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Sample records for mediates grass-endophyte relationships

  1. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

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    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  2. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

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    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices.

  3. Detrimental and neutral effects of a wild grass-fungal endophyte symbiotum on insect preference and performance.

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    Clement, Stephen L; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R

    2011-01-01

    Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass-endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass-endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more than one insect species. This study quantified the preference and performance of the bird cherry oat-aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two important pests of forage and cereal grasses, on Neotyphodium-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of the wild grass Alpine timothy, Phleum alpinum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The experiments tested for both constitutive and wound-induced resistance in E+ plants to characterize possible plasticity of defense responses by a wild E+ grass. The aphid, R. padi preferred E- over E+ test plants in choice experiments and E+ undamaged test plants constitutively expressed antibiosis resistance to this aphid by suppressing population growth. Prior damage of E+ test plants did not induce higher levels of resistance to R. padi. By contrast, the beetle, O. melanopus showed no preference for E+ or E- test plants and endophyte infection did not adversely affect the survival and development of larvae. These results extend the phenomenon of variable effects of E+ wild grasses on the preference and performance of phytophagous insects. The wild grass- Neotyphodium symbiotum in this study broadens the number of wild E+ grasses available for expanded explorations into the effects of endophyte metabolites on insect herbivory.

  4. Detrimental and Neutral Effects of a Wild Grass-Fungal Endophyte Symbiotum on Insect Preference and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Stephen L.; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V.; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass—endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass—endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more...

  5. Resources and testing of endophyte-infected germplasm in national grass repository collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Wilson

    1996-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous endophytes have been known to exist in grasses since the discovery of an endophyte in seeds of damel (Lolium temulentum L.) by Vogl in 1898 (26). The oldest known specimens of damel with endophytic mycelium were seeds retrieved from a pharoah's tomb in an Egyptian pyramid dating back to 3400 B.C. (16). Subsequent work by...

  6. Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications.

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    Saikkonen, Kari; Young, Carolyn A; Helander, Marjo; Schardl, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    The closely linked fitness of the Epichloë symbiont and the host grass is presumed to align the coevolution of the species towards specialization and mutually beneficial cooperation. Ecological observations demonstrating that Epichloë-grass symbioses can modulate grassland ecosystems via both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this. In many cases the detected ecological importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Now, modern genetic and molecular techniques enable the precise studies on evolutionary origin of endophytic Epichloë species, their coevolution with host grasses and identification the genetic variation that explains phenotypic diversity in ecologically relevant characteristics of Epichloë-grass associations. Here we briefly review the most recent findings in these areas of research using the present knowledge of the genetic variation that explains the biosynthetic pathways driving the diversity of alkaloids produced by the endophyte. These findings underscore the importance of genetic interplay between the fungus and the host in shaping their coevolution and ecological role in both natural grass ecosystems, and in the agricultural arena.

  7. Does hybridization of endophytic symbionts in a native grass increase fitness in resource-limited environments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeth, Stanley H.; Oberhofer, Martina; Saari, Susanna Talvikki

    2017-01-01

    to their grass hosts, especially in stressful environments. We tested the hybrid fitness hypothesis (HFH) that hybrid endophytes enhance fitness in stressful environments relative to non-hybrid endophytes. In a long-term field experiment, we monitored growth and reproduction of hybrid-infected (H+), non......-hybrid infected (NH+), naturally endophyte free (E-) plants and those plants from which the endophyte had been experimentally removed (H- and NH-) in resource-rich and resource-poor environments. Infection by both endophyte species enhanced growth and reproduction. H+ plants outperformed NH+ plants in terms...... of growth by the end of the experiment, supporting HFH. However, H+ plants only outperformed NH+ plants in the resource-rich treatment, contrary to HFH. Plant genotypes associated with each endophyte species had strong effects on growth and reproduction. Our results provide some support the HFH hypothesis...

  8. Effects of natural hybrid and non-hybrid Epichloë endophytes on the response of Hordelymus europaeus to drought stress.

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    Oberhofer, Martina; Güsewell, Sabine; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) are prevalent in wild grass populations, possibly because of their larger gene variation, resulting in increased fitness benefits for host plants; however, the reasons are not yet known. We tested hypotheses regarding niche expansion mediated by hybrid endophytes, population-dependent interactions and local co-adaptation in the woodland grass Hordelymus europaeus, which naturally hosts both hybrid and non-hybrid endophyte taxa. Seedlings derived from seeds of four grass populations made endophyte free were re-inoculated with hybrid or non-hybrid endophyte strains, or left endophyte free. Plants were grown in the glasshouse with or without drought treatment. Endophyte infection increased plant biomass and tiller production by 10-15% in both treatments. Endophyte types had similar effects on growth, but opposite effects on reproduction: non-hybrid endophytes increased seed production, whereas hybrid endophytes reduced or prevented it completely. The results are consistent with the observation that non-hybrid endophytes in H. europaeus prevail at dry sites, but cannot explain the prevalence of hybrid endophytes. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of niche expansion of hybrid-infected plants. Moreover, plants inoculated with native relative to foreign endophytes yielded higher infections, but both showed similar growth and survival, suggesting weak co-adaptation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

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    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculation reduces the drought-resistance advantage of endophyte-infected versus endophyte-free Leymus chinensis.

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    Liu, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wu, Man; Wu, Rihan; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Yubao; Ren, Anzhi

    2017-11-01

    Grasses can be infected simultaneously by endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophyte-associated drought resistance of a native grass was affected by an AM fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant species native to the Inner Mongolia steppe, under altered water and AM fungus availability. The results showed that endophyte infection significantly increased drought resistance of the host grass, but the beneficial effects were reduced by AM fungus inoculation. In the mycorrhizal-non-inoculated (MF) treatment, EI plants accumulated significantly more biomass, had greater proline and total phenolic concentration, and lower malondialdehyde concentration than EF plants. In the mycorrhizal-inoculation (MI) treatment, however, no significant difference occurred in either growth or physiological characters measured between EI and EF plants. AM fungus inoculation enhanced drought resistance of EF plants but had no significant effect on drought resistance of EI plants, thus AM fungus inoculation reduced the difference between EI and EF plants. Our findings highlight the importance of interactions among multiple microorganisms for plant performance under drought stress.

  11. Temporal and spatial variation in alkaloid levels in Achnatherum robustum, a native grass infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium.

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    Faeth, Stanley H; Gardner, Dale R; Hayes, Cinnamon J; Jani, Andrea; Wittlinger, Sally K; Jones, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    The native North American perennial grass Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth [= Stipa robusta (Vasey) Scribn.] or sleepygrass is toxic and narcotic to livestock. The causative agents are alkaloidal mycotoxins produced from infections by a systemic and asexual Neotyphodium endophyte. Recent studies suggest that toxicity is limited across the range of sleepygrass in the Southwest USA. We sampled 17 populations of sleepygrass with varying distance from one focal population known for its high toxicity levels near Cloudcroft, NM, USA. For some, we sampled individual plants twice within the same growing season and over successive years (2001-2004). We also determined infection levels in each population. In general, all populations were highly infected, but infection levels were more variable near the focal population. Only infected plants within populations near the Cloudcroft area produced alkaloids. The ergot alkaloid, ergonovine, comprised the bulk of the alkaloids, with lesser amounts of lysergic and isolysergic acid amides and ergonovinine alkaloids. Levels of all alkaloids were positively correlated among individual plants within and between growing seasons. Infected plants that produced no alkaloids in 1 yr did not produce any alkaloids within the same growing season or in other years. Levels of alkaloids in sleepygrass populations declined with distance from the Cloudcroft population, although infection levels increased. Infected plants in populations in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado produced no alkaloids at all despite 100% infectivity. Our results suggest that only specific Neotyphodium haplotypes or specific Neotyphodium-grass combinations produce ergot alkaloids in sleepygrass. The Neotyphodium haplotype or host-endophyte combination that produces toxic levels of alkaloids appears restricted to one locality across the range of sleepygrass. Because of the wide variation in alkaloid levels among populations, interactions between the endophyte

  12. A Friendly Relationship between Endophytic Fungi and Medicinal Plants: A Systematic Review

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    Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi or endophytes exist widely inside the healthy tissues of living plants, and are important components of plant micro-ecosystems. Over the long period of evolution, some co-existing endophytes and their host plants have established a special relationship with one and another, which can significantly influence the formation of metabolic products in plants, then affect quality and quantity of crude drugs derived from medicinal plants. This paper will focus on the increasing knowledge of relationships between endophytic fungi and medicinal plants through reviewing of published research data obtained from the last 30 years. The analytical results indicate that the distribution and population structure of endophytes can be considerably affected by factors, such as the genetic background, age, and environmental conditions of their hosts. On the other hand, the endophytic fungi can also confer profound impacts on their host plants by enhancing their growth, increasing their fitness, strengthening their tolerances to abiotic and biotic stresses, and promoting their accumulation of secondary metabolites. All the changes are very important for the production of bioactive components in their hosts. Hence, it is essential to understand such relationships between endophytic fungi and their host medicinal plants. Such knowledge can be well exploited and applied for the production of better and more drugs from medicinal plants. PMID:27375610

  13. Genome of Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1, a specialized diazotrophic endophyte of tropical grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Fábio O; Monteiro, Rose Adele; Wassem, Roseli; Cruz, Leonardo M; Ayub, Ricardo A; Colauto, Nelson B; Fernandez, Maria Aparecida; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Grisard, Edmundo C; Hungria, Mariangela; Madeira, Humberto M F; Nodari, Rubens O; Osaku, Clarice A; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Terenzi, Hernán; Vieira, Luiz G E; Steffens, Maria Berenice R; Weiss, Vinicius A; Pereira, Luiz F P; Almeida, Marina I M; Alves, Lysangela R; Marin, Anelis; Araujo, Luiza Maria; Balsanelli, Eduardo; Baura, Valter A; Chubatsu, Leda S; Faoro, Helisson; Favetti, Augusto; Friedermann, Geraldo; Glienke, Chirlei; Karp, Susan; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Raittz, Roberto T; Ramos, Humberto J O; Ribeiro, Enilze Maria S F; Rigo, Liu Un; Rocha, Saul N; Schwab, Stefan; Silva, Anilda G; Souza, Eliel M; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Torres, Rodrigo A; Dabul, Audrei N G; Soares, Maria Albertina M; Gasques, Luciano S; Gimenes, Ciela C T; Valle, Juliana S; Ciferri, Ricardo R; Correa, Luiz C; Murace, Norma K; Pamphile, João A; Patussi, Eliana Valéria; Prioli, Alberto J; Prioli, Sonia Maria A; Rocha, Carmem Lúcia M S C; Arantes, Olívia Márcia N; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Godoy, Leandro P; Oliveira, Carlos E C; Satori, Daniele; Vilas-Boas, Laurival A; Watanabe, Maria Angélica E; Dambros, Bibiana Paula; Guerra, Miguel P; Mathioni, Sandra Marisa; Santos, Karine Louise; Steindel, Mario; Vernal, Javier; Barcellos, Fernando G; Campo, Rubens J; Chueire, Ligia Maria O; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Silva, José L da Conceição; Gioppo, Nereida M R; Margarido, Vladimir P; Menck-Soares, Maria Amélia; Pinto, Fabiana Gisele S; Simão, Rita de Cássia G; Takahashi, Elizabete K; Yates, Marshall G; Souza, Emanuel M

    2011-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms of plant recognition, colonization, and nutrient exchange between diazotrophic endophytes and plants are scarcely known. Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium capable of colonizing intercellular spaces of grasses such as rice and sugar cane. The genome of H. seropedicae strain SmR1 was sequenced and annotated by The Paraná State Genome Programme--GENOPAR. The genome is composed of a circular chromosome of 5,513,887 bp and contains a total of 4,804 genes. The genome sequence revealed that H. seropedicae is a highly versatile microorganism with capacity to metabolize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources and with possession of four distinct terminal oxidases. The genome contains a multitude of protein secretion systems, including type I, type II, type III, type V, and type VI secretion systems, and type IV pili, suggesting a high potential to interact with host plants. H. seropedicae is able to synthesize indole acetic acid as reflected by the four IAA biosynthetic pathways present. A gene coding for ACC deaminase, which may be involved in modulating the associated plant ethylene-signaling pathway, is also present. Genes for hemagglutinins/hemolysins/adhesins were found and may play a role in plant cell surface adhesion. These features may endow H. seropedicae with the ability to establish an endophytic life-style in a large number of plant species.

  14. Genome of Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1, a specialized diazotrophic endophyte of tropical grasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio O Pedrosa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of plant recognition, colonization, and nutrient exchange between diazotrophic endophytes and plants are scarcely known. Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium capable of colonizing intercellular spaces of grasses such as rice and sugar cane. The genome of H. seropedicae strain SmR1 was sequenced and annotated by The Paraná State Genome Programme--GENOPAR. The genome is composed of a circular chromosome of 5,513,887 bp and contains a total of 4,804 genes. The genome sequence revealed that H. seropedicae is a highly versatile microorganism with capacity to metabolize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources and with possession of four distinct terminal oxidases. The genome contains a multitude of protein secretion systems, including type I, type II, type III, type V, and type VI secretion systems, and type IV pili, suggesting a high potential to interact with host plants. H. seropedicae is able to synthesize indole acetic acid as reflected by the four IAA biosynthetic pathways present. A gene coding for ACC deaminase, which may be involved in modulating the associated plant ethylene-signaling pathway, is also present. Genes for hemagglutinins/hemolysins/adhesins were found and may play a role in plant cell surface adhesion. These features may endow H. seropedicae with the ability to establish an endophytic life-style in a large number of plant species.

  15. Aboveground endophyte affects root volatile emission and host plant selection of a belowground insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostás, Michael; Cripps, Michael G; Silcock, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Plants emit specific blends of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that serve as multitrophic, multifunctional signals. Fungi colonizing aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) plant structures can modify VOC patterns, thereby altering the information content for AG insects. Whether AG microbes affect the emission of root volatiles and thus influence soil insect behaviour is unknown. The endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum colonizes the aerial parts of the grass hybrid Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne and is responsible for the presence of insect-toxic loline alkaloids in shoots and roots. We investigated whether endophyte symbiosis had an effect on the volatile emission of grass roots and if the root herbivore Costelytra zealandica was able to recognize endophyte-infected plants by olfaction. In BG olfactometer assays, larvae of C. zealandica were more strongly attracted to roots of uninfected than endophyte-harbouring grasses. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry revealed that endophyte-infected roots emitted less VOCs and more CO2. Our results demonstrate that symbiotic fungi in plants may influence soil insect distribution by changing their behaviour towards root volatiles. The well-known defensive mutualism between grasses and Neotyphodium endophytes could thus go beyond bioactive alkaloids and also confer protection by being chemically less apparent for soil herbivores.

  16. The genome of the endophytic bacterium H. frisingense GSF30T identifies diverse strategies in the Herbaspirillum genus to interact with plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStraub

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The diazotrophic, bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30T has been identified in biomass grasses grown in temperate climate, including the highly nitrogen-efficient grass Miscanthus. Its genome was annotated and compared with related Herbaspirillum species from diverse habitats, including H. seropedicae, and further well-characterized endophytes. The analysis revealed that Herbaspirillum frisingense lacks a type III secretion system that is present in some related Herbaspirillum grass endophytes. Together with the lack of components of the type II secretion system, the genomic inventory indicates distinct interaction scenarios of endophytic Herbaspirillum strains with plants. Differences in respiration, carbon, nitrogen and cell wall metabolism among Herbaspirillum isolates partially correlate with their different habitats. Herbaspirillum frisingense is closely related to strains isolated from the rhizosphere of phragmites and from well water, but these lack nitrogen fixation and metabolism genes. Within grass endophytes, the high diversity in their genomic inventory suggests that even individual plant species provide distinct, highly diverse metabolic niches for successful endophyte-plant associations.

  17. The genome of the endophytic bacterium H. frisingense GSF30(T) identifies diverse strategies in the Herbaspirillum genus to interact with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Daniel; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Ludewig, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The diazotrophic, bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30(T) has been identified in biomass grasses grown in temperate climate, including the highly nitrogen-efficient grass Miscanthus. Its genome was annotated and compared with related Herbaspirillum species from diverse habitats, including H. seropedicae, and further well-characterized endophytes. The analysis revealed that Herbaspirillum frisingense lacks a type III secretion system that is present in some related Herbaspirillum grass endophytes. Together with the lack of components of the type II secretion system, the genomic inventory indicates distinct interaction scenarios of endophytic Herbaspirillum strains with plants. Differences in respiration, carbon, nitrogen and cell wall metabolism among Herbaspirillum isolates partially correlate with their different habitats. Herbaspirillum frisingense is closely related to strains isolated from the rhizosphere of phragmites and from well water, but these lack nitrogen fixation and metabolism genes. Within grass endophytes, the high diversity in their genomic inventory suggests that even individual plant species provide distinct, highly diverse metabolic niches for successful endophyte-plant associations.

  18. The genome of the endophytic bacterium H. frisingense GSF30T identifies diverse strategies in the Herbaspirillum genus to interact with plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Daniel; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Ludewig, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The diazotrophic, bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30T has been identified in biomass grasses grown in temperate climate, including the highly nitrogen-efficient grass Miscanthus. Its genome was annotated and compared with related Herbaspirillum species from diverse habitats, including H. seropedicae, and further well-characterized endophytes. The analysis revealed that Herbaspirillum frisingense lacks a type III secretion system that is present in some related Herbaspirillum grass endophytes. Together with the lack of components of the type II secretion system, the genomic inventory indicates distinct interaction scenarios of endophytic Herbaspirillum strains with plants. Differences in respiration, carbon, nitrogen and cell wall metabolism among Herbaspirillum isolates partially correlate with their different habitats. Herbaspirillum frisingense is closely related to strains isolated from the rhizosphere of phragmites and from well water, but these lack nitrogen fixation and metabolism genes. Within grass endophytes, the high diversity in their genomic inventory suggests that even individual plant species provide distinct, highly diverse metabolic niches for successful endophyte-plant associations. PMID:23825472

  19. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Consumption of Endophyte Infected Fescue During Gestation in Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Katherine Rene

    2016-01-01

    Tall fescue is a widely grown, cool season grass prevalent in the eastern United States that is known for its resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. A main reason for tall fescue's resistance to these stresses is attributed to the presence of a fungal endophyte. Unfortunately, this endophyte also adversely affects cattle production. Cows consuming the ergot alkaloids produced by these endophytes can exhibit decreased feed intake, growth performance, organ vasoconstriction, and increased...

  1. Exploring the potential of symbiotic fungal endophytes in cereal disease suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hanlon, Karen; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    , and environmental and health concerns surrounding the use of chemical treatments. There is currently a demand for new disease control strategies, and one such strategy involves the use of symbiotic fungal endophytes as biological control agents against fungal pathogens in cereals. Despite the fact that biological...... control by symbiotic fungal endophytes has been documented, particularly with respect to clavicipitaceous endophytes in C3 cool-season grasses, this area remains relatively underexplored in cereals. We highlight for the first time the potential in using symbiotic fungal endophytes to control foliar cereal...

  2. Endophytic fungi and soil microbial community characteristics over different years of phytoremediation in a copper tailings dam of Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jia; Miaowen, Cao; Juhui, Jing; Jinxian, Liu; Baofeng, Chai

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a survey of native grass species infected by endophytic fungi in a copper tailings dam over progressive years of phytoremediation. We investigated how endophytic fungi, soil microbial community structure and soil physiochemical properties and enzymatic activity varied in responses to heavy metal pollution over different stages of phytoremediation. endophyte infection frequency increased with years of phytoremediation. Rates of endophyte infection varied among different natural grass species in each sub-dam. Soil carbon content and soil enzymatic activity gradually increased through the years of phytoremediation. endophyte infection rates of Bothriochloa ischaemum and Festuca rubra were positively related to levels of cadmium (Cd) pollution levels, and fungal endophytes associated with Imperata cylindrical and Elymus dahuricus developed tolerance to lead (Pb). The structure and relative abundance of bacterial communities varied little over years of phytoremediation, but there was a pronounced variation in soil fungi types. Leotiomycetes were the dominant class of resident fungi during the initial phytoremediation period, but Pezizomycetes gradually became dominant as the phytoremediation period progressed. Fungal endophytes in native grasses as well as soil fungi and soil bacteria play different ecological roles during phytoremediation processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunochemical Analysis of Paxilline and Ergot Alkaloid Mycotoxins in Grass Seeds and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Julia I; Gross, Madeleine; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Hamscher, Gerd; Usleber, Ewald

    2018-01-10

    Limited availability of toxin standards for lolitrem B and ergovaline impedes routine control of grasses for endophyte toxins. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the indole-diterpene mycotoxin paxilline, in combination with a generic EIA for ergot alkaloids, as alternative parameters for screening purposes. Analysis of grass seeds and model pastures of four different grass species showed that both EIAs yielded highly positive results for paxilline and ergot alkaloids in perennial ryegrass seeds. Furthermore, evidence for natural occurrence of paxilline in grass in Germany was obtained. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis qualitatively confirmed the paxilline EIA results but showed that paxilline analogues 1'-O-acetylpaxilline and 13-desoxypaxilline were the predominant compounds in seeds and grass. In the absence of easily accessible reference standards for specific analysis of some major endophyte toxins, analysis of paxilline and ergot alkaloids by EIA may be suitable substitute parameters. The major advantage of this approach is its ease of use and speed, providing an analytical tool which could enhance routine screening for endophyte toxins in pasture.

  4. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Dirihan

    Full Text Available Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42, and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28, whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56. Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation

  5. The relationship between an endangered North American tree and an endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C; Yang, X; Schwartz, M; Strobel, G; Clardy, J

    1995-11-01

    The Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) began a catastrophic decline in the late 1950s and is now the rarest tree in North America for which a full species designation has been established. The trees have common plant disease symptoms, but the reason for the decline has never been identified. T. taxifolia's imminent extinction gains special poignancy through its close relationship to the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), which produces the potent anticancer agent, taxol. An examination of the endophytic fungal communities of wild torreyas consistently found a filamentous fungus, Pestalotiopsis microspora, associated with diseased trees and also with most symptomless trees. P. microspora can be cultured in the laboratory, and when it is introduced into greenhouse-grown torreyas, it causes disease symptoms similar to those seen in the field. The fungus can then be reisolated from these deliberately infected trees. The phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone and pestaloside have been isolated and characterized from axenic fungal cultures, and both pestalopyrone and hydroxypestalopyrone can be isolated from artificially infected torreyas. In addition, pestaloside has antifungal activity against other fungal endophytes of T. taxifolia. The filamentous fungus, P. microspora, has an endophytic-pathologic relationship with T. taxifolia. The fungus resides in the inner bark of symptomless trees, and physiological or environmental factors could trigger its pathological activity. P. microspora produces the phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone, and pestaloside which give rise to the disease. Pestaloside, which also has antifungal activity, could reduce competition from other fungal endophytes within the host.

  6. The role of the Oregon State University Endophyte Service Laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2014-07-30

    The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases.

  7. An Acremonium endophyte of Lolium perenne associated with hyperthermia of cattle in Pacific County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Wilson; C.C. Gay; S.C. and Fransen

    1992-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous endophytes are well known for causing maladies of livestock. Recent studies of a new syndrome causing hyperthermia of cattle in Pacific County, Washington, prompted surveys of endophytes in pasture grasses of seven affected paddocks. Cattle removed from affected pastures and fed alfalfa became normothermic within 3 days, suggesting a pyrogenic factor...

  8. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  9. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grass production and the quantity of trees in mixed tree-grass ecosystems (savannas) is convex for all or most of its range. In other words, the grass production declines more steeply per unit increase in tree quantity...

  10. Endophytes diversity of bacteria associated with roots of colosuana (bothriochloa pertusa) pasture in three locations of Sucre Department, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, Alexander; Rojas S, Johanna; Fuentes C, Justo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate endophytes diversity of culturable bacteria associated with grass roots colosuana Bothriochloa pertusa (L) a. camus in three localities of the department of Sucre, Colombia. endophytes bacterial diversity was performed by isolation of colonies on media culture. The population density was estimated by direct counting of colonies on plate and cultural characteristics of each morphotype were obtained by observation of each colony made. We determined the correlation diversity, population density and locations, using ANOVA and principal component analysis or simple correspondence, using the statistical program R, 2009 (4.5). 20 farms livestock were sampled by locality; it was observed the presence of various bacterial morphotypes endophytes. We found significant differences between diversity (morphotypes), population density (UFC.raiz -1 ) and locations. The diversity of bacterial endophytes represents only a small fraction of the total diversity present in nature; being little information we have of the presence of these microorganisms in specific agro-ecosystems, which is why this work becomes the first evidence of association between bacteria and roots of grass endophytes colosuana in Colombia.

  11. Interaction between a fungal endophyte and root herbivores of Ammophila arenaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; de la Peña, E.; Moens, M.; Cook, R.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of an endophytic fungus (Acremonium strictum) on plant-growth related parameters of marram grass (Ammophila arenaria), and its potential as a protective agent against root herbivores (Pratylenchus dunensis and Pratylenchus penetrans, root-lesion nematodes) was investigated in two

  12. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  13. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  14. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have

  15. Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

  16. Identification of the fungal endophyte of Ammophila breviligulata (American beachgrass as Epichloë amarillans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Drake

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The grass Ammophila breviligulata (American beachgrass is known to host an endophyte of the genus Epichloë. Based on morphological characteristics it was originally identified as Acremonium typhinum var. ammophilae and is currently designated as Epichloë typhina var. ammophilae. However, the Epichloë species has not previously been identified based on DNA sequence data. Based on phylogenetic placement of beta-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha DNA sequences the endophyte is identified as a member of E. amarillans rather than E. typhina.

  17. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies.

  18. Disease protection and allelopathic interactions of seed-transmitted endophytic pseudomonads of invasive reed grass (Phragmites australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F.; Kingsley, Katheryn I; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Micci, April; Soares, Marcos Antonio; Bergen, Marshall S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aimsNon-native Phragmites australis (haplotype M) is an invasive grass that decreases biodiversity and produces dense stands. We hypothesized that seeds of Phragmites carry microbes that improve seedling growth, defend against pathogens and maximize capacity of seedlings to compete with other plants.MethodsWe isolated bacteria from seeds of Phragmites, then evaluated representatives for their capacities to become intracellular in root cells, and their effects on: 1.) germination rates and seedling growth, 2.) susceptibility to damping-off disease, and 3.) mortality and growth of competitor plant seedlings (dandelion (Taraxacum officionale F. H. Wigg) and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.)).ResultsTen strains (of 23 total) were identified and characterized; seven were identified as Pseudomonas spp. Strains Sandy LB4 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and West 9 (Pseudomonas sp.) entered root meristems and became intracellular. These bacteria improved seed germination in Phragmites and increased seedling root branching in Poa annua. They increased plant growth and protected plants from damping off disease. Sandy LB4 increased mortality and reduced growth rates in seedlings of dandelion and curly dock.ConclusionsPhragmites plants associate with endophytes to increase growth and disease resistance, and release bacteria into the soil to create an environment that is favorable to their seedlings and less favorable to competitor plants.

  19. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Xue, Y; Matthews, J C; Boling, J A; Burris, W R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2012-02-01

    As part of a 2-yr study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and serotonin receptors. Experiment 1 examined vasoconstrictive activities of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), α-methylserotonin (ME5HT; a 5HT(2) receptor agonist), d-lysergic acid (LSA), and ergovaline (ERV) on lateral saphenous veins collected from steers immediately removed from a high-endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE) or a low-endophyte-infected mixed-grass (LE) pasture. Using the same pastures, Exp. 2 evaluated effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue on vasoconstrictive activities of (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), BW 723C86 (BW7), CGS-12066A (CGS), and 5-carboxamidotryptamine hemiethanolate maleate (5CT), agonists for 5HT(2A),( 2B), 5HT(1B), and 5HT(7) receptors, respectively. One-half of the steers in Exp. 2 were slaughtered immediately after removal from pasture, and the other one-half were fed finishing diets for >91 d before slaughter. For Exp. 1, maximal contractile intensities were greater (P 91 d. Experiment 1 demonstrated that grazing of HE pastures for 89 to 105 d induces functional alterations in blood vessels, as evidenced by reduced contractile capacity and altered serotonergic receptor activity. Experiment 2 demonstrated that grazing HE pastures alters vascular responses, which may be mediated through altered serotonin receptor activities, and these alterations may be ameliorated by the removal of ergot alkaloid exposure as demonstrated by the absence of differences in finished steers.

  20. Genomic DNA extraction and barcoding of endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Patricia L; Hennell, James R; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2012-01-01

    Endophytes live inter- and/or intracellularly inside healthy aboveground tissues of plants without causing disease. Endophytic fungi are found in virtually every vascular plant species examined. The origins of this symbiotic relationship between endophytes go back to the emergence of vascular plants. Endophytic fungi receive nutrition and protection from their hosts while the plants benefit from the production of fungal secondary metabolites, which enhance the host plants' resistance to herbivores, pathogens, and various abiotic stresses. Endophytic fungi have attracted increased interest as potential sources of secondary metabolites with agricultural, industrial, and medicinal use. This chapter provides detailed protocols for isolation of genomic DNA from fungal endophytes and its use in polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region between the conserved flanking regions of the small and large subunit of ribosomal RNA for barcoding purposes.

  1. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  3. Bacterial rhizosphere and endosphere populations associated with grasses and trees to be used for phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kaneez; Afzal, Muhammad; Imran, Asma; Khan, Qaiser M

    2015-03-01

    Different grasses and trees were tested for their growth in a crude oil contaminated soil. Three grasses, Lolium perenne, Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica, and two trees, Lecucaena leucocephala and Acacia ampliceps, were selected to investigate the diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. We found a higher number of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria associated with grasses than trees and that the endophytic bacteria were taxonomically different from rhizosphere associated bacteria showing their spatial distribution with reference to plant compartment as well as genotype. The rhizospheric soil yielded 22 (59.45 %), root interior yielded 9 (24.32 %) and shoot interior yielded 6 (16.21 %) hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. These bacteria possessed genes encoding alkane hydroxylase and showed multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Bacillus (48.64 %) and Acinetobacter (18.91 %) were dominant genera found in this study. At 2 % crude oil concentration, all bacterial isolates exhibited 25 %-78 % oil degradation and Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 degraded maximum. Our study suggests that for practical application, support of potential bacteria combined with the grasses is more effective approach than trees to remediate oil contaminated soils.

  4. Fungal disease prevention in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses by growth-promoting seed-associated endophytic bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satish K.; Kingsley, Kathryn L.; Bergen, Marshall S.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James F.

    2018-01-01

    Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium, Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusariumblights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), or annual bluegrass (Poa annua) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. We found that three bacteria belonging to genus Pseudomonas spp. (SLB4-P. fluorescens, SLB6-Pseudomonas sp. and SY1-Pseudomonassp.) promoted seedling development, including enhancement of root and shoot growth, and stimulation of root hair formation. These bacteria were also found to increase phosphate solubilization in in vitro experiments. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) significantly protected grass seedlings from Fusarium infection. In co-culture experiments, strain SY1 strongly inhibited fungal pathogens with 85.71% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum, 86.33% growth inhibition of Curvularia sp. and 82.14% growth inhibition of Alternaria sp. Seedlings previously treated with bacteria were found much less infected by F. oxysporum in comparison to non-treated controls. On microscopic observation we found that bacteria appeared to degrade fungal mycelia actively. Metabolite products of strain SY1 in agar were also found to inhibit fungal growth on nutrient media. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) was found to produce antifungal volatiles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers for pyrrolnitirin synthesis and HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production

  5. [Isolation and physiological characteristics of endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huijing; Su, Jing; Yu, Liyan; Zhang, Yuqin

    2013-01-04

    To isolate, incubate and characterize cultivable endophytic antinobacteria from medicinal plants, and analyze the diversity of the endophytic antinobacteria, then explore the novel microbial resources. Ten media were used to isolate endophytic antinobacteria from 37 fresh medicinal plant tissue samples. The optimal cultivation conditions for endophytic antinobacteria were determined by comparison. Based on the morphology of the colonies and cells of the new isolates, we chose 174 isolates to analyze their 16S rRNA gene sequences and the diversity of the medicinal plant endophytic antinobacteria. The physiological characteristics of 27 representative strains were studied using Biolog GEN III MicroPlates, API 50CH and API ZYM kits. In total 940 endophytics affiliated to 47 genera of 30 families were isolated, among which more than 600 actinobacteria belonged to 34 genera and 7 unknown taxa. Good growth of the endophytic antinobacteria on PYG (peptone-yeast-glycerol) medium with pH 7.2 at 28-32 degrees C was observed. Physiological characteristics differences of these isolates related to their phylogenetic relationships. Greater differences were shown among the strains from the same host plants than those from differ,ent plants grown in the same area. There are great diverse endophytic actinobacteria inside the medicinal plants. No direct relationship of the endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants with the host plants in the sole carbon source utilization, fermentation of carbon sources to produce acid and the enzyme activities was found, while it seemed that the physiological characteristics of the isolates related to the geographical distribution of their host.

  6. Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

  7. Detecting bacterial endophytes in tropical grasses of the Brachiaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria include a diverse group of soil bacteria thought to stimulate plant growth by various mechanisms. Brachiaria forage grasses, of African origin, are perennials that often grow under low-input conditions and are likely to harbour unique populations of PGP bacteria. Three bacterial strains ...

  8. The mechanism of ethylene signaling induced by endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 mediating sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis in Atractylodes lancea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eYuan

    2016-03-01

    accumulation triggered by SNP or H2O2 was partly suppressed by ACC, showing that ethylene acted as a downstream signal of NO and H2O2 pathway. Taken together, this study demonstrated that ethylene is an upstream signal of JA and SA, and a downstream signal of NO and H2O2 signaling pathways, and acts as an important signal mediating sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis of Atractylodes lancea induced by the endophytic fungus.

  9. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  10. Research advance on stable mechanism of endophytic fungi to red wine colour during the aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Lijun; Li, Yashan; Cui, Changwei; Ning, Na; Huang, Jing; Xu, Chengdong; Tao, Fang; Zhang, Jinyong

    2018-04-01

    Based on the fact that persistent mutation of vinous color was not conducive to the stabilization of vinous quality during the aging, research advance on the stable mechanism of endophytic fungi to colour of red wine during the aging, including investigative status and developmental dynamic at home and abroad, endophytes and pigment of materials in wine, including effect of endophyte on vinaceous color, and even the application of tracer method in wine was summarized, respectively. The relationship between diversity of community the endophytic fungi and the main pigment material in wine was existent objectively, also included the response mechanism on colony dynamic of endophytic fungi to the various pigment as well as substance related to color, which laid the foundation for exploring the relationships between endophytic fungi and wine color, and the variational mechanism of the color under endophytic fungi during the aging period of wine. Color as an important reference index of wine quality influenced not only the sensory evaluation of consumer, but also the quality of wine because of the self-aggregation or combination of phenolic composition with other substances under the endophytic fungi during the storage. Only steady wine in the color could guarantee the security of quality.

  11. Identification and structural characterization of serobactins, a suite of lipopeptide siderophores produced by the grass endophyte Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosconi, Federico; Davyt, Danilo; Martínez, Verónica; Martínez, Marcela; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Zane, Hannah; Butler, Alison; de Souza, Emanuel M; Fabiano, Elena

    2013-03-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a diazotrophic endophyte able to colonize the interior of many economically relevant crops such as rice, wheat, corn and sorghum. Structures of siderophores produced by bacterial endophytes have not yet been elucidated. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the siderophores produced by this bacterium. In a screening for mutants unable to produce siderophores we found a mutant that had a transposon insertion in a non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) gene coding for a putative siderophore biosynthetic enzyme. The chemical structure of the siderophore was predicted using computational genomic tools. The predicted structure was confirmed by chemical analysis. We found that siderophores produced by H. seropedicae Z67 are a suite of amphiphilic lipopeptides, named serobactin A, B and C, which vary by the length of the fatty acid chain. We also demonstrated the biological activity of serobactins as nutritional iron sources for H. seropedicae. These are the first structurally described siderophores produced by endophytic bacteria. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Phenology largely explains taller grass at successful nests in greater sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph T; Tack, Jason D; Doherty, Kevin E; Allred, Brady W; Maestas, Jeremy D; Berkeley, Lorelle I; Dettenmaier, Seth J; Messmer, Terry A; Naugle, David E

    2018-01-01

    Much interest lies in the identification of manageable habitat variables that affect key vital rates for species of concern. For ground-nesting birds, vegetation surrounding the nest may play an important role in mediating nest success by providing concealment from predators. Height of grasses surrounding the nest is thought to be a driver of nest survival in greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ; sage-grouse), a species that has experienced widespread population declines throughout their range. However, a growing body of the literature has found that widely used field methods can produce misleading inference on the relationship between grass height and nest success. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that measuring concealment following nest fate (failure or hatch) introduces a temporal bias whereby successful nests are measured later in the season, on average, than failed nests. This sampling bias can produce inference suggesting a positive effect of grass height on nest survival, though the relationship arises due to the confounding effect of plant phenology, not an effect on predation risk. To test the generality of this finding for sage-grouse, we reanalyzed existing datasets comprising >800 sage-grouse nests from three independent studies across the range where there was a positive relationship found between grass height and nest survival, including two using methods now known to be biased. Correcting for phenology produced equivocal relationships between grass height and sage-grouse nest survival. Viewed in total, evidence for a ubiquitous biological effect of grass height on sage-grouse nest success across time and space is lacking. In light of these findings, a reevaluation of land management guidelines emphasizing specific grass height targets to promote nest success may be merited.

  13. The contribution of endophytic bacteria to Albizia lebbeck-mediated phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mendoza, Ordetta Hannah; Kanimozhi, Mahalingam; Chun, Sechul; Pašić, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of chromium often impairs the remediation capacity of plants used in phytoremediation of polluted soils. In this study, we have identified Albizia lebbeck as a prospective chromium hyperaccumulator and examined cultivable diversity of endophytes present in chromium-treated and control saplings. High numbers (22-100%) of endophytic bacteria, isolated from root, stem, and leaf tissues, could tolerate elevated (1-3 mM) concentrations of K2CrO7. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that the 118 isolates obtained comprised of 17 operational taxonomic units affiliated with the proteobacterial genera Rhizobium (18%), Marinomonas (1%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Xanthomonas (7%) but also with members of Firmicutes genera, such as Bacillus (35%) and Salinococcus (3%). The novel isolates belonging to Salinococcus and Bacillus could tolerate high K2CrO7 concentrations (3 mM) and also showed elevated activity of chromate reductase. In addition, majority (%) of the endophytic isolates also showed production of indole-3-acetic acid. Taken together, our results indicate that the innate endophytic bacterial community assists plants in reducing heavy metal toxicity.

  14. Relationship between nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-clover pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports on a work assessing the relationship between gross N transformations in grass-clover soils and emissions of nitrous oxide. By this manner, the source strength of the biogenic processes responsible for nitrous oxide production is evaluated.

  15. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Oropeza, Fabiola; Duarte, Georgina; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Anaya, Ana Luisa

    2010-10-01

    Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in a dry, semideciduous tropical forest in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We tested the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for allelochemical effects against other endophytic fungi, phytopathogenic fungi and fungoids, and plants. VOCs were lethal to Guignardia mangifera, Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora capsici, and P. parasitica, but had no effect on Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., the endophytic isolate 120, or M. yucatanensis. VOCs inhibited root elongation in amaranth, tomato, and barnyard grass, particularly those produced during the first 15 days of fungal growth. VOCs were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and included compounds not previously reported from other Muscodor species and the previously reported compounds octane, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan, caryophyllene, and aromadendrene. We also evaluated organic extracts from the culture medium and mycelium of M. yucatanensis on the same endophytes, phytopathogens, and plants. In general, extracts inhibited plants more than endophytic or phytopathogens fungi. G. mangifera was the only organism that was significantly stimulated by both extracts regardless of concentration. Compounds in both organic extracts were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We discuss the possible allelopathic role that metabolites of M. yucatanensis play in its ecological interactions with its host plant and other organisms.

  16. Endophytes as sources of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Klimova, Elena; Rodríguez-Peña, Karol; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-06-15

    Until a viable alternative can be accessible, the emergence of resistance to antimicrobials requires the constant development of new antibiotics. Recent scientific efforts have been aimed at the bioprospecting of microorganisms' secondary metabolites, with special emphasis on the search for antimicrobial natural products derived from endophytes. Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of plants without causing apparent harm to the plant. The present review article compiles recent (2006-2016) literature to provide an update on endophyte research aimed at finding metabolites with antibiotic activities. We have included exclusively information on endophytes that produce metabolites capable of inhibiting the growth of bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens of humans, animals and plants. Where available, the identified metabolites have been listed. In this review, we have also compiled a list of the bacterial and fungal phyla that have been isolated as endophytes as well as the plant families from which the endophytes were isolated. The majority of endophytes that produce antibiotic metabolites belong to either phylum Ascomycota (kingdom Fungi) or to phylum Actinobacteria (superkingdom Bacteria). Endophytes that produce antibiotic metabolites were predominant, but certainly not exclusively, from the plant families Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Araceae, suggesting that endophytes that produce antimicrobial metabolites are not restricted to a reduced number of plant families. The locations where plants (and inhabiting endophytes) were collected from, according to the literature, have been mapped, showing that endophytes that produce bioactive compounds have been collected globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating a novel endophytic grass for suppressing invertebrates that contribute to bird strike risk at airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Tall fescue containing a selected strain of the fungal endophyte Epichlöe coenophiala purported to express high levels of bioactive alkaloids (Avanex®) was recently commercialized for reducing airport bird strike hazard. We compared bioactivity of Avanex and KY 31, a ubiquitous cultivar...

  18. Plastid phylogenomics of the cool-season grass subfamily: clarification of relationships among early-diverging tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M; Wysocki, William P; Barrett, Craig F; Soreng, Robert J; Davis, Jerrold I; Clark, Lynn G; Kelchner, Scot A; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Mayfield, Dustin R; Duvall, Melvin R

    2015-05-04

    Whole plastid genomes are being sequenced rapidly from across the green plant tree of life, and phylogenetic analyses of these are increasing resolution and support for relationships that have varied among or been unresolved in earlier single- and multi-gene studies. Pooideae, the cool-season grass lineage, is the largest of the 12 grass subfamilies and includes important temperate cereals, turf grasses and forage species. Although numerous studies of the phylogeny of the subfamily have been undertaken, relationships among some 'early-diverging' tribes conflict among studies, and some relationships among subtribes of Poeae have not yet been resolved. To address these issues, we newly sequenced 25 whole plastomes, which showed rearrangements typical of Poaceae. These plastomes represent 9 tribes and 11 subtribes of Pooideae, and were analysed with 20 existing plastomes for the subfamily. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) robustly resolve most deep relationships in the subfamily. Complete plastome data provide increased nodal support compared with protein-coding data alone at nodes that are not maximally supported. Following the divergence of Brachyelytrum, Phaenospermateae, Brylkinieae-Meliceae and Ampelodesmeae-Stipeae are the successive sister groups of the rest of the subfamily. Ampelodesmeae are nested within Stipeae in the plastome trees, consistent with its hybrid origin between a phaenospermatoid and a stipoid grass (the maternal parent). The core Pooideae are strongly supported and include Brachypodieae, a Bromeae-Triticeae clade and Poeae. Within Poeae, a novel sister group relationship between Phalaridinae and Torreyochloinae is found, and the relative branching order of this clade and Aveninae, with respect to an Agrostidinae-Brizinae clade, are discordant between MP and ML/BI trees. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses strongly support Airinae and Holcinae as the successive sister groups of a Dactylidinae

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  20. Host associations and beta diversity of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J B; Weiblen, G D; May, G

    2016-02-01

    Processes shaping the distribution of foliar fungal endophyte species remain poorly understood. Despite increasing evidence that these cryptic fungal symbionts of plants mediate interactions with pathogens and herbivores, there remain basic questions regarding the extent to which dispersal limitation and host specificity might shape fungal endophyte community composition in rainforests. To assess the relative importance of spatial pattern and host specificity, we isolated fungi from a sample of mapped trees in lowland Papua New Guinea. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were obtained for 2079 fungal endophytes from three sites and clustered into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) at 95% similarity. Multivariate analyses suggest that host affinity plays a significant role in structuring endophyte community composition whereas there was no evidence of endophyte spatial pattern at the scale of tens to hundreds of metres. Differences in endophyte communities between sampled trees were weakly correlated with variation in foliar traits but not with tree species relatedness. The dominance of relatively few generalist endophytes and the presence of a large number of rare MOTUs was a consistent observation at three sites separated by hundreds of kilometres and regional turnover was low. Host specificity appears to play a relatively weak but more important role than dispersal limitation in shaping the distribution of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea forests. Our results suggest that in the absence of strong ecological gradients and host turnover, beta diversity of endophyte communities could be low in large areas of contiguous forest. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Genetic Diversity of Endophytic and Phyllosphere Bacteria from Several Indonesian Herbal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rachelia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants have been believed by Indonesians to be an alternative medicine to treat illnesses. The bioactivecompounds in the plant can be derived from secondary metabolites or from endophytic and phyllosphere bacteria whichcoexist within medicinal plants. A total of 18 endophytic bacteria and 32 phyllosphere bacteria were isolated from theherbal plants of Citrus sp., Pluchea indica, Curcuma longa, Nothopanax scuttelarium, Piper crocatum, andAndrographis paniculata. About 72% of endophytic bacteria isolates have proteolytic activity and about 11% havelipolytic activity. On the other hand, about 59% of phyllosphere bacteria isolates have proteolytic activity and about19% have lipolytic activity. Phylogenetic diversity analysis was conducted by using the amplified ribosomal DNArestriction analysis (ARDRA method and the sequence of 16S rDNA was digested with endonuclease restrictionenzymes: MspI, RsaI, and Sau961. The diversity of endophytic and phyllosphere bacterium from the samples of herbalplants was high. Bacteria isolated from the same herbal plant does not always have a close genetic relationship exceptfor the bacteria isolated from the P. indica plant which showed a close genetic relationship with each other.

  2. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  3. Ecology and Genomic Insights into Plant-Pathogenic and Plant-Nonpathogenic Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Vescio, Kathryn; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Ma, Li-Jun; Sessitsch, Angela

    2017-08-04

    Plants are colonized on their surfaces and in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere by a multitude of different microorganisms and are inhabited internally by endophytes. Most endophytes act as commensals without any known effect on their plant host, but multiple bacteria and fungi establish a mutualistic relationship with plants, and some act as pathogens. The outcome of these plant-microbe interactions depends on biotic and abiotic environmental factors and on the genotype of the host and the interacting microorganism. In addition, endophytic microbiota and the manifold interactions between members, including pathogens, have a profound influence on the function of the system plant and the development of pathobiomes. In this review, we elaborate on the differences and similarities between nonpathogenic and pathogenic endophytes in terms of host plant response, colonization strategy, and genome content. We furthermore discuss environmental effects and biotic interactions within plant microbiota that influence pathogenesis and the pathobiome.

  4. Evolutionary relationships between Rhynchosporium lolii sp. nov. and other Rhynchosporium species on grasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M King

    Full Text Available The fungal genus Rhynchosporium (causative agent of leaf blotch contains several host-specialised species, including R. commune (colonising barley and brome-grass, R. agropyri (couch-grass, R. secalis (rye and triticale and the more distantly related R. orthosporum (cocksfoot. This study used molecular fingerprinting, multilocus DNA sequence data, conidial morphology, host range tests and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the relationship between Rhynchosporium species on ryegrasses, both economically important forage grasses and common wild grasses in many cereal growing areas, and other plant species. Two different types of Rhynchosporium were found on ryegrasses in the UK. Firstly, there were isolates of R. commune that were pathogenic to both barley and Italian ryegrass. Secondly, there were isolates of a new species, here named R. lolii, that were pathogenic only to ryegrass species. R. lolii was most closely related to R. orthosporum, but exhibited clear molecular, morphological and host range differences. The species was estimated to have diverged from R. orthosporum ca. 5735 years before the present. The colonisation strategy of all of the different Rhynchosporium species involved extensive hyphal growth in the sub-cuticular regions of the leaves. Finally, new species-specific PCR diagnostic tests were developed that could distinguish between these five closely related Rhynchosporium species.

  5. Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinnon, Aimee C.; Saari, Susanna Talvikki; Moran-Diez, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been increased focus on the potential of endophytic Beauveria bassiana for the biocontrol of insect herbivores. Generally, detection of endophytes is acknowledged to be problematic and recovery method-dependent. Herein, we critically analyse the methodology reported...... for the detection of B. bassiana as endophytes following experimental inoculation. In light of the methodology, we further review the effects of endophytic B. bassiana on insect herbivores. Our review indicated the need for stringent protocols for surface sterilisation including thorough experimental controls....... For molecular detection protocols by PCR, residual DNA from surface inocula must also be considered. The biocontrol potential of B. bassiana endophytes appears promising although both negative and neutral effects on insect herbivores were reported and there remains ambiguity with respect to the location...

  6. Bacterial Endophyte Colonization and Distribution within Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam L. Kandel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant endosphere contains a diverse group of microbial communities. There is general consensus that these microbial communities make significant contributions to plant health. Both recently adopted genomic approaches and classical microbiology techniques continue to develop the science of plant-microbe interactions. Endophytes are microbial symbionts residing within the plant for the majority of their life cycle without any detrimental impact to the host plant. The use of these natural symbionts offers an opportunity to maximize crop productivity while reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. Endophytes promote plant growth through nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, nutrient acquisition, and by conferring tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Colonization by endophytes is crucial for providing these benefits to the host plant. Endophytic colonization refers to the entry, growth and multiplication of endophyte populations within the host plant. Lately, plant microbiome research has gained considerable attention but the mechanism allowing plants to recruit endophytes is largely unknown. This review summarizes currently available knowledge about endophytic colonization by bacteria in various plant species, and specifically discusses the colonization of maize plants by Populus endophytes.

  7. Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangjaroen, Chakrapong; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Teaumroong, Neung; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities' richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice Bue Wah Bo were significantly the lowest. The endophytic bacteria revealed greater diversity by cluster analysis with seven clusters compared to the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (three clusters). Principal component analysis suggested that the endophytic bacteria showed that the community structures across the rice landraces had a higher stability than those of the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Uncultured bacteria were found dominantly in both bacterial communities, while higher generic varieties were observed in the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community. These differences in bacterial communities might be influenced either by genetic variation in the rice landraces or the rice cultivation system, where the nitrogen input affects the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community.

  8. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  9. Endophytic Fungi as Novel Resources of natural Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Rajamanikyam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fungal endophytes constitute a major part of the unexplored fungal diversity. Endophytic fungi (EF are an important source for novel, potential and active metabolites. Plant-endophyte interaction and endophyte -endophyte interactions study provide insights into mutualism and metabolite production by fungi. Bioactive compounds produced by endophytes main function are helping the host plants to resist external biotic and abiotic stress, which benefit the host survival in return. These organisms mainly consist of members of the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Oomycota. Recently, the genome sequencing technology has emerged as one of the most efficient tools that can provide whole information of a genome in a small period of time. Endophytes are fertile ground for drug discovery. EFare considered as the hidden members of the microbial world and represent an underutilized resource for new therapeutics and compounds. Endophytes are rich source of natural products displaying broad spectrum of biological activities like anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory.

  10. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  11. Morphological, Physiological, and Taxonomic Characterization of Actinobacterial Isolates Living as Endophytes of Cacao Pods and Cacao Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Tsala, Éric; Monga, Ernest; Beaulieu, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Vascular plants are commonly colonized by endophytic actinobacteria. However, very little is known about the relationship between these microorganisms and cacao fruits. In order to determine the physiological and taxonomic relationships between the members of this community, actinobacteria were isolated from cacao fruits and seeds. Among the 49 isolates recovered, 11 morphologically distinct isolates were selected for further characterization. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the partition of the selected isolates into three phylogenetic clades. Most of the selected endophytic isolates belonged to the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Physiological characterization was carried out and a similarity index was used to cluster the isolates. However, clustering based on physiological properties did not match phylogenetic lineages. Isolates were also characterized for traits commonly associated with plant growth-promoting bacteria, including antibiosis and auxin biosynthesis. All isolates exhibited resistance to geldanamycin, whereas only two isolates were shown to produce this antibiotic. Endophytes were inoculated on radish seedlings and most isolates were found to possess plant growth-promoting abilities. These endophytic actinobacteria inhibited the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria. The present study showed that S. violaceusniger clade members represent a significant part of the actinobacterial community living as endophytes in cacao fruits and seeds. While several members of this clade are known to be geldanamycin producers and efficient biocontrol agents of plant diseases, we herein established the endophytic lifestyle of some of these microorganisms, demonstrating their potential as plant health agents.

  12. Two closely related Rho GTPases, Cdc42 and RacA, of the en-dophytic fungus Epichloë festucae have contrasting roles for ROS production and symbiotic infection synchronized with the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayano, Yuka; Tanaka, Aiko; Takemoto, Daigo

    2018-01-01

    Epichloë festucae is an endophytic fungus which systemically colonizes temperate grasses to establish symbiotic associations. Maintaining symptomless infection is a key requirement for endophytes, a feature that distinguishes them from pathogenic fungi. While pathogenic fungi extend their hyphae by tip growth, hyphae of E. festucae systemically colonize the intercellular space of expanding host leaves via a unique mechanism of hyphal intercalary growth. This study reports that two homologous Rho GTPases, Cdc42 and RacA, have distinctive roles in the regulation of E. festucae growth in planta. Here we highlight the vital role of Cdc42 for intercalary hyphal growth, as well as involvement of RacA in regulation of hyphal network formation, and demonstrate the consequences of mutations in these genes on plant tissue infection. Functions of Cdc42 and RacA are mediated via interactions with BemA and NoxR respectively, which are expected components of the ROS producing NOX complex. Symbiotic defects found in the racA mutant were rescued by introduction of a Cdc42 with key amino acids substitutions crucial for RacA function, highlighting the significance of the specific interactions of these GTPases with BemA and NoxR for their functional differentiation in symbiotic infection.

  13. A potent feed preservative candidate produced by Calcarisporium sp., an endophyte residing in stargrass (Cynodon dactylon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Song, Y C; Tan, R X

    2004-01-01

    The cultures of an endophytic fungus Calcarisporium sp. were screened for inhibitors on the growth of feed-associated moulds and on the aflatoxin biosynthesis to find a safe and effective feed preservative. Eight test fungi were isolated from the spoiled poultry feed. The endophytic fungus Calcarisporium sp. was separated from the Chinese coastal grass Cynodon dactylon. The antifungal action concerning the endophytic culture extract (ECE) was performed with propionic acid (PPA) as the corresponding reference. The ECE had a similar antifungal efficacy to PPA in a concentration-dependent manner. The susceptibility order of the ECE to the test fungi was found to be Fusarium sp. > Aspergillus spp. > Penicillium spp. Furthermore, the application of the ECE in pelleted-layer duck feed as a preservative was carried out at a humidity of 10, 15 and 20%. It has been discerned that mould growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis could be co-inhibited almost completely by ECE at concentrations higher than 1.0% (w/w). The LD50 of the ECE on mice was shown to be higher than 28 g kg-1. The ECE can be selected as an inhibitor to preserve poultry feed on inhibiting the growth of mould and aflatoxin biosynthesis during feed storage. The ECE may be an effective and biosafe antifungal ingredient for poultry feed and holds a potential market prospect in feed industry.

  14. Assessment of functional traits in the assemblage of endophytic fungi of anacardium othonianum rizzini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, P. S.; Senabio, J. A.; Soares, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants maintain symbiotic relationships with microorganisms as a strategy to withstand adversities. From this exchange, organisms receive photoassimilates and provide benefits to the plant. Anacardium othonianum Rizzini, locally known as caju-de-arvore-do-cerrado (tree cashew of the cerrado), is a tree species of the family Anacardiaceae nativeto the Midwest region of Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic fungal community, its functional traits and its association with the roots of A. othonianum. The roots of A. othonianum were fragmented (1 cm) and inoculated in medium for the isolation of endophytic microorganisms. The molecular identification of the isolates was performed through the partial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The endophytic isolates were tested for the synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization through the colorimetric method. The root fragments were cleared, stained and examined under a microscope. Structures characteristic of endomycorrhizal and endophytic microorganisms were found on the slides analyzed. A total of 67 fungal strains were isolated and identified in 12 species: Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, Periconia macrospinosa, Phomopsis lagerstroemiae, Penicillium kloeckeri, Eupenicillium shearii, Phomopsis asparagi, Penicillium pinophilum, Agaricomycetes sp., Diaporthe sp., Cladosporium cladosporioide sand Paecilomyces lilacinus. All the genera found have been reported in the literature as endophytic species. It can be concluded that A. othonianum maintains associations with endomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Twelve endophytic strains were isolated from A. othonianum Rizzini, seven of which have potential for phosphate solubilization and IAA synthesis. (author)

  15. Symbiosis in the Context of an Invasive, Non-Native Grass: Fungal Biodiversity and Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Gavin

    Grasslands in the western United States face severe environmental threats including those brought about by climate change, such as changes in precipitation regimes and altered fire cycles; land-use conversion and development; and the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native species. Lehmann's lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) was introduced to the southwestern United States in the early 1900s. Since its introduction, it has become the dominant grass in the mid-elevation grasslands of southern Arizona, including the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER), where it has displaced native grasses including Arizona cottontop, three awns, and gramas. Like all plants in terrestrial ecosystems, this grass harbors fungal symbionts that can be important for its establishment and persistence. This thesis focuses on fungal symbionts of Lehmann's lovegrass and has two components. First, the diversity and distributions of endophytes in Lehmann's lovegrass are evaluated in the context of biotic and abiotic factors in the SRER. Culturing from roots and shoots of Lehmann's lovegrass at points beneath and outside the canopy of native mesquites, which are encroaching on grasslands over time, provides insight into how a single plant species can exhibit local variation in the composition of its symbionts. Second, the thesis is used as the basis for engagement of students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through the development and implementation of classroom- and field activities centered on endophytes, which help high school students address core learning aims while also gaining real research experience. Engaging students in important questions relevant to their local environment can catalyze interest in science and help students cross the threshold into research. The contributions of such approaches with respect to learning not only fulfills key next-generation science standards and common core objectives, but provides students with a meaningful

  16. Colonization of Onions by Endophytic Fungi and Their Impacts on the Biology of Thrips tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvea, Alexander M.; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant–herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci. PMID:25254657

  17. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; White, J.F.; Arnold, A.E.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.

  18. A fungal endophyte helps plants to tolerate root herbivory through changes in gibberellin and jasmonate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Lu, Jing; Erb, Matthias; Stout, Michael Joseph; Franken, Philipp; Wurst, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Plant-microbe mutualisms can improve plant defense, but the impact of root endophytes on below-ground herbivore interactions remains unknown. We investigated the effects of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on interactions between rice (Oryza sativa) plants and its root herbivore rice water weevil (RWW; Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), and how plant jasmonic acid (JA) and GA regulate this tripartite interaction. Glasshouse experiments with wild-type rice and coi1-18 and Eui1-OX mutants combined with nutrient, jasmonate and gene expression analyses were used to test: whether RWW adult herbivory above ground influences subsequent damage caused by larval herbivory below ground; whether P. indica protects plants against RWW; and whether GA and JA signaling mediate these interactions. The endophyte induced plant tolerance to root herbivory. RWW adults and larvae acted synergistically via JA signaling to reduce root growth, while endophyte-elicited GA biosynthesis suppressed the herbivore-induced JA in roots and recovered plant growth. Our study shows for the first time the impact of a root endophyte on plant defense against below-ground herbivores, adds to growing evidence that induced tolerance may be an important root defense, and implicates GA as a signal component of inducible plant tolerance against biotic stress. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Diversity of endophytic fungi of Myricaria laxiflora grown under pre- and post-flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W; Bi, Y H; Zeng, W; Jiang, W; Xue, Y H; Wang, G X; Liu, S P

    2015-09-09

    Myricaria laxiflora is distributed along the riverbanks of the Yangtze River valley. The Three Gorges Dam has dramatically changed the habitat of M. laxiflora, which has evolved to develop increased resistance to flooding stress. In order to elucidate the relationship between plant endophytic fungi and flooding stress, we isolated and taxonomically characterized the endophytic fungi of M. laxiflora. One hundred and sixty-three fungi were isolated from healthy stems, leaves and roots of M. laxiflora grown under pre- and post-flooding conditions. Culture and isolation were carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis and morphological characteristics, the isolates exhibited abundant biodiversity; they were classified into 5 subphyla, 7 classes, 12 orders, 17 families, and 26 genera. Dominant endophytes varied between pre- and post-flooding plants, among different plant tissues, and between aerobic and anaerobic culture conditions. Aspergillus and Alternaria accounted for more than 55% of all isolates. Although the number of isolates from post-flooding plants was greater, endophytes from pre-flooding plants were more diverse and abundant. Endophytes were distributed preferentially in particular tissues; this affinity was constrained by both the host habitat and the oxygen availability of the host.

  20. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  1. Genes Required for the Anti-Fungal Activity of a Bacterial Endophyte Isolated from a Corn Landrace Grown Continuously by Subsistence Farmers Since 1000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan R Shehata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes are known to combat pathogens. The corn (maize landrace Chapalote has been grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, without the use of fungicides, and the crop remains highly valued by farmers, in part for its natural tolerance to pests. We hypothesized that the pathogen tolerance of Chapalote may, in part, be due to assistance from its endophytes. We previously identified a bacterial endophyte from Chapalote seeds, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, for its ability to combat a diversity of crop pathogens, including Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the most important fungal disease of creeping bentgrass, a relative of maize used here as a model system. Strain 3A12 represents a unique opportunity to understand the anti-fungal activities of an endophyte associated with a crop variety grown by subsistence farmers since ancient times. Here, microscopy combined with Tn5-mutagenesis demonstrates that the anti-fungal mode of action of 3A12 involves flagella-dependent swarming towards its pathogen target, attachment and biofilm-mediated microcolony formation. The mutant screen revealed that YajQ, a receptor for the secondary messenger c-di-GMP, is a critical signaling system that mediates this endophytic mobility-based defence for its host. Microbes from the traditional seeds of farmers may represent a new frontier in elucidating host-microbe mutualistic interactions.

  2. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  3. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A; Craven, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

  4. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-04

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before.

  5. Endophytes: exploitation as a tool in plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanushi Dutta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are symptomless fungal or bacterial microorganisms found in almost all living plant species reported so far. They are the plant-associated microbes that form symbiotic association with their host plants by colonizing the internal tissues, which has made them valuable for agriculture as a tool in improving crop performance. Many fungal endophytes produce secondary metabolites such as auxin, gibberellin etc that helps in growth and development of the host plant. Some of these compounds are antibiotics having antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal properties, which strongly inhibit the growth of other microorganisms, including plant pathogens. This article reviews the endophyte isolated from different plants, mode of endophytic infection and benefits derived by the host plant as a result of endophytism.

  6. Large-scale downy brome treatments alter plant-soil relationships and promote perennial grasses in salt desert shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interrelationship between invasive annual grass abundance and soil resource availability varies spatially and temporally within ecosystems and may be altered by land treatments. We evaluated these relationships in two salt desert landscapes where the local abundance of Bromus tectorum L. (downy...

  7. Contributions of North American endophytes to the phylogeny, ecology, and taxonomy of Xylariaceae (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    U'Ren, Jana M; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Zimmerman, Naupaka B; Lutzoni, François; Stajich, Jason E; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The Xylariaceae (Sordariomycetes) comprise one of the largest and most diverse families of Ascomycota, with at least 85 accepted genera and ca. 1343 accepted species. In addition to their frequent occurrence as saprotrophs, members of the family often are found as endophytes in living tissues of phylogenetically diverse plants and lichens. Many of these endophytes remain sterile in culture, precluding identification based on morphological characters. Previous studies indicate that endophytes are highly diverse and represent many xylariaceous genera; however, phylogenetic analyses at the family level generally have not included endophytes, such that their contributions to understanding phylogenetic relationships of Xylariaceae are not well known. Here we use a multi-locus, cumulative supermatrix approach to integrate 92 putative species of fungi isolated from plants and lichens into a phylogenetic framework for Xylariaceae. Our collection spans 1933 isolates from living and senescent tissues in five biomes across the continental United States, and here is analyzed in the context of previously published sequence data from described species and additional taxon sampling of type specimens from culture collections. We found that the majority of strains obtained in our surveys can be classified in the hypoxyloid and xylaroid subfamilies, although many also were found outside of these lineages (as currently circumscribed). Many endophytes were placed in lineages previously not known for endophytism. Most endophytes appear to represent novel species, but inferences are limited by potential gaps in public databases. By linking our data, publicly available sequence data, and records of ascomata, we identify many geographically widespread, host-generalist clades capable of symbiotic associations with diverse photosynthetic partners. Concomitant with such cosmopolitan host use and distributions, many xylariaceous endophytes appear to inhabit both living and non-living plant

  8. Dose-response relationship of a new Timothy grass pollen allergoid in comparison with a 6-grass pollen allergoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Hohlfeld, J M; Al-Kadah, B; Hauswald, B; Homey, B; Hunzelmann, N; Schliemann, S; Velling, P; Worm, M; Klimek, L

    2017-11-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Based on the extensive cross-reactivity among Pooideae species, it has been suggested that grass pollen extracts could be prepared from a single species, rather than from a multiple species mixture. To find the optimal dose of a Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergoid preparation and compare its efficacy and safety to a 6-grass pollen allergoid preparation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study (EudraCT: 2011-000674-58), three doses of P. pratense allergoid (1800 therapeutic units (TU), standard-dose 6000 TU and 18 000 TU) were compared with placebo and the marketed 6-grass pollen allergoid (6000 TU). In a pre-seasonal dosing regimen, 102 patients were randomized to five treatment groups and received nine subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in weal size (late-phase reaction [LPR]) in response to the intracutaneous testing (ICT) before and after treatment, comparing the active allergoids to placebo. Secondary outcomes were the change in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) assessed in the allergen exposure chamber (AEC), the changes in P. pratense-serum-specific IgG 4 and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). All three doses of the P. pratense and the 6-grass pollen allergoid preparations were significantly superior to placebo for the primary outcome, whereas there were no significant differences in the change in TNSS. Compared to the standard-dose, the high-dose of P. pratense did not produce any additional significant benefit, but showed a slight increase in AEs. Yet this increase in AEs was lower than for the 6-grass pollen preparation. The standard-dose of the new P. pratense allergoid was comparable to the marketed 6-grass pollen preparation at equal dose for the parameters measured. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John

  9. Bioactive endophytes warrant intensified exploration and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen A; Tank, David C; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol A; Eisenman, Kaury; Kingery, David; Babbs, Beatrice; Fenn, Kathleen; Greene, Joshua S; Hann, Bradley D; Keehner, Jocelyn; Kelley-Swift, Elizabeth G; Kembaiyan, Vivek; Lee, Sun Jin; Li, Puyao; Light, David Y; Lin, Emily H; Ma, Cong; Moore, Emily; Schorn, Michelle A; Vekhter, Daniel; Nunez, Percy V; Strobel, Gary A; Donoghue, Michael J; Strobel, Scott A

    2008-08-25

    A key argument in favor of conserving biodiversity is that as yet undiscovered biodiversity will yield products of great use to humans. However, the link between undiscovered biodiversity and useful products is largely conjectural. Here we provide direct evidence from bioassays of endophytes isolated from tropical plants and bioinformatic analyses that novel biology will indeed yield novel chemistry of potential value. We isolated and cultured 135 endophytic fungi and bacteria from plants collected in Peru. nrDNAs were compared to samples deposited in GenBank to ascertain the genetic novelty of cultured specimens. Ten endophytes were found to be as much as 15-30% different than any sequence in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees, using the most similar sequences in GenBank, were constructed for each endophyte to measure phylogenetic distance. Assays were also conducted on each cultured endophyte to record bioactivity, of which 65 were found to be bioactive. The novelty of our contribution is that we have combined bioinformatic analyses that document the diversity found in environmental samples with culturing and bioassays. These results highlight the hidden hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi and the urgent need to explore and conserve hidden microbial diversity. This study also showcases how undergraduate students can obtain data of great scientific significance.

  10. Bioactive endophytes warrant intensified exploration and conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Smith

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A key argument in favor of conserving biodiversity is that as yet undiscovered biodiversity will yield products of great use to humans. However, the link between undiscovered biodiversity and useful products is largely conjectural. Here we provide direct evidence from bioassays of endophytes isolated from tropical plants and bioinformatic analyses that novel biology will indeed yield novel chemistry of potential value.We isolated and cultured 135 endophytic fungi and bacteria from plants collected in Peru. nrDNAs were compared to samples deposited in GenBank to ascertain the genetic novelty of cultured specimens. Ten endophytes were found to be as much as 15-30% different than any sequence in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees, using the most similar sequences in GenBank, were constructed for each endophyte to measure phylogenetic distance. Assays were also conducted on each cultured endophyte to record bioactivity, of which 65 were found to be bioactive.The novelty of our contribution is that we have combined bioinformatic analyses that document the diversity found in environmental samples with culturing and bioassays. These results highlight the hidden hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi and the urgent need to explore and conserve hidden microbial diversity. This study also showcases how undergraduate students can obtain data of great scientific significance.

  11. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities.

  12. Conservation and diversity of seed associated endophytes in Zea across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with γ-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate

  13. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with γ-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate

  14. Conservation and diversity of seed associated endophytes in Zea across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johnston-Monje

    Full Text Available Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte to modern maize (corn and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with γ-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed

  15. Study of endophytic Xylariaceae in Thailand: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses with saprobes forming fruit bodies in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okane, Izumi; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Toyama, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    to reveal the diversity and taxonomy of endophytes and the relationships between those endophytes and saprobic Xylariaceae in Thailand that have been recorded according to fruit-body formation on decayed plant materials. Analysis of 28S rDNA D1/D2 sequences revealed 21 xylariaceous species inhabiting......A study of the diversity, taxonomy, and ecology of endophytic Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) was carried out. In this study, we obtained isolates of Xylariaceae from healthy, attached leaves and teleomorphic stromata on decayed plant materials in a permanent plot at Khao Yai National Park (Thailand......). In addition, strains deposited beforehand were selected in which both endophytic strains isolated from living plant tissues and saprobic strains from fruit bodies were included. Consequently, 405 strains of Xylariaceae (273 endophytic and 132 saprobic strains, including identified strains) were studied...

  16. Relationship between the Al resistance of grasses and their adaptation to an infertile habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poozesh, Vahid; Cruz, Pablo; Choler, Philippe; Bertoni, Georges

    2007-05-01

    Original data on Al resistance, relative growth rate and leaf traits of five European grasses as well as literature data on Al resistance, habitat preference and traits of grasses were considered to determine whether (a) Al resistance is correlated to a growth conservative strategy and (b) species occurrence could be useful to assess Al toxicity in meadows on acid soils. The Al resistance of 15 species was represented by the Al activity in nutrient solution that resulted in a 50 % decrease in root length, [Al(3+)](50), or, for published values, in root or plant biomass. The correlations between Al resistance and acidity or nitrogen indices and the correlation between Al resistance and selected traits (relative growth rate, leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area and leaf thickness) were calculated. Principal component analysis was used for the characterization of the relationships between Al resistance and measured traits. The [Al(3+)](50) values of the resistant species Molinia caerulea and Sieglingia decumbens were 13 and 26 microm [Al(3+)](50), respectively. The known Al resistance of 15 species that were mainly of the intermediate strategy competitor-stress tolerator-ruderal (C-S-R) type and of the S type was correlated with Ellenberg's nitrogen and acidity indices. For the whole set of species, the correlation between Al resistance and traits was not significant. The Al resistance of the C-S-R species was variable and independent of their traits. S-type species, adapted to acid soils and with traits of conservative strategy, displayed Al resistance. The large difference in Al resistance between grasses may help assess Al soil toxicity by using the abundance of grasses.

  17. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  18. Soils mediate the impact of fine woody debris on invasive and native grasses as whole trees are mechanically shredded into firebreaks in piñon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanderud, Zachary T.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Rigby, Deborah; Bybee, Jordon; Campbell, Tayte; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    To stem wildfires, trees are being mechanically shredded into firebreaks with the resulting fine woody debris (FWD) potentially exerting immense control over soil and plants. We linked FWD-induced changes in microbial activity and nutrient availability to the frequency of Bromus tectorum and three native, perennial grasses across 31 piñon-juniper woodlands, UT, USA. Using a series of mixed models, we found that FWD increased the frequency of three of the four grasses by at least 12%. Deep, as opposed to shallow, soils mediated frequencies following FWD additions but only partially explained the variation in Bromus and Pseudoroegneria spicata. Although fertile areas associated with tree-islands elicited no response, FWD-induced increases in nitrogen mineralization in deep soils (15–17 cm) caused the frequency of the exotic and Pseudoroegneria to rise. Higher phosphorus availability in FWD-covered surface soils (0–2 cm) had no impact on grasses. FWD altered deep soil respiration, and deep and shallow microbial biomass structuring Pseudoroegneria frequencies, suggesting that microorganism themselves regulated Pseudoroegneria. The positive effects of FWD on grass frequencies intensified over time for natives but diminished for Bromus. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms in deeper soils helped mediate species-specific responses to disturbance both facilitating exotic invasion and promoting native establishment.

  19. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  20. Antimicrobial biosynthetic potential and genetic diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohain, Anwesha; Gogoi, Animesh; Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Singh, Bhim P; Gupta, Vijai K; Sharma, Rajeev; Saikia, Ratul

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes are one of the primary groups that share symbiotic relationships with medicinal plants and are key reservoir of biologically active compounds. In this study, six selective medicinal plants were targeted for the first time for endophytic actinomycetes isolation from Gibbon Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam, India, during winter and summer and 76 isolates were obtained. The isolates were found to be prevalent in roots followed by stem and leaves. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 16 genera, including rare genera, Verrucosispora, Isoptericola and Kytococcus, which have never been previously reported as endophytic. The genus Streptomyces (66%) was dominant in both seasons. Shannon's diversity index showed that Azadirachta indica (1.49), Rauwolfia serpentina (1.43) and Emblica officinalis (1.24) were relatively good habitat for endophytic actinomycetes. Antimicrobial strains showed prevalence of polyketide synthase (PKS) type-II (85%) followed by PKS type-I (14%) encoded in the genomes. Expression studies showed 12-fold upregulation of PKSII gene in seventh day of incubation for Streptomyces antibioticus (EAAG90). Our results emphasize that the actinomycetes assemblages within plant tissue exhibited biosynthetic systems encoding for important biologically active compounds. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Isolation and identification of local bacteria endophyte and screening of its antimicrobial property against pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, Ahmad Syairazie Ibrahim; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Hamzah, Ainon

    2018-04-01

    Endophytes are organisms, often fungi and bacteria that live in living plant cells. These organisms reside in the living tissues of the host plant in a variety of relationships, ranging from symbiotic to slightly pathogenic. The endophytes may produce a plethora of substances that have potential to be used in modern medicine, agriculture and industry. The aims of this study are to isolate, identify and screening antimicrobial activity of bacterial endophytes. The endophytes were isolated using nutrient agar, incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Identification of the isolates were done based on morphological characteristics, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA molecular analysis. Disk diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity of metabolites from endophytes against pathogenic bacteria. Screening for antifungal activity of selected endophytes was done using dual culture method againts pathogenic fungi followed by Kirby-Bauer method. Results showed endophytes designated as B2c and B7b have positive antimicrobial activity. The metabolites from isolate B2c showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, while isolate B7b have positive activities againts MRSA, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates B2c displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Phytophthora palmivora and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Identification using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequences identified isolate B2c as Pseudomonas resinovorans with 97% homology and isolate B7b as Bacillus subtilis with 98% homology.

  2. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  3. Rapid Discovery and Functional Characterization of Terpene Synthases from Four Endophytic Xylariaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME and GC-MS. Out of the 26 TPS's profiled, 12 TPS's were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.

  4. Endophytic bacteria: prospects and applications for the phytoremediation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser M; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increased effort to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation of contaminated environments by exploiting plant-microbe interactions. The combined use of plants and endophytic bacteria is an emerging approach for the clean-up of soil and water polluted with organic compounds. In plant-endophyte partnerships, plants provide the habitat as well as nutrients to their associated endophytic bacteria. In response, endophytic bacteria with appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic activities enhance degradation of organic pollutants, and diminish phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of organic pollutants. Moreover, endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting activities enhance the plant's adaptation and growth in soil and water contaminated with organic pollutants. Overall, the application of endophytic bacteria gives new insights into novel protocols to improve phytoremediation efficiency. However, successful application of plant-endophyte partnerships for the clean-up of an environment contaminated with organic compounds depends on the abundance and activity of the degrading endophyte in different plant compartments. Although many endophytic bacteria have the potential to degrade organic pollutants and improve plant growth, their contribution to enhance phytoremediation efficiency is still underestimated. A better knowledge of plant-endophyte interactions could be utilized to increase the remediation of polluted soil environments and to protect the foodstuff by decreasing agrochemical residues in food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of abiotic stress tolerance in plants by endophytic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, R; Chowdhury, S; Gond, S K; White, J F

    2018-04-01

    Endophytes are micro-organisms including bacteria and fungi that survive within healthy plant tissues and promote plant growth under stress. This review focuses on the potential of endophytic microbes that induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. How endophytes promote plant growth under stressful conditions, like drought and heat, high salinity and poor nutrient availability will be discussed. The molecular mechanisms for increasing stress tolerance in plants by endophytes include induction of plant stress genes as well as biomolecules like reactive oxygen species scavengers. This review may help in the development of biotechnological applications of endophytic microbes in plant growth promotion and crop improvement under abiotic stress conditions. Increasing human populations demand more crop yield for food security while crop production is adversely affected by abiotic stresses like drought, salinity and high temperature. Development of stress tolerance in plants is a strategy to cope with the negative effects of adverse environmental conditions. Endophytes are well recognized for plant growth promotion and production of natural compounds. The property of endophytes to induce stress tolerance in plants can be applied to increase crop yields. With this review, we intend to promote application of endophytes in biotechnology and genetic engineering for the development of stress-tolerant plants. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Phytohormones in plant-endophyte interactions: investigating the role of these compounds in the recruitment of tomato root fungal endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, Andrea; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    in this interaction, but little is known about the specific way by which they influence the recruitment and the colonization of the host tissues. The aim of the current project is to go deeper into the role of these signalling compounds in plant-endophyte interactions. The isolation of endophytic fungi from tomato......-colonization frequency appears to be influenced by the presence/absence of specific phytohormones. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of these compounds in the plant-endophyte interaction, the selected isolates are currently being screened using confocal microscopy and qPCR in order to find candidates...... whose colonization rate is critically affected by the phytohormones of interest. A transcriptomic analysis of tomato plants inoculated with the isolates selected from the screening will provide further clues as to which physiological mechanisms, associated with endophyte recruitment, are influenced...

  7. Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Bael Sunshine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest.

  8. Endophytic bacterial community of grapevine leaves influenced by sampling date and phytoplasma infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero A

    2014-07-21

    Endophytic bacteria benefit host plant directly or indirectly, e.g. by biocontrol of the pathogens. Up to now, their interactions with the host and with other microorganisms are poorly understood. Consequently, a crucial step for improving the knowledge of those relationships is to determine if pathogens or plant growing season influence endophytic bacterial diversity and dynamic. Four healthy, four phytoplasma diseased and four recovered (symptomatic plants that spontaneously regain a healthy condition) grapevine plants were sampled monthly from June to October 2010 in a vineyard in north-western Italy. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from sterilized leaves and the endophytic bacterial community dynamic and diversity were analyzed by taxon specific real-time PCR, Length-Heterogeneity PCR and genus-specific PCR. These analyses revealed that both sampling date and phytoplasma infection influenced the endophytic bacterial composition. Interestingly, in June, when the plants are symptomless and the pathogen is undetectable (i) the endophytic bacterial community associated with diseased grapevines was different from those in the other sampling dates, when the phytoplasmas are detectable inside samples; (ii) the microbial community associated with recovered plants differs from that living inside healthy and diseased plants. Interestingly, LH-PCR database identified bacteria previously reported as biocontrol agents in the examined grapevines. Of these, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Pantoea dynamic was influenced by the phytoplasma infection process and seasonality. Results indicated that endophytic bacterial community composition in grapevine is correlated to both phytoplasma infection and sampling date. For the first time, data underlined that, in diseased plants, the pathogen infection process can decrease the impact of seasonality on community dynamic. Moreover, based on experimental evidences, it was reasonable to hypothesize that after recovery the restructured

  9. Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2014-06-01

    Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Community structure of endophytic fungi of four mangrove species in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Long Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests play an important role in subtropical and tropical coastal ecosystems. Endophytic fungi are widely distributed in various ecosystems and have great contribution to global biodiversity. In order to better understand the effects of mangrove species and tissue types on endophytic fungal community, we investigated cultivable endophytic fungi in leaves and twigs of four mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Kandelia candel in Guangxi, China. The four tree species had similar overall colonisation rates of endophytic fungi (24–33%. The colonisation rates of endophytic fungi were higher in twigs (30–58% than in leaves (6–25% in the four plant species. A total of 36 endophytic fungal taxa were identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, including 35 Ascomycota and 1 Basidiomycota, dominated by Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Xylaria, Leptosphaerulina, and Pestalotiopsis. The diversity of endophytic fungi was higher in twigs than in leaves in the four plant species. Some endophytic fungi showed host and tissue preference. The endophytic fungal community composition was different among four mangrove species and between leaf and twig tissues.

  11. Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Scheper, J.A.; Benvenutti, M.A.; Gordon, I.J.; Poppi, D.P.; Elgersma, A.

    2011-01-01

    The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and

  12. The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi were identified by distinguishing between reproductive structures using a microculture technique. While observing diaphanized root fragments, we found arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi in the fine and coarse roots of H. marrubioides. The endophytic CR was more ...

  13. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  14. Isolation and characterization of beneficial indigenous endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any damage to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. The present study was carried out to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with Amaranthus hybridus, Solanum lycopersicum and Cucurbita maxima.

  15. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Higginbotham

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

  16. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  17. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  18. Molecular dynamics in germinating, endophyte-colonized quinoa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aims The pseudo-cereal quinoa has an outstanding nutritional value. Seed germination is unusually fast, and plant tolerance to salt stress exceptionally high. Seemingly all seeds harbor bacterial endophytes. This work examines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities during early development. It evaluates possible contribution of endophytes to rapid germination and plant robustness. Methods MAPK activities were monitored in water- and NaCl-imbibed seeds over a 4-h-period using an immunoblot-based approach. Cellulolytic and pectinolytic abilities of bacteria were assessed biochemically, and cellular movement, biofilm, elicitor and antimicrobial compound synthesis genes sequenced. GyrA-based, cultivation-independent studies provided first insight into endophyte diversity. Results Quinoa seeds and seedlings exhibit remarkably complex and dynamic MAPK activity profiles. Depending on seed origin, variances exist in MAPK patterns and probably also in endophyte assemblages. Mucilage-degrading activities enable endophytes to colonize seed surfaces of a non-host species, chia, without apparent adverse effects. Conclusions Owing to their motility, cell wall-loosening and elicitor-generating abilities, quinoa endophytes have the potential to drive cell expansion, move across cell walls, generate damage-associated molecular patterns and activate MAPKs in their host. Bacteria may thus facilitate rapid germination and confer a primed state directly upon seed rehydration. Transfer into non-native crops appears both desirable and feasible. PMID:29416180

  19. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  20. A endophytic fungus, Ramichloridium cerophilum, promotes growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... A fungal endophyte, Ramichloridium cerophilum, was identified as a Class 2 endophytes species ... The mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and fungi is common and .... growing fungal colony and placed into a sterile plastic pot and .... bacteria associated with the roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica.

  1. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-11-06

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes.

  2. Gene Clusters for Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in the Grass-Endophytic Fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum

    OpenAIRE

    Spiering, Martin J.; Moon, Christina D.; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2005-01-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same ...

  3. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood

  4. [Screening endophytic bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuang; Yan, Shuzhen; Chen, Shuanglin

    2011-03-01

    Plant-parasite nematode is one of the most important pathogens in plant. Our objective is to screen endophytic bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes from plant. Endophytic bacteria were isolated and screened by testing their metabolite against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in vitro. Those strains inhibiting B. xylophilus were selected to culture in liquid medium and fermentation conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. The stability of the antinematode substances was evaluated by various. In addition, four strains were identified by 16SrDNA sequence analysis. In total 13 strains of endophytic bacteria secreting antinematode metabolite were isolated from 6 species of plant. The supernatant of the fermentation broth of these endophytic bacteria gave 100% mortality of nematodes after treated as the follows: 1 ml each was mixed with 0.2 ml of the suspension of nematodes (2000 nematodes/ml) then incubated at 250C for 24 h, some of which could led to leakage or dissolution of nematodes. Among them, four strains, BCM2, SZ5, CCM7 and DP1, showed stronger activity than others. The supernatants diluted three times also gave not less than 95% mortality after 24 h treatment, and those from DP1 and SZ5 even gave 100% mortality. The fermentation conditions of the four strains were optimized and the antinematode activity grew up four times after optimization. The antinematode substances of these strains were found stable when treated with protease or heating or stored at 4 degrees C after 100 days, while instable when treated with acid or alkali. DP1 and CCM7 were identified to be Bacillus subtilis, while SZ5 and BCM2 to be Bacillus cereus. Endophytic bacteria secreting antinematode metabolite were found in economic crops. The metabolite of some strains showed strong and stable antinematode activity. Our results indicate the real potential of biocontrol by endophytic bacteria.

  5. Exploitation of endophytes for sustainable agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cocq, Kate; Gurr, Sarah J; Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agriculture, which depends on unsustainable levels of agrochemical inputs, is environmentally harmful, and the expansion of these practices to meet future needs is not economically feasible. Other options should be considered to meet the global food security challenge. The plant microbiome has been linked to improved plant productivity and, in this microreview, we consider the endosphere - a subdivision of the plant microbiome. We suggest a new definition of microbial endophyte status, the need for synergy between fungal and bacterial endophyte research efforts, as well as potential strategies for endophyte application to agricultural systems. © 2016 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Fungal Endophytes as a Metabolic Fine-Tuning Regulator for Wine Grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available Endophytes proved to exert multiple effects on host plants, including growth promotion, stress resistance. However, whether endophytes have a role in metabolites shaping of grape has not been fully understood. Eight endophytic fungal strains which originally isolated from grapevines were re-inoculated to field-grown grapevines in this study, and their effects on both leaves and berries of grapevines at maturity stage were assessed, with special focused on secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities. High-density inoculation of all these endophytic fungal strains modified the physio-chemical status of grapevine to different degrees. Fungal inoculations promoted the content of reducing sugar (RS, total flavonoids (TF, total phenols (TPh, trans-resveratrol (Res and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, in both leaves and berries of grapevine. Inoculation of endophytic fungal strains, CXB-11 (Nigrospora sp. and CXC-13 (Fusarium sp. conferred greater promotion effects in grape metabolic re-shaping, compared to other used fungal strains. Additionally, inoculation of different strains of fungal endophytes led to establish different metabolites patterns of wine grape. The work implies the possibility of using endophytic fungi as fine-tuning regulator to shape the quality and character of wine grape.

  7. Beech cupules share endophytic fungi with leaves and twigs

    OpenAIRE

    Tateno, Osamu; Hirose, Dai; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycobiota on leaves, twigs and cupules of Fagus crenata were investigated using a culture-dependent method over a growing season to test the hypothesis that endophytic fungi of cupule (a woody phyllome) share some components of the endophytic fungal assemblages with both leaves and twigs. A total of 14 fungal taxa were isolated, and the most frequent taxon was Phomopsis sp., followed by Xylaria sp., Ascochyta fagi and Geniculosporium sp. The compositions of fungal assemblages of le...

  8. Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, P.R.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes live inside plants for at least part of their life cycle. Studies of the interaction of endophytes with their host plants and their function within their hosts are important to address the ecological relevance of endophytes. The modulation of ethylene levels in plants by

  9. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  10. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi obtained from the arid zone invasive plant Opuntia dillenii and the isolation of equisetin, from endophytic Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B; de Silva, E Dilip; Williams, David E; Andersen, Raymond J

    2015-07-10

    Opuntia dillenii is an invasive plant well established in the harsh South-Eastern arid zone of Sri Lanka. Evidence suggests it is likely that the endophytic fungal populations of O. dillenii assist the host in overcoming biotic and abiotic stress by producing biologically active metabolites. With this in mind there is potential to discover novel natural products with useful biological activities from this hitherto poorly investigated source. Consequently, an investigation of the antimicrobial activities of the endophytes of O. dillenii, that occupies a unique ecological niche, may well provide useful leads in the discovery of new pharmaceuticals. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized cladodes and flowers of O. dillenii using several nutrient media and the antimicrobial activities were evaluated against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. The two most bioactive fungi were identified by colony morphology and DNA sequencing. The secondary metabolite of the endophyte Fusarium sp. exhibiting the best activity was isolated via bioassay guided chromatography. The chemical structure was elucidated from the ESIMS and NMR spectroscopic data obtained for the active metabolite. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the active compound were determined. Eight endophytic fungi were isolated from O. dillenii and all except one showed antibacterial activities against at least one of the test bacteria. All extracts were inactive against C. albicans. The most bioactive fungus was identified as Fusarium sp. and the second most active as Aspergillus niger. The structure of the major antibacterial compound of the Fusarium sp. was shown to be the tetramic acid derivative, equisetin. The MIC's for equisetin were 8 μg mL(-1) against Bacillus subtilis, 16 μg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). O. dillenii, harbors several endophytic fungi capable of producing

  11. ZnS semiconductor quantum dots production by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddandarao, Priyanka, E-mail: uddandaraopriyanka@gmail.com; B, Raj Mohan, E-mail: rajmohanbala@gmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida was used for the synthesis of quantum dots. • Morris-Weber kinetic model and Lagergren's pseudo-first-order rate equation were used to study the biosorption kinetics. • Polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots of 18 nm and 58.9 nm from TEM and DLS, respectively. - Abstract: The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metal sulphide quantum dots has been considered as a major challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots were synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. It is noteworthy that apart from being rich sources of bioactive compounds, endophytic fungus also has the ability to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticles. TEM and DLS revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of about 18 nm and 58.9 nm, respectively. The ZnS quantum dots were further characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The obtained results confirmed the synthesis of polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots and these quantum dots are used for studying ROS activity. In addition this paper explains kinetics of metal sorption to study the role of biosorption in synthesis of quantum dots by applying Morris-Weber kinetic model. Since Aspergillus flavus is isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, quantum dots synthesized from this fungus may have great potential in broad environmental and medical applications.

  12. Differential methods of localisation of fungal endophytes in the seagrasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sections of three seagrass species (Halophila ovalis, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule pinifolia were assessed for endophytes based on differential staining using light and fluorescence microscopy method. Acridine orange and aniline blue detected endophytic fungi in 20% and 10% of the segments, respectively, whereas lactophenol cotton blue was more sensitive to detect the fungal hyphae in 70% of the segments. Hyphae were the principal fungal structures generally observed under the cuticle, within the epidermal cells, mesophyll (Parenchyma cells and occasionally within the vascular tissue that varied in type, size and location within the leaf tissue. Present study also recorded the sporulation for the first time from the seagrass endophytes. Successfully amplified products of the ITS region of endophytic fungal DNA, directly from seagrass tissue and also from culture-dependent fungal DNA clearly depicted the presence of endophytic fungi in H. ovalis with two banding patterns (903 and 1381 bp confirming the presence of two dominant fungal genera. The fingerprinting of endophytic fungal community within the seagrass tissue was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE that derived with multiple bands that clarified the presence of more than one taxon within the seagrass tissue.

  13. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  14. Plant growth promoting potential of endophytic bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic microorganisms are able to promote plant growth through various mechanisms, such as production of plant hormones and antimicrobial substances, as well as to provide the soil with nutrients, for instance, inorganic phosphate. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from ...

  15. An endoglucanase is involved in infection of rice roots by the not-cellulose-metabolizing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Maes, Tamara; Gemmer, Sabrina; Van Montagu, Marc; Hurek, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    The nitrogen-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 infects roots of Kallar grass and rice inter- and intra-cellularly and can spread systemically into shoots without causing symptoms of plant disease. Although cellulose or its breakdown products do not support growth, this strain expresses an endoglucanase, which might be involved in infection. Sequence analysis of eglA places the secreted 34-kDa protein into the glycosyl hydrolases family 5, with highest relatedness (40% identity) to endoglucanases of the phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris and Ralstonia solanacearum. Transcriptional regulation studied by eglA:: gusA fusion was not significantly affected by cellulose or its breakdown products or by microaerobiosis. Strongest induction (threefold) was obtained in bacteria grown in close vicinity to rice roots. Visible sites of expression were the emergence points of lateral roots and root tips, which are the primary regions of ingress into the root. To study the role in endophytic colonization, eglA was inactivated by transposon mutagenesis. Systemic spreading of the eglA mutant and of a pilAB mutant into the rice shoot could no longer be detected by polymerase chain reaction. Microscopic inspection of infection revealed that the intracellular colonization of root epidermis cells was significantly reduced in the eglA- mutant BHE6 compared with the wild type and partially restored in the complementation mutant BHRE2 expressing eglA. This provides evidence that Azoarcus sp. endoglucanase is an important determinant for successful endophytic colonization of rice roots, suggesting an active bacterial colonization process.

  16. Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. A total of 940 isolates obtained were grouped into 93 morphotypes, 43 species, and 23 genera, which were authenticated by molecular identification based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence analysis. A high diversity of endophytic fungi from Z. bungeanum are observed with high species richness S (43, Margalef index D′ (6.1351, Shannon–Wiener index H′ (3.2743, Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9476, PIE index (0.9486, and evenness Pielou index J (0.8705 but a low dominant index λ (0.0524. Significant tissue specificity of the endophytic fungi was observed in Z. bungeanum, and the highest species richness and diversity indexes were obtained in the stem. Phylogenetic analyses of the 93 endophytic isolates were carried out by the neighbor-joining (NJ method to demonstrate their evolutionary processes. Antifungal activities of endophytic fungi were assayed and eight endophytic isolates showed strong and long-lasting inhibition against host pathogenic fungi Fusarium sambucinum and Pseudocercospora zanthoxyli. Here, for the first time, we systematically demonstrate the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi associated with Z. bungeanum and reveal the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant to obtain the greatest endophyte species diversity, which might offer a framework for further investigation and utilization of endophytic fungi as aunique source of interesting and useful bioactive compounds.

  17. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    The colonization of plants by putative endophytes has been visualized by using laser scanning confocal microscope (Coombs and Franco 2003). Endophytes promote the growth of plants in various ways, for example through secretion of plant growth regulators;. e.g. indole-acetic acid (Lee et al 2004), via phosphate-.

  18. Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Hoffman

    Full Text Available Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales, but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales. Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions.

  19. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait...

  20. Antagonistic bioactivity of an endophytic bacterium isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic bioactivity of an endophytic bacterium isolated from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. R He, G Wang, X Liu, C Zhang, F Lin. Abstract. Endophytic bacteria are one of the most potential biological control agents in plant disease protection. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of a strain of ...

  1. Endophytic bacteria with potential for bioremediation of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic microorganisms live inside plants and show no apparent damage for the host. They often assist in plants' survival and facilitate their growth, or they can metabolize organic contaminants. This study aimed to isolate and identify the endophytic bacteria of plants present in impacted areas, as well as to test their ...

  2. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  3. Diversity and host range of foliar fungal endophytes: are tropical leaves biodiversity hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, A Elizabeth; Lutzoni, F

    2007-03-01

    Fungal endophytes are found in asymptomatic photosynthetic tissues of all major lineages of land plants. The ubiquity of these cryptic symbionts is clear, but the scale of their diversity, host range, and geographic distributions are unknown. To explore the putative hyperdiversity of tropical leaf endophytes, we compared endophyte communities along a broad latitudinal gradient from the Canadian arctic to the lowland tropical forest of central Panama. Here, we use molecular sequence data from 1403 endophyte strains to show that endophytes increase in incidence, diversity, and host breadth from arctic to tropical sites. Endophyte communities from higher latitudes are characterized by relatively few species from many different classes of Ascomycota, whereas tropical endophyte assemblages are dominated by a small number of classes with a very large number of endophytic species. The most easily cultivated endophytes from tropical plants have wide host ranges, but communities are dominated by a large number of rare species whose host range is unclear. Even when only the most easily cultured species are considered, leaves of tropical trees represent hotspots of fungal species diversity, containing numerous species not yet recovered from other biomes. The challenge remains to recover and identify those elusive and rarely cultured taxa with narrower host ranges, and to elucidate the ecological roles of these little-known symbionts in tropical forests.

  4. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Eman M.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2018-01-01

    The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays) against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum). The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays) for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169) exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73) of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169) of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl) and 62% (104/169) secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated cucurbits

  5. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Khalaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum. The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169 exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73 of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169 of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl and 62% (104/169 secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  6. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Khalaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanidermatum. The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169 exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73 of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169 of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl and 62% (104/169 secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  7. Salicaceae Endophytes Modulate Stomatal Behavior and Increase Water Use Efficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Rho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and yeast endophytes isolated from the Salicaceae family have been shown to promote growth and alleviate stress in plants from different taxa. To determine the physiological pathways through which endophytes affect plant water relations, we investigated leaf water potential, whole-plant water use, and stomatal responses of rice plants to Salicaceae endophyte inoculation under CO2 enrichment and water deficit. Daytime stomatal conductance and stomatal density were lower in inoculated plants compared to controls. Leaf ABA concentrations increased with endophyte inoculation. As a result, transpirational water use decreased significantly with endophyte inoculation while biomass did not change or slightly increased. This response led to a significant increase in cumulative water use efficiency at harvest. Different endophyte strains produced the same results in host plant water relations and stomatal responses. These stomatal responses were also observed under elevated CO2 conditions, and the increase in water use efficiency was more pronounced under water deficit conditions. The effect on water use efficiency was positively correlated with daily light integrals across different experiments. Our results provide insights on the physiological mechanisms of plant-endophyte interactions involving plant water relations and stomatal functions.

  8. Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rangjaroen, C.; Rerkasem, B.; Teaumroong, N.; Sungthong, R.; Lumyong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities' richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice ...

  9. Levels of rhizome endophytic fungi fluctuate in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis as plants age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is an important medicinal plant with abundant saponins that are widely used in the pharmaceuticals industry. It is unclear why the levels of active ingredients increase as these plants age. We speculated that the concentrations of those components in the rhizomes are mediated by fungal endophytes. To test this hypothesis, we took both culture-dependent and -independent (metagenomics approaches to analyze the communities of endophytic fungi that inhabit those rhizomes in plants of different age classes (four, six, and eight years old. In all, 147 isolates representing 18 fungal taxa were obtained from 270 segments (90 per age class. Based on morphological and genetic characteristics, Fusarium oxysporum (46.55% frequency of occurrence was the predominant endophyte, followed by Leptodontidium sp. (8.66% and Trichoderma viride (6.81%. Colonization of endophytic fungi was maximized in the eight-year-old rhizomes (33.33% when compared with four-year-old (21.21% and six-year-old (15.15% rhizomes. Certain fungal species were present only at particular ages. For example, Alternaria sp., Cylindrocarpon sp., Chaetomium sp., Paraphaeosphaeria sporulosa, Pyrenochaeta sp., Penicillium swiecickii, T. viride, and Truncatella angustata were found only in the oldest plants. Analysis of (metagenomics community DNA extracted from different-aged samples revealed that, at the class level, the majority of fungi had the highest sequence similarity to members of Sordariomycetes, followed by Eurotiomycetes and Saccharomycetes. These results were mostly in accord with those we obtained using culture methods. Fungal diversity and richness also changed over time. Our investigation is the first to show that the diversity of fungi in rhizomes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is altered as plants age, and our findings provide a foundation for future examinations of useful compounds.

  10. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joseph M; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A; Kellogg, Joshua J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-09-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 fungal cultures were obtained from surface-sterilized samples of H. canadensis roots, leaves and seeds. Eleven secondary metabolites were isolated from these fungal endophytes, five of which had reported antimicrobial activity. Hydrastis canadensis plant material was then analyzed for the presence of fungal metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolving power mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial compound alternariol monomethyl ether was detected both as a metabolite of the fungal endophyte Alternaria spp. isolated from H. canadensis seeds, and as a component of an extract from the H. canadensis seed material. Notably, fungi of the Alternaria genus were isolated from three separate accessions of H. canadensis plant material collected in a time period spanning 5 years. The concentration of alternariol monomethyl ether (991 mg/kg in dry seed material) was in a similar range to that previously reported for metabolites of ecologically important fungal endophytes. The seed extracts themselves, however, did not possess antimicrobial activity.

  11. Mediated moderation or moderated mediation: relationship between length of unemployment, resilience, coping and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Víctor; Guarino, Leticia

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate a model of mediated moderation vs. moderated mediation that could explain the relationship between length of unemployment, dispositional resilience, coping styles and depression and social functioning of Venezuelan unemployed individuals. Self-report measures were administered to a sample of 328 unemployed residents in Caracas, Venezuela. Results indicated that emotional coping acted as a mediator in the relationship between resilience and depression. Individuals with greater resilience used more detachment coping when unemployment was longer, while individuals with poorer resilience in the same situation used less avoidance coping. Resilience acted as a protective moderating factor between longer periods of unemployment and social functioning, a process mediated by detachment coping. Overall, results supported a mediated moderation model, with resilience as the moderating factor and coping as the mediator in the relation between stress due to the length of unemployment and well-being.

  12. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  13. Evaluating Susceptibility to Commercial Fungicide of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Roses (Rosa hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Carolina Corredor Perilla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes have shown their potential as biocontrol agents; however, their application in commercial fields remains limited. Continuously applying fungicides to crops (specifically to roses may have harmful effects on endophyte growth. Endophytic fungi were isolated from R. hybrida and their susceptibility to fungicides regularly used for controlling important pathogens was analysed. This was performed in vitro, mixing several fungicide concentrations with standard medium for fungal endophytes; growth inhibition was then measured. The susceptibility of Botrytis cinerea (3015 strain, one of the most important pathogens affecting roses in Colombia, was also assessed using the same protocols. Active ingredients, such as boscalid, captan, iprodione and pyrimethanyl, showed susceptibility ranging from not sensitive (³73.75% to regularly sensitive (³48.75% - <61.25% for 45.45% of the fungal endophytes assessed. Endophytic fungi were highly susceptible to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin plus thiram, fludioxonyl plus ciprodinyl and prochloraz. B. cinerea (3015 strain presented high susceptibility (<23.75% to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin and thiram, fludioxonil and ciprodinyl, prochloraz. Although B. cinerea showed the greatest growth in controls, the endophytic fungi being assessed grew better in different media with fungicides. The results revealed some of these fungal endophytes’ potential for integrated pest management (IPM in roses in Colombia (3002, 3003, 3004, 3005 and 3006 strains, taking into account correct application time, application frequency and both fungal endophyte and fungicide dosage which may greatly limit fungal endophyte growth.

  14. Root-hair endophyte stacking in finger millet creates a physicochemical barrier to trap the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa K; Shearer, Charles; Limay-Rios, Victor; Ettinger, Cassie L; Eisen, Jonathan A; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-26

    The ancient African crop, finger millet, has broad resistance to pathogens including the toxigenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Here, we report the discovery of a novel plant defence mechanism resulting from an unusual symbiosis between finger millet and a root-inhabiting bacterial endophyte, M6 (Enterobacter sp.). Seed-coated M6 swarms towards root-invading Fusarium and is associated with the growth of root hairs, which then bend parallel to the root axis, subsequently forming biofilm-mediated microcolonies, resulting in a remarkable, multilayer root-hair endophyte stack (RHESt). The RHESt results in a physical barrier that prevents entry and/or traps F. graminearum, which is then killed. M6 thus creates its own specialized killing microhabitat. Tn5-mutagenesis shows that M6 killing requires c-di-GMP-dependent signalling, diverse fungicides and resistance to a Fusarium-derived antibiotic. Further molecular evidence suggests long-term host-endophyte-pathogen co-evolution. The end result of this remarkable symbiosis is reduced deoxynivalenol mycotoxin, potentially benefiting millions of subsistence farmers and livestock. Further results suggest that the anti-Fusarium activity of M6 may be transferable to maize and wheat. RHESt demonstrates the value of exploring ancient, orphan crop microbiomes.

  15. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, Giovanni; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

  16. Melatonin-producing endophytic bacteria from grapevine roots promote the abiotic stress-induced production of endogenous melatonin in their hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with plants and constitute an important source of phytohormones and bioactive secondary metabolites for their hosts. To date, most studies of endophytes have focused on the influence of these microorganisms on plant growth and physiology and their role in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stressors; however, to the best of our knowledge, the ability of endophytes to produce melatonin has not been reported. In the present study, we isolated and identified root-dwelling bacteria from three grapevine varieties and found that, when cultured under laboratory conditions, some of the bacteria strains secreted melatonin and tryptophan-ethyl ester. The endophytic bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SB-9 exhibited the highest level of in vitro melatonin secretion and also produced three intermediates of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway: 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin. After B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 colonization, the plantlets exhibited increased plant growth. Additionally, we found that, in grapevine plantlets exposed to salt or drought stress, colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 increased the upregulation of melatonin synthesis, as well as that of its intermediates, but reduced the upregulation of grapevine tryptophan decaboxylase genes (VvTDCs and a serotonin N-acetyltransferase gene (VvSNAT transcription, when compared to the un-inoculated control. Colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 was also able to counteract the adverse effects of salt- and drought-induced stress by reducing the production of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2− in roots. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the occurrence of melatonin biosynthesis in endophytic bacteria and provide evidence for a novel form of communication between beneficial endophytes and host plants via melatonin.

  17. Bioprospecting of South African Plants as a Unique Resource for Bioactive Endophytic Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Ali Abdalla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a long history and strong belief in traditional herbal medicines. Using ethnobotanical knowledge as a lead, a large number of South African medicinal plants have been discovered to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. In this review, bioprospecting of endophytes is highlighted by following the advantages of the ethnomedicinal approach together with identifying unique medicinal plants where biological activity may be due to endophytes. This review focuses on the current status of South African medicinal plants to motivate the research community to harness the benefits of ethnobotanical knowledge to investigate the presence of endophytic microbes from the most potent South African medicinal plants. The potential chemical diversity and subsequent putative medicinal value of endophytes is deserving of further research. A timely and comprehensive review of literature on recently isolated endophytes and their metabolites was conducted. Worldwide literature from the last 2 years demonstrating the importance of ethnobotanical knowledge as a useful approach to discover endophytic microbes was documented. Information was obtained from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Scirus, Google Scholar, Dictionary of Natural Products, Chemical Abstracts Services, official websites, and scientific databases on ethnomedicines. Primary sources such as books, reports, dissertations, and thesises were accessed where available. Recently published information on isolated endophytes with promising bioactivity and their bioactive natural products worldwide (2015-2017 was summarized. The potential value of South African medicinal plants as sources of endophytes is discussed. The insights provided through this study indicate that medicinal plants in South Africa are highly under-investigated sources of potentially useful endophytic microbes. New approaches may be used by medicinal plant scientists for further exploration of natural

  18. Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocking, Edward C.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are able to enter into roots from the rhizosphere, particularly at the base of emerging lateral roots, between epidermal cells and through root hairs. In the rhizosphere growing root hairs play an important role in symbiotic recognition in legume crops. Nodulated legumes in endosymbiosis with rhizobia are amongst the most prominent nitrogen-fixing systems in agriculture. The inoculation of non-legumes, especially cereals, with various non-rhizobial diazotrophic bacteria has been undertaken with the expectation that they would establish themselves intercellularly within the root system, fixing nitrogen endophytic ally and providing combined nitrogen for enhanced crop production. However, in most instances bacteria colonize only the surface of the roots and remain vulnerable to competition from other rhizosphere micro-organisms, even when the nitrogen-fixing bacteria are endophytic, benefits to the plant may result from better uptake of soil nutrients rather than from endophytic nitrogen fixation. Azorhizobium caulinodans is known to enter the root system of cereals, other nonlegume crops and Arabidopsis, by intercellular invasion between epidermal cells and to internally colonize the plant intercellularly, including the xylem. This raises the possibility that xylem colonization might provide a nonnodular niche for endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and other non-legume crops. A particularly interesting, naturally occurring, non-qodular xylem colonising endophytic diazotrophic interaction with evidence for endophytic nitrogen fixation is that of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane. Could this beneficial endophytic colonization of sugarcane by G. diazotrophicus be extended to other members of the Gramineae, including the major cereals, and to other major non-legume crops of the World? (author)

  19. The role of mediation in resolving workplace relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donna Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stress triggered by workplace-based interpersonal conflict can result in damaged relationships, loss of productivity, diminished job satisfaction and increasingly, workers' compensation claims for psychological injury. This paper examined the literature on the role and effectiveness of mediation, as the most common method of Alternative Dispute Resolution, in resolving workplace relationship conflict. Available evidence suggests that mediation is most effective when supported by organisational commitment to ADR strategies, policies and processes, and conducted by independent, experienced and qualified mediators. The United States Postal Service program REDRESS™ is described as an illustration of the successful use of mediation to resolve conflict in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Love and Marital Quality in Romantic Relationships Mediated and Non-Mediated by Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rafaela Haack

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Love is one of the most desired feelings by human beings. According to the triangular theory of love, it is composed of three elements: intimacy, passion and decision/commitment, which constitutes a dimension related to the quality of love the partners perceive in their relationship. This study aims to compare the three elements of love and marital quality of 86 Internet users (43 in a relationship mediated by the Internet and 43 with a physical relationship. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in the intimacy, the decision/commitment and the whole dimension of love, as well as in the marital quality between partners who have a relationship mediated by Internet and the ones in a physical relationship. We can conclude that the Internet is a great tool for people to meet, but that it is important for the relationship to develop in a face-to-face context.

  1. Isolation and identification of resveratrol-producing endophytes from wine grape Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Nan, Lijun; Liu, Junchao; Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Dianpeng; Han, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    Obtain endophyte strains with effective resveratrol production from superior grapevine variety Cabernet Sauvignon in Xinjiang and determine related taxonomic position of the strain. Seventy-three strains of endophytes, including 23 strains of bacteria, 14 ones of actinomycetes, 24 fungus and 12 yeasts, were isolated, respectively. The distribution law of endophytes was spring (30.14 %) = summer (30.14 %) < autumn (39.73 %) in different seasons, while the fruit (12.33 %) < leaf (20.55 %) < stem (32.88 %) < root (34.25 %) in different tissues and organs. From the 36 strains of endophytic fungi isolated, seven strains producing polyphenols were screened by ferric chloride-potassium ferricyanide color reaction. C2J6, stable genetic properties producing highly 1.48 mg L(-1) of resveratrol, was identified as Aspergillus niger by 26S rDNA-ITS sequence analysis after thin-layer chromatography sieve analysis, ultra violet wavelength scanning and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. There were the certain number and kinds of endophytes in the various tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon, which, to a certain extent, reflected the biological diversity of plant endophytes. The fact that the fungus C2J6 producing resveratrol in grape was acquired attested the special ability of the endophytes to produce the same or similar bioactive substances as the host plants.

  2. Antifungal and proteolytic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Piper hispidum Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravely Casarotti Orlandelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes.

  3. Endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis are influenced by soil mercury contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro-Souza, William; Mello, Ivani Souza; Vendruscullo, Suzana Junges; Silva, Gilvan Ferreira da; Cunha, Cátia Nunes da; White, James Francis; Soares, Marcos Antônio

    2017-01-01

    The endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis were examined with respect to soil mercury (Hg) contamination. Plants were collected in places with and without Hg+2 for isolation and identification of their endophytic root fungi. We evaluated frequency of colonization, number of isolates and richness, indices of diversity and similarity, functional traits (hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, indoleacetic acid, antibiosis and metal tolerance) and growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis inoculated with endophytic fungi on soil with mercury. The frequency of colonization, structure and community function, as well as the abundant distribution of taxa of endophytic fungi were influenced by mercury contamination, with higher endophytic fungi in hosts in soil with mercury. The presence or absence of mercury in the soil changes the profile of the functional characteristics of the endophytic fungal community. On the other hand, tolerance of lineages to multiple metals is not associated with contamination. A. fluminensis depends on its endophytic fungi, since plants free of endophytic fungi grew less than expected due to mercury toxicity. In contrast plants containing certain endophytic fungi showed good growth in soil containing mercury, even exceeding growth of plants cultivated in soil without mercury. The data obtained confirm the hypothesis that soil contamination by mercury alters community structure of root endophytic fungi in terms of composition, abundance and species richness. The inoculation of A. fluminensis with certain strains of stress tolerant endophytic fungi contribute to colonization and establishment of the host and may be used in processes that aim to improve phytoremediation of soils with toxic concentrations of mercury.

  4. Screening mycotoxins for quorum inhibition in a biocontrol bacterial endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. Bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which are r...

  5. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  6. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  7. Endophytic fungi occurring in fennel, lettuce, chicory, and celery--commercial crops in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Margherita; Frisullo, Salvatore; Cirulli, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of endophytic fungi in fennel, lettuce, chicory, and celery crops was investigated in southern Italy. A total of 186 symptomless plants was randomly collected and sampled at the stage of commercial ripeness. Fungal species of Acremonium, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Plectosporium were detected in all four crops; Plectosporium tabacinum was the most common in all crop species and surveyed sites. The effect of eight endophytic isolates (five belonging to Plectosporium tabacinum and three to three species of Acremonium) inoculated on lettuce plants grown in gnotobiosis was assessed by recording plant height, root length and dry weight, collar diameter, root necrosis, and leaf yellowing. P. tabacinum and three species of Acremonium, inoculated on gnotobiotically grown lettuce plants, showed pathogenic activity that varied with the fungal isolate. Lettuce plants inoculated with the isolates Ak of Acremonium kiliense, Ac of Acremonium cucurbitacearum, and P35 of P. tabacinum showed an increased root growth, compared to the non-inoculated control. The high frequency of P. tabacinum isolation recorded in lettuce plants collected in Bari and Metaponto, and in fennel plants from Foggia agricultural districts, suggests a relationship not only between a crop species and P. tabacinum, but also between the occurrence of the endophyte and the crop rotation history of the soil.

  8. Endophytic microorganisms--promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Z; Kuźniar, A

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented.

  9. Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Kohki; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that self-compassion is related to numerous facets of mental health, but the role of cognitions in this relationship remains unknown. To examine the mediating role of cognitions in the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction when controlling for self-esteem in Japanese people, we conducted two studies. Study 1 (N = 231) examined the relationship between self-compassion and affect by modeling negative automatic thoughts as a mediator; Study 2 (N = 233) tested whether positive and negative automatic thoughts meditate this relationship. Results suggested that both self-compassion and self-esteem increased positive automatic thoughts and decreased trait anxiety, whereas only self-esteem increased life satisfaction and decreased depression directly. Positive automatic thoughts increased life satisfaction and decreased depression and trait anxiety, and positive automatic thoughts mediated the relationship between self-compassion and negative affect. These findings suggest that both positive and negative automatic thoughts mediate the relationship between self-compassion and affect in Japanese people. PMID:25395717

  10. Glucanase and Chitinase from Some Isolates of Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Sasangka; Sulistyowati, Lilik; Aulanni'am

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are those fungi that are able to grow in plant tissue without causing symptoms of disease. It is thought that these fungi may confer on the host plants degree of resistance to parasitic invasion. Endophytic fungi have been isolated from stem tissue and these fungi are known to be antagonistic to pathogenic fungi. These endophytes produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase enzymes. Based on the fact that chitin and β-1,3-glucan are the main skeletal polysaccharides of the cell walls of fungal patogen. The aim of this research is to do potential test on some of isolates of Trichoderma’s endophytic (L-1, L-2, Is-1, Is-2 and Is-7) in the chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activity in effort to determine endophytic which be chossen to be gene resource for the next research. The gene will be transformed to citrus plant japanese citroen in effort to make citrus plant transgenic resistance to phytopatogenic invasion. The result of this research is endofit namely L-1 is the most potential endophytic fungi with chitinase activities is 4,8 10-2 Unit and glucanase 24,2. 1012 Unit. The addition of chitin and cell wall of phytophtora causes chitinase activity significantly increase, and also addition of laminarin and cell wall of phytophtora makes glucanase activity increase.

  11. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  12. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-12-01

    Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanqiao; Xing, Yongmei; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Dawei; Guo, Shunxing; Wang, Chunlan

    2012-11-28

    Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC) and fermentation broth (FB) were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC) and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB) displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  14. Are common symbiosis genes required for endophytic rice-rhizobial interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caiyan; Zhu, Hongyan

    2013-09-01

    Legume plants are able to establish root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called rhizobia. Recent studies revealed that the root nodule symbiosis has co-opted the signaling pathway that mediates the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis that occurs in most land plants. Despite being unable to induce nodulation, rhizobia have been shown to be able to infect and colonize the roots of non-legumes such as rice. One fascinating question is whether establishment of such associations requires the common symbiosis (Sym) genes that are essential for infection of plant cells by mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia in legumes. Here, we demonstrated that the common Sym genes are not required for endophytic colonization of rice roots by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia.

  15. Secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Talaromyces pinophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinale, F; Nicoletti, R; Lacatena, F; Marra, R; Sacco, A; Lombardi, N; d'Errico, G; Digilio, M C; Lorito, M; Woo, S L

    2017-08-01

    Endophytic fungi have a great influence on plant health and growth, and are an important source of bioactive natural compounds. Organic extracts obtained from the culture filtrate of an endophytic strain of Talaromyces pinophilus isolated from strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) were studied. Metabolomic analysis revealed the presence of three bioactive metabolites, the siderophore ferrirubin, the platelet-aggregation inhibitor herquline B and the antibiotic 3-O-methylfunicone. The latter was the major metabolite produced by this strain and displayed toxic effects against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera Aphidiidae). This toxicity represents an additional indication that the widespread endophytic occurrence of T. pinophilus may be related to a possible role in defensive mutualism. Moreover, the toxic activity on aphids could promote further study on 3-O-methylfunicone, or its derivatives, as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in agriculture.

  16. From Concept to Commerce: Developing a Successful Fungal Endophyte Inoculant for Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian R; Doohan, Fiona M; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2018-02-11

    The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research pipeline for the production of a reliable, consistent and environmentally targeted fungal endophyte seed-delivered inoculant for barley cultivars. Our approach was developed de novo from an initial concept to source candidate endophyte inoculants from a wild relative of barley, Hordeum murinum (wall barley). A careful screening and selection procedure and extensive controlled environment testing of fungal endophyte strains, followed by multi-year field trials has resulted in the validation of an endophyte consortium suitable for barley crops grown on relatively dry sites. Our approach can be adapted for any crop or environment, provided that the set of first principles we have developed is followed. Here, we report how we developed the successful pipeline for the production of an economically viable fungal endophyte inoculant for barley cultivars.

  17. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26-42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants.

  18. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophyt...

  19. Endophytic colonization and in planta nitrogen fixation by a diazotrophic Serratia sp. in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhiya, G S; Sugitha, T C K; Balachandar, D; Kumar, K

    2005-09-01

    Nitrogen fixing endophytic Serratia sp. was isolated from rice and characterized. Re-colonization ability of Serratia sp. in the rice seedlings as endophyte was studied under laboratory condition. For detecting the re-colonization potential in the rice seedlings, Serratia sp. was marked with reporter genes (egfp and Kmr) using transposon mutagenesis. The conjugants were screened for re-colonization ability and presence of nif genes using PCR. Further, the influence of flavonoids and growth hormones on the endophytic colonization and in planta nitrogen fixation of Serratia was also investigated. The flavonoids, quercetin (3 microg/ml) and diadzein (2 microg/ml) significantly increased the re-colonization ability of the endophytic Serratia, whereas the growth hormones like IAA and NAA (5 microg/ml) reduced the endophytic colonization ability of Serratia sp. Similarly, the in planta nitrogen fixation by Serratia sp. in rice was significantly increased due to flavonoids. The inoculation of endophytic diazotrophs increased the plant biomass and biochemical constituents.

  20. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Saidur Rahaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users’ perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users’ relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101 in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed.

  1. Mediating the distal crime-drug relationship with proximal reactive criminal thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the results of a study designed to test whether reactive criminal thinking (RCT) does a better job of mediating the crime → drug relationship than it does mediating the drug → crime relationship after the direct effects of crime on drug use/dependency and of drug use/dependency on crime have been rendered nonsignificant by control variables. All 1,170 male members of the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012) served as participants in the current investigation. As predicted, the total (unmediated) effects of crime on substance use/dependence and of substance use/dependence on crime were nonsignificant when key demographic and third variables were controlled, although the indirect (RCT-mediated) effect of crime on drug use was significant. Proactive criminal thinking (PCT), by comparison, failed to mediate either relationship. The RCT continued to mediate the crime → drug relationship and the PCT continued to not mediate either relationship when more specific forms of offending (aggressive, income) and substance use/dependence (drug use, substance-use dependency symptoms) were analyzed. This offers preliminary support for the notion that even when the total crime-drug effect is nonsignificant the indirect path from crime to reactive criminal thinking to drugs can still be significant. Based on these results, it is concluded that mediation by proximal reactive criminal thinking is a mechanism by which distal measures of crime and drug use/dependence are connected. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  3. Relationship between Individual and Organizational Learning: Mediating Role of Team Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stelmaszczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to recognize the relationships between individual and organizational learning while considering team learning as a mediator of these relationships. The research object is a large Polish enterprise specializing in the production of cast-iron items. In order to test assumed research hypotheses, statistical analyses were conducted using the IBM SPSS Statistics Suite, version 20. The suite helped conduct correlation analyses concatenation, line regression analyses and mediation analyses using the PROCESS macro by Hayes and Preacher. The research results show a statistically significant relationship between individual learning and each of the five dimensions of organizational learning [clarity of purpose and mission; leadership commitment and empowerment; knowledge transfer; experimentation and rewards; and teamwork and group problem solving]. What is more, they prove that team learning is a mediator of a relationship between individual and organizational learning. Interestingly, only one full mediation has been observed while researching the mediative effect of team learning in relation to each out of the five dimensions of organizational learning. It occurred in relation to experimentation and rewards. In the remaining cases these were partial mediations.

  4. Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protecting Activity of Exopolysaccharides from the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus cereus SZ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate, strain SZ-1, was Bacillus cereus. The endophyte could produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS at 46 mg/L. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of the EPS reached more than 50% at 3–5 mg/mL. The EPS was also effective in scavenging superoxide radical in a concentration dependent fashion with an EC50 value of 2.6 mg/mL. The corresponding EC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was 3.1 mg/mL. Moreover, phenanthroline-copper complex-mediated chemiluminescent emission of DNA damage was both inhibited and delayed by EPS. The EPS at 0.7–1.7 mg/mL also protected supercoiled DNA strands in plasmid pBR322 against scission induced by Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical. The preincubation of PC12 cells with the EPS prior to H2O2 exposure increased the cell survival and glutathione (GSH level and catalase (CAT activities, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a pronounced protective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our study indicated that the EPS could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  5. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin as an endophyte in tissue culture banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, Juliet; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Coyne, Daniel; Nakavuma, Jessica; Paparu, Pamela

    2007-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is considered a virulent pathogen against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. However, current field application techniques for effective control against this pest remain a limitation and an alternative method for effective field application needs to be investigated. Three screenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the ability of B. bassiana to form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana (Musa spp.) plants and to evaluate the plants for possible harmful effects resulting from this relationship. Three Ugandan strains of B. bassiana (G41, S204 and WA) were applied by dipping the roots and rhizome in a conidial suspension, by injecting a conidial suspension into the plant rhizome and by growing the plants in sterile soil mixed with B. bassiana-colonized rice substrate. Four weeks after inoculation, plant growth parameters were determined and plant tissue colonization assessed through re-isolation of B. bassiana. All B. bassiana strains were able to colonize banana plant roots, rhizomes and pseudostem bases. Dipping plants in a conidial suspension achieved the highest colonization with no negative effect on plant growth or survival. Beauveria bassiana strain G41 was the best colonizer (up to 68%, 79% and 41% in roots, rhizome and pseudostem base, respectively) when plants were dipped. This study demonstrated that, depending on strain and inoculation method, B. bassiana can form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana plants, causing no harmful effects and might provide an alternative method for biological control of C. sordidus.

  6. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIBOWO MANGUNWARDOYO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangunwardoyo W, Suciatmih, Gandjar I. 2012. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 13: 34-39. The aims of this research was to isolate and study the frequency of endophytic fungi from roots, bulbous, stems, and leaves of Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. (pigeon orchid collected from Tanah Baru housing area, Bogor Botanical Garden, and Herbarium Bogoriense; and to assess for antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 2091, Candida tropicalis LIPIMC 203, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Twelve species of endophytic fungi were identified from 60 samples obtained from D. crumenatum. Guignardia endophyllicola (anamorph: Phyllosticta capitalensis were the dominant endophytic fungi. Screening of the anti-microorganism activity of the endophytic fungi revealed that Fusarium nivale inhibited C albicans and C. tropicalis. All specimens did not inhibit B. subtilis, E. coli, and S. aureus.

  7. Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... formation in Bacillus species was detected in the endophytic bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. (PCR) amplification. In ten endophytic ... confer a competitive advantage to the spore from the onset of sporulation and later, ... possessing TasA gene (Chen et al., 2007; Gioia et al.,. 2007; Kunst et al., 1997; ...

  8. Mediating the Maltreatment-Delinquency Relationship: The Role of Triad Gang Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2018-02-01

    The primary aim of this article is to examine the role of triad affiliation in mediating the relationship between child maltreatment (neglect, punishment, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse) and delinquency among active young gang members in Hong Kong. A sample of 177 gang members aged 12 to 24 was recruited to complete a questionnaire with the assistance of a youth outreach social work team. Neglect was identified as the most common form of maltreatment, followed by emotional abuse, punishment, and sexual abuse. Mediation analyses confirmed that triad affiliation acts as a mediating variable in the child maltreatment-delinquency relationship, except in cases of sexual abuse. Only the relationship between punishment and delinquency was found to be fully mediated by triad affiliation; partial mediation effects were found for neglect and emotional abuse. Recommendations for child protection and youth workers are provided.

  9. Natural Medium for Growing of Endophytic Bacteria from Solanaceae in Malang-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawati Arika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria are important microorganisms having potential as biocontrol agents for many pathogens. Until now, the growth of it always uses semi-synthetic or synthetic medium so it was difficult to be used by farmers in the field and it was expensive to have its propagation as biocontrol agents. Based on the problem, this research will study the natural medium as propagation medium of Endophytic bacteria. It had natural ingredients such as soybean, chicken broth, egg, worms, snail, sorghum and they were easy to get by farmers. This study used endophytic bacteria from Solanaceae in Malang- Indonesia. Four isolates of endophytic bacteria were grown in agar and liquid medium with ingredients of corn flour, soybean flour, sorghum flour, snail flour, and worm flour. There is no difference in the incubation period, color, shape, and surface colony. The population in medium with snail flour ingredients at a concentration of 107 cfu/ml is the highest and snail flour is the best medium for growing endophytic bacteria.

  10. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  11. Identification of genetic components involved in Lotus-endophyte interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal Lukasz

    of growth hormones or nitrogen fixation. However, the genes involved in plant-endophyte interactions and bacterial accomodation within plant tissues are not known. In order to shed some light on such processes, an approach “one host-one endophyte” was chosen. The focus on a single plant species and a single......Endophytes are microorganisms capable of colonising plant tissues without inducing host defense responses. They have a large impact on plants, since they can modulate plant responses to pathogens, herbivores and environmental stress. They can also induce plant growth promotion through synthesis...... bacterial strain aimed at obtaining a reliable and easy to handle system for plant-microsymbiont interaction research. Two different methods were tested for their usefulness in identification of genetic components involved in plant-endophyte interactions. The first method was based on measuring growth...

  12. Complete genome sequence of the N2-fixing broad host range endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and virulence predictions verified in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick E Fouts

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world, while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%, one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578. Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but

  13. Current Models for Transcriptional Regulation of Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis in Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary cell walls mediate many crucial biological processes in plants including mechanical support, water and nutrient transport and stress management. They also provide an abundant resource of renewable feed, fiber, and fuel. The grass family contains the most important food, forage, and biofuel crops. Understanding the regulatory mechanism of secondary wall formation in grasses is necessary for exploiting these plants for agriculture and industry. Previous research has established a detailed model of the secondary wall regulatory network in the dicot model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Grasses, branching off from the dicot ancestor 140–150 million years ago, display distinct cell wall morphology and composition, suggesting potential for a different secondary wall regulation program from that established for dicots. Recently, combined application of molecular, genetic and bioinformatics approaches have revealed more transcription factors involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis in grasses. Compared with the dicots, grasses exhibit a relatively conserved but nevertheless divergent transcriptional regulatory program to activate their secondary cell wall development and to coordinate secondary wall biosynthesis with other physiological processes.

  14. Adult attachment and male aggression in couple relationships: the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R

    2011-07-01

    This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing physical and psychological aggression, the two dimensions of attachment insecurity (anxiety over abandonment and avoidance of intimacy), the demand-withdraw communication pattern, relationship satisfaction, and social desirability (a control measure). As predicted, there was an association between attachment anxiety and aggression (both physical and psychological), which was mediated by the man demands/woman withdraws (MD/WW) pattern (as reported by the men). There was no evidence of mediation by the woman demands/man withdraws pattern, as reported by the men. Relationship satisfaction mediated the association between attachment anxiety and psychological (but not physical) aggression, but did not mediate the link between avoidance and aggression (physical or psychological). Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Maize Endophytic Bacterial Diversity as Affected by Soil Cultivation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Arone, Gregorio J

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity). The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from fallow soils. A mean of 30 genera were found in the fallow soil libraries and 47 were in those from the maize-cultivated soils. Both alpha and beta diversity indexes showed clear differences between bacterial endophytic populations from plants with different soil cultivation history and that the soils cultivated for long time requires a higher diversity of endophytes. The number of sequences corresponding to main genera Sphingomonas, Herbaspirillum, Bradyrhizobium and Methylophilus in the maize-cultivated libraries were statistically more abundant than those from the fallow soils. Sequences of genera Dyella and Sreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the libraries from the fallow soils. Relative abundance of genera Burkholderia, candidatus Glomeribacter, Staphylococcus, Variovorax, Bacillus and Chitinophaga were similar among libraries. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relative abundance of the main genera showed that the four libraries distributed in two clearly separated groups. Our results suggest that cultivation history is an important driver of endophytic colonization of maize and that after a long time of cultivation of the soil the maize plants need to increase the richness of the bacterial endophytes communities.

  16. Ottia meiospora (Ottiaceae, Rhodophyta), a new genus and family endophytic within the thallus of Nothocladus (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwisle, Timothy J; Evans, Joshua R; Vis, Morgan L; Saunders, Gary W

    2018-02-01

    A new genus, Ottia, and family, Ottiaceae, are proposed within the Acrochaetiales to accommodate the uniseriate red algal endophyte of batrachspermalean taxa previously named Balbiania meiospora. Prior to this study, Balbiania investiens was transferred to its own family and order (Balbianiales) based on comparative DNA sequence data and a distinctive reproductive morphology. However, the second species described in this genus, B. meiospora, continued to be treated as a species of Audouinella (A. meiospora) pending further investigation. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data confirmed only a distant relationship between the two endophytes, and a closer alliance of B. meiospora to Acrochaetiales. The data also showed that Ottia meiospora was the deepest diverging lineage in the Acrochaetiales, sister to all of the currently recognized genera and families. In this study, we review the classification of what we now call O. meiospora - reported from Australia, New Zealand and Brazil - based on sequence and morphological data. Morphological observations provided little clarity around the reproductive morphology or the life cycle of this endophyte of Nothocladus s. lat. found commonly in mainland Australia but, to date, less so in New Zealand. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  17. EFFICACY OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN REDUCING PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODE Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control.  Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu  ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.

  18. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild maize (teosinte has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON. In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense.

  19. Relationships among race, education, criminal thinking, and recidivism: moderator and mediator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-02-01

    Moderator and mediator relationships linking variables from three different theoretical traditions-race (subcultural theory), education (life-course theory), and criminal thinking (social learning theory)-and recidivism were examined in 1,101 released male federal prison inmates. Preliminary regression analyses indicated that racial status (White, Black, Hispanic) moderated the relationship between criminal thinking, as measured by the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) score of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and recidivism. Further analysis, however, revealed that it was not racial status, per se, that moderated the relationship between the PICTS and recidivism, but educational attainment. Whereas the PICTS was largely effective in predicting recidivism in inmates with 12 or more years of education, it was largely ineffective in predicting recidivism in inmates with fewer than 12 years of education. When education and the GCT score were compared as possible mediators of the race-recidivism relationship only the GCT successfully mediated this relationship. Sensitivity testing showed that the GCT mediating effect was moderately robust to violations of the sequential ignorability assumption on which causal mediation analysis rests. Moderator and mediator analyses are potentially important avenues through which theoretical constructs can be integrated and assessment strategies devised.

  20. Endophytes: a treasure house of bioactive compounds of medicinal importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanto Gouda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in plants and microbes that can be readily isolated from any microbial or plant growth medium. They act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. While plant sources are being extensively explored for new chemical entities for therapeutic purposes, endophytic microbes also constitute an important source for drug discovery. This review aims to comprehend the contribution and uses of endophytes as an impending source of drugs against various forms of diseases and other possible medicinal use.

  1. Isolation and antifungal screening of endophytic fungi from Erigeron canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Bai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen fungal strains isolated from the Erigeron canadensis, one of traditional Chinese medicines used to treat the pathogenic infection and dysentery, were evaluated for their antifungal activities against one human pathogen Candida albicans, and two phytopathogens, Colletotrichum fructicola and Rhizoctonia cerealis. The bioassay results indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of these fungal endophytes had stronger antimicrobial activities. Among these endophytic strains, the ethyl acetate extracts of strains NPR003 and NPR005 showed the strongest inhibitory effects and has potential application in the discovery of new antifungal agents. This was the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from E. canadensis and evaluation of their antifungal activities.

  2. What Is There in Seeds? Vertically Transmitted Endophytic Resources for Sustainable Improvement in Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytobeneficial microbes, particularly endophytes, such as fungi and bacteria, are concomitant partners of plants throughout its developmental stages, including seed germination, root and stem growth, and fruiting. Endophytic microbes have been identified in plants that grow in a wide array of habitats; however, seed-borne endophytic microbes have not been fully explored yet. Seed-borne endophytes are of great interest because of their vertical transmission; their potential to produce various phytohormones, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, and other secondary metabolites; and improve plant biomass and yield under biotic and abiotic stresses. This review addresses the current knowledge on endophytes, their ability to produce metabolites, and their influence on plant growth and stress mitigation.

  3. The diversity of citrus endophytic bacteria and their interactions with Xylella fastidiosa and host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and has been associated with important losses in commercial orchards of all sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)] cultivars. The development of this disease depends on the environmental conditions, including the endophytic microbial community associated with the host plant. Previous studies have shown that X. fastidiosa interacts with the endophytic community in xylem vessels as well as in the insect vector, resulting in a lower bacterial population and reduced CVC symptoms. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum can trigger X. fastidiosa response in vitro, which results in reduced growth and induction of genes associated with energy production, stress, transport, and motility, indicating that X. fastidiosa has an adaptive response to M. mesophilicum. Although this response may result in reduced CVC symptoms, the colonization rate of the endophytic bacteria should be considered in studies that intend to use this endophyte to suppress CVC disease. Symbiotic control is a new strategy that uses symbiotic endophytes as biological control agents to antagonize or displace pathogens. Candidate endophytes for symbiotic control of CVC must occupy the xylem of host plants and attach to the precibarium of sharpshooter insects to access the pathogen. In the present review, we focus on interactions between endophytic bacteria from sweet orange plants and X. fastidiosa, especially those that may be candidates for control of CVC. PMID:27727362

  4. Accelerated development in Johnsongrass seedlings (Sorghum halepense) suppresses the growth of native grasses through size-asymmetric competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, Susanne; Meckel, Heather; Reichmann, Lara G; Polley, H Wayne; Fay, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plant species often dominate native species in competition, augmenting other potential advantages such as release from natural enemies. Resource pre-emption may be a particularly important mechanism for establishing dominance over competitors of the same functional type. We hypothesized that competitive success of an exotic grass against native grasses is mediated by establishing an early size advantage. We tested this prediction among four perennial C4 warm-season grasses: the exotic weed Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparius) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). We predicted that a) the competitive effect of Johnsongrass on target species would be proportional to their initial biomass difference, b) competitive effect and response would be negatively correlated and c) soil fertility would have little effect on competitive relationships. In a greenhouse, plants of the four species were grown from seed either alone or with one Johnsongrass neighbor at two fertilizer levels and periodically harvested. The first two hypotheses were supported: The seedling biomass of single plants at first harvest (50 days after seeding) ranked the same way as the competitive effect of Johnsongrass on target species: Johnsongrass critical mechanism by which exotic invasive species displace functionally similar native species and alter the functional dynamics of native communities.

  5. Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal, PY.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

  6. Exploitation of endophytic fungus as a potential source of biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawed Anjum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel demand is unquestionable in order to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission which can lead to climatic changes and global warming effect. Finding sufficient supply of clean energy for the upcoming is one of the society’s most daunting challenges and is directly linked with global stability, economic prosperity and quality of life. Endophytic microbes reside in the healthy part of the plant without causing any symptoms of disease. It is well known that the endophytic microbes produces wide variety of bioactive compound having, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive drugs, and volatile organic compounds having similarity with conventional diesel fuel. Now the endophytic fungi, have also been known to possess a suitable lipid matrix at high concentrations and volatile organic compounds having similarity with conventional diesel fuel that make them promising sources for next generation biofuels. This would be more efficient and having lesser number of biosynthetic steps in production, can be brought to immediate use in the existing internal combustion engines without taking about any major modification in automobile design. The present article therefore aims to review the current status of research in the field of alternative source of energy emphasizing endophytic fungi as a source of biofuel precursor, in order to encourage and generate interest among research groups across India and the world for initiating and undertaking more enthusiastic and intensive research activity on endophytic fungi from the Indian subcontinent having the potential to make fuel-related hydrocarbons.

  7. Relationship of leaf oxygen and carbon isotopic composition with transpiration efficiency in the C4 grasses Setaria viridis and Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Ellsworth, Patrícia V; Cousins, Asaph B

    2017-06-15

    Leaf carbon and oxygen isotope ratios can potentially provide a time-integrated proxy for stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E), and can be used to estimate transpiration efficiency (TE). In this study, we found significant relationships of bulk leaf carbon isotopic signature (δ13CBL) and bulk leaf oxygen enrichment above source water (Δ18OBL) with gas exchange and TE in the model C4 grasses Setaria viridis and S. italica. Leaf δ13C had strong relationships with E, gs, water use, biomass, and TE. Additionally, the consistent difference in δ13CBL between well-watered and water-limited plants suggests that δ13CBL is effective in separating C4 plants with different availability of water. Alternatively, the use of Δ18OBL as a proxy for E and TE in S. viridis and S. italica was problematic. First, the oxygen isotopic composition of source water, used to calculate leaf water enrichment (Δ18OLW), was variable with time and differed across water treatments. Second, water limitations changed leaf size and masked the relationship of Δ18OLW and Δ18OBL with E. Therefore, the data collected here suggest that δ13CBL but not Δ18OBL may be an effective proxy for TE in C4 grasses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Identification of lead-resistant endophytic bacteria isolated from rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Cordero, Alexander; Barraza-Roman, Zafiro; Martinez-Pacheco, Dalila

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of endophytic bacteria in vitro was evaluated at different lead concentrations. The tissue samples of commercial rice varieties at tillering stage were collected during the first half of 2013, in Monteria, Cordoba, Colombia. Each tissue was subjected to surface cleaning. Endophytic bacteria were isolated in agar R_2A medium. The population density (CFU/g tissue) was determined from each tissue by direct counting of R_2A medium surface. Morphotypes were classified by shape, color, size and appearance. A total of 168 morphotypes were isolated from root, tillers and leaf of different commercial varieties of rice. The lead resistance test is performed in vitro, The lead resistance test was performed in vitro, by the suspensions of endophytic bacteria in log phase and inoculation in minimal medium with five concentrations of lead as Pb (NO_3)_2. The experiment was incubated at 32 degrees celsius and agitated at 150 rpm for five days. The measure of turbidimetry at 600 nm was conduced every hour afterstarting the test. Endophytic bacteria showed the ability to grow at concentrations of 100% of Pb as Pb (NO_3) _2. The presence of Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas putida, which showed resistance to differents lead concentration was confirmed as result of the identification with kit API20E. (author) [es

  9. Climate change and Epichloë coenophiala association modify belowground fungal symbioses of tall fescue host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human alteration of symbiont genetics among aboveground endophytic Epichloë coenophiala strains within tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) has led to widespread deployment of novel grass-endophyte combinations, yet little is known about their ecological consequences. In this study, clone pairs (e...

  10. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and Epichloë festucae var. lolii reduce Bipolaris sorokiniana disease incidence and improve perennial ryegrass growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Guo, Yan'e; Christensen, Michael J; Gao, Ping; Li, Yanzhong; Duan, Tingyu

    2018-02-01

    Leaf spot of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important disease in temperate regions of the world. We designed this experiment to test for the combined effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Claroideoglomus etunicatum and the grass endophyte fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii on growth and disease occurrence in perennial ryegrass. The results show that C. etunicatum increased plant P uptake and total dry weight and that this beneficial effect was slightly enhanced when in association with the grass endophyte. The presence in plants of both the endophyte and B. sorokiniana decreased AM fungal colonization. Plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana showed the typical leaf spot symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation and the lowest disease incidence was with plants that were host to both C. etunicatum and E. festucae var. lolii. Plants with these two fungi had much higher activity of peroxidases (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and lower values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The AM fungus C. etunicatum and the grass endophyte fungus E. festucae var. lolii have the potential to promote perennial ryegrass growth and resistance to B. sorokiniana leaf spot.

  11. Endophytic fungi associated with roots of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Mahmoud, Fadila; Krimi, Zoulikha; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Brahim Errahmani, Mohamed; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    Symbiotic interactions with fungal endophytes are argued to be responsible for the tolerance of plants to some stresses and for their adaptation to natural conditions. In this study we aimed to examine the endophytic fungal diversity associated with roots of date palms growing in coastal dune systems, and to screen this collection of endophytes for potential use as biocontrol agents, for antagonistic activity and mycoparasitism, and as producers of antifungal compounds with potential efficacy against root diseases of date palm. Roots of nine individual date palms growing in three coastal locations in the South-East of Spain (Guardamar, El Carabassí, and San Juan) were selected to isolate endophytic fungi. Isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and/or molecular characters. Five hundred and fifty two endophytic fungi were isolated and assigned to thirty morphological taxa or molecular operational taxonomic units. Most isolates belonged to Ascomycota, and the dominant order was Hypocreales. Fusarium and Clonostachys were the most frequently isolated genera and were present at all sampling sites. Comparisons of the endophytic diversity with previous studies, and their importance in the management of the date palm crops are discussed. This is the first study on the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with roots of date palm. The isolates obtained might constitute a source of biological control agents and biofertilizers for use in crops of this plant. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relationship Between Resilience and Internet Addiction: A Multiple Mediation Model Through Peer Relationship and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pingyan; Zhang, Cai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Zhe

    2017-10-01

    Heavy use of the Internet may lead to profound academic problems in elementary students, such as poor grades, academic probation, and even expulsion from school. It is of great concern that Internet addiction problems in elementary school students have increased sharply in recent years. In this study, 58,756 elementary school students from the Henan province of China completed four questionnaires to explore the mechanisms of Internet addiction. The results showed that resilience was negatively correlated with Internet addiction. There were three mediational paths in the model: (a) the mediational path through peer relationship with an effect size of 50.0 percent, (b) the mediational path through depression with an effect size of 15.6 percent, (c) the mediational path through peer relationship and depression with an effect size of 13.7 percent. The total mediational effect size was 79.27 percent. The effect size through peer relationship was the strongest among the three mediation paths. The current findings suggest that resilience is a predictor of Internet addiction. Improving children's resilience (such as toughness, emotional control, and problem solving) can be an effective way to reduce Internet addiction behavior. The current findings provide useful information for early detection and intervention for Internet addiction.

  13. The diversity of citrus endophytic bacteria and their interactions with Xylella fastidiosa and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lúcio Azevedo

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC and has been associated with important losses in commercial orchards of all sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.] cultivars. The development of this disease depends on the environmental conditions, including the endophytic microbial community associated with the host plant. Previous studies have shown that X. fastidiosa interacts with the endophytic community in xylem vessels as well as in the insect vector, resulting in a lower bacterial population and reduced CVC symptoms. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum can trigger X. fastidiosa response in vitro, which results in reduced growth and induction of genes associated with energy production, stress, transport, and motility, indicating that X. fastidiosa has an adaptive response to M. mesophilicum. Although this response may result in reduced CVC symptoms, the colonization rate of the endophytic bacteria should be considered in studies that intend to use this endophyte to suppress CVC disease. Symbiotic control is a new strategy that uses symbiotic endophytes as biological control agents to antagonize or displace pathogens. Candidate endophytes for symbiotic control of CVC must occupy the xylem of host plants and attach to the precibarium of sharpshooter insects to access the pathogen. In the present review, we focus on interactions between endophytic bacteria from sweet orange plants and X. fastidiosa, especially those that may be candidates for control of CVC.

  14. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt

    Fungal endophytes live naturally inside plants without causing symptoms. On the contrary, they can promote plant growth and increase tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. These beneficial effects have increased the agricultural interest for exploitation of fungal isolates with an endophytic life...... controls seed- and soil-borne diseases and can furthermore promote plant growth. However, it is not known whether IK726 can colonize plants internally and therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the possibility of an endophytic life-style of IK726 in tomato. Tomato seeds were sown...

  15. Gene clusters for insecticidal loline alkaloids in the grass-endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Martin J; Moon, Christina D; Wilkinson, Heather H; Schardl, Christopher L

    2005-03-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same order and orientation. Also identified was lolF-2, but its possible linkage with either cluster was undetermined. Most lol genes were regulated in N. uncinatum and N. coenophialum, and all were expressed concomitantly with loline-alkaloid biosynthesis. A lolC-2 RNA-interference (RNAi) construct was introduced into N. uncinatum, and in two independent transformants, RNAi significantly decreased lolC expression (P lol-gene products indicate that the pathway has evolved from various different primary and secondary biosynthesis pathways.

  16. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Crisp Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  17. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Emotional Resilience Mediates the Relationship Between Mindfulness and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzheng; Xu, Wei; Luo, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mindfulness promotes positive mood states and reduces negative ones; however, the underlying mechanisms are still controversial. This study assessed the role of emotional resilience as a mediator between mindfulness and emotional regulation. A total of 421 college students (M age = 20.0 year, SD = 2.0; males/females/missing are 152/248/4) completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States, and Adolescents' Emotional Resilience Questionnaire (AERQ). The ability to generate positive emotion (GP) and the ability to recover from negative emotion (RN) are two subscales of the AERQ. A Structural Equation Modeling analysis indicated that emotional resilience mediated the connection between mindfulness and emotion. Specifically, GP mediated the relationship between mindfulness and both positive and negative emotions while RN mainly mediated the relationship between mindfulness and negative emotions. These findings suggest that mindfulness may play a role in regulating positive and negative emotions through the two different aspects of emotional resilience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  20. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) produces anti-fungal natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa K; Schwan, Adrian; Davidson, Jeffrey; Strange, Philip; Liu, Huaizhi; Zhou, Ting; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes) that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s) from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp.) was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol, and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  1. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  2. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

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    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  3. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Puji Astuti; Sudarsono Sudarsono; Khoirun Nisak; Giri Wisnu Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatograp...

  4. [Runoff loss of soil mineral nitrogen and its relationship with grass coverage on Loess slope land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huai'en; Zhang, Xingchang; Xiao, Bo

    2006-12-01

    In a simulated rainfall experiment on Loess slope land, this paper determined the rainfall, surface runoff and the effective depth of interaction (EDI) between rainfall and soil mineral nitrogen, and studied the effects of grass coverage on the EDI and the runoff loss of soil mineral nitrogen. The results showed that with the increase of EDI, soil nitrogen in deeper layers could be released into surface runoff through dissolution and desorption. The higher the grass coverage, the deeper the EDI was. Grass coverage promoted the interaction between surface runoff and surface soil. On the slope land with 60%, 80% and 100% of grass coverage, the mean content of runoff mineral nitrogen increased by 34.52%, 32.67% and 6.00%, while surface runoff decreased by 4.72%, 9.84% and 12.89%, and eroded sediment decreased by 83.55%, 87.11% and 89.01%, respectively, compared with bare slope land. The total runoff loss of soil mineral nitrogen on the lands with 60%, 80%, and 100% of grass coverage was 95.73%, 109.04%, and 84.05% of that on bare land, respectively. Grass cover had dual effects on the surface runoff of soil mineral nitrogen. On one hand, it enhanced the influx of soil mineral nitrogen to surface runoff, and on the other hand, it markedly decreased the runoff, resulting in the decrease of soil mineral nitrogen loss through runoff and sediment. These two distinct factors codetermined the total runoff loss of soil mineral nitrogen.

  5. The pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana: what happens after an endophytic phase in plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, J; Dubois, T; Coyne, D; Kyamanywa, S

    2010-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious constraint to banana (Musa spp.) production throughout the world. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) offers a potential weevil management option, but conventional delivery mechanisms have limited its success. As an endophyte, however, B. bassiana can be efficiently delivered to banana planting materials for the potential management of C. sordidus. However, entomopathogens can change morphology and efficacy against their target host when successively sub-cultured on artificial media or when exposed to certain physical and chemical environmental conditions. Whether such changes occur in B. bassiana after an endophytic phase inside a banana plant remains unknown. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the viability, growth, sporulation and pathogenicity of endophytic B. bassiana. To attain this, two sets of experiments, namely morphological characterization and larval bioassays, were conducted under laboratory conditions. In these experiments, growth and pathogenicity of the wild-type B. bassiana strain G41, obtained originally from banana farms, was compared with the endophytic B. bassiana strain G41, re-isolated from the rhizome of B. bassiana-inoculated banana plants at one month post-inoculation. Morphological characterization, conidial germination, colony growth and sporulation rate was assessed on SDAY media while pathogenicity was determined 15 days after immersing the larvae of C. sordidus in different conidial doses. No differences were observed in colony appearance and growth rate between the endophytic and wild-type strain. Percentage conidial germination for the endophytic strain (91.4-94.0%) was higher than for the wild-type (86.6-89.7%). LD50 equated 1.76 x 10(5) and 0.71 x 10(5) conidia/ml for the wild-type and endophytic B. bassiana strains, respectively, but did not differ between strains. Our study

  6. High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

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    Mehwish Yousaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.

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    María J Ek-Ramos

    Full Text Available Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey

  8. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a Sugarcane Endophyte, Produces Antifungal Compounds and Induces Root Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza de Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this ubiquitous endophyte

  9. Endophytic Phytoaugmentation: Treating Wastewater and Runoff Through Augmented Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Lauren K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited options exist for efficiently and effectively treating water runoff from agricultural fields and landfills. Traditional treatments include excavation, transport to landfills, incineration, stabilization, and vitrification. In general, treatment options relying on biological methods such as bioremediation have the ability to be applied in situ and offer a sustainable remedial option with a lower environmental impact and reduced long-term operating expenses. These methods are generally considered ecologically friendly, particularly when compared to traditional physicochemical cleanup options. Phytoremediation, which relies on plants to take up and/or transform the contaminant of interest, is another alternative treatment method which has been developed. However, phytoremediation is not widely used, largely due to its low treatment efficiency. Endophytic phytoaugmentation is a variation on phytoremediation that relies on augmenting the phytoremediating plants with exogenous strains to stimulate associated plant-microbe interactions to facilitate and improve remediation efficiency. In this review, we offer a summary of the current knowledge as well as developments in endophytic phytoaugmentation and present some potential future applications for this technology. There has been a limited number of published endophytic phytoaugmentation case studies and much remains to be done to transition lab-scale results to field applications. Future research needs include large-scale endophytic phytoaugmentation experiments as well as the development of more exhaustive tools for monitoring plant-microbe-pollutant interactions. PMID:27158249

  10. Identification of lead- resistant endophytic bacteria isolated from rice.

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    Alexander Pérez-Cordero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the endophytic bacteria resistance to different lead concentrations. The sampling was undertaken in the first half of 2013, when tissue samples of commercial varieties of rice at tillering stage were collected in Montería, Cordoba, Colombia. Each tissue was subjected to surface cleaning. Endophytic bacteria in agar R2A medium were isolated. Population density (CFU/g tissue was determined from each tissue, by direct counting of R2A medium surface. morphotypes were classified by shape, color, size, and appearance. A total of 168 morphotypes were isolated from root, tillers, and leaf of different commercial varieties of rice. The lead resistance test was performed in vitro, to do that, suspensions of endophytic bacteria in log phase were prepared and inoculated in minimal medium with five concentrations of lead as Pb(NO32. The experiment was incubated at 32 °C and agitated at 150 rpm, for five days. Every hour afterstarting the test, turbidimetry measuring at 600 nm was conducted. Results showed the ability of endophytic bacteria to grow at concentrations of 100% of Pb as Pb(NO32. The results of the identification with kit API20E confirmed the presence of Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas putida, which showed resistance to different lead concentrations.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAIZE PLANTS (Zea mays L.) AFTER COLONIZATION BY ENDOPHYTE FUNGUS Fusarium verticillioides

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ulisses de Deus; Orlandelli, Ravely Casarotti; Santos, Mariana Sanches; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Pamphile, João Alencar; Rubin Filho, Celso João

    2013-01-01

    Endophyte fungi inhabit the inside of plants without causing any damage. Benefits from endophyte-plant interactivities include vegetal growth and the plant´s defense against insects and other pathogens. Some endophytes, however, may act as latent pathogens which cause physiological changes and disease symptoms in the host. Current analysis evaluates the development of maize plants colonizer (treatment) and non-colonized (control) with the frequently found endophyte Fusarium verticillioides an...

  12. The Role of Endophytic Fungi in the Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni

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    Yougen Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that the fungal endophytes of noni may possibly play a role in its overall pharmacological repertoire, especially since the perceived efficacy of the fruit in ethnomedicinal use is associated with the fermented juice. The foremost goal of this study is to explore the role of endophyte-derived secondary metabolites in the purported anticancer properties of noni. To that end, culturable endophytic fungi resident within the healthy leaves and fruit of the plant were isolated and identified by molecular sequence analysis of the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS. Purified organisms were subjected to in vitro fermentation in malt extract broth for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions at room temperature (25°C, in order to simulate the conditions under which traditional fermented noni juice is prepared. The cytotoxic potential of organic extracts derived from the fermented broths of individual endophytes was then tested against three major cancers that afflict humans. Twelve distinct endophytic fungal species were obtained from the leaves and 3 from the fruit. Three of the leaf endophytes inhibited the growth of human carcinoma cell lines LU-1 (lung, PC-3 (prostate, and MCF-7 (breast with IC50 values of ≤10 μg/mL.

  13. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  14. Antagonistic Bioactivity of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated from Medicinal Plants

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    M. Gangwar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinomycetes are promising biocontrol agents for use in agriculture and have been isolated from various plant species. In the present study, 40 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of three medicinal plants viz. Aloe vera, Mentha arvensis and Ocimum sanctum. The identification revealed that the majority of the isolates were Streptomyces spp. and the rest were identified as Saccharopolyspora spp., Micromonospora spp. and Actinopolyspora spp. The dual tests revealed that nine endophytic actinomycete isolates displayed a wide spectrum activity against nine fungal phytopathogens. Out of 8 isolates, 90% inhibited the growth of at least one or more phytopathogenic fungi and Saccharopolyspora 0-9 (Out of 8 isolates, 90% inhibited the growth of at least one or more phytopathogenic fungi and Saccharopolyspora 0-9 exhibited antagonistic activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium digitatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium pinophilum, Phytophthora dresclea and Colletotrichum falcatum.

  15. Symbiotic interaction of endophytic bacteria with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its antagonistic effect on Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 and Burkholderia cepacia UMPB3), isolated from within roots of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were tested for their presymbiotic effects on two arbuscular mcorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices UT126 and Glomus clarum BR152B). These endophytic bacteria were also tested for antagonistic effects on Ganoderma boninense PER 71, a white wood rot fungal pathogen that causes a serious disease in oil palm. Spore germination and hyphal length of each arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) pairing with endophytic bacteria was found to be significantly higher than spores plated in the absence of bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the endophytic bacteria were scattered, resting or embedded on the surface hyaline layer or on the degraded walls of AMF spores, possibly feeding on the outer hyaline spore wall. The antagonistic effect of the endophytic bacteria was expressed as severe morphological abnormalities in the hyphal structures of G. boninense PER 71. The effects of the endophytic bacteria on G. boninense PER 71 hyphal structures were observed clearly under SEM. Severe inter-twisting, distortion, lysis and shriveling of the hyphal structures were observed. This study found that the effect of endophytic bacteria on G. intraradices UT126 and G. clarum BR152B resembled that of a mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) association because the association significantly promoted AMF spore germination and hyphal length. However, the endophytic bacteria were extremely damaging to G. boninense PER 71.

  16. Azoarcus sp. CIB, an anaerobic biodegrader of aromatic compounds shows an endophytic lifestyle.

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    Helga Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophytic bacteria that have plant growth promoting traits are of great interest in green biotechnology. The previous thought that the Azoarcus genus comprises bacteria that fit into one of two major eco-physiological groups, either free-living anaerobic biodegraders of aromatic compounds or obligate endophytes unable to degrade aromatics under anaerobic conditions, is revisited here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Light, confocal and electron microscopy reveal that Azoarcus sp. CIB, a facultative anaerobe β-proteobacterium able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions, is also able to colonize the intercellular spaces of the rice roots. In addition, the strain CIB displays plant growth promoting traits such nitrogen fixation, uptake of insoluble phosphorus and production of indoleacetic acid. Therefore, this work demonstrates by the first time that a free-living bacterium able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic and anoxic conditions can share also an endophytic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rDNA and nifH genes confirmed that obligate endophytes of the Azoarcus genus and facultative endophytes, such as Azoarcus sp. CIB, locate into different evolutionary branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a bacterium, Azoarcus sp. CIB, able to degrade anaerobically a significant number of aromatic compounds, some of them of great environmental concern, and to colonize the rice as a facultative endophyte. Thus, Azoarcus sp. CIB becomes a suitable candidate for a more sustainable agricultural practice and phytoremediation technology.

  17. Host and geographic structure of endophytic and endolichenic fungi at a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U'Ren, Jana M; Lutzoni, François; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Laetsch, Alexander D; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Endophytic and endolichenic fungi occur in healthy tissues of plants and lichens, respectively, playing potentially important roles in the ecology and evolution of their hosts. However, previous sampling has not comprehensively evaluated the biotic, biogeographic, and abiotic factors that structure their communities. Using molecular data we examined the diversity, composition, and distributions of 4154 endophytic and endolichenic Ascomycota cultured from replicate surveys of ca. 20 plant and lichen species in each of five North American sites (Madrean coniferous forest, Arizona; montane semideciduous forest, North Carolina; scrub forest, Florida; Beringian tundra and forest, western Alaska; subalpine tundra, eastern central Alaska). Endolichenic fungi were more abundant and diverse per host species than endophytes, but communities of endophytes were more diverse overall, reflecting high diversity in mosses and lycophytes. Endophytes of vascular plants were largely distinct from fungal communities that inhabit mosses and lichens. Fungi from closely related hosts from different regions were similar in higher taxonomy, but differed at shallow taxonomic levels. These differences reflected climate factors more strongly than geographic distance alone. Our study provides a first evaluation of endophytic and endolichenic fungal associations with their hosts at a continental scale. Both plants and lichens harbor abundant and diverse fungal communities whose incidence, diversity, and composition reflect the interplay of climatic patterns, geographic separation, host type, and host lineage. Although culture-free methods will inform future work, our study sets the stage for empirical assessments of ecological specificity, metabolic capability, and comparative genomics.

  18. Genotypic variation in the response of chickpea to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazghaleh, Navid; Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Knight, Joan Diane

    2018-04-01

    Plant roots host symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other fungal endophytes that can impact plant growth and health. The impact of microbial interactions in roots may depend on the genetic properties of the host plant and its interactions with root-associated fungi. We conducted a controlled condition experiment to investigate the effect of several chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes on the efficiency of the symbiosis with AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes. Whereas the AM symbiosis increased the biomass of most of the chickpea cultivars, inoculation with non-AM fungal endophytes had a neutral effect. The chickpea cultivars responded differently to co-inoculation with AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes. Co-inoculation had additive effects on the biomass of some cultivars (CDC Corrine, CDC Anna, and CDC Cory), but non-AM fungal endophytes reduced the positive effect of AM fungi on Amit and CDC Vanguard. This study demonstrated that the response of plant genotypes to an AM symbiosis can be modified by the simultaneous colonization of the roots by non-AM fungal endophytes. Intraspecific variations in the response of chickpea to AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes indicate that the selection of suitable genotypes may improve the ability of crop plants to take advantage of soil ecosystem services.

  19. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ(2) (75) = 194.21, p Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent internet addiction: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Sun, Wenqiang; Zhao, Liyan; Qiu, Lilan

    2018-09-01

    Substantial research has found that positive parent-adolescent relationship is associated with low levels of adolescent Internet addiction (IA). However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. The present study examined a moderated mediation model that included the parent-adolescent relationship (predictor variable), emotion regulation ability (mediator), stressful life events (moderator), and IA (outcome variable) simultaneously. A total of 998 (M age  = 15.15 years, SD = 1.57) Chinese adolescents completed the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Emotion Regulation Ability Scale, Adolescent Stressful Life Events Scale, and Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire. After controlling for adolescent gender, age, and family socioeconomic status, results revealed that good parent-adolescent relationship was positively associated with adolescent emotion regulation ability, which in turn was negatively associated with their IA. Moreover, stressful life events moderated the second part of the mediation process. In accordance with the reverse stress-buffering model, the relation between emotion regulation ability and adolescent IA was stronger for adolescents who experienced lower levels of stressful life events. The findings and their implications are discussed and a resilient contextual perspective proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial endophytes of perennial crops for management of plant disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melnick, Rachel L.; Bailey, B.A.; Backman, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Metadata only record Bacterial endophytes, microorganisms which inhabit the internal tissues of plants, can suppress disease and are often used as a biological control in annual crops. Less research, however, has been applied to the use of bacterial endophytes to prevent disease in perennial crops, which presents a more complex challenge. However, exploration of their potential as a biological control in perennial crops has been limited. This chapter assembles current knowledge on the subj...

  2. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  3. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock, This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico.When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic...

  4. PERCEPTIONS OF CLOSE AND GROUP RELATIONSHIPS MEDIATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION OVER A DECADE LATER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas C; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that anxiety reliably predicts later depression, but little has been uncovered about the mechanism underlying this connection. Interpersonal relationships appear to be a viable mechanism of the association as anxiety has been shown to predict later deficits in both close (e.g., "best friendships") and group relationships (e.g., classroom peer groups), and deficits in both close and group relationships have been linked to later depressive symptoms. The current study examined close and group relationships as potential mediators between anxiety and depression 12-14 years later. In a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 6,504), anxiety was measured at baseline, perceptions of close relationships (i.e., feeling loved) and perceptions of group relationships (i.e., feeling part of a group) were measured 6 months later, and depression levels and diagnosis were measured 12-14 years later. Using structural equation models, the results showed that adolescent perceptions of both close and group relationships significantly mediated the relationship between adolescent anxiety and adult levels of depression. Furthermore, perceptions of not being accepted/loved in close relationships significantly mediated the relationship between adolescent anxiety and clinical depression in adulthood. These results suggest that a perception of not being accepted in group relationships may be a mechanism by which heightened anxiety in adolescents leads to heightened nonclinical depression in adulthood. On the other hand, adolescent perceptions of not feeling loved or accepted in close relationships may be a mechanism by which heightened anxiety in adolescence leads to clinical depression--in adulthood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Isolation and characterization of endophytic huperzine A-producing fungi from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Zeng, Qing Gui; Zhang, Zhi Bin; Yan, Ri Ming; Wang, Ling Yun; Zhu, Du

    2011-09-01

    Huperzia serrata is a producer of huperzine A (HupA), a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI). Over 120 endophytic fungi were recovered from this plant and screened for Hup-A and nine were found. These nine represented seven different fungal genera with the most significant producer being Shiraia sp. A total of 127 endophytic fungi isolates obtained from the root, stem, and leaf segments of H. serrata were grouped into 19 genera based on their morphological traits and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), indicating endophytic fungi in H. serrata are diverse and abundant. Aspergillus, Podospora, Penicillium, Colletotrichum, and Acremonium were the frequent genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Overall, 39 endophytic fungi isolates showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in vitro. Nine endophytic fungi isolates from seven distinct genera were capable of producing HupA verified by thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the HupA-producing fungi, the yield of HupA produced by the Shiraia sp. Slf14 was 327.8 μg/l in potato dextrose broth, and the fungal HupA was further validated by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The present study demonstrated that H. serrata was a fascinating fungal reservoir for producing HupA and other ChEIs.

  6. Distribution and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Singh, Garima; Passari, Ajit Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-03-01

    Distributions of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L. was studied and 91 isolates belonging to 18 genera were recovered. The isolates were distributed to sordariomycetes (62.63%), dothideomycetes (19.78%), eurotiomycetes (7.69%), zygomycetes (4.19%), agaricomycetes (1.09%), and mycelia sterilia (4.39%). Based on colony morphology and examination of spores, the isolates were classified into 18 taxa, of which Colletotrichum, Phomopsis and Phoma were dominant, their relative frequencies were 23.07%, 17.58% and 12.08% respectively. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi was determined and found to be significantly higher in leaf segments (50.76%), followed by root (41.53%) and stem tissues (27.69%). All the isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity and revealed that 26.37% endophytic fungi were active against one or more pathogens. Twenty four isolates showing significant antimicrobial activity were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rRNA gene. Results indicated that endophytic fungi associated with leaf were functionally versatile as they showed antimicrobial activity against most of the tested pathogens. The endophytic fungi Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis (KF193982) inhibited all the tested bacterial pathogens, whereas, Penicillium chermesinum (KM405640) displayed most significant antifungal activity. This seems to be the first hand report to understand the distribution and antimicrobial ability of endophytic fungi from ethno-medicinal plant M. malabathricum.

  7. Personal and Environmental Resources Mediate the Positivity-Emotional Dysfunction Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Janus, Katherine C; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the relationships among positivity, perceived personal and environmental resources, and emotional dysfunction in adolescent girls. We hypothesized that perceived resources would mediate the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. Participants (N = 510) attending an all-girls public school completed a survey assessing emotional dysfunction (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), positivity (positive/negative emotions), and personal/ environmental resources (resilience, hope, percent adaptive coping, community connectedness, social support, and school connectedness). Perceived resources were combined into one latent variable, and structural equation modeling tested the mediating effect of perceived resources on the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. The model accounted for 63% of the variance in emotional dysfunction. Positivity exerted a significant direct effect on emotional dysfunction (β = -.14, p emotional dysfunction is primarily but not entirely mediated by perceived personal and environmental resources. Schools should consider strategies to enhance experiences of positive emotions and/or decrease experiences of negative emotions, in conjunction with encouraging student awareness and development of personal and environmental resources.

  8. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    1105 Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Luiz H...fungal community and micropropagated clones of E. purpurea was re-established after acclimatization to soil and the endophytic fungi produced compounds...Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench 5a. CONTRACT

  9. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Melcher, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  10. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    Full Text Available Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  11. Endophytic fungi associated with Ziziphus species from mountainous area of Oman and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAIFELDIN A.F. EL-NAGERABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El-Nagerabi SAF, Elshafie AE, AlKhanjari SS. 2013. Endophytic fungi associated with Ziziphus species from mountainous area of Oman and new records. Biodiversitas 14: 10-16. Ziziphus species of the family Rhamnaceae grow extensively in arid and semi-arid regions. It is possible that the endophytic fungi associated with this plant might enhance the host resistance to the environmental impacts. The endophytic fungal population inhabiting the healthy leaves of Z. spina-christi and Z. hajanensis plants were determined from April 2008 to October 2011. The endophytic fungal communities varied between the two species, and 45 fungal species, 18 sterile mycelia and 12 yeasts were isolated from Z. spina-christi, whereas 35 fungi, 11 sterile mycelia and 5 yeasts were recovered from Z. hajanensis indicating tissue and species-specificity and without any seasonal variation among the endophytes. These endophytes are new to Ziziphus plants and 45 species are new to the mycoflora of Oman, whereas 27 species are new to Arabian Peninsula. The genus Alternaria was the most prevalent (19-81% followed by Aspergillus (19-78%, Rhizopus stolonifer (78%, Mycelia sterilia (69%, yeasts (47%, Cladosporium (11-56%, Drechslera (14-53%, Curvularia (8-50%, Fusarium (6-33%, Ulocladium (41-31%, Penicillium (3-22%, Alysidium resine (11%, Trichocladium (6-11%, Anguillospora longissima, Bactrodesmium rahmii, Catenularia (8%, Helminthosporium sorghi (7%, Dendryphiella infuscans (6%, Hansfordia biophila (3-6%, Arthrinium, Dissophora, and Phoma sorghina (3%. The recovery of many fungal isolates, morphologically various sterile mycelia and yeasts suggests the high biodiversity of the endophytes invading these plants with strong evidence for future isolation of numerous fungal species through adopting more advanced molecular and DNA identification methods.

  12. Endophytic l-asparaginase-producing fungi from plants associated with anticancer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiingYng Chow

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are novel sources of natural bioactive compounds. This study seeks endophytes that produce the anticancer enzyme l-asparaginase, to harness their potential for mass production. Four plants with anticancer properties; Cymbopogon citratus, Murraya koenigii, Oldenlandia diffusa and Pereskia bleo, were selected as host plants. l-Asparaginase-producing endophytes were detected by the formation of pink zones on agar, a result of hydrolyzes of asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia that converts the phenol red dye indicator from yellow (acidic condition to pink (alkaline condition. The anticancer enzyme asparaginase was further quantified via Nesslerization. Results revealed that a total of 89 morphotypes were isolated; mostly from P. bleo (40, followed by O. diffusa (25, C. citratus (14 and M. koenigii (10. Only 25 of these morphotypes produced l-asparaginase, mostly from P. bleo and their asparaginase activities were between 0.0069 and 0.025 μM mL−1 min−1. l-Asparaginase producing isolates were identified as probable species of the genus Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma and Penicillium. Studies here revealed that endophytes are good alternative sources for l-asparaginase production and they can be sourced from anticancer plants, particularly P. bleo.

  13. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants ( Chenopodium quinoa ) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium , Phoma and Fusarium , which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C . quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  14. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  15. Transferability of STS markers in studying genetic relationships of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Raghvendra; Chandra, Amaresh

    2011-11-01

    Transferability of sequence-tagged-sites (STS) markers was assessed for genetic relationships study among accessions of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum Forsk.). In total, 17 STS primers of Stylosanthes origin were tested for their reactivity with thirty accessions of Dichanthium annulatum. Of these, 14 (82.4%) reacted and a total 106 (84 polymorphic) bands were scored. The number of bands generated by individual primer pairs ranged from 4 to 11 with an average of 7.57 bands, whereas polymorphic bands ranged from 4 to 9 with an average of 6.0 bands accounts to an average polymorphism of 80.1%. Polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.222 to 0.499 and marker index (MI) from 1.33 to 4.49. Utilizing Dice coefficient of genetic similarity dendrogram was generated through un-weighted pairgroup method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) algorithm. Further, clustering through sequential agglomerative hierarchical and nested (SAHN) method resulted three main clusters constituted all accessions except IGBANG-D-2. Though there was intermixing of few accessions of one agro-climatic region to another, largely groupings of accessions were with their regions of collections. Bootstrap analysis at 1000 scale also showed large number of nodes (11 to 17) having strong clustering (> 50). Thus, results demonstrate the utility of STS markers of Stylosanthes in studying the genetic relationships among accessions of Dichanthium.

  16. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-07-01

    Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria.

  17. Endophytic fungal communities associated with field-grown soybean roots and seeds in the Huang-Huai region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants depend on beneficial interactions between roots and fungal endophytes for growth, disease suppression, and stress tolerance. In this study, we characterized the endophytic fungal communities associated with the roots and corresponding seeds of soybeans grown in the Huang-Huai region of China. For the roots, we identified 105 and 50 genera by culture-independent and culture-dependent (CD methods, respectively, and isolated 136 fungal strains (20 genera from the CD samples. Compared with the 52 soybean endophytic fungal genera reported in other countries, 28 of the genera we found were reported, and 90 were newly discovered. Even though Fusarium was the most abundant genus of fungal endophyte in every sample, soybean root samples from three cities exhibited diverse endophytic fungal communities, and the results between samples of roots and seeds were also significantly different. Together, we identified the major endophytic fungal genera in soybean roots and seeds, and revealed that the diversity of soybean endophytic fungal communities was influenced by geographical effects and tissues. The results will facilitate a better understanding of soybean–endophytic fungi interaction systems and will assist in the screening and utilization of beneficial microorganisms to promote healthy of plants such as soybean.

  18. Self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Trait future time perspective measures the extent to which behaviour is dominated by a striving for future goals and rewards. Trait present time perspective measures orientation towards immediate pleasure. Previous research has explored the relationship between future and present time perspective and BMI with mixed findings. In addition, the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Self-control is a likely candidate, as it has been related to both BMI and time perspective, but the relationship between all of these concepts has not been examined in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if trait self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective (future and present) and BMI. Self-report time perspective (ZTPI), self-control (SCS) and height/weight data were collected using an online survey from a mixed student and community sample (N = 218) with wide ranging age (mean 29, SD 11, range 18-73 years) and BMI (mean 24, SD 4, range 15-43). The results of a structural equation model including both facets of time perspective suggested that the traits are related yet distinct measures that independently predict BMI through changes in self-control. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that self-control mediated the relationship between both future time perspective (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02) and present time perspective (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17), and BMI in opposite directions. Participants with higher future time perspective scores (higher present time perspective scores) had higher (lower) self-control, which predicted lower (higher) BMI. These results are consistent with previous research suggesting an important role for time perspective in health outcomes. Self-control likely mediates the relationship between temporal perspectives and BMI, suggesting that time perspective may be a target for individualised interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Endophytic bacterial effects on seed germination and mobilization of reserves in ammodendron biofolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.; She, X.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze the mobilization of storage reserves during seed germination of Ammodendron bifolium by host plant-endophytic bacteria interaction and to determine the contribution of endophytic bacteria in plant establishment. The seeds were inoculated with three different endophytic bacteria from A. bifolium, Staphylococcus sp. AY3, Kocuria sp. AY9 and Bacillus sp. AG18, and they were germinated in the dark. Fresh weight changes and early seedling growth were assessed, and the content of storage compounds was quantified using biochemical assays in all germinated and non-germinated seeds. To understand the mechanism promoting seed germination, the activities of extracellular enzymes of bacterial isolates were also analyzed by the plate assay method. The results showed that treatment with endophytic bacteria accelerated seed germination; promoted further water absorption and radicle growth; and also promoted degradation of sucrose, protein and lipids during the germination process. At the same time, our results also showed that strain AG18 was able to produce protease and amylase, strain AY9 had only amylase activity, and strain AY3 had no extracellular enzyme activity. In summary, our current study showed that (i) endophytic bacteria improved seed germination and post-germination seedling growth of A. bifolium; (ii) inoculation with endophytic bacteria could promote storage reserve mobilization during or following germination; (iii) the degradation of protein, lipids and sucrose could provide essential energy for post-germination growth; and (iv) three bacterial isolates might have different action mechanisms on seed germination. (author)

  1. The Hidden World within Plants: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations for Defining Functioning of Microbial Endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overbeek, Leonard S.; Berg, Gabriele; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Compant, Stéphane; Campisano, Andrea; Döring, Matthias; Sessitsch, Angela

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions. PMID:26136581

  2. The Hidden World within Plants: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations for Defining Functioning of Microbial Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, Pablo R; van Overbeek, Leonard S; Berg, Gabriele; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Compant, Stéphane; Campisano, Andrea; Döring, Matthias; Sessitsch, Angela

    2015-09-01

    All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyera; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Aruem; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young’s Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI). We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults’ IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression) but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships). PMID:29509708

  4. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyera; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Aruem; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-03-06

    Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young's Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI). We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults' IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression) but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships).

  5. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyera Ryu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young’s Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT, impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11, interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS, and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI. We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults’ IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships.

  6. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  7. Functional immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity between Pas n 1 of Bahia grass pollen and other group 1 grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Dang, T D; Voskamp, A; Drew, A C; Biondo, M; Phung, M; Upham, J W; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2011-02-01

    Grass pollens are major triggers of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the immunological relationships between pollen allergens of the subtropical Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, and temperate grasses are unresolved. To assess serum IgE cross-reactivity between subtropical P. notatum and temperate Lolium perenne (Ryegrass) pollen allergens. Serum IgE reactivities of grass pollen-allergic patients with P. notatum, L. perenne and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen extracts and their respective purified group 1 allergens, Pas n 1, Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1, were compared by immunoblotting, ELISA and basophil activation. In a cohort of 51 patients from a temperate region, a high frequency of IgE reactivity with each grass pollen was detected, but reactivity with L. perenne pollen was substantially greater than with P. notatum and C. dactylon pollen. Similarly, serum IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was greater than with Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. For seven of eight sera studied in detail, asymmetric serum IgE cross-reactivity was observed; L. perenne pollen inhibited IgE reactivity with P. notatum pollen but not the converse, and IgE reactivity with Pas n 1 was inhibited by Lol p 1 but IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was not inhibited by Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. Importantly, P. notatum pollen and Pas n 1 activated basophils in grass pollen-allergic patients from a temperate region, although stimulation was greater by pollen of L. perenne than P. notatum or C. dactylon, and by Lol p 1 than Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. In contrast, a cohort of 47 patients from a subtropical region showed similar IgE reactivity with P. notatum and L. perenne pollen, and reciprocal cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity between L. perenne and P. notatum. Pollen allergens of the subtropical P. notatum, including Pas n 1, show clinically relevant IgE cross-reactivity with pollen allergens of L. perenne but also species-specific IgE reactivity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Bioactive Constituents from an Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium polonicum NFW9, Associated with Taxus fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nighat; Sripisut, Tawanun; Youn, Ui J; Ahmed, Safia; Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Munoz-Acuna, Ulyana; Simmons, Charles J; Qazi, Muneer A; Jadoon, Muniba; Tan, Ghee T; de Blanco, Esperanza J C; Chang, Leng C

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are being recognized as vital and untapped sources of a variety of structurally novel and unique bioactive secondary metabolites in the field of natural products drug discovery. Herein, this study reports the isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum (NFW9) associated with Taxus fuana. The extracts of the endophytic fungus cultured on potato dextrose agar were purified using several chromatographic techniques. Biological evaluation was performed based on their abilities to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cytotoxicity assays. Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of a fermentation culture of an endophytic fungus, Penicillium polonicum led to the isolation of a dimeric anthraquinone, (R)- 1,1',3,3',5,5'-hexahydroxy-7,7'-dimethyl[2,2'-bianthracene]-9,9',10,10'-tetraone (1), a steroidal furanoid (-)-wortmannolone (2), along with three other compounds (3-4). Moreover, this is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from an endophytic fungus. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS data analyses. The stereo structure of compound 1 was determined by the measurement of specific optical rotation and CD spectrum. The relative stereochemistry of 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2-3 showed inhibitory activities in the TNF-α-induced NF-κB assay with IC50 values in the range of 0.47-2.11 µM. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 showed moderate inhibition against NF-κB and cancer cell lines. The endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum of Taxus fuana is capable of producing biologically active natural compounds. Our results provide a scientific rationale for further chemical investigations into endophyte-producing natural products, drug discovery and development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Concentration of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination shapes fungal endophytic community structure in plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eBourdel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous patterns of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of

  10. Self-esteem mediates the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junmin; Ai, Hongshan

    2016-06-01

    There is a trend of rapid growth in both the level and occurrence of depression when people reach adolescence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression in adolescents, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of self-esteem. A total of 364 senior middle school students accomplished the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The results suggested that both parent-adolescent relationship and self-esteem were significantly correlated with depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent relationship and depression. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Fungal endophytes from Acer ginnala Maxim: isolation, identification and their yield of gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, F-H; Jing, T-Z; Wang, Z-X; Zhan, Y-G

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate the endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala and screen isolates rich in gallic acid. After epiphytic sterilization, 145 fungal endophytes were isolated from the stem, annual twig and seed of Acer ginnala. The endophytes were grouped into ten different taxa, Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp., Phoma sp., Epicoccum sp., Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp., Cladosporium sp. and a species of Pleosporales Incertae Sedis, by their morphological traits and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The content and yield of gallic acid of 141 isolates were determined by HPLC. On average, the species of Pleosporales Incertae Sedis had the highest content and yield of gallic acid (13.28 mg g(-1) DW; 119.62 mg l(-1)), while Alternaria sp. had the lowest. Of 141 fungal endophytes from A. ginnala, Phomopsis sp. isolate SX10 showed both the highest content and the highest yield of gallic acid (29.25 mg g(-1) DW; 200.47 mg l(-1)). Endophytic fungi isolated from A. ginnala may be used as potential producers of gallic acid and other compounds with biological activities, or functioned as elicitors to produce natural compounds.

  12. Potential Use of Endophytic Bacteria to Control Pratylenchus Brachyurus on Patchouli

    OpenAIRE

    Harni, Rita; Supramana, Supramana; Supriadi, Supriadi

    2012-01-01

    Pratylenchus brachyurus is an important parasitic nematode which significantly decreases quality and quantity of patchouli oil. One potential measure for controlling the nematode is by using endophytic bacteria. These bacteria also induce plant growth. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endo-phytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus. The experiments were carried out in the Bacteriological Laboratory of the Plant Protection Department, Bogor Agricultural University, and the Laborator...

  13. Endophytic bacteria improve phytoremediation of Ni and TCE co-contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Dupae, Joke; Newman, Lee; Lelie, Daniel van der; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if engineered endophytes can improve phytoremediation of co-contaminations by organic pollutants and toxic metals. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation, and (b) the ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system. Plants were exposed to Ni and TCE and (a) Ni and TCE phytotoxicity, (b) TCE degradation and evapotranspiration, and (c) Ni concentrations in the roots and shoots were determined. Inoculation with B. cepacia VM1468 resulted in decreased Ni and TCE phytotoxicity, as measured by 30% increased root biomass and up to 50% decreased activities of enzymes involved in anti-oxidative defence in the roots. In addition, TCE evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend and a 5 times higher Ni uptake was observed after inoculation. - Engineered endophytes can improve phytoremediation of mixed contaminations via enhanced degradation of organic contaminants and improved metal uptake and translocation.

  14. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  15. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  16. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, M.; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, S.; Riess, K.; Martos, F.; Krause, C.; Oberwinkler, F.; Bauer, R.; Redecker, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 1-7 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Sebacinales * endophytes * mycorrhiza Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  17. Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene by an Endophyte of Hybrid Poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Khan, Zareen

    2012-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a novel endophyte from hybrid poplar. This unique endophyte, identified as Enterobacter sp. strain PDN3, showed high tolerance to trichloroethylene (TCE). Without the addition of inducers, such as toluene or phenol, PDN3 rapidly reduced TCE levels in medium from 72.4 μM to 30.1 μM in 24 h with a concurrent release of 127 μM chloride ion, and nearly 80% of TCE (55.3 μM) was dechlorinated by PDN3 in 5 days with 166 μM chloride ion production, suggesting TCE degradation. PMID:22367087

  18. Melanised endophytic fungi may increase stores of organic carbon in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Peter; Mukasa Mugerwa, Tendo

    2013-04-01

    The processes underlying the carbon cycle in soil, especially sequestration of organic carbon (OC), are poorly understood. Hydrolysis and oxidation reduce organic matter. Hydrolysis degrades linear organic molecules in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, though it is slower in anaerobic conditions. Aromatic compounds are only degraded by oxidation. Oxygen is by far the most common electron acceptor in soil. Anaerobic conditions preclude oxidation in soil and will result in the preservation of aromatic compounds so long as the conditions remain anaerobic. We experimentally tested this model using melanised endophytic fungi. Melanin is a polyaromatic compound that can be readily visualised, though is difficult to quantify. An endophytic association provides the fungus with an ongoing source of energy. Fungal hyphae elongate considerable distances in soil where they may colonise aggregates, the core of which may be anaerobic. The hypothesis we tested is that melanised endophytic fungi increase OC in soil. Seedlings of subterranean clover inoculated with single isolates were grown in split pots where the impact of the fungus could be quantified in the hyphal chamber, separated from the roots by a steel mesh. We found that melanised endophytic fungi significantly increased OC and aromatic carbon in a well-aggregated carbon-rich soil. OC increased by up to 17% within 14 weeks. Twenty out of 24 isolates statistically significantly increased and none decreased OC. Increases differed between fungal isolates. Increases in the hyphal chamber were independent of any change in OC associated with the roots of the host plant. The storage of OC in field soils is being explored. Inoculation of plant roots with melanised endophytic fungi offers one means whereby OC may be increased in field soils.

  19. Assessing the relationship between technology readiness and continuance intention in an E-appointment system: relationship quality as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chih; Jong, Din; Lai, Min-Tsai

    2014-09-01

    Numerous types of self-service technologies have prevailed due to innovations in network and information technology. To hospitals, patient intentions to continue to use the e-appointment system are crucial. Previous investigations discussed only the relationships between the technology readiness of users and their continuance intentions, and ignored the most important mediator, relationship quality. This study explored the relationships among technology readiness, relationship quality, and continuance intention. The research results demonstrated that both optimism and innovativeness significantly and positively influenced continuance intention through the mediating effect of relationship quality. However, discomfort and insecurity hid not significantly influence relationship quality or continuance intention. Finally, theoretical contributions, managerial implications and future research directions were discussed.

  20. Endophyte Chaetomium globosum D38 Promotes Bioactive Constituents Accumulation and Root Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza is known for tanshinones and salvianolic acids, which have been shown to have a protective effect against ROS, especially for cardiovascular diseases and other various ailments of human organs. Due to the low yield of tanshinones and their analogs in S. miltiorrhiza, multiple stimulation strategies have been developed to improve tanshinones production in plant tissue cultures. Endophytic fungi have been reported to form different relationships with their host plants, including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic, and parasitic interactions. Thus we take the assumption that endophytic fungi may be a potential microbial tool for secondary metabolism promotion in medicinal plants. We recently isolated Chaetomium globosum D38 from the roots of S. miltiorrhiza and our study aimed to examine the effects of this live endophytic fungus D38 and its elicitor on the accumulation of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures of S. miltiorrhiza. Our results revealed that C. globosum D38 mainly colonized in the intercellular gap of xylem parenchyma cells of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots during the long term co-existence without any toxicity. Moreover, both of the live fungus and its mycelia extract could increase the production of tanshinones, especially for dihydrotanshinone I and cryptotanshinone. The effect of the mycelia extract was much stronger than that of the live fungus on tanshinones synthesis, which significantly increased the transcriptional activity of those key genes in tanshinone biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the live C. globosum D38 could also be made into biotic fertilizer used for S. miltiorrhiza seedlings culture, which not only significantly promoted the growth of the host plant, but also notably enhanced the accumulation of tanshinones and salvianolic acids. We thus speculated that, in the soil environment D38 could form bitrophic and mutual beneficial interactions with the host and enhance the plant growth and its

  1. Enantioselective biotransformation of propranolol to the active metabolite 4-hydroxypropranolol by endophytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyller Bastos Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective biotransformation of propranolol (Prop by the endophytic fungi Phomopsis sp., Glomerella cingulata, Penicillium crustosum, Chaetomium globosum and Aspergillus fumigatus was investigated by studying the kinetics of the aromatic hydroxylation reaction with the formation of 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-Prop. Both Prop enantiomers were consumed by the fungi in the biotransformation process, but the 4-hydroxylation reaction yielded preferentially (--(S-4-OH-Prop. The quantity of metabolites biosynthesized varied slightly among the evaluated endophytic fungi. These results show that all investigated endophytic fungi could be used as biosynthetic tools in biotransformation processes to obtain the enantiomers of 4-OH-Prop.

  2. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  3. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  4. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...... mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months...... differed significantly in both SCIT and SLIT-tablet treatment groups when compared to the control group. Both SCIT and SLIT-tablet groups were significantly different from the control group after 1–3 months of treatment. In general, the changes induced by SCIT reached twice that of SLIT tablet...

  5. Parahippocampal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Lutein and Crystallized Intelligence in Healthy, Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Paul, Erick J; Zwilling, Chris E; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Kuchan, Matthew J; Cohen, Neal J; Barbey, Aron K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although, diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between dietary nutrients and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between a carotenoid important for brain health across the lifespan, lutein, and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher serum levels of lutein are associated with better performance on a task of crystallized intelligence, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the temporal cortex. This investigation aims to contribute to a growing line of evidence, which suggests that particular nutrients may slow or prevent aspects of cognitive decline by targeting specific features of brain aging. Methods: We examined 76 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 to investigate the relationship between serum lutein, tests of crystallized intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence), and gray matter volume of regions within the temporal cortex. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions to control for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index. Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the temporal cortex, the right parahippocampal cortex (Brodmann's Area 34), partially mediates the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence. Conclusion: These results suggest that the parahippocampal cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. Prior findings substantiate the individual relationships reported within the mediation, specifically the links between (i) serum lutein and temporal cortex structure, (ii) serum lutein and crystallized intelligence, and (iii) parahippocampal cortex structure and

  6. Feelings and intervention judgments as mediators in the risk perception-intention relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soureti, Anastasia; Hurling, Robert; Cobain, Mark R; van Mechelen, Willem; Chinapaw, Mai

    2013-07-01

    To explore the mediating role of measures of persuasion in the relationship between risk perceptions and intentions. The first study included 413 obese subjects (mean age = 45.3 years); the second study, 781 overweight subjects (mean age = 46.6 years). All measures were assessed by self-report. Feelings and intervention judgments were mediators in the relationship between risk perceptions and intention to eat healthier, do more physical activity (study 1) and intention to reduce saturated fat (study 2). Feelings was the only mediator in the relationship between risk perceptions and intention to stop smoking (study 1). Future interventions targeting risk perceptions to increase intentions are likely to be more effective if subjects find the information emotionally impactful, credible, and engaging.

  7. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Swapnil M. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Chandanshive, Vishal V. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Rane, Niraj R.; Khandare, Rahul V. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Govindwar, Sanjay P., E-mail: spg_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96 h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36 h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV—vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36 h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus on Ipomoea hederifolia promotes root growth and shoot development • Endophytic Cladosporium cladosporioides synergistically degrade Navy Blue-HE2R dye • Endophyte colonized I. hederifolia roots proved superior in dye decolorization • Dye stress and toxicity was efficiently dealt by root-endophyte consortium • Root-endophyte consortium can be used as a sustainable remediation strategy.

  8. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Swapnil M.; Chandanshive, Vishal V.; Rane, Niraj R.; Khandare, Rahul V.; Watharkar, Anuprita D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96 h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36 h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV—vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36 h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus on Ipomoea hederifolia promotes root growth and shoot development • Endophytic Cladosporium cladosporioides synergistically degrade Navy Blue-HE2R dye • Endophyte colonized I. hederifolia roots proved superior in dye decolorization • Dye stress and toxicity was efficiently dealt by root-endophyte consortium • Root-endophyte consortium can be used as a sustainable remediation strategy

  9. Hand-arm vibration disorder among grass-cutter workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmir, Nor Azali; Ghazali, Mohd Imran; Yahya, Musli Nizam; Ali, Mohamad Hanafi

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from grass-cutting machines has been associated with increasing occurrences of symptoms and signs of occupational diseases related to hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). A cross-sectional study was carried out using an adopted HAVS questionnaire on hand-arm vibration exposure and symptoms distributed to 168 male workers from the grass and turf maintenance industry who use hand-held grass-cutting machines as part of their work. The prevalence ratio and symptom correlation to HAVS between high and low-moderate exposure risk groups were evaluated. There were positive HAVS symptoms relationships between the low-moderate exposure group and the high exposure group among hand-held grass-cutting workers. The prevalence ratio was considered high because there were indicators that fingers turned white and felt numb, 3.63, 95% CI [1.41, 9.39] and 4.24, 95% CI [2.18, 8.27], respectively. Less than 14.3% of workers stated that they were aware of the occupational hand-arm vibration, and it seemed to be related to the finger blanching and numbness. The results suggest that HAVS is under-diagnosed in Malaysia, especially in the agricultural sectors. More information related to safety and health awareness programmes for HAVS exposure is required among hand-held grass-cutting workers.

  10. Stimulate The Growth of Rice Using Endophytic Bacteria from Lowland Rice Plant Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and selection of endophytic bacteria from healthy food crops grown in lowland ecosystem is important to be conducted in order to get growth-stimulating endophytic bacteria at soil with low fertility level so that capable to optimize initial growth of food crops and subsequently can increase productivity level of lowland soil.The research objective was to isolate and to test the IAA-producing endophytic bacteria isolate in stimulating the rice crop growth at lowland area. Endophytic bacteria are isolated from tissues of rice, corn and peanut crops which grown at shallow swamp land in Ogan Ilir and Ogan Komering Ilir Districts, South Sumatra, Indonesia. There was nine isolates of nitrogen-fixer endophytic bacteria that capable to contribute IAA phytohormone into their growth media. The P31 isolate from rice crop tisssue of 2 months old produce the best rice sprouts than other isolates. This isolate can contribute of about 10 mg kg-1 IAA to its growth medium and increase the crowns dry weight and the roots dry weight respectively with magnitudes of 133% and 225% compared to control treatment. Concentration and absorbtion of N for rice crops innoculated with P31 isolates had increased by 169% and 400%, recpectively. The P31 isolates had been identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

  11. Anticestodal Activity of Endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. on Protoscoleces of Hydatid Cyst Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay C. Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is still the main treatment in hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus, which is a global health problem in human and animals. So, there is need for some natural protoscolicidal agents for instillation to prevent their reoccurrence at therapeutic doses. In this present investigation, anticestodal activity of one of the endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. from Neem plant was observed on protoscoleces of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% aqueous eosin red stain method, where mortality was observed at different concentrations with respect to time. An average anticestodal activity was observed with different endophytic fungal strains, that is, Nigrospora (479 ± 2.9, Colletotrichum (469 ± 25.8, Fusarium (355 ± 14.5, and Chaetomium (332 ± 28.3 showing 64 to 70% protoscolicidal activity, except Pestalotiopsis sp. (581 ± 15.0, which showed promising scolicidal activity up to 97% mortality just within 30 min of incubation. These species showed significant reduction in viability of protoscoleces. This is the first report on the scolicidal activity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. We conclude that ultrastructural changes in protoscoleces were due to endophytic extract suggesting that there may be some bioactive compounds that have selective action on the tegument layer of protoscoleces. As compared with that of standard drug used, endophytic species of Neem plant shows significant anticestodal activity.

  12. Environmental Attitude as a Mediator of the Relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Attitude as a Mediator of the Relationship between Self-concept, Environmental Self-Efficacy and Responsible Environmental Behaviour among Residents of High Density Areas in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria.

  13. Fungal endophytes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and their biocontrol potential against pathogens Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayarani, G; Prakash, H S

    2018-03-14

    Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays. The endophyte T. harzianum TharDOB-31 showed significant in vitro mycelial growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum (76.0%) and R. solani (76.9%) when tested by dual culture method. The SEM studies of interaction zone showed morphological abnormalities like parasitism, shriveling, breakage and lysis of hyphae of the pathogens by endophyte TharDOB-31. Selected endophytic isolates recorded multiple plant growth promoting traits in in vitro studies. The rhizome bacterization followed by soil application of endophyte TharDOB-31 showed lowest Percent Disease Incidence of rhizome rot and leaf blight, 13.8 and 11.6% respectively. The treatment of TharDOB-31 exhibited significant increase in plant height (85 cm) and fresh rhizome yield/plant (425 g) in comparison with untreated control under greenhouse condition. The confocal microscopy validates the colonization of the TharDOB-31 in turmeric rhizomes. The secondary metabolites in ethyl acetate extract of TharDOB-31 were found to contain higher number of antifungal compounds by high resolution liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis. Thereby, endophyte T. harzianum isolate can be exploited as a potential biocontrol agent for suppressing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric.

  14. Multiple mediation analysis of the relationship between rapid naming and reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that rapid automatised naming (RAN) correlates with reading ability. Despite several attempts, no single component process (mediator) has been identified that fully accounts for the correlation. The present paper estimated the explanatory value of several mediators....... The influence of the mediators on the RAN-reading correlation was estimated as indirect effects in mediation analyses. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge significantly mediated the RAN-reading relationship, each accounted for a moderate part of the correlation between RAN and reading fluency. Thus...

  15. Endophytic actinobacteria: Diversity, secondary metabolism and mechanisms to unsilence biosynthetic gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Srinivasan, Veeraraghavan; T E, Sheeja; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Srambikkal, Hamza

    2017-09-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria, which reside in the inner tissues of host plants, are gaining serious attention due to their capacity to produce a plethora of secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics) possessing a wide variety of biological activity with diverse functions. This review encompasses the recent reports on endophytic actinobacterial species diversity, in planta habitats and mechanisms underlying their mode of entry into plants. Besides, their metabolic potential, novel bioactive compounds they produce and mechanisms to unravel their hidden metabolic repertoire by activation of cryptic or silent biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for eliciting novel secondary metabolite production are discussed. The study also reviews the classical conservative techniques (chemical/biological/physical elicitation, co-culturing) as well as modern microbiology tools (e.g. next generation sequencing) that are being gainfully employed to uncover the vast hidden scaffolds for novel secondary metabolites produced by these endophytes, which would subsequently herald a revolution in drug engineering. The potential role of these endophytes in the agro-environment as promising biological candidates for inhibition of phytopathogens and the way forward to thoroughly exploit this unique microbial community by inducing expression of cryptic BGCs for encoding unseen products with novel therapeutic properties are also discussed.

  16. Rumination mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansong; Yu, Xinnian; Yang, Bixiu; Zhang, Fuquan; Zou, Wenhua; Na, Aiguo; Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Guangzhong

    2017-03-21

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been identified as a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might explain overgeneral autobiographical memory phenomenon in depression. The purpose of this study was to test the mediation effects of rumination on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the mediation effects of brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined in patients with major depressive disorder. Eighty-seven patients with major depressive disorder completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Bootstrap mediation analysis for simple and multiple mediation models through the PROCESS macro was applied. Simple mediation analysis showed that rumination significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that brooding, but not reflection, significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Our results indicate that global rumination partly mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression is mainly due to the maladaptive brooding subtype of rumination.

  17. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  18. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  19. Seaweed temporal distribution in southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia and isolation of endophytic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainee, Nur Farah Ain; Ismail, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Ismail, Asmida

    2018-04-01

    Temporal study of seaweeds was carried out between on February 2015 and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu at Pengerang, Johor, Malaysia. The research objectives were to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the presence of fungal endophyte in the seaweed. The diversity of seaweed in the sampling site was calculated by using quadrat with 25 meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were identified and processed in laboratory and kept for reference in the Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The specimen for fungal endophyte isolation was collected randomly by choosing the complete thallus, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in freezer until used. From this study, a total of 29 species have been successfully identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and a significant change in community structure was noted. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. Eighteen seaweed species were screened for the presence of fungal endophyte, Sargassum polycystum shows the highest number of fungal endophyte. This study documented the seaweed diversity in two sites at Pengerang, Johor that accommodates fungal endophytes.

  20. [Isolation, identification and characterization of ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Songshan; Liu, Yanping; Zhao, Lei

    2010-11-01

    We Isolated and characterized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa to understand the interactions between endophytes and halophyte. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stalk and leaf of Suaeda salsa and were identified based on morphological, physiological-biochemical properties, API and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Isolates were evaluated for their ACC deaminase, antifungal, protease activity, siderophores and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. Four ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria strains named as LP11, SS12, TW1 and TW2 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas putida respectively. All the strains possessed the phosphate-solubilizing ability and could produce siderophores and phytohormones more or less. None of them could fix atmospheric nitrogen or produce protease. Only strain SS12 showed antagonism against two phytopathogenic fungi viz Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria of Pseudomonas sp. and Pantoea sp. isolated from halophyte Suaeda salsa have abundant biological characteristics related to plant growth promotion, stress homeostasis regulation and biocontrol activity.

  1. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S.; Pintelon, Isabel; Stevens, Vincent; Imperato, Valeria; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; González-Chávez, Carmen; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Thijs, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to bet...

  2. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... fungal species belonging to 25 genera were isolated. The most represented genera included Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Curvularia, Nigrospora and Penicillium. The genera Fusarium and Penicillium occurred significantly higher in performing plants as compared to non-performing plants while the genera...

  3. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  4. Chemical communication between the endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium variabile and the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Combès

    Full Text Available Paraconiothyrium variabile, one of the specific endophytic fungi isolated from the host plant Cephalotaxus harringtonia, possesses the faculty to inhibit the growth of common phytopathogens, thus suggesting a role in its host protection. A strong antagonism between the endophyte P. variabile and Fusarium oxysporum was observed and studied using optic and electronic microscopies. A disorganization of the mycelium of F. oxysporum was thus noticed. Interestingly, the biological effect of the main secondary metabolites isolated from P. variabile against F. oxysporum did not account for this strong antagonism. However, a metabolomic approach of pure fungal strains and confrontation zones using the data analysis tool XCMS were analyzed and pointed out a competition-induced metabolite production by the endophyte in the presence of the phytopathogen. Subsequent MS/MS fragmentations permitted to identify one of the induced metabolites as 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid and highlighted a negative modulation of the biosynthesis of beauvericin, one of the most potent mycotoxin of F. oxysporum, during the competition with the endophyte.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of saponins produced by two novel endophytic fungi from Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhaoxia; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Tianyi; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Zongshen; Guo, Qiong; Wang, Biying

    2017-11-01

    Endophytes in plants may be co-producer of the bioactive compounds of their hosts. We conducted a study to bioprospect for saponin-producing endophytic fungi from Panax notoginseng and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of saponins. Two novel fungal endophytes, Fusarium sp. PN8 and Aspergillus sp. PN17, were isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herb P. notoginseng. After eight days of fermentation, the total saponins produced in the culture broth of PN8 and PN17 were 1.061 and 0.583 mg mL -1 , respectively. The saponin extracts exhibited moderate to high (inhibition zone diameter 15.7-28.4 mm, MIC 1.6-12.5 mg mL -1 ) antimicrobial activity against pathogens tested. Further analysis showed that triterpenoid saponins produced by Fusarium PN8 were Rb 1 , Rd and 20(S)-Rg 3 , while Aspergillus PN17 had the ability to synthesise ginsenoside Re, Rd and 20(S)-Rg 3 . The isolated endophytes may be used as potential sources for microbial production of plant secondary metabolites and for antimicrobial agents.

  6. Effects of field-grown genetically modified Zoysia grass on bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Eok; Yang, Sang-Hwan; Bae, Tae-Woong; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Lim, Pyung-Ok; Lee, Hyo-Yeon

    2011-04-01

    Herbicide-tolerant Zoysia grass has been previously developed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We investigated the effects of genetically modified (GM) Zoysia grass and the associated herbicide application on bacterial community structure by using culture-independent approaches. To assess the possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of transgenic DNA to soil microorganisms, total soil DNAs were amplified by PCR with two primer sets for the bar and hpt genes, which were introduced into the GM Zoysia grass by a callus-type transformation. The transgenic genes were not detected from the total genomic DNAs extracted from 1.5 g of each rhizosphere soils of GM and non-GM Zoysia grasses. The structures and diversities of the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soils of GM and non-GM Zoysia grasses were investigated by constructing 16S rDNA clone libraries. Classifier, provided in the RDP II, assigned 100 clones in the 16S rRNA gene sequences library into 11 bacterial phyla. The most abundant phyla in both clone libraries were Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria. The bacterial diversity of the GM clone library was lower than that of the non- GM library. The former contained four phyla, whereas the latter had seven phyla. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to confirm these results. Phylogenetic analyses of the two clone libraries revealed considerable difference from each other. The significance of difference between clone libraries was examined with LIBSHUFF statistics. LIBSHUFF analysis revealed that the two clone libraries differed significantly (P〈0.025), suggesting alterations in the composition of the microbial community associated with GM Zoysia grass.

  7. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry eMueller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in Eastern and Western areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated.

  8. Endophytic Fungi Associated With Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. Can Inhibit Histamine-Forming Bacteria in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eris Septiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a medicinal plant that is commonly used as spice and preservative. Many types of endophytic fungi have been reported as being associated with medicinal plants and able to synthesize secondary metabolites. In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated from all plant parts of turmeric plants. Identification of the endophytic fungi was done using morphological characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of ribosomal DNA. The dual culture method was used for screening antibacterial activity of the endophytic fungi against Morganella morganii, a common histamine-producing bacteria. The disc diffusion method was used to test the ability of water fractions of selected endophytic fungi to inhibit M. morganii growth. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography was used to determine the fungal extract inhibition activity on histamine formation. In total, 11 endophytic fungi were successfully isolated and identified as Arthrobotrys foliicola, Cochliobolus kusanoi, Daldinia eschscholzii, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium verticillioides, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Phaeosphaeria ammophilae. Five isolates showed inhibition activity against M. morganii in the dual culture tests. Based on the disc diffusion assay, A. foliicola and F. verticillioides inhibited the growth of M. morganii as a histamine-producing bacteria, and inhibiting histamine formation in fish. The best effects in inhibiting growth of the histamine-producing bacteria and histamine formation inhibition in fish were produced with F. verticillioides water fraction at 0°C incubation.

  9. A novel endophytic Huperzine A-producing fungus, Shiraia sp. Slf14, isolated from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D; Wang, J; Zeng, Q; Zhang, Z; Yan, R

    2010-10-01

    To characterize and identify a novel Huperzine A (HupA)-producing fungal strain Slf14 isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. in China. The isolation, identification and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus producing HupA specifically and consistently from the leaves of H. serrata were investigated. The fungus was identified as Shiraia sp. Slf14 by molecular and morphological methods. The HupA produced by this endophytic fungus was shown to be identical to authentic HupA analysed by thin layer chromatographic, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), LC-MS, (1) H NMR and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity in vitro. The amount of HupA produced by Shiraia sp. Slf14 was quantified to be 327.8 μg l(-1) by HPLC, which was far higher than that of the reported endophytic fungi, Acremonium sp., Blastomyces sp. and Botrytis sp. The production of HupA by endophyte Shiraia sp. Slf14 is an enigmatic observation. It would be interesting to further study the HupA production and regulation by the cultured endophyte in H. serrata and in axenic cultures. Although the current accumulation of HupA by the endophyte is not very high, it could provide a promising alterative approach for large-scale production of HupA. However, further strain improvement and the fermentation process optimization are required to result in the consistent and dependable production. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Heavy metal resistant endophytic fungi isolated from Nypa fruticans in Kuching Wetland National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jenny; Sabri, Nuraini Binti Mohd; Tan, Daniel; Mujahid, Aazani; Müller, Moritz

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal pollution is an environmental issue globally and the aim of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi from mangrove wetlands of Sarawak to assess and test their ability to grow in the presence of various heavy metals (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr)). Samples of Nypa fruticans were collected from Kuching Wetland National Park (KWNP) for subsequent endophyte isolation. Ninety-three (93) isolates were obtained and assessed and the most resistant isolates (growing at concentrations up to 1000 ppm) were identified using fungal primers ITS 1 and ITS 4. All of the endophytic fungi were identified to be closely related to Pestalotiopsis sp. and this is to our knowledge the first study reporting the ability of Pestalotiopsis sp. to grow at high concentrations of copper, lead, zinc and chromium. Our results highlight the potential of using endophytic fungi for the treatment of heavy metal pollution, for example as biosorbents.

  11. Distribution and dispersal of Xylaria endophytes in two tree species in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Bayman; D. J. Lodge; P. Angulo-Sandoval; Z. Baez-Ortiz

    1998-01-01

    Xylaria species are common endophytes in tropical plants. It is not known, however, whether transmission of Xylaria occurs horizontally or vertically, whether individual Xylaria strains have wide host ranges or are host-specific, or how they are dispersed. We compared frequency of Xylaria endophytes in leaves and seeds of two tree species in Puerto Rico, Casuarina...

  12. Crosstalk between endophytes and a plant host within information-processing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyrovska N. O.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants are heavily populated by pro- and eukaryotic microorganisms and represent therefore the tremendous complexity as a biological system. This system exists as an information-processing entity with rather complex processes of communication, occurring throughout the individual plant. The plant cellular information-proces- sing network constitutes the foundation for processes like growth, defense, and adaptation to the environment. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms, underlying perception, transfer, analysis, and storage of the endogenous and environmental information within the plant, remain to be fully understood. The associated microorganisms and their investment in the information conditioning are often ignored. Endophytes as plant partners are indispen- sable integrative part of the plant system. Diverse endophytic microorganisms comprise «normal» microbiota that plays a role in plant immunity and helps the plant system to survive in the environment (providing assistance in defense, nutrition, detoxification etc.. The role of endophytic microbiota in the processing of information may be presumed, taking into account a plant-microbial co-evolution and empirical data. Since the literature are be- ginning to emerge on this topic, in this article, I review key works in the field of plant-endophytes interactions in the context of information processing and represent the opinion on their putative role in plant information web under defense and the adaptation to changed conditions.

  13. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  14. Parahippocampal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Lutein and Crystallized Intelligence in Healthy, Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between dietary nutrients and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between a carotenoid important for brain health across the lifespan, lutein, and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher serum levels of lutein are associated with better performance on a task of crystallized intelligence, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the temporal cortex. This investigation aims to contribute to a growing line of evidence, which suggests that particular nutrients may slow or prevent aspects of cognitive decline by targeting specific features of brain aging.Methods: We examined 75 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 to investigate the relationship between serum lutein, tests of crystallized intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and gray matter volume of regions within the temporal cortex. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions to control for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index.Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the temporal cortex, the right parahippocampal cortex (Brodmann’s Area 34, partially mediates the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence. Conclusion: These results suggest that the parahippocampal cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. Prior findings substantiate the individual relationships reported within the mediation, specifically the links between (i serum lutein and temporal cortex structure, (ii serum lutein and crystallized intelligence, and (iii parahippocampal cortex structure

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF ENNIATINS PRODUCTION BY AN ENDOPHYTIC STRAIN FUSARIUM DIMERUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buchtová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to find suitable composition of cultivation media for enniatin production by isolated endophytic strain Fusarium dimerum. In order to find optimal cultivation media, mono- and di- saccharides, complex nitrogen sources and L-amino acids directed biosynthesis of enniatins were tested. Submerged cultivation experiments were carried out in cultivation flasks. Most promising medium for enniatin accumulation contained fructose, malt extract and peptone for bacteriology. Finally, quite expensive carbon source fructose was replaced by more available syrups. Optimization resulted in 4-times elevated enniatin biosynthesis by metabolites production microorganism. Moreover, this is the strain obtained from Magnolia soulangeana, which has similar metabolites spectrum as the isolated Fusarium dimerum. Comparison of these results with published ones revealed that this endophyte is a potential strain for enniatins biosynthesis in submerged cultivation in which the maximum accumulation 1.27 g.L-1 of enniatin in culture medium was reached in a short period (96 h. The results proved that the endophytic strain F. dimerum may potentially be applied for efficient production of bioactive enniatins.

  16. Isolation and characterization of bacterial endophytes of Curcuma longa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Ritu; Yadav, Akhilesh; Giri, D D; Singh, P K; Pandey, Kapil D

    2016-06-01

    Fourteen endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. were characterized on the basis of morphology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates were identified to six strains namely Bacillus cereus (ECL1), Bacillus thuringiensis (ECL2), Bacillus sp. (ECL3), Bacillus pumilis (ECL4), Pseudomonas putida (ECL5), and Clavibacter michiganensis (ECL6). All the strains produced IAA and solubilized phosphate and only two strains produced siderophore (ECL3 and ECL5) during plant growth promoting trait analysis. All the endophytic strains utilized glucose, sucrose and yeast extract as a carbon source where as glycine, alanine, cystine and glutamine as nitrogen source. The strains were mostly sensitive to antibiotic chloramphenicol followed by erythromycin while resistant to polymixin B. The endophytic strains effectively inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and some of the fungal strain like Fusarium solani and Alterneria alternata. The strain ECL2 and ECL4 tolerated maximum 8 % of NaCl concentration where as strains ECL5 and ECL6 6 % in salinity tolerance.

  17. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... staining solution. Slightly crush the seeds. Use caution to prevent carryover hyphae of fungal endophyte... compound microscope at 100-400x magnification, scoring a seed as positive if any identifiable hyphae are...

  18. Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of endophyte infected and non-infected rice under lead stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Bu, Ning; Li, Yueying; Ma, Lianju; Xin, Shigang; Zhang, Lihong

    2012-04-30

    An endophytic fungus was tested in rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to four levels of lead (Pb) stress (0, 50, 100 and 200 μM) to assess effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity. Under Pb stress conditions, endophyte-infected seedlings had greater shoot length but lower root length compared to non-infected controls, and endophyte-infected seedlings had greater dry weight in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. Under Pb stress conditions, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were significantly higher in the endophyte-infected seedlings. Net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were significantly higher in endophyte-infected seedlings in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo were higher in the infected seedlings compared to the non-infected seedlings under Pb stress. Malondialdehyde accumulation was induced by Pb stress, and it was present in higher concentration in non-infected seedlings under higher concentrations of Pb (100 and 200 μM). Antioxidant activity was either higher or unchanged in the infected seedlings due to responses to the different Pb concentrations. These results suggest that the endophytic fungus improved rice growth under moderate Pb levels by enhancing photosynthesis and antioxidant activity relative to non-infected rice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Parental and Child Psychopathology: Moderated Mediation by Gender and Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Annabel O; McKinney, Cliff

    2018-03-26

    Previous literature has not examined the processes underlying the relations among parent-child relationship quality, parental psychopathology, and child psychopathology in the context of gender. Further, research examining these variables in emerging adulthood is lacking. The current study examined whether parent-child relationship quality would mediate the relation between parental and child psychopathology, and whether gender moderated these associations. Participants were emerging adults (N = 665) who reported on perceptions of their parents' and their own psychological problems as well as their parent-child relationship quality. Results indicated that the relation between parental internalizing problems and parent-child relationship quality was positive for males, and that mother-child relationship quality was related positively to psychological problems in males. This suggests that sons may grow closer to their parents (particularly their mother) who are exhibiting internalizing problems; in turn, this enmeshed relationship may facilitate transmission of psychopathology. Mediational paths were conditional upon gender, suggesting moderated mediation. Overall, the current study emphasizes that the complexities of parenting must be understood in the context of gender. Further, the mother-son dyad may particularly warrant further attention.

  20. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi, isolated from macrophytes in the Negro River in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. ... Solms and Cyperus ligularis L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones ...

  1. Phyllosticta capitalensis, a widespread endophyte of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wikee, S.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Nakashima, C.; Motohashi, K.; Chukeatirote, E.; Alias, S.A.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosticta capitalensis is an endophyte and weak plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution presently known from 70 plant families. This study isolated P. capitalensis from different host plants in northern Thailand, and determined their different life modes. Thirty strains of P. capitalensis

  2. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  3. Mediation and moderation: Testing relationships between symptom status, functional health, and quality of life in HIV patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptoms status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is partially mediated by Disability. Common and unique ideas from three approaches to examining moderation of effects in mediational models (Edwards & Lambert, 2007; Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007; MacKinnon, 2008) were used to test whether (a) the direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL and (b) the relationship of Disability to QOL are moderated by age. In the mediation model, both the direct and the indirect (mediated) effects were significant. The direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL was significantly moderated by age, but the relationship of Disability to QOL was not. High Symptoms were associated with lower QOL at all ages, but that this relationship became stronger at older ages. We compare the three approaches and consider their advantages over traditional approaches to combining mediation and moderation. PMID:20706561

  4. Phenology of host Chondrus ocellatus with filamentous green endophyte infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hang Gil; Kim, Changsong; Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Soon Jeong; Park, Myoung Ae; Nam, Ki Wan

    2015-09-01

    Monthly variations in gametophyte and tetrasporophyte biomass of Chondrus ocellatus Holmes, a commercial carragenophyte alga, were examined at wave-exposed and sheltered shore stations of Jungdori, Wando, Korea from September, 2013 to August, 2014. The frequency of infection of the fronds with a green filamentous endophyte was investigated and the endophyte was identified using tufA analysis. Biomass of C. ocellatus was significantly greater at the exposed shore (331.84 g wet wt. m-2) than at the sheltered shore (181 g wet wt. m-2); the average biomass was 259 g wet wt. m-2. Gametophyte biomass of C. ocellatus accounted for 64.25% of the total biomass (259 g wet wt. m-2); tetrasporophyte biomass was 93.05 g wet wt. m-2 (35.93%). Biomass was minimal in winter and maximal in summer at both stations and similar patterns were found for gametophyte and tetrasporophyte biomass. Frond lengths and weights of C. ocellatus were slightly greater at the exposed shore than at the sheltered shore. Fronds of C. ocellatus were infected by a green endophytic species, which grew in between the cortical and medullar tissue and was identified as Ulvella ramosa by tufA analysis. We conclude that the optimal harvesting period of the C. ocellatus field population in terms of biomass might be autumn, after the rapid growth period. Additional in-depth research on the endophytes, such as infection mechanism and frequency, should be performed in order to maintain and manage the field populations of C. ocellatus.

  5. THE MEDIATION ROLE OF RELATIONSIP QUALITY PERCEPTION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELATIONSHIP MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND RE-PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer YILMAZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effect of banks' relationship marketing operations on consumers' intentions of repurchasing and the mediator role of relational quality perception on this effect.  Data used in this study were gathered through a questionnaire from 482 participants in Balıkesir city centre. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling based on PLS algorithm (PLS-YEM were used for the analysis. Results indicated that banks' relationship marketing operations significantly and positively affected consumers' intentions of repurchasing and relational quality perceptions of consumers had a complete mediator effect on this relationship.

  6. Adenosine deaminase production by an endophytic bacterium (Lysinibacillus sp.) from Avicennia marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Sivasankaran, Muthu

    2014-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the following objectives: (1) to isolate the endophytic bacilli strains from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia marina, (2) to screen the potential strains for the production of adenosine deaminase, (3) to statistically optimize the factors that influence the enzyme activity in the potent strain, and (4) to identify the potent strain using 16S rRNA sequence and construct its phylogenetic tree. The bacterial strains isolated from the fresh leaves of a mangrove A. marina were assessed for adenosine deaminase activity by plating method. Optimization of reaction process was carried out using response surface methodology of central composite design. The potent strain was identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogeny. Of five endophytic strains, EMLK1 showed a significant deaminase activity over other four strains. The conditions for maximum activity of the isolated adenosine deaminase are described. The potent strain EMLK1 was identified as Lysinibacillus sp. (JQ710723) being the first report as a mangrove endophyte. Mangrove-derived endophytic bacillus strain Lysinibacillus sp. EMLK1 is proved to be a promising source for the production of adenosine deaminase and this enzyme deserves further studies for purification and its application in disease diagnosis.

  7. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; Pintelon, Isabel; Stevens, Vincent; Imperato, Valeria; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; González-Chávez, Carmen; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Thijs, Sofie

    2018-01-19

    Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

  8. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna S. Sánchez-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

  9. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  10. Relationship of submissive behavior and cyberbullying/cybervictimization: The mediation role of gender

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Peker; Yüksel Eroğlu; Nihan Çitemel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. The sample included 193 female and 137 male. Data were obtained using Submissive Behavior Scale and Revized Cyberbullying Inventory and analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. According to result...

  11. Fungal endophytes from seeds of invasive, non-native Phragmites australis and their potential role in germination and seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearin, Zackery R. C.; Filipek, Matthew; Desai, Rushvi; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Clay, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background and aimsWe characterized fungal endophytes of seeds of invasive, non-native Phragmites from three sites in the Great Lakes region to determine if fungal symbiosis could contribute to invasiveness through their effects on seed germination and seedling growth.MethodsField-collected seeds were surface sterilized and plated on agar to culture endophytes for ITS sequencing. Prevalence of specific endophytes from germinated and non-germinated seeds, and from seedlings, was compared.ResultsOne-third of 740 seeds yielded endophyte isolates. Fifteen taxa were identified with Alternaria sp. representing 54% of all isolates followed by Phoma sp. (21%) and Penicillium corylophilum (12%). Overall germination of seeds producing an isolate (36%) was significantly higher than seeds not producing an isolate (20%). Penicillium in particular was strongly associated with increased germination of seeds from one site. Sixty-three isolates and 11 taxa were also obtained from 30 seedlings where Phoma, Penicillium and Alternaria respectively were most prevalent. There was a significant effect of isolating an endophyte from the seed on seedling growth.ConclusionsThese results suggest that many endophyte taxa are transmitted in seeds and can increase seed germination and seedling growth of invasive Phragmites. The role of fungal endophytes in host establishment, growth and invasiveness in nature requires further research.

  12. Phytophagous insect fauna tracks host plant responses to exotic grass invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Neto, Mário; Prado, Paulo I; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2011-04-01

    The high dependence of herbivorous insects on their host plants implies that plant invaders can affect these insects directly, by not providing a suitable habitat, or indirectly, by altering host plant availability. In this study, we sampled Asteraceae flower heads in cerrado remnants with varying levels of exotic grass invasion to evaluate whether invasive grasses have a direct effect on herbivore richness independent of the current disturbance level and host plant richness. By classifying herbivores according to the degree of host plant specialization, we also investigated whether invasive grasses reduce the uniqueness of the herbivorous assemblages. Herbivorous insect richness showed a unimodal relationship with invasive grass cover that was significantly explained only by way of the variation in host plant richness. The same result was found for polyphagous and oligophagous insects, but monophages showed a significant negative response to the intensity of the grass invasion that was independent of host plant richness. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the aggregate effect of invasive plants on herbivores tends to mirror the effects of invasive plants on host plants. In addition, exotic plants affect specialist insects differently from generalist insects; thus exotic plants affect not only the size but also the structural profile of herbivorous insect assemblages.

  13. Antioxidants in mangrove plants and endophytic fungal associations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Naveenan, T.; Varatharajan, G.R.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Meena, R.M.

    different mangrove species and the predominant endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus were analyzed using various in vitro assay systems (such as iron chelating capacity, reducing power, and hydroxyl radicals/ hydrogen peroxide/l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl...

  14. Indigenous endophytic seed bacteria promote seedling development and defend against fungal disease in browntop millet (Urochloa ramosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; White, J F

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate indigenous seed endophyte effects on browntop millet seedling development. We report that seed-inhabiting bacterial endophytes are responsible for promoting seedling development, including stimulation of root hair formation, increasing root and shoot length growth and increasing photosynthetic pigment content of seedlings. Bacterial endophytes also improved resistance of seedlings to disease. A total of four endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized seeds and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Curtobacterium sp. (M1), Microbacterium sp. (M2), Methylobacterium sp. (M3) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (M4). Removal of bacteria with streptomycin treatment from the seeds compromised seedling growth and development. When endophytes were reinoculated onto seeds, seedlings recovered normal development. Strains M3 and M4 were found to be most potent in promoting growth of seedlings. Bacteria were found to produce auxin, solubilize phosphate and inhibit fungal pathogens. Significant protection of seedlings from Fusarium infection was found using strain M4 in microcosm assays. The antifungal lipopeptide genes for surfactin and iturin were detected in M4; culture extracts of M4 showed a positive drop collapse result for surfactins. This study demonstrates that browntop millet seeds vector indigenous endophytes that are responsible for modulation of seedling development and protection of seedlings from fungal disease. This study is significant and original in that it is the first report of seed-inhabiting endophytes of browntop millet that influence seedling development and function in defence against soilborne pathogens. This study suggests that conservation and management of seed-vectored endophytes may be important in development of more sustainable agricultural practices. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  16. Trace metals bioaccumulation potentials of three indigenous grasses grown on polluted soils collected around mining areas in Pretoria, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lion, G. N.; Olowoyo, J. O.; Modise, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phyto remediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in re mediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three indigenous grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of these grasses were introduced into pots containing polluted soil samples after the addition of organic manure. The seeds of the grasses were allowed to germinate and grow to maturity before harvesting. The harvested grasses were later separated into shoots and roots and the trace metal contents were determined using ICP –MS. From all the grasses, the concentrations of trace metals in the roots were more than those recorded in the shoot with a significant difference (P Themeda trianda > Cynodon dactylon. The study concluded that the three grasses used were all able to bioaccumulate trace metals in a similar proportion from the polluted soils. However, since livestock feed on these grasses, they should not be allowed to feed on the grasses used in this study especially when harvested from a polluted soil due to their bioaccumulative potentials. (au)

  17. Priming effects of the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari on soil mineral N transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Bo; Peng, Yao; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a crucial nutrient for soil biota, and its cycling is determined by the organic carbon decomposing process. Some endophytic fungi are latent saprotrophs that trigger their saprotrophic metabolism to promote litter organic matter cycling as soon as the host tissue senesces or dies. However, the effects of endophytic fungi on litter and soil N dynamics in vitro have rarely been investigated. In this study, we investigated N dynamics (total and mineral N) in both litter and soil in incubations of a pure culture of an endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari with litter and following soil burial of the litter. Soil enzymes and microbial communities participating in the N transformations were also investigated. A pure culture of P. liquidambari released litter NH (4) (+) -N in the initial stages (10 days) of the incubation. However, following soil burial, the presence of both P. liquidambari and soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) resulted in an increase in soil NO (3) (-) -N. These results indicate that the endophytic fungus P. liquidambari in vitro stimulates organic mineralization and promote NH (4) (+) -N release. Such effects triggered soil AOB-driven nitrification process.

  18. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Jin Tong; Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphologi...

  19. Relationship of bite mass of cattle to sward structure of four temperate grasses in short-term foraging sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bite mass is a fundamental element of ruminant ingestive behavior and is highly influenced by sward structure. We compared the sward structure of four grasses and related structure to the bite mass of cattle grazing the grasses. Reed canarygrass (RCG; Phalaris arundinacea L), quackgrass (QG; Elytri...

  20. Some fungal endophytes from vegetable crops and their anti-oomycete activities against tomato late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-Y; Choi, G J; Lee, H B; Lee, S-W; Lim, H K; Jang, K S; Son, S W; Lee, S O; Cho, K Y; Sung, N D; Kim, J-C

    2007-03-01

    To isolate endophytic fungi from vegetable plants and examine their in vivo anti-oomycete activity against Phytophthora infestans in tomato plants. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface-sterilized plant tissues and anti-oomycete activity was measured by in vivo assay using tomato seedlings. Endophytic fungi showing potent anti-oomycete activity were identified by morphological characteristics and nuclear ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence analysis. A total of 152 isolates were obtained from 66 healthy tissue samples of cucumber, red pepper, tomato, pumpkin and Chinese cabbage and the fermentation broths of 23 isolates showed potent in vivo anti-oomycete activity against tomato late blight with control values over 90%. The Fusarium oxysporum strain EF119, which was isolated from roots of red pepper, showed the most potent disease control efficacy against tomato late blight. In dual-culture tests, it inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, P. infestans and Phytophthora capsici. Among endophytic fungi isolated from healthy tissues of vegetable plants, F. oxysporum EF119 showed the most potent in vivo anti-oomycete activity against tomato late blight and in vitro anti-oomycete activity against several oomycete pathogens. Endophytic fungi showing anti-oomycete activity in vitro and in vivo may be used as biocontrol agents particularly of tomato late blight.

  1. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Wu, Xiao; Ouyang, Liming; Zhang, Yian Biao; Stadler, Andrea; McCorkle, Sean; Zhu, Wei; Maslov, Sergei; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  2. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    Full Text Available Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  3. Rejection Sensitivity Mediates the Relationship between Social Anxiety and Body Dysmorphic Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Angela; Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy; Cook, Courtney; Wilhelm, Sabine; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in the relationship between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns. To test our hypothesis that rejection sensitivity mediates the link between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns, we administered self-report questionnaires to 209 student volunteers. Consistent with our prediction, rejection sensitivity partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and body dysmorphic concerns. The implications of the overlap between these constructs are discussed. PMID:21741203

  4. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities exhibited by endophytic fungi from the Brazilian marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Ceramiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Felício

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine environment is one of the most important sources regarding natural products research. Besides, marine microorganisms have been denominated as a talented natural source for discovery of new leads. Although the association of macroalgae and fungi has been described regarding ecological issues, there is a lack of studies about marine seaweed endophytic fungi. In this context, the goal of this study was to evaluate cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from the Brazilian marine seaweed Bostrychia tenella (J.V. Lamouroux J. Agardh (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta. Forty-five endophytic microorganism strains were isolated from B. tenella. Crude extracts and organic fractions of ten selected strains were obtained after growth in rice medium. Samples were evaluated for cytotoxicity, antifungal and antibacterial assays. Penicillium strains showed positive results in a diversity of assays, and other five strains were active in at least one test. In addition, cytochalasin D was isolated from Xylaria sp. This alga is composed of a microbiological potential, since its endophytic strains exhibited remarkable biological properties. Moreover, cytochalasin D isolation has confirmed chemical potential of marine endophytic strains. This is the first study in which cultured fungi isolates from the Brazilian macroalga B. tenella were evaluated concerning biological properties. Results corroborated that this species could be a pharmaceutical source from marine environment. Furthermore, Acremonium implicatum is being firstly described as marine endophyte and Xylaria sp., Trichoderma atroviride and Nigrospora oryzae as marine seaweed endophytes. Thus, this work reports the first study relating detailed isolation, cultivation and biological evaluation (cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial of endophytes Penicillium decaturense and P. waksmanii from the Brazilian marine red alga B. tenella. We are also reporting the

  5. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Meenu; Singh, Gurpreet; Sharma, Sadhna; Gupta, Nidhi; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-02-11

    Endophytes, which reside in plant tissues, have the potential to produce novel metabolites with immense benefits for health industry. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell were investigated. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the Bacopa monnieri. Extracts from liquid cultures were tested for cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the micro dilution method. 22% of the examined extracts showed potent (IC50 of <20 μg/ml) cytotoxic activity against HCT-116 cell line. 5.5%, 11%, 11% of the extracts were found to be cytotoxic for MCF-7, PC-3, and A-549 cell lines respectively. 33% extracts displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one test organism with MIC value 10-100 μg/ml. The isolate B9_Pink showed the most potent cytotoxic activity for all the cell lines examined and maximum antimicrobial activity against the four pathogens examined which was followed by B19. Results indicated the potential for production of bioactive agents from endophytes of Bacopa monnieri.

  6. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Bauhinia forficata: Diversity and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Jadson D P; Nascimento, Carlos C F; Barbosa, Renan do N; da Silva, Dianny C V; Svedese, Virgínia M; Silva-Nogueira, Eliane B; Gomes, Bruno S; Paiva, Laura M; Souza-Motta, Cristina M

    2015-03-01

    Bauhinia forficata is native to South America and used with relative success in the folk medicine in Brazil. The diversity, antibacterial activity, and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes of endophytic fungi associated with this plant were studied. Plant samples, which included leaves, sepals, stems, and seeds, were used. Ninety-five endophytic fungal were isolated (18 from leaves, 22 from sepals, 46 from stems, and nine from seeds), comprising 28 species. The most frequently isolated species were Acremonium curvulum (9.5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (7.37%), Gibberella fujikuroi (10.53%), Myrothecium verrucaria (10.53%) and Trichoderma piluliferum (7.37%). Diversity and species richness were higher in stem tissues, and Sorensen's index of similarity between the tissues was low. Eleven fungi showed antibacterial activity. Aspergillus ochraceus , Gibberella baccata , Penicillium commune , and P. glabrum were those with the greatest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes . Thirteen species showed proteolytic activity, particularly Phoma putaminum . Fourteen species were cellulase positive, particularly the Penicillium species and Myrmecridium schulzeri . All isolates tested were xylanase positive and 10 showed lipolytic activity, especially Penicillium glabrum . It is clear that the endophytic fungi from B. forficata have potential for the production of bioactive compounds and may be a source of new therapeutic agents for the effective treatment of diseases in humans, other animals, and plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study of endophytic fungi from different tissues of B. forficata and their biotechnological potential.

  7. Dynamics of a grassland ecosystem: botanical equilibrium in the Park Grass Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvertown, J

    1980-01-01

    The published results of the Park Grass Experiment (PGE), begun in 1856, provide up to 30 yr of annual data which may be used to determine whether the botanical composition of these grasslands was at equilibrium. Data covering a period exceeding 80 yr are available to test for relationships between hay yield (biomass), species diversity, species number and time. Species diversity and species number show negative relationships with plot biomass and with pH. These relationships were constant over time. The effects of biomass and pH on species number and species diversity were additive. Analysis of the flora of nine plots, each divided into grasses, legumes and a miscellaneous component showed that these components were at equilibrium. The effect of various endogenous factors on this botanical equilibrium was examined. No regular or irregular cycles of component biomass operating between years were detected and it is inferred that populations were regulated by processes operating within individual years. The biomasses of all three components were positively correlated within an unfertilized plot but the floristic components of plots receiving a fertilizer treatment showed few within-plot correlations. By contrast between-plot correlations of components were common for all plots with the exception of those receiving nitrogen fertilizer. The mechanisms of population regulation which maintained the park grass ecosystem at equilibrium are discussed and tests for these are proposed.

  8. Antiangiogenic, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Endophytic Fungus isolated from seaweed (Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath M. Hulikere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi from marine seaweeds are the less studied group of organisms with vast medical applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antiangiogenic as well as wound healing potential of the endophytic fungus isolated from the seaweed Sargassum wightii. The morphological characters and the rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis (BLAST search in Gen Bank database was used for the identification of endophytic fungus. The antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of endophytic fungus was assessed by, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The fungal extract was also analysed for reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid content. Antiangiogenic activity of the fungal extract was studied in vitro by inhibition of wound healing scratch assay and in vivo by Chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. The endophytic fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Gen Bank ID – KT384175. The ethyl acetate extract of C. cladosporioides showed a significant antioxidant and angiosuppressive activity. The ESI-LC-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of wide range of secondary metabolites. Results suggest that C. cladosporioides extract could be exploited as a potential source for angiogenic modulators.

  9. Endophytic Paraconiothyrium sp. from Zingiber officinale Rosc. Displays Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity by Production of Danthron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Sachidanandan, P; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-03-01

    The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. The bioactive compound produced by the isolate was separated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and was identified by GC-MS as danthron, an anthraquinone derivative. PCR amplification showed the presence of non-reducing polyketide synthase gene (NR-PKS) in the endophyte GFM13, which is reported to be responsible for the synthesis of anthraquinones in fungi. This is the first report of danthron being produced as the biologically active component of Paraconiothyrium sp. Danthron is reported to have wide pharmaceutical and agronomic applications which include its use as a fungicide in agriculture. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of danthron and the endophytic origin of Paraconiothyrium sp. offer immense applications of the study.

  10. The secret world of endophytes in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work in Fungal Ecology is focused on the group of plant symbionts that have been termed collectively ‘microbial endophytes’. Broadly, microbial endophytes are commonly considered to be any of a diverse group of bacteria, cyanobacteria, or fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants. After ...

  11. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fadda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB, whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness, directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173 completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating

  12. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB), whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness), directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173) completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect) of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism) and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating role of self

  13. Neuroticism as a Moderator of Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Introversion-Extraversion and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L. Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Among personality traits, extraversion has received major theoretical and empirical attention as predictor of subjective well-being (SWB), whereas the role of emotional stability-neuroticism has been partially neglected. The present study aims to study the role of neuroticism in the relationship between introversion-extraversion and SWB. In particular, we explored if the trait of neuroticism moderates the relationships between introversion-extraversion and SWB dimensions (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigour, Social Cheerfulness), directly and by mediation of self-esteem. Indeed, previous studies have suggested that self-esteem is positively associated with high extraversion and low neuroticism and that it positively mediates the relationship between SWB and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of high school students (N = 1173) completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. In a latent variable model, we examined the interaction effects (direct and indirect) of extraversion and neuroticism on SWB dimensions. Our results showed that the nature of differences between introverts and extraverts on SWB could be related to the level of neuroticism in relation to Satisfaction with life. Moreover, self-esteem mediated the relationship between personality traits and SWB. In particular, mediated moderation effect analysis showed that self-esteem mediates completely the relationship between the interaction term (extraversion x neuroticism) and Mastery, and partially the relationship with Satisfaction with life. Moreover, moderated mediation effect analysis showed that high levels of neuroticism moderate the effect of extraversion on Satisfaction with life and Mastery through the mediation of self-esteem. In conclusion, our results suggest that although extraversion has a cardinal role on SWB dimensions related to Vigour and Social Cheerfulness, neuroticism and the mediating role of self

  14. Natural Medium for Growing of Endophytic Bacteria from Solanaceae in Malang-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Purnawati Arika; Harijani Wiwik Sri; Windriyanti Wiwin

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are important microorganisms having potential as biocontrol agents for many pathogens. Until now, the growth of it always uses semi-synthetic or synthetic medium so it was difficult to be used by farmers in the field and it was expensive to have its propagation as biocontrol agents. Based on the problem, this research will study the natural medium as propagation medium of Endophytic bacteria. It had natural ingredients such as soybean, chicken broth, egg, worms, snail, sor...

  15. [Effects of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale on host growth and components metabolism of tissue culture seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jing-Jing; Si, Jin-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting; Zhao, Li; Wu, Ling-Shang

    2016-05-01

    The paper aims to study the effects of endophytic fungi from D. officinale cultivated on living trees on growth and components metabolism of tissue culture seedlings. Morphological characteristics and agronomic characters of tissue culture seedlings infected and uninfected by endophytic fungus were observed and measured. Polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts contents were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dipmethod, respectively. Monosacchride composition of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts components were analyzed by pre-column derivatives HPLC and HPLC method, respectively. It showed that effects of turning to purple of stem nodes could be changed by endophytic fungus. Besides, the endophytic fungus could affect the contents and constitutions of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The strains tested, expect DO34, could promote growth and polysaccharides content of tissue culture seedlings. The strains tested, expect DO12, could promote the accumulation of mannose. Furthermore, DO18, DO19 and DO120 could increase alcohol-soluble extracts. On the basis, four superior strains were selected for mechanism research between endophytic fungus and their hosts and microbiology engineering. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Is the Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting Stress Mediated or Moderated by Parenting Alliance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Camisasca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating and moderating effects of parenting alliance on the relationship between marital adjustment, as represented by the dimensions dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction, dyadic cohesion, and affectional expression, and maternal and paternal stress. Self-report data were gathered from 236 Italian families (236 mothers: M = 40.9; SD = 4.4 and 236 fathers: M = 42.9; SD = 4.8 of children aged 6–11 years (M = 8.6; SD = 1.7. A set of regression analyses were conducted to examine whether parenting alliance mediates or moderates the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. Regression analyses were consistent with a model of coparenting as a mediator but not as a moderator of the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. In the case of mothers, parenting alliance mediates the relationships between two dimensions of marital adjustment (dyadic consensus and dyadic cohesion on parenting stress; in the case of fathers, parenting alliance serves as a mediator of the relationship between the marital adjustment (in terms of dyadic satisfaction and parenting stress. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  17. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta

    2015-03-15

    Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used for assessment of teamwork. In order to examine role of teamwork as a mediating variable we fit series of regression models for burnout and job satisfaction. We also fit regression models predicting outcome (burnout or job satisfaction) from predictor (work demands or job engagement) and moderator (teamwork) variable. Teamwork was partial mediator of work demands-burnout relationship and full mediator of job engagement-job satisfaction relationship. We found that only job engagement-job satisfaction relationship was moderated by teamwork. Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction.

  18. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... the number and identity of the isolated endophyte phytobacteria in L. gibba plants .... mL was taken from each sample and placed on plates containing ... databases using Basic Logical Alignment Search Tool analysis ...

  19. Utilizing inter-organizational relationships for new product development performance: A test of possible mediation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether collaborative experience can act as a mediating variable on the use of inter-organizational relationships on NPD performance. The paper tests two different research questions: 1) Is there a possible mediating effect of experience on the linkage...... between inter-organizational relationships and performance? And If yes: what is the nature of the mediating effect and the resulting influence on performance? The paper is motivated by the growing literature on the importance of inter-organizational relationships created by the idea that firms operate...

  20. Inhibitory Control Mediates the Association between Perceived Stress and Secure Relationship Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toria Herd

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Past research has demonstrated negative associations between exposure to stressors and quality of interpersonal relationships among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Chronic stress has been shown to disrupt prefrontal functioning in the brain, including inhibitory control abilities, and evidence is accumulating that inhibitory control may play an important role in secure interpersonal relationship quality, including peer problems and social competence. In this prospective longitudinal study, we examine whether changes in inhibitory control, measured at both behavioral and neural levels, mediate the association between stress and changes in secure relationship quality with parents and peers. The sample included 167 adolescents (53% males who were first recruited at age 13 or 14 years and assessed annually three times. Adolescents’ inhibitory control was measured by their behavioral performance and brain activities, and adolescents self-reported perceived stress levels and relationship quality with mothers, fathers, and peers. Results suggest that behavioral inhibitory control mediates the association between perceived stress and adolescent’s secure relationship quality with their mothers and fathers, but not their peers. In contrast, given that stress was not significantly correlated with neural inhibitory control, we did not further test the mediation path. Our results highlight the role of inhibitory control as a process through which stressful life experiences are related to impaired secure relationship quality between adolescents and their mothers and fathers.

  1. Inhibitory Control Mediates the Association between Perceived Stress and Secure Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Toria; Li, Mengjiao; Maciejewski, Dominique; Lee, Jacob; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2018-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated negative associations between exposure to stressors and quality of interpersonal relationships among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Chronic stress has been shown to disrupt prefrontal functioning in the brain, including inhibitory control abilities, and evidence is accumulating that inhibitory control may play an important role in secure interpersonal relationship quality, including peer problems and social competence. In this prospective longitudinal study, we examine whether changes in inhibitory control, measured at both behavioral and neural levels, mediate the association between stress and changes in secure relationship quality with parents and peers. The sample included 167 adolescents (53% males) who were first recruited at age 13 or 14 years and assessed annually three times. Adolescents' inhibitory control was measured by their behavioral performance and brain activities, and adolescents self-reported perceived stress levels and relationship quality with mothers, fathers, and peers. Results suggest that behavioral inhibitory control mediates the association between perceived stress and adolescent's secure relationship quality with their mothers and fathers, but not their peers. In contrast, given that stress was not significantly correlated with neural inhibitory control, we did not further test the mediation path. Our results highlight the role of inhibitory control as a process through which stressful life experiences are related to impaired secure relationship quality between adolescents and their mothers and fathers.

  2. Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales, a pantropical insecticide-producing endophyte.

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    Gerald F Bills

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nodulisporic acids (NAs are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a

  3. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

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    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  4. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

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    Rhea eLumactud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  5. Mentoring Function and Quality of Supervisor Auditor Relationship: Organizational Justice as A Mediation

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    Rahmawati Rahmawati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the antecedents and consequences of organization justice consisting of distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. The hypothesis of this study are mentoring function positive effect on organization justice, organizational justice positive effect on quality of supervisor-auditor relationship, mentoring function positive effect on quality of supervisor-auditor relationship. In additional, this study also hypothesized that organization justice as mediation between mentoring functions and quality of supervisor-auditor relationship. This study is a survey of 228 government internal auditors of Financial and Development Supervisory Agency-Badan Pengawasan Keuangan dan Pembangunan (BPKP in Java-Bali Indonesia. The technique of collecting data using questionnaires. Test hypotheses using path analysis with SEM-AMOS. The results showed that mentoring function positive effect on organization justice, organizational justice positive effect on quality of supervisor-auditor relationship, mentoring function positive effect on quality of supervisor-auditor relationship. The study also provide an empirical finding that organization justice as mediation between mentoring functions and quality of supervisor-auditor relationship. The study provides recommendations to the BPKP in solving the problems faced by the government in realizing good and clean governance. This study is the first empirically examines the potential benefit of organization justice as a mediation between mentoring function and quality of supervisor-auditor relationship.

  6. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OPTIMISM AND DEPRESSION IN EMERGING ADULTS

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    Elena Cattelino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature showed that higher depression is linked to less optimism and to poor quality of romantic relationship, but studies considering the role of both optimism and romantic relationship on depression among emerging adults are lacking. The aims of the study were: 1 to describe the quality of romantic relationship, optimism and depression in a group of Italian emerging adults; 2 to examine the relation between optimism and depression; 3 to investigate the possible mediating role of quality of romantic relationship on the relation between optimism and depression. The study involved 228 emerging adults (59% girls, aged from 18 to 22 (mean age= 19.5, standard deviation=1.2. Optimism was assessed through the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R; Scheier et al., 1994, depression through the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10; Andresen et al., 1994 and quality of romantic relationships through the Romance Qualities Scale (RQS; Ponti et al., 2010. Main results showed a partial mediating effect of quality of romantic relationship between optimism and depression: less optimistic emerging adults reported higher depression, but the effect of lack of optimism was mediated by a good relationship with the partner. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.

  7. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla growth

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    Renata Assis Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10 had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48. We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.

  8. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

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    Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3%) and Erwinia (7.2%) dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium, and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages and increased the steviol glycosides content. This is the first study to reveal the community composition of endophytic bacteria in the Stevia leaves, to evidence the strong effects of growth stage and fulvic acid application on the endophytes of Stevia, and to demonstrate the correlation between the endophytic bacteria and the steviol glycosides accumulation. PMID:26379644

  9. Metabolomic Tools to Assess the Chemistry and Bioactivity of Endophytic Aspergillus Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfike, Ahmed F; Tate, Rothwelle; Abbott, Gráinne; Young, Louise; Viegelmann, Christina; Schumacher, Marc; Diederich, Marc; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2017-10-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants are a potential source of novel chemistry and biology that may find applications as pharmaceutical and agrochemical drugs. In this study, a combination of metabolomics and bioactivity-guided approaches were employed to isolate secondary metabolites with cytotoxicity against cancer cells from an endophytic Aspergillus aculeatus. The endophyte was isolated from the Egyptian medicinal plant Terminalia laxiflora and identified using molecular biological methods. Metabolomics and dereplication studies were accomplished by utilizing the MZmine software coupled with the universal Dictionary of Natural Products database. Metabolic profiling, with aid of multivariate data analysis, was performed at different stages of the growth curve to choose the optimized method suitable for up-scaling. The optimized culture method yielded a crude extract abundant with biologically-active secondary metabolites. Crude extracts were fractionated using different high-throughput chromatographic techniques. Purified compounds were identified by HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR. This study introduced a new method of dereplication utilizing both high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The metabolites were putatively identified by applying a chemotaxonomic filter. We also present a short review on the diverse chemistry of terrestrial endophytic strains of Aspergillus, which has become a part of our dereplication work and this will be of wide interest to those working in this field. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of endophytic penicillium species isolated from salvadora species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korejo, F.; Shafique, H.A.; Haque, S.E.; Ali, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Salvadora persica and S. S.oleoides are facultative holophytic plants, well known as miswak, are traditionally used to ensure oral hygiene among Muslim people in Asian and African counties. Species of Salvadora have a number of proven pharmacological importance. Besides, terrestrial fungi endophytic fungi are also gaining importance for the isolation of bioactive compounds. In this study 74 samples (root, shoot and leaves) from S. persica and S. oleoides were examined for endophytic fungi, 22 samples showed presence of Penicillium spp., 48 were found positive for aspergilli, whereas 10 samples showed infection of Fusarium solani, 4 were found infected with Macrophomina phaseolina and one with Rhizoctonia solani. Most of the Penicillium isolated were identified as P. restrictum, P. citrinum and P. canescens. In dual culture plate assay out of four Penicillium isolates tested, P. citrinum and one isolate of P. restrictum caused growth inhibition of all four test root rotting fungi, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. Culture filtrates of Penicillium spp., were also evaluated against four common laboratory bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli and above mentioned root rotting fungi. Culture filtrates of endophytic Penicillium spp., also showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Secondary metabolites of endophytic Penicillium spp., offer an exciting area of research for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds. (author)

  11. Examining the stress-burnout relationship: the mediating role of negative thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko-Hsin; Lu, Frank J H; Chyi, Theresa; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Erica T W

    2017-01-01

    Using Smith's (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes' stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, M age  = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68) completed the College Student Athlete's Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. We concluded that an athlete's negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes' stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes' motivation and psychological well-being.

  12. Examining the stress-burnout relationship: the mediating role of negative thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyi, Theresa; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Erica T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Using Smith’s (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68) completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being. PMID:29302397

  13. The endophytic bacterium Serratia sp. PW7 degrades pyrene in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Wang, Wanqing; Crowley, David E; Sun, Kai; Hao, Shupeng; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-03-01

    This research was conducted to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading (PAH-degrading) endophytic bacteria and investigate their potential in protecting plants against PAH contamination. Pyrene-degrading endophytic bacteria were isolated from plants grown in PAH-contaminated soil. Among these endophytic bacteria, strain PW7 (Serratia sp.) isolated from Plantago asiatica was selected to investigate the suppression of pyrene accumulation in Triticum aestivum L. In the in vitro tests, strain PW7 degraded 51.2% of the pyrene in the media within 14 days. The optimal biodegradation conditions were pH 7.0, 30 °C, and MS medium supplemented with additional glucose, maltose, sucrose, and peptones. In the in vivo tests, strain PW7 successfully colonized the roots and shoots of inoculated (E + ) wheat plants, and its colonization decreased pyrene accumulation and pyrene transportation from roots to shoots. Remarkably, the concentration of pyrene in shoots decreased much more than that in roots, suggesting that strain PW7 has the potential for protecting wheat against pyrene contamination and mitigating the threat of pyrene to human health via food consumption.

  14. Indentification of huperzine A-producing endophytic fungi isolated from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Hui; Fan, San-Wei; Ling, Qing-Zhi; Huang, Bei-Bei; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2014-03-01

    This present study was designed to investigate the production of huperzine A (HupA), an acetylcholine inhibitor, which was produced by an endophytic fungi isolated from Huperzia serrata. Screening of 94 endophytic fungal isolates obtained from plant H. serrata was carried out for the production of HupA. Their morphological characteristics were studied and rDNA sequence analysis was carried out. The cultures were grown in liquid culture medium and the extracted metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatograph for the presence of HupA. The DPPH scavenging ratio and inhibition ratio of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) of the same were determined. 3 out of 94 strains i.e. S29, L44 and S94 showed significant AchE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. Strain L44 which exhibited maximum yield of HupA (37.63 μg/g on dry weight basis) was identified as Trichoderma species by ITS sequence analysis. In conclusion, endophytic fungi from H. serrata can be used as a new resource of HupA.

  15. Phylogenetic reconstruction of endophytic fungal isolates using internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GokulRaj, Kathamuthu; Sundaresan, Natesan; Ganeshan, Enthai Jagan; Rajapriya, Pandi; Muthumary, Johnpaul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Pandi, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are inhabitants of plants, living most part of their lifecycle asymptomatically which mainly confer protection and ecological advantages to the host plant. In this present study, 48 endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of three medicinal plants and characterized based on ITS2 sequence - secondary structure analysis. ITS2 secondary structures were elucidated with minimum free energy method (MFOLD version 3.1) and consensus structure of each genus was generated by 4SALE. ProfDistS was used to generate ITS2 sequence structure based phylogenetic tree respectively. Our elucidated isolates were belonging to Ascomycetes family, representing 5 orders and 6 genera. Colletotrichum/Glomerella spp., Diaporthae/Phomopsis spp., and Alternaria spp., were predominantly observed while Cochliobolus sp., Cladosporium sp., and Emericella sp., were represented by singletons. The constructed phylogenetic tree has well resolved monophyletic groups with >50% bootstrap value support. Secondary structures based fungal systematics improves not only the stability; it also increases the precision of phylogenetic inference. Above ITS2 based phylogenetic analysis was performed for our 48 isolates along with sequences of known ex-types taken from GenBank which confirms the efficiency of the proposed method. Further, we propose it as superlative marker for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels due to their lesser length.

  16. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

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    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be

  17. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  18. Diversity and taxonomy of endophytic xylariaceous fungi from medicinal plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery.

  19. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distanchyon

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    David eRancour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as a livestock nutritive energy source and a potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass Brachypodium distanchyon has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agriculturally important temperate forage grasses based on phylogenetic relationships. To physically corroborate genetic predictions, we determined the chemical composition profiles of organ-specific cell walls throughout the development of two common diploid accessions of Brachypodium distanchyon, Bd21-3 and Bd21. Chemical analysis was performed on cell walls isolated from distinct organs (i.e. leaves, sheaths, stems and roots at three developmental stages of 1 12-day seedling, 2 vegetative-to-reproductive transition, and 3 mature seed-fill. In addition, we have included cell wall analysis of embryonic callus used for genetic transformations. Composition of cell walls based on components lignin, hydroxycinnamates, uronosyls, neutral sugars, and protein suggests that Brachypodium distanchyon is similar chemically to agriculturally important forage grasses. There were modest compositional differences in hydroxycinnamate profiles between accessions Bd21-3 and Bd21. In addition, when compared to agronomical important C3 grasses, more mature Brachypodium stem cell walls have a relative increase in glucose of 48% and a decrease in lignin of 36%. Though differences exists between Brachypodium and agronomical important C3 grasses, Brachypodium distanchyon should be still a useful model system for genetic manipulation of cell wall composition to determine the impact upon functional characteristics such as rumen digestibility or energy conversion efficiency for bioenergy production.

  20. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

  1. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancour, David M.; Marita, Jane M.; Hatfield, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as a livestock nutritive energy source and a potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass Brachypodium distachyon has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agriculturally important temperate forage grasses based on phylogenetic relationships. To physically corroborate genetic predictions, we determined the chemical composition profiles of organ-specific cell walls throughout the development of two common diploid accessions of Brachypodium distachyon, Bd21-3 and Bd21. Chemical analysis was performed on cell walls isolated from distinct organs (i.e., leaves, sheaths, stems, and roots) at three developmental stages of (1) 12-day seedling, (2) vegetative-to-reproductive transition, and (3) mature seed fill. In addition, we have included cell wall analysis of embryonic callus used for genetic transformations. Composition of cell walls based on components lignin, hydroxycinnamates, uronosyls, neutral sugars, and protein suggests that Brachypodium distachyon is similar chemically to agriculturally important forage grasses. There were modest compositional differences in hydroxycinnamate profiles between accessions Bd21-3 and Bd21. In addition, when compared to agronomical important C3 grasses, more mature Brachypodium stem cell walls have a relative increase in glucose of 48% and a decrease in lignin of 36%. Though differences exist between Brachypodium and agronomical important C3 grasses, Brachypodium distachyon should be still a useful model system for genetic manipulation of cell wall composition to determine the impact upon functional characteristics such as rumen digestibility or energy conversion efficiency for bioenergy production. PMID:23227028

  2. Restructuring of endophytic bacterial communities in grapevine yellows-diseased and recovered Vitis vinifera L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Crepaldi, Paola; Daffonchio, Daniele; Quaglino, Fabio; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2011-07-01

    Length heterogeneity-PCR assays, combined with statistical analyses, highlighted that the endophytic bacterial community associated with healthy grapevines was characterized by a greater diversity than that present in diseased and recovered plants. The findings suggest that phytoplasmas can restructure the bacterial community by selecting endophytic strains that could elicit a plant defense response.

  3. Fungi and bacteria boost resistance to pests and diseases : endophytes a useful addition to pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.

    2017-01-01

    More and more research is revealing that endophytes – microorganisms that live in the plant without harming it – can significantly boost a plant’s resistance to pests. These findings prompted researchers to investigate the potential of endophytes in pest control in greenhouse horticulture.

  4. Investigating C4 Grass Contributions to N-alkane Based Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doman, C. E.; Enders, S. K.; Chadwick, O.; Freeman, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Plant wax n-alkanes are long-chain, saturated hydrocarbons contained within the protective waxy cuticle on leaves. These lipids are pervasive and persistent in soils and sediments and thus are ideal biomarkers of ancient terrestrial organic matter. In ecosystems dominated by C3 plants, the relationship between the carbon isotopic value of whole leaves and lipids is fairly well documented, but this relationship has not been fully investigated for plants that use C4 photosynthesis. In both cases, it is unclear if the isotopic relationships are sensitive to environmental conditions, or reflect inherited characteristics. This study used a natural climate gradient on the Kohala peninsula of Hawaii to investigate relationships between climate and the δ13C and δ2H values of n-alkanes in C3 and C4 plants. δ13C of C3 leaves and lipids decreased 5 ‰ from the driest to the wettest sites, consistent with published data. Carbon isotope values of C4 plants showed no relationship to moisture up to 1000 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP). Above this threshold, δ 13C values were around 10‰ more depleted, likely due to a combination of canopy effects and C4 grasses growing in an uncharacteristically wet and cold environment. In C3 plants, the fractionation between leaf and lipid carbon isotopes did not vary with MAP, which allows estimations of δ13C leaf to be made from alkanes preserved in ancient sediments. Along this transect, C3 plants produce around twice the quantity of n-alkanes as C4 grasses. C4 grasses produce longer carbon chains. As a result, n-alkanes in the geologic record will be biased towards C3 plants, but the presence of alkanes C33 and C35 indicate the contributions of C4 grasses. In both C3 and C4 plants, average chain length increased with mean annual precipitation, but the taxonomic differences in chain length were greater than environmental differences. Hydrogen isotopes of n-alkanes show no trends with MAP, but do show clear differences between plant

  5. Motivation Mediates the Perfectionism-Burnout Relationship: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study With Junior Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to test a mediational model, a differential pattern of between- and within-person relationships emerged. Whereas autonomous motivation mediated the negative relationship that perfectionistic strivings had with burnout at the between- and within-person level, controlled motivation mediated the positive relationship that perfectionistic concerns had with burnout at the between-persons level only. The present findings suggest that differences in autonomous and controlled motivation explain why perfectionism predicts changes in athlete burnout over time.

  6. Disturbed self concept mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa; Leibu, Olga; Tanis, Thachell; Ardalan, Firouz; Galynker, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Despite a robust literature documenting the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in adulthood, there is far less clarity about the mechanism underlying this relationship. One promising candidate for such a linking mechanism is disturbance in the sense of self. This paper tests the hypothesis that disturbances in the sense of self mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality pathology. Specifically, we assess the self-related traits of stable self-image, self-reflective functioning, self-respect and feeling recognized. The sample included 113 non-psychotic psychiatric inpatients. Participants completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4+), and the self-reflexive functioning, stable self image, self-respect, and feeling recognized scales from the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). A series of linear regressions was then performed to assess the direct and indirect effects of childhood trauma on personality disorder traits (PDQ-4+ total score), as mediated by self concept (SIPP-118 scales). Aroian tests assessed the statistical significance of each mediating effect. There was a significant mediating effect for all SIPP self concept variables, with a full mediating effect for the SIPP composite score and for SIPP feeling recognized and self-reflexive functioning, such that the direct effect of childhood trauma on personality did not retain significance after accounting for the effect of these variables. There was a partial mediating effect for SIPP stable self image and self-respect, such that the direct effect of the CTQ retained significance after accounting for these variables. SIPP feeling recognized had the strongest mediating effect. Multiple facets of self concept, particularly the degree to which an individual feels understood by other people, may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality

  7. Adult Attachment and Male Aggression in Couple Relationships: The Demand-Withdraw Communication Pattern and Relationship Satisfaction as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing…

  8. Lethality of cytochalasin B and other compounds isolated from fungus Aspergillus sp. (Trichocomaceae) endophyte of Bauhinia guianensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, André de O; Dias, Amanda Cristina S; Ramos, Gisele da C; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Siqueira, José Edson S; Marinho, Patrícia Santana B; Barison, Andersson; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do R

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants; several biologically active compounds have been isolated from these fungi. There are few studies of compounds isolated from endophytic fungi of Amazon plants. Thus, this study aimed the isolation and structural identification of ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalonolactone (3), cytochalasin B (4) and cytochalasin H (5) from Aspergillus sp. EJC 04, an endophytic fungus from Bauhinia guianensis. The cytochalasin B (4) and the diacetate derivative of cytochalasin B (4a) showed high lethality in the brine shrimp assay. This is the first occurrence of cytochalasins in Amazonian endophytic fungi from B. guianensis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Isolation of endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Brucea javanica and their microbial inhibition activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zi-Ning; Zhu, Hua; Lai, Kai-Ping; Chen, Long

    2014-04-01

    To isolate and identify endophytic fungi from Brucea javanica, and to detect the antimicrobial activity of these strains. Endophytic fungi were isolated by tissue inoculation culture and identified by conventional morphological characteristic method. Seven kinds of pathogenic fungi and three kinds of bacteria were used as targeting microbes to test microbial inhibition activities by agar plate antagonistic action and modified agar gel diffusion methods, respectively. A total of 83 endophytic fungi strains were isolated from the root, stem, leaf and fruit of Brucea javanica. 34 strains were obtained from the stem, 32 strains were obtained from the leaf, 15 strains were isolated from the root and 2 strains came from the fruit. These 73 strains which had been identified attribute to 5 orders, 6 families and 12 genera. For the isolated strains, 14 strains had antifungal activities against at least one pathogenic fungi, 9 strains showed antibacterial activities against one or more bacteria. Especially, the strain YJ-17 which belonged to Phomopsis genus showed the best inhibitory effect on the targeting microbes. The endophytic fungi from Brucea javanica show diversity and microbial inhibition activity, and are worthy for further study on plant disease controlling.

  10. Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1.

  11. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  12. Endophytic fungi associated with Monarda citriodora, an aromatic and medicinal plant and their biocontrol potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Meenu; Pull, Shipra

    2017-12-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that every year considerable losses of the food crops occur due to plant diseases. Although fungicides are extensively used for management of plant diseases, they are expensive and hazardous to the environment and human health. Alternatively, biological control is the safe way to overcome the effects of plant diseases and to sustain agriculture. Since Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae) is known for its antifungal properties, it was chosen for the study. The isolation of endophytic fungi from M. citriodora and assessing their biocontrol potential. The isolated endophytes were characterized using ITS-5.8 S rDNA sequencing. Their biocontrol potential was assessed using different antagonistic assays against major plant pathogens. Twenty-eight endophytes representing 11 genera were isolated, of which, around 82% endophytes showed biocontrol potential against plant pathogens. MC-2 L (Fusarium oxysporum), MC-14 F (F. oxysporum), MC-22 F (F. oxysporum) and MC-25 F (F. redolens) displayed significant antagonistic activity against all the tested pathogens. Interestingly, MC-10 L (Muscodor yucatanensis) completely inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sp., Colletotrichum capsici, Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in dual culture assay, whereas MC-8 L (A. oryzae) and MC-9 L (Penicillium commune) completely inhibited the growth of the Sclerotinia sp. in fumigation assay. Endophytes MC-2 L, MC-14 F, MC-22 F and MC-25 F could effectively be used to control broad range of phytopathogens, while MC-10 L, MC-8 L and MC-9 L could be used to control specific pathogens. Secondly, endophytes showing varying degrees of antagonism in different assays represented the chemo-diversity not only as promising biocontrol agents but also as a resource of defensive and bioactive metabolites.

  13. A fungal endophyte helps plants to tolerate root herbivory through changes in gibberellin and jasmonate signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebeca Cosme, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbe mutualisms can improve plant defense, but the impact of root endophytes on below-ground herbivore interactions remains unknown. We investigated the effects of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on interactions between rice (Oryza sativa) plants and its root herbivore rice water

  14. Exercise dependence as a mediator of the exercise and eating disorders relationship: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Hausenblas, Heather; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exercise is a common feature of eating disorders (ED) and is associated with earlier ED onset, more ED symptoms, and higher persistence of ED behavior. Research indicates that exercise amount alone is not associated with ED. The purpose of this study was to investigate pathological attitudes and behaviors related to exercise (e.g., exercise dependence) as a mediator of the exercise and ED relationship. Participants were 43 women with an ED who completed measures of ED symptoms, exercise behavior, and exercise dependence. Analyses were conducted using the indirect bootstrapping method for examining mediation. Exercise dependence mediated the relationship between exercise and ED. This mediation model accounted for 14.34% of the variance in the relationship. Our results extend the literature by offering preliminary evidence of a psychological variable that may be a candidate for future interventions on the exercise and ED relationship. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytotoxic and antibacterial naphthoquinones from an endophytic fungus, Cladosporium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Imdadul Huque Khan

    Full Text Available Objective: Endophytes have the potential to synthesize various bioactive secondary metabolites. The aim of the study was to find new cytotoxic and antibacterial metabolites from endophytic fungus, Cladosporium sp. isolated from the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (L. Benth. ex Kurz. (Fam: Apocyanaceae. Materials and methods: The endophytic fungus was grown on potato dextrose agar medium and extracted using ethyl acetate. Secondary metabolites were isolated by chromatographic separation and re-crystallization, and structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The cytotoxicity was determined by WST-1 assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay, while antibacterial activity was assessed by disc diffusion method. Results: Two naphthoquinones, namely anhydrofusarubin (1 and methyl ether of fusarubin (2, were isolated from Cladosporium sp. The isolated compounds 1 and 2, by WST-1 assay against human leukemia cells (K-562 showed potential cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.97 μg/mL and 3.58 μg/mL, respectively. Initial screening of crude ethyl acetate extract and column fractions F-8 and F-10 exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity to brine shimp nauplii with LC50 values of 42.8, 1.2 and 2.1 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the isolated compound 2 (40 μg/disc showed prominent activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium with an average zone of inhibition of 27 mm, 25 mm, 24 mm and 22 mm, respectively and the activities were compared with kanamycin (30 μg/disc. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that anhydrofusarubin (1 and methyl ether of fusarubin (2 might be useful lead compounds to develop potential cytotoxic and antimicrobial drugs. Keywords: Endophytic fungi, Cladosporium species, Fusarubin, Cytoxicity, Antibacterial activity

  16. Isolation and enzyme bioprospection of endophytic bacteria associated with plants of Brazilian mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo T; Batista, Bruna D; Luvizotto, Danice M; Marcon, Joelma; Ferreira, Anderson; Melo, Itamar S; Azevedo, João L

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a coastal tropical biome located in the transition zone between land and sea that is characterized by periodic flooding, which confers unique and specific environmental conditions on this biome. In these ecosystems, the vegetation is dominated by a particular group of plant species that provide a unique environment harboring diverse groups of microorganisms, including the endophytic microorganisms that are the focus of this study. Because of their intimate association with plants, endophytic microorganisms could be explored for biotechnologically significant products, such as enzymes, proteins, antibiotics and others. Here, we isolated endophytic microorganisms from two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia nitida, that are found in streams in two mangrove systems in Bertioga and Cananéia, Brazil. Bacillus was the most frequently isolated genus, comprising 42% of the species isolated from Cananéia and 28% of the species from Bertioga. However, other common endophytic genera such as Pantoea, Curtobacterium and Enterobacter were also found. After identifying the isolates, the bacterial communities were evaluated for enzyme production. Protease activity was observed in 75% of the isolates, while endoglucanase activity occurred in 62% of the isolates. Bacillus showed the highest activity rates for amylase and esterase and endoglucanase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported diversity analysis performed on endophytic bacteria obtained from the branches of mangrove trees and the first overview of the specific enzymes produced by different bacterial genera. This work contributes to our knowledge of the microorganisms and enzymes present in mangrove ecosystems.

  17. Inoculation, colonization and distribution of fungal endophytes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    and for a part or whole of their life cycle live symptomlessly within the plant. ... inoculated in tissue culture banana plants, must occur at high frequencies in the plant and be able to persist in ... For instance, the influence of fungal endophytes.

  18. Antibiotic Properties of the endophytic Streptomyces Spp. Isolated from the Leaves of Myanmar Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Pe; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Maung

    2002-02-01

    Three medicinal plants of Myanmar are selected in the study of endophytic microorganisms and are taxonomically classified and identified to be Sa-ba-lin (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.), Shazaungtinga- neah (Euphorbia splendens Bojer. ex Hooker) and Ma-shaw (Sauropus grandifolius Pax. and Hoffm.). The screening of endophytic microorganisms is performed according to the ISP method (International Streptomyces Projects 1993). The morphological and physicochemical properties of isolated strains are studied and identified to be the Genus Streptomyces. The test of apparent antimicrobial activity of isolated Streptomyces is done on 18 strains of pathogenic bacteria. It is found that the isolated endophytic Sireptomyces showed the significant antibacterial activity on most of the test organisms. (author)

  19. Plant Growth, Antibiotic Uptake, and Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in an Endophytic System of Pakchoi under Antibiotic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic contamination in agroecosystems may cause serious problems, such as the proliferation of various antibiotic resistant bacteria and the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in the environment or even to human beings. However, it is unclear whether environmental antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and ARGs can directly enter into, or occur in, the endophytic systems of plants exposed to pollutants. In this study, a hydroponic experiment exposing pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L. to tetracycline, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole at 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC levels and MIC levels, respectively, was conducted to explore plant growth, antibiotic uptake, and the development of antibiotic resistance in endophytic systems. The three antibiotics promoted pakchoi growth at 50% MIC values. Target antibiotics at concentrations ranging from 6.9 to 48.1 µg·kg−1 were detected in the treated vegetables. Additionally, the rates of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria to total cultivable endophytic bacteria significantly increased as the antibiotics accumulated in the plants. The detection and quantification of ARGs indicated that four types, tetX, blaCTX-M, and sul1 and sul2, which correspond to tetracycline, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole resistance, respectively, were present in the pakchoi endophytic system and increased with the antibiotic concentrations. The results highlight a potential risk of the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in vegetable endophytic systems.

  20. Plant Growth, Antibiotic Uptake, and Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in an Endophytic System of Pakchoi under Antibiotic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xunan; Yang, Qingxiang; Sun, Linlin; Yang, Xinxin; Zhou, Mingming; Deng, Rongzhen; Bi, Linqian

    2017-11-03

    Antibiotic contamination in agroecosystems may cause serious problems, such as the proliferation of various antibiotic resistant bacteria and the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment or even to human beings. However, it is unclear whether environmental antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and ARGs can directly enter into, or occur in, the endophytic systems of plants exposed to pollutants. In this study, a hydroponic experiment exposing pakchoi ( Brassica chinensis L.) to tetracycline, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole at 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels and MIC levels, respectively, was conducted to explore plant growth, antibiotic uptake, and the development of antibiotic resistance in endophytic systems. The three antibiotics promoted pakchoi growth at 50% MIC values. Target antibiotics at concentrations ranging from 6.9 to 48.1 µg·kg -1 were detected in the treated vegetables. Additionally, the rates of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria to total cultivable endophytic bacteria significantly increased as the antibiotics accumulated in the plants. The detection and quantification of ARGs indicated that four types, tet X, bla CTX-M , and sul 1 and sul 2, which correspond to tetracycline, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole resistance, respectively, were present in the pakchoi endophytic system and increased with the antibiotic concentrations. The results highlight a potential risk of the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in vegetable endophytic systems.

  1. The relationship between leader-follower exchange and job insecurity: The mediating role of trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Adigun Lawal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the extent and nature of mediational roles of affective and cognitive trusts on the predictive relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX and job insecurity. Six hundred and twenty-six employees are surveyed through questionnaire administration. Analysis of the data is done with simple regression and multiple regression analyses. The findings show no significant prediction of job insecurity by affective trust as well as no significant mediation of the LMX and job insecurity relationship by affective trust. The study also shows significant prediction of job insecurity by LMX, and significant mediation of the LMX-job insecurity relationship by cognitive trust. The results are discussed in the light of reviewed literature and current realities. The implications of the study are also highlighted.

  2. Relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams: an examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.

  3. Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Merging biotechnology with biological control: Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic .... While working in the laminar flow cabinet, sterile filter papers were placed in ..... University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Niere, B., 2001.

  4. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  5. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Jeremiah A.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light-Asat, and saturating CO2-Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf...... growth rate up to 137% relative to non-inoculated control plants, evidence that plants respond to bacteria by modifying morphology. However, endophyte inoculation had no influence on total plant biomass and photosynthetic traits (net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content). In sum, bacterial inoculation did......Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant...

  6. Plant growth enhancing effects by a siderophore-producing endophytic streptomycete isolated from a Thai jasmine rice plant (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungin, Siriwan; Indananda, Chantra; Suttiviriya, Pavinee; Kruasuwan, Worarat; Jaemsaeng, Ratchaniwan; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip

    2012-10-01

    An endophytic Streptomyces sp. GMKU 3100 isolated from roots of a Thai jasmine rice plant (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105) showed the highest siderophore production on CAS agar while phosphate solubilization and IAA production were not detected. A mutant of Streptomyces sp. GMKU 3100 deficient in just one of the plant growth promoting traits, siderophore production, was generated by inactivation of a desD-like gene encoding a key enzyme controlling the final step of siderophore biosynthesis. Pot culture experiments revealed that rice and mungbean plants inoculated with the wild type gave the best enhancement of plant growth and significantly increased root and shoot biomass and lengths compared with untreated controls and siderophore-deficient mutant treatments. Application of the wild type in the presence or absence of ferric citrate significantly promoted plant growth of both plants. The siderophore-deficient mutant clearly showed the effect of this important trait involved in plant-microbe interaction in enhancement of growth in rice and mungbean plants supplied with sequestered iron. Our results highlight the value of a substantial understanding of the relationship of the plant growth promoting properties of endophytic actinomycetes to the plants. Endophytic actinomycetes, therefore, can be applied as potentially safe and environmentally friendly biofertilizers in agriculture.

  7. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000km 2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48). We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  9. Understanding colonization and proliferation potential of endophytes and pathogen in planta via plating, polymerase chain reaction and ergosterol assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yiing Yng; Rahman, Sadequr; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the colonization behavior and proliferation potential of three endophytes and one pathogen Ganoderma boninense (Gb) introduced into oil palm ramets (host model). The endophytes selected were Diaporthe phaseolorum (WAA02), Trichoderma asperellum (T2), and Penicillium citrinum (BTF08). Ramets were first inoculated with 100 mL of fungal cells (10 6  cfu mL - 1 ) via soil drenching. For the next 7 days, ramets were sampled and subjected to three different assays to detect and identify fungal colonization, and establish their proliferation potential in planta . Plate assay revealed the presence of endophytes in root, stem and leaf tissues within 7 days after inoculation. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detected and identified the isolates from the plant tissues. The ergosterol assay (via high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) confirmed the presence of endophytes and Gb in planta . The increase in ergosterol levels throughout 49 days was however insignificant, suggesting that proliferation may be absent or may occur very slowly in planta . This study strongly suggests that the selected endophytes could colonize the host upon inoculation, but proliferation occurs at a slower rate, which may subsequently influence the biocontrol expression of endophytes against the pathogen.

  10. Understanding colonization and proliferation potential of endophytes and pathogen in planta via plating, polymerase chain reaction, and ergosterol assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiing Yng Chow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the colonization behavior and proliferation potential of three endophytes and one pathogen Ganoderma boninense (Gb introduced into oil palm ramets (host model. The endophytes selected were Diaporthe phaseolorum (WAA02, Trichoderma asperellum (T2, and Penicillium citrinum (BTF08. Ramets were first inoculated with 100 mL of fungal cells (106 cfu mL−1 via soil drenching. For the next 7 days, ramets were sampled and subjected to three different assays to detect and identify fungal colonization, and establish their proliferation potential in planta. Plate assay revealed the presence of endophytes in root, stem and leaf tissues within 7 days after inoculation. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR detected and identified the isolates from the plant tissues. The ergosterol assay (via high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC confirmed the presence of endophytes and Gb in planta. The increase in ergosterol levels throughout 49 days was however insignificant, suggesting that proliferation may be absent or may occur very slowly in planta. This study strongly suggests that the selected endophytes could colonize the host upon inoculation, but proliferation occurs at a slower rate, which may subsequently influence the biocontrol expression of endophytes against the pathogen.

  11. Munumbicins, wide-spectrum antibiotics produced by Streptomyces NRRL 30562, endophytic on Kennedia nigriscans

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, UF; Strobel, GA; Ford, EJ; Hess, WM; Porter, H; Jensen, JB; Albert, H; Robison, R; Condron, MAM; Teplow, DB; Stevens, D; Yaver, D

    2002-01-01

    Munumbicins A, B, C and D are newly described antibiotics with a wide spectrum of activity against many human as well as plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a Plasmodium sp. These compounds were obtained from Streptomyces NRRL 3052, which is endophytic in the medicinal plant snakevine (Kennedia nigriscans), native to the Northern Territory of Australia. This endophyte was cultured, the broth was extracted with an organic solvent and the contents of the residue were purified by bioassay-g...

  12. Does organizational culture mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hazana Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, the relationships among organizational culture, transformational leadership and organizational commitment have been empirically investigated. However, majority of these studies have been focusing on direct effects of either transformational leadership or organizational culture on organizational commitment in large organizations. This approach might not only hinder our understanding on real predictors of organizational commitment but also obscure the presence of spurious relationships. Therefore, this study aims to determine the mediating effect of organizational culture on the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment among small business employees. An explanatory research design was used with cross-sectional survey as data collection technique. Once the composite reliability, construct, and convergent and discriminant validity of the measurement constructs were established, a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM was run to analyze the structural model and the mediating effect of organizational culture. The results showed that organizational culture mediates the effect of transformational leadership on organizational commitment among small business. This study cautions the generalization of findings obtained from large organizations to be extended to small organizations.

  13. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  14. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  15. Use of rhizobacteria and endophytes for biological control of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trognitz, Friederike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Weeds cause severe yield losses in agriculture, with a maximum estimate of 34% of yield loss worldwide due to competition between the crops and the weeds for nutrition, light and humidity (OERKE, 2006. Invasive plants contribute partially to other problems. The pollen of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., for example, is five times more allergenic than grass pollen; already ten pollen grains per m3 air can trigger allergy in sensitized patients, including rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma. This neophyte from America has extended the season of allergy in European patients to October. Common ragweed is currently most frequent in Hungary, France and Italy. In Austria, ragweed populations along roads have increased dramatically since 2000. The effective means to control this weed of the Asteraceae family are limited; a single plant can produce up to 6000 seeds which stay in the soil for 40 years. Control using selective herbicides is not possible within stands of the Asteraceae member sunflower. Efforts to use herbivore insects as biological control agents also failed due to the unavailability of insects specializing on this ragweed. The use of plant-associated rhizobacteria and endophytes as bio-herbicides offers a novel alternative to conventional methods. By analogy to experiences from other plant-microbe systems, the chances to find microbes of the desired characteristics are highest when isolating and testing specimens directly from ragweed plants. These organisms often have an extremely narrow host range that permits their use for the control of among several even closely related plant species growing together in a field.

  16. The Effect of Relationship Marketing towards Customers' Loyalty Mediated by Relationship Quality (Case Study in Priority Bank in Niaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Ruswanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of banks let people be more free in choosing the best bank for their needs. People can freely switch from one bank to another which makes the loyalty level of bank customers decrease, even though the efforts and cost spent for maintaining the customers is cheaper than the efforts and cost spent on getting new customers. Relationship is one of the answers to the problem, relationship marketing is a marketing principle which emphasizes and takes effort in maintaining good long term relationship with customers. This research aims to, analyze the influence competence, communication, and conflict handling towards relationship quality, mediated by relationship quality, and towards customer loyalty. The research was conducted by collecting quantitative data through questionnaires distributed to 130 respondents. The objects of this research were the priority customers at Niaga Bank, and it used purposive sampling technique. This research conducted by using Structural Equation Model method. The result of this research showed that, (1 relationship marketing which consists of competence component, communication, and conflict handling have significant influence and positively towards relationship quality, partially and simultaneously, (2 relationship marketing have significant influence and positively towards customer loyalty which is mediated by relationship quality, and (3 relationship quality have significant influence and positively towards customer loyalty.

  17. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

  19. Mediating effects of teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and emotional/behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  1. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species....

  2. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  3. Examining the stress-burnout relationship: the mediating role of negative thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Hsin Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Using Smith’s (1986 cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68 completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980, and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001. Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being.

  4. Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect

    OpenAIRE

    Arimitsu, Kohki; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that self-compassion is related to numerous facets of mental health, but the role of cognitions in this relationship remains unknown. To examine the mediating role of cognitions in the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction when controlling for self-esteem in Japanese people, we conducted two studies. Study 1 (N = 231) examined the relationship between self-compassion and affect by modeling negative automatic thoughts as a ...

  5. Metabolism of carbamazepine in plant roots and endophytic rhizobacteria isolated from Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvêtre, Andrés; May, Robert; Harpaintner, Rudolf; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Schröder, Peter

    2018-01-15

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a pharmaceutical frequently categorized as a recalcitrant pollutant in the aquatic environment. Endophytic bacteria previously isolated from reed plants have shown the ability to promote growth of their host and to contribute to CBZ metabolism. In this work, a horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root (HR) culture has been used as a plant model to study the interactions between roots and endophytic bacteria in response to CBZ exposure. HRs could remove up to 5% of the initial CBZ concentration when they were grown in spiked Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Higher removal rates were observed when HRs were inoculated with the endophytic bacteria Rhizobium radiobacter (21%) and Diaphorobacter nitroreducens (10%). Transformation products resulting from CBZ degradation were identified using liquid chromatography-ultra high-resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-UHR-QTOF-MS). CBZ metabolism could be divided in four pathways. Metabolites involving GSH conjugation and 2,3-dihydroxylation, as well as acridine related compounds are described in plants for the first time. This study presents strong evidence that xenobiotic metabolism and degradation pathways in plants can be modulated by the interaction with their endophytic community. Hence it points to plausible applications for the elimination of recalcitrant compounds such as CBZ from wastewater in CWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring endophyte populations in pine plantations and native oak forests in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Martin-Garcia, J.; Rodriguez-Ceinos, S.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The replacement of native forest with plantations of other species may have important impacts on ecosystems. Some of these impacts have been widely studied, but very little is known about the effects on fungal communities and specifically endo phytic fungi. In this study, endophyte assemblages in pine plantations (Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra and P. pinaster) and native oak forests (Quercus pyrenaica) in the north of the province of Palencia (Spain) were analyzed. For this purpose, samples of needles/leaves and twigs were collected from three trees in each of three plots sampled per host species. The samples were later processed in the laboratory to identify all of the endo phytic species present. In addition, an exhaustive survey was carried out of the twelve sites to collect data on the environmental, crown condition, dendrometric and soil variables that may affect the distribution of the fungi. The endophyte assemblages isolated from P. sylvestris and P. nigra were closely related to each other, but were different from those isolated from P. pinaster. The endophytes isolated from Q. pyrenaica were less closely related to those from the other hosts, and therefore preservation of oak stands is important to prevent the loss of fungal diversity. Finally, the distribution of the endophyte communities was related to some of the environmental variables considered. (Author) 42 refs.

  7. Fungal endophytes which invade insect galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquilines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis

    1995-08-01

    Fungi are frequently found within insect galls. However, the origin of these fungi, whether they are acting as pathogens, saprophytes invading already dead galls, or fungal inquilines which invade the gall but kill the gall maker by indirect means, is rarely investigated. A pathogenic role for these fungi is usually inferred but never tested. I chose the following leaf-galling-insect/host-plant pairs (1) a cynipid which forms two-chambered galls on the veins of Oregon white oak, (2) a cynipid which forms single-chambered galls on California coast live oak, and (3) an aphid which forms galls on narrowleaf cottonwood leaves. All pairs were reported to have fungi associated with dead insects inside the gall. These fungi were cultured and identified. For the two cynipids, all fungi found inside the galls were also present in the leaves as fungal endophytes. The cottonwood leaves examined did not harbor fungal endophytes. For the cynipid on Oregon white oak, the fungal endophyte grows from the leaf into the gall and infects all gall tissue but does not directly kill the gall maker. The insect dies as a result of the gall tissue dying from fungal infection. Therefore, the fungus acts as an inquiline. Approximately 12.5% of these galls die as a result of invasion by the fungal endophyte.

  8. Combined genetic and bioactivity-based prioritization leads to the isolation of an endophyte-derived antimycobacterial compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, A; Kalaitzis, J A; Sasia, B; Neilan, B A

    2016-05-01

    To initiate a genetic and bioactivity-based screening programme of culturable endophytes to identify micro-organisms capable of producing bioactive polyketides and peptides. Fungal endophytes were isolated from flowers, leaves and roots of Rhoeo spathacea, revealing a community consisting of Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium sp., Guignardia sp., Phomopsis sp., Phoma sp. and Microdochium sp. Genetic screening showed that all isolates had polyketide synthase (PKS) genes and most had nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Ethyl acetate extracts of the fungal isolates exhibited antiproliferative activity against at least one of the seven bacterial and mycobacterial test strains. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance -guided fractionation of the crude extract from a Fusarium sp. strain which exhibited strong antiproliferative activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis resulted in the isolation of the polyketide javanicin. This compound was active against Myco. tuberculosis (MIC = 25 μg ml(-1)) and Mycobacterium phlei (MIC = 50 μg ml(-1)). The medicinal plant R. spathacea hosts a variety of fungal endophytes capable of producing antibacterial and antimycobacterial compounds. There is a positive correlation between the presence of PKS and/or NRPS encoding genes in endophytes and the bioactivity of their respective organic extracts. This is the first report on the fungal endophytic diversity of R. spathacea, and the isolation of an antimycobacterial compound from the plant which has been traditionally used for the treatment of tuberculosis symptoms. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  10. The Relationship between Parental Bonding and Peer Victimization: Examining Child Stress and Hopelessness as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, HaeJin; Lee, Dong Hun; Yu, Kumlan; Ham, KyongAe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate a two-stage model in which parent-related stress and hopelessness each served as mediators of the relationship between perceived parental bonding and South Korean adolescent peer victimization. This study also examined whether the mediating relationships differed by the gender of parents and…

  11. Exploring the Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Bulimic Symptoms: Mediational Effects of Perfectionism Among Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menatti, Andrew R.; Weeks, Justin W.; Levinson, Cheri A.; McGowan, Maggie M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that social anxiety and bulimia co-occur at high rates; one mechanism that has been proposed to link these symptom clusters is perfectionism. We tested meditational models among 167 female undergraduates in which maladaptive evaluative perfectionism concerns (MEPC; i.e., critical self-evaluative perfectionism) mediated the relationship between social anxiety and bulimic symptoms. Results from a first model indicated that MEPC mediated the relationship between fear of public scrutiny and bulimia symptoms. This indirect effect was significant above and beyond the indirect effects of maladaptive body-image cognitions and perfectionism specific to pure personal standards. A second model was tested with MEPC mediating the relationship between social interaction anxiety and bulimia symptoms. Similar results were obtained; however, in this model, a significant direct effect remained after partialing out the indirect effect of the mediators. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:24932054

  12. Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 35191 from coffee, a non-toxigenic endophyte with the ability to synthesize kojic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus oryzae was isolated as an endophyte from coffee leaves and found to produce kojic acid in culture. When inoculated in cacao seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.), A. oryzae grew endophytically and synthesize kojic acid in planta. Cacao seedlings inoculated with A. oryzae produced higher levels...

  13. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  14. Antagonistic bioactivity of endophytic strains isolated from Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic-producing potential of endophytic populations from medical plant of Salvia miltiorrhiza was examined. A total of 63 isolates was screened against five fungal and three bacterial species for the production of antimicrobial compounds. It showed that more isolates was antagonistic to fungi than to bacteria.

  15. Volatile metabolites profiling of a Chinese mangrove endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pestalotiopsis JCM2A4, an endophytic fungus originally isolated from leaves of the Chinese mangrove plant Rhizophora mucronata, produces a mixture of volatile metabolites. As determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/GC-MS), 18 compounds representing all of the hexane ...

  16. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  17. Azolla-Anabaena Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Thomas B.; Mayne, Berger C.; Toia, Robert E.; Peters, Gerald A.

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthesis in the Azolla-Anabaena association was characterized with respect to photorespiration, early products of photosynthesis, and action spectra. Photorespiration as evidenced by an O2 inhibition of photosynthesis and an O2-dependent CO2 compensation concentration was found to occur in the association, and endophyte-free fronds, but not in the endophytic Anabaena. Analysis of the early products of photosynthesis indicated that both the fern and cyanobacterium fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle. The isolated endophytic Anabaena did not release significant amounts of amino acids synthesized from recently fixed carbon. The action spectra for photosynthesis in the Azolla-Anabaena association indicated that the maximum quantum yield is between 650 and 670 nanometers, while in the endophyte the maximum is between 580 and 640 nanometers. Although the endophytic cyanobacterium is photosynthetically competent, any contribution it makes to photosynthesis in the intact association was not apparent in the action spectrum. PMID:16661055

  18. Symbiotic lifestyle expression by fungal endophytes and the adaptation of plants to stress: unraveling the complexities of intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Henson, Joan M.; Rodriguez, Russell J.

    2005-01-01

    The fossil record indicates that fungal symbionts have been associated with plants since the Ordovician period (approximately 400 million years ago), when plants first became established on land (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975; Redecker et al., 2000; Remy et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1993). Transitioning from aquatic to terrestrial habitats likely presented plants with new stresses, including periods of desiccation. Since symbiotic fungi are known to confer drought tolerance to plants (Bacon, 1993; Read and Camp, 1986), it has been suggested that fungal symbiosis was involved with or responsible for the establishment of land plants (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975). Symbiosis was first defined by De Bary in 1879, and since that time, all plants in natural ecosystems have been found to be colonized with fungal and bacterial symbionts. It is clear that individual plants represent symbiotic communities with microorganisms associated in or on tissues below- and aboveground.There are two major classes of fungal symbionts associated with internal plant tissues: fungal endophytes that reside entirely within plants and may be associated with roots, stems leaves, or flowers; and mycorrhizal fungi that reside only in roots but extend out into the rhizosphere. In addition, fungal endophytes may be divided into two classes: (1) a relatively small number of fastidious species that are limited to a few monocot hosts (Clay and Schardl, 2002), and (2) a large number of tractable species with broad host ranges, including both monocots and eudicots (Stone et al., 2000). While significant resources and research have been invested in mycorrhizae and class 1 endophytes, comparatively little is known about class 2 endophytes, which may represent the largest group of fungal symbionts. This is partially because the symbiotic functionalities of class 2 endophytes have only recently been elucidated and shown to be responsible for the adaptation of some plants to high-stress environments (Redman

  19. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  20. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Schwan, Adrian L; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-03

    Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s) of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone), and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside). Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  1. Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann as a novel source of the anticancer pro-drug deoxypodophyllotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, S; Lamshöft, M; Spiteller, M

    2009-09-01

    Isolation, identification and characterization of an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann, as a novel producer of deoxypodophyllotoxin and its in vitro antimicrobial assay. The methodology for the isolation, identification and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from the twigs of the J. communis L. Horstmann plant, which specifically and consistently produces deoxypodophyllotoxin, was unequivocally established. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius by molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Deoxypodophyllotoxin was identified and quantified by high-resolution LC-MS, LC-MS(2) and LC-MS(3). The antimicrobial efficacy of the fungal deoxypodophyllotoxin against a panel of pathogenic bacteria was established. The production of deoxypodophyllotoxin (found in the host) by the cultured endophyte is an enigmatic observation. It demonstrates the transfer of gene(s) for such accumulation by horizontal means from the host plant to its endophytic counterpart. It would be interesting to further study the deoxypodophyllotoxin production and regulation by the cultured endophyte in J. communis and in axenic cultures. This endophyte is a potential handle for scientific and commercial exploitation. Although the current accumulation of deoxypodophyllotoxin by the endophyte is not very high, it could be scaled-up to provide adequate production to satisfy new drug development and clinical needs. However, further refined precursor-feeding and mass-balance studies are required to result in the consistent and dependable production.

  2. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  3. Technology Trust and E-Banking Adoption: The Mediating Effect of Customer Relationship Management Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsudin Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic revolution in the Malaysian banking sector has started in the 1970's. The first visible form of electronic innovation in the Malaysian banking industry was the introduction of Automated Teller Machines in 1981. Finally, on June 1, 2000, the Malaysian Central Bank gave the green light for locally owned commercial banks to offer Internet banking services. Due to the drastic changes in the business environment, it leads financial institutions to revise their marketing strategies to stress long-lasting relationships with customers. Relationships is important criteria in the selection of private bank. In many conditions, customer satisfaction mediates the relationship between antecedent’s factors and marketing performance. Hence, CRM performance is about maintaining good relationship and repurchases behavior, word-of-mouth and customer retention. Trust has been studied in traditional physical commercial environments. In the marketing and management literatures, trust is strongly associated with attitudes toward products, services, and purchasing behaviors. So that, the main objective of this research paper is to investigate the role of CRM performance as the mediator in the relationship between trust and E-Banking adoption. Hence, this empirical paper confirmed the role of customer relationship management performance as the mediators in the relationship between trust and electronic banking adoption.Key words: Trust, Customer Relationship Management Performance, E-Banking Adoption

  4. Ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots correlates with dark septate endophytes but not with ericoid mycorrhizal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders; Wallander, Håkon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots and ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) colonization versus dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonization was examined in a dwarf shrub-dominated subarctic mire in Northern Sweden. Ergosterol content in hair roots did not correlate...... under natural conditions. It also suggests the possibility of using ergosterol as an estimate of DSE hyphal colonization in ericaceous dwarf shrubs. This study has implications for the interpretation of results in field studies where ergosterol was used as a sole proxy for ErM colonization....

  5. Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

    2008-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa.

  6. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  7. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  8. Endophytic infection alleviates Pb{sup 2+} stress effects on photosystem II functioning of Oryza sativa leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuemei, E-mail: lxmls132@163.com [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Zhang, Lihong, E-mail: lihongzhang132@163.com [Environmental Science Department of Liaoning University,Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chl fluorescence parameters of endophyte-infected rice under Pb{sup 2+} stress were tested. • The efficiency and stability of PSII are markedly affected by Pb{sup 2+} stress. • Endophyte infection improved photosynthetic system activity under Pb{sup 2+} stress. • JIP-test is a suitable tool for monitoring of Pb{sup 2+} stress. • Endophyte infection may increase tolerance to Pb{sup 2+} in rice. - Abstract: The aims of this study were to examine the effect of Pb{sup 2+} stress on the primary reaction of photosynthesis and to assess the potential benefits of endophytic infection on the Pb{sup 2+} tolerance of rice seedlings. Rice inoculated with an endophytic fungus (E+) and non-inoculated (E−) were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μM Pb{sup 2+}. The responses to Pb{sup 2+} stress were characterized by the analysis of Chl a fluorescence. A comparison of E− with E+ rice seedlings, as evaluated by their performance index (PI{sub ABS} and PI{sub tot}), revealed the inhibitory effects of Pb{sup 2+} on photosystem II (PSII) connectivity, the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), and on the J step of the induction curves, which is associated with an inhibition of electron transport from the quinone acceptor Q{sub A} to Q{sub B}. Furthermore, the changes of the donor and the acceptor parameters of PSII were greater in E− than in E+ under Pb{sup 2+} stress. These observations suggest that the efficiency and stability of PSII are markedly affected by Pb{sup 2+} stress, and the photosynthetic energy conservation in E+ was more effective than in E−. We showed that endophytic infection plays an important role in enhancing the photosynthetic mechanism of rice seedlings exposed to Pb{sup 2+} stress.

  9. Endophytic fungi as models for the stereoselective biotransformation of thioridazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; Borges, Warley De Souza; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2007-12-01

    The stereoselective kinetic biotransformation of thioridazine, a phenothiazine neuroleptic drug, by endophytic fungi was investigated. In general, the sulfur of lateral chain (position 2) or the sulfur of phenothiazinic ring (position 5) were oxidated yielding the major human metabolites thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide. The quantity of metabolites biosynthesized varied among the 12 endophytic fungi evaluated. However, mono-2-sulfoxidation occurred in higher ratio and frequency. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation: Phomopsis sp. (TD2), Glomerella cingulata (VA1), Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4), and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12). Both enantiomers of thioridazine were consumed by the fungi; however, the 2-sulfoxidation yielded preferentially the R configuration at the sulfur atom.

  10. Restructuring of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Grapevine Yellows-Diseased and Recovered Vitis vinifera L. Plants ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Crepaldi, Paola; Daffonchio, Daniele; Quaglino, Fabio; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2011-01-01

    Length heterogeneity-PCR assays, combined with statistical analyses, highlighted that the endophytic bacterial community associated with healthy grapevines was characterized by a greater diversity than that present in diseased and recovered plants. The findings suggest that phytoplasmas can restructure the bacterial community by selecting endophytic strains that could elicit a plant defense response. PMID:21622794

  11. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELFITA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  12. Peer Relationships and Internalizing Problems in Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra; Dane, Andrew; Marini, Zopito

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediated the association between peer relationships and internalizing problems (i.e., depression and social anxiety). A total of 7290 (3756 girls) adolescents (ages 13-18 years) completed self-report measures of peer relationships, including direct and indirect victimization, social isolation, friendship…

  13. Production of Gentisyl Alcohol from Phoma herbarum Endophytic in Curcuma longa L. and Its Antagonistic Activity Towards Leaf Spot Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suruchi; Kaul, Sanjana; Singh, Baljinder; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Dhar, Manoj K

    2016-11-01

    Endophytes from medicinal plants represent a potential source of bioactive compounds. During the present investigation, fungal endophytes were isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa), an important medicinal plant. A total of 207 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained from the rhizome of C. longa L. They were grouped into seven genera based on morphological and molecular data. The fungal endophytes of C. longa were evaluated for antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal organism of leaf spot of turmeric. The disease is a major cause for economic loss in turmeric cultivation. Endophytic Phoma herbarum showed significant activity against C. gloeosporioides and was therefore selected for further studies. A compound gentisyl alcohol was isolated from P. herbarum which showed effective antagonism against C. gloeosporioides. The organism could therefore be used as a biocontrol agent against C. gloeosporioides.

  14. Metabolic response induced by endophytic fungi and bacteria in H. marrubioides Epling in vitro micro plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Luciana Cristina; Silva, Fabiano Guimaraes; Lima, William Cardoso; Soares, Marcos Antonio; Pedroso, Rita Cassia Nascimento; Silva, Maroli Rodrigues; Dias, Herbert Junior; Crotti, Antonio Eduardo Miller; Silva, Marcio Luis Andrade e; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patricia Mendonca; Januario, Ana Helena

    2013-01-01

    Hyptis marrubioides Epling is a native plant from Brazilian Cerrado. In this paper, the response of in vitro micro plants of this species to inoculation with bacterial and fungal endophytic isolates is evaluated. HPLC-DAD analysis showed the presence of 3,4-O-(Z)-dicaffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-7-O-glucoside as the main components. GC/MS analysis demonstrated that the sesquiterpenes τ-cadinol and caryophyllene oxide were only produced in micro plants inoculated with endophytic bacteria, while methyl hexadecanoate, methyl heptadecanoate and methyl (Z,Z,Z) 9,12,15-octadecatrienoate and the triterpene methyl 3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oate were over expressed only when the micro plant was treated with endophytic fungi. (author)

  15. Quorum signaling mycotoxins: A new risk strategy for bacterial biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides and other endophytic fungal species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. All bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which...

  16. Analysis of two heterologous flowering genes in ¤Brachypodium distachyon¤ demonstrates its potential as a grass model plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Lenk, I.; Jensen, Christian S.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the great contribution of model organisms, such as Arabidopsis and rice to understand biological processes in plants, these models are less valuable for functional studies of particular genes from temperate grass crop species. Therefore a new model plant is required, displaying features...... including close phylogenetic relationship to the temperate grasses, vernalisation requirement, high transformation efficiency, small genome size and a rapid life cycle. These requirements are all fulfilled by the small annual grass Brachypodium distachyon. As a first step towards implementing this plant...

  17. Pain sensitivity mediates the relationship between stress and headache intensity in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Stuart; Bhullar, Navjot; Immink, Maarten; Della Vedova, Chris; Hayball, John

    2012-01-01

    A central model for chronic tension-type headache (CTH) posits that stress contributes to headache, in part, by aggravating existing hyperalgesia in CTH sufferers. The prediction from this model that pain sensitivity mediates the relationship between stress and headache activity has not yet been examined. To determine whether pain sensitivity mediates the relationship between stress and prospective headache activity in CTH sufferers. Self-reported stress, pain sensitivity and prospective headache activity were measured in 53 CTH sufferers recruited from the general population. Pain sensitivity was modelled as a mediator between stress and headache activity, and tested using a nonparametric bootstrap analysis. Pain sensitivity significantly mediated the relationship between stress and headache intensity. The results of the present study support the central model for CTH, which posits that stress contributes to headache, in part, by aggravating existing hyperalgesia in CTH sufferers. Implications for the mechanisms and treatment of CTH are discussed.

  18. Elimination and molecular identification of endophytic bacterial contaminants during in vitro propagation of Bambusa balcooa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Syandan Sinha; Ali, Md Nasim; Mukherjee, Shibasis; Chatterjee, Gautam; Banerjee, Maitreyi

    2017-02-01

    Bambusa balcooa is an economically important, multipurpose bamboo species, decidedly used in construction industry. Availability of natural bamboo is depleting very rapidly due to accelerated deforestation and its unrestrained use. The large number and timely supply of saplings are the need of the hour for the restoration of bamboo stands. Micropropagation, being the potent alternative for season independent rapid regeneration, is restricted in bamboo because of endophytic contamination. An in vitro attempt has been taken to overcome the endophytic contamination by using broad spectrum antibiotics as surface sterilant as well as a media component. Ampicillin sodium salt (5 mg/ml for 30 min) as a surface sterilant was found as the best treatment for high bud breaking (80%) coupled with high branching and low contamination (20%) but it was found ineffective to control the contamination during multiplication stage. Then, two endophytes were isolated and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined through antibiotic susceptibility test for successful eradication at multiplication stage. Finally, contamination free cultures were obtained when streptocycline (100 μg/ml) and gentamicin sulphate (75 μg/ml) were added into the medium. The two isolated endophytes, BB1 and BB2, were identified through 16S rDNA techniques and NCBI-BLAST algorithm with 99% sequence similarity with those of Janibacter sp. (KX423734) and Serratia marcescens strain (KX423735). To our knowledge, this is the first report for B. balcooa where antibiotics were used as surface sterilant as well as medium component, to control endophytic bacterial contaminants, followed by their identification.

  19. Distribution of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anping Peng

    Full Text Available The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg(-1, were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg(-1, and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg(-1, respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a

  20. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  1. Endophytic bacteria with plant growth promoting and biocontrol abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malfanova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    Since global food insecurity is one of the major problems faced by humanity, there is a necessity to increase plant productivity. For this, biofungicides and biofertilizers present an ecologically friendly alternative to their chemical counterparts. Among these bioinoculants, endophytic bacteria

  2. Molecular phylogenetics and anti-Pythium activity of endophytes from rhizomes of wild ginger congener, Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, D; Aswati Nair, R; Prasath, D

    2016-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet, a perennial rhizomatous herb exhibits remarkable disease resistance as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities. Towards characterizing the endophytic population of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, experiments were carried out during two different growing seasons viz., early-June of 2013 and late-July of 2014. A total of 34 endophytes were isolated and categorized into 11 morphologically distinct groups. Fungi were observed to predominate bacterial species with colonization frequency values ranging from 12.5 to 50%. Among the 11 endophyte groups isolated, molecular analyses based on ITS/16S rRNA gene sequences identified seven isolate groups as Fusarium solani, two as F. oxysporum and one as the bacterium Rhizobium spp. Phylogenetic tree clustered the ITS sequences from Z. zerumbet endophytes into distinct clades consistent with morphological and sequence analysis. Dual culture assays were carried out to determine antagonistic activity of the isolated endophytes against Pythium myriotylum, an economically significant soil-borne phytopathogen of cultivated ginger. Experiments revealed significant P. myriotylum growth inhibition by F. solani and F. oxysporum isolates with percentage of inhibition (PoI) ranging from 45.17 ± 0.29 to 62.2 ± 2.58 with F. oxysporum exhibiting higher PoI values against P. myriotylum. Using ZzEF8 metabolite extract, concentration-dependent P. myriotylum hyphal growth inhibition was observed following radial diffusion assays. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis wherein exposure to ZzEF8 metabolite extract induced hyphal deformities. Results indicate Z. zerumbet endophytes as promising resources for biologically active compounds and as biocontrol agents for soft rot disease management caused by Pythium spp.

  3. Coupling carbon allocation with leaf and root phenology predicts tree-grass partitioning along a savanna rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Raupach, M.; Briggs, P.; Nieradzik, L.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Trudinger, C. M.; Cleverly, J.

    2016-02-01

    The relative complexity of the mechanisms underlying savanna ecosystem dynamics, in comparison to other biomes such as temperate and tropical forests, challenges the representation of such dynamics in ecosystem and Earth system models. A realistic representation of processes governing carbon allocation and phenology for the two defining elements of savanna vegetation (namely trees and grasses) may be a key to understanding variations in tree-grass partitioning in time and space across the savanna biome worldwide. Here we present a new approach for modelling coupled phenology and carbon allocation, applied to competing tree and grass plant functional types. The approach accounts for a temporal shift between assimilation and growth, mediated by a labile carbohydrate store. This is combined with a method to maximize long-term net primary production (NPP) by optimally partitioning plant growth between fine roots and (leaves + stem). The computational efficiency of the analytic method used here allows it to be uniquely and readily applied at regional scale, as required, for example, within the framework of a global biogeochemical model.We demonstrate the approach by encoding it in a new simple carbon-water cycle model that we call HAVANA (Hydrology and Vegetation-dynamics Algorithm for Northern Australia), coupled to the existing POP (Population Orders Physiology) model for tree demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. HAVANA-POP is calibrated using monthly remotely sensed fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) and eddy-covariance-based estimates of carbon and water fluxes at five tower sites along the North Australian Tropical Transect (NATT), which is characterized by large gradients in rainfall and wildfire disturbance. The calibrated model replicates observed gradients of fPAR, tree leaf area index, basal area, and foliage projective cover along the NATT. The model behaviour emerges from complex feedbacks between the plant

  4. Eine Provokation und ihre Folgen. Zum “deutschen Trauerspiel” «Die Plebejer proben den Aufstand» von Günter Grass[A Provocation and its Consequences. On the “German Tragic Drama” «The Plebeians Rehearse the Uprising» by Günter Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Sprenger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Plebejer proben den Aufstand. Ein deutsches Trauerspiel (1966 by Günter Grass aroused great scandal, because the play denounces the tactics of Bertolt Brecht with regard to the workers’ uprising in East Germany on June 17, 1953. However, Grass always rela­tivized this and claimed to have shown the problematic relationship between artist and politics in general. The present contribution argues that Grass actually attacked frontally none other than Brecht and that he exploited the debate in the leftist student magazine konkret, the West-German mouthpiece of the 1968 revolt.

  5. Functional and molecular characterization of genes involved in antagonisms between two maize endophytes, Fusarium verticillioides and Sarocladium zeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is a prevalent seed-borne maize endophyte capable of causing severe kernel rot and fumonisin mycotoxin contamination. Within maize kernels, Fv is primarily confined to the pedicel, while another seed-borne fungal endophyte, Sarocladium zeae (Sz), is observed in embryos....

  6. A Battle in a Kernel: Molecular Exploration of Antagonisms between Two Maize Endophytes, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is a prevalent seed-borne maize endophyte capable of causing severe kernel rot and fumonisin mycotoxin contamination. Within maize kernels, Fv is primarily confined to the pedicel, while another seed-borne fungal endophyte, Acremonium zeae (Az), is observed in embryos. ...

  7. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  8. Endophytic bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of Amazon Paullinia cupana associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum.

  9. Potency of Six Isolates of Biocontrol Agents Endophytic Trichoderma Against Fusarium Wilt on Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taribuka, J; Wibowo, A; Widyastuti, S M; Sumardiyono, C

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistanc...

  10. Attitudes toward healthy eating: a mediator of the educational level-diet relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, J; Dallongeville, J; Wagner, A; Arveiler, D; Haas, B; Cottel, D; Simon, C; Dauchet, L

    2013-08-01

    A higher educational level is associated with a healthier diet. The goal of this study was to establish whether this association is mediated by attitudes toward healthy eating. The cross-sectional MONA LISA-NUT study was performed in 2005-2007 on adults aged 35-64 years from northern and north-eastern France. Diet quality was assessed on the basis of a 3-day food record and a validated score based on French national dietary guidelines. Specific questions investigated attitudes toward healthy eating. Multivariate analyses were used to quantify the proportion of the educational level-diet relationship that was mediated by attitudes toward healthy eating. Among the 1631 subjects, favourable attitudes toward healthy eating were associated with both higher educational level and diet quality. In the mediation analysis, 'organic food consumption' explained 14% (95% confidence interval (8;24)) of the educational level-diet relationship and 'attention paid to health when buying food' explained 9% (3;16). In contrast, 'attention to food choice', 'searching for information about food' and 'perceived role of eating' were not mediators of the association between educational level and diet. In a multivariate model, the attitude items together accounted for 25% (10;45) of the relationship. The mediation was more pronounced in women than in men (37% (15;54) vs 16% (1;27), respectively) and was significant for consumption of fruits and vegetables (23% (13;37)), whole-grain food (32% (15;58)) and seafood (22% (9;55)). Our results suggest that poor attitudes toward healthy eating in groups with low socioeconomic status constitute an additional factor (along with cost constraints) in the choice of unhealthy foods.

  11. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Mei; Wang, Zhang-Qian; Shu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Wen-Juan; Xu, Hai-Jie; Ahn, Young-Joon; Wang, Mo; Hu, Xuebo

    2013-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment) coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  12. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dovana

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E and roots (root-E of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L. Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI. Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW and dry weight (DW was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi.

  13. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovana, Francesco; Mucciarelli, Marco; Mascarello, Maurizio; Fusconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E) and roots (root-E) of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW) was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP) fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi.

  14. Pivotal behavior as the mediator of the relationship between parental responsiveness and children's symbolic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Chu-Sui; Mahoney, Gerald; Cheng, Shu-Fen; Chang, Shu-Hui

    2017-08-01

    Previous research with parents and children with developmental disabilities indicated that the relationship between mothers' responsive style of interaction and children's rate of development was mediated by the simultaneous relationship between mothers' responsiveness and children's social engagement, or pivotal behavior. In this study, we attempted to determine whether children's pivotal behavior might also mediate the relationship between responsiveness and child development in a sample of 165 typically developing toddlers and their Taiwanese parents. Child development was assessed with a parent report measure of children's symbolic behavior. Parental responsiveness and children's pivotal behavior were assessed from observations of parent-child play. Results indicated that parental responsiveness was correlated with children's pivotal behavior, and that both of these variables were correlated with children's symbolic behavior. Structural equation models indicated that the relationship between responsiveness and children's symbolic behavior was fully mediated by children's pivotal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The associations among computer-mediated communication, relationships, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Holly; Edelman, Anna; Falkenstern, Melissa; Stewart, Cassandra

    2010-06-01

    Social support provided by interpersonal relationships is one of the most robust correlates of well-being. Self-disclosure serves as a basic building block of these relationships. With the rapid growth of the Internet in recent years, the question remains how self-disclosure, and subsequently relationships and well-being, differ when people communicate over the Internet rather than in person. The purpose of this article is to describe current Internet usage patterns as well as explore the association of Internet usage and well-being. Additionally, it directly compares the perceived benefits of face-to-face communication and computer-mediated communication. A questionnaire was administered to 99 undergraduates to measure Internet usage patterns, communication partners, self-disclosure, extraversion, and subjective well-being. Although Internet communication was found to be common, individuals perceived computer-mediated communication to be less useful than face-to-face communication. In addition, increased Internet usage was associated with decreased well-being. Implications are discussed in terms of a new Internet paradox in which people increasingly use the Internet for communication, although they perceive it to be less beneficial than face-to-face interactions and it is associated with reduced well-being.

  16. Positive affect, negative affect, stress, and social support as mediators of the forgiveness-health relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Laccase production by Monotospora sp., an endophytic fungus in Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wu, J H; Huang, W Y; Tan, R X

    2006-03-01

    The effects of the carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH and incubation temperature on laccase production by the endophytic fungus Monotospora sp. were evaluated. The optimal temperature and initial pH for laccase production by Monotospora sp. in submerged culture were found to be 30 degrees C and 8.5, respectively. Maltose (2 g l(-1)) and ammonium tartrate (10 g l(-1)) were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen source for laccase production. Under optimal culture medium, the maximum laccase activity was determined to be 13.55 U ml(-1), which was approximately four times higher than that in basal medium. This is the first report on laccase production by an endophytic fungus.

  18. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor VII gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolin; Xu, Baohong; Xiao, Tiaoyi; Su, Jianming; Zhong, Lei

    2013-08-01

    Coagulation factor VII has been studied in several species but, to date, not in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a commercially important freshwater fish found in China. In this study, the full-length cDNA of grass carp coagulation factor VII (GcCFVII) was cloned using a RACE-Ready cDNA Kit, grass carp were challenged with a hemorrhagic virus, and temporal expression profiles of GcCFVII in the thymus, gills, liver, spleen, and head kidney were examined at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 138 h using fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed the 1480 bp GcCFVII to contain three conservative motifs: Gla, EGF-CA, and Tryp-SPc, similar to other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolution of GcCFVII gene to be consistent with the evolution of the species. After viral challenge, GcCFVII expression in five tissues of grass carp showed different patterns of fluctuation. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation of GcCFVII and its relationship with grass carp hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Job satisfaction and horizontal violence in hospital staff registered nurses: the mediating role of peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpora, Christina; Blegen, Mary A

    2015-08-01

    To describe the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction in hospital staff registered nurses and the degree to which peer relationships mediates the relationship. Additionally, the association between nurse and work characteristics and job satisfaction were determined. Horizontal violence is a major predictor of nurses' job satisfaction. Yet, not enough is known about the relationship between these variables. Job satisfaction is an important variable to study because it is a predictor of patient care quality and safety internationally. Peer relationships, a job satisfier for nurses, was identified as a potential mediator in the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. Cross-sectional mediational model testing. An anonymous four-part survey of a random sample of 175 hospital staff registered nurses working in California provided the data. Data about horizontal violence, peer relationships, job satisfaction, and nurse and work characteristics were collected between March-August 2010. A statistically significant negative relationship was found between horizontal violence and peer relationships, job satisfaction and a statistically significant positive relationship was found between peer relationships and job satisfaction. Peer relationships mediated the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was reported as higher by nurses who worked in teaching hospitals. There were no statistically significant differences in job satisfaction based on gender, ethnicity, basic registered nurse education, highest degree held, size of hospital or clinical area. The results suggest that peer relationships can attenuate the negative relationship between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. This adds to the extant literature on the relationship between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. The findings highlight peer relationships as an important factor when considering effective interventions that

  1. The role of exercise dependence for the relationship between exercise behavior and eating pathology: mediator or moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian J; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2008-05-01

    Our study examined the potential mediating or moderating effect of exercise dependence on the exercise-eating pathology relationship. Female university students (N = 330) completed Internet-based self-report measures of exercise behavior, exercise dependence, and eating pathology. Exercise dependence served as a mediator for the relationship between exercise and eating pathology. This unidirectional causal model suggests that an individual's pathological motivation or compulsion to exercise is the critical mediating component in the exercise-eating pathology relationship. The best target for removing the link between exercise behavior and eating pathology may be reformulating exercise dependence symptoms.