaneously in one academic medical center after implementation of the ACGME duty hour requirements. Methods Residents and faculty (1330 in the academic health center were asked to participate in a confidential survey; 72% of the residents and 66% of the faculty completed the survey. Results Compared to residents, faculty had higher levels of satisfaction with career choice, competence, importance and usefulness; lower levels of anxiousness and depression. The most positive experiences for both groups corresponded to strong interpersonal relationships and educational value; most negative experiences to poor interpersonal relationships and issues perceived outside of the physician's control. Approximately 13% of the residents and 14% of the faculty were out of compliance with duty hour requirements. Nearly 5% of faculty reported working more than 100 hours per week. For faculty who worked 24 hour shifts, nearly 60% were out of compliance with the duty-hour requirements. Conclusion Reasons for increased satisfaction with career choice, positive emotional states and experiences for faculty compared to residents are unexplained. Earlier studies from this institution identified similar positive findings among advanced residents compared to more junior residents. Faculty are more frequently at risk for duty-hour violations. If patient safety is of prime importance, faculty, in particular, should be compliant with the duty hour requirements. Perhaps the ACGME should contain faculty work hours as part of its regulatory function.

  13. [Cultural adaptation and validation of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey questionnaire (MOS-SSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fachado, A; Montes Martinez, A; Menendez Villalva, C; Pereira, M Graça

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assesment of psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the instrument "Medical Outcomes Study - Social Support Survey (MOSSSS)". This questionnaire has been translated and adapted in a Portuguese sample of 101 patients with chronic illness of a rural health centre in Portugal. The average age of patients was 63.4 years, 56.4% female. 29% were illiterate and 2% had completed high school. 78% had arterial hypertension and the 56.4% had diabetes mellitus type 2. The internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis were performed in order to confirm reliability and validity of the scale and its multidimensional characteristics. The 2-week test-retest reliability was estimated using weighted kappa for the ordinals variables and intraclass coefficient correlation for the quantitative variables. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from 0.873 to 0.967 at test, and 0.862 to 0.972 at retest. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors (emotional, tangible, positive interaction and affection support) that explain the 72.71% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of four factors that allowed the application of the scale with original items. The goodness-of-fit measures corroborate the initial structure, with chi2/ df=2.01, GFI=0.998, CFI=0.999, AGFI=0.998, TLI=0.999, NFI=0.998, SRMR=0.332, RMSEA=0.76. The 2-weeks test-retest reliability of the Portuguese MOS-SSS as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient was ranged from 0.941 to 0.966 for the four dimensions and the overall support index. The weighted kappa was ranged from 0.67 to 0.87 for all the items. The MOS-SSS Portuguese version demonstrates good psychometric properties and seems to be useful to measure multidimensional aspects of social support in the Portuguese population.

  14. First aid and basic life support: a questionnaire survey of medical schools in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An

  15. The effect of general surgery clerkship rotation on the attitude of medical students towards general surgery as a future career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Heeti, Khalaf N M; Nassar, Aussama K; Decorby, Kara; Winch, Joanne; Reid, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Literature suggests declining interest in General Surgery (GS) and other surgical specialties, with fewer Canadian medical residency applicants identifying a surgical specialty as their first choice. Although perceptions of surgical careers may begin before enrollment in clerkship, clerkship itself provides the most concentrated environment for perceptions to evolve. Most students develop perceptions about specialties during their clinical clerkships. This study examines the immediate impact of GS clerkship on student attitudes toward GS as a career, and on preferences towards GS compared with other specialties. A pre-post design involved 61 McMaster clinical clerks. Two instruments were used to collect data from students over the course of clerkship (2008-2009). Paired comparison (PC) compared ranking of career choices before and after clerkship. Semantic differential (SD) measured attitudes toward GS and variables that may have affected attitudes before and after clerkship. Analyses used SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Clerks ranked preferences for GS changed substantially after clerkship, moving from the 10th to the 5th position compared with other specialties. Ranks of surgical subspecialties also changed, though GS demonstrated the largest improvement. SD results were consistent with PC, showing improved attitudes after rotation, with differences both statistically and practically significant (t = 3.81, p staff (including attending surgeons and nurses), ensure that teaching hospital staff provide a positive experience for clerks, and should provide opportunities to learn basic technical skills during GS clerkship. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Den Beruf der Ärztin langfristig planen Woman’s Long Term Planning for a Medical Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Schulte

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Buch werden erfolgreiche Medizinerinnen anhand von Interviews vorgestellt. Exemplarisch erfährt die Leserin, auf welche Weise sie in den verschiedenen Arbeitsfeldern der Medizin ihren beruflichen Werdegang jeweils mitgestalten kann. Umrahmt wird der Hauptteil von einer historischen Einführung zum Thema, einer Analyse der Gründe, warum der Anteil der erfolgreichen Frauen in der Medizin so gering ist, und einem praktischen Anhang mit wichtigen Fakten und Kontaktadressen zur Berufsplanung als Ärztin.The book at hand presents interviews with successful female doctors. The female reader is led to discover how she can shape her career in the different fields of medical work through examples. The book is framed by a historical introduction to the theme, an analysis of the reasons why the numbers of women in medicine are so low, and a practical appendix with important facts and addresses for further contact on career planning for women considering a career as a doctor.

  17. How psychosocial factors affect well-being of practice assistants at work in general medical care?--a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Berger, Sarah; Gavartina, Amina; Zaroti, Stavria; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-11-11

    Well-being at work is an important aspect of a workforce strategy. The aim of the study was to explore and evaluate psychosocial factors and health and work-related outcomes of practices assistants depending on their employment status in general medical practices. This observational study was based on a questionnaire survey to evaluate psychosocial aspects at work in general medical practices. A standardized questionnaire was used, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Beside descriptive analyses linear regression analyses were performed for each health and work-related outcome scale of the COPSOQ. 586 practice assistants out of 794 respondents (73.8 %) from 234 general medical practices completed the questionnaire. Practice assistants reported the highest scores for the psychosocial factor 'sense of community' (mean = 85.9) and the lower score for 'influence at work' (mean = 41.2). Moreover, practice assistants who worked part-time rated their psychosocial factors at work and health-related outcomes more positively than full-time employees. Furthermore, the two scales of health related outcomes 'burnout' and 'job satisfaction' showed strong associations between different psychosocial factors and socio-demographic variables. Psychosocial factors at work influence well-being at work and could be strong risk factors for poor health and work-related outcomes. Effective management of these issues could have an impact on the retention and recruitment of health care staff.

  18. Mature-age entrants to medical school: a controlled study of sociodemographic characteristics, career choice and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, S C; Biggs, J S; Thong, Y H

    1990-11-01

    A comparison of 121 mature-age and 270 normal-age entrants who graduated from the University of Queensland Medical School between 1972 and 1987 shows that mature-age entrants are some 7 years older, are more likely to come from public (state) schools and less likely to have parents in professional/technical occupations. Otherwise, the two groups were similar in terms of gender, marital status, number of children, ethnic background and current practice location. The educational background of mature-age entrants prior to admission includes 44.6% with degrees in health-science areas and 31.4% with degrees in non-health areas. Reasons for delayed entry of mature-age entrants include late consideration of medicine as a career (34.7%), financial problems (31.4%), dissatisfaction with previous career (30.6%), poor academic results (19.8%), or a combination of the above factors. Motivations to study medicine include family influences (more so in normal-age entrants), altruistic reasons (more so in mature-age entrants) and a variety of personal/social factors such as intellectual satisfaction, prestige and financial security (similar for both groups) and parental expectations (more so in normal-age entrants). Mature-age entrants experienced greater stress throughout the medical course, especially with regard to financial difficulties, loneliness/isolation from the students and family problems (a greater proportion were married with children). While whole-course grades were similar in both groups, normal-age entrants tended to win more undergraduate honours/prizes and postgraduate diplomas/degrees, including specialist qualifications. Practice settings were similar in terms of group private practice, hospital/clinic practice or medical administration, but there was a greater proportion of mature-age entrants in solo private practice, and a smaller proportion in teaching/research. If given the time over, some two-thirds of both groups would choose medicine as a career

  19. Factors deterring dentistry, medical, pharmacy, and social science undergraduates from pursuing nursing as a healthcare career: a cross-sectional study in an Asian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling Ting; Wang, Wenru; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lopez, Violeta; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2018-01-26

    Globally more registered nurses need to be recruited to meet the needs of aging populations and increased co-morbidity. Nursing recruitment remains challenging when compared to other healthcare programs. Despite healthcare students having similar motivation in joining the healthcare industry, many did not consider nursing as a career choice. This study aims to identify the deterrents to choosing nursing among healthcare undergraduates by examining the differences in the factors influencing healthcare career choices and nursing as a career choice. A cross sectional study was conducted using a 35-parallel items instrument known as Healthcare Career Choice and Nursing Career Choice scale. Six hundred and four (n = 604) first year medical, pharmacy, dentistry and social science students from a university in Singapore completed the survey. Nursing as a career was perceived by healthcare students to be more likely influenced by prior healthcare exposure, the nature of the work, job prospects, and social influences. Lack of autonomous decision making, perceived lower ability to make diagnosis, having to attend to patients' hygiene needs, engendered stigma, and lack of parental support were identified as deterring factors to choosing nursing as a career. An understanding of the deterrents to choosing nursing as career allows policy makers and educational leaders to focus on recruitment strategies. These include providing more exposure to nurses' roles in early school years, helping young people to overcome the fear of providing personal hygiene care, promoting nurses' autonomous nursing practice, addressing gender stigma, and overcoming parental objection.

  20. Obstacles to promotion? Values of women faculty about career success and recognition. Committee on the Status of Women and Minorities, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, L M; Sanders, K; Shih, M; Kallar, S; Hampton, C

    2000-03-01

    To assess attitudes of female faculty about career progress, resources for career development, and values related to academic success and recognition. In 1997, the authors surveyed all faculty at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine and its associated Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Of 918 faculty, 567 (62%) responded to the survey; 33% of the respondents were women. Compared with men, women faculty were less likely to be tenured or at the level of professor, spent more time in clinical activities, had less time for scholarly activity, and reported slower career progress. Women were more likely to report that promotion and tenure criteria had not been reviewed with them. Significant differences were found between female physicians and non-physician faculty; female physicians reported the least time for scholarly activities and poorest understanding of promotion and tenure criteria. When the authors asked faculty how they valued certain indicators of career success, women were less likely to value leadership than were men. Female physicians were less likely to value scholarship and national recognition as indicators of their career success. This survey found important differences in career progress of male and female faculty, with women reporting less time for career development. In addition, there were differences in values related to career success and recognition, which were most pronounced for female physicians. These differences may have an important impact on promotion for women in general and particularly for female physicians.

  1. Where did the acute medical trainees go? A review of the career pathways of acute care common stem acute medical trainees in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Emily; Ball, Karen Le; Bryant, Catherine; Birns, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Acute care common stem acute medicine (ACCS AM) training was designed to develop competent multi-skilled acute physicians to manage patients with multimorbidity from 'door to discharge' in an era of increasing acute hospital admissions. Recent surveys by the Royal College of Physicians have suggested that acute medical specialties are proving less attractive to trainees. However, data on the career pathways taken by trainees completing core acute medical training has been lacking. Using London as a region with a 100% fill rate for its ACCS AM training programme, this study showed only 14% of trainees go on to higher specialty training in acute internal medicine and a further 10% to pursue higher medical specialty training with dual accreditation with internal medicine. 16% of trainees switched from ACCS AM to emergency medicine or anaesthetics during core ACCS training, and intensive care medicine proved to be the most popular career choice for ACCS AM trainees (21%). The ACCS AM training programme therefore does not appear to be providing what it was set out to do and this paper discusses the potential causes and effects. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Teachers' Career Guidance Profiles on Students' Career Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorff, Kariene; Beijaard, Douwe; den Brok, Perry; Koopman, Maaike

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relationship between different career guidance styles of vocational education teachers and vocational education students' career competencies (i.e. career reflection, career exploration and networking). Questionnaires on students' perceptions of the career guidance of their teachers during career conversations, and…

  3. Effects of international health electives on medical student learning and career choice: results of a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Jessica; Dumont, Rebecca A; Kim, Gloria Y; Kuo, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The present study reviewed the published literature to examine the effects of international health electives (IHEs) on medical student learning and career choice. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify key English-language articles on IHEs, using PubMed journal databases for the period 1990--2009. Article inclusion for this review was vetted by a rigorous evaluation of each article's study methods, content, and data quality. Pooled or aggregate information from 11 key articles, including information on type and duration of IHE, study and comparison group characteristics, and measured outcomes such as self-reported changes in cultural competency, clinical skills, and specialty choice, were extracted and summarized. Findings suggest that having IHE experiences contributed to a more well-rounded training for medical students; students reported being more culturally competent and were more likely to choose a primary care specialty and/or a public service career. Although IHE experiences appear to have educational benefits, the quality and availability of these electives vary by institution. Barriers to ensuring that students attain a safe and rich experience include the lack of consistent categorical funding, safety concerns when traveling, and limited faculty experience and resources to support and guide students during their rotations abroad.

  4. Socialization, Indifference, and Convenience: Exploring the Uptake of Influenza Vaccine Among Medical Students and Early Career Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Rhiannon; Goodwin, Dawn; Isba, Rachel; Keegan, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The Chief Medical Officer recommends that all health care workers receive an influenza vaccination annually. High vaccination coverage is believed to be the best protection against the spread of influenza within a hospital, although uptake by health care workers remains low. We conducted semistructured interviews with seven medical students and nine early career doctors, to explore the factors informing their influenza vaccination decision making. Data collection and analysis took place iteratively, until theoretical saturation was achieved, and a thematic analysis was performed. Socialization was important although its effects were attenuated by participants' previous experiences and a lack of clarity around the risks and benefits of vaccination. Many participants did not have strong intentions regarding vaccination. There was considerable disparity between an individual's opinion of the vaccine, their intentions, and their vaccination status. The indifference demonstrated here suggests few are strongly opposed to the vaccination-there is potential to increase vaccination coverage.

  5. Career anchors and career resilience: Supplementary constructs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Van Vuuren

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously the authors reported on a study in which an attempt was made at defining and measuring the construct career resilience (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998. The present article continues this investigation by reporting on the relationship between career resilience and career anchors, as defined in Scheins (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992 career anchor model. The aim of the study was to determine whether career anchor patterning could potentially inhibit or facilitate individuals' levels of career resilience. The "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 together with Scheins (1990 "Career Orientations Inventory" (COI were administered to 352 skilled employees. The findings regarding the statistical relationship between the two constructs are discussed. Opsomming Loopbaanankers en loopbaangehardheid: supplementere konstrukte? In n vorige publikasie van Fourie en Van Vuuren (1998 is die bevindinge aangaande die afbakening en meting van die konstruk, loopbaangehardheid, gerapporteer. In die huidige artikel word die ondersoek voortgesit met 'n beskrywing van die verwantskap tussen loopbaangehardheid en loopbaanankers, soos gedefinieer in die loopbaanankermodel van Schein (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992. Die doel met die studie was om te bepaal of die mate van loopbaanankerontplooiing individuele vlakke van loopbaangehardheid potensieel fasiliteer ofinhibeer. Die "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 is tesame met die "Career Orientation Inventory" (COI (Schein, 1990 op 352 geskoolde werknemers geadministreer. Die bevindinge betreffende die statistiese verwantskap tussen die twee konstrukte word bespreek.

  6. Association between mental health screening by self-report questionnaire and insomnia in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza H.,Maria Paz; Ponte,Talles S.; Carvalho,Clarissa G.; Pedrotti,Michell R.; Nunes,Paula V.; Souza,Camila M.; Zanette,Camila B.; Voltolini,Sara; Chaves,Marcia L. F.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years). The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder...

  7. [Career planning for explanation of clinical test results and program of inspections: developing medical technologists for team medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Misuko

    2013-04-01

    Current medical care is subdivided according to medical advances, and sophistication and new techniques are necessary. In this setting, doctors and nurses have been explaining to and consulting patients about their medical examinations; however, in recent years, medical technologists have performed these duties at the start of the team's medical care. Therefore, we think it is possible for patients to receive clear and convincing explanations. Most patients cannot understand their examination data, which are written using numbers and charts, etc. Recently, the Nagano Medical Technologist Society has been developing technologists who could explain examination results to patients. This development training included hospitality and communication. The certificate of completion will be issued in March when the program starts.

  8. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work–Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work–life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Methods: Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health–funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Results: Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work–life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work–life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work–life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. Conclusion: This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work–life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles. PMID

  9. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work-Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Villablanca, Amparo C

    2015-06-01

    Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work-life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health-funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work-life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work-life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work-life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work-life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles.

  10. Level of Agreement and Factors Associated With Discrepancies Between Nationwide Medical History Questionnaires and Hospital Claims Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Yong Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives of this study were to investigate the agreement between medical history questionnaire data and claims data and to identify the factors that were associated with discrepancies between these data types. Methods Data from self-reported questionnaires that assessed an individual’s history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, stroke, heart disease, and pulmonary tuberculosis were collected from a general health screening database for 2014. Data for these diseases were collected from a healthcare utilization claims database between 2009 and 2014. Overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values were calculated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with discrepancies and was adjusted for age, gender, insurance type, insurance contribution, residential area, and comorbidities. Results Agreement was highest between questionnaire data and claims data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires and was lowest for claims data based on primary and secondary codes up to 5 years before the completion of self-reported questionnaires. When comparing data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires, the overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values ranged from 93.2 to 98.8%, 26.2 to 84.3%, 95.7 to 99.6%, and 0.09 to 0.78, respectively. Agreement was excellent for hypertension and diabetes, fair to good for stroke and heart disease, and poor for pulmonary tuberculosis and dyslipidemia. Women, younger individuals, and employed individuals were most likely to under-report disease. Conclusions Detailed patient characteristics that had an impact on information bias were identified through the differing levels of agreement.

  11. Level of Agreement and Factors Associated With Discrepancies Between Nationwide Medical History Questionnaires and Hospital Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Yong; Park, Jong Heon; Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Eun Joo; Ha, Seongjun; Shin, Soon-Ae

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the agreement between medical history questionnaire data and claims data and to identify the factors that were associated with discrepancies between these data types. Data from self-reported questionnaires that assessed an individual's history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, stroke, heart disease, and pulmonary tuberculosis were collected from a general health screening database for 2014. Data for these diseases were collected from a healthcare utilization claims database between 2009 and 2014. Overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values were calculated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with discrepancies and was adjusted for age, gender, insurance type, insurance contribution, residential area, and comorbidities. Agreement was highest between questionnaire data and claims data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires and was lowest for claims data based on primary and secondary codes up to 5 years before the completion of self-reported questionnaires. When comparing data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires, the overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values ranged from 93.2 to 98.8%, 26.2 to 84.3%, 95.7 to 99.6%, and 0.09 to 0.78, respectively. Agreement was excellent for hypertension and diabetes, fair to good for stroke and heart disease, and poor for pulmonary tuberculosis and dyslipidemia. Women, younger individuals, and employed individuals were most likely to under-report disease. Detailed patient characteristics that had an impact on information bias were identified through the differing levels of agreement.

  12. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  13. Teste de Morisky-Green e Brief Medication Questionnaire para avaliar adesão a medicamentos Prueba Morisky-Green y Brief Medication Questionnaire para evaluar adherencia a los medicamentos The Brief Medication Questionnaire and Morisky-Green Test to evaluate medication adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jornada Ben

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a confiabilidade e o desempenho da versão em português de instrumentos de avaliação da adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo. MÉTODOS: Pacientes hipertensos atendidos de janeiro a setembro de 2010 em uma unidade de atenção primária em Porto Alegre, RS, foram selecionados aleatoriamente (n = 206. Na avaliação da adesão foram utilizadas versões em português do Teste de Morisky-Green (TMG e do Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ. Foram analisados consistência interna, estabilidade temporal e desempenho com relação a três padrões-ouro: controle inadequado da pressão arterial (> 140/90 mmHg; taxa insuficiente de retirada de medicação na farmácia da Unidade Básica de Saúde ( 0,001. A baixa adesão ao BMQ está associada a maiores níveis tensionais quando comparada com pacientes aderentes (148,4 [dp 20,1] vs 128,8 [dp 17,8], p OBJETIVO: Analizar la confiabilidad y el desempeño de la versión en portugués de instrumentos de evaluación de la adherencia al tratamiento antihipertensivo. MÉTODOS: Pacientes hipertensos atendidos de enero a septiembre de 2010 en una unidad de atención primaria en Porto Alegre, Sur de Brasil, fueron seleccionados aleatoriamente (n=206. En la evaluación de la adherencia fueron utilizadas versiones en portugués de la Prueba de Morisky-Green (TMG y del Brief Medication Questionnarie (BMQ. Se analizaron consistencia interna, estabilidad temporal y desempeño con relación a tres patrones-oro: control inadecuado de la presión arterial (> 140/90 mmHg; tasa insuficiente de retirada de medicación en la farmacia de la Unidad Básica de Salud (0,001. La baja adherencia al BMQ está asociada a mayores niveles tensionales al compararlo con pacientes adherentes 148,4 [de 0,1] vs 128,8 [de 17,8], pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the reliability and performance of the Portuguese version of questionnaires used to evaluate adherence to hypertensive treatment. METHODS: Hypertensive patients attending

  14. [Staffing levels in medical radiation physics in radiation therapy in Germany. Summary of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetz, Hans-Karl; Eipper, Hermann Hans; Gfirtner, Hans; Schneider, Peter; Welker, Klaus

    2003-10-01

    To get a general idea of the actual staffing level situation in medical radiation physics in 1999 a survey was carried out by the task-group "Personalbedarf" of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik (DGMP) among all DGMP-members who are active in this field. Main components for equipment and activities are defined in Report 8 and 10 of DGMP for staffing requirements in medical radiation physics. 322 forms were sent out, 173 of them have been evaluated. From the answers regarding equipment and activities numbers for staff are calculated by the methods given in Report 8 and 10 for this spot check target and compared with effective staffing levels. The data of the spot check are then extrapolated on total Germany. The result is a calculated deficit of 865 medical physicists for the whole physics staff, 166 of them in radiation therapy. From the age distribution of DGMP-members and the calculated deficit resulted a training capacity of about 100 medical physicists at all per year (19 in radiation therapy) if the deficit shall be cut back in 10 years.

  15. General practitioners' views on reattribution for patients with medically unexplained symptoms: a questionnaire and qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Peter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful introduction of new methods for managing medically unexplained symptoms in primary care is dependent to a large degree on the attitudes, experiences and expectations of practitioners. As part of an exploratory randomised controlled trial of reattribution training, we sought the views of participating practitioners on patients with medically unexplained symptoms, and on the value of and barriers to the implementation of reattribution in practice. Methods A nested attitudinal survey and qualitative study in sixteen primary care teams in north-west England. All practitioners participating in the trial (n = 74 were invited to complete a structured survey. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sub-sample of survey respondents, using a structured topic guide. Interview transcripts were used to identify key issues, concepts and themes, which were grouped to construct a conceptual framework: this framework was applied systematically to the data. Results Seventy (95% of study participants responded to the survey. Survey respondents often found it stressful to work with patients with medically unexplained symptoms, though those who had received reattribution training were more optimistic about their ability to help them. Interview participants trained in reattribution (n = 12 reported that reattribution increased their confidence to practice in a difficult area, with heightened awareness, altered perceptions of these patients, improved opportunities for team-building and transferable skills. However general practitioners also reported potential barriers to the implementation of reattribution in routine clinical practice, at the level of the patient, the doctor, the consultation, diagnosis and the healthcare context. Conclusion Reattribution training increases practitioners' sense of competence in managing patients with medically unexplained symptoms. However, barriers to its implementation are

  16. Household out-of-pocket medical and dental expenses among residents of Modinagar city: A crossectional questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Out-of-pocket (OOP payments are the principal source of health care finance in most Asian countries, and India is no exception. Availability and accessibility of the health care are important for the overall health status of any community. Aim: To assess the proportion of monthly family income spent on medical and dental expenses. Materials and Methods: A door to door survey was conducted in Govinpuri ward of Modinagar using dual stage random sampling. A 14-item open-ended questionnaire was used, which was filled by the investigator by interviewing the head of the family. Data were entered into Microsoft excel and analyzed using SPSS version 19 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: A total of 101 families were included in the study. The major amount of the monthly family income was spent on medical treatment as compared to dental treatment. The average OOP expenditure on the dental and medical treatment was 2135.94 ± 656.8 international normalized ratio (INR and 8771.28 ± 1056.43 INR (P = 0.038, respectively. Medical insurance formed a substantial proportion of the monthly family expenditure as compared to dental insurance (P = 0.023. The total medical expenses were 13.21%, and dental expenses were 8.84% of family income. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the family expenditure on medical and dental treatments differs significantly among the peri-urban population of Modinagar. The average three-month expenditure on the dental treatment was found to be rather depressing when compared to that on medical discourse. There was also a pronounced difference in the dental and medical insurance utilization among the study population.

  17. Alcohol and other substance use among medical and law students at a UK university: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogowicz, Paul; Ferguson, Jennifer; Gilvarry, Eilish; Kamali, Farhad; Kaner, Eileen; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2018-03-01

    To examine the use of alcohol and other substances among medical and law students at a UK university. Anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire survey of first, second and final year medical and law students at a single UK university. 1242 of 1577 (78.8%) eligible students completed the questionnaire. Over half of first and second year medical students (first year 53.1%, second year 59.7%, final year 35.9%) had an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score suggestive of an alcohol use disorder (AUDIT≥8), compared with over two-thirds of first and second year law students (first year 67.2%, second year 69.5%, final year 47.3%). Approximately one-quarter of medical students (first year 26.4%, second year 28.4%, final year 23.7%) and over one-third of first and second year law students (first year 39.1%, second year 42.4%, final year 18.9%) reported other substance use within the past year. Over one-third of medical students (first year 34.4%, second year 35.6%, final year 46.3%) and approximately half or more of law students (first year 47.2%, second year 52.7%, final year 59.5%) had a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety score suggestive of a possible anxiety disorder. Study participants had high levels of substance misuse and anxiety. Some students' fitness to practice may be impaired as a result of their substance misuse or symptoms of psychological distress. Further efforts are needed to reduce substance misuse and to improve the mental well-being of students. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of medical specialists for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease: A questionnaire survey

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    Vishnu Teja Obulareddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased risk of periodontal disease has been associated with diabetes mellitus (DM and also periodontitis is considered as the sixth complication of DM. Medical physicians may have an advantageous position compared to the dentists to provide early patient counseling about oral health because patients attend medical offices more often than to dental offices and are more likely to be affiliated to medical than to dental insurance. Hence, the medical practitioners should have sufficient knowledge in this regard. The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of endocrinologists, general medicine practitioners, and diabetologists on the relationship between periodontal disease and DM. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from sixty participants practicing in Nellore, using a structured questionnaire survey. The obtained data were analyzed through percentages. Results: All the participants (100% were aware that there existed a relation between oral health and general health. However, only 17.8% (10 of the participants refer their patients to dentists without patients asking for referral. Conclusion: The endocrinologists were aware of the didactic relationship, whereas general medicine practitioners and diabetologists are not much well-equipped with the knowledge on relationship between DM and periodontitis. There exists a wide gap between their practice behaviors and current scientific evidence. Therefore, more emphasis must be made by medical practitioners for the diabetic patient toward periodontal health which is most important yet neglected aspect of comprehensive health care.

  19. Awareness of periodontal disease and its management among medical faculty in Guntur district: A questionnaire-based study.

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    Dhulipalla, Ravindranath; Marella, Yamuna; Keerthana, Alluri Juhee; Pillutla, Harish Prabhu Dev; Chintagunta, Chaitanya; Polepalle, Tejaswin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of periodontal disease, its influence on general health, and attitude toward periodontal disease management among medical faculty in Guntur district. In this cross-sectional study, 150 medical faculty members from different specialties in Guntur district were included in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared based on knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys to assess the awareness of periodontal disease and its management. Majority of the study participants (82%) had a previous dental visit. Only 31.3% believed that plaque is the major cause for periodontal disease. 56.7% responded that the relation between periodontal disease and systemic diseases is bidirectional. Only 39.3% were aware that periodontal disease is a risk factor for preterm low-birth weight infants. 52.6% of the medical faculty thought that scaling causes loss of enamel. 54.7% were aware that light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation is used in the periodontal treatment. Medical professionals who visited specialist in their previous dental visit obtained mean periodontal score (5.35 ± 1.686) greater than those who had visited general dentist and the difference is statistically significant (0.024). This study clearly demonstrates that medical practitioners had fair knowledge about various aspects of periodontal disease. This was particularly evident among those who have had a previous visit to a dentist. It was also found that young professionals with limited experience in the profession had better knowledge.

  20. A Career Exploration Program: An Effective Alternative to the Traditional Use of Faculty Advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Kenneth E; Kwasigroch, Thomas E; Wooten, Daniel J; Lybrand, Cynthia; Peeples, Catherine R

    2016-11-01

    Providing medical students with resources to make effective career choices is challenging for medical schools as career options outnumber the formal clinical rotations students can experience during their undergraduate education. In 2009, the authors introduced the Career Exploration (CE) courses into the required curriculum at the Quillen College of Medicine. This three-course sequence includes large-group sessions addressing broad issues related to career choices, small-group specialty interest groups, individual student self-assessments, assignments through which students receive individualized feedback, and individual student advising sessions. The overall objective of the course sequence is to involve all students in career planning from the beginning of medical school so as to help them make more informed career decisions. The authors used improvement in student satisfaction with career planning activities as a surrogate measure for the outcome of helping students make more informed career choices. Students evaluated the CE courses positively, and overall satisfaction scores averaged 4 (1 = poor to 5 = excellent). Scores on Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire items related to career planning showed improved student satisfaction from 2010 to 2015. Succession planning for the first- and second-year career advisor is vital-as is faculty development for all clinical advisors to ensure that they have current information regarding both the curriculum and Match process, especially as residency selection becomes increasingly competitive. Enhancing the role of fourth-year students who serve as CE III mentors has the potential to prepare these students to be better teachers as residents.

  1. Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study

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    Runeson Bo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI, Burnout (OLBI, Depression (MDI at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. Results 98 (77% responded on both occasions, 80 (63% of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27% had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students

  2. 40 years of military medical education: an overview of the Long-Term Career Outcome Study (LTCOS).

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    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Dong, Ting; Cruess, David F; Gilliland, William R; DeZee, Kent J; Saguil, Aaron; Waechter, Donna M; McManigle, John E

    2012-09-01

    In 2005, the Long-Term Career Outcome Study (LTCOS) was established by the Dean, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU). The original charge to the LTCOS team was to establish an electronic database of current and past students at USU. Since its inception, however, the LTCOS team has broadened its mission and started collecting and analyzing data on a continuous basis for the purposes of program evaluation and, in some cases, research. The purpose of this commentary is to review the history of the LTCOS, including details about USU, a brief review of prior LTCOS work, and progress made since our last essay on LTCOS efforts. This commentary also provides an introduction to the special issue, which is arranged as a series of articles that span the medical education continuum (i.e., before, during, and after medical school). The relative balance of articles in each phase of training represents the LTCOS team's efforts to address the entire continuum of medical education.

  3. Knowledge of primary health care and career choice at primary health care settings among final year medical students - challenges to human resources for health in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hien, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of medical doctors in primary health care (PHC) settings in Vietnam. Evidence about the knowledge medical students have about PHC and their career decision-making is important for making policy in human resources for health. The objective of this study was to analyse knowledge and attitudes about PHC among medical students in their final year and their choice to work in PHC after graduation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year general medical students from Hanoi Medical University. Self-administered interviews were conducted. Key variables were knowledge, awareness of the importance of PHC and PHC career choices. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed. Students had essential knowledge of the concept and elements of PHC and were well aware of its importance. However, only one-third to one half of them valued PHC with regard to their professional development or management opportunities. Less than 1% of students would work at commune or district health facilities after graduation. This study evidences challenges related to increasing the number of medical doctors working in PHC settings. Immediate and effective interventions are needed to make PHC settings more attractive and to encourage medical graduates to start and continue a career in PHC.

  4. Fault lines in forensic medical toxicology in Ireland exposed through replies of pathologists and coroners to anonymous questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormey, William P; Borovickova, Ingrid; Moore, Tara M

    2014-01-01

    The attitudes and experiences of pathologists and coroners to the provision of biochemical forensic toxicology in the Republic of Ireland were determined using separate questionnaires to each group anonymously. Replies were received from 36/88 (41%) of pathologists and 19/71 (27%) of coroners. 37% of coroners considered that histopathologists give an adequate opinion in forensic toxicology yet 58% of pathologists reported that they did not have adequate access to expert medical interpretative toxicological opinion. For drug-drug interactions and metabolic diseases, 69% of pathologists were unhappy with the processes and 68% of coroner replies did not know if vitreous samples were used appropriately. There is a clear requirement for retraining of coroners and for the appointment of medical toxicology expertise to improve the quality of service for coroners.

  5. Hospital doctors' Opinions regarding educational Utility, public Sentiment and career Effects of Medical television Dramas: the HOUSE MD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboubi, Hasan N; Morgan, Holly; Aldalati, Omar

    2015-12-14

    To evaluate the opinions of practicing clinicians on medical television dramas and the effects these series have on society as well as their own practice. Observational study using a structured questionnaire disseminated among doctors of all grades and specialties at one tertiary centre and two large secondary care district general hospitals in Wales, United Kingdom. Three hundred and seventy-two questionnaires were distributed over a 3-month period, with 200 completed questionnaires received (response rate, 54%). Frequency and reasons for watching these programs, and opinions regarding realism, educational value and public perception, evaluated by doctors' grades and specialties. Identification of work practice with any observed traits in fictional doctors was also analysed. 65% of doctors surveyed admitted to watching these programs on more than one occasion. Junior doctors (interns and resident medical officers) were more regular viewers. Most doctors who admitted to watching medical dramas did so for entertainment purposes (69%); 8% watched for educational purposes and, of these, 100% watched House MD, 82% felt that these dramas were unrepresentative of daily practice, and 10% thought that they accurately portrayed reality. Most of the positive responses were from junior doctors. 61% of doctors identified some aspect of their clinical practice with another doctor (fictional or non-fictional; most junior doctors identified with a fictional doctor, compared with non-fictional role models for more senior practicing clinicians. This survey shows that a large body of the medical workforce watches medical television dramas and that such programs exercise a growing influence on the practice of junior doctors, particularly those in physicianly specialties. The reasons for certain role model selections remain unknown and may require further evaluation.

  6. Shifting Norms and Expectations for Medical School Leaders: A Textual Analysis of Career Advertisements 2000-2004 cf. 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Diane; MacLeod, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leadership norms and expectations are continually evolving in higher education. Medical education is no exception to that trend, but shifts over time are intangible and difficult to measure. To explore emerging changes, the authors conducted a textual analysis of published career advertisements from 2000-2004 and 2010-2014. While a number of…

  7. BULGARIAN TEACHERS’ CAREER MOTIVATORS

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    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.

  8. Association between mental health screening by self-report questionnaire and insomnia in medical students

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    Loayza H. Maria Paz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years. The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder was 22.19%; and of insomnia, 28.15%. Difficulty initiating sleep (OR=3.45, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=7.61, falling asleep later (OR=1.99 and waking up earlier (OR=1.91 were associated with suspicion of psychiatric disorder. As a group, the variables difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, falling asleep after 11 pm, and waking up before 6 am presented an odds ratio of 5.96 for positivity in the screening for psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=2.24 was associated with "being female," and falling asleep later (OR=0.43 was associated with "being male". These results underscore the importance of determining in what cases difficulty sleeping may have severe clinical repercussions or affect performance.

  9. Early career choices and successful career progression in surgery in the UK: prospective cohort studies

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    Richards Jennifer MJ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes to the structure of medical training worldwide require doctors to decide on their career specialty at an increasingly early stage after graduation. We studied trends in career choices for surgery, and the eventual career destinations, of UK graduates who declared an early preference for surgery. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent, at regular time intervals after qualification, to all medical qualifiers from all UK medical schools in selected qualification years between 1974 and 2005. They were sent in the first year after qualification, at year three and five years after qualification, and at longer time intervals thereafter. Results Responses were received from 27 749 of 38 280 doctors (73% at year one, 23 468 of 33151 (71% at year three, and 17 689 of 24 870 (71% at year five. Early career preferences showed that surgery has become more popular over the past two decades. Looking forward from early career choice, 60% of respondents (64% of men, 48% of women with a first preference for a surgical specialty at year one eventually worked in surgery (p Conclusions Surgery is a popular specialty choice in the UK. The great majority of doctors who progressed in a surgical career made an early and definitive decision to do so.

  10. Career paths in physicians' postgraduate training - an eight-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Klaghofer, Richard

    2010-10-06

    To date, there are hardly any studies on the choice of career path in medical school graduates. The present study aimed to investigate what career paths can be identified in the course of postgraduate training of physicians; what factors have an influence on the choice of a career path; and in what way the career paths are correlated with career-related factors as well as with work-life balance aspirations. The data reported originates from five questionnaire surveys of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1, last year of medical school). The study sample consisted of 358 physicians (197 females, 55%; 161 males, 45%) participating at each assessment from T2 (2003, first year of residency) to T5 (2009, seventh year of residency), answering the question: What career do you aspire to have? Furthermore, personal characteristics, chosen specialty, career motivation, mentoring experience, work-life balance as well as workload, career success and career satisfaction were assessed. Career paths were analysed with cluster analysis, and differences between clusters analysed with multivariate methods. The cluster analysis revealed four career clusters which discriminated distinctly between each other: (1) career in practice, (2) hospital career, (3) academic career, and (4) changing career goal. From T3 (third year of residency) to T5, respondents in Cluster 1-3 were rather stable in terms of their career path aspirations, while those assigned to Cluster 4 showed a high fluctuation in their career plans. Physicians in Cluster 1 showed high values in extraprofessional concerns and often consider part-time work. Cluster 2 and 3 were characterised by high instrumentality, intrinsic and extrinsic career motivation, career orientation and high career success. No cluster differences were seen in career satisfaction. In Cluster 1 and 4, females were overrepresented. Trainees should be supported to stay on the career path that best suits his/her personal and

  11. Medical and occupational radiation exposure reported by self-administered questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Fujita, Shoichiro

    1977-01-01

    Affirmative response rates for diagnostic, therapeutic, and occupational ionizing radiation exposure were ascertained by surveying Hiroshima and Nagasaki aBCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects. Half reported diagnostic exposure since last visiting ABCC; 20%, within 3 months of interview. Rates were higher for A-bomb exposed than those not-in-city; possibly because of a higher disease rate or concern therefore among the A-bomb exposed group and/or A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law handbooks' facilitating more examinations of the exposed. The rates did not differ among the A-bomb exposed groups. The respective Hiroshima and Nagasaki rates were 2.6%, and 1.6% for radiation therapy; and 0.5% and 0.2% for occupational exposure. Neither radiation therapy nor occupational exposure rates differed by A-bomb dose. (auth.)

  12. Role of religion and spirituality in medical patients: Confirmatory results with the SpREUK questionnaire

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    Ostermann Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirituality has become a subject of interest in health care as it is was recognized to have the potential to prevent, heal or cope with illness. There is less doubt that values and goals are important contributors to life satisfaction, physical and psychological health, and that goals are what gives meaning and purpose to people's lives. However, there is as yet but limited understanding of how patients themselves view the impact of spirituality on their health and well-being, and whether they are convinced that their illness may have "meaning" to them. To raise these questions and to more precisely survey the basic attitudes of patients with severe diseases towards spirituality/religiosity (SpR and their adjustment to their illness, we developed the SpREUK questionnaire. Methods In order to re-validate our previously described SpREUK instrument, reliability and factor analysis of the new inventory (Version 1.1 were performed according to the standard procedures. The test sample contained 257 German subjects (53.3 ± 13.4 years with cancer (51%, multiple sclerosis (24%, other chronic diseases (16% and patients with acute diseases (7%. Results As some items of the SpREUK construct require a positive attitude towards SpR, these items (item pool 2 were separated from the others (item pool 1. The reliability of the 15-item the construct derived from the item pool 1 respectively the 14-item construct which refers to the item pool 2 both had a good quality (Cronbach's alpha = 0.9065 resp. 0.9525. Factor analysis of item pool 1 resulted in a 3-factor solution (i.e. the 6-item sub-scale 1: "Search for meaningful support"; the 6-item sub-scale 2: "Positive interpretation of disease"; and the 3-item sub-scale 3: "Trust in external guidance" which explains 53.8% of variance. Factor analysis of item pool 2 pointed to a 2-factor solution (i.e. the 10-item sub-scale 4: "Support in relations with the External life through SpR" and the 4

  13. Careers and Emerging Opportunities in Visual Communication in Medicine: Medical photography in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjersem, Bård

    2015-06-01

    The community of medical photographers in Norway is relatively small. Except for one they are all employed with titles such as research technicians, department engineers, senior consultants and skilled workers. At the present there is no formal education in medical photography. The most common educational attainment for photographers is the Journeyman's certificate. Until recently, the requirement for employment for photographers at Norwegian hospitals was the Journeyman's Certificate. However, the Institutt for Klinisk Medisin at University in Oslo recently advertised a vacancy for a departmental Engineer to run its photographic and video services. The post required that the candidates possess either a Bachelor's degree in a relevant subject. This is the first vacancy in medical photography in nine years. The Norwegian health services have been reformed in the direction of New Public Management (NPM). To utilise the resources effectively, tasks that normally would be performed by one health profession are shifted to another with a different or lower education and training. There are reasons to believe that the shift of medical photography from professional photographers to other health personnel without specialist training or qualifications is an attempt to utilise resources more effectively. During the next two years a mixed methods research will be carried out to explore the current situation for medical photography in Norway.

  14. Combining the audit questionnaire and biochemical markers to assess alcohol use and risk of alcohol withdrawal in medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Jonathan M; Hawkes, Neil D

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often under-reported in patients admitted to general hospitals with acute illness. For alcohol-dependent individuals hospital admission results in an enforced period of abstinence with potential alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and possible life threatening complications. Early detection of alcohol use is therefore beneficial to patients and health services. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire in the acute medical setting, and the effect of combining routine biological markers-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) on its performance in the early identification of in-patients with alcohol use disorders and at risk of developing symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prospective study in consecutive patients admitted to an acute medical admissions ward. All patients were screened using the AUDIT questionnaire and routine blood tests. Patients were then monitored for symptoms of withdrawal using clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar). Of the 874 patients screened using the AUDIT, 98 (11%) screened positive of whom 17 (2% of the 874) experienced clinically significant alcohol withdrawal symptoms, when using serial CIWA-Ar. The AUDIT and serial CIWA-Ar detected all patients who went on to manifest acute withdrawal symptoms. There was no loss of sensitivity at an AUDIT cut-off of 13 or more compared with the lower cut-off of 8 or more. A positive predictive value of 17.3% for an AUDIT score of 8 or more in the detection of withdrawal, increased to 47.1% when found in combination with at least two abnormal biological markers whilst maintaining a sensitivity of 94.1% and specificity of 97.9%. These findings confirm that AUDIT is a useful alcohol screen in general medical settings and that its ability to correctly predict which patients will experience alcohol withdrawal is

  15. Validity of Medical Student Questionnaire Data in Prediction of Rural Practice Choice and Its Association With Service Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, C Ken; Jackson, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    The validity of medical student projection of, and predictors for, rural practice and the association of a measure of service orientation, projected practice accessibility to the indigent, were investigated. West Virginia (WV) medical student online pre- and postrural rotation questionnaire data were collected during the time period 2001-2009. Of the 1,517 respondent students, submissions by 1,271 met the time interval criterion for inclusion in analyses. Subsequent WV licensing data were available for 461 in 2013. These 2 databases were used to assess for validity of projection of rural practice, for predictors of rural practice, and for student projected accessibility of the future practice to indigent patients. There were statistically significant associations between both pre- and postrotation projections of rural practice and subsequent rural practice. The most significant independent predictors of rural practice were student rural background, reported primary care intent, prediction of rural practice and projection of greater accessibility of the future practice to indigent patients. For scoring of practice access, there were trends for higher scoring by rural students and rural practitioners, with greater pre-post increases for those with urban hometowns. This study demonstrates the utility of medical student questionnaires for projections of numbers of future rural physicians. It suggests that students with a rural background, rural practice intent, or greater service orientation are more likely to enter rural practice. It also suggests that students, particularly those with urban hometowns, are influenced by rural rotation experiences in forecasting greater practice accessibility and in entering rural practice. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  16. Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan

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    Sheikh Asfandyar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents

  17. Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Physician migration, also known as “brain drain,” results from a combination of a gap in the supply and demand in developed countries and a lack of job satisfaction in developing countries. Many push and pull factors are responsible for this effect, with media and internet playing their parts. Large-scale physician migration can pose problems for both the donor and the recipient countries, with a resulting reinforcement in the economic divide between developed and developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of migration intentions in medical undergraduates, to elucidate the factors responsible and to analyze the attitudes and practices related to these intentions. Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study, conducted at Dow Medical College of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, between January, 2012 and May, 2012. A total of 323 students responded completely. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, and was aimed at collecting demographic details, determining students’ migratory intentions, evaluating reasons for and against migration and assessing attitudes and practices of students related to these intentions. Results Out of 323 respondents, 195 wanted to pursue their careers abroad, giving a prevalence rate of 60.4% in our sample. United States was the most frequently reported recipient country. The most common reasons given by students who wished to migrate, in descending order, were: lucrative salary abroad followed by quality of training, job satisfaction, better way of life, relatives, more opportunities, better working environment, terrorism in Pakistan, harassment of doctors in Pakistan, desire to settle abroad, more competition in Pakistan, better management, peer pressure, longer working hours in Pakistan, religious reasons, parent pressure, political reasons and favoritism in Pakistan. A considerable number of respondents had already started studying

  18. First and second year medical students identify and self-stereotype more as doctors than as students: a questionnaire study

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    Bryan Burford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of medical students’ professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Method Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October and end (April of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to ‘doctors’ and ‘students’. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to ‘doctor’ and ‘student’ measures. Results In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102 and 75% (n = 58 of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83 and 73% (n = 56. Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all ‘doctor’-referent measures were higher than ‘student’ measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups. Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Conclusions Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature

  19. First and second year medical students identify and self-stereotype more as doctors than as students: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Bryan; Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E S

    2017-11-13

    The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to 'doctors' and 'students'. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to 'doctor' and 'student' measures. In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102) and 75% (n = 58) of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83) and 73% (n = 56). Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all 'doctor'-referent measures were higher than 'student' measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups). Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature, but may reflect students' lack of 'performance' of professional identity, while the

  20. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, E Benjamín; Arósquipa, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income). These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  1. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benjamín Puertas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. METHODS: An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income. These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. RESULTS: A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  2. Choice of Future Career amongst Medical Students in Enugu, Nigeria: Implications for Anaesthesia

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    T C Onyeka

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion - This study has highlighted a very low level of interest for anaesthesia amongst Nigerian undergraduates. It also showed that ability to pursue other hobbies, availability of posts as well as academic and research opportunities are the main influencing factors in the choice of future specialty.We call for urgent measures be put in place tomake anaesthesia more attractive to young medical graduates

  3. Factors influencing career progress for early stage clinician-scientists in emerging Asian academic medical centres: a qualitative study in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Marcus E H; Thumboo, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To explore the factors that influence career progress for early stage clinician-scientists and to identify ways to mitigate these factors in the context of emerging Asian academic medical centres (AMCs). Design Qualitative interviews and thematic data analysis based on grounded theory. Setting and participants Five focus group interviews comprising 29 early career clinician-scientists who have received their first national-level career development award in Singapore. Results Clinical priorities represented an overarching concern with many reporting the difficulty in delineating responsibilities between clinical care and research. Additionally, there was a prevailing perception of the lack of support for research at the institutional level. Participants tended to identify mentors through their own efforts in a relatively haphazard manner, often owing to the dearth of role models and perceived inadequacy of reward systems for mentoring. Support from mentors was thought to be limited in terms of targeted scientific guidance and long-term commitments to the relationship. Most of the participants expressed concerns about how they could secure the next level of funding with diminishing confidence. Notably, the work-life balance was neither conceptualised as a ‘barrier’ to successful pursuit of research career nor was it translated into the reason for leaving the dual clinical-research career pathway. Conclusions Results revealed specific limitations presented by the research environment in newly emerging Asian AMCs. To retain a vibrant clinician-scientist workforce, additional measures are needed, aiming to improve institutional culture of research, build mentoring networks, adopt effective tools for tracking career progress and provide a clear and viable career progression path for clinician-scientist. Further research might explore the cross-cultural differences in managing work-life balance in academic medicine. PMID:29502093

  4. Factors influencing career progress for early stage clinician-scientists in emerging Asian academic medical centres: a qualitative study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Marcus E H; Thumboo, Julian

    2018-03-03

    To explore the factors that influence career progress for early stage clinician-scientists and to identify ways to mitigate these factors in the context of emerging Asian academic medical centres (AMCs). Qualitative interviews and thematic data analysis based on grounded theory. Five focus group interviews comprising 29 early career clinician-scientists who have received their first national-level career development award in Singapore. Clinical priorities represented an overarching concern with many reporting the difficulty in delineating responsibilities between clinical care and research. Additionally, there was a prevailing perception of the lack of support for research at the institutional level. Participants tended to identify mentors through their own efforts in a relatively haphazard manner, often owing to the dearth of role models and perceived inadequacy of reward systems for mentoring. Support from mentors was thought to be limited in terms of targeted scientific guidance and long-term commitments to the relationship. Most of the participants expressed concerns about how they could secure the next level of funding with diminishing confidence. Notably, the work-life balance was neither conceptualised as a 'barrier' to successful pursuit of research career nor was it translated into the reason for leaving the dual clinical-research career pathway. Results revealed specific limitations presented by the research environment in newly emerging Asian AMCs. To retain a vibrant clinician-scientist workforce, additional measures are needed, aiming to improve institutional culture of research, build mentoring networks, adopt effective tools for tracking career progress and provide a clear and viable career progression path for clinician-scientist. Further research might explore the cross-cultural differences in managing work-life balance in academic medicine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  5. Influences on choice of surgery as a career: a study of consecutive cohorts in a medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Dejano T

    2006-06-01

    To examine the differential impact of person-based and programme-related features on graduates' dichotomous choice between surgical or non-surgical field specialties for first-year residency. A 10-year cohort study was conducted, following 578 students (55.4% male) who graduated from a university medical school during 1994-2003. Data were collected as follows: at the beginning of medical studies, on career preference and learning frame; during medical studies, on academic achievement, cross-year peer tutoring and selective clinical traineeship, and at graduation, on the first-year residency selected. Contingency and logistic regression analyses were performed, with graduates grouped by the dichotomous choice of surgery or not. Overall, 23% of graduates selected a first-year residency in surgery. Seven time-steady features related to this choice: male sex, high self-confidence, option of surgery at admission, active learning style, preference for surgery after Year 1, peer tutoring on clinical surgery, and selective training in clinical surgery. Logistic regression analysis, including all features, predicted 87.1% of the graduates' choices. Male sex, updated preference, peer tutoring and selective training were the most significant predictors in the pathway to choice. The relative roles of person-based and programme-related factors in the choice process are discussed. The findings suggest that for most students the choice of surgery derives from a temporal summation of influences that encompass entry and post-entry factors blended in variable patterns. It is likely that sex-unbiased peer tutoring and selective training supported the students' search process for personal compatibility with specialty-related domains of content and process.

  6. Early-career researchers in medical applications @ CERN | 6 June | Main Auditorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Discover how technological advances for high-energy physics have become essential tools for modern medicine. CERN seeks to answer fundamental questions about the Universe, and this mission naturally contributes to advancing the frontiers of technology. State-of-the-art techniques developed for particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing have applications beyond the high-energy physics community in the medical field. These applications now have an essential role in clinical practices and medical research centres: from imaging devices, accelerator-technology dedicated to cancer therapy, to simulations and data science tools. This knowledge transfer from the high energy physics community to innovation in other fields is an inherent component of CERN’s mission and culture. It fuels scientific collaboration and technological advances, and drives innovation. In addition, it motivates future generations of scientists, and contributes to the public awareness of the impact of fu...

  7. Knowledge and perception regarding clinical trials among doctors of government medical colleges: A questionnaire-based study

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    Supriyo Choudhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: By virtue of being a specialized field by itself, the science of clinical trials (CTs may not be well understood by doctors who are not specifically trained in it. A lack of knowledge may translate to a negative perception toward CT. With the idea of getting a situational snapshot, we estimated the knowledge and perception of CTs among doctors from government medical colleges of West Bengal who are not trained on CT in their postgraduate curriculum. Several determinants of knowledge and perception regarding CT were also evaluated. Methods: We have quantified the knowledge and perception of CTs by a structured validated questionnaire. Development and validation of the questionnaire was performed prior to the study. Results: Among 133 participants, 7.5% received focused training on CT and 16.5% participated in CTs as investigators. Majority of the doctors were unfamiliar with the basic terminologies such as, “adverse event” and “good clinical practice.” Encouragingly, 93.3% doctors advised that a detailed discussion of CT methodology should be incorporated in the under graduate medical science curriculum. They had an overall positive attitude toward CTs conducted in India, with a mean score that is 72.6% of the maximum positive score. However, a large number of the doctors were skeptical about the primary motivation and operations of pharmaceutical industry sponsored CTs, with 45% of them believing that patients are exploited in these sponsored CTs. Conclusion: Participant doctors had a basic knowledge of CT methodology. The study has revealed specific areas of deficient knowledge, which might be emphasized while designing focused training on CT methodology.

  8. Concordance of Adherence Measurement Using Self-Reported Adherence Questionnaires and Medication Monitoring Devices: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnette, Alisha; Zhang, Yichen; Shao, Hui; Shi, Lizheng

    2018-01-01

    As medication adherence continues to be a prevalent issue in today's society, the methods used to monitor medication-taking behaviors are constantly being re-evaluated and compared in search of the 'gold standard' measure. Our review aimed to assess the current literature surrounding the correlation between self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and electronic monitoring devices to determine if these measures produce similar results. We performed a literature search from 2009 to 2017 using PubMed, PubMed In-Process and Non-Indexed, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid MEDLINE In-Process. A keyword search using the terms 'patient compliance', 'treatment compliance', 'medication adherence', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance', and 'medications' was done to capture all articles. We included articles measuring adherence using both monitoring devices and SRQs. Thirty-five articles were included in this review. The average difference in measured adherence rates between the two measures was 9.2% (range -66.3 to 61.5). A majority (62.7%) of articles reported moderate (n = 12; 27.9%), high (n = 5, 11.6%), or significant (n = 10, 23.3%) correlations between SRQs and monitoring devices. Results from our review are consistent with previous studies, as we found that many of our studies produced moderate to high correlation between both SRQs and monitoring devices [Farmer, Clin Ther 21(6):1074-90 (1999), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Avoidable costs in US health care (2012), Patel et al., Respirology 18(3):546-52 (2013), Siracusa et al., J Cyst Fibros 14(5):621-6 (2015), Smith et al., Int J Cardiol 145(1):122-3 (2010)]. Our findings demonstrate that self-reported adherence produces comparable results to electronic monitoring devices. As there is not yet a 'gold standard' measure for monitoring patient adherence, SRQs and Medication Event Monitoring Systems

  9. Investigating sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test, and Modified Medical Research Council scale according to GOLD using St George's Respiratory Questionnaire cutoff 25 (and 20) as reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna G.; Alma, Harma J.; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Schultz, Konrad; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Janwillem W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) strategy document, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), COPD Assessment Test (CAT), or modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale are recommended for the assessment of symptoms using the cutoff points of CCQ >= 1,

  10. Postgraduates' perceptions of preparedness for work as a doctor and making future career decisions: support for rural, non-traditional medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, D S

    2010-08-01

    The intern year is a critical time for making career decisions and gaining confidence in clinical skills, communication and teamwork practices; this justifies an interest in junior doctors' perceptions of their level of preparedness for hospital work. This study explored Australian junior doctors' perspectives regarding the transition from student to doctor roles, their preparation as medical undergraduates within either traditional metropolitan schools or smaller, outer metropolitan-based (rural) programs such as Rural Clinical Schools (RCS), and the educational environment they experienced in their internship. A qualitative cross-sectional design used semi-structured interviews with postgraduate year one and two junior doctors (9 females and 11 males) within teaching hospitals in Queensland Australia. Interview questions focussed on four major content areas: preparedness for hospital work, undergraduate training, building confidence and career advice. Data were analyzed using a framework method to identify and explore major themes. Junior doctors who spent undergraduate years training at smaller, non-traditional medical schools felt more confident and better prepared at internship. More hands-on experience as students, more patient contact and a better grounding in basic sciences were felt by interns to be ideal for building confidence. Junior doctors perceived a general lack of career guidance in both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching environments to help them with the transition from the student to junior doctor roles. Findings are congruent with studies that have confirmed student opinion on the higher quality of undergraduate medical training outside a traditional metropolitan-based program, such as a RCS. The serious shortage of doctors in rural and remote Australia makes these findings particularly relevant. It will be important to gain a better understanding of how smaller non-traditional medical programs build confidence and feelings of work

  11. A questionnaire based assessment of numbers, motivation and medical care of UK patients undergoing liver transplant abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr Winter, Ben; Odedra, Anand; Green, Steve

    Medical tourism, where patients travel abroad intentionally to access medical treatment, is a growing trend. Some of these patients travel to undergo organ transplantation. This study aims to quantify the number of UK patients who undergo liver transplantation abroad, assessing their motivations and management. Questionnaires were sent to all seven UK liver transplant units enquiring about liver patients receiving transplant abroad. Included were questions on destination, motivation, and pre and post-transplant care. Responses were received from six of the seven transplant centres (86%). A total of 12 patients were identified as having undergone liver transplantation overseas. The top destinations were India, China and Egypt. Four units responded to questions regarding pre-transplant screening. One unit reported Hepatitis B and C screening not taking place. Four units responded to questions regarding post-transplant antimicrobial therapy. This revealed examples of patients inappropriately not receiving valganciclovir, co-trimoxazole, anti-fungal treatment and Hepatitis B immunoglobulins. UK patients are undergoing liver transplant abroad, albeit in small numbers. Pre and post-transplant management of these patients is of a lower standard than that provided to those undergoing transplantation in the UK. Information transfer between overseas and UK based transplant teams is poor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring and benchmarking safety culture: application of the safety attitudes questionnaire to an acute medical admissions unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relihan, E; Glynn, S; Daly, D; Silke, B; Ryder, S

    2009-12-01

    To assess the safety culture in an acute medical admissions unit (AMAU) of a teaching hospital in order to benchmark results against international data and guide a unit-based, integrated, risk management strategy. The safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ), a validated instrument for the measurement of safety culture was applied to an AMAU. All AMAU healthcare staff (n = 92) were surveyed: doctors, nurses, healthcare assistants (HCAs) and allied healthcare professionals (AHPs). Safety attitude scores for the overall unit and individual caregiver types were assessed across six domains of safety culture. When compared against an international benchmark, the AMAU scored significantly higher for four of the six safety domains: p < 0.01 for 'teamwork climate', 'safety climate' and 'stress recognition' and p < 0.05 for 'job satisfaction'. The difference between nurse manager scores and the overall mean for the study group was statistically significant for the domains of 'teamwork climate' (p < 0.05) and 'safety climate' (p < 0.01). HCAs scored significantly lower relative to staff overall with regard to 'working conditions' (p < 0.05) and 'perceptions of management' (p < 0.01). The SAQ was successfully applied to an AMAU setting giving a valuable insight into staff issues of concern across the safety spectrum: employee and environmental safety, clinical risk management and medication safety.

  13. Career-success scale – a new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps

    OpenAIRE

    Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Stamm, M; Buddeberg, C; Klaghofer, R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success...

  14. Impact of Interventions to Increase the Proportion of Medical Students Choosing a Primary Care Career: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarrwaller, Eva; Sommer, Johanna; Chung, Christopher; Maisonneuve, Hubert; Nendaz, Mathieu; Junod Perron, Noëlle; Haller, Dagmar M

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the attractiveness of primary care careers is a key step in addressing the growing shortage of primary care physicians. The purpose of this review was to (1) identify interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of undergraduate medical students choosing a primary care specialty, (2) describe the characteristics of these interventions, (3) assess the quality of the studies, and (4) compare the findings to those of a previous literature review within a global context. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, CINAHL, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, and Dissertations & Theses A&I for articles published between 1993 and February 20, 2015. We included quantitative and qualitative studies reporting on primary care specialty choice outcomes of interventions in the undergraduate medical curriculum, without geographic restrictions. Data extracted included study characteristics, intervention details, and relevant outcomes. Studies were assessed for quality and strength of findings using a five-point scale. The review included 72 articles reporting on 66 different interventions. Longitudinal programs were the only intervention consistently associated with an increased proportion of students choosing primary care. Successful interventions were characterized by diverse teaching formats, student selection, and good-quality teaching. Study quality had not improved since recommendations were published in 1995. Many studies used cross-sectional designs and non-validated surveys, did not include control groups, and were not based on a theory or conceptual framework. Our review supports the value of longitudinal, multifaceted, primary care programs to increase the proportion of students choosing primary care specialties. Isolated modules or clerkships did not appear to be effective. Our results are in line with the conclusions from previous reviews and add an international perspective, but the evidence is limited by the overall low methodological quality of the included

  15. Psychometric Properties of Interpersonal Communication skills Questionnaire (ISAQ from the Viewpoint of Students at Tabriz University and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Mahmoodi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: One of the skills needed for social life is interpersonal communication skills. Assessing the Interpersonal communication skills due to the growth and development of social networks is very important. This study aimed to validate the Fetro's (2000 interpersonal communication skills questionnaire among students of Tabriz University and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this descriptivestudy, 750 students of Tabriz University and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were selected by simple random sampling. Data collected by Fetro (2000 interpersonal communication skills questionnaire. This questionnaire has 65 items with five degrees based on Likert scale. Data were analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis through SPSS 23. Results: In total 750 Students filled questionnaires. 423 from University of Tabriz and 327 from of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Based on the results of exploratory factor analysis on original 65 items, 6 factors extracted and 54 items remained. Based on original questionnaire factors and literature extracted factors were labeled. So 45.26% of total variance were explained by these six factors (empathy and intimacy, communication skills, ability to maintain communication, assertiveness, listening and conflict resolution skills. Conclusion: According to the result of factor analysis, new validated questionnaire has less items and more components than the original questionnaire. So it is a suitable instrument for measuring interpersonal communication skills by researchers.

  16. Results of questionnaire to members of Japanese college of radiology. Their attitude and act for medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki; Ohno, Kazuko; Saito, Tsutomu; Furui, Shigeru; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Sakai, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes results of questionnaire conducted to members of Japanese College of Radiology (JCR) about their attitude and act for medical exposure. It asked, concerning medical exposure, about their attribute, attitude, education and knowledge, awareness at routine clinical practice and about occupational dose; was sent to 5,135 JCR members in September, 2011 for sending back within a month; and was replied by 1,177 members (22.9%), of which data were analyzed by chi-square distribution. Answered doctors (M/F of ca. 3/1, 30-59 years old) concerned with the actual practice (89.5%) for >10 years (ca. 67%) and >6 y (ca. 80) of imaging diagnosis (ca. 70%), radiotherapy (ca. 15) and nuclear medicine ( 300-bed hospital (ca. 70%). They were always or often aware of the medical exposure (>90%); their significantly high awareness was found in hospitals having >4 radiological doctors; and their awareness was significantly correlated with the population of their service area. They were also aware at CT (38%), IVR (interventional radiology) (27), radiotherapy (10) and PET (12), for patients of pediatrics (31%), of pregnancy-possible women (27), receiving frequent tests (30) and undergoing pelvic region imaging (12). Frequent questions to them arose from departments of nurse (28%), pediatrics (18), radiology (17), gynecology (13) and internal medicine (12); from patients often (5%), sometimes (28), rarely (55%) and null (12%). Significant relationship was found between questions by patients and the bed number/number of radiological doctors/population of medical service area. About 90% of doctors joined the education and training course always, often, or sometimes and about 40% of whom recognized its effectiveness. For accumulated dose restriction, 69.8% of doctors thought negative for patients while 72.1%, positive for volunteers in clinical trials (significant). Doctors who didn't explained patients about the exposure were 16%. Those highly aware of exposure wore the

  17. Prevalence of Depression in Medical Students at the Lebanese University and Exploring its Correlation With Facebook Relevance: A Questionnaire Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Wadih J; Kansoun, Alaa H; Haddad, Ramzi S

    2016-05-31

    The prevalence of major depression is particularly high in medical students, affecting around one-third of this population. Moreover, online social media, in particular Facebook, is becoming an intrinsic part in the life of a growing proportion of individuals worldwide. Our primary objective is to identify the prevalence of depression in medical students at the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine, a unique state university in Lebanon, its correlation with the utilization of the interactive features of Facebook, and the way students may resort to these features. Students of the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine were assessed for (1) depression and (2) Facebook activity. To screen for major depression, we used the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. To test for Facebook activity, we developed the Facebook Resorting Questionnaire (FbRQ), which measures the degree to which students resort to Facebook. A total of 365 out of 480 students (76.0%) participated in the survey. A total of 25 students were excluded, hence 340 students were included in the final analysis. Current depression was reported in 117 students out of 340 (34.4%) and t tests showed female predominance. Moreover, PHQ-9 score multiple regression analysis showed that feeling depressed is explained 63.5% of the time by specific independent variables studied from the PHQ-9 and the FbRQ. Depression varied significantly among the different academic years (PFacebook had a positive and significant relationship (P=.003) and the different FbRQ categories had significant differences in resorting-to-Facebook power. The like, add friend, and check-in features students used when resorting to Facebook were significantly associated with depression. This study showed that depression was highly prevalent among students of the Faculty of Medicine at the Lebanese University. Moreover, Facebook may be a promising, helpful, psychological tool for optimizing the management of depression. Our study brought

  18. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Katrin U; Brüheim, Linda; Westermann, Jürgen; Katalinic, Alexander; Kötter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen). This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools. Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires. Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales. Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  19. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Katrin U.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen. This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools.Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires.Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales.Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  20. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Intended Career Choice in Family Medicine in Slovenia: An Issue of Gender, Family Background or Empathic Attitudes in Final Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Marija Petek; Selic, Polona

    2017-06-01

    Among a variety of complex factors affecting a decision to take family medicine as a future specialisation, this study focused on demographic characteristics and assessed empathic attitudes in final year medical students. A convenience sampling method was employed in two consecutive academic years of final year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in May 2014 and May 2015. A modified version of the 16-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Student Version (JSE-S) was administered to examine self-reported empathic attitudes. An intended career in family medicine was reported using a five-point Likert scale. Of the 175 medical school seniors in study year 2013/14, there were 64 (36.6%) men and 111 (63.4%) women, while in the second group (study year 2014/5), there were 68 (40.5%) men and 100 (59.5%) women; 168 students in total. They were 24.9±1.6 (generation 2013/4) and 24.9±1.7 (generation 2014/15) years old. Thirty-six percent of the students in the academic year 2013/14 intended to choose family medicine as a future career, and a similar proportion in academic year 2014/15 (31.7%). Gender (χ 2 =6.763, p=0.034) and empathic attitudes (c 2 =14.914; p=0.001) had a bivariate association with an intended career choice of family medicine in the 2014/15 generation. When logistic regression was applied to this group of students, an intended career choice in family medicine was associated with empathic attitudes (OR 1.102, 95% CI 1.040-1.167, p=0.001), being single (OR 3.659, 95% CI 1.150-11.628, p=0.028) and the father having only primary school education (OR 142.857 95% CI 1.868, p=0.025), but not with gender (OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.854-1.621, p=0.320). The level of students' father's education, and not living in an intimate partnership, increased the odds on senior medical students to choose family medicine, yet we expected higher JSE-S scores to be associated with interest in this speciality. To deepen our understanding, this study should be

  2. The Mediation Effects of Career Exploration on the Relationship between Trait Anxiety and Career Indecision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kira; Woo, Sungbum; Park, Kibok; Kyea, Jina; Yang, Eunjoo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated trait anxiety, career exploration behaviors, and career indecision. Using longitudinal data, career exploration behavior was examined as a mediator in the relationship between trait anxiety and career indecision. Five hundred and one Korean college students completed online questionnaires at three different time points with…

  3. The Roles of Negative Career Thoughts and Sense of Coherence in Predicting Career Decision Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. Kirk; Dahl, A. Dennis; Wagner, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between sense of coherence and negative career thoughts was investigated in a non-college-based population to determine the relationship and predictive value of these factors toward career decision status. Participants completed the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, Career Thoughts Inventory, and Career Decision Profile's…

  4. Teste de Morisky-Green e Brief Medication Questionnaire para avaliar adesão a medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jornada Ben

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a confiabilidade e o desempenho da versão em português de instrumentos de avaliação da adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo. MÉTODOS: Pacientes hipertensos atendidos de janeiro a setembro de 2010 em uma unidade de atenção primária em Porto Alegre, RS, foram selecionados aleatoriamente (n = 206. Na avaliação da adesão foram utilizadas versões em português do Teste de Morisky-Green (TMG e do Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ. Foram analisados consistência interna, estabilidade temporal e desempenho com relação a três padrões-ouro: controle inadequado da pressão arterial (> 140/90 mmHg; taxa insuficiente de retirada de medicação na farmácia da Unidade Básica de Saúde ( 0,001. A baixa adesão ao BMQ está associada a maiores níveis tensionais quando comparada com pacientes aderentes (148,4 [dp 20,1] vs 128,8 [dp 17,8], p < 0,001, mas não para o TMG. CONCLUSÕES: O BMQ apresentou melhor desempenho que o TMG, com maiores sensibilidade e especificidade. A avaliação da adesão pode auxiliar o clinico na discriminação entre uso inadequado da medicação e esquema terapêutico insuficiente.

  5. Factors Influencing American Plastic Surgery Residents Toward an Academic Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetta, Matthew D; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Diaz-Garcia, Rafael J; Kasten, Steven J

    2018-02-01

    Plastic surgery residency program directors have an interest in recruiting applicants who show an interest in an academic practice. Medical school achievements (ie, United States Medical Licensing Examination® scores, publications, and Alpha Omega Alpha status) are metrics assessed to grade applicants but may not correlate with ultimately choosing an academic career. This study was designed to investigate factors influencing residents' choices for or against academic careers. A 25-item online questionnaire was designed to measure baseline interest in academic plastic surgery and factors that influence decisions to continue on or abandon that career path. This questionnaire was disseminated to the integrated/combined plastic surgery residents during the 2013 to 2014 academic year. One hundred twenty-five respondents indicated that they were currently interested in pursuing academic practice (n = 78) or had lost interest in academic practice (n = 47). Among all respondents, 92.8% (n = 116) stated they were interested in academic careers at the time of residency application, but one-third (n = 41) subsequently lost interest. Those residents who retained interest in academic careers indicated resident/medical student educational opportunities (57%) and complexity of patients (52%) as reasons. Those who lost interest cited a lack of autonomy (43%), publishing requirements (32%), and income discrepancy (26%) as reasons. Many residents report losing interest in academics during residency. Traditional metrics valued in the recruitment process may not serve as positive predictors of an academic career path. Reasons why residents lose interest are not easily correctable, but mentorship, adequate career counseling, and research opportunities during training remain factors that can be addressed across all residency programs.

  6. Development and Validation of the "iCAN!"--A Self-Administered Questionnaire Measuring Outcomes/Competences and Professionalism of Medical Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Tseretopoulou, Xanthippi; Tzamalis, Theodoros; Bazoukis, George; Benos, Alexis; Gogos, Charalambos; Malizos, Konstantinos; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Thermos, Kyriaki; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Iordanis N.; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    The Tuning-Medicine Project produced a set of "level one" and "level two" learning outcomes/competences to be met by European medical graduates. In the learner-centered era self-assessment becomes more and more important. Our aim was to develop a self-completion questionnaire ("iCAN!") evaluating graduates' learning…

  7. Validity aspects of the patient feedback questionnaire on consultation skills (PFC), a promising learning instrument in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.E.; Blankenstein, A.H.; Knol, D.L.; Vet, de H.C.W.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A focus on the communicator competency is considered to be an important requirement to help physicians to acquire consultation skills. A feedback questionnaire, in which patients assess consultation skills might be a useful learning tool. An existing questionnaire on patient perception of

  8. Career adaptability and career entrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Ambiel, Rodolfo A.M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto

    2015-01-01

    Career adaptability constitutes a resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the two higher-order constructs of career adaptability and career entrenchment (i.e., the perceived inability

  9. Swallowing difficulties with medication intake assessed with a novel self-report questionnaire in patients with systemic sclerosis – a cross-sectional population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messerli M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Markus Messerli,1,2 Rebecca Aschwanden,1 Michael Buslau,2 Kurt E Hersberger,1 Isabelle Arnet1 1Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2European Centre for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma, Reha Rheinfelden, Rheinfelden, Switzerland Objectives: To assess subjective swallowing difficulties (SD with medication intake and their practical consequences in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc with a novel self-report questionnaire.Design and setting: Based on a systematic literature review, we developed a self-report questionnaire and got it approved by an expert panel. Subsequently, we sent the questionnaire by post mail to SSc patients of the European Center for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma Rheinfelden, Switzerland.Participants: Patients were eligible if they were diagnosed with SSc, treated at the center, and were of age ≥18 years at the study start.Main outcome measures: Prevalence and pattern of SD with oral medication intake, including localization and intensity of complaints.Results: The questionnaire consisted of 30 items divided into five sections Complaints, Intensity, Localization, Coping strategies, and Adherence. Of the 64 SSc patients eligible in 2014, 43 (67% returned the questionnaire. Twenty patients reported SD with medication intake (prevalence 47%, either currently (11; 26% or in the past that had been overcome (9; 21%. Self-reported SD were localized mostly in the larynx (43% and esophagus (34%. They were of moderate (45% or strong to unbearable intensity (25%. Modification of the dosage form was reported in 40% of cases with SD. Adherence was poor for 20 (47% patients and was not associated with SD (p=0.148.Conclusion: Our novel self-report questionnaire is able to assess the pattern of complaints linked to medication intake, that is, localization and intensity. It may serve as a guide for health care professionals in selecting the most

  10. Stigmatisation of Mental Illness and Its Impact on Recruitment of Medical Students to a Career in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Zaza; Hood, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The stigmatisation of mental illness in Australian and other Western societies is now well documented. This article presents a description of the "stigmatisation" problem associated with mental illness, and discusses the impact that this problem has had on the demand for Psychiatry as a career. The approach taken at UWA to address the…

  11. Current trends in use of intracanal medications in dental care facilities: questionnaire-based survey on training dental hygienists at educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Hosokawa, Souhei; Ariizumi, Yuugo

    2013-01-01

    The success of root canal therapy is dependent not only on removal of infected pulp (pulpectomy) followed by root canal enlargement, but also on the pharmacological effects of intracanal medications. Various intracanal medications are used. Formaldehyde preparations such as formocresol were common in the past, but these are no longer used in Europe or the US due to the biological toxicity of formaldehyde. In this study, a questionnaire was used to determine current trends in the use of intracanal medications at dental care facilities where dental hygiene students undergo practical training. The questionnaire comprised questions regarding the types of frequently used intracanal medications and their methods of application at dental care facilities in Saitama and Shizuoka prefectures. The results indicated that calcium hydroxide preparations were more commonly used in Europe or the US. However, these results also revealed that formaldehyde preparations were frequently used, which slightly differs from the scenario in Europe and the US. This study revealed that multiple intracanal medications were used for root canal therapy. Furthermore, it was also observed that cotton plugs were generally used as applicator tips for intracanal medications, whereas the use of absorbent paper points was relatively uncommon. The results suggest that the cost of absorbent paper points needs to be reduced.

  12. Teste de Morisky-Green e Brief Medication Questionnaire para avaliar adesão a medicamentos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben, Angela Jornada; Neumann, Cristina Rolim; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reliability and performance of the Portuguese version of questionnaires used to evaluate adherence to hypertensive treatment. METHODS: Hypertensive patients attending a primary healthcare unit in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, from January to September 2010, were randomly

  13. Careers in medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine: an innovative approach to specialty exploration and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kyle R; Fritz, Ryan A; Rodgers, Scott M

    2012-07-01

    Research on resident attrition rates suggests that medical students would benefit from more comprehensive career advising programs during medical school. Responding to this need, students and administrators at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (Vanderbilt) introduced a broad Careers in Medicine (CiM) program in 2005 to complement the CiM resources offered by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). In this article, the authors detail the Vanderbilt CiM program's four core components: career-related events, an elective course, specialty interest groups, and career advising. The authors discuss the program's implementation and its student-led organizational structure, and they provide a critical assessment of important lessons learned. Using data from internal satisfaction surveys and the AAMC's Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (GQ), they demonstrate the success of Vanderbilt's career counseling efforts. According to recent GQ data, Vanderbilt ranks above the U.S. medical school average on graduating students' ratings of overall satisfaction with career services and of the usefulness of key programming. The authors present this description of the Vanderbilt CiM model as a framework for other medical schools to consider adopting or adapting as they explore options for expanding their own career counseling services.

  14. Outcomes of Career Counseling with Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1981-01-01

    Describes a career counseling program for adult females. Reports questionnaire results used to assess the effectiveness of that program. Male as well as female clients seemed to derive both attitudinal and occupational benefits from career counseling and expressed positive views of the career counseling process. (Author)

  15. [Determinants in the careers of male and female physicians from the viewpoint of chief physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Spindler, A; Peter, Y; Buddeberg, C

    2003-01-03

    Chief physicians play an important role for physicians' careers by providing advanced training and allocating time and research resources. This study examined which characteristics will help physicians to achieve a leadership position and how chief physicians conduct career promotion. All 532 chief physicians in Switzerland's German speaking cantons with medical schools were approached with a questionnaire covering professional motivation and personal attributes of career-oriented physicians career-promoting personal and institutional factors, and type of career promotion. 207 chief physicians (189 men, 18 women; participation rate 38.9 %;) participated. Respondents rated achievement motivation combined with professional interest and job enjoyment (intrinsic), and interest in advancement and social prestige (extrinsic motivation) as beneficial. Extraprofessional concerns such as family obligations and leisure interests were viewed as less important. Instrumental attributes were rated as advantageous. Expressive qualities were also seen as beneficial but less crucial. Ratings were independent of respondents' age, specialty, or type of workplace. The following personal factors were named: professional commitment, professional and social competence, goal orientation, endurance, and strength of character. The institutional factors referred to quality of training and teaching, a good work atmosphere, a transparent and flexible clinic structure. Career promotion was offered predominantly in the form of coaching, career planning, and support in job search. Career promotion should be more targeted and structured, e. g. be conducted in mentoring programmes, thus providing the prerequisites for a truly equal career promotion of female and male physicians.

  16. A surgical career for New Zealand junior doctors? Factors influencing this choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jason; Sathanathan, Janarthanan; Naden, Gill; Child, Stephen

    2009-08-07

    To discover the level of interest in a surgical career amongst junior doctors and trainee interns in the Auckland region. Secondary aims are to identify the factors that influence career choice as well as the timing of career choice. An anonymous and structured questionnaire was distributed to all trainee interns and junior doctors in their first to fifth postgraduate years in the Auckland region. Questions were based on basic demographics, level of training, career preference and factors from previous experiences in surgery that may have influenced their career choice. Total of 87 replies with 36% expressed interest in surgery whereas 64% were interested in non-surgical specialties. Top three factors influencing career choice were similar in both groups: Lifestyle, career ambitions and family. Personal interest, practical hands-on and positive previous experiences were the top reasons why junior doctors chose surgery. Poor lifestyle, lacking of interest, limited future part-time work and previous negative experiences were the top reasons why junior doctors did not choose surgery. A significantly (pcareers earlier. Career aspirations of New Zealand junior doctors were similar to findings reported overseas. To promote surgery amongst junior doctors and medical students, attention should be paid to the key factors which may influence career choice. By improving working conditions and have better surgical education with good mentoring, team atmosphere and opportunities for early exposure will hopefully allow better recruitment and training of future surgeons.

  17. Career success in a boundaryless career world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arthur, Michael B.; Khapova, S.N.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares contemporary career theory with the theory applied in recent career success research. The research makes inconsistent use of career theory, and in particular neglects the interdependence of the objective and subjective careers, and boundaryless career issues of

  18. Assessment of completion of early medical abortion using a text questionnaire on mobile phones compared to a self-administered paper questionnaire among women attending four clinics, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Deborah; de Tolly, Katherine; Harries, Jane; Myer, Landon

    2015-02-01

    In-clinic follow-up to assess completion of medical abortion is no longer a requirement according to World Health Organization guidance, provided adequate counselling is given. However, timely recognition of ongoing pregnancy, complications or incomplete abortion, which require treatment, is important. As part of a larger trial, this study aimed to establish whether women having a medical abortion could self-assess whether their abortion was complete using an automated, interactive questionnaire on their mobile phones. All 469 participants received standard abortion care and all returnees filled in a self-assessment on paper at clinic follow-up 2-3 weeks later. The 234 women allocated to receive the phone messages were also asked to do a mobile phone assessment at home ten days post-misoprostol. Completion of the mobile assessment was tracked by computer and all completed assessments, paper and mobile, were compared to providers' assessments at clinic follow-up. Of the 226 women able to access the mobile phone assessment, 176 (78%) completed it; 161 of them (93%) reported it was easy to do so. Neither mobile nor paper self-assessments predicted all cases needing additional treatment at follow-up. Prediction of complete procedures was good; 71% of mobile assessments and 91% of paper assessments were accurate. We conclude that an interactive questionnaire assessing completion of medical abortion on mobile phones is feasible in the South African setting; however, it should be done later than day 10 and combined with an appropriate pregnancy test to accurately detect incomplete procedures. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Learning Styles of Undergraduate Medical Students Using the VARK Questionnaire and the Influence of Sex and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urval, Rathnakar P.; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A.

    2014-01-01

    While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or…

  20. Hospital-based, Multidisciplinary, youth mentoring and medical exposure program positively influences and reinforces health care career choice: "The Reach One Each One Program early Experience".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Lokko, Carl; Mobley, Felicia; Dansby, Montreka; Maze, Michael; Bradley, Brene'; Williams, Elizabeth; Matthews, Leslie Ray; Harrington, Emma; Mack, Lisa; Clark, Clarence; Wilson, Ken; Beech, Derrick; Heron, Sheryl; Childs, Ed

    2017-04-01

    According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, underrepresented minorities (URMs) are more likely to leave science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields at higher rates than their peers during undergraduate studies. Many institutions of higher learning have implemented pipeline programs aimed at preparing and inspiring high school and college aged students in select careers in health sciences with varying levels of success. Research has shown that a health care workforce that mirrors the community they serve is more effective in reducing health disparities and increasing positive health outcomes. We hypothesize that a hospital-based, multidisciplinary youth mentoring and medical exposure program will enhance the decision of URM high school students to choose healthcare careers. A retrospective analysis of the Reach One Each One Program (ROEO) was performed. ROEO is a hospital based, 11-week multidisciplinary youth mentoring and medical exposure program for inner-city high school students. The analysis was based on a phone survey of the twenty-six (26) seniors who completed the program and subsequently graduated from high school between May 2013 and May 2015 to assess the following: 1) College enrollment/attendance, 2) Health profession majors, and 3) Pre-med status. The study was approved by the Morehouse School of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Of the twenty-six students, 23 were female and 3 were male; 25 (96%) of the students were African American and one student was a Caucasian female. Twenty-four (92.3%) of the students were enrolled in college and 2 (7.7%) were scheduled to begin in the spring semester of 2016. Twenty-one of the 24 attending college at the time of the survey (87.5%) were enrolled in a health science degree program and 16 (66.7%) confirmed that they were enrolled in pre-medical (Pre-med) curriculum. Hospital-based, multidisciplinary medical mentoring programs can have a positive impact on the lives and

  1. WE-G-204-02: So You Want to Do Research: Two Approaches to Beginning a Career in Medical Physics Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, J.

    2016-01-01

    While many indicators for academic medical physics are distressing – jobs are tight, demands on clinical time are high (and getting worse) and national funding has been flat for several years (meaning less money in reality) the present is perhaps one of the most exciting times in cancer research history, and medical physicists have an opportunity to make a difference. Many of us predict the impact of medical physics on cancer research over the next decade to be more significant than ever. Why is that? First, medical imaging is used for every cancer patient in developed countries. Every improvement in the acquisition, processing or analysis of radiological images has the potential to impact patients. The use of radiation therapy is at an all-time high – and virtually cannot be performed without medical physics. Many of the advances in both biomedical imaging and radiation oncology are the result of the hard work of academic medical physicists who are thinking of the next generation of technologies that will be used against cancer or an even broader spectrum of diseases. A career in academic medical physics is demanding, particularly for those with clinical responsibilities. As the demands for justification of their clinical effort become increasingly metricized, the ability to do “unfunded research” will become even more difficult. This means that many will have to generate external salary support to justify their efforts in research and development. This comes at a time when funding for research is compressed and harder to obtain. Generally speaking, if you are not contributing 50% or more of your effort to research, you are competing at a disadvantage and it is very unlikely you will get an NIH/NCI/NIBIB grant. Furthermore, in the ongoing effort to improve patient care and safety, we have developed credentialing pathways that now require at least two-years of residency training. This full-time clinical training creates a gap in the research trajectory of

  2. WE-G-204-01: Building a Career in Academic Medical Physics: The Hardest and Best Job You Will Ever Have!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, J.

    2016-01-01

    While many indicators for academic medical physics are distressing – jobs are tight, demands on clinical time are high (and getting worse) and national funding has been flat for several years (meaning less money in reality) the present is perhaps one of the most exciting times in cancer research history, and medical physicists have an opportunity to make a difference. Many of us predict the impact of medical physics on cancer research over the next decade to be more significant than ever. Why is that? First, medical imaging is used for every cancer patient in developed countries. Every improvement in the acquisition, processing or analysis of radiological images has the potential to impact patients. The use of radiation therapy is at an all-time high – and virtually cannot be performed without medical physics. Many of the advances in both biomedical imaging and radiation oncology are the result of the hard work of academic medical physicists who are thinking of the next generation of technologies that will be used against cancer or an even broader spectrum of diseases. A career in academic medical physics is demanding, particularly for those with clinical responsibilities. As the demands for justification of their clinical effort become increasingly metricized, the ability to do “unfunded research” will become even more difficult. This means that many will have to generate external salary support to justify their efforts in research and development. This comes at a time when funding for research is compressed and harder to obtain. Generally speaking, if you are not contributing 50% or more of your effort to research, you are competing at a disadvantage and it is very unlikely you will get an NIH/NCI/NIBIB grant. Furthermore, in the ongoing effort to improve patient care and safety, we have developed credentialing pathways that now require at least two-years of residency training. This full-time clinical training creates a gap in the research trajectory of

  3. WE-G-204-01: Building a Career in Academic Medical Physics: The Hardest and Best Job You Will Ever Have!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazle, J. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    While many indicators for academic medical physics are distressing – jobs are tight, demands on clinical time are high (and getting worse) and national funding has been flat for several years (meaning less money in reality) the present is perhaps one of the most exciting times in cancer research history, and medical physicists have an opportunity to make a difference. Many of us predict the impact of medical physics on cancer research over the next decade to be more significant than ever. Why is that? First, medical imaging is used for every cancer patient in developed countries. Every improvement in the acquisition, processing or analysis of radiological images has the potential to impact patients. The use of radiation therapy is at an all-time high – and virtually cannot be performed without medical physics. Many of the advances in both biomedical imaging and radiation oncology are the result of the hard work of academic medical physicists who are thinking of the next generation of technologies that will be used against cancer or an even broader spectrum of diseases. A career in academic medical physics is demanding, particularly for those with clinical responsibilities. As the demands for justification of their clinical effort become increasingly metricized, the ability to do “unfunded research” will become even more difficult. This means that many will have to generate external salary support to justify their efforts in research and development. This comes at a time when funding for research is compressed and harder to obtain. Generally speaking, if you are not contributing 50% or more of your effort to research, you are competing at a disadvantage and it is very unlikely you will get an NIH/NCI/NIBIB grant. Furthermore, in the ongoing effort to improve patient care and safety, we have developed credentialing pathways that now require at least two-years of residency training. This full-time clinical training creates a gap in the research trajectory of

  4. WE-G-204-02: So You Want to Do Research: Two Approaches to Beginning a Career in Medical Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    While many indicators for academic medical physics are distressing – jobs are tight, demands on clinical time are high (and getting worse) and national funding has been flat for several years (meaning less money in reality) the present is perhaps one of the most exciting times in cancer research history, and medical physicists have an opportunity to make a difference. Many of us predict the impact of medical physics on cancer research over the next decade to be more significant than ever. Why is that? First, medical imaging is used for every cancer patient in developed countries. Every improvement in the acquisition, processing or analysis of radiological images has the potential to impact patients. The use of radiation therapy is at an all-time high – and virtually cannot be performed without medical physics. Many of the advances in both biomedical imaging and radiation oncology are the result of the hard work of academic medical physicists who are thinking of the next generation of technologies that will be used against cancer or an even broader spectrum of diseases. A career in academic medical physics is demanding, particularly for those with clinical responsibilities. As the demands for justification of their clinical effort become increasingly metricized, the ability to do “unfunded research” will become even more difficult. This means that many will have to generate external salary support to justify their efforts in research and development. This comes at a time when funding for research is compressed and harder to obtain. Generally speaking, if you are not contributing 50% or more of your effort to research, you are competing at a disadvantage and it is very unlikely you will get an NIH/NCI/NIBIB grant. Furthermore, in the ongoing effort to improve patient care and safety, we have developed credentialing pathways that now require at least two-years of residency training. This full-time clinical training creates a gap in the research trajectory of

  5. The Long-Term Career Outcome Study (LTCOS): what have we learned from 40 years of military medical education and where should we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Dong, Ting; Cruess, David F; Gilliland, William R; DeZee, Kent J; Saguil, Aaron; Waechter, Donna M; McManigle, John E

    2012-09-01

    The work of the Long-Term Career Outcome Study (LTCOS), F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) has been a multidisciplinary effort spanning more than 5 years. Borrowing from the established program evaluation and quality assurance literature, the LTCOS team has organized its evaluation and research efforts into three phases: before medical school, during medical school, and after medical school. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize the research articles presented in this special issue and to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what has been learned from LTCOS research conducted to date, and (2) where should the LTCOS team take its evaluation and research efforts in the future? Answers to these questions are relevant to USU, and they also can inform other medical education institutions and policy makers. What is more, answers to these questions will help to ensure USU meets its societal obligation to provide the highest quality health care to military members, their families, and society at large.

  6. Psychometric analyses and internal consistency of the PHEEM questionnaire to measure the clinical learning environment in the clerkship of a Medical School in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Arnoldo; Herrera, Cristian; Aranis, Carolina; Oporto, Jorge; Padilla, Oslando

    2009-06-01

    The Spanish version of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) was evaluated in this study to determine its psychometric properties, validity and internal consistency to measure the clinical learning environment in the hospital setting of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Medical School's Internship. The 40-item PHEEM questionnaire was translated from English to Spanish and retranslated to English. Content validity was tested by a focus group and minor differences in meaning were adjusted. The PHEEM was administered to clerks in years 6 and 7. Construct validity was carried out using exploratory factor analysis followed by a Varimax rotation. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. A total of 125 out of 220 students responded to the PHEEM. The overall response rate was 56.8% and compliances with each item ranged from 99.2% to 100%. Analyses indicate that five factors instrument accounting for 58% of the variance and internal consistency of the 40-item questionnaire is 0.955 (Cronbach's alpha). The 40-item questionnaire had a mean score of 98.21 +/- 21.2 (maximum score of 160). The Spanish version of PHEEM is a multidimensional, valid and highly reliable instrument measuring the educational environment among undergraduate medical students working in hospital-based clerkships.

  7. Routine administration of standardized questionnaires that assess aspects of patients quality of life in medical oncology clinics: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaleh, Kh.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing interest in the Quality of Life outcomes in cancer patients led to increase implementation of their use in routine clinical practice. The aim of this systemic review is to review the scientific evidence behind recommending the use of quality of life (QoL) scales routinely in outpatient evaluation. Methods: Systematic review for all published randomized controlled trials in English language between January 1, 1990 till December 31, 2012. Out of 487 articles (476 identified by electronic search + 11 articles identified by manual search), six trials satisfied the eligibility criteria: (1) the study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with randomization of patients or health care providers; (2) the findings of the administered questionnaire or scale (the intervention) were given to health care provider, and compared to standard care with no questionnaire administered (the control); (3) study was conducted in outpatient oncology clinics; and (4) an outcome was measured that related to (i) QoL improvement, (ii) reduction in morbidity, (iii) reduction in stress for the patients, (iv) improvement in communication between patients and health care provider, or (v) improved patient satisfaction. Assessment for the quality of the study was done using the GRADE methodology. Results: Serious methodological issues were affecting most of the trials. Overall the evaluation of the quality of the evidence from these identified trials suggests that there is a weak recommendation to use QoL scales in routine oncology practice to improve communication between physicians and patients. Conclusion: The routine use of such tools in the outpatient settings at improving the patient outcome or satisfaction cannot be recommended based on the available evidence. The potential harm with the excess use of resources needed to implement, collect, store, analyse, and present such data to health care providers should be also considered. Further research and better designed

  8. A study on the knowledge and attitudes towards radiation therapy and cancer: a questionnaire survey of 142 third grade medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Sang Hag

    1999-01-01

    To get the data for public information and education of medical students about Radiation Therapy (RT). We evaluated the knowledge and attitudes towards the RT and cancer in the third grade medical students who did not receive a lecture before starting the poly-clinic education about radiation oncology in our medical school. We obtained a total of 142 answers from the students that completed the questionnaire. More than half of the third grade medical school. We obtained a total of 142 answers from the students that completed the questionnaire. More than half of the third grade medical students answered 1 question correctly and 5 questions incorrectly among 6 questions about knowledge of RT. Incorrect answers were done about the frequency of RT, hair loss, the period of RT, re-RT, cost of RT. Fifty-six percent of students didn't wish to prolong the survival time from 1 year to 3 years with long courses of chemotherapy and RT. They had bad images about cancer of colorectum, lung, esophagus, liver, breast, cervix which consist of 56.3% of patients receiving RT. Public information about the basic points of RT should be considered. Also the students showed the pessimism about the anticancer treatments such as chemotherapy and RT, so the exact results and positive aspects of anticancer treatment should be educated more. Especially it is needed to inform the students and the public the positive aspects of RT in some cancers (colorectal, lung, esophageal, hepatic, breast, cervix cancers) which the students had bad images about

  9. Burnout and Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire-Based Study of Medical and Non-Medical Students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Rohan; Thawani, Rajat; Goel, Ashish

    2015-10-21

    Introduction It is well documented that on entering college, students experience a multitude of changes in sleep habits. Very few studies have been conducted that explore sleep quality in Indian undergraduate students; fewer still study the effects of burnout in the same population. Medical students, in particular, are believed to be more stressed, sleep deprived, and burnt out than their non-medical peers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to study sleep disturbances and burnout in a sample of 214 Indian undergraduate students (112 medical, 102 non-medical). The instruments used to measure the sleep quality and burnout were the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), respectively. Differences between continuous variables were analysed using Wilcox Mann Whitney U-tests. Bivariate Spearman's rho correlations were done to identify correlations between the individual burnout components and the PSQI sleep quality components. Results Of the students surveyed, 62.6% were found to be poor sleepers with an average score of 6.45 ± 2.85. It was seen that 20% of the students (n = 43) slept less than five hours a day. Medical students, in particular, were found to have more poor sleep (72.9%) than their non-medical peers (51.9%; p sleep scores (Rho 0.21, p 0.001) and (Rho = 0.18, p = 0.008), respectively. The exhaustion dimension of burnout was higher in medical students (2.46 ± 0.55) than in non-medical students (2.38 ± 0.59), but was seen to correlate more with the PSQI sleep score in the non-medical group (Rho = 0.62, p sleep scores, the burnout dimensions did not correlate well with the academic year. Conclusions Burnout and sleep quality are both uncommonly studied topics in India. Fostering a healthier and more proactive approach to tackling burnout and poor sleep quality may help unearth culture specific causes for some of the results we have demonstrated.

  10. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey A qualidade de vida e o poder de discriminação de dois questionários em pacientes com fibromialgia: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire e Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Assumpção

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVES: Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG and Control Group (CG (n=75 in each group. The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05 and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC Curve - sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8±8.1; FG: 47.0±7.7 years. A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome dolorosa caracterizada por dor espalhada e crônica e sintomas associados com um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Considerando a subjetividade da mensuração de qualidade de vida, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o poder de discriminação de dois questionários que avaliam a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia: o genérico Medical Short Form Healthy Survey (SF-36 e o específico Questionário do Impacto da Fibromialgia (QIF. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com 150 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo fibromialgia (FM e grupo controle (GC (n=75 em ambos. Os pacientes foram avaliados pelo SF-36 e pelo QIF. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se o teste "t de Student" com α=0,05 e a Curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve. RESULTADOS: As amostras

  11. The new generation of family physicians--career motivation, life goals and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard

    2008-05-31

    The present study aimed to investigate the differences between future family physicians, and physicians aspiring to other medical specialities, in terms of sociodemographic factors and variables concerning personality factors, career motivation, career success, importance of life goals and work-life balance; further, the stability in career choice of family physicians from medical school through to residency was evaluated. Data reported are from four assessments of the Swiss physicians' longitudinal career development study, begun in 2001 (T1). At T4, in 2007, 543 residents (76% of the initial sample at T1) completed a questionnaire concerning their personal and professional goals. The difference between family physicians and specialists was studied by multivariate analyses of covariance adjusted for gender. Of the study sample, 84 (17%) decided on family medicine, 66% of them as early as medical school or at the beginning of residency. Compared to specialists, more family physicians are married and more have children. Their intrinsic and extrinsic career motivation is lower, their extraprofessional concerns are greater and they rate their objective and subjective career success lower. The favoured models of work-family and work-life balance respectively are part-time oriented. Future family physicians, both females and males, are less career-oriented. The results suggest that the waning reputation of family medicine and the uncertain development of this medical discipline in the Swiss healthcare system attract less career-oriented applicants. A well-balanced integration of professional and private life is an essential goal for the new generation of doctors; this applies even more to female doctors and family physicians. Considering this trend, the question arises whether the current number of medical school graduates is sufficient to ensure the population's healthcare provision in the future.

  12. Career Transitions and Career Success in the "New" Career Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzikowski, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The "new" career, most notably the boundaryless career, is associated with high career mobility, which is in turn associated with employability and career success of individuals. The current study examined how frequency, form (organisational, horizontal or vertical) and impact (objective career success) of career transitions have changed…

  13. Assessing local patients' knowledge and awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging: a questionnaire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Ho-kwan; Wong, Chun-Sing; Huang, Bingsheng; Yiu, Ka-ling; Wong, Wai-lam; Chu, Yin Ching Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    To assess the awareness of radiation dose and associated risks caused by radiological procedures among local patients. All subjects were recruited by randomly sampling the patients receiving radiological examinations. These subjects were stratified on age, sex and education. The questionnaire was in Chinese and consisted of 28 questions mostly in multiple choice/true-or-false format, divided into three sections examining demographic data, radiation knowledge/awareness and expectations. A total of 173 questionnaires were returned (83 females and 84 females; mean age of 53). Of these, 32.6% had attended college, 32.6% had completed matriculation and 24.4% secondary school. Most subjects underwent CT (75), MRI (70) and PET-CT (18). Education significantly affected the radiation knowledge (P=0.013). 60.7% and 32.7% were not aware of the radiation-free nature of MRI and USG, respectively. Respectively, 45.4% and 43.5% were of the misconception that Barium enema and Barium swallow studies do not involve radiation. Moreover, 77.6% and 87.9% were aware of the radiation-laden nature of CT and plain X-rays, respectively. Furthermore, 34% and 50%, respectively, think that they are not exposed to radiation at home and on a plane. Regarding the fatal cancer risk from CT, 17.8% chose the correct answer and 62% underestimated the risk. 32.2% correctly estimated the equivalent dose of CT in terms of number of conventional X-rays and 43.2% underestimated the dose. Most (98.2%) were told of the indication, and 42.7% were told the associated radiation dose. Patient radiation awareness is unsatisfactory. There is need to increase patient radiation awareness, and to provide them with the necessary information.

  14. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  15. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Suri, Sushil; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, H N Harsha; Rahman, Mahbubur; Islam, Md R; Pereira, Xavier V; Shah, Mohsin; Sathian, Brijesh; Shetty, Ullasa; Vaswani, Vina R

    2010-11-16

    Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module

  16. Investigating sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test, and Modified Medical Research Council scale according to GOLD using St George's Respiratory Questionnaire cutoff 25 (and 20 as reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiligianni IG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ioanna G Tsiligianni,1,2 Harma J Alma,1,2 Corina de Jong,1,2 Danijel Jelusic,3 Michael Wittmann,3 Michael Schuler,4 Konrad Schultz,3 Boudewijn J Kollen,1 Thys van der Molen,1,2 Janwillem WH Kocks1,2 1Department of General Practice, 2GRIAC Research Institute, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Klinik Bad Reichenhall, Center for Rehabilitation, Pulmonology and Orthopedics, Bad Reichenhall, 4Department of Medical Psychology, Psychotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Background: In the GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy document, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ, COPD Assessment Test (CAT, or modified Medical Research Council (mMRC scale are recommended for the assessment of symptoms using the cutoff points of CCQ ≥1, CAT ≥10, and mMRC scale ≥2 to indicate symptomatic patients. The current study investigates the criterion validity of the CCQ, CAT and mMRC scale based on a reference cutoff point of St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ ≥25, as suggested by GOLD, following sensitivity and specificity analysis. In addition, areas under the curve (AUCs of the CCQ, CAT, and mMRC scale were compared using two SGRQ cutoff points (≥25 and ≥20.Materials and methods: Two data sets were used: study A, 238 patients from a pulmonary rehabilitation program; and study B, 101 patients from primary care. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to assess the correspondence between the recommended cutoff points of the questionnaires.Results: Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC scores for cutoff point SGRQ ≥25 were: study A, 0.99, 0.43, and 0.96 for CCQ ≥1, 0.92, 0.48, and 0.89 for CAT ≥10, and 0.68, 0.91, and 0.91 for mMRC ≥2; study B, 0.87, 0.77, and 0.9 for CCQ ≥1, 0.76, 0.73, and 0.82 for CAT ≥10, and 0.21, 1, and 0.81 for mMRC ≥2. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC scores for

  17. Career Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification of Employment Life at the Lab Career Stories Dual Careers Inclusion & Diversity Work-Life ) Make yourself at home Life at the Lab Life at the Lab Inclusion & Diversity Inclusion & © & Cover Letter Tips Social Media Tips Learn More Watch Videos Employee Spotlight Student Successes

  18. Career-Success Scale – A new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia. PMID:18518972

  19. Career-success scale - a new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard

    2008-06-02

    Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.

  20. Career-Success Scale – A new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddeberg Claus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.

  1. Brigadier General James Stevens Simmons (1890-1954), Medical Corps, United States Army: a career in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Sanders

    2012-02-01

    James Simmons began his career in the US Army as a laboratory officer and his assignments progressed into tropical medicine research. His interests and work evolved into preventive medicine (PM, as the Army termed public health), and he took both a PhD and a Doctorate in Public Health. As the Army's leading PM officer he was appointed head of PM in 1940 and guided the Army's PM effort through World War II. His responsibility ran from gas masks through healthy nutrition and occupational health to an enormous variety of diseases; by the war's end, the breadth and importance of PM was reflected in the Preventive Medicine Division, having fully one-sixth of all military personnel at the Surgeon General's Office. Simmons used his strong professional credentials to tap into civilian medicine for expertise the Army lacked and he established organizations that survive to this day. After retirement, he sought to expand the field of public health and raise another generation of public health physicians.

  2. Approaches to learning for the ANZCA Final Examination and validation of the revised Study Process Questionnaire in specialist medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J M; Henning, M; Civil, N; Lavery, L; Boyd, M J; Jolly, B

    2013-09-01

    When evaluating assessments, the impact on learning is often overlooked. Approaches to learning can be deep, surface and strategic. To provide insights into exam quality, we investigated the learning approaches taken by trainees preparing for the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) Final Exam. The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) was modified and validated for this context and was administered to ANZCA advanced trainees. Additional questions were asked about perceived value for anaesthetic practice, study time and approaches to learning for each exam component. Overall, 236 of 690 trainees responded (34%). Responses indicated both deep and surface approaches to learning with a clear preponderance of deep approaches. The anaesthetic viva was valued most highly and the multiple choice question component the least. Despite this, respondents spent the most time studying for the multiple choice questions. The traditionally low short answer questions pass rate could not be explained by limited study time, perceived lack of value or study approaches. Written responses suggested that preparation for multiple choice questions was characterised by a surface approach, with rote memorisation of past questions. Minimal reference was made to the ANZCA syllabus as a guide for learning. These findings indicate that, although trainees found the exam generally relevant to practice and adopted predominantly deep learning approaches, there was considerable variation between the four components. These results provide data with which to review the existing ANZCA Final Exam and comparative data for future studies of the revisions to the ANZCA curriculum and exam process.

  3. Recommendations for a new curriculum in pain medicine for medical students: toward a career distinguished by competence and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murinson, Beth B; Gordin, Vitaly; Flynn, Susie; Driver, Larry C; Gallagher, Rollin M; Grabois, Martin

    2013-03-01

    The education of physicians is a fundamental obligation within medicine that must remain closely aligned with clinical care. And although medical education in pain care is essential, the current state of medical education does not meet the needs of physicians, patients, or society. To address this, we convened a committee of pain specialist medical student educators. Tasked with creating systematically developed and valid recommendations for clinical education, we conducted a survey of pain medicine leadership within the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). The survey was conducted in two waves. We asked AAPM board members to rate 194 previously published pain medicine learning objectives for medical students; 79% of those eligible for participation responded. The "Top 5" list included the awareness of acute and chronic pain, skillfulness in clinical appraisal, promotion of compassionate practices, displaying empathy toward the patient, and knowledge of terms and definitions for substance abuse. The "Top 10" list included the major pharmacological classes as well as skills in examination, communication, prescribing, and interviewing. The "Top 20" list included the pain care of cognitively impaired populations, those with comorbid illness, and older adults. With the survey results in consideration, the committee produced a new recommended topic list for curricula in pain medicine. We strongly recommend that adequate resources are devoted to fully integrated medical curricula in pain so that students will learn not only the necessary clinical knowledge but also be prepared to address the professional, personal, and ethical challenges that arise in caring for those with pain. We conclude that improved medical education in pain is essential to prepare providers who manifest both competence and compassion toward their patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A study of radiological protection for women of reproductive age in diagnostic radiology. Questionnaire for medical radiation technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubone, Chie; Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki

    2005-01-01

    There has been great concern regarding the radiation protection for women of reproductive age when exposed to diagnostic radiation. The 10-day-rule proposed by the ICRP has not been recommended since 1983 because the risk to embryo and fetus within four weeks after menstruation may be small. However, some expects see that incomplete abandon of the 10-day-rule might cause confusion among the medical doctors and patients, and consequently unwarranted abortion happens. This paper surveyed the views of radiation technologies in hospitals and discussed how radiation exposure of women of reproductive age in medicine should be controlled. We found that the views to be 10-day-rule were spilt 50:50 and that radiation technologists do not necessarily think the 10-day-rule should be abandoned. Even the radiation technologists who are supposed to be able to explain to the patients the health risk following diagnostic exposure do not fully understand the risk involved. In conclusion, although a low-dose risk of diagnostic exposure should be sufficiently educated in order to obtain an exact understanding, the 10-day-rule may be useful in order to actually avoid any trouble in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  5. The Amount of Media and Information Literacy Among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' Students Using Iranian Media and Information Literacy Questionnaire (IMILQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Ramezani, Amir; Koupaei, Hamed Aghajani; Kazempour, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    Media and Information literacy (MIL) enables people to interpret and make informed judgments as users of information and media, as well as to become skillful creators and producers of information and media messages in their own right. The purpose of this research was to determine the amount of Media and Information Literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' students using Iranian Media and Information Literacy Questionnaire (IMILQ). This is an applied analytical survey research in which the data were collected by a researcher made questionnaire, provided based on specialists' viewpoints and valid scientific works. Its validity and reliability were confirmed by Library and Information Sciences specialists and Cronbach's alpha (r=0.89) respectively. Statistical population consisted of all students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (6000 cases) and the samples were 361. Sampling method was random stratified sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings showed that the mean level of Media and Information Literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' students was 3.34±0.444 (higher than average). The highest mean was promotion of scientific degree with 3.84±0.975 and the lowest mean was difficulties in starting research with 2.50±1.08. There was significant difference between educational degree, college type and family's income and amount of Media and Information Literacy. The results showed that the students didn't have enough skills in starting the research, defining the research subject as well as confining the research subject. In general, all students and education practitioners should pay special attention to factors affecting in improving Media and Information Literacy as a main capability in using printed and electronic media.

  6. Die Facharztweiterbildung in Großbritannien oder die "Modernisierung der ärztlichen Karrieren" [Modernising Medical Careers

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    du Moulin, Marcel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] This paper analyses the reform of postgraduate medical education introduced in the United Kingdom in 2003 under the heading "Modernising Medical Careers“. This nationally standardised and structured postgraduate medical training was started in 2005. The analysis includes the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate education, the new responsibilities in postgraduate education, the application process and the mode of distribution of the positions and the relationship of posts with and without postgraduate training opportunities. Possible consequences for postgraduate training and for the trainees are discussed. [german] Die Arbeit beschreibt und analysiert die Reform der Facharztweiterbildung in Großbritannien, die 2003 unter dem Titel "Modernising Medical Careers“ eingeführt wurde und seit 2005 umgesetzt wird. Vorgestellt werden der Übergang von der Ausbildung zur Weiterbildung, die neuen Zuständigkeiten für die Weiterbildung, das Auswahlverfahren und der Verteilungsmodus der Weiterbildungsstellen sowie das Verhältnis von Stellen mit und ohne Facharztperspektive. Die potenziellen Folgen für die Facharztweiterbildung und für die Weitergebildeten werden diskutiert.

  7. [The effect of gender on the physician's role. Attitudes and expectations of medical students examined by a questionnaire at the start of their studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odborg, M H; Eriksen, T R; Petersson, B H

    1995-09-04

    A questionnaire was given to 254 medical students matriculated in 1992/93 concerning their motivation for wanting to become a doctor, attitudes towards which qualities a doctor should have and their potential choice of medical specialty. The analysis focuses on whether answers are relation-orientated (i.e. directed towards relations to others) or autonomy-orientated (i.e. directed towards rationality and independence). The results show that motivations for becoming a doctor are both relation- and autonomy-orientated. Most students expect the doctor to both be able to relate to the patient and be professionally competent. No gender differences could be demonstrated concerning motivations for becoming a doctor or which qualities a good doctor should possess. Significant gender differences were displayed concerning choice of specialty, most women aiming towards relation-orientated specialties and most men aiming towards autonomy-orientated specialties. It is concluded that the growing proportion of women doctors could change the medical profession towards becoming more patient- and relation-orientated, however their choice of relation-orientated and lower prestige specialties could result in less overall influence than one might otherwise expect.

  8. Medical School Anatomy and Pathology Workshops for High School Students Enhance Learning and Provide Inspiration for Careers in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenderson, Bruce A.; Veloski, J. Jon; Livesey, Michael; Wojdon-Smith, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    “Anatomy and Pathology Workshop” is a cadaver-based outreach program that models medical education to large groups of high school students. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of this program on students’ knowledge of anatomy and interest in biomedical science. A total of 144 high school students participated in the workshop in 2015. Preworkshop and postworkshop assessments were administered to assess students’ learning. A postworkshop survey was conducted to solicit students’ reflections and feedback. It was found that student performance in the postworkshop examination (mean 78%) had significantly improved when compared to the performance in the preexamination (mean 54%), indicating that this program enhances learning. Students were also inspired to consider opportunities in medicine and allied health professions—97% indicated that they had a better understanding of medical education; 95% agreed that they had better understanding of the human body; 84% thought anatomy was interesting and exciting; and 62% of the students indicated that they looked forward to studying medicine or another health profession. Students rated the instructors highly—95% agreed that the instructors were professional and served as role models. Medical/graduate student instructors were also highly regarded by the high school students—96% thought it was valuable to have student instructors and 94% thought that student instructors were caring and enthusiastic about teaching. In summary, this study demonstrates that outreach programs provided by medical schools help young adults during their formative years by modeling professionalism, providing role models, enhancing learning, and encouraging many to consider opportunities in the health professions. PMID:28725784

  9. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as medical books, journals, magazines, pharma or biotech marketing, films, online video, exhibits, posters, wall charts, educational ... of the health career profession with strong communication skills, medical illustrators work closely with clients to interpret ...

  10. Medical students’ perception of the educational environment in a medical college in India: a cross-sectional study using the Dundee Ready Education Environment questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kohli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess student perceptions of the environment in this medical college using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM. Methods: Cross-sectional study; 348 medical student volunteers (68.1% of all semesters participated (511 enrolled. DREEM has 50 items, each rated from 0–4 (Likert scale: 0, strongly disagree to 4, strongly agree, that measure five domains: students’ perceptions of learning; perceptions of teachers; academic self-perception; perceptions of the atmosphere; and social self-perception. Mean item scores, domain scores, and global scores were computed. Results: The three highest rated items were knowledgeable teachers, having good friends, and confidence about passing; the three most problematic items were a poor support system for stressed students, inability to memorize everything, and over-emphasis on factual learning. The percentage score for perception of learning (47.26± 14.85 was significantly lower than that for teachers (52.28± 9.91; P< 0.001; academic self-perception (52.14 ± 15.21; P < 0.001; perception of the atmosphere (51.21 ± 13.60; P = 0.001; and social self-perception (50.63± 13.90; P= 0.010. The global scores were lowest for eighth-semester students (89.8± 21.24 when compared to second (101.33± 21.05; P= 0.003, fourth (107.69± 18.96; P< 0.001, and sixth (100.07± 20.61; P= 0.020. Conclusion: Improvement is required across all domains of the educational environment at this institution. Students, particularly of the eighth semester, perceived the teaching negatively. The lowest scores were given to the support system, burdensome course content, and factual learning; thus, a hybrid curriculum that includes problem-based learning might provide students with stimulating learning; structured clinical teaching with specific curricular objectives, as well as mentoring of senior students by faculty and near-peers, might improve the learning environment for

  11. Traditional career versus self-directed or protean career: a comparative study of satisfaction with career, profession and work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Assunção de Andrade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.5007/2175-8077.2011v13n31p58 This research has analyzed if the attitudes and values of news professionals are more adherent to the traditional idea of career or self-directed/protean careers. The objectives were to identify the anchors of respondents’ careers, the degree of satisfaction towards their careers, professions and work and the relationship between these variables and their career profiles. The data collection instrument used was a questionnaire and a sample consisted of 113 graduate and undergraduate students in the area of Administration. As a result, we have found the “Lifestyle” career anchor with the highest average, indicating a tendency to pursue a career that allows integrating personal, family and work lives. We have detected a trend of the subjects to track the protean career. And no correlation was found between career anchors and career satisfaction, indicating that there is not a specific anchor that could provide greater work satisfaction than others. The study contributes to the proposition questions about the career profile that has been used, with the identification of the level of professional satisfaction. Besides it has indicated there should be a revision of the scale of Career Anchors, in order to increase its reliability.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON COMPLIANCE TO MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY FOR TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS POTENTIAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Starostina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: А  specific questionnaire is necessary to perform quantitative assessment of compliance to medical nutrition therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM.Aim: Тo develop a questionnaire to assess how type 2 diabetic patients adhere with the principles of medical nutrition therapy and to identify factors associated with good dietary compliance.Materials and methods: We proposed a questionnaire "Dietary adherence test" (DAT and validated it in 300 inand out-patients with type 2 DM. DAT was validated against the diabetes-related behavior score, diabetes-related knowledge score, and HbA1c level; the internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach's alfa was also calculated.Results: Cronbach's alfa for primary raw and standardized data were 0.7444 and 0.7413, respectively, thus meeting the required range of 0.7–0.8. The score on DAT item 1 (the title item and total score (the sum of scores of item 2 to 10 correlated with the diabetes-related behavior score (r=0.21, р=0.0006 and r=0.34, р<0.0001, respectively. Patients with poor dietary compliance (average DAT score≤2 had a significantly lower score on the subscale "Nutrition" of the diabetes knowledge test, than those with good dietary compliance (average DAT score≥2 (44.9±15.6 vs 60.2±16.2, р<0.0001. Patients who perceived their diet as the most burdensome element of life with diabetes, had lower total DAT score (24.1±4.6 than those who did not see their diet as a problem (25.9±5.1, р=0.001. There was a  significant difference in average DAT score between patients on insulin therapy and patients on oral treatment (2.8±0.6 vs 2.9±0.6, respectively, р=0.019. Patients with poor and good dietary adherence, according to DAT, differed in their duration of diabetes, social status and diabetes-related behavior score. There was a  weak correlation between the DAT score and duration of diabetes (r=0.16, р=0.009, and weak inverse correlation between the DAT score and

  13. Psychometric validation of a new measurement instrument for time-oriented patient information in electronic medical records: A questionnaire survey of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Akiko; Misawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Yukihiro; Ichikawa, Rie; Kamata, Michiyo; Inoue, Ryusuke; Morimoto, Tetsuji; Nakayama, Masaharu; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Kondo, Yoshiaki

    2017-12-01

    Time is an important element in medical data. Physicians record and store information about patients' disease progress and treatment response in electronic medical records (EMRs). Because EMRs use timestamps, physicians can identify patterns over time regarding a patient's disease and treatment (eg, laboratory values and medications). However, analyses of physicians' use and satisfaction with EMRs have focused on functionality, storage, and system operation rather than the use of time-oriented information. This study aimed to understand physicians' needs regarding time-oriented patient information in EMRs in clinical practice. The reliability and validity of the items in the questionnaire were evaluated in 87 physicians at a national university hospital. Internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha coefficient, 0.87). Four dimensions were identified in exploratory factor analysis. Correlations between the 4 dimensions supported the construct validity of the items. Scores of time-oriented patients' medical history in the 4 dimensions showed a significant association with physician age. Based on confirmatory factor analysis, associations were significant and positive (P information in EMRs, both time-oriented treatment results followed by time-oriented team information had significant positive associations. Our study suggests that 4 specific time-oriented patient information factors in EMRs are needed by physicians. Exploring physicians' needs regarding patient-specific time-oriented information may provide a better understanding of the barriers facing the adoption and use of EMRs (eg, decision-making and practice safety concerns) and lead to better acceptance of EMRs in physicians' clinical practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Investigating sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test, and Modified Medical Research Council scale according to GOLD using St George's Respiratory Questionnaire cutoff 25 (and 20) as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Alma, Harma J; de Jong, Corina; Jelusic, Danijel; Wittmann, Michael; Schuler, Michael; Schultz, Konrad; Kollen, Boudewijn J; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Janwillem Wh

    2016-01-01

    In the GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) strategy document, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), COPD Assessment Test (CAT), or modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale are recommended for the assessment of symptoms using the cutoff points of CCQ ≥1, CAT ≥10, and mMRC scale ≥2 to indicate symptomatic patients. The current study investigates the criterion validity of the CCQ, CAT and mMRC scale based on a reference cutoff point of St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) ≥25, as suggested by GOLD, following sensitivity and specificity analysis. In addition, areas under the curve (AUCs) of the CCQ, CAT, and mMRC scale were compared using two SGRQ cutoff points (≥25 and ≥20). Two data sets were used: study A, 238 patients from a pulmonary rehabilitation program; and study B, 101 patients from primary care. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the correspondence between the recommended cutoff points of the questionnaires. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC scores for cutoff point SGRQ ≥25 were: study A, 0.99, 0.43, and 0.96 for CCQ ≥1, 0.92, 0.48, and 0.89 for CAT ≥10, and 0.68, 0.91, and 0.91 for mMRC ≥2; study B, 0.87, 0.77, and 0.9 for CCQ ≥1, 0.76, 0.73, and 0.82 for CAT ≥10, and 0.21, 1, and 0.81 for mMRC ≥2. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC scores for cutoff point SGRQ ≥20 were: study A, 0.99, 0.73, and 0.99 for CCQ ≥1, 0.91, 0.73, and 0.94 for CAT ≥10, and 0.66, 0.95, and 0.94 for mMRC ≥2; study B, 0.8, 0.89, and 0.89 for CCQ ≥1, 0.69, 0.78, and 0.8 for CAT ≥10, and 0.18, 1, and 0.81 for mMRC ≥2. Based on data from these two different samples, this study showed that the suggested cutoff point for the SGRQ (≥25) did not seem to correspond well with the established cutoff points of the CCQ or CAT scales, resulting in low specificity levels. The correspondence with the mMRC scale seemed satisfactory, though not optimal. The SGRQ threshold of ≥20

  15. Factors enhancing career satisfaction among female emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kathleen J; Promes, Susan B; Glickman, Seth W; Shah, Anand; Finkel, Michelle A; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Cairns, Charles B

    2008-06-01

    Attrition rates in emergency medicine have been reported as high as 25% in 10 years. The number of women entering emergency medicine has been increasing, as has the number of female medical school graduates. No studies have identified factors that increase female emergency physician career satisfaction. We assess career satisfaction in women emergency physicians in the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and identify factors associated with career satisfaction. The survey questionnaire was developed by querying 3 groups: (1) ACEP women in the American Association of Women Emergency Physicians, the (2) Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Mentoring Women Interest Group, and (3) nonaffiliated female emergency physicians. Their responses were categorized into 6 main areas: schedule, relationships with colleagues, administrative support and mentoring, patient/work-related issues, career advancement opportunities, and financial. The study cohort for the survey included all female members of ACEP with a known e-mail address. All contact with survey recipients was exclusively through the e-mail that contained a uniform resource locator link to the survey itself. Two thousand five hundred two ACEP female members were sent the uniform resource locator link. The Web survey was accessed a total of 1,851 times, with a total of 1,380 surveys completed, an overall response rate of 56%. Most women were satisfied with their career as an emergency physician, 492 (35.5%) very satisfied, 610 (44.0%) satisfied, 154 (11.1%) neutral, 99 (7.1%) not satisfied, and 31 (2.3%) very unsatisfied. Significant factors for career satisfaction included amount of recognition at work, career advancement, schedule flexibility, and the fairness of financial compensation. Workplace factors associated with high satisfaction included academic practice setting and sex-equal opportunity for advancement and sex-equal financial compensation. Most of the ACEP female physicians surveyed were

  16. [The adaptation and validation to Spanish of the questionnaire Aid to Capacity Evaluation (ACE), for the assessment of the ability of patients in medical decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleda Barba, Sandra; Ballesta Rodríguez, M Isabel; Delgado Quero, Antonio Luis; Lietor Villajos, Norberto; Moreno Corredor, Andrés; Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    To adapt and validate the Spanish version of the Aid to Capacity Evaluation scale, designed to assess the capacity of the adult in medical decision-making, both in diagnosis and treatment processes. Observational study of prospective validation. Primary and hospital care of the basic health area of Jaen. One hundred twenty-nine patients. Questionnaire which included sociodemographic variables, concerning the decision (scope, type of decision, the need for written informed consent), assessment of the capacity to the Aid to Capacity Evaluation scale and other related comorbidity (hearing loss, alcoholism, cognitive level variables with the Mini-Mental State Examination and depression by Goldberg or Yesavage test). The tool is considered viable. The conclusions of the expert panel were favorable. The result of the criteria' validity, comparing the results with the assessment of the experts (forensic and psychiatrist) was very satisfying (P<.001). The intra-observer reliability was low (kappa=0,135). Interobserver reliability remained high (kappa=0.74). The internal consistency was awarded an alpha of Cronbach's 0,645 for the reduced model of 6 items. The Aid to Capacity Evaluation scale was adapted to Spanish, demonstrating adequate internal consistency and construct validity. Its use in clinical practice could contribute to the identification of patients unable to make a particular medical decision and/or to give an informed consent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  18. Spirometry, questionnaire and electronic medical record based COPD in a population survey: Comparing prevalence, level of agreement and associations with potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; Krop, Esmeralda; Aalders, Bernadette; Rooijackers, Jos; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Dijk, Christel E; Maassen, Catharina B M; Schellevis, François; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2017-01-01

    COPD-diagnosis is confirmed by post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry. However, epidemiological studies often rely on pre-BD spirometry, self-reports, or medical records. This population-based study aims to determine COPD-prevalence based on four different operational definitions and their level of agreement, and to compare associations between COPD-definitions and risk factors. COPD-prevalence in 1,793 adults from the general Dutch population (aged 18-70 years) was assessed based on self-reported data, Electronic Medical Records (EMR), and post-BD spirometry: using the FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN) and GOLD fixed cut-off (FEV1/FVC spirometry as a reference, sensitivity was calculated for self-reported and EMR-based COPD. Associations between COPD and known risk factors were assessed with logistic regression. Data were collected as part of the cross-sectional VGO study (Livestock Farming and Neighboring Residents' Health Study). The highest prevalence was found based on spirometry (GOLD: 10.9%, LLN: 5.9%), followed by self-report (4.6%) and EMR (2.9%). Self-reported or EMR-based COPD identified less than 30% of all COPD-cases based on spirometry. The direction of association between known risk factors and COPD was similar across the four definitions, however, magnitude and significance varied. Especially indicators of allergy were more strongly associated with self-reported COPD compared to the other definitions. COPD-prevalence varied depending on the used definition. A substantial number of subjects with spirometry-based COPD cannot be identified with questionnaires or medical records which can cause underestimation of COPD-prevalence. The influence of the different COPD-definitions on associations with known risk factors was limited.

  19. Perioperative careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Paul

    2012-05-01

    When I look back at how my career started, I think to myself, what if I had undertaken the BA in Business Studies which I had been accepted for, instead of the BSc in Nursing for which I was still waiting to hear the results of my interview? Well, probably I would have spent four years studying business, followed by 40 years sitting in an office somewhere; Tesco, Sainsbury's or Marks and Spencer probably. I was lucky though, my father phoned up every couple of weeks (I was only 17 and didn't really have a clue what I wanted to do) and eventually they said 'yes' and I started my nursing career. Perhaps this is the first bit of advice for anybody thinking of a career in health:

  20. Managing women´s career

    OpenAIRE

    Holická, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis deals with harmonizing work and family responsibilites of women. The main goal of the thesis is to find and analyze experiences of different women which relate to the development of their careers with regard to family responsibilities and childcare. Women's experiences are collected through interviews and questionnaires. Both interviews and questionnaires are focused on establishing a balance between work and family life, career of women, men on parental and founding and ...

  1. What is the impact of a national postgraduate medical specialist education reform on the daily clinical training 3.5 years after implementation? A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Lene; Malling, Bente; Ringsted, Charlotte; Rubak, Sune

    2010-06-18

    Many countries have recently reformed their postgraduate medical education (PGME). New pedagogic initiatives and blueprints have been introduced to improve quality and effectiveness of the education. Yet it is unknown whether these changes improved the daily clinical training. The purpose was to examine the impact of a national PGME reform on the daily clinical training practice. The Danish reform included change of content and format of specialist education in line with outcome-based education using the CanMEDS framework. We performed a questionnaire survey among all hospital doctors in the North Denmark Region. The questionnaire included items on educational appraisal meetings, individual learning plans, incorporating training issues into work routines, supervision and feedback, and interpersonal acquaintance. Data were collected before start and 31/2 years later. Mean score values were compared, and response variables were analysed by multiple regression to explore the relation between the ratings and seniority, type of hospital, type of specialty, and effect of attendance to courses in learning and teaching among respondents. Response rates were 2105/2817 (75%) and 1888/3284 (58%), respectively. We found limited impact on clinical training practice and learning environment. Variances in ratings were hardly affected by type of hospital, whereas belonging to the laboratory specialities compared to other specialties was related to higher ratings concerning all aspects. The impact on daily clinical training practice of a national PGME reform was limited after 31/2 years. Future initiatives must focus on changing the pedagogical competences of the doctors participating in daily clinical training and on implementation strategies for changing educational culture.

  2. The psychometric characteristics of the revised depression attitude questionnaire (R-DAQ) in Pakistani medical practitioners: a cross-sectional study of doctors in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mark; Waqas, Ahmed; Sukhera, Ahmed Bashir; Tarar, Asad Zaman

    2017-07-27

    Depression is common mental health problem and leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The attitudes and beliefs of the public and of health professionals influence social acceptance and affect the esteem and help-seeking of people experiencing mental health problems. The attitudes of clinicians are particularly relevant to their role in accurately recognising and providing appropriate support and management of depression. This study examines the characteristics of the revised depression attitude questionnaire (R-DAQ) with doctors working in healthcare settings in Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 using the revised depression attitude questionnaire (R-DAQ). A convenience sample of 700 medical practitioners based in six hospitals in Lahore was approached to participate in the survey. The R-DAQ structure was examined using Parallel Analysis from polychoric correlations. Unweighted least squares analysis (ULSA) was used for factor extraction. Model fit was estimated using goodness-of-fit indices and the root mean square of standardized residuals (RMSR), and internal consistency reliability for the overall scale and subscales was assessed using reliability estimates based on Mislevy and Bock (BILOG 3 Item analysis and test scoring with binary logistic models. Mooresville: Scientific Software, 55) and the McDonald's Omega statistic. Findings using this approach were compared with principal axis factor analysis based on Pearson correlation matrix. 601 (86%) of the doctors approached consented to participate in the study. Exploratory factor analysis of R-DAQ scale responses demonstrated the same 3-factor structure as in the UK development study, though analyses indicated removal of 7 of the 22 items because of weak loading or poor model fit. The 3 factor solution accounted for 49.8% of the common variance. Scale reliability and internal consistency were adequate: total scale standardised alpha was 0.694; subscale reliability for

  3. The attitudes and beliefs of Pakistani medical practitioners about depression: a cross-sectional study in Lahore using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Haddad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals’ attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ. A convenience sample of 700 non-psychiatrist medical practitioners based in six hospitals in Lahore was approached to participate in the survey. Results Six hundred and one (86 % of the doctors approached consented to participate; almost all respondents (99 % endorsed one of various biopsychosocial causes of depression (38 to 79 % for particular causes, and 37 % (between 13 and 19 % for particular causes noted that supernatural forces could be responsible. Supernatural causes were more commonly held by female doctors, those working in rural settings, and those with greater psychiatry specialist education. Attitudes to depression were mostly less confident or optimistic and less inclined to a generalist perspective than those of clinicians in the UK or European nations, and deterministic perspectives that depression is a natural part of aging or due to personal failings were particularly common. However, there was substantial confidence in the efficacy of antidepressants and psychological therapy. More confident and therapeutically optimistic views and a more generalist perspective about depression management were associated with a rejection of supernatural explanations of the origin of depression. Conclusions Non

  4. The attitudes and beliefs of Pakistani medical practitioners about depression: a cross-sectional study in Lahore using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mark; Waqas, Ahmed; Qayyum, Wahhaj; Shams, Maryam; Malik, Saad

    2016-10-18

    Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals' attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ). A convenience sample of 700 non-psychiatrist medical practitioners based in six hospitals in Lahore was approached to participate in the survey. Six hundred and one (86 %) of the doctors approached consented to participate; almost all respondents (99 %) endorsed one of various biopsychosocial causes of depression (38 to 79 % for particular causes), and 37 % (between 13 and 19 % for particular causes) noted that supernatural forces could be responsible. Supernatural causes were more commonly held by female doctors, those working in rural settings, and those with greater psychiatry specialist education. Attitudes to depression were mostly less confident or optimistic and less inclined to a generalist perspective than those of clinicians in the UK or European nations, and deterministic perspectives that depression is a natural part of aging or due to personal failings were particularly common. However, there was substantial confidence in the efficacy of antidepressants and psychological therapy. More confident and therapeutically optimistic views and a more generalist perspective about depression management were associated with a rejection of supernatural explanations of the origin of depression. Non-psychiatrist medical practitioners in Pakistan hold a range of views

  5. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knecht Michaela

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation