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Sample records for medial temporal cortex

  1. Default network connectivity in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-10-17

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex were observed in amnesic patients. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesic patients, indicating that bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia.

  2. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, M; Insausti, R; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Mishkin, M; Saunders, R C

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38 DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys.

  3. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: Information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMunoz-Lopez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 minutes. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 seconds. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys’ auditory memory performance. It is possible, therefore, that the anatomical pathways differ. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC. We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG, and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 MW tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex, and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys.

  4. Integrating what and when across the primate medial temporal lobe.

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    Naya, Yuji; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2011-08-05

    Episodic memory or memory for the detailed events in our lives is critically dependent on structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). A fundamental component of episodic memory is memory for the temporal order of items within an episode. To understand the contribution of individual MTL structures to temporal-order memory, we recorded single-unit activity and local field potential from three MTL areas (hippocampus and entorhinal and perirhinal cortex) and visual area TE as monkeys performed a temporal-order memory task. Hippocampus provided incremental timing signals from one item presentation to the next, whereas perirhinal cortex signaled the conjunction of items and their relative temporal order. Thus, perirhinal cortex appeared to integrate timing information from hippocampus with item information from visual sensory area TE.

  5. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression.

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    Johnson, Marcia K; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J; Levin, Yael

    2009-12-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so.

  6. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

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    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. PMID:26854903

  7. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human amnesia and the medial temporal lobe illuminated by neuropsychological and neurohistological findings for patient E.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Ricardo; Annese, Jacopo; Amaral, David G.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    We present neurohistological information for a case of bilateral, symmetrical damage to the medial temporal lobe and well-documented memory impairment. E.P. developed profound memory impairment at age 70 y and then was studied for 14 y He had no capacity for learning facts and events and had retrograde amnesia covering several decades. He also had a modest impairment of semantic knowledge. Neurohistological analysis revealed bilaterally symmetrical lesions of the medial temporal lobe that eliminated the temporal pole, the amygdala, the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampus, the perirhinal cortex, and rostral parahippocampal cortex. The lesion also extended laterally to involve the fusiform gyrus substantially. Last, the superior, inferior, and middle temporal gyri were atrophic, and subjacent white matter was gliotic. Several considerations indicate that E.P.’s severe memory impairment was caused by his medial temporal lesions, whereas his impaired semantic knowledge was caused by lateral temporal damage. His lateral temporal damage also may have contributed to his extensive retrograde amnesia. The findings illuminate the anatomical relationship between memory, perception, and semantic knowledge. PMID:23620517

  9. Differential roles for medial prefrontal and medial temporal cortices in schema-dependent encoding: From congruent to incongruent

    OpenAIRE

    Kesteren, M.T.R. van; Beul, S.F.; Takashima, A.; Henson, R.N.; Ruiter, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Information that is congruent with prior knowledge is generally remembered better than incongruent information. This effect of congruency on memory has been attributed to a facilitatory influence of activated schemas on memory encoding and consolidation processes, and hypothesised to reflect a shift between processing in medial temporal lobes (MTL) towards processing in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To investigate this shift, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare ...

  10. Visual perception and memory systems: from cortex to medial temporal lobe.

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    Khan, Zafar U; Martín-Montañez, Elisa; Baxter, Mark G

    2011-05-01

    Visual perception and memory are the most important components of vision processing in the brain. It was thought that the perceptual aspect of a visual stimulus occurs in visual cortical areas and that this serves as the substrate for the formation of visual memory in a distinct part of the brain called the medial temporal lobe. However, current evidence indicates that there is no functional separation of areas. Entire visual cortical pathways and connecting medial temporal lobe are important for both perception and visual memory. Though some aspects of this view are debated, evidence from both sides will be explored here. In this review, we will discuss the anatomical and functional architecture of the entire system and the implications of these structures in visual perception and memory.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence during episodic prospection implicates medial prefrontal and bilateral middle temporal gyrus.

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    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-08-01

    fMRI studies have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, components of the default mode network (DMN), in episodic prospection. This study compared quantitative EEG localized to these DMN regions during prospection and during resting and while waiting for rewards. EEG was recorded in twenty-two adults while they were asked to (i) envision future monetary episodes; (ii) wait for rewards and (iii) rest. Activation sources were localized to core DMN regions. EEG power and phase coherence were compared across conditions. Prospection, compared to resting and waiting, was associated with reduced power in the medial prefrontal gyrus and increased power in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus across frequency bands as well as greater phase synchrony between these regions in the delta band. The current quantitative EEG analysis confirms prior fMRI research suggesting that medial prefrontal and medial temporal gyrus interactions are central to the capacity for episodic prospection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The temporal structure of resting-state brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts self-consciousness.

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    Huang, Zirui; Obara, Natsuho; Davis, Henry Hap; Pokorny, Johanna; Northoff, Georg

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an overlap between the neural substrate of resting-state activity and self-related processing in the cortical midline structures (CMS). However, the neural and psychological mechanisms mediating this so-called "rest-self overlap" remain unclear. To investigate the neural mechanisms, we estimated the temporal structure of spontaneous/resting-state activity, e.g. its long-range temporal correlations or self-affinity across time as indexed by the power-law exponent (PLE). The PLE was obtained in resting-state activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in 47 healthy subjects by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We performed correlation analyses of the PLE and Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (SCSR) scores, which enabled us to access different dimensions of self-consciousness and specified rest-self overlap in a psychological regard. The PLE in the MPFC's resting-state activity correlated with private self-consciousness scores from the SCSR. Conversely, we found no correlation between the PLE and the other subscales of the SCSR (public, social) or between other resting-state measures, including functional connectivity, and the SCSR subscales. This is the first evidence for the association between the scale-free dynamics of resting-state activity in the CMS and the private dimension of self-consciousness. This finding implies the relationship of especially the private dimension of self with the temporal structure of resting-state activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

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    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  14. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  15. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

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    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  16. Medial temporal lobe contributions to cued retrieval of items and contexts.

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    Hannula, Deborah E; Libby, Laura A; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ranganath, Charan

    2013-10-01

    Several models have proposed that different regions of the medial temporal lobes contribute to different aspects of episodic memory. For instance, according to one view, the perirhinal cortex represents specific items, parahippocampal cortex represents information regarding the context in which these items were encountered, and the hippocampus represents item-context bindings. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test a specific prediction of this model-namely, that successful retrieval of items from context cues will elicit perirhinal recruitment and that successful retrieval of contexts from item cues will elicit parahippocampal cortex recruitment. Retrieval of the bound representation in either case was expected to elicit hippocampal engagement. To test these predictions, we had participants study several item-context pairs (i.e., pictures of objects and scenes, respectively), and then had them attempt to recall items from associated context cues and contexts from associated item cues during a scanned retrieval session. Results based on both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed a role for hippocampus in content-general relational memory retrieval, and a role for parahippocampal cortex in successful retrieval of contexts from item cues. However, we also found that activity differences in perirhinal cortex were correlated with successful cued recall for both items and contexts. These findings provide partial support for the above predictions and are discussed with respect to several models of medial temporal lobe function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Cued Retrieval of Items and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Libby, Laura A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2013-01-01

    Several models have proposed that different regions of the medial temporal lobes contribute to different aspects of episodic memory. For instance, according to one view, the perirhinal cortex represents specific items, parahippocampal cortex represents information regarding the context in which these items were encountered, and the hippocampus represents item-context bindings. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test a specific prediction of this model – namely, that successful retrieval of items from context cues will elicit perirhinal recruitment and that successful retrieval of contexts from item cues will elicit parahippocampal cortex recruitment. Retrieval of the bound representation in either case was expected to elicit hippocampal engagement. To test these predictions, we had participants study several item-context pairs (i.e., pictures of objects and scenes, respectively), and then had them attempt to recall items from associated context cues and contexts from associated item cues during a scanned retrieval session. Results based on both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed a role for hippocampus in content-general relational memory retrieval, and a role for parahippocampal cortex in successful retrieval of contexts from item cues. However, we also found that activity differences in perirhinal cortex were correlated with successful cued recall for both items and contexts. These findings provide partial support for the above predictions and are discussed with respect to several models of medial temporal lobe function. PMID:23466350

  18. Connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichnetz, G R

    2001-06-01

    The afferent and efferent cortical and subcortical connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) were studied in cebus (Cebus apella) and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys using the retrograde and anterograde capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. The principal intraparietal corticocortical connections of area 7m in both cebus and macaque cases were with the ipsilateral medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (MIP) and adjacent superior parietal lobule (area 5), inferior parietal lobule (area 7a), lateral bank of the IPS (area 7ip), caudal parietal operculum (PGop), dorsal bank of the caudal superior temporal sulcus (visual area MST), and medial prestriate cortex (including visual area PO and caudal medial lobule). Its principal frontal corticocortical connections were with the prefrontal cortex in the shoulder above the principal sulcus and the cortex in the shoulder above the superior ramus of the arcuate sulcus (SAS), the area purported to contain the smooth eye movement-related frontal eye field (FEFsem) in the cebus monkey by other investigators. There were moderate connections with the cortex in the rostral bank of the arcuate sulcus (purported to contain the saccade-related frontal eye field; FEFsac), supplementary eye field (SEF), and rostral dorsal premotor area (PMDr). Area 7m also had major connections with the cingulate cortex (area 23), particularly the ventral bank of the cingulate sulcus. The principal subcortical connections of area 7m were with the dorsal portion of the ventrolateral thalamic (VLc) nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral pulvinar, caudal mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and medial pulvinar, central lateral, central superior lateral, and central inferior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsolateral caudate nucleus and putamen, middle region of the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, zona incerta, pregeniculate nucleus, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, intermediate layer of

  19. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players.

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    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo'er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  20. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

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    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  1. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  2. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  3. Fornix and medial temporal lobe lesions lead to comparable deficits in complex visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Suchan, Boris

    2016-05-04

    Recent research dealing with the structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has shifted away from exclusively investigating memory-related processes and has repeatedly incorporated the investigation of complex visual perception. Several studies have demonstrated that higher level visual tasks can recruit structures like the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in order to successfully perform complex visual discriminations, leading to a perceptual-mnemonic or representational view of the medial temporal lobe. The current study employed a complex visual discrimination paradigm in two patients suffering from brain lesions with differing locations and origin. Both patients, one with extensive medial temporal lobe lesions (VG) and one with a small lesion of the anterior fornix (HJK), were impaired in complex discriminations while showing otherwise mostly intact cognitive functions. The current data confirmed previous results while also extending the perceptual-mnemonic theory of the MTL to the main output structure of the hippocampus, the fornix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medial reward and lateral non-reward orbitofrontal cortex circuits change in opposite directions in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Wei; Tang, Yanqing; Huang, Chu-Chung; Wang, XinFa; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Lirong; Pu, JunCai; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C; Lin, Ching-Po; Wang, Fei; Xie, Peng; Feng, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The first brain-wide voxel-level resting state functional connectivity neuroimaging analysis of depression is reported, with 421 patients with major depressive disorder and 488 control subjects. Resting state functional connectivity between different voxels reflects correlations of activity between those voxels and is a fundamental tool in helping to understand the brain regions with altered connectivity and function in depression. One major circuit with altered functional connectivity involved the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13, which is implicated in reward, and which had reduced functional connectivity in depression with memory systems in the parahippocampal gyrus and medial temporal lobe, especially involving the perirhinal cortex Brodmann area 36 and entorhinal cortex Brodmann area 28. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores were correlated with weakened functional connectivity of the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13. Thus in depression there is decreased reward-related and memory system functional connectivity, and this is related to the depressed symptoms. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 47/12, involved in non-reward and punishing events, did not have this reduced functional connectivity with memory systems. Second, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 47/12 had increased functional connectivity with the precuneus, the angular gyrus, and the temporal visual cortex Brodmann area 21. This enhanced functional connectivity of the non-reward/punishment system (Brodmann area 47/12) with the precuneus (involved in the sense of self and agency), and the angular gyrus (involved in language) is thus related to the explicit affectively negative sense of the self, and of self-esteem, in depression. A comparison of the functional connectivity in 185 depressed patients not receiving medication and 182 patients receiving medication showed that the functional connectivity of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann

  5. Effects of medial prefrontal cortex lesions in rats on the what-where-when memory of a fear conditioning event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jay-Shake; Hsiao, Kun-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Min

    2011-03-17

    Previous animal studies have defined the ability to remember the details of what, where, and when of an event as an episodic-like memory to be used to model episodic memory in humans. Numerous findings indicate that the hippocampal-frontal cortical circuitry plays a major part in its neural mechanism. Researchers have intensively studied roles of diverse hippocampus sub-regions using animal models. By contrast, the impact of prefrontal cortex lesions on episodic-like memory in animals is still unknown. Here we show that Wistar rats with bilateral medial prefrontal cortex lesions failed to use the temporal-contextual information to retrieve memory of a fear-conditioning event, indicating impairments in their episodic-like memory. Subsequent experiments excluded alternative interpretations that the manipulation impaired the fear-conditioning per se, or interfered with the sensory preconditioning process. We concluded that damages in this area might impair temporal information processing, or interfere with integrating temporal and contextual elements of fear-conditioning events to form a conjunctive entity. These findings can help understand how the medial prefrontal cortex contributes to episodic-like memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also...

  7. Consolidation of visual associative long-term memory in the temporal cortex of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Y; Kameyama, M; Hasegawa, I; Fukushima, T

    1998-01-01

    Neuropsychological theories have proposed a critical role for the interaction between the medial temporal lobe and the neocortex in the formation of long-term memory for facts and events, which has often been tested by learning of a series of paired words or figures in humans. We have examined neural mechanisms underlying the memory "consolidation" process by single-unit recording and molecular biological methods in an animal model of a visual pair-association task in monkeys. In our previous studies, we found that long-term associative representations of visual objects are acquired through learning in the neural network of the anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex. In this article, we propose the hypothesis that limbic neurons undergo rapid modification of synaptic connectivity and provide backward signals that guide the reorganization of neocortical neural circuits. Two experiments tested this hypothesis: (1) we examined the role of the backward connections from the medial temporal lobe to the IT cortex by injecting ibotenic acid into the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices, which provided massive backward projections ipsilaterally to the IT cortex. We found that the limbic lesion disrupted the associative code of the IT neurons between the paired associates, without impairing the visual response to each stimulus. (2) We then tested the first half of this hypothesis by detecting the expression of immediate-early genes in the monkey temporal cortex. We found specific expression of zif268 during the learning of a new set of paired associates in the pair-association task, most intensively in area 36 of the perirhinal cortex. All these results with the visual pair-association task support our hypothesis and demonstrate that the consolidation process, which was first proposed on the basis of clinico-psychological evidence, can now be examined in primates using neurophysiolocical and molecular biological approaches. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. Usefulness of StereoEEG-based tailored surgery for medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Preliminary results in 11 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yuichi; Ochiai, Taku; Hori, Tomokatsu; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2017-07-01

    Surgical options for medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) include anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Optimal criteria for choosing the appropriate surgical approach remain uncertain. This article reports 11 consecutive cases in which electrophysiological findings of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) were used to determine the optimal surgical approach. Eleven consecutive patients with MTLE underwent SEEG evaluation and were placed in either the medial or the medial+lateral group based on the findings. Patients in the medial group underwent SAH using the subtemporal approach, and patients in the medial+lateral group underwent SEEG-guided anterior temporal lobectomy. SEEG findings were also compared with other examinations including flumazenil (FMZ)-positron emission tomography (PET), fluorine-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Results were evaluated to determine which examinations most consistently identified the epileptogenic zone. Of the 11 cases, 4 patients were placed in the medial group, and 7 patients in the medial+lateral group. Of patients, 90.9% were classified in class I of the Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale, while 72.7% were classified in class I by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) system. Analyzed by group, 100% of the medial group experienced an Engel class I outcome in the medial group, compared to 85.7% in the medial+lateral group. SEEG findings were comparable with FDG-PET results (10 of 11, 91%). Tailored surgery guided by SEEG is an electrophysiologically feasible treatment for MTLE that can result in favorable outcomes. Although seizures are thought to originate in the medial temporal lobe in MTLE, it is important for involvement of the lateral temporal cortex to be also considered in some cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Theta oscillations orchestrate medial temporal lobe and neocortex in remembering autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentemilla, L; Barnes, G R; Düzel, E; Levine, B

    2014-01-15

    Remembering autobiographical events can be associated with detailed visual imagery. The medial temporal lobe (MTL), precuneus and prefrontal cortex are held to jointly enable such vivid retrieval, but how these regions are orchestrated remains unclear. An influential prediction from animal physiology is that neural oscillations in theta frequency may be important. In this experiment, participants prospectively collected audio recordings describing personal autobiographical episodes or semantic knowledge over 2 to 7 months. These were replayed as memory retrieval cues while recording brain activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). We identified a peak of theta power within a left MTL region of interest during both autobiographical and General Semantic retrieval. This MTL region was selectively phase-synchronized with theta oscillations in precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and this synchrony was higher during autobiographical as compared to General Semantic knowledge retrieval. Higher synchrony also predicted more detailed visual imagery during retrieval. Thus, theta phase-synchrony orchestrates in humans the MTL with a distributed neocortical memory network when vividly remembering autobiographical experiences. © 2013.

  10. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Entorhinal Cortex: Antemortem Cortical Thickness and Postmortem Neurofibrillary Tangles and Amyloid Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, A A; Weinberg, B D; Dillon, W P; Hess, C P; Cabral, H J; Fleischman, D A; Leurgans, S E; Bennett, D A; Hyman, B T; Albert, M S; Killiany, R J; Fischl, B; Dale, A M; Desikan, R S

    2017-05-01

    The entorhinal cortex, a critical gateway between the neocortex and hippocampus, is one of the earliest regions affected by Alzheimer disease-associated neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Although our prior work has automatically delineated an MR imaging-based measure of the entorhinal cortex, whether antemortem entorhinal cortex thickness is associated with postmortem tangle burden within the entorhinal cortex is still unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between antemortem MRI measures of entorhinal cortex thickness and postmortem neuropathological measures. We evaluated 50 participants from the Rush Memory and Aging Project with antemortem structural T1-weighted MR imaging and postmortem neuropathologic assessments. Here, we focused on thickness within the entorhinal cortex as anatomically defined by our previously developed MR imaging parcellation system (Desikan-Killiany Atlas in FreeSurfer). Using linear regression, we evaluated the association between entorhinal cortex thickness and tangles and amyloid-β load within the entorhinal cortex and medial temporal and neocortical regions. We found a significant relationship between antemortem entorhinal cortex thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .006) and medial temporal lobe tangles ( P = .002); we found no relationship between entorhinal cortex thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .09) and medial temporal lobe amyloid-β ( P = .09). We also found a significant association between entorhinal cortex thickness and cortical tangles ( P = .003) and amyloid-β ( P = .01). We found no relationship between parahippocampal gyrus thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .31) and medial temporal lobe tangles ( P = .051). Our findings indicate that entorhinal cortex-associated in vivo cortical thinning may represent a marker of postmortem medial temporal and neocortical Alzheimer disease pathology. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Resection of the medial temporal lobe disconnects the rostral superior temporal gyrus from some of its projection targets in the frontal lobe and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Monica; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2009-09-01

    Auditory memory in the monkey does not appear to extend beyond the limits of working memory. It is therefore surprising that this ability is impaired by medial temporal lobe (MTL) resections, because such lesions spare working memory in other sensory modalities. To determine whether MTL ablations might have caused the auditory deficit through inadvertent transection of superior temporal gyrus (STG) projections to its downstream targets, and, if so, which targets might have been compromised, we injected anterograde tracer (biotinylated dextran amine) in the STG of both the normal and MTL-lesioned hemispheres of split-brain monkeys. Interhemispheric comparison of label failed to show any effect of the MTL ablation on efferents from caudal STG, which projects to the inferior prefrontal convexity. However, the ablation did consistently interrupt the normally dense projections from rostral STG to both the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and medial thalamic nuclei. The findings support the possibility that the auditory working memory deficit after MTL ablation is due to transection of downstream auditory projections, and indicate that the candidate structures for mediating auditory working memory are the ventral medial prefrontal cortical areas, the medial thalamus, or both.

  13. Medial temporal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.J.; Cross, D.T.; Friedman, D.P.; Bello, J.A.; Hilal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    To better define the MR appearance of hippocampal sclerosis, the authors have reviewed over 500 MR coronal images of the temporal lobes. Many cysts were noted that analysis showed were of choroid-fissure (arachnoid) origin. Their association with seizures was low. A few nontumorous, static, medial temporal lesions, noted on T2-weighted coronal images, were poorly visualized on T1-weighted images and did not enhance with gadolinium. The margins were irregular, involved the hippocampus, and were often associated with focal atrophy. The lesions usually were associated with seizure disorders and specific electroencephalographic changes, and the authors believe they represented hippocampal sclerosis

  14. Radiosurgery for Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Resulting from Mesial Temporal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaris, Thomas; Witt, Thomas; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is perhaps the most well-defined epilepsy syndrome that is responsive to structural interventions such as surgery. Several minimally invasive techniques have arisen that provide additional options for the treatment of MTS while potentially avoiding many of open surgery's associated risks. By evading these risks, they also open up treatment options to patients who otherwise are poor surgical candidates. Radiosurgery is one of the most intensively studied of these alternatives and has found a growing role in the treatment of medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender moderates the association between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex volume and depressive symptoms in a subclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Depetro, Emily; Maxwell, Joshua; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-30

    Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The role that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for correlations between medial prefrontal gray matter volume and depressive traits. The dorsal medial frontal cortex was correlated with greater levels of depression, but not anxiety and stress. Gender moderates this effect: in males greater levels of depression were associated with lower dorsal medial prefrontal volumes, but in females no relationship was observed. The results indicate that even within a non-clinical sample, male participants with higher levels of depressive traits tend to have lower levels of gray matter volume in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Our finding is consistent with low dorsal medial prefrontal volume contributing to the development of depression in males. Future longitudinal work is needed to substantiate this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  17. Asymmetry of medial and lateral temporal regional glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy by F-18-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Song, Ho Cheon; Lee, Sang Kun; Kim, Hyun Jip; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the difference of glucose metabolism of medial and lateral temporal lobes of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) utilizing quantitative comparison of regional metabolic activities using asymmetric index. We studied 19 pathologically proven mesial TLE and 25 lateral TLE patients. Lateral TLE patients were either normal on magnetic resonance imaging (cryptogenic: n=14) or had structural lesions (lesional: n=11). Asymmetric index (ASI) was calculated as [(ipsilateral contralateral)/(ipsilateral + contralateral )]x200. ASI of medial and lateral lobes of mesial TLE was decreased (-16.4±8.3 and -12.7± 5.5, respectively). In cryptogenic lateral TLE, ASI of lateral temporal lobe was decreased (-11.8± 4.7), whereas that of medial temporal lobe was not decreased (-4.6±6.3). ASI of medial lobe of lesional lateral TLE was -7.3±9.1, which was significantly different from that of mesial TLE (p<0.05). Patients with lesional lateral TLE had evident metabolic defects or decrease (ASI: -22±10.5) in lateral temporal lobe. While we could not find the difference of metabolic activity in lateral temporal lobes between cryptogenic lateral TLE and mesial TLE patients, the difference of metabolic activity was significant in medial temporal lobes which was revealed by ASI quantitation. Asymmetric decrease of metabolic activity in both medial and lateral temporal lobes indicates medial temporal epilepsy. Symmetry of metabolic activity in medial temporal lobe combined with asymmetry of that in lateral temporal lobe may give hints that the epileptogenic zone is lateral

  18. Aberrant Wnt signaling pathway in medial temporal lobe structures of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise, Jesper; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    alterations of the intracellular Wnt pathway signaling components β-catenin, Gsk3β and Tcf7l1/Tcf3 and the phosphorylation state of β-catenin and Gsk3β in the hippocampus suggestive of a link between AD and aberrant canonical activity. Alterations in Gsk3β co-appeared with hippocampal kinase...... on isolated Wnt pathway components. Here, we provide the first comprehensive pathway-focused evaluation of the Wnt pathway in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of AD brains. Our data demonstrate altered Wnt pathway gene expression at all levels of the pathway in both medial temporal lobe regions...

  19. Bupropion Administration Increases Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Dorso-Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepa, Ewelina; Dean, Zola; McCabe, Ciara

    2017-06-01

    Patients on the selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors like citalopram report emotional blunting. We showed previously that citalopram reduces resting-state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers in a number of brain regions, including the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, which may be related to its clinical effects. Bupropion is a dopaminergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor and is not reported to cause emotional blunting. However, how bupropion affects resting-state functional connectivity in healthy controls remains unknown. Using a within-subjects, repeated-measures, double-blind, crossover design, we examined 17 healthy volunteers (9 female, 8 male). Volunteers received 7 days of bupropion (150 mg/d) and 7 days of placebo treatment and underwent resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. We selected seed regions in the salience network (amygdala and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex) and the central executive network (dorsal medial prefrontal cortex). Mood and anhedonia measures were also recorded and examined in relation to resting-state functional connectivity. Relative to placebo, bupropion increased resting-state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers between the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex seed region and the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus cortex, key parts of the default mode network. These results are opposite to that which we found with 7 days treatment of citalopram in healthy volunteers. These results reflect a different mechanism of action of bupropion compared with selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors. These results help explain the apparent lack of emotional blunting caused by bupropion in depressed patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  20. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  1. Cellular properties of principal neurons in the rat entorhinal cortex. II. The medial entorhinal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canto, C.B.; Witter, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Principal neurons in different medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) layers show variations in spatial modulation that stabilize between 15 and 30 days postnatally. These in vivo variations are likely due to differences in intrinsic membrane properties and integrative capacities of neurons. The latter

  2. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Jorge; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  3. Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortical Modulation on the Medial Prefrontal Cortex-Amygdala Pathway: Differential Regulation of Intra-Amygdala GABAA and GABAB Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hui

    2017-07-01

    The basolateral complex of the amygdala receives inputs from neocortical areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Earlier studies have shown that lateral orbitofrontal cortex activation exerts an inhibitory gating on medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala information flow. Here we examined the individual role of GABAA and GABAB receptors in this process. In vivo extracellular single-unit recordings were done in anesthetized rats. We searched amygdala neurons that fire in response to medial prefrontal cortex activation, tested lateral orbitofrontal cortex gating at different delays (lateral orbitofrontal cortex-medial prefrontal cortex delays: 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 milliseconds), and examined differential contribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors with iontophoresis. Relative to baseline, lateral orbitofrontal cortex stimulation exerted an inhibitory modulatory gating on the medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala pathway and was effective up to a long delay of 500 ms (long-delay latencies at 100, 250, and 500 milliseconds). Moreover, blockade of intra-amygdala GABAA receptors with bicuculline abolished the lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory gating at both short- (25 milliseconds) and long-delay (100 milliseconds) intervals, while blockade of GABAB receptors with saclofen reversed the inhibitory gating at long delay (100 milliseconds) only. Among the majority of the neurons examined (8 of 9), inactivation of either GABAA or GABAB receptors during baseline did not change evoked probability per se, suggesting that local feed-forward inhibitory mechanism is pathway specific. Our results suggest that the effect of lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory modulatory gating was effective up to 500 milliseconds and that intra-amygdala GABAA and GABAB receptors differentially modulate the short- and long-delay lateral orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory gating on the medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala pathway. © The Author 2017

  4. The Role of Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Incidental and Intentional Retrieval of Item and Relational Information in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-06-01

    Considerable neuropsychological and neuroimaging work indicates that the medial temporal lobes are critical for both item and relational memory retrieval. However, there remain outstanding issues in the literature, namely the extent to which medial temporal lobe regions are differentially recruited during incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information, and the extent to which aging may affect these neural substrates. The current fMRI study sought to address these questions; participants incidentally encoded word pairs embedded in sentences and incidental item and relational retrieval were assessed through speeded reading of intact, rearranged, and new word-pair sentences, while intentional item and relational retrieval were assessed through old/new associative recognition of a separate set of intact, rearranged, and new word pairs. Results indicated that, in both younger and older adults, anterior hippocampus and perirhinal cortex indexed incidental and intentional item retrieval in the same manner. In contrast, posterior hippocampus supported incidental and intentional relational retrieval in both age groups and an adjacent cluster in posterior hippocampus was recruited during both forms of relational retrieval for older, but not younger, adults. Our findings suggest that while medial temporal lobe regions do not differentiate between incidental and intentional forms of retrieval, there are distinct roles for anterior and posterior medial temporal lobe regions during retrieval of item and relational information, respectively, and further indicate that posterior regions may, under certain conditions, be over-recruited in healthy aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The timing of associative memory formation: frontal lobe and anterior medial temporal lobe activity at associative binding predicts memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    The process of associating items encountered over time and across variable time delays is fundamental for creating memories in daily life, such as for stories and episodes. Forming associative memory for temporally discontiguous items involves medial temporal lobe structures and additional neocortical processing regions, including prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and lateral occipital regions. However, most prior memory studies, using concurrently presented stimuli, have failed to examine the temporal aspect of successful associative memory formation to identify when activity in these brain regions is predictive of associative memory formation. In the current study, functional MRI data were acquired while subjects were shown pairs of sequentially presented visual images with a fixed interitem delay within pairs. This design allowed the entire time course of the trial to be analyzed, starting from onset of the first item, across the 5.5-s delay period, and through offset of the second item. Subjects then completed a postscan recognition test for the items and associations they encoded during the scan and their confidence for each. After controlling for item-memory strength, we isolated brain regions selectively involved in associative encoding. Consistent with prior findings, increased regional activity predicting subsequent associative memory success was found in anterior medial temporal lobe regions of left perirhinal and entorhinal cortices and in left prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital regions. The temporal separation within each pair, however, allowed extension of these findings by isolating the timing of regional involvement, showing that increased response in these regions occurs during binding but not during maintenance. PMID:21248058

  6. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupt recognition of social hierarchy during antiphonal communication in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosida, Shigeto; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Generation of the motor patterns of emotional sounds in mammals occurs in the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain and is not directly controlled by the cortex. The medial frontal cortex indirectly controls vocalizations, based on the recognition of social context. We examined whether the medial frontal cortex was responsible for antiphonal vocalization, or turn-taking, in naked mole-rats. In normal turn-taking, naked mole-rats vocalize more frequently to dominant individuals than to subordinate ones. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupted differentiation of call rates to the stimulus animals, which had varied social relationships to the subject. However, medial frontal cortex lesions did not affect either the acoustic properties of the vocalizations or the timing of the vocal exchanges. This suggests that the medial frontal cortex may be involved in social cognition or decision making during turn-taking, while other regions of the brain regulate when animals vocalize and the vocalizations themselves.

  7. Reversible online control of habitual behavior by optogenetic perturbation of medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Virkud, Arti; Deisseroth, Karl; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Habits tend to form slowly but, once formed, can have great stability. We probed these temporal characteristics of habitual behaviors by intervening optogenetically in forebrain habit circuits as rats performed well-ingrained habitual runs in a T-maze. We trained rats to perform a maze habit, confirmed the habitual behavior by devaluation tests, and then, during the maze runs (ca. 3 s), we disrupted population activity in a small region in the medial prefrontal cortex, the infralimbic cortex. In accordance with evidence that this region is necessary for the expression of habits, we found that this cortical disruption blocked habitual behavior. Notably, however, this blockade of habitual performance occurred on line, within an average of three trials (ca. 9 s of inhibition), and as soon as during the first trial (habit, and, simultaneously, the more recently acquired habit was blocked. These online changes occurred within an average of two trials (ca. 6 s of infralimbic inhibition). Measured changes in generalized performance ability and motivation to consume reward were unaffected. This immediate toggling between breaking old habits and returning to them demonstrates that even semiautomatic behaviors are under cortical control and that this control occurs online, second by second. These temporal characteristics define a framework for uncovering cellular transitions between fixed and flexible behaviors, and corresponding disturbances in pathologies. PMID:23112197

  8. Encoding and retrieval of artificial visuoauditory memory traces in the auditory cortex requires the entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Yiping; Feng, Jingyu; Liao, Zhengli; Li, Xinjian; Wang, Haitao; Li, Xiao; He, Jufang

    2013-06-12

    Damage to the medial temporal lobe impairs the encoding of new memories and the retrieval of memories acquired immediately before the damage in human. In this study, we demonstrated that artificial visuoauditory memory traces can be established in the rat auditory cortex and that their encoding and retrieval depend on the entorhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe in the rat. We trained rats to associate a visual stimulus with electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex using a classical conditioning protocol. After conditioning, we examined the associative memory traces electrophysiologically (i.e., visual stimulus-evoked responses of auditory cortical neurons) and behaviorally (i.e., visual stimulus-induced freezing and visual stimulus-guided reward retrieval). The establishment of a visuoauditory memory trace in the auditory cortex, which was detectable by electrophysiological recordings, was achieved over 20-30 conditioning trials and was blocked by unilateral, temporary inactivation of the entorhinal cortex. Retrieval of a previously established visuoauditory memory was also affected by unilateral entorhinal cortex inactivation. These findings suggest that the entorhinal cortex is necessary for the encoding and involved in the retrieval of artificial visuoauditory memory in the auditory cortex, at least during the early stages of memory consolidation.

  9. The Medial Temporal Lobe and the Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Jointly Support Interference Resolution in Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ilke; Curtis, Clayton E.; McElree, Brian

    2009-01-01

    During working memory retrieval, proactive interference (PI) can be induced by semantic similarity and episodic familiarity. Here, we used fMRI to test hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in successful resolution of PI. Participants studied six-word lists and responded to a…

  10. Early seizure propagation from the occipital lobe to medial temporal structures and its surgical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Naotaka; Mihara, Tadahiro; Baba, Koichi; Matsuda, Kazumi; Tottori, Takayasu; Umeoka, Shuichi; Nakamura, Fumihiro; Terada, Kiyohito; Usui, Keiko; Inoue, Yushi

    2008-12-01

    Intracranial EEG documentation of seizure propagation from the occipital lobe to medial temporal structures is relatively rare. We retrospectively analyzed intracranial EEG recorded with electrodes implanted in the medial temporal lobe in patients who underwent occipital lobe surgery. Four patients with occipital lesions, who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring with intracerebral electrodes implanted in the medial temporal lobe prior to occipital lobe surgery, were studied. Subdural electrodes were placed over the occipital lobe and adjacent areas. Intracerebral electrodes were implanted into bilateral hippocampi and the amygdala in three patients, and in the hippocampus and amygdala ipsilateral to the lesion in one. In light of the intracranial EEG findings, the occipital lobe was resected but the medial temporal lobe was spared in all patients. The follow-up period ranged from six to 16 years, and seizure outcome was Engel Class I in all patients. Sixty six seizures were analyzed. The majority of the seizures originated from the occipital lobe. In complex partial seizures, ictal discharges propagated to the medial temporal lobe. No seizures originating from the temporal lobe were documented. In some seizures, the ictal-onset zone could not be identified. In these seizures, very early propagation to the medial temporal lobe was observed. Interictal spikes were recorded in the medial temporal lobe in all cases. Intracranial EEG revealed very early involvement of the medial temporal lobe in some seizures. Seizure control was achieved without resection of the medial temporal structures.

  11. Temporal and extra-temporal hypoperfusion in medial temporal lobe epilepsy evaluated by arterial-spin-labeling based MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Lianfang; Zhang Zhiqiang; Lu Guangming; Yuan Cuiping; Wang Zhengge; Wang Haoxue; Huang Wei; Wei Fangyuan; Chen Guanghui; Tan Qifu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the lateralization of unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) by using arterial-spin-labeling (ASL) based perfusion MR imaging and investigate the changes of perfusion in the regions related to mTLE network and the relationship between the perfusion and the clinical status. Methods: Twenty-five patients with left-sided and 23 with right-sided mTLE were enrolled, and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) of related region was measured based on pulsed-ASL sequence on Siemens 3 T scanner. The CBF of the mTLE group were compared with that in the controls by using ANOVA analysis. The asymmetric indices of CBF in the medial temporal lobe were calculated as the lesion side compared with the normal side in matched region in mTLE group. Results: Compared with the volunteers, the patients with mTLE showed the decrease of CBF in the bilateral medial and lateral temporal, the frontal and parietal regions relating to the default-mode network and more serious in lesion side. The CBF values of the medial temporal lobe were negatively correlated with the epilepsy duration (r=-0.51, P<0.01). The asymmetric index of CBF as-0.01 has a 76.0% (19/25) sensitivity and a 78.3% (18/23) specificity to distinguish the lesion side. Conclusions: The decrease of CBF in the temporal and extra-temporal region by ASL-based MRI suggests the functional abnormalities in the network involved by mTLE. The ASL technique is a useful tool for lateralizing the unilateral mTLE. (authors)

  12. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  13. Imaging the spatio-temporal dynamics of supragranular activity in the rat somatosensory cortex in response to stimulation of the paws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M L Morales-Botello

    Full Text Available We employed voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of the responses of the supragranular somatosensory cortex to stimulation of the four paws in urethane-anesthetized rats. We obtained the following main results. (1 Stimulation of the contralateral forepaw evoked VSD responses with greater amplitude and smaller latency than stimulation of the contralateral hindpaw, and ipsilateral VSD responses had a lower amplitude and greater latency than contralateral responses. (2 While the contralateral stimulation initially activated only one focus, the ipsilateral stimulation initially activated two foci: one focus was typically medial to the focus activated by contralateral stimulation and was stereotaxically localized in the motor cortex; the other focus was typically posterior to the focus activated by contralateral stimulation and was stereotaxically localized in the somatosensory cortex. (3 Forepaw and hindpaw somatosensory stimuli activated large areas of the sensorimotor cortex, well beyond the forepaw and hindpaw somatosensory areas of classical somatotopic maps, and forepaw stimuli activated larger cortical areas with greater activation velocity than hindpaw stimuli. (4 Stimulation of the forepaw and hindpaw evoked different cortical activation dynamics: forepaw responses displayed a clear medial directionality, whereas hindpaw responses were much more uniform in all directions. In conclusion, this work offers a complete spatio-temporal map of the supragranular VSD cortical activation in response to stimulation of the paws, showing important somatotopic differences between contralateral and ipsilateral maps as well as differences in the spatio-temporal activation dynamics in response to forepaw and hindpaw stimuli.

  14. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, A.L.; van Tol, M.J.; Dalgleish, T.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Elzinga, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional

  15. Neural activity in the medial temporal lobe reveals the fidelity of mental time travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragel, James E; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M

    2015-02-18

    Neural circuitry in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is critically involved in mental time travel, which involves the vivid retrieval of the details of past experience. Neuroscientific theories propose that the MTL supports memory of the past by retrieving previously encoded episodic information, as well as by reactivating a temporal code specifying the position of a particular event within an episode. However, the neural computations supporting these abilities are underspecified. To test hypotheses regarding the computational mechanisms supported by different MTL subregions during mental time travel, we developed a computational model that linked a blood oxygenation level-dependent signal to cognitive operations, allowing us to predict human performance in a memory search task. Activity in the posterior MTL, including parahippocampal cortex, reflected how strongly one reactivates the temporal context of a retrieved memory, allowing the model to predict whether the next memory will correspond to a nearby moment in the study episode. A signal in the anterior MTL, including perirhinal cortex, indicated the successful retrieval of list items, without providing information regarding temporal organization. A hippocampal signal reflected both processes, consistent with theories that this region binds item and context information together to form episodic memories. These findings provide evidence for modern theories that describe complementary roles of the hippocampus and surrounding parahippocampal and perirhinal cortices during the retrieval of episodic memories, shaping how humans revisit the past. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352914-13$15.00/0.

  16. Contributions of Medial Temporal Lobe and Striatal Memory Systems to Learning and Retrieving Overlapping Spatial Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thackery I.; Stern, Chantal E.

    2014-01-01

    Many life experiences share information with other memories. In order to make decisions based on overlapping memories, we need to distinguish between experiences to determine the appropriate behavior for the current situation. Previous work suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and medial caudate interact to support the retrieval of overlapping navigational memories in different contexts. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to test the prediction that the MTL and medial caudate play complementary roles in learning novel mazes that cross paths with, and must be distinguished from, previously learned routes. During fMRI scanning, participants navigated virtual routes that were well learned from prior training while also learning new mazes. Critically, some routes learned during scanning shared hallways with those learned during pre-scan training. Overlap between mazes required participants to use contextual cues to select between alternative behaviors. Results demonstrated parahippocampal cortex activity specific for novel spatial cues that distinguish between overlapping routes. The hippocampus and medial caudate were active for learning overlapping spatial memories, and increased their activity for previously learned routes when they became context dependent. Our findings provide novel evidence that the MTL and medial caudate play complementary roles in the learning, updating, and execution of context-dependent navigational behaviors. PMID:23448868

  17. Going beyond LTM in the MTL: A Synthesis of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Findings on the Role of the Medial Temporal Lobe in Memory and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kim S.; Barense, Morgan D.; Lee, Andy C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in rats and non-human primates suggest that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures play a role in perceptual processing, with the hippocampus necessary for spatial discrimination, and the perirhinal cortex for object discrimination. Until recently, there was little convergent evidence for analogous functional specialisation in humans, or…

  18. tDCS of medial prefrontal cortex does not enhance interpersonal trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; Sellaro, R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hommel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships. Previous research has suggested that the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) may be a critical component in mediating the degree to which people trust others. Here we assessed the role of the mPFC in modulating interpersonal

  19. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Isabel; Stone, James; Mechelli, Andrea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Lythgoe, David; O'Gorman, Ruth; Seal, Marc; McGuire, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Both medial temporal cortical dysfunction and perturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission are regarded as fundamental pathophysiological features of psychosis. However, although animal models of psychosis suggest that these two abnormalities are interrelated, their relationship in humans has yet to be investigated. We used a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the relationship between medial temporal activation during an episodic memory task and local glutamate levels in 22 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 14 healthy volunteers. We observed a significant between-group difference in the coupling of medial temporal activation with local glutamate levels. In control subjects, medial temporal activation during episodic encoding was positively associated with medial temporal glutamate. However, in the clinical population, medial temporal activation was reduced, and the relationship with glutamate was absent. In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotion regulation in spider phobia: role of the medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Axel; Walter, Bertram; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Phobic responses are strong emotional reactions towards phobic objects, which can be described as a deficit in the automatic regulation of emotions. Difficulties in the voluntary cognitive control of these emotions suggest a further phobia-specific deficit in effortful emotion regulation mechanisms. The actual study is based on this emotion regulation conceptualization of specific phobias. The aim is to investigate the neural correlates of these two emotion regulation deficits in spider phobics. Sixteen spider phobic females participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which they were asked to voluntarily up- and down-regulate their emotions elicited by spider and generally aversive pictures with a reappraisal strategy. In line with the hypothesis concerning an automatic emotion regulation deficit, increased activity in the insula and reduced activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was observed. Furthermore, phobia-specific effortful regulation within phobics was associated with altered activity in medial prefrontal cortex areas. Altogether, these results suggest that spider phobic subjects are indeed characterized by a deficit in the automatic as well as the effortful regulation of emotions elicited by phobic compared with aversive stimuli. These two forms of phobic emotion regulation deficits are associated with altered activity in different medial prefrontal cortex subregions. PMID:19398537

  2. Domain-specific impairment of source memory following a right posterior medial temporal lobe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This single case analysis of memory performance in a patient with an ischemic lesion affecting posterior but not anterior right medial temporal lobe (MTL) indicates that source memory can be disrupted in a domain-specific manner. The patient showed normal recognition memory for gray-scale photos of objects (visual condition) and spoken words (auditory condition). While memory for visual source (texture/color of the background against which pictures appeared) was within the normal range, auditory source memory (male/female speaker voice) was at chance level, a performance pattern significantly different from the control group. This dissociation is consistent with recent fMRI evidence of anterior/posterior MTL dissociations depending upon the nature of source information (visual texture/color vs. auditory speaker voice). The findings are in good agreement with the view of dissociable memory processing by the perirhinal cortex (anterior MTL) and parahippocampal cortex (posterior MTL), depending upon the neocortical input that these regions receive. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. High gamma oscillations in medial temporal lobe during overt production of speech and gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marstaller, Lars; Burianová, Hana; Sowman, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    The study of the production of co-speech gestures (CSGs), i.e., meaningful hand movements that often accompany speech during everyday discourse, provides an important opportunity to investigate the integration of language, action, and memory because of the semantic overlap between gesture movements and speech content. Behavioral studies of CSGs and speech suggest that they have a common base in memory and predict that overt production of both speech and CSGs would be preceded by neural activity related to memory processes. However, to date the neural correlates and timing of CSG production are still largely unknown. In the current study, we addressed these questions with magnetoencephalography and a semantic association paradigm in which participants overtly produced speech or gesture responses that were either meaningfully related to a stimulus or not. Using spectral and beamforming analyses to investigate the neural activity preceding the responses, we found a desynchronization in the beta band (15-25 Hz), which originated 900 ms prior to the onset of speech and was localized to motor and somatosensory regions in the cortex and cerebellum, as well as right inferior frontal gyrus. Beta desynchronization is often seen as an indicator of motor processing and thus reflects motor activity related to the hand movements that gestures add to speech. Furthermore, our results show oscillations in the high gamma band (50-90 Hz), which originated 400 ms prior to speech onset and were localized to the left medial temporal lobe. High gamma oscillations have previously been found to be involved in memory processes and we thus interpret them to be related to contextual association of semantic information in memory. The results of our study show that high gamma oscillations in medial temporal cortex play an important role in the binding of information in human memory during speech and CSG production.

  5. High gamma oscillations in medial temporal lobe during overt production of speech and gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Marstaller

    Full Text Available The study of the production of co-speech gestures (CSGs, i.e., meaningful hand movements that often accompany speech during everyday discourse, provides an important opportunity to investigate the integration of language, action, and memory because of the semantic overlap between gesture movements and speech content. Behavioral studies of CSGs and speech suggest that they have a common base in memory and predict that overt production of both speech and CSGs would be preceded by neural activity related to memory processes. However, to date the neural correlates and timing of CSG production are still largely unknown. In the current study, we addressed these questions with magnetoencephalography and a semantic association paradigm in which participants overtly produced speech or gesture responses that were either meaningfully related to a stimulus or not. Using spectral and beamforming analyses to investigate the neural activity preceding the responses, we found a desynchronization in the beta band (15-25 Hz, which originated 900 ms prior to the onset of speech and was localized to motor and somatosensory regions in the cortex and cerebellum, as well as right inferior frontal gyrus. Beta desynchronization is often seen as an indicator of motor processing and thus reflects motor activity related to the hand movements that gestures add to speech. Furthermore, our results show oscillations in the high gamma band (50-90 Hz, which originated 400 ms prior to speech onset and were localized to the left medial temporal lobe. High gamma oscillations have previously been found to be involved in memory processes and we thus interpret them to be related to contextual association of semantic information in memory. The results of our study show that high gamma oscillations in medial temporal cortex play an important role in the binding of information in human memory during speech and CSG production.

  6. Multiple running speed signals in medial entorhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, James R.; Brandon, Mark P.; Climer, Jason R.; Chapman, G. William; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) can be modeled using oscillatory interference or attractor dynamic mechanisms that perform path integration, a computation requiring information about running direction and speed. The two classes of computational models often use either an oscillatory frequency or a firing rate that increases as a function of running speed. Yet it is currently not known whether these are two manifestations of the same speed signal or dissociable signals with potentially different anatomical substrates. We examined coding of running speed in MEC and identified these two speed signals to be independent of each other within individual neurons. The medial septum (MS) is strongly linked to locomotor behavior and removal of MS input resulted in strengthening of the firing rate speed signal, while decreasing the strength of the oscillatory speed signal. Thus two speed signals are present in MEC that are differentially affected by disrupted MS input. PMID:27427460

  7. Medial-lateral organization of the orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Erin L; Wallis, Jonathan D

    2014-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that specific cognitive functions localize to different subregions of OFC, but the nature of these functional distinctions remains unclear. One prominent theory, derived from human neuroimaging, proposes that different stimulus valences are processed in separate orbital regions, with medial and lateral OFC processing positive and negative stimuli, respectively. Thus far, neurophysiology data have not supported this theory. We attempted to reconcile these accounts by recording neural activity from the full medial-lateral extent of the orbital surface in monkeys receiving rewards and punishments via gain or loss of secondary reinforcement. We found no convincing evidence for valence selectivity in any orbital region. Instead, we report differences between neurons in central OFC and those on the inferior-lateral orbital convexity, in that they encoded different sources of value information provided by the behavioral task. Neurons in inferior convexity encoded the value of external stimuli, whereas those in OFC encoded value information derived from the structure of the behavioral task. We interpret these results in light of recent theories of OFC function and propose that these distinctions, not valence selectivity, may shed light on a fundamental organizing principle for value processing in orbital cortex.

  8. The Role of the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Adapting to Changes in Instrumental Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutureau, Etienne; Esclassan, Frederic; Di Scala, Georges; Marchand, Alain R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to select actions appropriate to current needs, a subject must identify relationships between actions and events. Control over the environment is determined by the degree to which action consequences can be predicted, as described by action-outcome contingencies – i.e. performing an action should affect the probability of the outcome. We evaluated in a first experiment adaptation to contingency changes in rats with neurotoxic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex. Results indicate that this brain region is not critical to adjust instrumental responding to a negative contingency where the rats must refrain from pressing a lever, as this action prevents reward delivery. By contrast, this brain region is required to reduce responding in a non-contingent situation where the same number of rewards is freely delivered and actions do not affect the outcome any more. In a second experiment, we determined that this effect does not result from a different perception of temporal relationships between actions and outcomes since lesioned rats adapted normally to gradually increasing delays in reward delivery. These data indicate that the medial prefrontal cortex is not directly involved in evaluating the correlation between action-and reward-rates or in the perception of reward delays. The deficit in lesioned rats appears to consist of an abnormal response to the balance between contingent and non-contingent rewards. By highlighting the role of prefrontal regions in adapting to the causal status of actions, these data contribute to our understanding of the neural basis of choice tasks. PMID:22496747

  9. Medial temporal lobe structure and cognition in individuals with schizophrenia and in their non-psychotic siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik-Henry, Meghana S; Wang, Lei; Barch, Deanna M; Harms, Michael P; Campanella, Carolina; Csernansky, John G

    2012-07-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures play a central role in episodic memory. Prior studies suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have deficits in episodic memory as well as structural abnormalities of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). While correlations have been reported between MTL volume loss and episodic memory deficits in such individuals, it is not clear whether such correlations reflect the influence of the disease state or of underlying genetic influences that might contribute to risk. We used high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic algorithms for image analysis to determine whether MTL structure, episodic memory performance and the relationship between the two differed among groups of 47 healthy control subjects, 50 control siblings, 39 schizophrenia subjects, and 33 siblings of schizophrenia subjects. High-dimensional large deformation brain mapping was used to obtain volume measures of the hippocampus. Cortical distance mapping was used to obtain volume and thickness measures of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and its substructures: the entorhinal cortex (ERC), the perirhinal cortex (PRC), and the parahippocampal cortex (PHC). Neuropsychological data was used to establish an episodic memory domain score for each subject. Both schizophrenia subjects and their siblings displayed abnormalities in episodic memory performance. Siblings of individuals with schizophrenia, and to a lesser extent, individuals with schizophrenia themselves, displayed abnormalities in measures of MTL structure (volume loss or cortical thinning) as compared to control groups. Further, we observed correlations between structural measures and memory performance in both schizophrenia subjects and their siblings, but not in their respective control groups. These findings suggest that disease-specific genetic factors present in both patients and their relatives may be responsible for correlated abnormalities of MTL structure and memory impairment. The observed

  10. Neuropsychiatric effects of neurodegeneration of the medial vs. lateral ventral prefrontal cortex in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Huey, Edward D.; Lee, Seonjoo; Brickman, Adam M.; Manoochehri, Masood; Griffith, Erica; Devanand, D.P.; Stern, Yaakov; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Animal evidence suggests that a brain network involving the medial and rostral ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is central for threat response and arousal and a network involving the lateral and caudal PFC plays an important role in reward learning and behavioral control. In this study, we contrasted the neuropsychiatric effects of degeneration of the medial versus lateral PFC in 43 patients with Frontotemporal dementia and 11 patients with Corticobasal Syndrome using MRI, the Neuropsychiatric...

  11. Considering healthiness promotes healthier choices but modulates medial prefrontal cortex differently in children compared with adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van Floor; Laan, van der Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a rising problem worldwide mainly caused by overconsumption, which is driven by food choices. In adults, food choices are based on a value signal encoded in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This signal is modulated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), which is

  12. Intralaminar and medial thalamic influence on cortical synchrony, information transmission and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B Saalmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The intralaminar and medial thalamic nuclei are part of the higher-order thalamus, which receives little sensory input, and instead forms extensive cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. The large mediodorsal thalamic nucleus predominantly connects with the prefrontal cortex, the adjacent intralaminar nuclei connect with fronto-parietal cortex, and the midline thalamic nuclei connect with medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Taking into account this connectivity pattern, it is not surprising that the intralaminar and medial thalamus has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions, including memory processing, attention and orienting, as well as reward-based behavior. This review addresses how the intralaminar and medial thalamus may regulate information transmission in cortical circuits. A key neural mechanism may involve intralaminar and medial thalamic neurons modulating the degree of synchrony between different groups of cortical neurons according to behavioral demands. Such a thalamic-mediated synchronization mechanism may give rise to large-scale integration of information across multiple cortical circuits, consequently influencing the level of arousal and consciousness. Overall, the growing evidence supports a general role for the higher-order thalamus in the control of cortical information transmission and cognitive processing.

  13. Episodic reinstatement in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Henson, Richard N A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Alink, Arjen

    2012-12-12

    The essence of episodic memory is our ability to reexperience past events in great detail, even in the absence of external stimulus cues. Does the phenomenological reinstatement of past experiences go along with reinstating unique neural representations in the brain? And if so, how is this accomplished by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region intimately linked to episodic memory? Computational models suggest that such reinstatement (also termed "pattern completion") in cortical regions is mediated by the hippocampus, a key region of the MTL. Although recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated reinstatement of coarse item properties like stimulus category or task context across different brain regions, it has not yet been shown whether reinstatement can be observed at the level of individual, discrete events-arguably the defining feature of episodic memory-nor whether MTL structures like the hippocampus support this "true episodic" reinstatement. Here we show that neural activity patterns for unique word-scene combinations encountered during encoding are reinstated in human parahippocampal cortex (PhC) during retrieval. Critically, this reinstatement occurs when word-scene combinations are successfully recollected (even though the original scene is not visually presented) and does not encompass other stimulus domains (such as word-color associations). Finally, the degree of PhC reinstatement across retrieval events correlated with hippocampal activity, consistent with a role of the hippocampus in coordinating pattern completion in cortical regions.

  14. Medial temporal lobe reinstatement of content-specific details predicts source memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jackson C.; Preston, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Leading theories propose that when remembering past events, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures reinstate the neural patterns that were active when those events were initially encoded. Accurate reinstatement is hypothesized to support detailed recollection of memories, including their source. While several studies have linked cortical reinstatement to successful retrieval, indexing reinstatement within the MTL network and its relationship to memory performance has proved challenging. Here, we addressed this gap in knowledge by having participants perform an incidental encoding task, during which they visualized people, places, and objects in response to adjective cues. During a surprise memory test, participants saw studied and novel adjectives and indicated the imagery task they performed for each adjective. A multivariate pattern classifier was trained to discriminate the imagery tasks based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses from hippocampus and MTL cortex at encoding. The classifier was then tested on MTL patterns during the source memory task. We found that MTL encoding patterns were reinstated during successful source retrieval. Moreover, when participants made source misattributions, errors were predicted by reinstatement of incorrect source content in MTL cortex. We further observed a gradient of content-specific reinstatement along the anterior-posterior axis of hippocampus and MTL cortex. Within anterior hippocampus, we found that reinstatement of person content was related to source memory accuracy, whereas reinstatement of place information across the entire hippocampal axis predicted correct source judgments. Content-specific reinstatement was also graded across MTL cortex, with PRc patterns evincing reactivation of people and more posterior regions, including PHc, showing evidence for reinstatement of places and objects. Collectively, these findings provide key evidence that source recollection relies on reinstatement of past

  15. Reciprocal neural response within lateral and ventral medial prefrontal cortex during hot and cold reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Dolan, Raymond J

    2003-12-01

    Logic is widely considered the basis of rationality. Logical choices, however, are often influenced by emotional responses, sometimes to our detriment, sometimes to our advantage. To understand the neural basis of emotionally neutral ("cold") and emotionally salient ("hot") reasoning we studied 19 volunteers using event-related fMRI, as they made logical judgments about arguments that varied in emotional saliency. Despite identical logical form and content categories across "hot" and "cold" reasoning conditions, lateral and ventral medial prefrontal cortex showed reciprocal response patterns as a function of emotional saliency of content. "Cold" reasoning trials resulted in enhanced activity in lateral/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (L/DLPFC) and suppression of activity in ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). By contrast, "hot" reasoning trials resulted in enhanced activation in VMPFC and suppression of activation in L/DLPFC. This reciprocal engagement of L/DLPFC and VMPFC provides evidence for a dynamic neural system for reasoning, the configuration of which is strongly influenced by emotional saliency.

  16. Enhancement of Neocortical-Medial Temporal EEG Correlations during Non-REM Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Axmacher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interregional interactions of oscillatory activity are crucial for the integrated processing of multiple brain regions. However, while the EEG in virtually all brain structures passes through substantial modifications during sleep, it is still an open question whether interactions between neocortical and medial temporal EEG oscillations also depend on the state of alertness. Several previous studies in animals and humans suggest that hippocampal-neocortical interactions crucially depend on the state of alertness (i.e., waking state or sleep. Here, we analyzed scalp and intracranial EEG recordings during sleep and waking state in epilepsy patients undergoing presurgical evaluation. We found that the amplitudes of oscillations within the medial temporal lobe and the neocortex were more closely correlated during sleep, in particular during non-REM sleep, than during waking state. Possibly, the encoding of novel sensory inputs, which mainly occurs during waking state, requires that medial temporal dynamics are rather independent from neocortical dynamics, while the consolidation of memories during sleep may demand closer interactions between MTL and neocortex.

  17. Differential roles for medial prefrontal and medial temporal cortices in schema-dependent encoding: from congruent to incongruent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Beul, Sarah F; Takashima, Atsuko; Henson, Richard N; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-10-01

    Information that is congruent with prior knowledge is generally remembered better than incongruent information. This effect of congruency on memory has been attributed to a facilitatory influence of activated schemas on memory encoding and consolidation processes, and hypothesised to reflect a shift between processing in medial temporal lobes (MTL) towards processing in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To investigate this shift, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain activity during paired-associate encoding across three levels of subjective congruency of the association with prior knowledge. Participants indicated how congruent they found an object-scene pair during scanning, and were tested on item and associative recognition memory for these associations one day later. Behaviourally, we found a monotonic increase in memory performance with increasing congruency for both item and associative memory. Moreover, as hypothesised, encoding-related activity in mPFC increased linearly with increasing congruency, whereas MTL showed the opposite pattern of increasing encoding-related activity with decreasing congruency. Additionally, mPFC showed increased functional connectivity with a region in the ventral visual stream, presumably related to the binding of visual representations. These results support predictions made by a recent neuroscientific framework concerning the effects of schema on memory. Specifically, our findings show that enhanced memory for more congruent information is mediated by the mPFC, which is hypothesised to guide integration of new information into a pre-existing schema represented in cortical areas, while memory for more incongruent information relies instead on automatic encoding of arbitrary associations by the MTL. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Medial temporal lobe damage impairs representation of simple stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Warren

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Medial temporal lobe damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of medial temporal lobe amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items more similar to the target. In the simultaneous condition, patients and comparisons exhibited an equivalent effect of similarity on fixation durations. However, imposing a delay modulated the effect differently for the two groups: in comparisons, fixation duration to similar items was exaggerated; in patients, the original effect was diminished. These findings indicate that medial temporal lobe lesions subtly impair short-term maintenance of even simple stimuli, with performance reflecting not the complete loss of the maintained representation but rather a degradation or progressive drift of the representation over time.

  19. Age-related functional changes in domain-specific medial temporal lobe pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berron, David; Neumann, Katja; Maass, Anne; Schütze, Hartmut; Fliessbach, Klaus; Kiven, Verena; Jessen, Frank; Sauvage, Magdalena; Kumaran, Dharshan; Düzel, Emrah

    2018-05-01

    There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially. To address this possibility, we developed a paradigm that allows the investigation of object memory and scene memory in a mnemonic discrimination task. A group of young (n = 43) and healthy older subjects (n = 44) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings during this novel task, while they were asked to discriminate exact repetitions of object and scene stimuli from novel stimuli that were similar but modified versions of the original stimuli ("lures"). We used structural magnetic resonance images to manually segment anatomical components of the MTL including alErC and pmErC and used these segmented regions to analyze domain specificity of functional activity. Across the entire sample, object processing was associated with activation of the perirhinal cortex (PrC) and alErC, whereas for scene processing, activation was more predominant in the parahippocampal cortex and pmErC. Functional activity related to mnemonic discrimination of object and scene lures from exact repetitions was found to overlap between processing pathways and suggests that while the PrC-alErC pathway was more involved in object discrimination, both pathways were involved in the discrimination of similar scenes. Older adults were behaviorally less accurate than young adults in discriminating similar lures from exact repetitions, but this

  20. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT2ARs in mice exposed to a novel open-field...... of 5-HT2AR blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5 mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time...... spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin...

  1. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L; Brecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin-negative and calbindin-positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin-positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10-fold over a 20,000-fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of the ventrolateral orbital cortex and medial prefrontal cortex in incentive downshift situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A; Glueck, Amanda C; Uhelski, Megan; Fuchs, Perry N; Papini, Mauricio R

    2013-05-01

    The present research evaluated the role of two prefrontal cortex areas, the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), on two situations involving incentive downshifts, consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) with sucrose solutions and Pavlovian autoshaping following continuous vs. partial reinforcement with food pellets. Animals received electrolytic lesions and then were tested on cSNC, autoshaping, open-field activity, and sucrose sensitivity. Lesions of the VLO reduced suppression of consummatory behavior after the incentive downshift, but only during the first downshift trial, and also eliminated the enhancement of anticipatory behavior during partial reinforcement, relative to continuous reinforcement, in autoshaping. There was no evidence of specific effects of mPFC lesions on incentive downshifts. Open-field activity was also reduced by VLO lesions, but only in the central area, whereas mPFC lesions had no observable effects on activity. Animals with mPFC lesions exhibited decreased consumption of the lowest sucrose concentration, whereas no effects were observed in animals with VLO lesions. These results suggest that the VLO may exert nonassociative (i.e., motivational, emotional) influences on behavior in situations involving incentive downshifts. No clear role on incentive downshift was revealed by mPFC lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Individual variation in the propensity for prospective thought is associated with functional integration between visual and retrosplenial cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena-Gonzalez, Mario; Wang, Hao-Ting; Sormaz, Mladen; Mollo, Giovanna; Margulies, Daniel S; Jefferies, Elizabeth A; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    It is well recognized that the default mode network (DMN) is involved in states of imagination, although the cognitive processes that this association reflects are not well understood. The DMN includes many regions that function as cortical "hubs", including the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, anterior temporal lobe and the hippocampus. This suggests that the role of the DMN in cognition may reflect a process of cortical integration. In the current study we tested whether functional connectivity from uni-modal regions of cortex into the DMN is linked to features of imaginative thought. We found that strong intrinsic communication between visual and retrosplenial cortex was correlated with the degree of social thoughts about the future. Using an independent dataset, we show that the same region of retrosplenial cortex is functionally coupled to regions of primary visual cortex as well as core regions that make up the DMN. Finally, we compared the functional connectivity of the retrosplenial cortex, with a region of medial prefrontal cortex implicated in the integration of information from regions of the temporal lobe associated with future thought in a prior study. This analysis shows that the retrosplenial cortex is preferentially coupled to medial occipital, temporal lobe regions and the angular gyrus, areas linked to episodic memory, scene construction and navigation. In contrast, the medial prefrontal cortex shows preferential connectivity with motor cortex and lateral temporal and prefrontal regions implicated in language, motor processes and working memory. Together these findings suggest that integrating neural information from visual cortex into retrosplenial cortex may be important for imagining the future and may do so by creating a mental scene in which prospective simulations play out. We speculate that the role of the DMN in imagination may emerge from its capacity to bind together distributed representations from across the cortex in a

  4. The flexible use of multiple cue relationships in spatial navigation : A comparison of water maze performance following hippocampal, medial septal, prefrontal cortex, or posterior parietal cortex lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, DM; Griffith, HR; McDaniel, WF; Foster, RA; Davis, BK

    Rats prepared with lesions of the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, hippocampus, or medial septal area were tested for acquisition of a number of variations of the open-field water maze using a version of place learning assessment described by Eichenbaum, Stewart, and Morris (1991).

  5. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedj, Eric; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Felician, Olivier; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  6. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [CNRS - Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UMR-5549, Toulouse (France); Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Felician, Olivier [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Centre Saint-Charles, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative, UMR CNRS 6149, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France)

    2009-07-15

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  7. Medial temporal and neocortical contributions to remote memory for semantic narratives: evidence from amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaellie, Mieke; Bousquet, Kathryn; Keane, Margaret M

    2014-08-01

    Studies of remote memory for semantic facts and concepts suggest that hippocampal lesions lead to a temporally graded impairment that extends no more than ten years prior to the onset of amnesia. Such findings have led to the notion that once consolidated, semantic memories are represented neocortically and are no longer dependent on the hippocampus. Here, we examined the fate of well-established semantic narratives following medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions. Seven amnesic patients, five with lesions restricted to the MTL and two with lesions extending into lateral temporal cortex (MTL+), were asked to recount fairy tales and bible stories that they rated as familiar. Narratives were scored for number and type of details, number of main thematic elements, and order in which the main thematic elements were recounted. In comparison to controls, patients with MTL lesions produced fewer details, but the number and order of main thematic elements generated was intact. By contrast, patients with MTL+ lesions showed a pervasive impairment, affecting not only the generation of details, but also the generation and ordering of main steps. These findings challenge the notion that, once consolidated, semantic memories are no longer dependent on the hippocampus for retrieval. Possible hippocampal contributions to the retrieval of detailed semantic narratives are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Memory and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Euston, David R.; Gruber, Aaron J.; McNaughton, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Some have claimed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates decision making. Others suggest mPFC is selectively involved in the retrieval of remote long-term memory. Yet others suggests mPFC supports memory and consolidation on time-scales ranging from seconds to days. How can all these roles be reconciled? We propose that the function of the mPFC is to learn associations between context, locations, events, and corresponding adaptive responses, particularly emotional responses. Thus, ...

  9. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K.; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin‐negative and calbindin‐positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin‐positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10‐fold over a 20,000‐fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:783–806, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26223342

  10. The medial temporal lobes distinguish between within-item and item-context relations during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Levine, Brian

    2015-12-01

    During autobiographical memory retrieval, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) relate together multiple event elements, including object (within-item relations) and context (item-context relations) information, to create a cohesive memory. There is consistent support for a functional specialization within the MTL according to these relational processes, much of which comes from recognition memory experiments. In this study, we compared brain activation patterns associated with retrieving within-item relations (i.e., associating conceptual and sensory-perceptual object features) and item-context relations (i.e., spatial relations among objects) with respect to naturalistic autobiographical retrieval. We developed a novel paradigm that cued participants to retrieve information about past autobiographical events, non-episodic within-item relations, and non-episodic item-context relations with the perceptuomotor aspects of retrieval equated across these conditions. We used multivariate analysis techniques to extract common and distinct patterns of activity among these conditions within the MTL and across the whole brain, both in terms of spatial and temporal patterns of activity. The anterior MTL (perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating within-item relations later in retrieval whereas the posterior MTL (posterior parahippocampal cortex and posterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating item-context relations across the retrieval phase. These findings provide novel evidence for functional specialization within the MTL with respect to naturalistic memory retrieval. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activation Is Commonly Invoked by Reputation of Self and Romantic Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Takahashi, Haruka K.; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    The reputation of others influences partner selection in human cooperative behaviors through verbal reputation representation. Although the way in which humans represent the verbal reputations of others is a pivotal issue for social neuroscience, the neural correlates underlying the representation of verbal reputations of others are unclear. Humans primarily depend on self-evaluation when assessing reputation of self. Likewise, humans might primarily depend on self-evaluation of others when representing their reputation. As interaction promotes the formation of more nuanced, individualized impressions of an interaction partner, humans tend to form self-evaluations of persons with whom they are intimate in their daily life. Thus, we hypothesized that the representation of reputation of others is modulated by intimacy due to one’s own evaluation formation of that person. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with 11 pairs of romantic partners while they viewed an evaluation of a target person (self, partner [intimate other], or stranger [non-intimate other]), made by other evaluators. When compared with strangers, viewing evaluations of self and partner activated overlapping regions in the medial prefrontal cortex. Verbal reputation of self-specific activation was found in the precuneus, which represents self-related processing. The data suggest that midline structures represent reputation of self. In addition, intimacy-modulated activation in the medial prefrontal cortex suggests that the verbal reputation of intimate others is represented similarly to reputation of self. These results suggest that the reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex is engaged by verbal reputation of self and intimate others stemming from both own and other evaluators’ judgments. PMID:24086409

  12. Functional heterogeneity of conflict, error, task-switching, and unexpectedness effects within medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Derek Evan; Kastner, Sabine; Brown, Joshua W

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen considerable discussion regarding a theoretical account of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function with particular focus on the anterior cingulate cortex. The proposed theories have included conflict detection, error likelihood prediction, volatility monitoring, and several distinct theories of error detection. Arguments for and against particular theories often treat mPFC as functionally homogeneous, or at least nearly so, despite some evidence for distinct functional subregions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to simultaneously contrast multiple effects of error, conflict, and task-switching that have been individually construed in support of various theories. We found overlapping yet functionally distinct subregions of mPFC, with activations related to dominant error, conflict, and task-switching effects successively found along a rostral-ventral to caudal-dorsal gradient within medial prefrontal cortex. Activations in the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ) were strongly correlated with the unexpectedness of outcomes suggesting a role in outcome prediction and preparing control systems to deal with anticipated outcomes. The results as a whole support a resolution of some ongoing debates in that distinct theories may each pertain to corresponding distinct yet overlapping subregions of mPFC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hippocampus, Perirhinal Cortex, and Complex Visual Discriminations in Rats and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jena B.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Velu, Priya D.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Structures in the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex, are known to be essential for the formation of long-term memory. Recent animal and human studies have investigated whether perirhinal cortex might also be important for visual perception. In our study, using a simultaneous oddity discrimination task, rats with…

  14. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in trace fear extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapis, Janine L.; Jarome, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The extinction of delay fear conditioning relies on a neural circuit that has received much attention and is relatively well defined. Whether this established circuit also supports the extinction of more complex associations, however, is unclear. Trace fear conditioning is a better model of complex relational learning, yet the circuit that supports extinction of this memory has received very little attention. Recent research has indicated that trace fear extinction requires a different neural circuit than delay extinction; trace extinction requires the participation of the retrosplenial cortex, but not the amygdala, as noted in a previous study. Here, we tested the roles of the prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in trace and delay fear extinction by blocking NMDA receptors during extinction learning. We found that the prelimbic cortex is necessary for trace, but not for delay fear extinction, whereas the infralimbic cortex is involved in both types of extinction. These results are consistent with the idea that trace fear associations require plasticity in multiple cortical areas for successful extinction. Further, the infralimbic cortex appears to play a role in extinction regardless of whether the animal was initially trained in trace or delay conditioning. Together, our results provide new information about how the neural circuits supporting trace and delay fear extinction differ. PMID:25512576

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  16. Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Narp in the Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Han, Sungho; Pearce, Anne M.; Cheng, KaiLun; Lee, JongAh J.; Johnson, Alexander W.; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Shaham, Yavin; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2013-01-01

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate an impaired extinction of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Because the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in extinction learning, we tested whether Narp cells in this region play a role in the extinction of morphine CPP. We found that intracranial injections of adenoassociated virus…

  17. Associative learning beyond the medial temporal lobe: many actors on the memory stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio ePergola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research have established a model that includes the medial temporal lobe, and particularly the hippocampus, as a critical node for episodic memory. Neuroimaging and clinical studies have shown the involvement of additional cortical and subcortical regions. Among these areas, the thalamus, the retrosplenial cortex and the prefrontal cortices have been consistently related to episodic memory performance.This article provides evidences that these areas are in different forms and degrees critical for human memory function rather than playing only an ancillary role. First we briefly summarize findings on the involvement of the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe in recognition memory and recall. We then focus on the clinical and neuroimaging evidence available on thalamo-frontal and thalamo-retrosplenial networks. The role of these networks in episodic memory has been considered secondary, partly because disruption of these areas does not always lead to severe impairments; to account for this evidence, we discuss methodological issues related to the investigation of these regions. We propose that these networks contribute differently to recognition memory and recall, and also that the memory stage of their contribution shows specificity to encoding or retrieval in recall tasks. We note that the same mechanisms may be in force when humans perform non-episodic tasks, e.g., semantic retrieval and mental time travel. Functional disturbance of these networks is related to cognitive impairments not only in neurological disorders, but also in psychiatric medical conditions, such as schizophrenia. Finally we discuss possible mechanisms for the contribution of these areas to memory, including regulation of oscillatory rhythms and long-term potentiation. We conclude that integrity of the thalamo-frontal and the thalamo-retrosplenial networks is necessary for the manifold features of episodic memory.

  18. Familiarity and recollection vs representational models of medial temporal lobe structures: A single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacot, Emilie; Vautier, Stéphane; Kőhler, Stefan; Pariente, Jérémie; Martin, Chris B; Puel, Michèle; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Barbeau, Emmanuel J

    2017-09-01

    Although it is known that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support declarative memory, the fact these structures have different architectonics and circuitry suggests they may also play different functional roles. Selective lesions of MTL structures offer an opportunity to understand these roles. We report, in this study, on JMG, a patient who presents highly unusual lesions that completely affected all MTL structures except for the right hippocampus and parts of neighbouring medial parahippocampal cortex. We first demonstrate that JMG shows preserved recall for visual material on 5 experimental tasks. This finding suggests that his right hippocampus is functional, even though it appears largely disconnected from most of its MTL afferents. In contrast, JMG performed very poorly, as compared to control subjects, on 7 tasks of visual recognition memory for single items. Although he sometimes performed above chance, neither familiarity nor recollection appeared fully preserved. These results indicate that extrahippocampal structures, damaged bilaterally in JMG, perform critical operations for item recognition; and that the hippocampus cannot take over that role, including recollection, when these structures are largely damaged. Finally, in a set of 3 recognition memory tasks with scenes as stimuli, JMG performed at the level of control participants and obtained normal indices of familiarity and recollection. Overall, our findings suggest that the right hippocampus and remnants of parahippocampal cortex can support recognition memory for scenes in the absence of preserved item-recognition memory. The patterns of dissociations, which we report in the present study, provide support for a representational account of the functional organization of MTL structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Depth-Dependent Temporal Response Properties in Core Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Christianson, G. Björn; Sahani, Maneesh; Linden, Jennifer F.

    2011-01-01

    The computational role of cortical layers within auditory cortex has proven difficult to establish. One hypothesis is that interlaminar cortical processing might be dedicated to analyzing temporal properties of sounds; if so, then there should be systematic depth-dependent changes in cortical sensitivity to the temporal context in which a stimulus occurs. We recorded neural responses simultaneously across cortical depth in primary auditory cortex and anterior auditory field of CBA/Ca mice, an...

  20. Recollection of episodic memory within the medial temporal lobe: behavioural dissociations from other types of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Alexander; Eacott, Madeline J

    2010-12-31

    In recent years there has been significant debate about whether there is a single medial temporal lobe memory system or dissociable systems for episodic and other types of declarative memory. In addition there has been a similar debate over the dissociability of recollection and familiarity based processes in recognition memory. Here we present evidence from recent work using episodic memory tasks in animals that allows us to explore these issues in more depth. We review studies that demonstrate triple dissociations within the medial temporal lobe, with only the hippocampal system being necessary for episodic memory. Similarly we review behavioural evidence for a dissociation in a task of episodic memory in rats where animals with lesions of the fornix are only impaired at recollection of the episodic memory, not recognition within the same trial. This work, then, supports recent models of dissociable neural systems within the medial temporal lobe but also raises questions for future investigation about the interactions of these medial temporal lobe memory systems with other structures. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Close but no cigar: Spatial precision deficits following medial temporal lobe lesions provide novel insight into theoretical models of navigation and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Branden S; Baer, Trevor; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the human hippocampus contributes to a range of different behaviors, including episodic memory, language, short-term memory, and navigation. A novel theoretical framework, the Precision and Binding Model, accounts for these phenomenon by describing a role for the hippocampus in high-resolution, complex binding. Other theories like Cognitive Map Theory, in contrast, predict a specific role for the hippocampus in allocentric navigation, while Declarative Memory Theory predicts a specific role in delay-dependent conscious memory. Navigation provides a unique venue for testing these predictions, with past results from research with humans providing inconsistent findings regarding the role of the human hippocampus in spatial navigation. Here, we tested five patients with lesions primarily restricted to the hippocampus and those extending out into the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex on a virtual water maze task. Consistent with the Precision and Binding Model, we found partially intact allocentric memory in all patients, with impairments in the spatial precision of their searches for a hidden target. We found similar impairments at both immediate and delayed testing. Our findings are consistent with the Precision and Binding Model of hippocampal function, arguing for its role across domains in high-resolution, complex binding. Remembering goal locations in one's environment is a critical skill for survival. How this information is represented in the brain is still not fully understood, but is believed to rely in some capacity on structures in the medial temporal lobe. Contradictory findings from studies of both humans and animals have been difficult to reconcile with regard to the role of the MTL, specifically the hippocampus. By assessing impairments observed during navigation to a goal in patients with medial temporal lobe damage we can better understand the role these structures play in such behavior. Utilizing virtual reality

  2. Cortical Activation during a Cognitive Challenge in Patients with Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy—A Dynamic SPECT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Kirkpatrick

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot group of six patients suffering from chronic temporal lobe epilepsy, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT has been used to image the changes in relative cerebral blood flow between rest (static scan and conditions of cognitive activation (activated scan. The cognitive challenge used during activation comprised a test of word memory, and the performance was expressed as a word memory score (WMS for each individual. An activation index (AI was calculated from the mean normalized density counts in specific regions of interest (ROIs, and values obtained were analysed for correlation with the WMS. The mean AI was increased significantly in the right lateral temporal cortex, the right and left inferior frontal regions, the left temporal pole, and the right medial temporal cortex. A positive correlation with the WMS was found in the medial temporal cortices, and this relationship was significant for the right medial temporal ROI.

  3. Episodic memory and the medial temporal lobe: not all it seems. Evidence from the temporal variants of frontotemporal dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pleizier, C.M.; van der Vlies, A.E.; Koedam, E.L.G.E.; Koene, T.; Barkhof, F.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Disproportionate medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is an early finding in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Episodic memory impairment in AD is associated with the degree of MTA. Episodic memory impairment and MTA are also found in semantic dementia (SD) and in right temporal lobe atrophy

  4. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, I; Stone, J; Mechelli, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Raffin, M; Allen, P; Fusar-Poli, P; Lythgoe, D; O'Gorman, R; Seal, M; McGuire, P

    2011-01-01

    In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis.

  5. The relationship of medial temporal lobe epilepsy with the declarative memory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halász Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medial temporal lobe of epilepsy (MTLE is considered as local/regional epilepsy. However, as was discussed in Part I of this review (Halász, 2016a there is more evidence regarding the involvement of both temporal lobes so as to consider MTLE as one of the typical bilateral system epilepsies.

  6. Hippocampal subfield and medial temporal cortical persistent activity during working memory reflects ongoing encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel K Nauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies support a role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in maintaining novel stimuli over brief working memory (WM delays, and suggest delay period activity predicts subsequent memory. Additionally, slice recording studies have demonstrated neuronal persistent spiking in entorhinal cortex (EC, perirhinal cortex (PrC, and hippocampus (CA1, CA3, subiculum. These data have led to computational models that suggest persistent spiking in parahippocampal regions could sustain neuronal representations of sensory information over many seconds. This mechanism may support both WM maintenance and encoding of information into long term episodic memory. The goal of the current study was to use high-resolution fMRI to elucidate the contributions of the MTL cortices and hippocampal subfields to WM maintenance as it relates to later episodic recognition memory. We scanned participants while they performed a delayed match to sample task with novel scene stimuli, and assessed their memory for these scenes post-scan. We hypothesized stimulus-driven activation that persists into the delay period—a putative correlate of persistent spiking—would predict later recognition memory. Our results suggest sample and delay period activation in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC, PrC, and subiculum (extending into DG/CA3 and CA1 was linearly related to increases in subsequent memory strength. These data extend previous neuroimaging studies that have constrained their analysis to either the sample or delay period by modeling these together as one continuous ongoing encoding process, and support computational frameworks that predict persistent activity underlies both WM and episodic encoding.

  7. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...... matter hyperintensities. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA...... was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95...

  8. Different involvement of medial prefrontal cortex and dorso-lateral striatum in automatic and controlled processing of a future conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Francisco; Díaz, Estrella; Sánchez, Natividad; Vargas, Juan Pedro; Pearce, John M; López, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies support the idea that stimulus processing in latent inhibition can vary during the course of preexposure. Controlled attentional mechanisms are said to be important in the early stages of preexposure, while in later stages animals adopt automatic processing of the stimulus to be used for conditioning. Given this distinction, it is possible that both types of processing are governed by different neural systems, affecting differentially the retrieval of information about the stimulus. In the present study we tested if a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum or to the medial prefrontal cortex has a selective effect on exposure to the future conditioned stimulus (CS). With this aim, animals received different amounts of exposure to the future CS. The results showed that a lesion to the medial prefrontal cortex enhanced latent inhibition in animals receiving limited preexposure to the CS, but had no effect in animals receiving extended preexposure to the CS. The lesion of the dorso-lateral striatum produced a decrease in latent inhibition, but only in animals with an extended exposure to the future conditioned stimulus. These results suggest that the dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex play essential roles in controlled and automatic processes. Automatic attentional processes appear to be impaired by a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum and facilitated by a lesion to the prefrontal cortex.

  9. Medial temporal lobe contributions to short-term memory for faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; LaRocque, Karen F.; Keane, Margaret M.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The role of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in short-term memory (STM) remains a matter of debate. While imaging studies commonly show hippocampal activation during short-delay memory tasks, evidence from amnesic patients with MTL lesions is mixed. It has been argued that apparent STM impairments in amnesia may reflect long-term memory (LTM) contributions to performance. We challenge this conclusion by demonstrating that MTL amnesic patients show impaired delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) for faces in a task that meets both a traditional delay-based and a recently proposed distractor-based criterion for classification as a STM task. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that our face DMS task meets the proposed distractor-based criterion for STM classification, in that extensive processing of delay-period distractor stimuli disrupts performance of healthy individuals. In Experiment 2, MTL amnesic patients with lesions extending into anterior subhippocampal cortex, but not patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus, show impaired performance on this task without distraction at delays as short as 8s, within temporal range of delay-based STM classification, in the context of intact perceptual matching performance. Experiment 3 provides support for the hypothesis that STM for faces relies on configural processing by showing that the extent to which healthy participants’ performance is disrupted by interference depends on the configural demands of the distractor task. Together, these findings are consistent with the notion that the amnesic impairment in STM for faces reflects a deficit in configural processing associated with subhippocampal cortices and provide novel evidence that the MTL supports cognition beyond the LTM domain. PMID:23937185

  10. Medial temporal lobe contributions to short-term memory for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; LaRocque, Karen F; Keane, Margaret M; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2013-11-01

    The role of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in short-term memory (STM) remains a matter of debate. Whereas imaging studies commonly show hippocampal activation during short-delay memory tasks, evidence from amnesic patients with MTL lesions is mixed. It has been argued that apparent STM impairments in amnesia may reflect long-term memory (LTM) contributions to performance. We challenge this conclusion by demonstrating that MTL amnesic patients show impaired delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) for faces in a task that meets both a traditional delay-based and a recently proposed distractor-based criterion for classification as an STM task. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that our face DMS task meets the proposed distractor-based criterion for STM classification, in that extensive processing of delay-period distractor stimuli disrupts performance of healthy individuals. In Experiment 2, MTL amnesic patients with lesions extending into anterior subhippocampal cortex, but not patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus, show impaired performance on this task without distraction at delays as short as 8 s, within temporal range of delay-based STM classification, in the context of intact perceptual matching performance. Experiment 3 provides support for the hypothesis that STM for faces relies on configural processing by showing that the extent to which healthy participants' performance is disrupted by interference depends on the configural demands of the distractor task. Together, these findings are consistent with the notion that the amnesic impairment in STM for faces reflects a deficit in configural processing associated with subhippocampal cortices and provide novel evidence that the MTL supports cognition beyond the LTM domain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Double-Cone Coil TMS Stimulation of the Medial Cortex Inhibits Central Pain Habituation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico D'Agata

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS applied over the medial line of the scalp affects the subjective perception of continuous pain induced by means of electric stimulation. In addition, we wanted to identify the point of stimulation where this effect was maximum.Superficial electrical stimulation was used to induce continuous pain on the dominant hand. At the beginning of the experiment we reached a pain rating of 5 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain and 10 = maximum tolerable pain for each subject by setting individually the current intensity. The TMS (five pulses at increasing intensities was applied on 5 equidistant points (one per session over the medial line of the scalp in 13 healthy volunteers using a double-cone coil to stimulate underlying parts of the brain cortex. In every experimental session the painful stimulation lasted 45 minutes, during which pain and distress intensities NRS were recorded continuously. We calculated the effect of adaptation and the immediate effect of the TMS stimulation for all locations. Additionally, an ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis was performed to compare our results with the neuroimaging literature on subjective pain rating.TMS stimulation temporarily decreased the pain ratings, and pain adaptation was suppressed when applying the TMS over the FCz site on the scalp. No effect was found for distress ratings.The present data suggest that the medial cortex in proximity of the cingulated gyrus has a causal role in adaptation mechanisms and in processing ongoing pain and subjective sensation of pain intensity.

  12. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the play fighting of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Heather C; McCaffrey, David R; Forgie, Margaret L; Kolb, Bryan; Pellis, Sergio M

    2009-12-01

    Although decorticated rats are able to engage in play, their play is abnormal in three ways. First, decorticates do not display the normal, age-related shifts in defensive strategies during development. Second, decorticates do not modify their defensive tactics in response to the social identity of their partners. Third, decorticates display a global shift in defensive tactics from more complex to less complex strategies. It has been shown that lesions of the motor cortex (MC) selectively produce the abnormal developmental effects on play, and that lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) selectively produce the deficits in behavioral discrimination between social partners. In the current set of experiments, we demonstrate that lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) produce the shift from more complex to less complex defensive tactics, while leaving intact the age-related and partner-related modulation of defensive strategies. Thus, we have evidence for a triple dissociation of function between the MC, the OFC, and the mPFC with respect to social play behavior.

  13. Altered Medial Frontal and Superior Temporal Response to Implicit Processing of Emotions in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Patriquin, Michelle A; Black, Briley S; Channell, Marie M; Wicker, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting emotional expressions appropriately poses a challenge for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, difficulties with emotional processing in ASD are more pronounced in contexts where emotional expressions are subtle, automatic, and reflexive-that is, implicit. In contrast, explicit emotional processing, which requires the cognitive evaluation of an emotional experience, appears to be relatively intact in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we examined the brain activation and functional connectivity differences underlying explicit and implicit emotional processing in age- and IQ-matched adults with (n = 17) and without (n = 15) ASD. Results indicated: (1) significantly reduced levels of brain activation in participants with ASD in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) during implicit emotion processing; (2) significantly weaker functional connectivity in the ASD group in connections of the MPFC with the amygdala, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and fusiform gyrus; (3) No group difference in performance accuracy or reaction time; and (4) Significant positive relationship between empathizing ability and STG activity in ASD but not in typically developing participants. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying implicit, but not explicit, emotion processing may be altered at multiple levels in individuals with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Disruption of the Perineuronal Net in the Hippocampus or Medial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylin, Michael J.; Orsi, Sara A.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2013-01-01

    The perineuronal net (PNN) surrounds neurons in the central nervous system and is thought to regulate developmental plasticity. A few studies have shown an involvement of the PNN in hippocampal plasticity and memory storage in adult animals. In addition to the hippocampus, plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been demonstrated to…

  15. The topology of connections between rat prefrontal and temporal cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey eBedwell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the structural organisation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is an important step towards determining its functional organisation. Here we investigated the organisation of PFC using different neuronal tracers. We injected retrograde (Fluoro-Gold, 100nl and anterograde (Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA or Fluoro-Ruby, 100nl tracers into sites within PFC subdivisions (prelimbic, ventral orbital, ventrolateral orbital, dorsolateral orbital along a coronal axis within PFC. At each injection site one injection was made of the anterograde tracer and one injection was made of the retrograde tracer. The projection locations of retrogradely labelled neurons and anterogradely labelled axon terminals were then analysed in the temporal cortex: area Te, entorhinal and perirhinal cortex. We found evidence for an ordering of both the anterograde (anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes: p<0.001 and retrograde (anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes: p<0.001 connections of PFC. We observed that anterograde and retrograde labelling in ipsilateral temporal cortex (i.e. PFC inputs and outputs often occurred reciprocally (i.e. the same brain region, such as area 35d in perirhinal cortex, contained anterograde and retrograde labelling. However, often the same specific columnar temporal cortex regions contained only either labelling of retrograde or anterograde tracer, indicating that PFC inputs and outputs are frequently non-matched.

  16. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  17. MRI parcellation of ex vivo medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinack, Jean C; Magnain, Caroline; Reuter, Martin; van der Kouwe, André J W; Boas, David; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Recent advancements in radio frequency coils, field strength and sophisticated pulse sequences have propelled modern brain mapping and have made validation to biological standards - histology and pathology - possible. The medial temporal lobe has long been established as a pivotal brain region for connectivity, function and unique structure in the human brain, and reveals disconnection in mild Alzheimer's disease. Specific brain mapping of mesocortical areas affected with neurofibrillary tangle pathology early in disease progression provides not only an accurate description for location of these areas but also supplies spherical coordinates that allow comparison between other ex vivo cases and larger in vivo datasets. We have identified several cytoarchitectonic features in the medial temporal lobe with high resolution ex vivo MRI, including gray matter structures such as the entorhinal layer II 'islands', perirhinal layer II-III columns, presubicular 'clouds', granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as lamina of the hippocampus. Localization of Brodmann areas 28 and 35 (entorhinal and perirhinal, respectively) demonstrates MRI based area boundaries validated with multiple methods and histological stains. Based on our findings, both myelin and Nissl staining relate to contrast in ex vivo MRI. Precise brain mapping serves to create modern atlases for cortical areas, allowing accurate localization with important applications to detecting early disease processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated Volumetry and Regional Thickness Analysis of Hippocampal Subfields and Medial Temporal Cortical Structures in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Pluta, John B.; Wang, Hongzhi; Xie, Long; Ding, Song-Lin; Gertje, E. C.; Mancuso, Lauren; Kliot, Daria; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Wolk, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a fully automatic technique for labeling hippocampal subfields and cortical subregions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in in vivo 3 Tesla MRI. The method performs segmentation on a T2-weighted MRI scan with 0.4 × 0.4 × 2.0 mm3 resolution, partial brain coverage, and oblique orientation. Hippocampal subfields, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are labeled using a pipeline that combines multi-atlas label fusion and learning-based error correction. In contrast to earlier work on automatic subfield segmentation in T2-weighted MRI (Yushkevich et al., 2010), our approach requires no manual initialization, labels hippocampal subfields over a greater anterior-posterior extent, and labels the perirhinal cortex, which is further subdivided into Brodmann areas 35 and 36. The accuracy of the automatic segmentation relative to manual segmentation is measured using cross-validation in 29 subjects from a study of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and is highest for the dentate gyrus (Dice coefficient is 0.823), CA1 (0.803), perirhinal cortex (0.797) and entorhinal cortex (0.786) labels. A larger cohort of 83 subjects is used to examine the effects of aMCI in the hippocampal region using both subfield volume and regional subfield thickness maps. Most significant differences between aMCI and healthy aging are observed bilaterally in the CA1 subfield and in the left Brodmann area 35. Thickness analysis results are consistent with volumetry, but provide additional regional specificity and suggest non-uniformity in the effects of aMCI on hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregions. PMID:25181316

  19. Working memory for conjunctions relies on the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Page, Katie; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Chatterjee, Anjan; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2006-04-26

    A prominent theory of hippocampal function proposes that the hippocampus is importantly involved in relating or binding together separate pieces of information to form an episodic representation. This hypothesis has only been applied to studies of long-term memory because the paradigmatic view of the hippocampus is that it is not critical for short-term forms of memory. However, relational processing is important in many working memory tasks, especially tasks using visual stimuli. Here, we test the hypothesis that the medial temporal lobes are important for relational memory even over short delays. The task required patients with medial temporal lobe amnesia and controls to remember three objects, locations, or object-location conjunctions over 1 or 8 s delays. The results show that working memory for objects and locations was at normal levels, but that memory for conjunctions was severely impaired at 8 s delays. Additional analyses suggest that the hippocampus per se is critical for accurate conjunction working memory. We propose that the hippocampus is critically involved in memory for conjunctions at both short and long delays.

  20. The medial prefrontal cortex: coordinator of autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKlveen, J M; Myers, B; Herman, J P

    2015-06-01

    Responding to real or potential threats in the environment requires the coordination of autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural processes to promote adaptation and survival. These diverging systems necessitate input from the limbic forebrain to integrate and modulate functional output in accordance with contextual demand. In the present review, we discuss the potential role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as a coordinator of behavioural and physiological stress responses across multiple temporal and contextual domains. Furthermore, we highlight converging evidence from rodent and human research indicating the necessity of the mPFC for modulating physiological energetic systems to mobilise or limit energetic resources as needed to ultimately promote behavioural adaptation in the face of stress. We review the literature indicating that glucocorticoids act as one of the primary messengers in the reallocation of energetic resources having profound effects locally within the mPFC, as well as shaping how the mPFC acts within a network of brain structures to modulate responses to stress. Finally, we discuss how both rodent and human studies point toward a critical role of the mPFC in the coordination of anticipatory responses to stress and why this distinction is an important one to make in stress neurobiology. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Non-invasive examinations successfully select patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy for anterior temporal lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Takato; Nishio, Shunji; Kawamura, Tadao; Fukui, Kimiko; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences

    2001-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 8 patients with intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) who underwent the anterior temporal lobectomy with hippocampectomy (ATL) without invasive examinations such as chronic subdural electrode recording. Five patients had a history of febrile convulsion. While all 8 patients had oral automatism, automatism of ipsilateral limbs with dystonic posture of contralateral limbs was demonstrated in 2 patients. Bilateral temporal paroxysmal activities on interictal EEG was observed in 4 patients and all patients had clear ictal onset zone on unilateral anterior temporal region. MRI demonstrated unilateral hippocampal sclerosis in 5 cases. Interictal FDG-PET depicted hypometabolism of the unilateral temporal lobe in all cases, however, ECD-SPECT failed to reveal the hypoperfusion of the unilateral temporal lobe in a case. Postoperatively, 7 cases became seizure free, and one had rare seizure. Non-invasive examinations, especially ictal EEG and concordant FDG-PET findings, in patients with oral automatism in seizure semiology, successfully select patients with MTLE for ATL. (author)

  2. Non-invasive examinations successfully select patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy for anterior temporal lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Takato; Nishio, Shunji; Kawamura, Tadao; Fukui, Kimiko; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukui, Masashi

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 8 patients with intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) who underwent the anterior temporal lobectomy with hippocampectomy (ATL) without invasive examinations such as chronic subdural electrode recording. Five patients had a history of febrile convulsion. While all 8 patients had oral automatism, automatism of ipsilateral limbs with dystonic posture of contralateral limbs was demonstrated in 2 patients. Bilateral temporal paroxysmal activities on interictal EEG was observed in 4 patients and all patients had clear ictal onset zone on unilateral anterior temporal region. MRI demonstrated unilateral hippocampal sclerosis in 5 cases. Interictal FDG-PET depicted hypometabolism of the unilateral temporal lobe in all cases, however, ECD-SPECT failed to reveal the hypoperfusion of the unilateral temporal lobe in a case. Postoperatively, 7 cases became seizure free, and one had rare seizure. Non-invasive examinations, especially ictal EEG and concordant FDG-PET findings, in patients with oral automatism in seizure semiology, successfully select patients with MTLE for ATL. (author)

  3. Parametric fMRI analysis of visual encoding in the human medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, S A; Scheltens, P; Machielson, W C; Barkhof, F; Hoogenraad, F G; Veltman, D J; Valk, J; Witter, M P

    1999-01-01

    A number of functional brain imaging studies indicate that the medial temporal lobe system is crucially involved in encoding new information into memory. However, most studies were based on differences in brain activity between encoding of familiar vs. novel stimuli. To further study the underlying cognitive processes, we applied a parametric design of encoding. Seven healthy subjects were instructed to encode complex color pictures into memory. Stimuli were presented in a parametric fashion at different rates, thus representing different loads of encoding. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess changes in brain activation. To determine the number of pictures successfully stored into memory, recognition scores were determined afterwards. During encoding, brain activation occurred in the medial temporal lobe, comparable to the results obtained by others. Increasing the encoding load resulted in an increase in the number of successfully stored items. This was reflected in a significant increase in brain activation in the left lingual gyrus, in the left and right parahippocampal gyrus, and in the right inferior frontal gyrus. This study shows that fMRI can detect changes in brain activation during variation of one aspect of higher cognitive tasks. Further, it strongly supports the notion that the human medial temporal lobe is involved in encoding novel visual information into memory.

  4. Separate value comparison and learning mechanisms in macaque medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noonan, M. P.; Walton, M. E.; Behrens, T. E. J.; Sallet, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Rushworth, M. F. S.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty about the function of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in guiding decision-making may be a result of its medial (mOFC) and lateral (lOFC) divisions having distinct functions. Here we test the hypothesis that the mOFC is more concerned with reward-guided decision making, in contrast with the lOFC's role in reward-guided learning. Macaques performed three-armed bandit tasks and the effects of selective mOFC lesions were contrasted against lOFC lesions. First, we present analyses that make...

  5. Stimulus familiarity modulates functional connectivity of the perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus during visual discrimination of faces and objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Victoria C.; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia—a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage—showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information. PMID:24624075

  6. Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, István; Hormay, Edina; Csetényi, Bettina; Nagy, Bernadett; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2018-02-01

    Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 73(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- Special chemosensory cells, the glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons, reportedly involved in the central feeding control, exist in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex (mVLPFC). Electrophysiological, metabolic and behavioral studies reveal complex functional attributes of these cells and raise their homeostatic significance. Single neuron recordings, by means of the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique, elucidate differential sensitivities of limbic forebrain neurons in the rat and the rhesus monkey to glucose and other chemicals, whereas gustatory stimulations demonstrate their distinct taste responsiveness. Metabolic examinations provide evidence for alteration of blood glucose level in glucose tolerance test and elevation of plasma triglyceride concentration after destruction of the local GM cells by streptozotocin (STZ). In behavioral studies, STZ microinjection into the mVLPFC fails to interfere with the acquisition of saccharin conditioned taste avoidance, does cause, however, taste perception deficit in taste reactivity tests. Multiple functional attributes of GM neurons in the mVLPFC, within the frame of the hierarchically organized central GM neuronal network, appear to play important role in the maintenance of the homeostatic balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Glucose-monitoring neurons of the medial ventrolateral prefrontal (orbitofrontal) cortex are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, István; Hormay, Edina; Csetényi, Bettina; Nagy, Bernadett; Karádi, Zoltán

    2017-05-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex is involved in the regulation of feeding and metabolism. Little is known, however, about the role of local glucose-monitoring neurons in these processes, and our knowledge is also poor about characteristics of these cells. The functional significance of these chemosensory neurons was to be elucidated. Electrophysiology, by the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique, and metabolic investigations, after streptozotocin induced selective destruction of the chemosensory neurons, were employed. Fifteen percent of the neurons responded to glucose, and these chemosensory cells displayed differential neurotransmitter and taste sensitivities. In acute glucose tolerance test, at the 30th and 60th minutes, blood glucose level in the streptozotocin-treated rats was significantly higher than that in the controls. The plasma triglyceride concentrations were also higher in the streptozotocin-treated group. Glucose-monitoring neurons of the medial orbitofrontal cortex integrate internal and external environmental signals, and monitor metabolic processes, thus, are indispensable to maintain the healthy homeostasis. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(18): 692-700.

  8. Neurobiological foundations of multisensory processing integration in people with autism spectrum disorders: The role of the medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eMartínez-Sanchis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to relate the sensory processing problems in people with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD, especially Multisensory interaction (MSI, to the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC by exploring neuroanatomical findings; brain connectivity and Default Network (DN; global or locally directed attention; and temporal multisensory binding. The mPFC is part of the brain’s DN, which is deactivated when attention is focused on a particular task and activated on rest when spontaneous cognition emerges. In those with ASD, it is hypoactive and the higher the social impairment the greater the atypical activity. With an immature DN, cross-modal integration is impaired, resulting in a collection of disconnected fragments instead of a coherent global perception. The deficit in MSI may lie in the temporal synchronization of neural networks. The time interval in which the stimulation of one sensory channel could influence another would be higher, preventing integration in the typical shorter time range. Thus, the underconnectivity between distant brain areas would be involved in top-down information processes (relying on global integration of data from different sources and would enhance low level perception processes such as over focused attention to sensory details.

  9. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors in medial prefrontal cortex are necessary for odor span in rats

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    Don A Davies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is a type of short-term memory involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While memory span capacity has been extensively studied in humans as a measure of working memory, it has received considerably less attention in rodents. Our aim was to examine the role of the NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors in odor span capacity using systemic injections or infusions of receptor antagonists into the medial prefrontal cortex. Long Evans rats were trained on a well-characterized odor span task. Initially, rats were trained to dig for a food reward in sand followed by training on a non-match to sample discrimination using sand scented with household spices. The rats were then required to perform a serial delayed non-match to sample procedure which was their odor span. Systemic injection of the broad spectrum NMDA receptor antagonist CPP (10 mg/kg or the GluN2B-selective antagonist Ro25-6981 (10 mg/kg but not 6 mg/kg significantly reduced odor span capacity. Infusions of the GluN2B- selective antagonist Ro25-6981 (2.5 µg/hemisphere into medial prefrontal cortex reduced span capacity, an effect that was nearly significant (p = 0.069. Infusions of the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX (1.25 µg/hemisphere into medial prefrontal cortex reduced span capacity and latency for the rats to make a choice in the task. These results demonstrate span capacity in rats depends on ionotropic glutamate receptor activation in the medial prefrontal cortex. Further understanding of the circuitry underlying span capacity may aid in the novel therapeutic drug development for persons with working memory impairments as a result of disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.

  10. Performance monitoring in the medial frontal cortex and related neural networks: From monitoring self actions to understanding others' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Taihei; Noritake, Atsushi; Ullsperger, Markus; Isoda, Masaki

    2018-04-27

    Action is a key channel for interacting with the outer world. As such, the ability to monitor actions and their consequences - regardless as to whether they are self-generated or other-generated - is of crucial importance for adaptive behavior. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has long been studied as a critical node for performance monitoring in nonsocial contexts. Accumulating evidence suggests that the MFC is involved in a wide range of functions necessary for one's own performance monitoring, including error detection, and monitoring and resolving response conflicts. Recent studies, however, have also pointed to the importance of the MFC in performance monitoring under social conditions, ranging from monitoring and understanding others' actions to reading others' mental states, such as their beliefs and intentions (i.e., mentalizing). Here we review the functional roles of the MFC and related neural networks in performance monitoring in both nonsocial and social contexts, with an emphasis on the emerging field of a social systems neuroscience approach using macaque monkeys as a model system. Future work should determine the way in which the MFC exerts its monitoring function via interactions with other brain regions, such as the superior temporal sulcus in the mentalizing system and the ventral premotor cortex in the mirror system. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  12. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Rydbirk, Rasmus; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Pakkenberg, Bente; Aznar, Susana

    2017-05-30

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT 2A Rs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact of 5-HT 2A R blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results support a role of 5-HT 2A R activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT 2A R blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Hypoperfusion in the medial temporal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yu; Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Shinohara, Masao; Nadaoka, Toshihide; Totsuka, Shiro; Komatani, Akio

    1995-01-01

    This study examined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium 99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamineoxime and correlated the results with neuropsychological findings in 30 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AT dementia). Ten healthy persons served as controls. The group of mild AT dementia exhibited a significant decrease in rCBF in the lower part of the right lateral frontal lobe and in the right parietal lobe. In the group of moderate AT dementia, the significant decrease in rCBF was noted in the lower part of the bilateral frontal lobes, the parietal part of the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the medial temporal lobe. Factor analysis for neuropsychological test revealed three factors involved in rCBF. There was a significantly positive correlation between the factor responsible for memory and recall and rCBF in the left frontal lobe, the anterior part of the lateral temporal lobe, and the medial temporal lobe. These findings suggested that disturbance of the memory circuit may exist in the medial temporal lobe and others as pathophysiology of AT dementia. (N.K.)

  14. Medial prefrontal cortex subserves diverse forms of self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Adrianna C; Mitchell, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    The ability to think about oneself--to self--reflect--is one of the defining features of the human mind. Recent research has suggested that this ability may be subserved by a particular brain region: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). However, although humans can contemplate a variety of different aspects of themselves, including their stable personality traits, current feelings, and physical attributes, no research has directly examined the extent to which these different forms of self-reflection are subserved by common mechanisms. To address this question, participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while making judgments about their own personality traits, current mental states, and physical attributes as well as those of another person. Whereas some brain regions responded preferentially during only one form of self-reflection, a robust region of MPFC was engaged preferentially during self-reflection across all three types of judgment. These results suggest that--although dissociable--diverse forms of self-referential thought draw on a shared cognitive process subserved by MPFC.

  15. [Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Processing of Temporal Information in Episodic Memory and Its Disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Saeko; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Episodic memory is defined as memory for personally experienced events, and includes memory content and contextual information of time and space. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have demonstrated three possible roles of the temporal context in episodic memory. First, temporal information contributes to the arrangement of temporal order for sequential events in episodic memory, and this process is involved in the lateral prefrontal cortex. The second possible role of temporal information in episodic memory is the segregation between memories of multiple events, which are segregated by cues of different time information. The role of segregation is associated with the orbitofrontal regions including the orbitofrontal cortex and basal forebrain region. Third, temporal information in episodic memory plays an important role in the integration of multiple components into a coherent episodic memory, in which episodic components in the different modalities are combined by temporal information as an index. The role of integration is mediated by the medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. Thus, temporal information in episodic memory could be represented in multiple stages, which are involved in a network of the lateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and medial temporal lobe regions.

  16. Long-range functional interactions of anterior insula and medial frontal cortex are differently modulated by visuospatial and inductive reasoning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Mantini, Dante; Romanelli, Roberta; Tommasi, Marco; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Colom, Roberto; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-09-01

    The brain is organized into functionally specific networks as characterized by intrinsic functional relationships within discrete sets of brain regions. However, it is poorly understood whether such functional networks are dynamically organized according to specific task-states. The anterior insular cortex (aIC)-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)/medial frontal cortex (mFC) network has been proposed to play a central role in human cognitive abilities. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at testing whether functional interactions of the aIC-dACC/mFC network in terms of temporally correlated patterns of neural activity across brain regions are dynamically modulated by transitory, ongoing task demands. For this purpose, functional interactions of the aIC-dACC/mFC network are compared during two distinguishable fluid reasoning tasks, Visualization and Induction. The results show an increased functional coupling of bilateral aIC with visual cortices in the occipital lobe during the Visualization task, whereas coupling of mFC with right anterior frontal cortex was enhanced during the Induction task. These task-specific modulations of functional interactions likely reflect ability related neural processing. Furthermore, functional connectivity strength between right aIC and right dACC/mFC reliably predicts general task performance. The findings suggest that the analysis of long-range functional interactions may provide complementary information about brain-behavior relationships. On the basis of our results, it is proposed that the aIC-dACC/mFC network contributes to the integration of task-common and task-specific information based on its within-network as well as its between-network dynamic functional interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, María C.; Kramar, Cecilia P.; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  18. Adaptation to Cognitive Context and Item Information in the Medial Temporal Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2012-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) play an essential role in episodic memory, and accumulating evidence indicates that two MTL subregions--the perirhinal (PRc) and parahippocampal (PHc) cortices--might have different functions. According to the binding of item and context theory ( [16] and [21]), PRc is involved in processing item information, the…

  19. Volumetric analysis of medial temporal lobe structures in brain development from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiyan; Pruessner, Jens C; Coupé, Pierrick; Collins, D Louis

    2013-07-01

    Puberty is an important stage of development as a child's sexual and physical characteristics mature because of hormonal changes. To better understand puberty-related effects on brain development, we investigated the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 306 subjects from 4 to 18 years of age. Subjects were grouped into before and during puberty groups according to their sexual maturity levels measured by the puberty scores. An appearance model-based automatic segmentation method with patch-based local refinement was employed to segment the MRI data and extract the volumes of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures including the amygdala (AG), the hippocampus (HC), the entorhinal/perirhinal cortex (EPC), and the parahippocampal cortex (PHC). Our analysis showed age-related volumetric changes for the AG, HC, right EPC, and left PHC but only before puberty. After onset of puberty, these volumetric changes then correlate more with sexual maturity level, as measured by the puberty score. When normalized for brain volume, the volumes of the right HC decrease for boys; the volumes of the left HC increase for girls; and the volumes of the left and right PHC decrease for boys. These findings suggest that the rising levels of testosterone in boys and estrogen in girls might have opposite effects, especially for the HC and the PHC. Our findings on sex-specific and sexual maturity-related volumes may be useful in better understanding the MTL developmental differences and related learning, memory, and emotion differences between boys and girls during puberty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain activity related to working memory for temporal order and object information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brooke M; Libby, Laura A; Inhoff, Marika C; Ranganath, Charan

    2017-06-08

    Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail. To address these questions, participants were scanned while completing 3 working memory task conditions (Group, Position and Item) that were matched in terms of difficulty and the number of items to be actively maintained. Group and Position trials probed temporal working memory processes, requiring the maintenance of hierarchically organized coarse and fine temporal information, respectively. To isolate activation related to temporal working memory, Group and Position trials were contrasted against Item trials, which required detailed working memory maintenance of visual objects. Results revealed that working memory encoding and maintenance of temporal information relative to visual information was associated with increased activation in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and perirhinal cortex (PRC). In contrast, maintenance of visual details relative to temporal information was characterized by greater activation of parahippocampal cortex (PHC), medial and anterior PFC, and retrosplenial cortex. In the hippocampus, a dissociation along the longitudinal axis was observed such that the anterior hippocampus was more active for working memory encoding and maintenance of visual detail information relative to temporal information, whereas the posterior hippocampus displayed the opposite effect. Posterior parietal cortex was the only region to show sensitivity to temporal

  1. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Mitchell, Karen J; Touryan, Sharon R; Greene, Erich J; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2006-06-01

    Motivationally significant agendas guide perception, thought and behaviour, helping one to define a 'self' and to regulate interactions with the environment. To investigate neural correlates of thinking about such agendas, we asked participants to think about their hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) or their duties and obligations (prevention focus) during functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared these self-reflection conditions with a distraction condition in which participants thought about non-self-relevant items. Self-reflection resulted in greater activity than distraction in dorsomedial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, consistent with previous findings of activity in these areas during self-relevant thought. For additional medial areas, we report new evidence of a double dissociation of function between medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about hopes and aspirations, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about duties and obligations. One possibility is that activity in medial prefrontal cortex is associated with instrumental or agentic self-reflection, whereas posterior medial cortex is associated with experiential self-reflection. Another, not necessarily mutually exclusive, possibility is that medial prefrontal cortex is associated with a more inward-directed focus, while posterior cingulate is associated with a more outward-directed, social or contextual focus.

  2. Network Alterations Supporting Word Retrieval in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protzner, Andrea B.; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is not considered a key structure in semantic memory, patients with medial-temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) have deficits in semantic access on some word retrieval tasks. We hypothesized that these deficits reflect the negative impact of focal epilepsy on remote cerebral structures. Thus, we expected that the networks that…

  3. Effects of Level of Retrieval Success on Recall-Related Frontal and Medial Temporal Lobe Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Montaldi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain dedicated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to compare the neuroactivation produced by the cued recall of response words in a set of studied word pairs with that produced by the cued retrieval of words semantically related to unstudied stimulus words. Six of the 12 subjects scanned were extensively trained so as to have good memory of the studied pairs and the remaining six were minimally trained so as to have poor memory. When comparing episodic with semantic retrieval, the well-trained subjects showed significant left medial temporal lobe activation, which was also significantly greater than that shown by the poorly trained subjects, who failed to show significant medial temporal lobe activation. In contrast, the poorly trained subjects showed significant bilateral frontal lobe activation, which was significantly greater than that shown by the well-trained subjects who failed to show significant frontal lobe activation. The frontal activations occurred mainly in the dorsolateral region, but extended into the ventrolateral and, to a lesser extent, the frontal polar regions. It is argued that whereas the medial temporal lobe activation increased as the proportion of response words successfully recalled increased, the bilateral frontal lobe activation increased in proportion to retrieval effort, which was greater when learning had been less good.

  4. Losing sight of the future: Impaired semantic prospection following medial temporal lobe lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    The ability to imagine the future (prospection) relies on many of the same brain regions that support memory for the past. To date, scientific research has primarily focused on the neural substrates of episodic forms of prospection (mental simulation of spatiotemporally specific future events) whereas little is known about the neural substrates of semantic prospection (mental simulation of future nonpersonal facts). Of particular interest is the role of the medial temporal lobes, and specifically the hippocampus. While the hippocampus has been proposed to play a key role in episodic prospection, recent evidence suggests that it may not play a similar role in semantic prospection. To examine this possibility, amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions were asked to imagine future issues occurring in the public domain. The results showed that patients could list general semantic facts about the future, but when probed to elaborate, patients produced impoverished descriptions that lacked semantic detail. This impairment occurred despite intact performance on standard neuropsychological tests of semantic processing, and did not simply reflect deficits in narrative construction. The performance of a patient with damage limited to the hippocampus was similar to that of the remaining MTL patients and amnesic patients’ impaired elaboration of the semantic future correlated with their impaired elaboration of the semantic past. Together, these results provide novel evidence from MTL amnesia that memory and prospection are linked in the semantic domain and reveal that the medial temporal lobes play a critical role in the construction of detailed, multi-element semantic simulations. PMID:23197413

  5. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  6. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev

    2016-11-07

    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  8. Neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during sensorimotor synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine ePecenka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical ensemble performance requires temporally precise interpersonal action coordination. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably rely on anticipatory mechanisms that enable them to predict the timing of sounds produced by co-performers. Previous studies have shown that individuals differ in their ability to predict upcoming tempo changes in paced finger-tapping tasks (indexed by cross-correlations between tap timing and pacing events and that the degree of such prediction influences the accuracy of sensorimotor synchronization (SMS and interpersonal coordination in dyadic tapping tasks. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during SMS in a within-subject design. Hemodynamic responses were recorded from 18 musicians while they tapped in synchrony with auditory sequences containing gradual tempo changes under conditions of varying cognitive load (achieved by a simultaneous visual n-back working-memory task comprising three levels of difficulty: observation only, 1-back, and 2-back object comparisons. Prediction ability during SMS decreased with increasing cognitive load. Results of a parametric analysis revealed that the generation of auditory temporal predictions during SMS recruits (1 a distributed network in cortico-cerebellar motor-related brain areas (left dorsal premotor and motor cortex, right lateral cerebellum, SMA proper and bilateral inferior parietal cortex and (2 medial cortical areas (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex. While the first network is presumably involved in basic sensory prediction, sensorimotor integration, motor timing, and temporal adaptation, activation in the second set of areas may be related to higher-level social-cognitive processes elicited during action coordination with auditory signals that resemble music performed by human agents.

  9. Astrocytic cytoskeletal atrophy in the medial prefrontal cortex of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdaléna; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Chvátal, Alexandr; Syková, Eva; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 221, č. 3 (2012), s. 252-262 ISSN 0021-8782 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/08/1384; GA ČR GA309/09/1696; GA ČR GAP304/11/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Alzheimer’s disease,, * astroglia * medial prefrontal cortex Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2012

  10. Autobiographical memory of the recent past following frontal cortex or temporal lobe excisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiss, Laila; Petrides, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has raised questions regarding the necessity of the frontal cortex in autobiographical memory and the role that it plays in actively retrieving contextual information associated with personally relevant events. Autobiographical memory was studied in patients with unilateral excisions restricted to the frontal cortex or temporal lobe involving the amygdalo-hippocampal region and in normal controls using an event-sampling method. We examined accuracy of free recall, use of strategies during retrieval and memory for specific aspects of the autobiographical events, including temporal order. Patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired in autobiographical recall. By contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions exhibited normal autobiographical recall but were less likely to use temporal order spontaneously to organize event retrieval. Instruction to organize retrieval by temporal order failed to improve recall in temporal lobe patients and increased the incidence of plausible intrusion errors in left temporal patients. In contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions now surpassed control subjects in recall of autobiographical events. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy for the temporal order of diary events was not impaired in these patients. In a subsequent cued recall test, temporal lobe patients were impaired in their memory for the details of the diary events and their context. In conclusion, a basic impairment in autobiographical memory (including memory for temporal context) results from damage to the temporal lobe and not the frontal cortex. Patients with frontal excisions fail to use organizational strategies spontaneously to aid retrieval but can use these effectively if instructed to do so.

  11. Regionally Selective Requirement for D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] Dopaminergic Neurotransmission in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Object-in-Place Associative Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Bashir, Zafar I.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2015-01-01

    Object-in-place (OiP) memory is critical for remembering the location in which an object was last encountered and depends conjointly on the medial prefrontal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus. Here we examined the role of dopamine D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] receptor neurotransmission within these brain regions for OiP memory. Bilateral…

  12. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity during Source Retrieval Reflects Information Type, Not Memory Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for episodic memory but the functions of MTL subregions are controversial. According to memory strength theory, MTL subregions collectively support declarative memory in a graded manner. In contrast, other theories assert that MTL subregions support functionally distinct processes. For instance, one…

  13. Differentiation of medial or lateral temporal lobe epilepsy by F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging in 113 surgically and pathologically proven patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Chang, Ki Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Choi, Ki Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    1999-01-01

    As mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) shows hypometabolism of medial and lateral temporal lobe, we investigated whether symmetric uptake of F-18-FDG in medial temporal lobes can differentiate mesial from lateral TLE. In 113 patients (83 mesial TLE, 30 lateral TLE) who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and/or corticectomy with good surgical outcome, we performed F-18-FDG PET and compared F-18-FDG uptake of medial and lateral temporal lobes. All the patients with mesial TLE had hippocampal sclerosis except one congenital abnormal hippocampus. Patients with lateral TLE revealed cerebromalacia, microdysgenesis, arteriovenous malformation, old contusion, and cortical dysplasia. Sensitivity of F-18-FDG PET and MR for mesial TLE was 84% (70/83) and 73% (62/83), respectively. Sensitivity of F-18-FDG PET and MR for lateral TLE was 90% (27/30) and 66% (20/30), respectively. Twelve patients were normal on F-18-FDG PET. 101 patients had hypometabolism of lateral temporal lobe. Among 88 patients who showed hypometabolism of medial temporal lobe as well as lateral temporal lobe, 70 were mesial TLE patients and 18 were lateral TLE on pathologic examination. Positive predictive value of medial temporal hypometabolism for mesial TLE was 80%. Among 13 patients who showed hypometabolism of only lateral temporal lobe, 4 were mesial TLE and 9 were lateral TLE. Positive predictive value of hypometabolism of lateral temporal lobe for the diagnosis of lateral TLE was 69% (9/ 13). Normal MR findings stood against medial TLE, whose negative predictive value was 66%. Lateral temporal lobe epilepsy should be suspected when there is decreased F-18-FDG uptake in lateral temporal lobe with normal uptake in medial temporal lobe

  14. Downstream effects of hippocampal sharp wave ripple oscillations on medial entorhinal cortex layer V neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Fabian C; Beyer, Katinka M; Both, Martin; Draguhn, Andreas; Egorov, Alexei V

    2016-12-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a critical component of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system. Local networks within the MTL express a variety of state-dependent network oscillations that are believed to organize neuronal activity during memory formation. The peculiar pattern of sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) entrains neurons by a very fast oscillation at ∼200 Hz in the hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 and then propagates through the "output loop" into the EC. The precise mechanisms of SPW-R propagation and the resulting cellular input patterns in the mEC are, however, largely unknown. We therefore investigated the activity of layer V (LV) principal neurons of the medial EC (mEC) during SPW-R oscillations in horizontal mouse brain slices. Intracellular recordings in the mEC were combined with extracellular monitoring of propagating network activity. SPW-R in CA1 were regularly followed by negative field potential deflections in the mEC. Propagation of SPW-R activity from CA1 to the mEC was mostly monosynaptic and excitatory, such that synaptic input to mEC LV neurons directly reflected unit activity in CA1. Comparison with propagating network activity from CA3 to CA1 revealed a similar role of excitatory long-range connections for both regions. However, SPW-R-induced activity in CA1 involved strong recruitment of rhythmic synaptic inhibition and corresponding fast field oscillations, in contrast to the mEC. These differences between features of propagating SPW-R emphasize the differential processing of network activity by each local network of the hippocampal output loop. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Noradrenaline decreases spike voltage threshold and induces electrographic sharp waves in turtle medial cortex in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Velluti, Julio C

    2004-01-01

    The noradrenergic modulation of neuronal properties has been described at different levels of the mammalian brain. Although the anatomical characteristics of the noradrenergic system are well known in reptiles, functional data are scarce. In our study the noradrenergic modulation of cortical electrogenesis in the turtle medial cortex was studied in vitro using a combination of field and intracellular recordings. Turtle EEG consists of a low voltage background interspersed by spontaneous large sharp waves (LSWs). Noradrenaline (NA, 5-40 microM) induced (or enhanced) the generation of LSWs in a dose-dependent manner. Pharmacological experiments suggest the participation of alpha and beta receptors in this effect. In medial cortex neurons NA induced a hyperpolarization of the resting potential and a decrease of input resistance. Both effects were observed also after TTX treatment. Noradrenaline increased the response of the cells to depolarizing pulses, resulting in an upward shift of the frequency/current relation. In most cells the excitability change was mediated by a decrease of the spike voltage threshold resulting in the reduction of the amount of depolarization needed to fire the cell (voltage threshold minus resting potential). As opposed to the mechanisms reported in mammalian neurons, no changes in the frequency adaptation or the post-train afterhyperpolarization were observed. The NA effects at the cellular level were not reproduced by noradrenergic agonists. Age- and species-dependent properties in the pharmacology of adrenergic receptors could be involved in this result. Cellular effects of NA in turtle cortex are similar to those described in mammals, although the increase in cellular excitability seems to be mediated by a different mechanism. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Modeling Conflict and Error in the Medial Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrew R.; Teshiba, Terri M.; Franco, Alexandre R.; Ling, Josef; Shane, Matthew S.; Stephen, Julia M.; Jung, Rex E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite intensive study, the role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) in error monitoring and conflict processing remains actively debated. The current experiment manipulated conflict type (stimulus conflict only or stimulus and response selection conflict) and utilized a novel modeling approach to isolate error and conflict variance during a multimodal numeric Stroop task. Specifically, hemodynamic response functions resulting from two statistical models that either included or isolated variance arising from relatively few error trials were directly contrasted. Twenty-four participants completed the task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. Response times monotonically increased based on the presence of pure stimulus or stimulus and response selection conflict. Functional results indicated that dMFC activity was present during trials requiring response selection and inhibition of competing motor responses, but absent during trials involving pure stimulus conflict. A comparison of the different statistical models suggested that relatively few error trials contributed to a disproportionate amount of variance (i.e., activity) throughout the dMFC, but particularly within the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (rACC). Finally, functional connectivity analyses indicated that an empirically derived seed in the dorsal ACC/pre-SMA exhibited strong connectivity (i.e., positive correlation) with prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex but was anticorrelated with the default-mode network. An empirically derived seed from the rACC exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting that sub-regions of the dMFC exhibit different connectivity patterns with other large scale networks implicated in internal mentations such as daydreaming (default-mode) versus the execution of top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal). PMID:21976411

  17. Modeling conflict and error in the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrew R; Teshiba, Terri M; Franco, Alexandre R; Ling, Josef; Shane, Matthew S; Stephen, Julia M; Jung, Rex E

    2012-12-01

    Despite intensive study, the role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) in error monitoring and conflict processing remains actively debated. The current experiment manipulated conflict type (stimulus conflict only or stimulus and response selection conflict) and utilized a novel modeling approach to isolate error and conflict variance during a multimodal numeric Stroop task. Specifically, hemodynamic response functions resulting from two statistical models that either included or isolated variance arising from relatively few error trials were directly contrasted. Twenty-four participants completed the task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. Response times monotonically increased based on the presence of pure stimulus or stimulus and response selection conflict. Functional results indicated that dMFC activity was present during trials requiring response selection and inhibition of competing motor responses, but absent during trials involving pure stimulus conflict. A comparison of the different statistical models suggested that relatively few error trials contributed to a disproportionate amount of variance (i.e., activity) throughout the dMFC, but particularly within the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (rACC). Finally, functional connectivity analyses indicated that an empirically derived seed in the dorsal ACC/pre-SMA exhibited strong connectivity (i.e., positive correlation) with prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex but was anti-correlated with the default-mode network. An empirically derived seed from the rACC exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting that sub-regions of the dMFC exhibit different connectivity patterns with other large scale networks implicated in internal mentations such as daydreaming (default-mode) versus the execution of top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Amygdala Contributions to Stimulus–Reward Encoding in the Macaque Medial and Orbital Frontal Cortex during Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2017-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus–reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus–reward associations. Further analyses indicated that this impairment was due, at least in part, to ineffective use of negative feedback to guide subsequent decisions. Second, the activity of neurons in OFC and MFC rapidly evolved to encode the amount of reward associated with each stimulus. Third, amygdalectomy reduced encoding of stimulus–reward associations during the evaluation of different stimuli. Reward encoding of anticipated and received reward after choices were made was not altered. Fourth, amygdala lesions led to an increase in the proportion of neurons in MFC, but not OFC, that encoded the instrumental response that monkeys made on each trial. These correlated changes in behavior and neural activity after amygdala lesions strongly suggest that the amygdala contributes to the ability to learn stimulus–reward associations rapidly by shaping encoding within OFC and MFC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered functional interactions among orbital frontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala are thought to underlie several psychiatric conditions, many related to reward learning. Here, we investigated the causal contribution of the amygdala to the development of neuronal activity in macaque OFC and MFC related to rewards and the stimuli that predict them during learning. Without amygdala inputs, neurons in both OFC and MFC showed decreased encoding of stimulus–reward associations. MFC also

  19. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  20. Activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex signals the accumulation of evidence in a probability learning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu d'Acremont

    Full Text Available In an uncertain environment, probabilities are key to predicting future events and making adaptive choices. However, little is known about how humans learn such probabilities and where and how they are encoded in the brain, especially when they concern more than two outcomes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, young adults learned the probabilities of uncertain stimuli through repetitive sampling. Stimuli represented payoffs and participants had to predict their occurrence to maximize their earnings. Choices indicated loss and risk aversion but unbiased estimation of probabilities. BOLD response in medial prefrontal cortex and angular gyri increased linearly with the probability of the currently observed stimulus, untainted by its value. Connectivity analyses during rest and task revealed that these regions belonged to the default mode network. The activation of past outcomes in memory is evoked as a possible mechanism to explain the engagement of the default mode network in probability learning. A BOLD response relating to value was detected only at decision time, mainly in striatum. It is concluded that activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex reflects the amount of evidence accumulated in favor of competing and uncertain outcomes.

  1. Task-dependent modulation of regions in the left temporal cortex during auditory sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjun; Yue, Qiuhai; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the essential role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension along with evidence of the functional specialization of the anterior and posterior temporal sub-areas. However, it is unclear whether task demands (e.g., active vs. passive listening) modulate the functional specificity of these sub-areas. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we addressed this issue by applying both independent component analysis (ICA) and general linear model (GLM) methods. Consistent with previous studies, intelligible sentences elicited greater activity in the left lateral temporal cortex relative to unintelligible sentences. Moreover, responses to intelligibility in the sub-regions were differentially modulated by task demands. While the overall activation patterns of the anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG) were equivalent during both passive and active tasks, a middle portion of the STS/MTG was found to be selectively activated only during the active task under a refined analysis of sub-regional contributions. Our results not only confirm the critical role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension but further demonstrate that task demands modulate functional specialization of the anterior-middle-posterior temporal sub-areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The posterior medial cortex is involved in visual but not in verbal memory encoding processing: an intracerebral recording study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štillová, K.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Halámek, Josef; Telecká, S.; Rektor, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2013), s. 391-397 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Event-related potential (ERP) * Memory * Posterior medial cortex (PMC) – SEEG Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.871, year: 2013

  3. Encoding model of temporal processing in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliani, Anthony; Jeska, Brianna; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-12-19

    How is temporal information processed in human visual cortex? Visual input is relayed to V1 through segregated transient and sustained channels in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). However, there is intense debate as to how sustained and transient temporal channels contribute to visual processing beyond V1. The prevailing view associates transient processing predominately with motion-sensitive regions and sustained processing with ventral stream regions, while the opposing view suggests that both temporal channels contribute to neural processing beyond V1. Using fMRI, we measured cortical responses to time-varying stimuli and then implemented a two temporal channel-encoding model to evaluate the contributions of each channel. Different from the general linear model of fMRI that predicts responses directly from the stimulus, the encoding approach first models neural responses to the stimulus from which fMRI responses are derived. This encoding approach not only predicts cortical responses to time-varying stimuli from milliseconds to seconds but also, reveals differential contributions of temporal channels across visual cortex. Consistent with the prevailing view, motion-sensitive regions and adjacent lateral occipitotemporal regions are dominated by transient responses. However, ventral occipitotemporal regions are driven by both sustained and transient channels, with transient responses exceeding the sustained. These findings propose a rethinking of temporal processing in the ventral stream and suggest that transient processing may contribute to rapid extraction of the content of the visual input. Importantly, our encoding approach has vast implications, because it can be applied with fMRI to decipher neural computations in millisecond resolution in any part of the brain. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Medial prefrontal cortex involvement in the expression of extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental behavior for a food reinforcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Todd, Travis P; Bouton, Mark E; Green, John T

    2016-02-01

    Instrumental renewal, the return of extinguished instrumental responding after removal from the extinction context, is an important model of behavioral relapse that is poorly understood at the neural level. In two experiments, we examined the role of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental responding for a sucrose reinforcer. Previous work, exclusively using drug reinforcers, has suggested that the roles of the dmPFC and vmPFC in expression of extinction and ABA renewal may depend at least in part on the type of drug reinforcer used. The current experiments used a food reinforcer because the behavioral mechanisms underlying the extinction and renewal of instrumental responding are especially well worked out in this paradigm. After instrumental conditioning in context A and extinction in context B, we inactivated dmPFC, vmPFC, or a more ventral medial prefrontal cortex region by infusing baclofen/muscimol (B/M) just prior to testing in both contexts. In rats with inactivated dmPFC, ABA renewal was still present (i.e., responding increased when returned to context A); however responding was lower (less renewal) than controls. Inactivation of vmPFC increased responding in context B (the extinction context) and decreased responding in context A, indicating no renewal in these animals. There was no effect of B/M infusion on rats with cannula placements ventral to the vmPFC. Fluorophore-conjugated muscimol was infused in a subset of rats following test to visualize infusion spread. Imaging suggested that the infusion spread was minimal and mainly constrained to the targeted area. Together, these experiments suggest that there is a region of medial prefrontal cortex encompassing both dmPFC and vmPFC that is important for ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental responding for a food reinforcer. In addition, vmPFC, but not dmPFC, is important for expression of extinction of

  5. Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex contributes to conditioned taste aversion memory consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Villar, Maria Eugenia; Igaz, Lionel M; Viola, Haydée; Medina, Jorge H

    2015-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known for its role in decision making and memory processing, including the participation in the formation of extinction memories. However, little is known regarding its contribution to aversive memory consolidation. Here we demonstrate that neural activity and protein synthesis are required in the dorsal mPFC for memory formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task and that this region is involved in the retrieval of recent and remote long-term CTA memory. In addition, both NMDA receptor and CaMKII activity in dorsal mPFC are needed for CTA memory consolidation, highlighting the complexity of mPFC functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ventral medial prefrontal functional connectivity and emotion regulation in chronic schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Mei Fan; Shu-Ping Tan; Fu-De Yang; Yun-Long Tan; Yan-Li Zhao; Nan Chen; Bin-Bin Li

    2013-01-01

    People with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognitive functions,particularly emotion regulation.Abnormal activations of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) during emotional tasks have been demonstrated in schizophrenia,suggesting its important role in emotion processing in patients.We used the resting-state functional connectivity approach,setting a functionally relevant region,the vMPFC,as a seed region to examine the intrinsic functional interactions and communication between the vMPFC and other brain regions in schizophrenic patients.We found hypo-connectivity between the vMPFC and the medial frontal cortex,right middle temporal lobe (MTL),right hippocampus,parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and amygdala.Further,there was a decreased strength of the negative connectivity (or anticorrelation) between the vMPFC and the bilateral dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and pre-supplementary motor areas.Among these connectivity alterations,reduced vMPFCDLPFC connectivity was positively correlated with positive symptoms on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale,while vMPFC-right MTL/PHC/amygdala functional connectivity was positively correlated with the performance of emotional regulation in patients.These findings imply that communication and coordination throughout the brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia.The emotional correlates of vMPFC connectivity suggest a role of the hypo-connectivity between these regions in the neuropathology of abnormal social cognition in chronic schizophrenia.

  7. Orbitofrontal cortex function and structure in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevets, Wayne C

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression by evidence obtained using neuroimaging, neuropathologic, and lesion analysis techniques. The abnormalities revealed by these techniques show a regional specificity, and suggest that some OFC regions which appear cytoarchitectonically distinct also are functionally distinct with respect to mood regulation. For example, the severity of depression correlates inversely with physiological activity in parts of the posterior lateral and medial OFC, consistent with evidence that dysfunction of the OFC associated with cerebrovascular lesions increases the vulnerability for developing the major depressive syndrome. The posterior lateral and medial OFC function may also be impaired in individuals who develop primary mood disorders, as these patients show grey-matter volumetric reductions, histopathologic abnormalities, and altered hemodynamic responses to emotionally valenced stimuli, probabilistic reversal learning, and reward processing. In contrast, physiological activity in the anteromedial OFC situated in the ventromedial frontal polar cortex increases during the depressed versus the remitted phases of major depressive disorder to an extent that is positively correlated with the severity of depression. Effective antidepressant treatment is associated with a reduction in activity in this region. Taken together these data are compatible with evidence from studies in experimental animals indicating that some orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex regions function to inhibit, while others function to enhance, emotional expression. Alterations in the functional balance between these regions and the circuits they form with anatomically related areas of the temporal lobe, striatum, thalamus, and brain stem thus may underlie the pathophysiology of mood disorders, such as major depression.

  8. Dynamic imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: support for the theory of medial temporal vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umile, Eric M; Sandel, M Elizabeth; Alavi, Abass; Terry, Charles M; Plotkin, Rosette C

    2002-11-01

    To determine whether patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and persistent postconcussive symptoms have evidence of temporal lobe injury on dynamic imaging. Case series. An academic medical center. Twenty patients with a clinical diagnosis of mild TBI and persistent postconcussive symptoms were referred for neuropsychologic evaluation and dynamic imaging. Fifteen (75%) had normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computed tomography (CT) scans at the time of injury. Neuropsychologic testing, positron-emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). Temporal lobe findings on static imaging (MRI, CT) and dynamic imaging (PET, SPECT); neuropsychologic test findings on measures of verbal and visual memory. Testing documented neurobehavioral deficits in 19 patients (95%). Dynamic imaging documented abnormal findings in 18 patients (90%). Fifteen patients (75%) had temporal lobe abnormalities on PET and SPECT (primarily in medial temporal regions); abnormal findings were bilateral in 10 patients (50%) and unilateral in 5 (25%). Six patients (30%) had frontal abnormalities, and 8 (40%) had nonfrontotemporal abnormalities. Correlations between neuropsychologic testing and dynamic imaging could be established but not consistently across the whole group. Patients with mild TBI and persistent postconcussive symptoms have a high incidence of temporal lobe injury (presumably involving the hippocampus and related structures), which may explain the frequent finding of memory disorders in this population. The abnormal temporal lobe findings on PET and SPECT in humans may be analogous to the neuropathologic evidence of medial temporal injury provided by animal studies after mild TBI. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  9. Bidirectional control of social hierarchy by synaptic efficacy in medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Zhanmin; Hu, Hailan

    2011-11-04

    Dominance hierarchy has a profound impact on animals' survival, health, and reproductive success, but its neural circuit mechanism is virtually unknown. We found that dominance ranking in mice is transitive, relatively stable, and highly correlates among multiple behavior measures. Recording from layer V pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) showed higher strength of excitatory synaptic inputs in mice with higher ranking, as compared with their subordinate cage mates. Furthermore, molecular manipulations that resulted in an increase and decrease in the synaptic efficacy in dorsal mPFC neurons caused an upward and downward movement in the social rank, respectively. These results provide direct evidence for mPFC's involvement in social hierarchy and suggest that social rank is plastic and can be tuned by altering synaptic strength in mPFC pyramidal cells.

  10. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex implements social priming of mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2015-04-01

    The neural and cognitive mechanisms by which primed constructs can impact on social behavior are poorly understood. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore how scrambled sentence priming can impact on mimicry behavior. Sentences involving pro/antisocial events from a first/third-person point of view were presented in short blocks, followed by a reaction-time assessment of mimicry. Behavioral results showed that both prosociality and viewpoint impact on mimicry, and fMRI analysis showed this effect is implemented by anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC). We suggest that social primes may subtly modulate processing in amPFC in a manner linked to the later behavior, and that this same region also implements the top-down control of mimicry responses. This priming may be linked to processing of self-schemas in amPFC. Our findings demonstrate how social priming can be studied with fMRI, and have important implications for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of prime-to-behavior effects as well as for current theories in social psychology. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A protocol for manual segmentation of medial temporal lobe subregions in 7 Tesla MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Berron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in MRI and increasing knowledge on the characterization and anatomical variability of medial temporal lobe (MTL anatomy have paved the way for more specific subdivisions of the MTL in humans. In addition, recent studies suggest that early changes in many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases are better detected in smaller subregions of the MTL rather than with whole structure analyses. Here, we developed a new protocol using 7 Tesla (T MRI incorporating novel anatomical findings for the manual segmentation of entorhinal cortex (ErC, perirhinal cortex (PrC; divided into area 35 and 36, parahippocampal cortex (PhC, and hippocampus; which includes the subfields subiculum (Sub, CA1, CA2, as well as CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG which are separated by the endfolial pathway covering most of the long axis of the hippocampus. We provide detailed instructions alongside slice-by-slice segmentations to ease learning for the untrained but also more experienced raters. Twenty-two subjects were scanned (19–32 yrs, mean age = 26 years, 12 females with a turbo spin echo (TSE T2-weighted MRI sequence with high-resolution oblique coronal slices oriented orthogonal to the long axis of the hippocampus (in-plane resolution 0.44×0.44 mm2 and 1.0 mm slice thickness. The scans were manually delineated by two experienced raters, to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability. The Dice Similarity Index (DSI was above 0.78 for all regions and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC were between 0.76 to 0.99 both for intra- and inter-rater reliability. In conclusion, this study presents a fine-grained and comprehensive segmentation protocol for MTL structures at 7 T MRI that closely follows recent knowledge from anatomical studies. More specific subdivisions (e.g. area 35 and 36 in PrC, and the separation of DG and CA3 may pave the way for more precise delineations thereby enabling the detection of early volumetric changes in dementia and

  12. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including low levels of social interaction and high levels of self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in the AH group (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As they reached adulthood (Experiment 1), the same monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation from age-matched peers were also assessed. Group TE now showed few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed when they were infants. By contrast, Group AH continued to display low levels of social interaction, high levels of self-directed activity and submissive behavior, and reduced responses to separation, although they reacted normally to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those of the earlier groups and then given the AH ablation (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these adult-lesioned monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. Also, except for an increase in food and water consumption throughout this 6-month period, they showed no other socioemotional effects. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage. PMID:21133531

  13. Medial temporal lobe involvement in an implicit memory task: evidence of collaborating implicit and explicit memory systems from FMRI and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Phyllis; Smith, Edward E; Troiani, Vanessa; Anderson, Chivon; Moore, Peachie; Grossman, Murray

    2008-12-01

    We used a prototype extraction task to assess implicit learning of a meaningful novel visual category. Cortical activation was monitored in young adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We observed occipital deactivation at test consistent with perceptually based implicit learning, and lateral temporal cortex deactivation reflecting implicit acquisition of the category's semantic nature. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during exposure and test suggested involvement of explicit memory as well. Behavioral performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy seniors was also assessed, and AD performance was correlated with gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. AD patients showed learning, consistent with preserved implicit memory, and confirming that AD patients' implicit memory is not limited to abstract patterns. However, patients were somewhat impaired relative to healthy seniors. Occipital and lateral temporal cortical volume correlated with successful AD patient performance, and thus overlapped with young adults' areas of deactivation. Patients' severe MTL atrophy precluded involvement of this region. AD patients thus appear to engage a cortically based implicit memory mechanism, whereas their relative deficit on this task may reflect their MTL disease. These findings suggest that implicit and explicit memory systems collaborate in neurologically intact individuals performing an ostensibly implicit memory task.

  14. Imidacloprid toxicity impairs spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Ching-Lung; Lin, Tian-Yu; Wang, Sheue-Er; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-04-13

    It has been reported that the decimation of honey bees was because of pesticides of imidacloprid. The imidacloprid is a wildly used neonicotinoid insecticide. However, whether imidacloprid toxicity interferes with the spatial memory of echolocation bats is still unclear. Thus, we compared the spatial memory of Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis, before and after chronic treatment with a low dose of imidacloprid. We observed that stereotyped flight patterns of echolocation bats that received chronic imidacloprid treatment were quite different from their originally learned paths. We further found that neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas of echolocation bats that received imidacloprid treatment was significantly enhanced in comparison with echolocation bats that received sham treatment. Thus, we suggest that imidacloprid toxicity may interfere with the spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas. The results provide direct evidence that pesticide toxicity causes a spatial memory disorder in echolocation bats. This implies that agricultural pesticides may pose severe threats to the survival of echolocation bats.

  15. Habitual 'sleep credit' is associated with greater grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex, higher emotional intelligence and better mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mareen; Webb, Christian A; Deldonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Weiner, Melissa R; Killgore, William D S

    2013-10-01

    In modern society, people often fail to obtain the amount of sleep that experts recommend for good health and performance. Insufficient sleep can lead to degraded cognitive performance and alterations in emotional functioning. However, most people also acknowledge that on a regular basis they obtain more sleep than they subjectively perceive they need at a minimum to stave off performance decrements, a construct we describe as subjective 'sleep credit'. Few people would contest the notion that getting more sleep is better, but data on both behavioural and neuroanatomical correlates of 'sleep credit' are surprisingly limited. We conducted a voxel-based morphometric study to assess cerebral grey matter correlates of habitually sleeping more than one's subjective requirements. We further tested whether these structural correlates are associated with perceived emotional intelligence and indices of psychopathology while controlling for age, gender, and total intracranial volume. In a sample of 55 healthy adults aged 18-45 years (28 males, 27 females), whole-brain multiple regression showed that habitual subjective 'sleep credit' was correlated positively with grey matter volume within regions of the left medial prefrontal cortex and right orbitofrontal gyrus. Volumes were extracted and regressed against self-report emotion and psychopathology indices. Only grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex cluster correlated with greater emotional intelligence and lower scores on several indices of psychopathology. Findings converge with previous evidence of the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the relationship between sleep and emotional functioning, and suggest that behaviour and brain structure vary with habitual 'sleep credit'. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Medial Entorhinal Cortex Lesions Only Partially Disrupt Hippocampal Place Cells and Hippocampus-Dependent Place Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena B. Hales

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex provides the primary cortical projections to the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for memory. However, it remains unclear how the precise firing patterns of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC cells influence hippocampal physiology and hippocampus-dependent behavior. We found that complete bilateral lesions of the MEC resulted in a lower proportion of active hippocampal cells. The remaining active cells had place fields, but with decreased spatial precision and decreased long-term spatial stability. In addition, MEC rats were as impaired in the water maze as hippocampus rats, while rats with combined MEC and hippocampal lesions had an even greater deficit. However, MEC rats were not impaired on other hippocampus-dependent tasks, including those in which an object location or context was remembered. Thus, the MEC is not necessary for all types of spatial coding or for all types of hippocampus-dependent memory, but it is necessary for the normal acquisition of place memory.

  17. The Role of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex-Amygdala Circuit in Stress Effects on the Extinction of Fear

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    Mouna Maroun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure, depending on its intensity and duration, affects cognition and learning in an adaptive or maladaptive manner. Studies addressing the effects of stress on cognitive processes have mainly focused on conditioned fear, since it is suggested that fear-motivated learning lies at the root of affective and anxiety disorders. Inhibition of fear-motivated response can be accomplished by experimental extinction of the fearful response to the fear-inducing stimulus. Converging evidence indicates that extinction of fear memory requires plasticity in both the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. These brain areas are also deeply involved in mediating the effects of exposure to stress on memory. Moreover, extensive evidence indicates that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA transmission plays a primary role in the modulation of behavioral sequelae resulting from a stressful experience, and may also partially mediate inhibitory learning during extinction. In this review, we present evidence that exposure to a stressful experience may impair fear extinction and the possible involvement of the GABA system. Impairment of fear extinction learning is particularly important as it may predispose some individuals to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. We further discuss a possible dysfunction in the medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala circuit following a stressful experience that may explain the impaired extinction caused by exposure to a stressor.

  18. Regional activation of the human medial temporal lobe during intentional encoding of objects and positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Liptrot, Matthew G.; Skimminge, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) consists of several regions thought to be involved in learning and memory. However, the degree of functional specialization among these regions remains unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated effects of both content and processing stage, but findings have been i...

  19. Reversal of interlaminar signal between sensory and memory processing in monkey temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Daigo; Hirabayashi, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Keita; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2011-03-18

    The primate temporal cortex implements visual long-term memory. However, how its interlaminar circuitry executes cognitive computations is poorly understood. Using linear-array multicontact electrodes, we simultaneously recorded unit activities across cortical layers in the perirhinal cortex of macaques performing a pair-association memory task. Cortical layers were estimated on the basis of current source density profiles with histological verifications, and the interlaminar signal flow was determined with cross-correlation analysis between spike trains. During the cue period, canonical "feed-forward" signals flowed from granular to supragranular layers and from supragranular to infragranular layers. During the delay period, however, the signal flow reversed to the "feed-back" direction: from infragranular to supragranular layers. This reversal of signal flow highlights how the temporal cortex differentially recruits its laminar circuits for sensory and mnemonic processing.

  20. Neural correlates of depth of strategic reasoning in medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie

    2009-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate human mental processes in a competitive interactive setting—the “beauty contest” game. This game is well-suited for investigating whether and how a player's mental processing incorporates the thinking process of others in strategic reasoning. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject's choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. According to this model, high-level reasoners expect the others to behave strategically, whereas low-level reasoners choose based on the expectation that others will choose randomly. The data show that high-level reasoning and a measure of strategic IQ (related to winning in the game) correlate with the neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, demonstrating its crucial role in successful mentalizing. This supports a cognitive hierarchy model of human brain and behavior. PMID:19470476

  1. The role of medial prefrontal cortex in memory and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euston, David R; Gruber, Aaron J; McNaughton, Bruce L

    2012-12-20

    Some have claimed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates decision making. Others suggest mPFC is selectively involved in the retrieval of remote long-term memory. Yet others suggests mPFC supports memory and consolidation on time scales ranging from seconds to days. How can all these roles be reconciled? We propose that the function of the mPFC is to learn associations between context, locations, events, and corresponding adaptive responses, particularly emotional responses. Thus, the ubiquitous involvement of mPFC in both memory and decision making may be due to the fact that almost all such tasks entail the ability to recall the best action or emotional response to specific events in a particular place and time. An interaction between multiple memory systems may explain the changing importance of mPFC to different types of memories over time. In particular, mPFC likely relies on the hippocampus to support rapid learning and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amygdala Contributions to Stimulus-Reward Encoding in the Macaque Medial and Orbital Frontal Cortex during Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudebeck, Peter H; Ripple, Joshua A; Mitz, Andrew R; Averbeck, Bruno B; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2017-02-22

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus-reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus-reward associations. Further analyses indicated that this impairment was due, at least in part, to ineffective use of negative feedback to guide subsequent decisions. Second, the activity of neurons in OFC and MFC rapidly evolved to encode the amount of reward associated with each stimulus. Third, amygdalectomy reduced encoding of stimulus-reward associations during the evaluation of different stimuli. Reward encoding of anticipated and received reward after choices were made was not altered. Fourth, amygdala lesions led to an increase in the proportion of neurons in MFC, but not OFC, that encoded the instrumental response that monkeys made on each trial. These correlated changes in behavior and neural activity after amygdala lesions strongly suggest that the amygdala contributes to the ability to learn stimulus-reward associations rapidly by shaping encoding within OFC and MFC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered functional interactions among orbital frontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala are thought to underlie several psychiatric conditions, many related to reward learning. Here, we investigated the causal contribution of the amygdala to the development of neuronal activity in macaque OFC and MFC related to rewards and the stimuli that predict them during learning. Without amygdala inputs, neurons in both OFC and MFC showed decreased encoding of stimulus-reward associations. MFC also showed

  3. Interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA1 area is essential for episodic-like memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Nikolaus, Susanne; Lira Brandão, Marcus; Huston, Joseph P; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    The interplay between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus, particularly the hippocampal CA3 area, is critical for episodic memory. To what extent the mPFC also interacts with the hippocampus CA1 subregion still requires elucidation. To investigate this issue, male rats received unilateral N-methyl- D -aspartate lesions of the mPFC together with unilateral lesions of the hippocampal CA1 area, either in the same (control) or in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection). They underwent an episodic-like memory test, combining what-where-when information, and separate tests for novel object preference (what), object place preference (where) and temporal order memory (when). Compared to controls, the disconnected mPFC-CA1 rats exhibited disrupted episodic-like memory with an impaired integration of the what-where-when elements. Both groups showed intact memories for what and when, while only the control group showed intact memory for where. These findings suggest that the functional interaction of the mPFC-CA1 circuit is crucial for the processing of episodic memory and, in particular, for the integration of the spatial memory component. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SPHENOID SINUS (SS ANTERIOR MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE ENCEPHALOCELE (AMTLE WITH SPONTANEOUS CSF RHINORRHOEA : A CASE REPORT

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    Laveena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cranial encephaloceles are the herniation of intracranial meninges and brain tissue through a defect in the cranium or skull base. These are rare conditions with an incidence of approximately 1 in 35,000 people, and are more common in the anterior cranial fossa than those in the middle one . 1,2 Temporal lobe herniation through a mid dle fossa defect into the lateral recess of the Sphenoid Sinus is even rarer than its medial representation. Intrasphenoidal encephaloceles are extremely rare findings 3 . Spontaneous, or primary, CSF fistula is a separate entity with no underlying cause of the CSF leak. Spontaneous CSF leaks are usually associated with a co - existing encephalocele of variable size 4 . We present a case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea in a sphenoid sinus Anterior Medial Temporal lobe encephalocele herniating through a clinically silent lateral Craniopharyngeal canal.

  5. Anticipatory activity in rat medial prefrontal cortex during a working memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenwen Bai; Tiaotiao Liu; Hu Yi; Shuangyan Li; Xin Tian

    2012-01-01

    Objective Working memory is a key cognitive function in which the prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role.This study aimed to show the firing patterns of a neuronal population in the prefrontal cortex of the rat in a working memory task and to explore how a neuronal ensemble encodes a working memory event.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Y-maze until they reached an 80% correct rate in a working memory task.Then a 16-channel microelectrode array was implanted in the prefrontal cortex.After recovery,neuronal population activity was recorded during the task,using the Cerebus data-acquisition system.Spatio-temporal trains of action potentials were obtained from the original neuronal population signals.Results During the Y-maze working memory task,some neurons showed significantly increased firing rates and evident neuronal ensemble activity.Moreover,the anticipatory activity was associated with the delayed alternate choice of the upcoming movement.In correct trials,the averaged pre-event firing rate (10.86 ± 1.82 spikes/bin) was higher than the post-event rate (8.17 ± 1.15 spikes/bin) (P <0.05).However,in incorrect trials,the rates did not differ.Conclusion The results indicate that the anticipatory activity of a neuronal ensemble in the prefrontal cortex may play a role in encoding working memory events.

  6. Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory. Functional dissociation in the medial temporal lobe structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in the encoding and retrieval of episodic memory. It has also been shown that an emotional factor in human memory enhances episodic encoding and retrieval. However, there is little evidence regarding the specific contribution of each MTL region to the relational, contextual, and emotional processes of episodic memory. The goal of this review article is to identify differential activation patterns of the processes between MTL regions. Results from functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory show that the hippocampus is involved in encoding the relation between memory items, whereas the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices (anterior parahippocampal gyrus) contribute to the encoding of a single item. Additionally, the parahippocampal cortex (posterior parahippocampal gyrus) is selectively activated during the processing of contextual information of episodic memory. A similar pattern of functional dissociation is found in episodic memory retrieval. Functional neuroimaging has also shown that emotional information of episodic memory enhances amygdala-MTL correlations and that this enhancement is observed during both the encoding and retrieval of emotional memories. These findings from pervious neuroimaging studies suggest that different MTL regions could organize memory for personally experienced episodes via the 'relation' and 'context' factors of episodic memory, and that the emotional factor of episodes could modulate the functional organization in the MTL regions. (author)

  7. Human medial frontal cortex activity predicts learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Barre, Natalie; Murphy, Kevin; Silk, Tim J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2008-08-01

    Learning from errors is a critical feature of human cognition. It underlies our ability to adapt to changing environmental demands and to tune behavior for optimal performance. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been implicated in the evaluation of errors to control behavior, although it has not previously been shown that activity in this region predicts learning from errors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activity in the pMFC during an associative learning task in which participants had to recall the spatial locations of 2-digit targets and were provided with immediate feedback regarding accuracy. Activity within the pMFC was significantly greater for errors that were subsequently corrected than for errors that were repeated. Moreover, pMFC activity during recall errors predicted future responses (correct vs. incorrect), despite a sizeable interval (on average 70 s) between an error and the next presentation of the same recall probe. Activity within the hippocampus also predicted future performance and correlated with error-feedback-related pMFC activity. A relationship between performance expectations and pMFC activity, in the absence of differing reinforcement value for errors, is consistent with the idea that error-related pMFC activity reflects the extent to which an outcome is "worse than expected."

  8. Thalamic connections of the core auditory cortex and rostral supratemporal plane in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Fukushima, Makoto; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    In the primate auditory cortex, information flows serially in the mediolateral dimension from core, to belt, to parabelt. In the caudorostral dimension, stepwise serial projections convey information through the primary, rostral, and rostrotemporal (AI, R, and RT) core areas on the supratemporal plane, continuing to the rostrotemporal polar area (RTp) and adjacent auditory-related areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STGr) and temporal pole. In addition to this cascade of corticocortical connections, the auditory cortex receives parallel thalamocortical projections from the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). Previous studies have examined the projections from MGN to auditory cortex, but most have focused on the caudal core areas AI and R. In this study, we investigated the full extent of connections between MGN and AI, R, RT, RTp, and STGr using retrograde and anterograde anatomical tracers. Both AI and R received nearly 90% of their thalamic inputs from the ventral subdivision of the MGN (MGv; the primary/lemniscal auditory pathway). By contrast, RT received only ∼45% from MGv, and an equal share from the dorsal subdivision (MGd). Area RTp received ∼25% of its inputs from MGv, but received additional inputs from multisensory areas outside the MGN (30% in RTp vs. 1-5% in core areas). The MGN input to RTp distinguished this rostral extension of auditory cortex from the adjacent auditory-related cortex of the STGr, which received 80% of its thalamic input from multisensory nuclei (primarily medial pulvinar). Anterograde tracers identified complementary descending connections by which highly processed auditory information may modulate thalamocortical inputs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex Volumes Differ in Maltreated Youth with and without Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Rajendra A; Haswell, Courtney C; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is considered a disorder of recovery where individuals fail to learn and retain extinction of the traumatic fear response. In maltreated youth, PTSD is common, chronic, and associated with comorbidity. Studies of extinction-related structural volumes (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)) and this stress diathesis, in maltreated youth were not previously investigated. In this cross-sectional study, neuroanatomical volumes associated with extinction in maltreated youth with PTSD (N=31), without PTSD (N=32), and in non-maltreated healthy volunteers (n=57) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Groups were sociodemographically similar. Participants underwent extensive assessments for strict inclusion/exclusion criteria and DSM-IV disorders. Maltreated youth with PTSD demonstrated decreased right vmPFC volumes compared with both maltreated youth without PTSD and non-maltreated controls. Maltreated youth without PTSD demonstrated larger left amygdala and right hippocampal volumes compared with maltreated youth with PTSD and non-maltreated control youth. PTSD symptoms inversely correlated with right and left hippocampal and left amygdala volumes. Confirmatory masked voxel base morphometry analyses demonstrated greater medial orbitofrontal cortex gray matter intensity in controls than maltreated youth with PTSD. Volumetric results were not influenced by psychopathology or maltreatment variables. We identified volumetric differences in extinction-related structures between maltreated youth with PTSD from those without PTSD. Alterations of the vmPFC may be one mechanism that mediates the pathway from PTSD to comorbidity. Further longitudinal work is needed to determine neurobiological factors related to chronic and persistent PTSD, and to PTSD resilience despite maltreatment.

  10. Independent delta/theta rhythms in the human hippocampus and entorhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Mormann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Theta oscillations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL of mammals are involved in various functions such as spatial navigation, sensorimotor integration, and cognitive processing. While the theta rhythm was originally assumed to originate in the medial septum, more recent studies suggest autonomous theta generation in the MTL. Although coherence between entorhinal and hippocampal theta activity has been found to influence memory formation, it remains unclear whether these two structures can generate theta independently. In this study we analyzed intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG recordings from 22 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis undergoing presurgical evaluation prior to resection of the epileptic focus. Using a wavelet-based, frequency-band-specific measure of phase synchronization, we quantified synchrony between 10 different recording sites along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampal formation in the non-epileptic brain hemisphere. We compared EEG synchrony between adjacent recording sites (i within the entorhinal cortex, (ii within the hippocampus, and (iii between the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We observed a significant interregional gap in synchrony for the delta and theta band, indicating the existence of independent delta/theta rhythms in different subregions of the human MTL. The interaction of these rhythms could represent the temporal basis for the information processing required for mnemonic encoding and retrieval.

  11. Intersection of reward and memory in monkey rhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew M; Bouret, Sebastien; Young, Adrienne M; Richmond, Barry J

    2012-05-16

    In humans and other animals, the vigor with which a reward is pursued depends on its desirability, that is, on the reward's predicted value. Predicted value is generally context-dependent, varying according to the value of rewards obtained in the recent and distant past. Signals related to reward prediction and valuation are believed to be encoded in a circuit centered around midbrain dopamine neurons and their targets in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Notably absent from this hypothesized reward pathway are dopaminergic targets in the medial temporal lobe. Here we show that a key part of the medial temporal lobe memory system previously reported to be important for sensory mnemonic and perceptual processing, the rhinal cortex (Rh), is required for using memories of previous reward values to predict the value of forthcoming rewards. We tested monkeys with bilateral Rh lesions on a task in which reward size varied across blocks of uncued trials. In this experiment, the only cues for predicting current reward value are the sizes of rewards delivered in previous blocks. Unexpectedly, monkeys with Rh ablations, but not intact controls, were insensitive to differences in predicted reward, responding as if they expected all rewards to be of equal magnitude. Thus, it appears that Rh is critical for using memory of previous rewards to predict the value of forthcoming rewards. These results are in agreement with accumulating evidence that Rh is critical for establishing the relationships between temporally interleaved events, which is a key element of episodic memory.

  12. Reference frames for spatial frequency in face representation differ in the temporal visual cortex and amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Mikio; Fujita, Ichiro

    2011-07-13

    Social communication in nonhuman primates and humans is strongly affected by facial information from other individuals. Many cortical and subcortical brain areas are known to be involved in processing facial information. However, how the neural representation of faces differs across different brain areas remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the reference frame for spatial frequency (SF) tuning of face-responsive neurons differs in the temporal visual cortex and amygdala in monkeys. Consistent with psychophysical properties for face recognition, temporal cortex neurons were tuned to image-based SFs (cycles/image) and showed viewing distance-invariant representation of face patterns. On the other hand, many amygdala neurons were influenced by retina-based SFs (cycles/degree), a characteristic that is useful for social distance computation. The two brain areas also differed in the luminance contrast sensitivity of face-responsive neurons; amygdala neurons sharply reduced their responses to low luminance contrast images, while temporal cortex neurons maintained the level of their responses. From these results, we conclude that different types of visual processing in the temporal visual cortex and the amygdala contribute to the construction of the neural representations of faces.

  13. Attention, emotion, and deactivation of default activity in inferior medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC...... with positron emission tomography (PET) of labeled water (H(15)2O) uptake in brain of 14 healthy subjects. The subjects performed either a less demanding or a more demanding task of attention while they watched neutral and emotive images of people in realistic indoor or outdoor situations. In the less demanding...... cortices, revealed significant activation in the fusiform gyrus, independently of the task. In contrast, we found no effect of emotional content in the IMPC, where emotions failed to override the effect of the task. The results are consistent with a role of the IMPC in the selection among competitive...

  14. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Pekcanlar, A.; Bekis, R.; Ada, E.; Miral, S.; Emiroglu, N.; Durak, H.

    2002-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  15. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G.C.; Pekcanlar, A.; Bekis, R.; Ada, E.; Miral, S.; Emiroglu, N.; Durak, H. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  16. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G C; Pekcanlar, A; Bekis, R; Ada, E; Miral, S; Emiroglu, N; Durak, H [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  17. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Rodent Social Behavior: The Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jaewon

    2017-01-01

    Social behavior encompasses a number of distinctive and complex constructs that form the core elements of human imitative culture, mainly represented as either affiliative or antagonistic interactions with conspecifics. Traditionally considered in the realm of psychology, social behavior research has benefited from recent advancements in neuroscience that have accelerated identification of the neural systems, circuits, causative genes and molecular mechanisms that underlie distinct social cognitive traits. In this review article, I summarize recent findings regarding the neuroanatomical substrates of key social behaviors, focusing on results from experiments conducted in rodent models. In particular, I will review the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and downstream subcortical structures in controlling social behavior, and discuss pertinent future research perspectives. PMID:28659766

  18. Towards a functional organization of episodic memory in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Sauvage, Magdalena; Fortin, Norbert; Komorowski, Robert; Lipton, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe a model of medial temporal lobe organization in which parallel "what" and "where" processing streams converge within the hippocampus to represent events in the spatio-temporal context in which they occurred; this circuitry also mediates the retrieval of context from event cues and vice versa, which are prototypes of episodic recall. Evidence from studies in animals are reviewed in support of this model, including experiments that distinguish characteristics of episodic recollection from familiarity, neuropsychological and recording studies that have identified a key role for the hippocampus in recollection and in associating events with the context in which they occurred, and distinct roles for parahippocampal region areas in separate "what" and "where" information processing that contributes to recollective and episodic memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A High-Resolution Study of Hippocampal and Medial Temporal Lobe Correlates of Spatial Context and Prospective Overlapping Route Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thackery I.; Hasselmo, Michael E.; Stern, Chantal E.

    2015-01-01

    When navigating our world we often first plan or retrieve an ideal route to our goal, avoiding alternative paths that lead to other destinations. The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has been implicated in processing contextual information, sequence memory, and uniquely retrieving routes that overlap or “cross paths.” However, the identity of subregions of the hippocampus and neighboring cortex that support these functions in humans remains unclear. The present study used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (hr-fMRI) in humans to test whether the CA3/DG hippocampal subfield and para-hippocampal cortex are important for processing spatial context and route retrieval, and whether the CA1 subfield facilitates prospective planning of mazes that must be distinguished from alternative overlapping routes. During hr-fMRI scanning, participants navigated virtual mazes that were well-learned from prior training while also learning new mazes. Some routes learned during scanning shared hallways with those learned during pre-scan training, requiring participants to select between alternative paths. Critically, each maze began with a distinct spatial contextual Cue period. Our analysis targeted activity from the Cue period, during which participants identified the current navigational episode, facilitating retrieval of upcoming route components and distinguishing mazes that overlap. Results demonstrated that multiple MTL regions were predominantly active for the contextual Cue period of the task, with specific regions of CA3/DG, parahippocampal cortex, and perirhinal cortex being consistently recruited across trials for Cue periods of both novel and familiar mazes. During early trials of the task, both CA3/DG and CA1 were more active for overlapping than non-overlapping Cue periods. Trial-by-trial Cue period responses in CA1 tracked subsequent overlapping maze performance across runs. Together, our findings provide novel insight into the contributions of MTL

  20. Autonoetic Consciousness in Autobiographical Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noulhiane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task. Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection gave reduced sense of reliving (R responses and more familiarity (K responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness.

  1. Autonoetic Consciousness in Autobiographical Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulhiane, M.; Piolino, P.; Hasboun, D.; Clemenceau, S.; Baulac, M.; Samson, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K) paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task). Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection) gave reduced sense of reliving (R) responses and more familiarity (K) responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness. PMID:18413911

  2. Stellate Cells in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex Are Required for Spatial Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Tennant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning requires estimates of location that may be obtained by path integration or from positional cues. Grid and other spatial firing patterns of neurons in the superficial medial entorhinal cortex (MEC suggest roles in behavioral estimation of location. However, distinguishing the contributions of path integration and cue-based signals to spatial behaviors is challenging, and the roles of identified MEC neurons are unclear. We use virtual reality to dissociate linear path integration from other strategies for behavioral estimation of location. We find that mice learn to path integrate using motor-related self-motion signals, with accuracy that decreases steeply as a function of distance. We show that inactivation of stellate cells in superficial MEC impairs spatial learning in virtual reality and in a real world object location recognition task. Our results quantify contributions of path integration to behavior and corroborate key predictions of models in which stellate cells contribute to location estimation.

  3. Frontal, Striatal, and Medial Temporal Sensitivity to Value Distinguishes Risk-Taking from Risk-Aversive Older Adults during Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Joshua O S; Su, Yu-Shiang; Tang, Yong-Jheng; McCarrey, Anna C; Tereshchenko, Alexander; Elkins, Wendy; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-12-07

    Aging compromises the frontal, striatal, and medial temporal areas of the reward system, impeding accurate value representation and feedback processing critical for decision making. However, substantial variability characterizes age-related effects on the brain so that some older individuals evince clear neurocognitive declines whereas others are spared. Moreover, the functional correlates of normative individual differences in older-adult value-based decision making remain unclear. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in 173 human older adults during a lottery choice task in which costly to more desirable stakes were depicted using low to high expected values (EVs) of points. Across trials that varied in EVs, participants decided to accept or decline the offered stakes to maximize total accumulated points. We found that greater age was associated with less optimal decisions, accepting stakes when losses were likely and declining stakes when gains were likely, and was associated with increased frontal activity for costlier stakes. Critically, risk preferences varied substantially across older adults and neural sensitivity to EVs in the frontal, striatal, and medial temporal areas dissociated risk-aversive from risk-taking individuals. Specifically, risk-averters increased neural responses to increasing EVs as stakes became more desirable, whereas risk-takers increased neural responses with decreasing EV as stakes became more costly. Risk preference also modulated striatal responses during feedback with risk-takers showing more positive responses to gains compared with risk-averters. Our findings highlight the frontal, striatal, and medial temporal areas as key neural loci in which individual differences differentially affect value-based decision-making ability in older adults. Frontal, striatal, and medial temporal functions implicated in value-based decision processing of rewards and costs undergo substantial age-related changes. However, age

  4. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissociable effects of cingulate and medial frontal cortex lesions on stimulus-reward learning using a novel Pavlovian autoshaping procedure for the rat: implications for the neurobiology of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, T J; Everitt, B J; Robbins, T W

    1997-10-01

    The effects of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and medial frontal cortices on stimulus-reward learning were investigated with a novel Pavlovian autoshaping procedure in an apparatus allowing the automated presentation of computer-graphic stimuli to rats (T. J. Bussey, J. L. Muir, & T. W. Robbins, 1994). White vertical rectangles were presented on the left or the right of a computer screen. One of these conditioned stimuli (the CS+) was always followed by the presentation of a sucrose pellet; the other, the CS-, was never followed by reward. With training, rats came to approach the CS+ more often than the CS-. Anterior cingulate cortex-lesioned rats failed to demonstrate normal discriminated approach, making significantly more approaches to the CS- than did sham-operated controls. Medial frontal cortex-lesioned rats acquired the task normally but had longer overall approach latencies. Posterior cingulate cortex lesions did not affect acquisition.

  6. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in impaired decision making in juvenile attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Ball, Juliane; Mathys, Christoph; Brandeis, Daniel; Walitza, Susanne; Brem, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with deficient decision making and learning. Models of ADHD have suggested that these deficits could be caused by impaired reward prediction errors (RPEs). Reward prediction errors are signals that indicate violations of expectations and are known to be encoded by the dopaminergic system. However, the precise learning and decision-making deficits and their neurobiological correlates in ADHD are not well known. To determine the impaired decision-making and learning mechanisms in juvenile ADHD using advanced computational models, as well as the related neural RPE processes using multimodal neuroimaging. Twenty adolescents with ADHD and 20 healthy adolescents serving as controls (aged 12-16 years) were examined using a probabilistic reversal learning task while simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram were recorded. Learning and decision making were investigated by contrasting a hierarchical Bayesian model with an advanced reinforcement learning model and by comparing the model parameters. The neural correlates of RPEs were studied in functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram. Adolescents with ADHD showed more simplistic learning as reflected by the reinforcement learning model (exceedance probability, Px = .92) and had increased exploratory behavior compared with healthy controls (mean [SD] decision steepness parameter β: ADHD, 4.83 [2.97]; controls, 6.04 [2.53]; P = .02). The functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed impaired RPE processing in the medial prefrontal cortex during cue as well as during outcome presentation (P decision making and learning mechanisms in adolescents with ADHD are driven by impaired RPE processing in the medial prefrontal cortex. This novel, combined approach furthers the understanding of the pathomechanisms in ADHD and may advance treatment strategies.

  7. False memory for context activates the parahippocampal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex during true memory than false memory, which has been interpreted as reflecting greater sensory processing during true memory. However, in these studies, sensory detail and contextual information were confounded. In the present fMRI study, we employed a novel paradigm to dissociate these factors. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented in one of two contexts (i.e., moving or stationary). During retrieval, participants classified shapes as previously "moving" or "stationary." Critically, contextual processing was relatively greater during false memory ("moving" responses to stationary items), while sensory processing was relatively greater during true memory ("moving" responses to moving items). Within the medial temporal lobe, false memory versus true memory produced greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex, whereas true memory versus false memory produced greater activity in the hippocampus. The present results indicate that the parahippocampal cortex mediates contextual processing rather than sensory processing.

  8. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  9. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the conditioning and extinction of fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Francis Giustino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Once acquired, a fearful memory can persist for a lifetime. Although learned fear can be extinguished, extinction memories are fragile. The resilience of fear memories to extinction may contribute to the maintenance of disorders of fear and anxiety, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. As such, considerable effort has been placed on understanding the neural circuitry underlying the acquisition, expression, and extinction of emotional memories in rodent models as well as in humans. A triad of brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, form an essential brain circuit involved in fear conditioning and extinction. Within this circuit, the prefrontal cortex is thought to exert top-down control over subcortical structures to regulate appropriate behavioral responses. Importantly, a division of labor has been proposed in which the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC regulate the expression and suppression of fear in rodents, respectively. Here we critically review the anatomical and physiological evidence that has led to this proposed dichotomy of function within mPFC. We propose that under some conditions, the PL and IL act in concert, exhibiting similar patterns of neural activity in response to aversive conditioned stimuli and during the expression or inhibition of conditioned fear. This may stem from common synaptic inputs, parallel downstream outputs, or cortico-cortical interactions. Despite this functional covariation, these mPFC subdivisions may still be coding for largely opposing behavioral outcomes, with PL biased towards fear expression and IL towards suppression.

  10. Navigation-assisted trans-inferotemporal cortex selective amygdalohippocampectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; preserving the temporal stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Haruhiko; Kato, Amami; Oshino, Satoru; Tani, Naoki; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Khoo, Hui Ming; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Edakawa, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Tanaka, Masataka; Hosomi, Koichi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2017-03-01

    Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) can be used to obtain satisfactory seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Several SAH procedures have been reported to achieve satisfactory outcomes for seizure control, but none yield fully satisfactory outcomes for memory function. We hypothesized that preserving the temporal stem might play an important role. To preserve the temporal stem, we developed a minimally invasive surgical procedure, 'neuronavigation-assisted trans-inferotemporal cortex SAH' (TITC-SAH). TITC-SAH was performed in 23 patients with MTLE (MTLE on the language-non-dominant hemisphere, n = 11). The inferior horn of the lateral ventricle was approached via the inferior or middle temporal gyrus along the inferior temporal sulcus under neuronavigation guidance. The hippocampus was dissected in a subpial manner and resected en bloc together with the parahippocampal gyrus. Seizure control at one year and memory function at 6 months postoperatively were evaluated. One year after TITC-SAH, 20 of the 23 patients were seizure-free (ILAE class 1), 2 were class 2, and 1 was class 3. Verbal memory improved significantly in 13 patients with a diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis, for whom WMS-R scores were available both pre- and post-operatively. Improvements were seen regardless of whether the SAH was on the language-dominant or non-dominant hemisphere. No major complication was observed. Navigation-assisted TITC-SAH performed for MTLE offers a simple, minimally invasive procedure that appears to yield excellent outcomes in terms of seizure control and preservation of memory function, because this procedure does not damage the temporal stem. TITC-SAH should be one of the feasible surgical procedures for MTLE. SAH: Amygdalohippocampectomy; MTLE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); TITC-SAH: Ttrans-inferotemporal cortex SAH; ILAE: International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE); MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; EEG

  11. Neonatal isolation augments social dominance by altering actin dynamics in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hirobumi; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takemoto, Kiwamu; Takase, Kenkichi; Jitsuki, Susumu; Nakajima, Waki; Koide, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoko; Komiya, Kasane; Suyama, Kumiko; Sano, Akane; Taguchi, Akiko; Takahashi, Takuya

    2016-10-25

    Social separation early in life can lead to the development of impaired interpersonal relationships and profound social disorders. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we found that isolation of neonatal rats induced glucocorticoid-dependent social dominance over nonisolated control rats in juveniles from the same litter. Furthermore, neonatal isolation inactivated the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin in the juvenile medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Isolation-induced inactivation of ADF/cofilin increased stable actin fractions at dendritic spines in the juvenile mPFC, decreasing glutamate synaptic AMPA receptors. Expression of constitutively active ADF/cofilin in the mPFC rescued the effect of isolation on social dominance. Thus, neonatal isolation affects spines in the mPFC by reducing actin dynamics, leading to altered social behavior later in life.

  12. Neonatal isolation augments social dominance by altering actin dynamics in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hirobumi; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takemoto, Kiwamu; Takase, Kenkichi; Jitsuki, Susumu; Nakajima, Waki; Koide, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoko; Komiya, Kasane; Suyama, Kumiko; Sano, Akane; Taguchi, Akiko; Takahashi, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Social separation early in life can lead to the development of impaired interpersonal relationships and profound social disorders. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we found that isolation of neonatal rats induced glucocorticoid-dependent social dominance over nonisolated control rats in juveniles from the same litter. Furthermore, neonatal isolation inactivated the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin in the juvenile medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Isolation-induced inactivation of ADF/cofilin increased stable actin fractions at dendritic spines in the juvenile mPFC, decreasing glutamate synaptic AMPA receptors. Expression of constitutively active ADF/cofilin in the mPFC rescued the effect of isolation on social dominance. Thus, neonatal isolation affects spines in the mPFC by reducing actin dynamics, leading to altered social behavior later in life. PMID:27791080

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters p35, CDK5 and GSK3β in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampus of adolescent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Goggin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs are the number one cause of preventable mental retardation. An estimated 2–5% of children are diagnosed as having a FASD. While it is known that children prenatally exposed to alcohol experience cognitive deficits and a higher incidence of psychiatric illness later in life, the pathways underlying these abnormalities remain uncertain. GSK3β and CDK5 are protein kinases that are converging points for a vast number of signaling cascades, including those controlling cellular processes critical to learning and memory. We investigated whether levels of GSK3β and CDK5 are affected by moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, specifically in the hippocampus and medial frontal cortex of the adolescent mouse. In the present work we utilized immunoblotting techniques to demonstrate that moderate PAE increased hippocampal p35 and β-catenin, and decreased total levels of GSK3β, while increasing GSK3β Ser9 and Tyr216 phosphorylation. Interestingly, different alterations were seen in the medial frontal cortex where p35 and CDK5 were decreased and increased total GSK3β was accompanied by reduced Tyr216 of the enzyme. These results suggest that kinase dysregulation during adolescence might be an important contributing factor to the effects of PAE on hippocampal and medial frontal cortical functioning; and by extension, that global modulation of these kinases may produce differing effects depending on brain region.

  14. Tissue Expressions of Soluble Human Epoxide Hydrolase-2 Enzyme in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Merdin Lyutviev; Kemerdere, Rahsan; Baran, Oguz; Inal, Berrin Bercik; Gumus, Alper; Coskun, Cihan; Yeni, Seher Naz; Eren, Bulent; Uzan, Mustafa; Tanriverdi, Taner

    2017-10-01

    We sought to simply demonstrate how levels of soluble human epoxide hydrolase-2 show changes in both temporal the cortex and hippocampal complex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. A total of 20 patients underwent anterior temporal lobe resection due to temporal lobe epilepsy. The control group comprised 15 people who died in traffic accidents or by falling from a height, and their autopsy findings were included. Adequately sized temporal cortex and hippocampal samples were removed from each patient during surgery, and the same anatomic structures were removed from the control subjects during the autopsy procedures. Each sample was stored at -80°C as rapidly as possible until the enzyme assay. The temporal cortex in the epilepsy patients had a significantly higher enzyme level than did the temporal cortex of the control group (P = 0.03). Correlation analysis showed that as the enzyme level increases in the temporal cortex, it also increases in the hippocampal complex (r 2  = 0.06, P = 0.00001). More important, enzyme tissue levels showed positive correlations with seizure frequency in both the temporal cortex and hippocampal complex in patients (r 2  = 0.7, P = 0.00001 and r 2  = 0.4, P = 0.003, respectively). The duration of epilepsy was also positively correlated with the hippocampal enzyme level (r 2  = 0.06, P = 0.00001). Soluble human epoxy hydrolase enzyme-2 is increased in both lateral and medial temporal tissues in temporal lobe epilepsy. Further studies should be conducted as inhibition of this enzyme has resulted in a significant decrease in or stopping of seizures and attenuated neuroinflammation in experimental epilepsy models in the current literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MR volumetric measurement of medial temporal lobe in differentiating Alzheimer disease and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Li Kuncheng; Liu Shuliang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of measurement of medial temporal structure by MR imaging volumetry in the differential diagnosis for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). Methods: Thirty-three probable patients of AD, 33 normal controls, and 17 patients suspected with SIVD had been scanned by MRI, and volumetric measurements of amygdala (AMY), hippocampal formations (HF), entorhinal cortices (EC), parahippocampal gyri (PHG), and temporal horn of lateral ventricle (TH) were done on a serial reconstructed MR images. Results: Both atrophy of HF and dilatation of TH were significant (P<0.05) in SIVD group compared with that in control group. All the measurements with the exception of TH were atrophied significantly (P<0.001) in AD group compared with that in SIVD group and could significantly discriminate the two group. Among these indexes, the left EC provided the best discrimination with the specificity of 82.4%, sensitivity of 87.9%, and accuracy of 86.0%, respectively, and the average accuracy of bilateral EC in discrimination was 85%. Conclusion: The MR imaging volumetric measurements of medial temporal structure could offer useful information in discriminating individuals with AD from that with SIVD. Meanwhile, it should be understood that the AD-type pathological changes could also be induced by cerebrovascular disease

  16. From conflict management to reward-based decision making: actors and critics in primate medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvetti, Massimo; Alexander, William; Verguts, Tom; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-10-01

    The role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and especially the anterior cingulate cortex has been the subject of intense debate for the last decade. A number of theories have been proposed to account for its function. Broadly speaking, some emphasize cognitive control, whereas others emphasize value processing; specific theories concern reward processing, conflict detection, error monitoring, and volatility detection, among others. Here we survey and evaluate them relative to experimental results from neurophysiological, anatomical, and cognitive studies. We argue for a new conceptualization of mPFC, arising from recent computational modeling work. Based on reinforcement learning theory, these new models propose that mPFC is an Actor-Critic system. This system is aimed to predict future events including rewards, to evaluate errors in those predictions, and finally, to implement optimal skeletal-motor and visceromotor commands to obtain reward. This framework provides a comprehensive account of mPFC function, accounting for and predicting empirical results across different levels of analysis, including monkey neurophysiology, human ERP, human neuroimaging, and human behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential Medial Temporal Lobe and Parietal Cortical Contributions to Real-world Autobiographical Episodic and Autobiographical Semantic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thackery I; Rissman, Jesse; Chow, Tiffany E; Uncapher, Melina R; Wagner, Anthony D

    2018-04-18

    Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering. During scanning, participants made memory judgments about photograph sequences depicting past events from their life or from others' lives, and indicated whether memory was based on episodic or semantic knowledge. Results revealed several distinct functional patterns: activity in most MTL subregions was selectively associated with autobiographical episodic memory; the hippocampal tail, superior parietal lobule, and intraparietal sulcus were similarly engaged when memory was based on retrieval of an autobiographical episode or autobiographical semantic knowledge; and angular gyrus demonstrated a graded pattern, with activity declining from autobiographical recollection to autobiographical semantic remembering to correct rejections of novel events. Collectively, our data offer insights into MTL and parietal cortex functional organization, and elucidate circuitry that supports different forms of real-world autobiographical memory.

  18. Deactivation of medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex in anxiety disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Dong Ningxin; Li Chunbo; Wu Wenyuan; Hu Zhenghui; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We used blood oxygenation level dependent-functional MR imaging (BOLD- fMRI) to explore the characteristics of deactivation patterns in patients with anxiety disorders and the underlying neural mechanism of this disease. Methods: Ten patients and ten healthy controls participated the experiments. All subjects performed the trait portion of the State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) prior to the fMRI scans. The subjects underwent noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging while listening actively to emotionally neutral words alternating with no words (experiment 1) and threat related-words alternating with emotionally neutral words (experiment2). During fMRI scanning, subjects were instructed to closely listen to each stimuli word and to silently make a judgment of the word's valence. Data were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99). Individual and group analysis were conducted. Results: Mean STAI-T score was significantly higher for patients group than that of controls (58 ± 8 for patients group and 33 ± 5 for controls, t=8.3, P<0.01). Our fMRI data revealed sets of deactivation brain regions in Experiment for patients and healthy controls, however, the deactivation can be found in experiment 2 only for patients. Interestingly, all the observed deactivation patterns were similar. The related areas compromise medial prefrontal cortex(BA 10, BA 24/32), posterior cingulate (BA 31/30) and Bilateral inferior parietal cortex (MPFC) (BA 39/40), which nearly overlapping with the organized default model network. Further more, the mean t values in the MPFC area (BA 24/32) was significantly higher for control group than that of patient (5.1 controls and 4.2 for patients, t=4.8, P=0.006), conversely, the mean t values in the posterior cingulate cortex(PCC) area was significantly higher for patients l than that of controls (4.9 controls and 5.8 for patients, t=2.4, P=0.026). Conclusion: Our observations suggest that the default model network

  19. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based assessment of gray matter loss in medial temporal lobe epilepsy; comparison with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Gun; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to find brain regions in which gray matter volume was reduced and to show the capability of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for lateralizing epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The findings were compared with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). MR T1-weighted images of 12 left mTLE and 11 right mTLE patients were compared with those of 37 normal controls. Images were transformed to standard MNI space and averaged in order to create study-specific brain template. Each image was normalized to this local template and brain tissues were segmented. Modulation VBM analysis was performed in order to observe gray matter volume change. Gray matter was smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. After these preprocessing, statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). FDG PET images were compared with those of 22 normal controls using SPM. Gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the left amygdala and hippocampus in left mTLE. In addition, volume of cerebellum, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyrus in both sides and left insula was reduced. In right mTLE, volume was reduced significantly in right hippocampus. In contrast, FDG uptake was decreased in broad areas of left or right temporal lobes in left TLE and right TLE, respectively. Gray matter loss was found in the ipsilateral hippocampus by modulation VBM analysis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. This VBM analysis might be useful in lateralizing the epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy, while SPM analysis of FDG PET disclosed hypometabolic epileptogenic zones

  20. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based assessment of gray matter loss in medial temporal lobe epilepsy; comparison with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Gun; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The aims of this study were to find brain regions in which gray matter volume was reduced and to show the capability of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for lateralizing epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The findings were compared with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). MR T1-weighted images of 12 left mTLE and 11 right mTLE patients were compared with those of 37 normal controls. Images were transformed to standard MNI space and averaged in order to create study-specific brain template. Each image was normalized to this local template and brain tissues were segmented. Modulation VBM analysis was performed in order to observe gray matter volume change. Gray matter was smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. After these preprocessing, statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). FDG PET images were compared with those of 22 normal controls using SPM. Gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the left amygdala and hippocampus in left mTLE. In addition, volume of cerebellum, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyrus in both sides and left insula was reduced. In right mTLE, volume was reduced significantly in right hippocampus. In contrast, FDG uptake was decreased in broad areas of left or right temporal lobes in left TLE and right TLE, respectively. Gray matter loss was found in the ipsilateral hippocampus by modulation VBM analysis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. This VBM analysis might be useful in lateralizing the epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy, while SPM analysis of FDG PET disclosed hypometabolic epileptogenic zones.

  1. Linking DMN connectivity to episodic memory capacity: What can we learn from patients with medial temporal lobe damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia McCormick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational models predict that focal damage to the Default Mode Network (DMN causes widespread decreases and increases of functional DMN connectivity. How such alterations impact functioning in a specific cognitive domain such as episodic memory remains relatively unexplored. Here, we show in patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE that focal structural damage leads indeed to specific patterns of DMN functional connectivity alterations, specifically decreased connectivity between both medial temporal lobes (MTLs and the posterior part of the DMN and increased intrahemispheric anterior–posterior connectivity. Importantly, these patterns were associated with better and worse episodic memory capacity, respectively. These distinct patterns, shown here for the first time, suggest that a close dialogue between both MTLs and the posterior components of the DMN is required to fully express the extensive repertoire of episodic memory abilities.

  2. Brain networks of social action-outcome contingency: The role of the ventral striatum in integrating signals from the sensory cortex and medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Motofumi; Koike, Takahiko; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Kitada, Ryo; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-10-01

    Social interactions can be facilitated by action-outcome contingency, in which self-actions result in relevant responses from others. Research has indicated that the striatal reward system plays a role in generating action-outcome contingency signals. However, the neural mechanisms wherein signals regarding self-action and others' responses are integrated to generate the contingency signal remain poorly understood. We conducted a functional MRI study to test the hypothesis that brain activity representing the self modulates connectivity between the striatal reward system and sensory regions involved in the processing of others' responses. We employed a contingency task in which participants made the listener laugh by telling jokes. Participants reported more pleasure when greater laughter followed their own jokes than those of another. Self-relevant listener's responses produced stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Laughter was associated with activity in the auditory cortex. The ventral striatum exhibited stronger activation when participants made listeners laugh than when another did. In physio-physiological interaction analyses, the ventral striatum showed interaction effects for signals extracted from the mPFC and auditory cortex. These results support the hypothesis that the mPFC, which is implicated in self-related processing, gates sensory input associated with others' responses during value processing in the ventral striatum. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulin Resistance Predicts Medial Temporal Hypermetabolism in Mild Cognitive Impairment Conversion to Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A.; Modanlo, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by progressive hypometabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. Peripheral insulin resistance (IR) increases AD risk. No studies have examined associations between FDG metabolism and IR in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, as well as MCI conversion to AD. We studied 26 cognitively normal (CN), 194 MCI (39 MCI-progressors, 148 MCI-stable, 2 years after baseline), and 60 AD subjects with baseline FDG-PET from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Mean FDG metabolism was derived for AD-vulnerable regions of interest (ROIs), including lateral parietal and posteromedial cortices, medial temporal lobe (MTL), hippocampus, and ventral prefrontal cortices (vPFC), as well as postcentral gyrus and global cerebrum control regions. The homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was used to measure IR. For AD, higher HOMA-IR predicted lower FDG in all ROIs. For MCI-progressors, higher HOMA-IR predicted higher FDG in the MTL and hippocampus. Control regions showed no associations. Higher HOMA-IR predicted hypermetabolism in MCI-progressors and hypometabolism in AD in medial temporal regions. Future longitudinal studies should examine the pathophysiologic significance of the shift from MTL hyper- to hypometabolism associated with IR. PMID:25576061

  4. What, if anything, is the medial temporal lobe, and how can the amygdala be part of it if there is no such thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elisabeth A; Wise, Steven P

    2004-11-01

    Should the medial temporal lobe (MTL) of primates--which includes allocortical structures such as the hippocampus, neocortical structures such as the parahippocampal cortex, and nuclear structures such as the basolateral amygdala--be considered a single "thing"? According to the prevailing view, here termed the reification theory, the answer is yes. According to this theory, the MTL functions as an amalgamated entity that provides the neuronal mechanisms for declarative memory; the greater the damage to the MTL or any of its components, the greater the deleterious effects on declarative memory. A countervailing view, here called the balkanization theory, holds that the various components of the MTL process and store different kinds of information. According to this theory, damage to each part of the MTL causes a unique set of behavioral deficits-some involving memory, others involving perception, and yet others involving response selection. The empirical neuropsychological evidence favors the balkanization theory, as do some new concepts in theoretical neuroanatomy.

  5. Decreased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Ham, Byung-Joo; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Leen; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung

    2013-08-01

    Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) have clinical symptoms such as the fear of being outside or of open spaces from which escape would be difficult. Although recent neurobiological studies have suggested that fear conditioning and extinction are associated with PDA, no study has examined the possible structural abnormalities in patients with PDA. This preliminary study compares the gray matter volume among patients with PDA, those with panic disorder without agoraphobia (PDW), and healthy controls (HC) using high-resolution 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Compared with HC, patients with PDA showed decreased gray matter volume in their left medial orbitofrontal gyrus. However, differences were not found in the gray matter volumes of patients with PDW and whole panic disorder compared with HC. These findings suggest that the phobic avoidance found in patients with PDA arise from abnormalities in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, which plays an important role in fear extinction. Future studies should investigate the neuroanatomical substrates of PDA and distinguish them from those of PDW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prefrontal cortex modulates desire and dread generated by nucleus accumbens glutamate disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jocelyn M; Berridge, Kent C

    2013-02-15

    Corticolimbic circuits, including direct projections from prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens (NAc), permit top-down control of intense motivations generated by subcortical circuits. In rats, localized disruptions of glutamate signaling within medial shell of NAc generate desire or dread, anatomically organized along a rostrocaudal gradient analogous to a limbic keyboard. At rostral locations in shell, these disruptions generate appetitive eating, but at caudal locations the disruptions generate progressively fearful behaviors (distress vocalizations, escape attempts, and antipredator reactions). Here, we asked whether medial prefrontal cortex can modulate intense motivations generated by subcortical NAc disruptions. We used simultaneous microinjections in medial prefrontal cortex regions and in NAc shell to examine whether the desire or dread generated by NAc shell disruptions is modulated by activation/inhibition of three specific regions of prefrontal cortex: medial orbitofrontal cortex, infralimbic cortex (homologous to area 25 or subgenual anterior cingulate in the human), or prelimbic cortex (midventral anterior cingulate). We found that activation of medial orbitofrontal cortex biased intense bivalent motivation in an appetitive direction by amplifying generation of eating behavior by middle to caudal NAc disruptions, without altering fear. In contrast, activation of infralimbic prefrontal cortex powerfully and generally suppressed both appetitive eating and fearful behaviors generated by NAc shell disruptions. These results suggest that corticolimbic projections from discrete prefrontal regions can either bias motivational valence or generally suppress subcortically generated intense motivations of desire or fear. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Mediates Effort-related Responding in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Alexandra; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2017-11-17

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the mOFC increased, while pharmacological stimulation reduced PR responding. In addition, pharmacological mOFC stimulation attenuated methylphenidate-induced increase of PR responding. Intact rats tested for PR responding displayed higher numbers of c-Fos positive mOFC neurons than appropriate controls; however, mOFC neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens did not show a selective increase in neuronal activation implying that they may not play a major role in regulating PR responding. Collectively, these results suggest that the mOFC plays a major role in mediating effort-related motivational functions. Moreover, our data demonstrate for the first time that the mOFC modulates effort-related effects of psychostimulant drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Rebound spiking in layer II medial entorhinal cortex stellate cells: Possible mechanism of grid cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Christopher F.; Ferrante, Michele; Chapman, G. William; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Rebound spiking properties of medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) stellate cells induced by inhibition may underlie their functional properties in awake behaving rats, including the temporal phase separation of distinct grid cells and differences in grid cell firing properties. We investigated rebound spiking properties using whole cell patch recording in entorhinal slices, holding cells near spiking threshold and delivering sinusoidal inputs, superimposed with realistic inhibitory synaptic inputs to test the capacity of cells to selectively respond to specific phases of inhibitory input. Stellate cells showed a specific phase range of hyperpolarizing inputs that elicited spiking, but non-stellate cells did not show phase specificity. In both cell types, the phase range of spiking output occurred between the peak and subsequent descending zero crossing of the sinusoid. The phases of inhibitory inputs that induced spikes shifted earlier as the baseline sinusoid frequency increased, while spiking output shifted to later phases. Increases in magnitude of the inhibitory inputs shifted the spiking output to earlier phases. Pharmacological blockade of h-current abolished the phase selectivity of hyperpolarizing inputs eliciting spikes. A network computational model using cells possessing similar rebound properties as found in vitro produces spatially periodic firing properties resembling grid cell firing when a simulated animal moves along a linear track. These results suggest that the ability of mEC stellate cells to fire rebound spikes in response to a specific range of phases of inhibition could support complex attractor dynamics that provide completion and separation to maintain spiking activity of specific grid cell populations. PMID:26385258

  9. Corticostriatal field potentials are modulated at delta and theta frequencies during interval-timing task in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B Emmons

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizing movements in time is a critical and highly conserved feature of mammalian behavior. Temporal control of action requires corticostriatal networks. We investigate these networks in rodents using a two-interval timing task while recording local field potentials in medial frontal cortex or dorsomedial striatum. Consistent with prior work, we found cue-triggered delta (1-4 Hz and theta activity (4-8 Hz primarily in rodent medial frontal cortex. We observed delta activity across temporal intervals in medial frontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum. Rewarded responses were associated with increased delta activity in medial frontal cortex. Activity in theta bands in medial frontal cortex and delta bands in the striatum was linked with the timing of responses. These data suggest both delta and theta activity in frontostriatal networks are modulated during interval timing and that activity in these bands may be involved in the temporal control of action.

  10. The world according to me: Personal relevance and the medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eAbraham

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available More than a decade of neuroimaging research has established that anterior and posterior cortical midline regions are consistently recruited during self-referential thinking. These regions are engaged under conditions of directed cognition, such as during explicit self-reference tasks, as well as during spontaneous cognition, such as under conditions of rest. One of the many issues that remain to be clarified regarding the relationship between self-referential thinking and cortical midline activity is the functional specificity of these regions with regard to the nature of self-representation and processing. The functional profile associated with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is the focus of the current article. What is specifically explored is the idea that personal relevance or personal significance is a central factor that impacts how brain activity is modulated within this cortical midline region. The proactive, imaginative and predictive nature of function in the mPFC is examined by evaluating studies of spontaneously-directed cognition, which is triggered by stimulus associated personal relevance.

  11. Memory for fearful faces across development: specialization of amygdala nuclei and medial temporal lobe structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinabiaux, Charlotte; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Chiron, Catherine; Rodrigo, Sébastian; Jambaqué, Isabelle; Noulhiane, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced memory for emotional faces is a significant component of adaptive social interactions, but little is known on its neural developmental correlates. We explored the role of amygdaloid complex (AC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL) in emotional memory recognition across development, by comparing fMRI activations of successful memory encoding of fearful and neutral faces in children (n = 12; 8-12 years) and adolescents (n = 12; 13-17 years). Memory for fearful faces was enhanced compared with neutral ones in adolescents, as opposed to children. In adolescents, activations associated with successful encoding of fearful faces were centered on baso-lateral AC nuclei, hippocampus, enthorhinal and parahippocampal cortices. In children, successful encoding of fearful faces relied on activations of centro-mesial AC nuclei, which was not accompanied by functional activation of MTL memory structures. Successful encoding of neutral faces depended on activations in anterior MTL region (hippocampal head and body) in adolescents, but more posterior ones (hippocampal tail and parahippocampal cortex) in children. In conclusion, two distinct functional specializations emerge from childhood to adolescence and result in the enhancement of memory for these particular stimuli: the specialization of baso-lateral AC nuclei, which is associated with the expertise in processing emotional facial expression, and which is intimately related to the specialization of MTL memory network. How the interplay between specialization of AC nuclei and of MTL memory structures is fundamental for the edification of social interactions remains to be elucidated.

  12. Memory for fearful faces across development: specialization of amygdala nuclei and medial temporal lobe structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte ePinabiaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced memory for emotional faces is a significant component of adaptive social interactions, but little is known on its neural developmental correlates. We explored the role of amygdaloid complex (AC and medial temporal lobe (MTL in emotional memory recognition across development, by comparing fMRI activations of successful memory encoding of fearful and neutral faces in children (n=12; 8-12 years and adolescents (n=12; 13-17 years. Memory for fearful faces was enhanced compared with neutral ones in adolescents, as opposed to children. In adolescents, activations associated with successful encoding of fearful faces were centered on baso-lateral AC nuclei, hippocampus, enthorhinal and parahippocampal cortices. In children, successful encoding of fearful faces relied on activations of centro-mesial AC nuclei, which was not accompanied by functional activation of MTL memory structures. Successful encoding of neutral faces depended on activations in anterior MTL region (hippocampal head and body in adolescents, but more posterior ones (hippocampal tail and parahippocampal cortex in children. In conclusion, two distinct functional specializations emerge from childhood to adolescence and result in the enhancement of memory for these particular stimuli: the specialization of baso-lateral AC nuclei, which is associated with the expertise in processing emotional facial expression, and which is intimately related to the specialization of MTL memory network. How the interplay between specialization of AC nuclei and of MTL memory structures is fundamental for the edification of social interactions remains to be elucidated.

  13. Effects of neonatal inferior prefrontal and medial temporal lesions on learning the rule for delayed nonmatching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, L; Bachevalier, J; Webster, M; Mishkin, M

    2000-01-01

    The ability of rhesus monkeys to master the rule for delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) has a protracted ontogenetic development, reaching adult levels of proficiency around 4 to 5 years of age (Bachevalier, 1990). To test the possibility that this slow development could be due, at least in part, to immaturity of the prefrontal component of a temporo-prefrontal circuit important for DNMS rule learning (Kowalska, Bachevalier, & Mishkin, 1991; Weinstein, Saunders, & Mishkin, 1988), monkeys with neonatal lesions of the inferior prefrontal convexity were compared on DNMS with both normal controls and animals given neonatal lesions of the medial temporal lobe. Consistent with our previous results (Bachevalier & Mishkin, 1994; Málková, Mishkin, & Bachevalier, 1995), the neonatal medial temporal lesions led to marked impairment in rule learning (as well as in recognition memory with long delays and list lengths) at both 3 months and 2 years of age. By contrast, the neonatal inferior convexity lesions yielded no impairment in rule-learning at 3 months and only a mild impairment at 2 years, a finding that also contrasts sharply with the marked effects of the same lesion made in adulthood. This pattern of sparing closely resembles the one found earlier after neonatal lesions to the cortical visual area TE (Bachevalier & Mishkin, 1994; Málková et al., 1995). The functional sparing at 3 months probably reflects the fact that the temporo-prefrontal circuit is nonfunctional at this early age, resulting in a total dependency on medial temporal contributions to rule learning. With further development, however, this circuit begins to provide a supplementary route for learning.

  14. Correlation between hippocampal volumes and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dhikav, Vikas; Duraiswamy, Sharmila; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hippocampus undergoes atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calculation of hippocampal volumes can be done by a variety of methods using T1-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Medial temporal lobes atrophy (MTL) can be rated visually using T1-weighted MRI brain images. The present study was done to see if any correlation existed between hippocampal volumes and visual rating scores of the MTL using Scheltens Visual Rating Method. Materia...

  15. The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on suppression of habitual counting during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Profice, P; Brown, R G; Ridding, M C; Dirnberger, G; Rothwell, J C

    1998-08-01

    Random number generation is an attention-demanding task that engages working memory and executive processes. Random number generation requires holding information 'on line', suppression of habitual counting, internally driven response generation and monitoring of responses. Evidence from PET studies suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the generation of random responses. We examined the effects of short trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left or right DLPFC or medial frontal cortex on random number generation in healthy normal participants. As in previous evidence, in control trials without stimulation participants performed poorly on the random number generation task, showing repetition avoidance and a tendency to count. Brief disruption of processing with TMS over the left DLPFC changed the balance of the individuals' counting bias, increasing the most habitual counting in ones and reducing the lower probability response of counting in twos. This differential effect of TMS over the left DLPFC on the balance of the subject's counting bias was not obtained with TMS over the right DLPFC or the medial frontal cortex. The results suggest that, with disruption of the left DLPFC with TMS, habitual counting in ones that has previously been suppressed is released from inhibition. From these findings a network modulation model of random number generation is proposed, whereby suppression of habitual responses is achieved through the modulatory influence of the left DLPFC over a number-associative network in the superior temporal cortex. To allow emergence of appropriate random responses, the left DLPFC inhibits the superior temporal cortex to prevent spreading activation and habitual counting in ones.

  16. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex

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    Eric Bean Knudsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g. motor tasks under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n=5, while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n=6. Using PETH analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT, however only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter, we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R=0.61 significantly better than nIT animals (R=0.507, p<0.01, suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time.

  17. An increase in tobacco craving is associated with enhanced medial prefrontal cortex network coupling.

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    Amy C Janes

    Full Text Available Craving is a key aspect of drug dependence that is thought to motivate continued drug use. Numerous brain regions have been associated with craving, suggesting that craving is mediated by a distributed brain network. Whether an increase in subjective craving is associated with enhanced interactions among brain regions was evaluated using resting state functional magnetic imaging (fMRI in nicotine dependent participants. We focused on craving-related changes in the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC network, which also included the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC extending into the ventral striatum. Brain regions in the OMPFC network are not only implicated in addiction and reward, but, due to their rich anatomic interconnections, may serve as the site of integration across craving-related brain regions. Subjective craving and resting state fMRI were evaluated twice with an ∼1 hour delay between the scans. Cigarette craving was significantly increased at the end, relative to the beginning of the scan session. Enhanced craving was associated with heightened coupling between the OMPFC network and other cortical, limbic, striatal, and visceromotor brain regions that are both anatomically interconnected with the OMPFC, and have been implicated in addiction and craving. This is the first demonstration confirming that an increase in craving is associated with enhanced brain region interactions, which may play a role in the experience of craving.

  18. Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Impairs the Proliferation of Neuronal Progenitors, Leading to Fewer Glutamatergic Neurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Yuki; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hattori, Tomoya; Ueda, Eriko; Shimato, Akane; Sakakibara, Nami; Soh, Yuka; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Nagai, Taku; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with various disabilities in the offspring such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and persistent anxiety. We have reported that nicotine exposure in female mice during pregnancy, in particular from embryonic day 14 (E14) to postnatal day 0 (P0), induces long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, the mechanism by which prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) affects neurodevelopment, resulting in behavioral deficits, has remained unclear. Here, we report that PNE disrupted the proliferation of neuronal progenitors, leading to a decrease in the progenitor pool in the ventricular and subventricular zones. In addition, using a cumulative 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine labeling assay, we evaluated the rate of cell cycle progression causing the impairment of neuronal progenitor proliferation, and uncovered anomalous cell cycle kinetics in mice with PNE. Accordingly, the density of glutamatergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (medial PFC) was reduced, implying glutamatergic dysregulation. Mice with PNE exhibited behavioral impairments in attentional function and behavioral flexibility in adulthood, and the deficits were ameliorated by microinjection of D-cycloserine into the PFC. Collectively, our findings suggest that PNE affects the proliferation and maturation of progenitor cells to glutamatergic neuron during neurodevelopment in the medial PFC, which may be associated with cognitive deficits in the offspring. PMID:26105135

  19. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  20. Deep processing activates the medial temporal lobe in young but not in old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daselaar, Sander M; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G W; Jonker, Cees

    2003-11-01

    Age-related impairments in episodic memory have been related to a deficiency in semantic processing, based on the finding that elderly adults typically benefit less than young adults from deep, semantic as opposed to shallow, nonsemantic processing of study items. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that elderly adults are not able to perform certain cognitive operations under deep processing conditions. We further hypothesised that this inability does not involve regions commonly associated with lexical/semantic retrieval processes, but rather involves a dysfunction of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system. To this end, we used functional MRI on rather extensive groups of young and elderly adults to compare brain activity patterns obtained during a deep (living/nonliving) and a shallow (uppercase/lowercase) classification task. Common activity in relation to semantic classification was observed in regions that have been previously related to semantic retrieval, including mainly left-lateralised activity in the inferior prefrontal, middle temporal, and middle frontal/anterior cingulate gyrus. Although the young adults showed more activity in some of these areas, the finding of mainly overlapping activation patterns during semantic classification supports the idea that lexical/semantic retrieval processes are still intact in elderly adults. This received further support by the finding that both groups showed similar behavioural performances as well on the deep and shallow classification tasks. Importantly, though, the young revealed significantly more activity than the elderly adults in the left anterior hippocampus during deep relative to shallow classification. This finding is in line with the idea that age-related impairments in episodic encoding are, at least partly, due to an under-recruitment of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  1. Automatic interpretation of F-18-FDG brain PET using artificial neural network: discrimination of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Seok Ki; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    We developed a computer-aided classifier using artificial neural network (ANN) to discriminate the cerebral metabolic pattern of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied brain F-18-FDG PET images of 113 epilepsy patients surgically and pathologically proven as medial TLE (left 41, right 42) or lateral TLE (left 14, right 16). PET images were spatially transformed onto a standard template and normalized to the mean counts of cortical regions. Asymmetry indices for predefined 17 mirrored regions to hemispheric midline and those for medial and lateral temporal lobes were used as input features for ANN. ANN classifier was composed of 3 independent multi-layered perceptions (1 for left/right lateralization and 2 for medial/lateral discrimination) and trained to interpret metabolic patterns and produce one of 4 diagnoses (L/R medial TLE or L/R lateral TLE). Randomly selected 8 images from each group were used to train the ANN classifier and remaining 81 images were used as test sets. The accuracy of the diagnosis with ANN was estimated by averaging the agreement rates of independent 50 trials and compared to that of nuclear medicine experts. The accuracy in lateralization was 89% by the human experts and 90% by the ANN classifier. Overall accuracy in localization of epileptogenic zones by the ANN classifier was 69%, which was comparable to that by the human experts (72%). We conclude that ANN classifier performed as well as human experts and could be potentially useful supporting tool for the differential diagnosis of TLE.

  2. Automatic interpretation of F-18-FDG brain PET using artificial neural network: discrimination of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Seok Ki; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    We developed a computer-aided classifier using artificial neural network (ANN) to discriminate the cerebral metabolic pattern of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied brain F-18-FDG PET images of 113 epilepsy patients surgically and pathologically proven as medial TLE (left 41, right 42) or lateral TLE (left 14, right 16). PET images were spatially transformed onto a standard template and normalized to the mean counts of cortical regions. Asymmetry indices for predefined 17 mirrored regions to hemispheric midline and those for medial and lateral temporal lobes were used as input features for ANN. ANN classifier was composed of 3 independent multi-layered perceptions (1 for left/right lateralization and 2 for medial/lateral discrimination) and trained to interpret metabolic patterns and produce one of 4 diagnoses (L/R medial TLE or L/R lateral TLE). Randomly selected 8 images from each group were used to train the ANN classifier and remaining 81 images were used as test sets. The accuracy of the diagnosis with ANN was estimated by averaging the agreement rates of independent 50 trials and compared to that of nuclear medicine experts. The accuracy in lateralization was 89% by the human experts and 90% by the ANN classifier. Overall accuracy in localization of epileptogenic zones by the ANN classifier was 69%, which was comparable to that by the human experts (72%). We conclude that ANN classifier performed as well as human experts and could be potentially useful supporting tool for the differential diagnosis of TLE

  3. Cellular properties of principal neurons in the rat entorhinal cortex. I. The lateral entorhinal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canto, C.B.; Witter, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) provides a major cortical input to the hippocampal formation, equaling that of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). To understand the functional contributions made by LEC, basic knowledge of individual neurons, in the context of the intrinsic network, is needed.

  4. A Pencil Rescues Impaired Performance on a Visual Discrimination Task in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Ashley R.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    We tested proposals that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support not just memory but certain kinds of visual perception as well. Patients with hippocampal lesions or larger MTL lesions attempted to identify the unique object among twin pairs of objects that had a high degree of feature overlap. Patients were markedly impaired under the more…

  5. The Modulation of Error Processing in the Medial Frontal Cortex by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Bellaïche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In order to prevent future errors, we constantly control our behavior for discrepancies between the expected (i.e., intended and the real action outcome and continuously adjust our behavior accordingly. Neurophysiological correlates of this action-monitoring process can be studied with event-related potentials (error-related negativity (ERN and error positivity (Pe originating from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Patients with neuropsychiatric diseases often show performance monitoring dysfunctions potentially caused by pathological changes of cortical excitability; therefore, a modulation of the underlying neuronal activity might be a valuable therapeutic tool. One technique which allows us to explore cortical modulation of neural networks is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Therefore, we tested the effect of medial-prefrontal tDCS on error-monitoring potentials in 48 healthy subjects randomly assigned to anodal, cathodal, or sham stimulation. Results. We found that cathodal stimulation attenuated Pe amplitudes compared to both anodal and sham stimulation, but no effect for the ERN. Conclusions. Our results indicate that cathodal tDCS over the mPFC results in an attenuated cortical excitability leading to decreased Pe amplitudes. We therefore conclude that tDCS has a neuromodulatory effect on error-monitoring systems suggesting a future approach to modify the sensitivity of corresponding neural networks in patients with action-monitoring deficits.

  6. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects Ativação do córtex frontopolar e temporal anterior em uma tarefa de julgamento moral: resultados preliminares de ressonância magnética funcional em indivíduos normais

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    Jorge Moll

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. METHOD: Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either "right" or "wrong". Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ("We break the law when necessary", the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ("Stones are made of water". After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemodynamically modeled for event-related fMRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. RESULTS: Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC, medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (BA 10/46 and 9 were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct.OBJETIVO: Estudar, com ressonância magnética funcional (RMf, as áreas cerebrais normalmente ativadas por julgamentos morais em tarefa de verificação de sentenças. MÉTODO: Dez adultos normais foram estudados com RMf-BOLD durante a apresentação auditiva de sentenças cujo conteúdo foram instruídos a julgar como "certo" ou "errado". Metade das sentenças possuía um conteúdo moral explícito ("Transgredimos a lei se necess

  7. NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex modulate the elaborated defensive behavior and innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Medeiros, Priscila; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors of the prelimbic (PL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on the panic attack-like reactions evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus (MH). Rats were pretreated with NaCl 0.9%, LY235959 (NMDA receptor antagonist), and NBQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) in the PL at 3 different concentrations. Ten minutes later, the MH was treated with bicuculline, and the defensive responses were recorded for 10 min. The antagonism of NMDA receptors in the PL decreased the frequency and duration of all defensive behaviors evoked by the stimulation of the MH and reduced the innate fear-induced antinociception. However, the pretreatment of the PL cortex with NBQX was able to decrease only part of defensive responses and innate fear-induced antinociception. The present findings suggest that the NMDA-glutamatergic system of the PL is critically involved in panic-like responses and innate fear-induced antinociception and those AMPA/kainate receptors are also recruited during the elaboration of fear-induced antinociception and in panic attack-related response. The activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission of PL division of the MPFC during the elaboration of oriented behavioral reactions elicited by the chemical stimulation of the MH recruits mainly NMDA receptors in comparison with AMPA/kainate receptors.

  8. The default modes of reading: Modulation of posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex connectivity associated with subjective and objective differences in reading experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eSmallwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a fundamental human capacity and yet it can easily be derailed by the simple act of mind-wandering. A large-scale brain network, referred to as the default mode network (DMN, has been shown to be involved in both mind-wandering and reading, raising the question as to how the same neural system could be implicated in processes with both costs and benefits to narrative comprehension. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to explore whether the intrinsic functional connectivity of the two key midline hubs of the DMN — the posterior cingulate (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC — was predictive of individual differences in reading effectiveness (better comprehension, superior and task focus recorded outside of the scanner. Worse comprehension was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and a region of the ventral striatum. By contrast reports of increasing task focus were associated with functional connectivity from the aMPFC to clusters in the PCC, the left parietal and temporal cortex, and the cerebellum. Our results suggest that the DMN has both costs (such as poor comprehension and benefits to reading (such as an on-task focus because its midline core can couple its activity with other regions to form distinct functional communities that allow seemingly opposing mental states to occur. This flexible coupling allows the DMN to participate in cognitive states that complement the act of reading as well as others that do not.

  9. Neuronal correlate of pictorial short-term memory in the primate temporal cortexYasushi Miyashita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Yasushi; Chang, Han Soo

    1988-01-01

    It has been proposed that visual-memory traces are located in the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex, as electric stimulation of this area in humans results in recall of imagery1. Lesions in this area also affect recognition of an object after a delay in both humans2,3 and monkeys4-7 indicating a role in short-term memory of images8. Single-unit recordings from the temporal cortex have shown that some neurons continue to fire when one of two or four colours are to be remembered temporarily9. But neuronal responses selective to specific complex objects10-18 , including hands10,13 and faces13,16,17, cease soon after the offset of stimulus presentation10-18. These results led to the question of whether any of these neurons could serve the memory of complex objects. We report here a group of shape-selective neurons in an anterior ventral part of the temporal cortex of monkeys that exhibited sustained activity during the delay period of a visual short-term memory task. The activity was highly selective for the pictorial information to be memorized and was independent of the physical attributes such as size, orientation, colour or position of the object. These observations show that the delay activity represents the short-term memory of the categorized percept of a picture.

  10. Acquired word deafness, and the temporal grain of sound representation in the primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Farmer, M E

    1990-11-15

    This paper explores the nature of the processing disorder which underlies the speech discrimination deficit in the syndrome of acquired word deafness following from pathology to the primary auditory cortex. A critical examination of the evidence on this disorder revealed the following. First, the most profound forms of the condition are expressed not only in an isolation of the cerebral linguistic processor from auditory input, but in a failure of even the perceptual elaboration of the relevant sounds. Second, in agreement with earlier studies, we conclude that the perceptual dimension disturbed in word deafness is a temporal one. We argue, however, that it is not a generalized disorder of auditory temporal processing, but one which is largely restricted to the processing of sounds with temporal content in the milliseconds to tens-of-milliseconds time frame. The perceptual elaboration of sounds with temporal content outside that range, in either direction, may survive the disorder. Third, we present neurophysiological evidence that the primary auditory cortex has a special role in the representation of auditory events in that time frame, but not in the representation of auditory events with temporal grains outside that range.

  11. Strain differences in basal and post-citalopram extracellular 5-HT in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus: relation with tryptophan hydroxylase-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, E; Canetta, A; Guzzetti, S; Cervo, L; Invernizzi, R W

    2007-11-01

    We used the microdialysis technique to compare basal extracellular serotonin (5-HT) and the response to citalopram in different strains of mice with functionally different allelic forms of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in brain 5-HT synthesis. DBA/2J, DBA/2N and BALB/c mice carrying the 1473G allele of TPH-2 had less dialysate 5-HT in the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus (DH) (20-40% reduction) than C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice carrying the 1473C allele. Extracellular 5-HT estimated by the zero-net flux method confirmed the result of conventional microdialysis. Citalopram, 1.25, 5 and 20 mg/kg, dose-dependently raised extracellular 5-HT in the medial prefrontal cortex of C57BL/6J mice, with maximum effect at 5 mg/kg, but had significantly less effect in DBA/2J and BALB/c mice and in the DH of DBA/2J mice. A tryptophan (TRP) load enhanced basal extracellular 5-HT in the medial prefrontal cortex of DBA/2J mice but did not affect citalopram's ability to raise cortical and hippocampal extracellular 5-HT. The impairment of 5-HT synthesis quite likely accounts for the reduction of basal 5-HT and the citalopram-induced rise in mice carrying the mutated enzyme. These findings might explain why DBA/2 and BALB/c mice do not respond to citalopram in the forced swimming test. Although TRP could be a useful strategy to improve the antidepressant effect of citalopram (Cervo et al. 2005), particularly in subjects with low 5-HT synthesis, the contribution of serotonergic and non-serotonergic mechanisms to TRP's effect remains to be elucidated.

  12. Effects of disrupting medial prefrontal cortex GABA transmission on decision-making in a rodent gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, T A; O'Hara, A; Plaut, B; Lowes, D C

    2015-05-01

    Decision-making is a complex cognitive process that is mediated, in part, by subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Decision-making is impaired in a number of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia. Notably, people with schizophrenia exhibit reductions in GABA function in the same PFC areas that are implicated in decision-making. For example, expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 is reduced in the dorsolateral PFC of people with schizophrenia. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether disrupting cortical GABA transmission impairs decision-making using a rodent gambling task (rGT). Rats were trained on the rGT until they reached stable performance and then were implanted with guide cannulae aimed at the medial PFC. Following recovery, the effects of intra-PFC infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or the GABA synthesis inhibitor L-allylglycine (LAG) on performance on the rGT were assessed. Intracortical infusions of BMI (25 ng/μl/side), but not LAG (10 μg/μl/side), altered decision-making. Following BMI infusions, rats made fewer advantageous choices. Follow-up experiments suggested that the change in decision-making was due to a change in the sensitivity to the punishments, rather than a change in the sensitivity to reward magnitudes, associated with each outcome. LAG infusions increased premature responding, a measure of response inhibition, but did not affect decision-making. Blocking GABAA receptors, but not inhibiting cortical GABA synthesis, within the medial PFC affects decision-making in the rGT. These data provide proof-of-concept evidence that disruptions in GABA transmission can contribute to the decision-making deficits in schizophrenia.

  13. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  14. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Li Kuncheng; Li Lin; Shan Baoci; Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE

  15. Partial genetic deletion of neuregulin 1 and adolescent stress interact to alter NMDA receptor binding in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Waseem Chohan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is thought to arise due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors during early neurodevelopment. We have recently shown that partial genetic deletion of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1 and adolescent stress interact to disturb sensorimotor gating, neuroendocrine activity and dendritic morphology in mice. Both stress and Nrg1 may have converging effects upon N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs which are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, sensorimotor gating and dendritic spine plasticity. Using an identical repeated restraint stress paradigm to our previous study, here we determined NMDAR binding across various brain regions in adolescent Nrg1 heterozygous (HET and wild-type (WT mice using [3H] MK-801 autoradiography. Repeated restraint stress increased NMDAR binding in the ventral part of the lateral septum (LSV and the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus irrespective of genotype. Partial genetic deletion of Nrg1 interacted with adolescent stress to promote an altered pattern of NMDAR binding in the infralimbic (IL subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex. In the IL, whilst stress tended to increase NMDAR binding in WT mice, it decreased binding in Nrg1 HET mice. However in the DG, stress selectively increased the expression of NMDAR binding in Nrg1 HET mice but not WT mice. These results demonstrate a Nrg1-stress interaction during adolescence on NMDAR binding in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  16. Pseudohypacusis in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased gray matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Kinoshita, Sumihito; Korenaga, Yuki; Mabe, Hiroyo

    2012-04-01

    Pseudohypacusis is a somatoform disorder characterized by hearing loss with discrepancies between pure-tone audiometry and auditory brainstem response (ABR), but the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for 14 unmedicated, right-handed patients and 35 healthy control subjects, we investigated whether functional hearing loss was associated with discernible changes of brain morphology. Group differences in gray matter volume (GMV) were assessed using high-resolution, T1-weighted, volumetric MR imaging datasets (3T Trio scanner; Siemens AG) and analyzed with covariant factors of age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and total GMV, which was increased by 27.9% in the left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) (Brodmann area 10) (p=.001, corrected cluster level) and by 14.4% in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the adjacent middle temporal gyrus (MTG) (BA42 to 21) (p=.009, corrected cluster level) in patients with pseudohypacusis. The GMV in the right STG (BA42) and verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) were correlated significantly with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC-III) (ß=-.57, p<.0001) and level of SES (ß=-.55, p<.0001). The present findings suggest that the development of the auditory association cortex involved in language processing is affected, causing insufficient pruning during brain development. We therefore assert that differences in the neuroanatomical substrate of pseudohypacusis subjects result from a developmental disorder in auditory processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  17. Rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral gradients in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive control of affective and cognitive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Christoffer; Liberg, Benny; Wiberg-Kristoffersen, Maria; Aspelin, Peter; Msghina, Mussie

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing the anatomical substrates of major brain functions such as cognition and emotion is of utmost importance to the ongoing efforts of understanding the nature of psychiatric ailments and their potential treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate how the brain handles affective and cognitive interferences on cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation was performed on healthy individuals, comparing the brain oxygenation level dependent activation patterns during affective and cognitive counting Stroop tasks. The affective Stroop task activated rostral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and rostral and ventral parts of lateral PFC, while cognitive Stroop activated caudal parts of medial PFC and caudal and dorsal parts of lateral PFC. Our findings suggest that the brain may handle affective and cognitive interference on cognitive processes differentially, with affective interference preferentially activating rostral and ventral PFC networks and cognitive interference activating caudal and dorsal PFC networks. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. Medial temporal lobe-dependent repetition suppression and enhancement due to implicit versus explicit processing of individual repeated search displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGeyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Using visual search, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and patient studies have demonstrated that medial temporal lobe (MTL structures differentiate repeated from novel displays – even when observers are unaware of display repetitions. This suggests a role for MTL in both explicit and, importantly, implicit learning of repeated sensory information (Greene et al., 2007. However, recent behavioral studies suggest, by examining visual search and recognition performance concurrently, that observers have explicit knowledge of at least some of the repeated displays (Geyer et al., 2010. The aim of the present fMRI study was thus to contribute new evidence regarding the contribution of MTL structures to explicit versus implicit learning in visual search. It was found that MTL activation was increased for explicit and, respectively, decreased for implicit relative to baseline displays. These activation differences were most pronounced in left anterior parahippocampal cortex, especially when observers were highly trained on the repeated displays. The data are taken to suggest that explicit and implicit memory processes are linked within MTL structures, but expressed via functionally separable mechanisms (repetition enhancement vs. -suppression. They further show that repetition effects in visual search would have to be investigated at the display level.

  19. Functional connection between posterior superior temporal gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garell, P C; Bakken, H; Greenlee, J D W; Volkov, I; Reale, R A; Oya, H; Kawasaki, H; Howard, M A; Brugge, J F

    2013-10-01

    The connection between auditory fields of the temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex has been well characterized in nonhuman primates. Little is known of temporofrontal connectivity in humans, however, due largely to the fact that invasive experimental approaches used so successfully to trace anatomical pathways in laboratory animals cannot be used in humans. Instead, we used a functional tract-tracing method in 12 neurosurgical patients with multicontact electrode arrays chronically implanted over the left (n = 7) or right (n = 5) perisylvian temporal auditory cortex (area PLST) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for diagnosis and treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. Area PLST was identified by the distribution of average auditory-evoked potentials obtained in response to simple and complex sounds. The same sounds evoked little if there is any activity in VLPFC. A single bipolar electrical pulse (0.2 ms, charge-balanced) applied between contacts within physiologically identified PLST resulted in polyphasic evoked potentials clustered in VLPFC, with greatest activation being in pars triangularis of the IFG. The average peak latency of the earliest negative deflection of the evoked potential on VLPFC was 13.48 ms (range: 9.0-18.5 ms), providing evidence for a rapidly conducting pathway between area PLST and VLPFC.

  20. Perceived stress predicts altered reward and loss feedback processing in medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Treadway

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is significant risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly symptoms related to reward processing. Importantly, individuals display marked variation in how they perceive and cope with stressful events, and such differences are strongly linked to risk for developing psychiatric symptoms following stress exposure. However, many questions remain regarding the neural architecture that underlies inter-subject variability in perceptions of stressors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a monetary incentive delay paradigm, we examined the effects of self-reported perceived stress levels on neural activity during reward anticipation and feedback in a sample of healthy individuals. We found that subjects reporting more uncontrollable and overwhelming stressors displayed blunted neural responses in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC following feedback related to monetary gains as well monetary losses. This is consistent with preclinical models that implicate the mPFC as a key site of vulnerability to the noxious effects of uncontrollable stressors. Our data help translate these findings to humans, and elucidate some of the neural mechanisms that may underlie stress-linked risk for developing reward-related psychiatric symptoms.

  1. Medial prefrontal cortex stimulation modulates the processing of conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eGuhn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extinction of conditioned fear is dependent on an efficient interplay between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. In rats, high-frequency electrical mPFC stimulation was shown to improve extinction by a reduction of amygdala activity. However, so far it is unclear whether stimulation of homologues regions in humans might have similar beneficial effects.Healthy volunteers received one-session of either active or sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS covering the mPFC while undergoing a two-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. rTMS was applied offline after fear acquisition in which one of two faces (CS+ but not CS- was associated with an aversive scream (UCS. Immediate extinction learning (day 1 and extinction recall (day 2 were conducted without UCS delivery. Conditioned responses were assessed in a multimodal approach using fear-potentiated startle (FPS, skin conductance responses (SCR, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and self-report scales. Consistent with the hypothesis of a modulated processing of conditioned fear after high-frequency rTMS, the active group showed a reduced CS+/CS- discrimination during extinction learning as evident in FPS as well as in SCR and arousal ratings. FPS responses to CS+ further showed a linear decrement throughout both extinction sessions. This study describes the first experimental approach of influencing conditioned fear by using rTMS which can be a basis for future studies investigating a complementation of mPFC stimulation to cognitive behavioral therapy.

  2. Role of the medial temporal lobes in relational memory: Neuropsychological evidence from a cued recognition paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Irene P.; Giovanello, Kelly S.; Schnyer, David M.; Makris, Nikos; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of the hippocampus in relational memory by comparing item recognition performance in amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage and their matched controls. Specifically, we investigated the contribution of associative memory to item recognition using a cued recognition paradigm. Control subjects studied cue-target pairs once, whereas amnesic patients studied cue-target pairs six times. Following study, subjects made recognition judgments about ...

  3. Functional connectivity of parietal cortex during temporal selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Sarah C; Dasgupta, Samhita; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D

    2015-04-01

    Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997). In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity of intact parietal cortex while typical subjects judged the relative onsets and offsets of rapidly flickering tokens (a phase discrimination task in which right parietal patients are impaired). We found two regions in parietal cortex correlated with task performance: a bilateral posterior TPJ (pTPJ) and an anterior right-lateralized TPJ (R aTPJ). Both regions were deactivated when subjects engaged in the task but showed different patterns of functional connectivity. The bilateral pTPJ was strongly connected to nodes within the default mode network (DMN) and the R aTPJ was connected to the attention network. Accurate phase discriminations were associated with increased functional correlations between sensory cortex (hMT+) and the bilateral pTPJ, whereas accuracy on a control task was associated with yoked activity in the hMT+ and the R aTPJ. We conclude that temporal selective attention is particularly sensitive for revealing information pathways between sensory and core cognitive control networks that, when damaged, can lead to nonspatial attention impairments in right parietal stroke patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glutamate concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts resting-state cortical-subcortical functional connectivity in humans.

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    Niall W Duncan

    Full Text Available Communication between cortical and subcortical regions is integral to a wide range of psychological processes and has been implicated in a number of psychiatric conditions. Studies in animals have provided insight into the biochemical and connectivity processes underlying such communication. However, to date no experiments that link these factors in humans in vivo have been carried out. To investigate the role of glutamate in individual differences in communication between the cortex--specifically the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC--and subcortical regions in humans, a combination of resting-state fMRI, DTI and MRS was performed. The subcortical target regions were the nucleus accumbens (NAc, dorsomedial thalamus (DMT, and periaqueductal grey (PAG. It was found that functional connectivity between the mPFC and each of the NAc and DMT was positively correlated with mPFC glutamate concentrations, whilst functional connectivity between the mPFC and PAG was negatively correlated with glutamate concentration. The correlations involving mPFC glutamate and FC between the mPFC and each of the DMT and PAG were mirrored by correlations with structural connectivity, providing evidence that the glutamatergic relationship may, in part, be due to direct connectivity. These results are in agreement with existing results from animal studies and may have relevance for MDD and schizophrenia.

  5. Temporal summation of heat pain in humans: Evidence supporting thalamocortical modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan D; Wang, Heng; Tandon, Animesh; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Casey, Kenneth L

    2010-07-01

    Noxious cutaneous contact heat stimuli (48 degrees C) are perceived as increasingly painful when the stimulus duration is extended from 5 to 10s, reflecting the temporal summation of central neuronal activity mediating heat pain. However, the sensation of increasing heat pain disappears, reaching a plateau as stimulus duration increases from 10 to 20s. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy subjects to determine if active central mechanisms could contribute to this psychophysical plateau. During heat pain durations ranging from 5 to 20s, activation intensities in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices and the activation volume in the left primary (S1) somatosensory cortex correlated only with perceived stimulus intensity and not with stimulus duration. Activation volumes increased with both stimulus duration and perceived intensity in the left lateral thalamus, posterior insula, inferior parietal cortex, and hippocampus. In contrast, during the psychophysical plateau, both the intensity and volume of thalamic and cortical activations in the right medial thalamus, right posterior insula, and left secondary (S2) somatosensory cortex continued to increase with stimulus duration but not with perceived stimulus intensity. Activation volumes in the left medial and right lateral thalamus, and the bilateral mid-anterior cingulate, left orbitofrontal, and right S2 cortices also increased only with stimulus duration. The increased activity of specific thalamic and cortical structures as stimulus duration, but not perceived intensity, increases is consistent with the recruitment of a thalamocortical mechanism that participates in the modulation of pain-related cortical responses and the temporal summation of heat pain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Human Parahippocampal Cortex Supports Spatial Binding in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Neil Michael; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Harry, Bronson; Roberts, Daniel; Leek, E Charles; Downing, Paul; Sapir, Ayelet; Roberts, Craig; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2017-09-15

    Studies investigating the functional organization of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) suggest that parahippocampal cortex (PHC) generates representations of spatial and contextual information used by the hippocampus in the formation of episodic memories. However, evidence from animal studies also implicates PHC in spatial binding of visual information held in short term, working memory. Here we examined a 46-year-old man (P.J.), after he had recovered from bilateral medial occipitotemporal cortex strokes resulting in ischemic lesions of PHC and hippocampal atrophy, and a group of age-matched healthy controls. When recalling the color of 1 of 2 objects, P.J. misidentified the target when cued by its location, but not shape. When recalling the position of 1 of 3 objects, he frequently misidentified the target, which was cued by its color. Increasing the duration of the memory delay had no impact on the proportion of binding errors, but did significantly worsen recall precision in both P.J. and controls. We conclude that PHC may play a crucial role in spatial binding during encoding of visual information in working memory. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Formation of contractile networks and fibers in the medial cell cortex through myosin-II turnover, contraction, and stress-stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, H Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and minifilament assembly of non-muscle myosin-II is an important component of cortical cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. We used experiments and computational modeling to study cortical myosin-II dynamics in adhered cells. Confocal microscopy was used to image the medial cell cortex of HeLa cells stably expressing myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). The distribution of MRLC-GFP fibers and focal adhesions was classified into three types of network morphologies. Time-lapse movies show: myosin foci appearance and disappearance; aligning and contraction; stabilization upon alignment. Addition of blebbistatin, which perturbs myosin motor activity, leads to a reorganization of the cortical networks and to a reduction of contractile motions. We quantified the kinetics of contraction, disassembly and reassembly of myosin networks using spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS). Coarse-grained numerical simulations include bipolar minifilaments that contract and align through specified interactions as basic elements. After assuming that minifilament turnover decreases with increasing contractile stress, the simulations reproduce stress-dependent fiber formation in between focal adhesions above a threshold myosin concentration. The STICS correlation function in simulations matches the function measured in experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Associative-memory representations emerge as shared spatial patterns of theta activity spanning the primate temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Ken; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Majima, Kei; Takeda, Masaki; Sugiyama, Sayaka; Nakata, Ryota; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Hasegawa, Isao

    2016-06-10

    Highly localized neuronal spikes in primate temporal cortex can encode associative memory; however, whether memory formation involves area-wide reorganization of ensemble activity, which often accompanies rhythmicity, or just local microcircuit-level plasticity, remains elusive. Using high-density electrocorticography, we capture local-field potentials spanning the monkey temporal lobes, and show that the visual pair-association (PA) memory is encoded in spatial patterns of theta activity in areas TE, 36, and, partially, in the parahippocampal cortex, but not in the entorhinal cortex. The theta patterns elicited by learned paired associates are distinct between pairs, but similar within pairs. This pattern similarity, emerging through novel PA learning, allows a machine-learning decoder trained on theta patterns elicited by a particular visual item to correctly predict the identity of those elicited by its paired associate. Our results suggest that the formation and sharing of widespread cortical theta patterns via learning-induced reorganization are involved in the mechanisms of associative memory representation.

  9. On framing effects in decision making: linking lateral versus medial orbitofrontal cortex activation to choice outcome processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmann, Sabine; Kirsch, Peter; Mier, Daniela; Stark, Rudolf; Walter, Bertram; Güntürkün, Onur; Vaitl, Dieter

    2006-07-01

    Two correlates of outcome processing in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) have been proposed in the literature: One hypothesis suggests that the lateral/medial division relates to representation of outcome valence (negative vs. positive), and the other suggests that the medial OFC maintains steady stimulus-outcome associations, whereas the lateral OFC represents changing (unsteady) outcomes to prepare for response shifts. These two hypotheses were contrasted by comparing the original with the inverted version of the Iowa Gambling Task in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Results showed (1) that (caudo) lateral OFC was indeed sensitive to the steadiness of the outcomes and not merely to outcome valence and (2) that the original and the inverted tasks, although both designed to measure sensitivity for future outcomes, were not equivalent as they enacted different behaviors and brain activation patterns. Results are interpreted in terms of Kahneman and Tversky's prospect theory suggesting that cognitions and decisions are biased differentially when probabilistic future rewards are weighed against consistent punishments relative to the opposite scenario [Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39, 341-350, 1984]. Specialized processing of unsteady rewards (involving caudolateral OFC) may have developed during evolution in support of goal-related thinking, prospective planning, and problem solving.

  10. Learning an operant conditioning task differentially induces gliogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex and neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rapanelli

    Full Text Available Circuit modification associated with learning and memory involves multiple events, including the addition and remotion of newborn cells trough adulthood. Adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis were mainly described in models of voluntary exercise, enriched environments, spatial learning and memory task; nevertheless, it is unknown whether it is a common mechanism among different learning paradigms, like reward dependent tasks. Therefore, we evaluated cell proliferation, neurogenesis, astrogliogenesis, survival and neuronal maturation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the hippocampus (HIPP during learning an operant conditioning task. This was performed by using endogenous markers of cell proliferation, and a bromodeoxiuridine (BrdU injection schedule in two different phases of learning. Learning an operant conditioning is divided in two phases: a first phase when animals were considered incompletely trained (IT, animals that were learning the task when they performed between 50% and 65% of the responses, and a second phase when animals were considered trained (Tr, animals that completely learned the task when they reached 100% of the responses with a latency time lower than 5 seconds. We found that learning an operant conditioning task promoted cell proliferation in both phases of learning in the mPFC and HIPP. Additionally, the results presented showed that astrogliogenesis was induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in both phases, however, the first phase promoted survival of these new born astrocytes. On the other hand, an increased number of new born immature neurons was observed in the HIPP only in the first phase of learning, whereas, decreased values were observed in the second phase. Finally, we found that neuronal maturation was induced only during the first phase. This study shows for the first time that learning a reward-dependent task, like the operant conditioning, promotes neurogenesis, astrogliogenesis, survival and

  11. Resting-state functional connectivity of antero-medial prefrontal cortex sub-regions in major depression and relationship to emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Helen; Johnson, Kevin; Schmidt, Matthew; Arana, Ashley; Chahine, George; Atoui, Mia; Pincus, David; George, Mark S; Panksepp, Jaak; Nahas, Ziad

    2015-03-05

    Major depressive disorder has been associated with abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), especially in cognitive processing and emotional regulation networks. Although studies have found abnormal FC in regions of the default mode network (DMN), no study has investigated the FC of specific regions within the anterior DMN based on cytoarchitectonic subdivisions of the antero-medial pre-frontal cortex (PFC). Studies from different areas in the field have shown regions within the anterior DMN to be involved in emotional intelligence. Although abnormalities in this region have been observed in depression, the relationship between the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) function and emotional intelligence has yet to be investigated in depressed individuals. Twenty-one medication-free, non-treatment resistant, depressed patients and 21 healthy controls underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging session. The participants also completed an ability-based measure of emotional intelligence: the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. FC maps of Brodmann areas (BA) 25, 10 m, 10r, and 10p were created and compared between the two groups. Mixed-effects analyses showed that the more anterior seeds encompassed larger areas of the DMN. Compared to healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly lower connectivity between BA10p and the right insula and between BA25 and the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. Exploratory analyses showed an association between vmPFC connectivity and emotional intelligence. These results suggest that individuals with depression have reduced FC between antero-medial PFC regions and regions involved in emotional regulation compared to control subjects. Moreover, vmPFC functional connectivity appears linked to emotional intelligence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  12. Frequency-Selective Attention in Auditory Scenes Recruits Frequency Representations Throughout Human Superior Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Lars; Peters, Judith C; Valente, Giancarlo; Kemper, Valentin G; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina

    2017-05-01

    A sound of interest may be tracked amid other salient sounds by focusing attention on its characteristic features including its frequency. Functional magnetic resonance imaging findings have indicated that frequency representations in human primary auditory cortex (AC) contribute to this feat. However, attentional modulations were examined at relatively low spatial and spectral resolutions, and frequency-selective contributions outside the primary AC could not be established. To address these issues, we compared blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the superior temporal cortex of human listeners while they identified single frequencies versus listened selectively for various frequencies within a multifrequency scene. Using best-frequency mapping, we observed that the detailed spatial layout of attention-induced BOLD response enhancements in primary AC follows the tonotopy of stimulus-driven frequency representations-analogous to the "spotlight" of attention enhancing visuospatial representations in retinotopic visual cortex. Moreover, using an algorithm trained to discriminate stimulus-driven frequency representations, we could successfully decode the focus of frequency-selective attention from listeners' BOLD response patterns in nonprimary AC. Our results indicate that the human brain facilitates selective listening to a frequency of interest in a scene by reinforcing the fine-grained activity pattern throughout the entire superior temporal cortex that would be evoked if that frequency was present alone. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohide Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  14. Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcoles-Parada, M.; Müller, N.C.J.; Ubero, M.; Serrano-Del-Pueblo, V.M.; Mansilla, F.; Marcos-Rabal, P.; Artacho-Perula, E.; Dresler, M.; Insausti, R.; Fernandez, G.; Munoz-Lopez, M.

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas

  15. Inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or the medial prefrontal cortex impairs retrieval but has differential effect on spatial memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Janine I; Köhler, Cristiano A; Radiske, Andressa; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-11-01

    Active memories can incorporate new information through reconsolidation. However, the notion that memory retrieval is necessary for reconsolidation has been recently challenged. Non-reinforced retrieval induces hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-dependent reconsolidation of spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that the effect of protein synthesis inhibition on this process is abolished when retrieval of the learned spatial preference is hindered through mPFC inactivation but not when it is blocked by deactivation of dorsal CA1. Our results do not fully agree with the hypothesis that retrieval is unneeded for reconsolidation. Instead, they support the idea that a hierarchic interaction between the hippocampus and the mPFC controls spatial memory in the MWM, and indicate that this cortex is sufficient to retrieve the information essential to reconsolidate the spatial memory trace, even when the hippocampus is inactivated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Medial prefrontal cortex lesions impair decision-making on a rodent gambling task: reversal by D1 receptor antagonist administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Tracie A; Asinof, Samuel K; Diehl, Geoffrey W; Frackman, Anna; Leffler, Joseph

    2013-04-15

    Decision-making is a complex cognitive process that is impaired in a number of psychiatric disorders. In the laboratory, decision-making is frequently assessed using "gambling" tasks that are designed to simulate real-life decisions in terms of uncertainty, reward and punishment. Here, we investigate whether lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) cause impairments in decision-making using a rodent gambling task (rGT). In this task, rats have to decide between 1 of 4 possible options: 2 options are considered "advantageous" and lead to greater net rewards (food pellets) than the other 2 "disadvantageous" options. Once rats attained stable levels of performance on the rGT they underwent sham or excitoxic lesions of the medial PFC and were allowed to recover for 1 week. Following recovery, rats were retrained for 5 days and then the effects of a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH23390) or a D2-like receptor antagonist (haloperidol) on performance were assessed. Lesioned rats exhibited impaired decision-making: they made fewer advantageous choices and chose the most optimal choice less frequently than did sham-operated rats. Administration of SCH23390 (0.03 mg/kg), but not haloperidol (0.015-0.03 mg/kg) attenuated the lesion-induced decision-making deficit. These results indicate that the medial PFC is important for decision-making and that excessive signaling at D1 receptors may contribute to decision-making impairments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Meneka K.; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Bonelli, Silvia; Centeno, Maria; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2013-01-01

    control subjects. Control subjects showed subsequent visual memory effects within right amygdala, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed subsequent visual memory effects within right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampal and fusiform gyri, and predominantly left hemisphere extra-temporal activations within the insula and orbitofrontal cortex. Correlational analysis showed that patients with right hippocampal sclerosis with better visual memory activated the amygdala bilaterally, right anterior parahippocampal gyrus and left insula. Right sided extra-temporal areas of reorganization observed in patients with left hippocampal sclerosis during word encoding and bilateral lateral temporal reorganization in patients with right hippocampal sclerosis during face encoding were not associated with subsequent memory formation. Reorganization within the medial temporal lobe, however, is an efficient process. The orbitofrontal cortex is critical to subsequent memory formation in control subjects and patients. Activations within anterior cingulum and insula correlated with better verbal and visual subsequent memory in patients with left and right hippocampal sclerosis, respectively, representing effective extra-temporal recruitment. PMID:23674488

  18. Anatomical and Electrophysiological Clustering of Superficial Medial Entorhinal Cortex Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Local GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of spatially-modulated principal cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), mediating stellate-to-stellate connectivity and possibly enabling grid formation via recurrent inhibitory circuitry. Despite the important role interneurons seem to play in the MEC cortical circuit, the combination of low cell counts and functional diversity has made systematic electrophysiological studies of these neurons difficult. For these reasons, there remains a paucity of knowledge on the electrophysiological profiles of superficial MEC interneuron populations. Taking advantage of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)-IRES-tdTomato and PV-tdTomato transgenic mice, we targeted GABAergic interneurons for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and characterized their passive membrane features, basic input/output properties and action potential (AP) shape. These electrophysiologically characterized cells were then anatomically reconstructed, with emphasis on axonal projections and pial depth. K-means clustering of interneuron anatomical and electrophysiological data optimally classified a population of 106 interneurons into four distinct clusters. The first cluster is comprised of layer 2- and 3-projecting, slow-firing interneurons. The second cluster is comprised largely of PV+ fast-firing interneurons that project mainly to layers 2 and 3. The third cluster contains layer 1- and 2-projecting interneurons, and the fourth cluster is made up of layer 1-projecting horizontal interneurons. These results, among others, will provide greater understanding of the electrophysiological characteristics of MEC interneurons, help guide future in vivo studies, and may aid in uncovering the mechanism of grid field formation. PMID:29085901

  19. Two-population model for medial temporal lobe neurons: The vast majority are almost silent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Andrew; Collins, John

    2015-07-01

    Recordings in the human medial temporal lobe have found many neurons that respond to pictures (and related stimuli) of just one particular person of those presented. It has been proposed that these are concept cells, responding to just a single concept. However, a direct experimental test of the concept cell idea appears impossible, because it would need the measurement of the response of each cell to enormous numbers of other stimuli. Here we propose a new statistical method for analysis of the data that gives a more powerful way to analyze how close data are to the concept-cell idea. Central to the model is the neuronal sparsity, defined as the total fraction of stimuli that elicit an above-threshold response in the neuron. The model exploits the large number of sampled neurons to give sensitivity to situations where the average response sparsity is much less than one response for the number of presented stimuli. We show that a conventional model where a single sparsity is postulated for all neurons gives an extremely poor fit to the data. In contrast, a model with two dramatically different populations gives an excellent fit to data from the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. In the hippocampus, one population has 7% of the cells with a 2.6% sparsity. But a much larger fraction (93%) respond to only 0.1% of the stimuli. This can result in an extreme bias in the responsiveness of reported neurons compared with a typical neuron. Finally, we show how to allow for the fact that some identified units correspond to multiple neurons and find that our conclusions at the neural level are quantitatively changed but strengthened, with an even stronger difference between the two populations.

  20. Acute pharmacogenetic activation of medial prefrontal cortex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sthitapranjya Pati

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) have provided novel ... ad libitum access to food and water. ... testing. 2.3 Drug treatment and behavioural tests .... IL cortex (figure 3E, two-way ANOVA: interaction effect,.

  1. Neuronal correlate of visual associative long-term memory in the primate temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    1988-10-01

    In human long-term memory, ideas and concepts become associated in the learning process1. No neuronal correlate for this cognitive function has so far been described, except that memory traces are thought to be localized in the cerebral cortex; the temporal lobe has been assigned as the site for visual experience because electric stimulation of this area results in imagery recall,2 and lesions produce deficits in visual recognition of objects3-9. We previously reported that in the anterior ventral temporal cortex of monkeys, individual neurons have a sustained activity that is highly selective for a few of the 100 coloured fractal patterns used in a visual working-memory task10. Here I report the development of this selectivity through repeated trials involving the working memory. The few patterns for which a neuron was conjointly selective were frequently related to each other through stimulus-stimulus association imposed during training. The results indicate that the selectivity acquired by these cells represents a neuronal correlate of the associative long-term memory of pictures.

  2. Synaptic Modifications in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Susceptibility and Resilience to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghui; Perova, Zinaida; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    When facing stress, most individuals are resilient whereas others are prone to developing mood disorders. The brain mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here we used the learned helplessness procedure in mice to examine the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region highly implicated in both clinical and animal models of depression, in adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress. We found that uncontrollable and inescapable stress induced behavioral state-dependent changes in the excitatory synapses onto a subset of mPFC neurons: those that were activated during behavioral responses as indicated by their expression of the activity reporter c-Fos. Whereas synaptic potentiation was linked to learned helplessness, a depression-like behavior, synaptic weakening, was associated with resilience to stress. Notably, enhancing the activity of mPFC neurons using a chemical–genetic method was sufficient to convert the resilient behavior into helplessness. Our results provide direct evidence that mPFC dysfunction is linked to maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and suggest that enhanced excitatory synaptic drive onto mPFC neurons may underlie the previously reported hyperactivity of this brain region in depression. PMID:24872553

  3. Single unit activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during Pavlovian heart rate conditioning: Effects of peripheral autonomic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D A; Ginsberg, Jay P

    2005-11-01

    Electrical activity was recorded from single neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of rabbits during differential Pavlovian heart rate (HR) conditioning. A heterogeneous population of cells were found, some of which showed CS-evoked increases and others CS-evoked decreases in discharge, while some cells were biphasic. A subset of cells also showed trial-related changes in discharge that were related to acquisition of the HR discrimination between the reinforced CS+ and non-reinforced CS-. Administration of the peripheral cholinergic antagonist, methylscopolamine, and the andrenergic antagonist, atenolol, either increased or decreased maintained baseline activity of many cells, but had little or no effect on the CS-evoked activity of these cells. Waveform changes also did not result from administration of these drugs. This finding suggests that CS-evoked mPFC activity is not being driven by cardiac afferent input to CNS cardiac control centers. Previous studies have shown that ibotenic acid lesions of this area greatly decreases the magnitude of decelerative heart rate conditioned responses; the latter finding, plus the results of the present study, suggest that processing of CS/US contingencies by the prefrontal cortex contributes to the acquisition of autonomic changes during Pavlovian conditioning.

  4. Contributions of the Hippocampus and Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T. L.; Chan, Kinho; Jarrard, Leonard E.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of selective ibotenate lesions of the complete hippocampus (CHip), the hippocampal ventral pole (VP), or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male rats were assessed on several measures related to energy regulation (i.e., body weight gain, food intake, body adiposity, metabolic activity general behavioral activity, conditioned appetitive responding). The testing conditions were designed to minimize the nonspecific debilitating effects of these surgeries on intake and body weight. Rats with CHip and VP lesions exhibited significantly greater weight gain and food intake compared to controls. Furthermore, CHip-lesioned rats, but not rats with VP lesions, showed elevated metabolic activity, general activity in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, and greater conditioned appetitive behavior, compared to control rats without these brain lesions. In contrast, rats with mPFC lesions were not different from controls on any of these measures. These results indicate that hippocampal damage interferes with energy and body weight regulation, perhaps by disrupting higher-order learning and memory processes that contribute to the control of appetitive and consummatory behavior. PMID:18831000

  5. What pharmacological interventions indicate concerning the role of the perirhinal cortex in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M W; Barker, G R I; Aggleton, J P; Warburton, E C

    2012-11-01

    Findings of pharmacological studies that have investigated the involvement of specific regions of the brain in recognition memory are reviewed. The particular emphasis of the review concerns what such studies indicate concerning the role of the perirhinal cortex in recognition memory. Most of the studies involve rats and most have investigated recognition memory for objects. Pharmacological studies provide a large body of evidence supporting the essential role of the perirhinal cortex in the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of object recognition memory. Such studies provide increasingly detailed evidence concerning both the neurotransmitter systems and the underlying intracellular mechanisms involved in recognition memory processes. They have provided evidence in support of synaptic weakening as a major synaptic plastic process within perirhinal cortex underlying object recognition memory. They have also supplied confirmatory evidence that that there is more than one synaptic plastic process involved. The demonstrated necessity to long-term recognition memory of intracellular signalling mechanisms related to synaptic modification within perirhinal cortex establishes a central role for the region in the information storage underlying such memory. Perirhinal cortex is thereby established as an information storage site rather than solely a processing station. Pharmacological studies have also supplied new evidence concerning the detailed roles of other regions, including the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex in different types of recognition memory tasks that include a spatial or temporal component. In so doing, they have also further defined the contribution of perirhinal cortex to such tasks. To date it appears that the contribution of perirhinal cortex to associative and temporal order memory reflects that in simple object recognition memory, namely that perirhinal cortex provides information concerning objects and their prior occurrence (novelty

  6. Medial prefrontal cortex and the adaptive regulation of reinforcement learning parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Mehdi; Enel, Pierre; Dominey, Peter Ford; Procyk, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is involved in feedback categorization, performance monitoring, and task monitoring, and may contribute to the online regulation of reinforcement learning (RL) parameters that would affect decision-making processes in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Previous neurophysiological experiments have shown MPFC activities encoding error likelihood, uncertainty, reward volatility, as well as neural responses categorizing different types of feedback, for instance, distinguishing between choice errors and execution errors. Rushworth and colleagues have proposed that the involvement of MPFC in tracking the volatility of the task could contribute to the regulation of one of RL parameters called the learning rate. We extend this hypothesis by proposing that MPFC could contribute to the regulation of other RL parameters such as the exploration rate and default action values in case of task shifts. Here, we analyze the sensitivity to RL parameters of behavioral performance in two monkey decision-making tasks, one with a deterministic reward schedule and the other with a stochastic one. We show that there exist optimal parameter values specific to each of these tasks, that need to be found for optimal performance and that are usually hand-tuned in computational models. In contrast, automatic online regulation of these parameters using some heuristics can help producing a good, although non-optimal, behavioral performance in each task. We finally describe our computational model of MPFC-LPFC interaction used for online regulation of the exploration rate and its application to a human-robot interaction scenario. There, unexpected uncertainties are produced by the human introducing cued task changes or by cheating. The model enables the robot to autonomously learn to reset exploration in response to such uncertain cues and events. The combined results provide concrete evidence specifying how prefrontal

  7. Evidence for a Specific Integrative Mechanism for Episodic Memory Mediated by AMPA/kainate Receptors in a Circuit Involving Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampal CA3 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Huston, Joseph P; Wang, An-Li; Petri, David; Chao, Owen Yuan-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    We asked whether episodic-like memory requires neural mechanisms independent of those that mediate its component memories for "what," "when," and "where," and if neuronal connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HPC) CA3 subregion is essential for episodic-like memory. Unilateral lesion of the mPFC was combined with unilateral lesion of the CA3 in the ipsi- or contralateral hemispheres in rats. Episodic-like memory was tested using a task, which assesses the integration of memories for "what, where, and when" concomitantly. Tests for novel object recognition (what), object place (where), and temporal order memory (when) were also applied. Bilateral disconnection of the mPFC-CA3 circuit by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) lesions disrupted episodic-like memory, but left the component memories for object, place, and temporal order, per se, intact. Furthermore, unilateral NMDA lesion of the CA3 plus injection of (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) (CNQX) (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist), but not AP-5 (NMDA receptor antagonist), into the contralateral mPFC also disrupted episodic-like memory, indicating the mPFC AMPA/kainate receptors as critical for this circuit. These results argue for a selective neural system that specifically subserves episodic memory, as it is not critically involved in the control of its component memories for object, place, and time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lateral and medial ventral occipitotemporal regions interact during the recognition of images revealed from noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eNordhjem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral ventral sections in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial regions, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, thirteen subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM – a method to characterize network interactions – to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1, the lingual gyrus (LG in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO. We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape – rather than by a single categorically specialized region – within the ventral visual cortex.

  9. Representing Representation: Integration between the Temporal Lobe and the Posterior Cingulate Influences the Content and Form of Spontaneous Thought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Smallwood

    Full Text Available When not engaged in the moment, we often spontaneously represent people, places and events that are not present in the environment. Although this capacity has been linked to the default mode network (DMN, it remains unclear how interactions between the nodes of this network give rise to particular mental experiences during spontaneous thought. One hypothesis is that the core of the DMN integrates information from medial and lateral temporal lobe memory systems, which represent different aspects of knowledge. Individual differences in the connectivity between temporal lobe regions and the default mode network core would then predict differences in the content and form of people's spontaneous thoughts. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between seed-based functional connectivity and the contents of spontaneous thought recorded in a laboratory study several days later. Variations in connectivity from both medial and lateral temporal lobe regions was associated with different patterns of spontaneous thought and these effects converged on an overlapping region in the posterior cingulate cortex. We propose that the posterior core of the DMN acts as a representational hub that integrates information represented in medial and lateral temporal lobe and this process is important in determining the content and form of spontaneous thought.

  10. Inactivating the infralimbic but not prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex facilitates the extinction of appetitive Pavlovian conditioning in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, J; Sanio, C; Chaudhri, N

    2015-02-01

    The infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL) has been posited as a common node in distinct neural circuits that mediate the extinction of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, appetitive extinction is typically assessed using instrumental conditioning procedures, whereas the extinction of aversive conditioning is customarily studied using Pavlovian assays. The role of the IL in the extinction of appetitive Pavlovian conditioning remains underexplored. We investigated the involvement of the IL and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PrL) in appetitive extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning assays in male, Long-Evans rats. Following acquisition, a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist solution (0.03 nmol muscimol; 0.3 nmol baclofen; 0.3 μl/side) was bilaterally microinfused into the IL or PrL to pharmacologically inactivate each region before the first extinction session. Compared to saline, PrL inactivation did not affect the acquisition of extinction or the recall of extinction memory 24-h later. IL inactivation caused a more rapid extinction of Pavlovian conditioning, but had no effect on the extinction of instrumental conditioning or extinction recall. IL inactivation during a Pavlovian conditioning session in which conditioned stimulus (CS) trials were paired with sucrose did not affect CS-elicited behaviour, but increased responding during intervals that did not contain the CS. The same manipulation did not impact lever pressing for sucrose. These findings suggest that the IL may normally maintain Pavlovian conditioned responding when an anticipated appetitive CS is unexpectedly withheld, and that this region has distinct roles in the expression of Pavlovian conditioning when an appetitive unconditioned stimulus is either presented or omitted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Defining the most probable location of the parahippocampal place area using cortex-based alignment and cross-validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S; Barnett, Michael A; Witthoft, Nathan; Golarai, Golijeh; Stigliani, Anthony; Kay, Kendrick N; Gomez, Jesse; Natu, Vaidehi S; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2018-04-15

    The parahippocampal place area (PPA) is a widely studied high-level visual region in the human brain involved in place and scene processing. The goal of the present study was to identify the most probable location of place-selective voxels in medial ventral temporal cortex. To achieve this goal, we first used cortex-based alignment (CBA) to create a probabilistic place-selective region of interest (ROI) from one group of 12 participants. We then tested how well this ROI could predict place selectivity in each hemisphere within a new group of 12 participants. Our results reveal that a probabilistic ROI (pROI) generated from one group of 12 participants accurately predicts the location and functional selectivity in individual brains from a new group of 12 participants, despite between subject variability in the exact location of place-selective voxels relative to the folding of parahippocampal cortex. Additionally, the prediction accuracy of our pROI is significantly higher than that achieved by volume-based Talairach alignment. Comparing the location of the pROI of the PPA relative to published data from over 500 participants, including data from the Human Connectome Project, shows a striking convergence of the predicted location of the PPA and the cortical location of voxels exhibiting the highest place selectivity across studies using various methods and stimuli. Specifically, the most predictive anatomical location of voxels exhibiting the highest place selectivity in medial ventral temporal cortex is the junction of the collateral and anterior lingual sulci. Methodologically, we make this pROI freely available (vpnl.stanford.edu/PlaceSelectivity), which provides a means to accurately identify a functional region from anatomical MRI data when fMRI data are not available (for example, in patient populations). Theoretically, we consider different anatomical and functional factors that may contribute to the consistent anatomical location of place selectivity

  12. Beyond the medial regions of prefrontal cortex in the regulation of fear and anxiety

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    Yoshiro eShiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fear and anxiety are adaptive responses but if left unregulated, or inappropriately regulated, they become biologically and socially maladaptive. Dysregulated emotions are manifest in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions but the external expression gives little indication of the underlying causes, which are inevitably multi-determined. To go beyond the overt phenotype and begin to understand the causal mechanisms leading to conditions characterized by anxiety and disorders of mood, it is necessary to identify the base psychological processes that have become dysregulated, and map them on to their associated neural substrates. So far, attention has been focused primarily on the medial regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC and in particular their contribution to the expression and extinction of conditioned fear. However, functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the sphere of influence within the PFC is not restricted to its medial regions, but extends into dorsal, ventrolateral (vlPFC and orbitofrontal (OFC regions too; although the causal role of these other areas in the regulation of fear and anxiety remains to be determined and in the case of the OFC, existing findings are conflicting. Here we review the evidence for the contribution of these other regions in negative emotion regulation in rodents and old world and new world monkeys. We consider a variety of different contexts, including conditioned and innate fear, learned and unlearned anxiety and cost-benefit decision-making, and a range of physiological and behavioral measures of emotion. It is proposed that both the OFC and vlPFC contribute to emotion regulation via their involvement, respectively, in the prediction of future outcomes and higher-order attentional control. The fractionation of these neurocognitive and neurobehavioral systems that regulate fear and anxiety opens up new opportunities for diagnostic stratification and personalized treatment strategies.

  13. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

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    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  14. Impaired expression of GABA transporters in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Tessa E; Palpagama, Thulani H; Waldvogel, Henry J; Synek, Beth J L; Turner, Clinton; Faull, Richard L; Kwakowsky, Andrea

    2017-05-20

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. GABA reuptake from the synapse is dependent on specific transporters - mainly GAT-1, GAT-3 and BGT-1 (GATs). This study is the first to show alterations in the expression of the GATs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We found a significant increase in BGT-1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the dentate gyrus, in the stratum oriens of the CA2 and CA3 and the superior temporal gyrus. In AD there was a significant decrease in GAT-1 expression in the entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We also found a significant decrease in GAT-3 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3, the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. These observations indicate that the expression of the GATs shows brain-region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, suggesting a complex activation pattern of different GATs during the course of the disease. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New MRI Markers for Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging and a Comparison with Medial Temporal Lobe Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerx, L.; Visser, P.J.; Verhey, F.; Aalten, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to widely accepted medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy measurements. A systematic literature research was performed into DTI and MTL atrophy in AD and

  16. The fusion of mental imagery and sensation in the temporal association cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-10-08

    It is well understood that the brain integrates information that is provided to our different senses to generate a coherent multisensory percept of the world around us (Stein and Stanford, 2008), but how does the brain handle concurrent sensory information from our mind and the external world? Recent behavioral experiments have found that mental imagery--the internal representation of sensory stimuli in one's mind--can also lead to integrated multisensory perception (Berger and Ehrsson, 2013); however, the neural mechanisms of this process have not yet been explored. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an adapted version of a well known multisensory illusion (i.e., the ventriloquist illusion; Howard and Templeton, 1966), we investigated the neural basis of mental imagery-induced multisensory perception in humans. We found that simultaneous visual mental imagery and auditory stimulation led to an illusory translocation of auditory stimuli and was associated with increased activity in the left superior temporal sulcus (L. STS), a key site for the integration of real audiovisual stimuli (Beauchamp et al., 2004a, 2010; Driver and Noesselt, 2008; Ghazanfar et al., 2008; Dahl et al., 2009). This imagery-induced ventriloquist illusion was also associated with increased effective connectivity between the L. STS and the auditory cortex. These findings suggest an important role of the temporal association cortex in integrating imagined visual stimuli with real auditory stimuli, and further suggest that connectivity between the STS and auditory cortex plays a modulatory role in spatially localizing auditory stimuli in the presence of imagined visual stimuli. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3313684-09$15.00/0.

  17. Interaction of basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex regulates the consolidation and extinction of social fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chu-Chu; Wang, Qing-Jun; Ma, Xue-Zhu; Chen, Hai-Chao; Gao, Li-Ping; Yin, Jie; Jing, Yu-Hong

    2018-03-19

    Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process. Mouse models of acute social defeat were established by using the resident-intruder paradigm. To evaluate the engram of social defeat, the intruder mice were placed into the novel context at designated time to test the social behavior. Furthermore, responses of BLA, vHIP and mPFC were investigated by analyzing the expression of immediate early genes, such as zif268, arc, and c-fos. The results showed after an aggressive attack, aversive memory was maintained for approximately 7 days before gradually diminishing. The establishment and maintenance of aversive stimulation were consistently accompanied by BLA activity. By contrast, vHIP and mPFC response was inhibited from this process. Additionally, injecting muscimol (Mus), a GABA receptor agonist, into the BLA alleviated the freezing behavior and social fear and avoidance. Simultaneously, Mus treatment decreased the zif268 and arc expression in BLA, but it increased their expression in vHIP. Our data support and extend earlier findings that implicate BLA, vHIP and mPFC in social defeat. The time courses of the establishment and extinction of social defeat are particularly consistent with the contrasting BLA and vHIP responses involved in this process.

  18. Enhancement of delay eyelid conditioning by microcurrent electrical stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex is triggered by the expression of Fos protein in guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENG, YA-JUAN; DONG, YU-CHEN; ZHU, CHAO; ZHAO, MEI-SHENG

    2016-01-01

    Eyelid conditioning, including delay eyelid conditioning and trace eyelid conditioning, has been used extensively to study neural structures and mechanisms of learning and memory as a form of associative learning. In the present study, microcurrent electrical stimulation was used to stimulate the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to induce delay eyelid conditioning in guinea pigs. The acquisition rate and relative latency of the conditioned eyelid response (CR) and the startle eyelid response (...

  19. Preservation of episodic memory in semantic dementia: The importance of regions beyond the medial temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Bunk, Steffie; Tu, Sicong; Kamminga, Jody; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-29

    Episodic memory impairment represents one of the hallmark clinical features of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) attributable to the degeneration of medial temporal and parietal regions of the brain. In contrast, a somewhat paradoxical profile of relatively intact episodic memory, particularly for non-verbal material, is observed in semantic dementia (SD), despite marked atrophy of the hippocampus. This retrospective study investigated the neural substrates of episodic memory retrieval in 20 patients with a diagnosis of SD and 21 disease-matched cases of AD and compared their performance to that of 35 age- and education-matched healthy older Controls. Participants completed the Rey Complex Figure and the memory subscale of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised as indices of visual and verbal episodic recall, respectively. Relative to Controls, AD patients showed compromised memory performance on both visual and verbal memory tasks. In contrast, memory deficits in SD were modality-specific occurring exclusively on the verbal task. Controlling for semantic processing ameliorated these deficits in SD, while memory impairments persisted in AD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed significant overlap in the neural correlates of verbal episodic memory in AD and SD with predominantly anteromedial regions, including the bilateral hippocampus, strongly implicated. Controlling for semantic processing negated this effect in SD, however, a distributed network of frontal, medial temporal, and parietal regions was implicated in AD. Our study corroborates the view that episodic memory deficits in SD arise very largely as a consequence of the conceptual loading of traditional tasks. We propose that the functional integrity of frontal and parietal regions enables new learning to occur in SD in the face of significant hippocampal and anteromedial temporal lobe pathology, underscoring the inherent complexity of the episodic memory circuitry. Copyright © 2015

  20. Reversal of Cocaine-Associated Synaptic Plasticity in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Parallels Elimination of Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, James M; Mueller, Devin

    2017-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by abnormalities in prefrontal cortex that are thought to allow drug-associated cues to drive compulsive drug seeking and taking. Identification and reversal of these pathologic neuroadaptations are therefore critical for treatment of addiction. Previous studies using rodents reveal that drugs of abuse cause dendritic spine plasticity in prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL-mPFC) pyramidal neurons, a phenomenon that correlates with the strength of drug-associated memories in vivo. Thus, we hypothesized that cocaine-evoked plasticity in PL-mPFC may underlie cocaine-associated memory retrieval, and therefore disruption of this plasticity would prevent retrieval. Indeed, using patch clamp electrophysiology we find that cocaine place conditioning increases excitatory presynaptic and postsynaptic transmission in rat PL-mPFC pyramidal neurons. This was accounted for by increases in excitatory presynaptic release, paired-pulse facilitation, and increased AMPA receptor transmission. Noradrenergic signaling is known to maintain glutamatergic plasticity upon reactivation of modified circuits, and we therefore next determined whether inhibition of noradrenergic signaling during memory reactivation would reverse the cocaine-evoked plasticity and/or disrupt the cocaine-associated memory. We find that administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol before memory retrieval, but not after (during memory reconsolidation), reverses the cocaine-evoked presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications in PL-mPFC and causes long-lasting memory impairments. Taken together, these data reveal that cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in PL-mPFC is reversible in vivo, and suggest a novel strategy that would allow normalization of prefrontal circuitry in addiction.

  1. Modulating Emotional Experience Using Electrical Stimulation of the Medial-Prefrontal Cortex: A Preliminary tDCS-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Rany; Sar-El, Roy; Gonen, Tal; Jalon, Itamar; Vaisvaser, Sharon; Bar-Haim, Yair; Hendler, Talma

    2018-05-09

    Implicit regulation of emotions involves medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions exerting regulatory control over limbic structures. Diminished regulation relates to aberrant mPFC functionality and psychopathology. Establishing means of modulating mPFC functionality could benefit research on emotion and its dysregulation. Here, we tested the capacity of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting mPFC to modulate subjective emotional states by facilitating implicit emotion regulation. Stimulation was applied concurrently with functional magnetic resonance imaging to validate its neurobehavioral effect. Sixteen participants were each scanned twice, counterbalancing active and sham tDCS application, while undergoing negative mood induction (clips featuring negative vs. neutral contents). Effects of stimulation on emotional experience were assessed using subjective and neural measures. Subjectively, active stimulation led to significant reduction in reported intensity of experienced emotions to negatively valenced (p = 0.005) clips but not to neutral clips (p > 0.99). Active stimulation further mitigated a rise in stress levels from pre- to post-induction (sham: p = 0.004; active: p = 0.15). Neurally, stimulation increased activation in mPFC regions associated with implicit emotion regulation (ventromedial-prefrontal cortex; subgenual anterior-cingulate cortex, sgACC), and in ventral striatum, a core limbic structure (all ps  0.64, ps < 0.018), suggesting individual differences in stimulation responsivity. Results of this study indicate the potential capacity of tDCS to facilitate brain activation in mPFC regions underlying implicit regulation of emotion and accordingly modulate subjective emotional experiences. © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  2. The Medial Temporal Lobe – Conduit of Parallel Connectivity: A model for Attention, Memory, and Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B. Mozaffari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the notion that the brain is equipped with a hierarchical organization, which embodies environmental contingencies across many time scales, this paper suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL – located deep in the hierarchy – serves as a bridge connecting supra to infra – MTL levels. Bridging the upper and lower regions of the hierarchy provides a parallel architecture that optimizes information flow between upper and lower regions to aid attention, encoding, and processing of quick complex visual phenomenon. Bypassing intermediate hierarchy levels, information conveyed through the MTL ‘bridge’ allows upper levels to make educated predictions about the prevailing context and accordingly select lower representations to increase the efficiency of predictive coding throughout the hierarchy. This selection or activation/deactivation is associated with endogenous attention. In the event that these ‘bridge’ predictions are inaccurate, this architecture enables the rapid encoding of novel contingencies. A review of hierarchical models in relation to memory is provided along with a new theory, Medial-temporal-lobe Conduit for Parallel Connectivity (MCPC. In this scheme, consolidation is considered as a secondary process, occurring after a MTL-bridged connection, which eventually allows upper and lower levels to access each other directly. With repeated reactivations, as contingencies become consolidated, less MTL activity is predicted. Finally, MTL bridging may aid processing transient but structured perceptual events, by allowing communication between upper and lower levels without calling on intermediate levels of representation.

  3. An electrocorticographic electrode array for simultaneous recording from medial, lateral, and intrasulcal surface of the cortex in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Mullarkey, Matthew; Doyle, Alexandra M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Fujii, Naotaka

    2014-08-15

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) permits recording electrical field potentials with high spatiotemporal resolution over a large part of the cerebral cortex. Application of chronically implanted ECoG arrays in animal models provides an opportunity to investigate global spatiotemporal neural patterns and functional connectivity systematically under various experimental conditions. Although ECoG is conventionally used to cover the gyral cortical surface, recent studies have shown the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG recordings in macaque monkeys. Here we developed a new ECoG array to record neural activity simultaneously from much of the medial and lateral cortical surface of a single hemisphere, together with the supratemporal plane (STP) of the lateral sulcus in macaque monkeys. The ECoG array consisted of 256 electrodes for bipolar recording at 128 sites. We successfully implanted the ECoG array in the left hemisphere of three rhesus monkeys. The electrodes in the auditory and visual cortex detected robust event related potentials to auditory and visual stimuli, respectively. Bipolar recording from adjacent electrode pairs effectively eliminated chewing artifacts evident in monopolar recording, demonstrating the advantage of using the ECoG array under conditions that generate significant movement artifacts. Compared with bipolar ECoG arrays previously developed for macaque monkeys, this array significantly expands the number of cortical target areas in gyral and intralsulcal cortex. This new ECoG array provides an opportunity to investigate global network interactions among gyral and intrasulcal cortical areas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pathology-Based Approach to Seizure Outcome After Surgery for Pharmacoresistant Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoni, Matteo; Berti, Pier Paolo; Marucci, Gianluca; Rubboli, Guido; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Marliani, Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bisulli, Francesca; Tinuper, Paolo; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Giulioni, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common cause of drug-resistant medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Structural abnormalities such as HS, granule cell pathology (GCP), and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) have been classified histopathologically, possibly allowing a more accurate assessment of prognostic seizure and neuropsychologic outcomes. We correlated seizure outcome with comprehensive temporal lobe pathologic findings, identified according to the most recent classification systems of HS, GCP, and FCD. All the 83 patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for drug-resistant MTLE and with a proven diagnosis of HS between April 2001 and May 2014 were collected. Patients were divided in 2 main groups: 1) isolated HS with/without GCP (HS +/- GCP); and 2) HS associated with FCD with/without GCP (HS+FCD +/- GCP). Patients were followed up at least 1 year, and seizure outcome was reported in accordance with Engel classification. Group I: HS +/- GCP: Statistical analysis confirmed a better outcome in HS + GCP patients than in HS-no GCP (P epilepsy surgery might improve the interpretation of the results, could predict which cases will enjoy a better seizure outcome, and could help to the comprehension of the causes of failures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein malnutrition during gestation and early life decreases neuronal size in the medial prefrontal cortex of post-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelf J. Cruz-Rizzolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective studies in human populations indicate that protein deprivation during pregnancy and early life (early protein malnutrition, EPM is associated with cognitive impairments, learning disabilities and may represent a risk factor for the late onset of some psychiatric disorders, fundamentally schizophrenia, a condition where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether EPM affects structural aspects of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, such as cortical volume, neuronal density and neuronal soma size, which seem altered in patients with schizophrenia. For this, a rat model of EPM (5% casein from conception to postnatal day 60 was adopted and the rat mPFC volume, total number of neurons and average neuronal volume were evaluated on postnatal day 60 (post-pubertal animals by histo- and immunohistochemical techniques using unbiased stereological analysis. EPM did not alter the number of NeuN+ neurons in the rat mPFC. However, a very significant decrease in mPFC volume and average neuronal size was observed in malnourished rats. Although the present study does not establish causal relationships between malnutrition and schizophrenia, our results may indicate a similar structural phenomenon in these two situations.

  6. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Blau, Vera C; Blomert, Leo; Goebel, Rainer

    2010-02-02

    Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies propose the (posterior) superior temporal cortex (STC) as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent) versus nonmatching (incongruent) multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A) in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs) and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs). We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for the integration of letters and speech sounds and

  7. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomert Leo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies propose the (posterior superior temporal cortex (STC as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent versus nonmatching (incongruent multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs. We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. Results The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. Conclusions These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for

  8. THC alters alters morphology of neurons in medial prefrontal cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens and alters the ability of later experience to promote structural plasticity.

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    Kolb, Bryan; Li, Yilin; Robinson, Terry; Parker, Linda A

    2018-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). To determine if drugs other than psychomotor stimulants will also interfere with later experience-dependent structural plasticity we gave Long-Evans rats THC (0.5 mg/kg) or saline for 11 days before placing them in complex environments or standard laboratory caging for 90 days. Brains were subsequently processed for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology and spine density mPFC, orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and NAcc. THC altered both dendritic arborization and spine density in all three regions, and, like psychomotor stimulants, THC influenced the effect of later experience in complex environments to shape the structure of neurons in these three regions. We conclude that THC may therefore contribute to persistent behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with prolonged use of the drug. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura V Cuaya

    Full Text Available Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  10. Transient optogenetic inactivation of the medial entorhinal cortex biases the active population of hippocampal neurons.

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    Rueckemann, Jon W; DiMauro, Audrey J; Rangel, Lara M; Han, Xue; Boyden, Edward S; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms that enable the hippocampal network to express the appropriate spatial representation for a particular circumstance are not well understood. Previous studies suggest that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) may have a role in reproducibly selecting the hippocampal representation of an environment. To examine how ongoing MEC activity is continually integrated by the hippocampus, we performed transient unilateral optogenetic inactivations of the MEC while simultaneously recording place cell activity in CA1. Inactivation of the MEC caused a partial remapping in the CA1 population without diminishing the degree of spatial tuning across the active cell assembly. These changes remained stable irrespective of intermittent disruption of MEC input, indicating that while MEC input is integrated over long time scales to bias the active population, there are mechanisms for stabilizing the population of active neurons independent of the MEC. We find that MEC inputs to the hippocampus shape its ongoing activity by biasing the participation of the neurons in the active network, thereby influencing how the hippocampus selectively represents information. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Temporal envelope processing in the human auditory cortex: response and interconnections of auditory cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourévitch, Boris; Le Bouquin Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2008-03-01

    Temporal envelope processing in the human auditory cortex has an important role in language analysis. In this paper, depth recordings of local field potentials in response to amplitude modulated white noises were used to design maps of activation in primary, secondary and associative auditory areas and to study the propagation of the cortical activity between them. The comparison of activations between auditory areas was based on a signal-to-noise ratio associated with the response to amplitude modulation (AM). The functional connectivity between cortical areas was quantified by the directed coherence (DCOH) applied to auditory evoked potentials. This study shows the following reproducible results on twenty subjects: (1) the primary auditory cortex (PAC), the secondary cortices (secondary auditory cortex (SAC) and planum temporale (PT)), the insular gyrus, the Brodmann area (BA) 22 and the posterior part of T1 gyrus (T1Post) respond to AM in both hemispheres. (2) A stronger response to AM was observed in SAC and T1Post of the left hemisphere independent of the modulation frequency (MF), and in the left BA22 for MFs 8 and 16Hz, compared to those in the right. (3) The activation and propagation features emphasized at least four different types of temporal processing. (4) A sequential activation of PAC, SAC and BA22 areas was clearly visible at all MFs, while other auditory areas may be more involved in parallel processing upon a stream originating from primary auditory area, which thus acts as a distribution hub. These results suggest that different psychological information is carried by the temporal envelope of sounds relative to the rate of amplitude modulation.

  12. Altered structure and function in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

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    Khan, Shariq A; Keaser, Michael L; Meiller, Timothy F; Seminowicz, David A

    2014-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a debilitating, idiopathic chronic pain condition. For many BMS patients, burning oral pain begins in late morning and becomes more intense throughout the day, peaking by late afternoon or evening. We investigated brain gray matter volume (GMV) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM), white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional connectivity in resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) in a tightly screened, homogeneous sample of 9 female, postmenopausal/perimenopausal BMS patients and 9 matched healthy control subjects. Patients underwent 2 scanning sessions in the same day: in the morning, when ongoing pain/burning was low, and in the afternoon, when pain/burning was significantly higher. Patients had increased GMV and lower FA in the hippocampus (Hc), and decreased GMV in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). rsfMRI revealed altered connectivity patterns in different states of pain/burning, with increased connectivity between mPFC (a node in the default mode network) and anterior cingulate cortex, occipital cortex, ventromedial PFC, and bilateral Hc/amygdala in the afternoon compared with the morning session. Furthermore, mPFC-Hc connectivity was higher in BMS patients than control subjects for the afternoon but not the morning session. mPFC-Hc connectivity was related to Beck depression inventory scores both between groups and between burning states within patients, suggesting that depression and anxiety partially explain pain-related brain dysfunction in BMS. Overall, we provide multiple lines of evidence supporting aberrant structure and function in the mPFC and Hc, and implicate a circuit involving the mPFC and Hc in regulating mood and depressive symptoms in BMS. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical activity level and medial temporal health in youth at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vijay A; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M; Pelletier-Baldelli, Andrea; Dean, Derek J; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Smith, Ashley K; Robustelli, Briana L; Leopold, Daniel R; Millman, Zachary B

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, MRI, and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared with healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r = .44, left: r = .55) and with occupational functioning (r = -.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael

    2004-01-01

    For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show....... The medial parietal region may, then, be conceived of as a nodal structure in self-representation, functionally connected to both the right parietal and the medial prefrontal cortices. To determine whether medial parietal cortex in this network is essential for episodic memory retrieval with self...

  15. Increased neuronal firing in resting and sleep in areas of the macaque medial prefrontal cortex.

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    Gabbott, Paul L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of humans and macaques is an integral part of the default mode network and is a brain region that shows increased activation in the resting state. A previous paper from our laboratory reported significantly increased firing rates of neurons in the macaque subgenual cingulate cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 25, during disengagement from a task and also during slow wave sleep [E.T. Rolls et al. (2003) J. Neurophysiology, 90, 134-142]. Here we report the finding that there are neurons in other areas of mPFC that also increase their firing rates during disengagement from a task, drowsiness and eye-closure. During the neurophysiological recording of single mPFC cells (n = 249) in BAs 9, 10, 13 m, 14c, 24b and especially pregenual area 32, populations of neurons were identified whose firing rates altered significantly with eye-closure compared with eye-opening. Three types of neuron were identified: Type 1 cells (28.1% of the total population) significantly increased (mean + 329%; P ≪ 0.01) their average firing rate with eye-closure, from 3.1 spikes/s when awake to 10.2 spikes/s when asleep; Type 2 cells (6.0%) significantly decreased (mean -68%; P areas of mPFC, implicated in the anterior default mode network, there is a substantial population of neurons that significantly increase their firing rates during periods of eye-closure. Such neurons may be part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions that are more active during periods of relaxed wakefulness than during attention-demanding tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Processing of spatial and non-spatial information in rats with lesions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex: Environmental complexity matters.

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    Rodo, Christophe; Sargolini, Francesca; Save, Etienne

    2017-03-01

    The entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry has been suggested to play an important role in episodic memory but the contribution of the entorhinal cortex remains elusive. Predominant theories propose that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) processes spatial information whereas the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) processes non spatial information. A recent study using an object exploration task has suggested that the involvement of the MEC and LEC spatial and non-spatial information processing could be modulated by the amount of information to be processed, i.e. environmental complexity. To address this hypothesis we used an object exploration task in which rats with excitotoxic lesions of the MEC and LEC had to detect spatial and non-spatial novelty among a set of objects and we varied environmental complexity by decreasing the number of objects or amount of object diversity. Reducing diversity resulted in restored ability to process spatial and non-spatial information in MEC and LEC groups, respectively. Reducing the number of objects yielded restored ability to process non-spatial information in the LEC group but not the ability to process spatial information in the MEC group. The findings indicate that the MEC and LEC are not strictly necessary for spatial and non-spatial processing but that their involvement depends on the complexity of the information to be processed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal Effects of Ketamine on Dendritic Architecture In Vivo in the Mouse Medial Frontal Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoumthipphavong, Victoria; Barthas, Florent; Hassett, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, leads to fast-acting antidepressant effects. In rodent models, systemic ketamine is associated with higher dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex, reflecting structural remodeling that may underlie the behavioral changes. However, turnover of dendritic spines is a dynamic process in vivo, and the longitudinal effects of ketamine on structural plasticity remain unclear. The purpose of the current study is to use subcellular resolution optical imaging to determine the time course of dendritic alterations in vivo following systemic ketamine administration in mice. We used two-photon microscopy to visualize repeatedly the same set of dendritic branches in the mouse medial frontal cortex (MFC) before and after a single injection of ketamine or saline. Compared to controls, ketamine-injected mice had higher dendritic spine density in MFC for up to 2 weeks. This prolonged increase in spine density was driven by an elevated spine formation rate, and not by changes in the spine elimination rate. A fraction of the new spines following ketamine injection was persistent, which is indicative of functional synapses. In a few cases, we also observed retraction of distal apical tuft branches on the day immediately after ketamine administration. These results indicate that following systemic ketamine administration, certain dendritic inputs in MFC are removed immediately, while others are added gradually. These dynamic structural modifications are consistent with a model of ketamine action in which the net effect is a rebalancing of synaptic inputs received by frontal cortical neurons. PMID:27066532

  18. Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential roles of these brain regions in memory formation. However, it is still poorly understood whether gene expression in brain regions other than the amygdala/hippocampus is required for the consolidation of fear memory; however, several brain regions are known to play modulatory roles in fear memory formation. Results To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL regions and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory. Conclusion Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.

  19. Spatio-temporal brain dynamics in a combined stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflict task.

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    Frühholz, Sascha; Godde, Ben; Finke, Mareike; Herrmann, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    It is yet not well known whether different types of conflicts share common or rely on distinct brain mechanisms of conflict processing. We used a combined Flanker (stimulus-stimulus; S-S) and Simon (stimulus-response; S-R) conflict paradigm both in an fMRI and an EEG study. S-S conflicts induced stronger behavioral interference effects compared to S-R conflicts and the latter decayed with increasing response latencies. Besides some similar medial frontal activity across all conflict trials, which was, however, not statically consistent across trials, we especially found distinct activations depending on the type of conflict. S-S conflicts activated the anterior cingulate cortex and modulated the N2 and early P3 component with underlying source activity in inferior frontal cortex. S-R conflicts produced distinct activations in the posterior cingulate cortex and modulated the late P3b component with underlying source activity in superior parietal cortex. Double conflict trials containing both S-S and S-R conflicts revealed, first, distinct anterior frontal activity representing a meta-processing unit and, second, a sequential modulation of the N2 and the P3b component. The N2 modulation during double conflict trials was accompanied by increased source activity in the medial frontal gyrus (MeFG). In summary, S-S and S-R conflict processing mostly rely on distinct mechanisms of conflict processing and these conflicts differentially modulate the temporal stages of stimulus processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrocorticographic Temporal Alteration Mapping: A Clinical Technique for Mapping the Motor Cortex with Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

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    Zehan Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM, which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS procedure for motor cortex localization. Moreover, the patients were required to perform simple brisk wrist extension task during awake craniotomy surgery. Cross-validation results showed that the proposed ETAM method had high sensitivity (81.8% and specificity (94.3% in identifying sites which exhibited positive DECS motor responses. Moreover, although the sensitivity of the ETAM and EFAM approaches was not significantly different, ETAM had greater specificity compared with EFAM (94.3 vs. 86.1%. These results indicate that for the intraoperative functional brain mapping, ETAM is a promising novel approach for motor cortex localization with the potential to reduce the need for cortical electrical stimulation.

  1. Visual working memory capacity and the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Wixted, John T; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2012-03-07

    Patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage are sometimes impaired at remembering visual information across delays as short as a few seconds. Such impairments could reflect either impaired visual working memory capacity or impaired long-term memory (because attention has been diverted or because working memory capacity has been exceeded). Using a standard change-detection task, we asked whether visual working memory capacity is intact or impaired after MTL damage. Five patients with hippocampal lesions and one patient with large MTL lesions saw an array of 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 colored squares, followed after 3, 4, or 8 s by a second array where one of the colored squares was cued. The task was to decide whether the cued square had the same color as the corresponding square in the first array or a different color. At the 1 s delay typically used to assess working memory capacity, patients performed as well as controls at all array sizes. At the longer delays, patients performed as well as controls at small array sizes, thought to be within the capacity limit, and worse than controls at large array sizes, thought to exceed the capacity limit. The findings suggest that visual working memory capacity in humans is intact after damage to the MTL structures and that damage to these structures impairs performance only when visual working memory is insufficient to support performance.

  2. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-José; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2014-12-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional face processing. However, no study has yet investigated the functional neural correlates of neutral and emotional memory in adults reporting CEM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated CEM-related differential activations in mPFC during the encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words. The sample (N = 194) consisted of patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (HC) reporting CEM (n = 96) and patients and HC reporting no abuse (n = 98). We found a consistent pattern of mPFC hypoactivation during encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words in individuals reporting CEM. These results were not explained by psychopathology or severity of depression or anxiety symptoms, or by gender, level of neuroticism, parental psychopathology, negative life events, antidepressant use or decreased mPFC volume in the CEM group. These findings indicate mPFC hypoactivity in individuals reporting CEM during emotional and neutral memory encoding and recognition. Our findings suggest that CEM may increase individuals' risk to the development of psychopathology on differential levels of processing in the brain; blunted mPFC activation during higher order processing and enhanced amygdala activation during automatic/lower order emotion processing. These findings are vital in understanding the long-term consequences of CEM. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Oxytocin in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates maternal care, maternal aggression and anxiety during the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabihi, Sara; Dong, Shirley M.; Durosko, Nicole E.; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts on a widespread network of brain regions to regulate numerous behavioral adaptations during the postpartum period including maternal care, maternal aggression, and anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether this network also includes the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that bilateral infusion of a highly specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-A) into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC increased anxiety-like behavior in postpartum, but not virgin, females. In addition, OTR blockade in the postpartum mPFC impaired maternal care behaviors and enhanced maternal aggression. Overall, these results suggest that OT in the mPFC modulates maternal care and aggression, as well as anxiety-like behavior, during the postpartum period. Although the relationship among these behaviors is complicated and further investigation is required to refine our understanding of OT actions in the maternal mPFC, these data nonetheless provide new insights into neural circuitry of OT-mediated postpartum behaviors. PMID:25147513

  4. The dorsal medial frontal cortex is sensitive to time on task, not response conflict or error likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinband, Jack; Savitskaya, Judith; Wager, Tor D; Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent P; Hirsch, Joy

    2011-07-15

    The dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) is highly active during choice behavior. Though many models have been proposed to explain dMFC function, the conflict monitoring model is the most influential. It posits that dMFC is primarily involved in detecting interference between competing responses thus signaling the need for control. It accurately predicts increased neural activity and response time (RT) for incompatible (high-interference) vs. compatible (low-interference) decisions. However, it has been shown that neural activity can increase with time on task, even when no decisions are made. Thus, the greater dMFC activity on incompatible trials may stem from longer RTs rather than response conflict. This study shows that (1) the conflict monitoring model fails to predict the relationship between error likelihood and RT, and (2) the dMFC activity is not sensitive to congruency, error likelihood, or response conflict, but is monotonically related to time on task. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Future Thinking: Evidence from Neuroimaging and Amnesia

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    Mieke Verfaellie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Following early amnesic case reports, there is now considerable evidence suggesting a link between remembering the past and envisioning the future. This link is evident in the overlap in neural substrates as well as cognitive processes involved in both kinds of tasks. While constructing a future narrative requires multiple processes, neuroimaging and lesion data converge on a critical role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in retrieving and recombining details from memory in the service of novel simulations. Deficient detail retrieval and recombination may lead to impairments not only in episodic, but also in semantic prospection. MTL contributions to scene construction and mental time travel may further compound impairments in amnesia on tasks that pose additional demands on these processes, but are unlikely to form the core deficit underlying amnesics' cross-domain future thinking impairment. Future studies exploring the role of episodic memory in other forms of self-projection or future-oriented behaviour may elucidate further the adaptive role of memory.

  6. The Valgus Inclination of the Tibial Component Increases the Risk of Medial Tibial Condylar Fractures in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Medial Temporal Lobe Morphology in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, A C; Gomes, W A; Shinnar, S; Hesdorffer, D C; Bagiella, E; Lewis, D V; Bello, J A; Chan, S; MacFall, J; Chen, M; Pellock, J M; Nordli, D R; Frank, L M; Moshé, S L; Shinnar, R C; Sun, S

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study. Medial temporal lobe morphologic parameters were measured manually, including the distance of the hippocampus from the midline, hippocampal height:width ratio, hippocampal angle, collateral sulcus angle, and width of the temporal horn. Temporal lobe morphologic parameters were correlated with the presence of visual hippocampal malrotation; the strongest association was with left temporal horn width (P status epilepticus, encompassing both the right and left sides. This association was statistically strongest in the right temporal lobe, whereas hippocampal malrotation was almost exclusively left-sided in this cohort. The association between temporal lobe measurements and febrile status epilepticus persisted when the analysis was restricted to cases with visually normal imaging findings without hippocampal malrotation or other visually apparent abnormalities. Several component morphologic features of hippocampal malrotation are independently associated with febrile status epilepticus, even when complete hippocampal malrotation is absent. Unexpectedly, this association predominantly involves the right temporal lobe. These findings suggest that a spectrum of bilateral temporal lobe anomalies are associated with febrile status epilepticus in children. Hippocampal malrotation may represent a visually apparent subset of this spectrum. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  9. Working memory load impairs the evaluation of behavioral errors in the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin E; Steinhauser, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Early error monitoring in the medial frontal cortex enables error detection and the evaluation of error significance, which helps prioritize adaptive control. This ability has been assumed to be independent from central capacity, a limited pool of resources assumed to be involved in cognitive control. The present study investigated whether error evaluation depends on central capacity by measuring the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) in a flanker paradigm while working memory load was varied on two levels. We used a four-choice flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify targets while ignoring flankers. Errors could be due to responding either to the flankers (flanker errors) or to none of the stimulus elements (nonflanker errors). With low load, the Ne/ERN was larger for flanker errors than for nonflanker errors-an effect that has previously been interpreted as reflecting differential significance of these error types. With high load, no such effect of error type on the Ne/ERN was observable. Our findings suggest that working memory load does not impair the generation of an Ne/ERN per se but rather impairs the evaluation of error significance. They demonstrate that error monitoring is composed of capacity-dependent and capacity-independent mechanisms. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. P1-24: Neural Representation of Gloss in the Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Nishio; Naokazu Goda; Hidehiko Komatsu

    2012-01-01

    The variation of the appearance such as gloss provides one of the most important information for object recognition. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms related to the perception of gloss. We examined whether the neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of the monkeys are coding gloss of objects. We made visual stimuli which have various surface reflectance properties, and tested responses of IT neurons to these stimuli while a monkey was performing a visual fixation task...

  11. Differential Effects of Inactivation of Discrete Regions of Medial Prefrontal Cortex on Memory Consolidation of Moderate and Intense Inhibitory Avoidance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Torres-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is involved in memory encoding of aversive events, such as inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Dissociable roles have been described for different mPFC subregions regarding various memory processes, wherein the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prelimbic cortex (PL, and infralimbic cortex (IL are involved in acquisition, retrieval, and extinction of aversive events, respectively. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that intense training impedes the effects on memory of treatments that typically interfere with memory consolidation. The aim of this work was to determine if there are differential effects on memory induced by reversible inactivation of neural activity of ACC, PL, or IL produced by tetrodotoxin (TTX in rats trained in IA using moderate (1.0 mA and intense (3.0 mA foot-shocks. We found that inactivation of ACC has no effects on memory consolidation, regardless of intensity of training. PL inactivation impairs memory consolidation in the 1.0 mA group, while no effect on consolidation was produced in the 3.0 mA group. In the case of IL, a remarkable amnestic effect in LTM was observed in both training conditions. However, state-dependency can explain the amnestic effect of TTX found in the 3.0 mA IL group. In order to circumvent this effect, TTX was injected into IL immediately after training (thus avoiding state-dependency. The behavioral results are equivalent to those found after PL inactivation. Therefore, these findings provide evidence that PL and IL, but not ACC, mediate LTM of IA only in moderate training.

  12. Laminar Module Cascade from Layer 5 to 6 Implementing Cue-to-Target Conversion for Object Memory Retrieval in the Primate Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Kenji W; Takeda, Masaki; Matsui, Teppei; Hirabayashi, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Yohei; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2016-10-19

    The cerebral cortex computes through the canonical microcircuit that connects six stacked layers; however, how cortical processing streams operate in vivo, particularly in the higher association cortex, remains elusive. By developing a novel MRI-assisted procedure that reliably localizes recorded single neurons at resolution of six individual layers in monkey temporal cortex, we show that transformation of representations from a cued object to a to-be-recalled object occurs at the infragranular layer in a visual cued-recall task. This cue-to-target conversion started in layer 5 and was followed by layer 6. Finally, a subset of layer 6 neurons exclusively encoding the sought target became phase-locked to surrounding field potentials at theta frequency, suggesting that this coordinated cell assembly implements cortical long-distance outputs of the recalled target. Thus, this study proposes a link from local computation spanning laminar modules of the temporal cortex to the brain-wide network for memory retrieval in primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experiment list: SRX643466 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available itory cortex) || chip antibody=input || tissue=Female Brain: medial superior temporal gyrus (secondary audit...,725 GSM1423167: Area 13 Brain1 input; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=Female Brain: medial superior temporal gyrus (secondary aud

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex inhibits medial orbitofrontal activity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingbao; Sahlem, Gregory L; Badran, Bashar W; McTeague, Lisa M; Hanlon, Colleen A; Hartwell, Karen J; Henderson, Scott; George, Mark S

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), can reduce cue-elicited craving in smokers. Currently, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effect of a single treatment of rTMS on cortical and sub-cortical neural activity in non-treatment seeking nicotine-dependent participants. We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover trial in which participants attended two experimental visits separated by at least 1 week. On the first visit, participants received either active, or sham rTMS (10 Hz, 5 s-on, 10 s-off, 100% motor threshold, 3,000 pulses) over the left DLPFC, and on the second visit they received the opposite condition (active or sham). Cue craving fMRI scans were completed before and after each rTMS session. A total of 11 non-treatment seeking nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers were enrolled in the study [six female, average age 39.7 ± 13.2, average cigarettes per day 17.3 ± 5.9]. Active rTMS decreased activity in the contralateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and ipsilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) compared to sham rTMS. This preliminary data suggests that one session of rTMS applied to the DLPFC decreases brain activity in the NAc and mOFC in smokers. rTMS may exert its anti-craving effect by decreasing activity in the NAc and mOFC in smokers. Despite a small sample size, these findings warrant future rTMS/fMRI studies in addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:788-794). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Levels of word processing and incidental memory: dissociable mechanisms in the temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, E M; Simos, P G; Davis, R N; Breier, J; Fitzgerald, M E; Papanicolaou, A C

    2001-11-16

    Word recall is facilitated when deep (e.g. semantic) processing is applied during encoding. This fact raises the question of the existence of specific brain mechanisms supporting different levels of information processing that can modulate incidental memory performance. In this study we obtained spatiotemporal brain activation profiles, using magnetic source imaging, from 10 adult volunteers as they performed a shallow (phonological) processing task and a deep (semantic) processing task. When phonological analysis of the word stimuli into their constituent phonemes was required, activation was largely restricted to the posterior portion of the left superior temporal gyrus (area 22). Conversely, when access to lexical/semantic representations was required, activation was found predominantly in the left middle temporal gyrus and medial temporal cortex. The differential engagement of each mechanism during word encoding was associated with dramatic changes in subsequent incidental memory performance.

  16. Spaced sessions of avoidance extinction reduce spontaneous recovery and promote infralimbic cortex activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias-Espinosa, Carles; Kádár, Elisabet; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2018-01-15

    Extinction-based therapies (EBT) are the psychological treatments of choice for certain anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. However, some patients relapse and suffer spontaneous recovery (SR) of anxiety symptoms and persistence of avoidance behaviour, which underlines the need for improving EBT. In rats, recent evidence has highlighted the relevance of the temporal distribution of extinction sessions in reducing SR of auditory fear conditioning, although it has seldom been studied in procedures involving proactive avoidance responses, such as two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA). We examined whether the temporal distribution of two extinction sessions separated by 24h or 7days (contiguous versus spaced extinction paradigms, respectively), influences SR after 28days of a TWAA task. c-Fos expression, as a marker of neuronal activation, was also measured by immunohistochemistry 90min after the SR test in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. The temporal distribution of extinction sessions did not affect the degree of extinction learning. However, only the rats that underwent the 7-day spaced extinction paradigm maintained the level of extinction in the long term, showing no SR in TWAA. This behavioural finding was consistent with a greater number of c-Fos-labelled neurons in the infralimbic cortex in the 7-day group, and in the Lateral and Central nuclei of the amygdala in the 24-hour group. These findings show that a time-spaced extinction paradigm reduces the spontaneous recovery of active avoidance behaviour, and that this behavioural advantage appears to be related to the activation of the infralimbic cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Apoptotic mechanisms after repeated noise trauma in the mouse medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Felix; Ernst, Arne; Strübing, Ira; Basta, Dietmar; Gröschel, Moritz

    2017-12-01

    A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss has previously been shown after a single noise exposure in the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (AI). However, repeated noise exposure is the most common situation in humans and a major risk factor for the induction of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The present investigation measured cell death pathways using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the dorsal, medial and ventral MGB (dMGB, mMGB and vMGB) and six layers of the AI (AI-1 to AI-6) in mice (NMRI strain) after a second noise exposure (double-exposure group). Therefore, a single noise exposure group has been investigated 7 (7-day-group-single) or 14 days (14-day-group-single) after noise exposure (3 h, 5-20 kHz, 115 dB SPL peak-to-peak). The double-exposure group received the same noise trauma for a second time 7 days after the initial exposure and was either TUNEL-stained immediately (7-day-group-double) or 1 week later (14-day-group-double) and data were compared to the corresponding single-trauma group as well as to an unexposed control group. It was shown that TUNEL increased immediately after the second noise exposure in AI-3 and stayed upregulated in the 14-day-group-double. A significant increase in TUNEL was also seen in the 14-day-group-double in vMGB, mMGB and AI-1. The present results show for the first time the influence of a repeated noise trauma on cell death mechanisms in thalamic and cortical structures and might contribute to the understanding of pathophysiological findings and psychoacoustic phenomena accompanying NIHL.

  18. Temporal association between changes in primary sensory cortex and corticomotor output during muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabrun, S M; Jones, E; Kloster, J; Hodges, P W

    2013-04-03

    Integration of information between multiple cortical regions is thought to underpin the experience of pain. Yet studies tend to focus on pain related changes in discrete cortical regions. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory cortex (S1) is implicated in pain, the temporal relationship between these regions is unknown and may provide insight into the interaction between them. We used recordings of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the temporal relationship between altered excitability of the primary sensory cortex and corticomotor output during and after muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline infusion into the right first dorsal interosseous. SEPs and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded in 12 healthy individuals. Participants reported an average pain intensity of 5.4 (0.5) on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. The area of the N20-P25-N33 complex of the SEP was reduced during and after pain, but MEP amplitudes were suppressed only after pain had resolved. Our data show that pain reduces sensory processing before motor output is altered. This temporal dispersion, coupled with the lack of correlation between pain-induced changes in S1 and M1 excitability, imply either that independent processes are involved, or that reduced excitability of S1 during acute experimental muscle pain mediates latent reductions in motor output via processes that are non-linear and potentially involve activation of a wider brain network. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  20. The dopamine beta-hydroxylase inhibitor nepicastat increases dopamine release and potentiates psychostimulant-induced dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, Paola; Flore, Giovanna; Saba, Pierluigi; Bini, Valentina; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-07-01

    The dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor nepicastat has been shown to reproduce disulfiram ability to suppress the reinstatement of cocaine seeking after extinction in rats. To clarify its mechanism of action, we examined the effect of nepicastat, given alone or in association with cocaine or amphetamine, on catecholamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, two key regions involved in the reinforcing and motivational effects of cocaine and in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Nepicastat effect on catecholamines was evaluated by microdialysis in freely moving rats. Nepicastat reduced noradrenaline release both in the medial prefrontal cortex and in the nucleus accumbens, and increased dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex but not in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, nepicastat markedly potentiated cocaine- and amphetamine-induced extracellular dopamine accumulation in the medial prefrontal cortex but not in the nucleus accumbens. Extracellular dopamine accumulation produced by nepicastat alone or by its combination with cocaine or amphetamine was suppressed by the α2 -adrenoceptor agonist clonidine. It is suggested that nepicastat, by suppressing noradrenaline synthesis and release, eliminated the α2 -adrenoceptor mediated inhibitory mechanism that constrains dopamine release and cocaine- and amphetamine-induced dopamine release from noradrenaline or dopamine terminals in the medial prefrontal cortex. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Serial pathways from primate prefrontal cortex to autonomic areas may influence emotional expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Subhash

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing emotions engages high-order orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal areas, and expressing emotions involves low-level autonomic structures and peripheral organs. How is information from the cortex transmitted to the periphery? We used two parallel approaches to map simultaneously multiple pathways to determine if hypothalamic autonomic centres are a key link for orbitofrontal areas and medial prefrontal areas, which have been associated with emotional processes, as well as low-level spinal and brainstem autonomic structures. The latter innervate peripheral autonomic organs, whose activity is markedly increased during emotional arousal. Results We first determined if pathways linking the orbitofrontal cortex with the hypothalamus overlapped with projection neurons directed to the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, with the aid of neural tracers injected in these disparate structures. We found that axons from orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices converged in the hypothalamus with neurons projecting to brainstem and spinal autonomic centers, linking the highest with the lowest levels of the neuraxis. Using a parallel approach, we injected bidirectional tracers in the lateral hypothalamic area, an autonomic center, to label simultaneously cortical pathways leading to the hypothalamus, as well as hypothalamic axons projecting to low-level brainstem and spinal autonomic centers. We found densely distributed projection neurons in medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices leading to the hypothalamus, as well as hypothalamic axonal terminations in several brainstem structures and the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, which innervate peripheral autonomic organs. We then provided direct evidence that axons from medial prefrontal cortex synapse with hypothalamic neurons, terminating as large boutons, comparable in size to the highly efficient thalamocortical system. The interlinked orbitofrontal

  2. Dorso-medial and ventro-lateral functional specialization of the human retrosplenial complex in spatial updating and orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burles, Ford; Slone, Edward; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The retrosplenial complex is a region within the posterior cingulate cortex implicated in spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the functional specialization of this large and anatomically heterogeneous region using fMRI and resting-state functional connectivity combined with a spatial task with distinct phases of spatial 'updating' (i.e., integrating and maintaining object locations in memory during spatial displacement) and 'orienting' (i.e., recalling unseen locations from current position in space). Both spatial 'updating' and 'orienting' produced bilateral activity in the retrosplenial complex, among other areas. However, spatial 'updating' produced slightly greater activity in ventro-lateral portions, of the retrosplenial complex, whereas spatial 'orienting' produced greater activity in a more dorsal and medial portion of it (both regions localized along the parieto-occipital fissure). At rest, both ventro-lateral and dorso-medial subregions of the retrosplenial complex were functionally connected to the hippocampus and parahippocampus, regions both involved in spatial orientation and navigation. However, the ventro-lateral subregion of the retrosplenial complex displayed more positive functional connectivity with ventral occipital and temporal object recognition regions, whereas the dorso-medial subregion activity was more correlated to dorsal activity and frontal activity, as well as negatively correlated with more ventral parietal structures. These findings provide evidence for a dorso-medial to ventro-lateral functional specialization within the human retrosplenial complex that may shed more light on the complex neural mechanisms underlying spatial orientation and navigation in humans.

  3. Sentence processing in anterior superior temporal cortex shows a social-emotional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, Monika S; Jasmin, Kyle M; Peng, Cynthia; Martin, Alex

    2016-08-01

    The anterior region of the left superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (aSTG/STS) has been implicated in two very different cognitive functions: sentence processing and social-emotional processing. However, the vast majority of the sentence stimuli in previous reports have been of a social or social-emotional nature suggesting that sentence processing may be confounded with semantic content. To evaluate this possibility we had subjects read word lists that differed in phrase/constituent size (single words, 3-word phrases, 6-word sentences) and semantic content (social-emotional, social, and inanimate objects) while scanned in a 7T environment. This allowed us to investigate if the aSTG/STS responded to increasing constituent structure (with increased activity as a function of constituent size) with or without regard to a specific domain of concepts, i.e., social and/or social-emotional content. Activity in the left aSTG/STS was found to increase with constituent size. This region was also modulated by content, however, such that social-emotional concepts were preferred over social and object stimuli. Reading also induced content type effects in domain-specific semantic regions. Those preferring social-emotional content included aSTG/STS, inferior frontal gyrus, posterior STS, lateral fusiform, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, regions included in the "social brain", while those preferring object content included parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and caudate, regions involved in object processing. These results suggest that semantic content affects higher-level linguistic processing and should be taken into account in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Visual short-term memory for high resolution associations is impaired in patients with medial temporal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D; Borders, Alyssa A; Petzold, Michael T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in episodic long-term memory, but whether the MTL is necessary for visual short-term memory is controversial. Some studies have indicated that MTL damage disrupts visual short-term memory performance whereas other studies have failed to find such evidence. To account for these mixed results, it has been proposed that the hippocampus is critical in supporting short-term memory for high resolution complex bindings, while the cortex is sufficient to support simple, low resolution bindings. This hypothesis was tested in the current study by assessing visual short-term memory in patients with damage to the MTL and controls for high resolution and low resolution object-location and object-color associations. In the location tests, participants encoded sets of two or four objects in different locations on the screen. After each set, participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task in which they were required to discriminate the object in the target location from the object in a high or low resolution lure location (i.e., the object locations were very close or far away from the target location, respectively). Similarly, in the color tests, participants were presented with sets of two or four objects in a different color and, after each set, were required to discriminate the object in the target color from the object in a high or low resolution lure color (i.e., the lure color was very similar or very different, respectively, to the studied color). The patients were significantly impaired in visual short-term memory, but importantly, they were more impaired for high resolution object-location and object-color bindings. The results are consistent with the proposal that the hippocampus plays a critical role in forming and maintaining complex, high resolution bindings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Altered grey matter volume and cortical thickness in patients with schizo-obsessive comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Lai-quan; Xie, Wen-lan

    2018-01-01

    healthy controls (HCs). We found that patients with SOC exhibited reduced GM volume in the left thalamus, the left inferior semi-lunar lobule of the cerebellum, the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (medial oFC), the medial superior frontal gyrus (medial sFG), the rectus gyrus and the anterior...... cingulate cortex (aCC) compared with HCs. Patients with SOC also exhibited reduced cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (sTG), the right angular gyrus, the right supplementary motor area (SMA), the right middle cingulate cortex (mCC) and the right middle occipital gyrus (mOG) compared...

  6. Testing the importance of the Medial Temporal Lobes in human interoception: Does it matter if there is a memory component to the task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, Joanne; Stevenson, Richard J; Thayer, Zoe C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Mohamed, Armin; Watson, John D G; Miller, Laurie A

    2016-10-01

    Interoception is the ability to consciously perceive internal bodily states. Neuroimaging suggests that the insula (IC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) mediate interoception, while studies involving patients/animals with brain lesions suggest the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is particularly important. One reason for these contrasting conclusions may lie in the types of interoceptive task used by these different approaches. Some tasks probably require integration of current physiological state with mnemonic information (e.g., how much one last ate), and these may be especially reliant upon MTL processing. We compared one task that probably requires integration - a water load task - with one that likely does not - a heart-rate tracking task - in two individuals with selective MTL damage (and with intact IC and ACC). A group of matched healthy individuals served as controls. The main finding was that individuals with MTL damage, relative to controls, were equally and significantly impaired on both types of interoception task. This suggests that MTL structures are involved in mediating interoception even when using a task (heart rate tracking) that does not seemingly require memory and that in neuroimaging studies activates the IC and ACC. The reasons for this apparent inconsistency with neuroimaging findings and the functional role of the MTL in interoception are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intracerebral stimulation of left and right ventral temporal cortex during object naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédos Ulvin, Line; Jonas, Jacques; Brissart, Hélène; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Thiriaux, Anne; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2017-12-01

    While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31.3% vs 13.6%). The highest proportions of positive naming sites were found in the left fusiform gyrus and occipito-temporal sulcus (47.5% and 31.8%). For 17 positive left naming sites, an additional semantic picture matching was carried out, always successfully performed. Our results showed the enhanced role of the left compared to the right VTC in naming and suggest that it may be involved in lexical retrieval rather than in semantic processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective role of curcumin against sulfite-induced structural changes in rats' medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2015-08-01

    Sodium metabisulfite as a food preservative can affect the central nervous system. Curcumin, the main ingredient of turmeric has neuroprotective activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of sulfite and curcumin on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using stereological methods. Thirty rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in groups I-V received distilled water, olive oil, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), and sulfite + curcumin, respectively, for 8 weeks. The brains were subjected to the stereological methods. Cavalieri and optical disector techniques were used to estimate the total volume of mPFC and the number of neurons and glial cells. Intersections counting were applied on the thick vertical uniform random sections to estimate the dendrites length, and classify the spines. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze the data. The mean mPFC volume, neurons number, glia number, dendritic length, and total spines per neuron were 3.7 mm(3), 365,000, 180,000, 1820 µm, and 1700 in distilled water group, respectively. A reduction was observed in the volume of mPFC (∼8%), number of neurons (∼15%), and number of glia (∼14%) in mPFC of the sulfite group compared to the control groups (P curcumin had a protective role against the changes in the rats.

  9. Humor Appreciation Involves Parametric and Synchronized Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2017-12-01

    Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions. The subjects' brain activity was measured while watching and enjoying a movie. In experiment 1, a parametric analysis showed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and hippocampus/amygdala had a positive relationship with the subjective rating of funniness. In experiment 2, intersubject correlation was analyzed to investigate synchronized activity across all participants. Signal synchronization that paralleled increased funniness ratings was observed in the MPFC and hippocampus. Thus, it appears that both parametric and synchronized activity in the MPFC and hippocampus are important during humor appreciation. The present study has revealed the brain regions that are predominantly involved in humor sensation under natural condition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Hippocampal Atrophy Is Associated with Altered Hippocampus-Posterior Cingulate Cortex Connectivity in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Y C; Tseng, C E; Lin, F-H; Liou, H H; Tseng, W Y I

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis have structural and functional abnormalities in the mesial temporal regions. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of the epileptic network in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, we aimed to clarify the relationships between hippocampal atrophy and the altered connection between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Fifteen patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and 15 healthy controls were included in the study. Multicontrast MR imaging, including high-resolution T1WI, diffusion spectrum imaging, and resting-state fMRI, was performed to measure the hippocampal volume, structural connectivity of the inferior cingulum bundle, and intrinsic functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex, respectively. Compared with controls, patients had decreased left hippocampal volume (volume ratio of the hippocampus and controls, 0.366% ± 0.029%; patients, 0.277% ± 0.063%, corrected P = .002), structural connectivity of the bilateral inferior cingulum bundle (generalized fractional anisotropy, left: controls, 0.234 ± 0.020; patients, 0.193 ± 0.022, corrected P = .0001, right: controls, 0.226 ± 0.022; patients, 0.208 ± 0.017, corrected P = .047), and intrinsic functional connectivity between the left hippocampus and the left posterior cingulate cortex (averaged z-value: controls, 0.314 ± 0.152; patients, 0.166 ± 0.062). The left hippocampal volume correlated with structural connectivity positively (standardized β = 0.864, P = .001), but it had little correlation with intrinsic functional connectivity (standardized β = -0.329, P = .113). On the contralesional side, the hippocampal volume did not show any significant correlation with structural connectivity or intrinsic functional connectivity ( F 2,12 = 0.284, P = .757, R 2

  11. A functional MRI study of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Yu Aihong, E-mail: yuaihong163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, the 4th Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Wang Xiaoyi; Xu Guoqing [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Yongjie [Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China); Wang, Yuping [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using fMRI. Materials and methods: Eight patients with left MTLE and 15 healthy subjects were evaluated. An auditory semantic judgment (AJ) paradigm was used. The fMRI data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by AFNI (analysis of functional neuroimages) to generate the activation map. Results: Behavioral data showed that the reaction time of the left MTLE patients was significantly longer than that of controls on the AJ task (t = -3.396, P < 0.05). The left MTLE patients also exhibited diffusively decreased activation in the AJ task. Right hemisphere dominance of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was demonstrated in left MTLE patients. Conclusions: Long-term activation of spikes in left MTLE patients results in language impairment, which is associated with an abnormality of the brain neural network.

  12. A functional MRI study of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Wang Xiaoyi; Xu Guoqing; Li Yongjie; Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng; Wang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using fMRI. Materials and methods: Eight patients with left MTLE and 15 healthy subjects were evaluated. An auditory semantic judgment (AJ) paradigm was used. The fMRI data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by AFNI (analysis of functional neuroimages) to generate the activation map. Results: Behavioral data showed that the reaction time of the left MTLE patients was significantly longer than that of controls on the AJ task (t = -3.396, P < 0.05). The left MTLE patients also exhibited diffusively decreased activation in the AJ task. Right hemisphere dominance of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was demonstrated in left MTLE patients. Conclusions: Long-term activation of spikes in left MTLE patients results in language impairment, which is associated with an abnormality of the brain neural network.

  13. Estimates of segregation and overlap of functional connectivity networks in the human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B T Thomas; Krienen, Fenna M; Chee, Michael W L; Buckner, Randy L

    2014-03-01

    The organization of the human cerebral cortex has recently been explored using techniques for parcellating the cortex into distinct functionally coupled networks. The divergent and convergent nature of cortico-cortical anatomic connections suggests the need to consider the possibility of regions belonging to multiple networks and hierarchies among networks. Here we applied the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model and spatial independent component analysis (ICA) to solve for functionally coupled cerebral networks without assuming that cortical regions belong to a single network. Data analyzed included 1000 subjects from the Brain Genomics Superstruct Project (GSP) and 12 high quality individual subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The organization of the cerebral cortex was similar regardless of whether a winner-take-all approach or the more relaxed constraints of LDA (or ICA) were imposed. This suggests that large-scale networks may function as partially isolated modules. Several notable interactions among networks were uncovered by the LDA analysis. Many association regions belong to at least two networks, while somatomotor and early visual cortices are especially isolated. As examples of interaction, the precuneus, lateral temporal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex participate in multiple paralimbic networks that together comprise subsystems of the default network. In addition, regions at or near the frontal eye field and human lateral intraparietal area homologue participate in multiple hierarchically organized networks. These observations were replicated in both datasets and could be detected (and replicated) in individual subjects from the HCP. © 2013.

  14. Orbitofrontal cortex contribution to working memory. N-back ERP study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Toshiyo; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro; Yarita, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Remarkable progress in cognitive neuroscience has revealed the involvement of the prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex in human working memory, but the orbitofrontal cortex is still one of the least understood regions in the human brain. To elucidate the contribution of the orbitofrontal cortex to human working memory, we studied electroencephalography (EEG) P300 activity in n-back task. We elicited early P3 around 300 ms and late P3 around 360 ms of P300 components in n-back event related potentials (ERP). The amplitudes of the respective peaks changed depending on the working memory load (0-back, 1-back, 2-back, 3-back). We used source analysis to evaluate the orbitofrontal cortex in P3 components. A source model was constructed with the sources seeded from fMRI meta-analysis of n-back task and additional sources in the orbitofrontal cortex and the visual cortex estimated with P100 and late P3 components in the n-back ERP. This source model had more than 99% of GOF (goodness of fit) in n-back ERP. It gave us an insight of brain activity at the positions where sources existed. Early P3 was mainly produced by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the inferior parietal lobule, the medial posterior parietal and the visual cortex. Late P3 was mainly produced by the medial premotor, the lateral premotor, the frontal pole and the orbitofrontal cortex. The contribution of the frontal pole and the orbitofrontal cortex had peaks around 390 ms which were later than late P3 component. In this study, the method to evaluate the orbitofrontal cortex activity in n-back ERP was provided. Our results elicited the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in late P3 component of n-back ERP. (author)

  15. Abnormal functional connectivity of the medial cortex in euthymic bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, William R; Lee, James N; Johnson, Susanna; Gale, Phillip; Thatcher, John

    2014-06-03

    This project utilized functional MRI (fMRI) and a motor activation paradigm to investigate neural circuitry in euthymic bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that circuitry involving the cortical midline structures (CMS) would demonstrate abnormal functional connectivity. Nineteen subjects with recurrent bipolar disorder and 18 controls were studied using fMRI and a motor activation paradigm. We used functional connectivity analyses to identify circuits with aberrant connectivity. We found increased functional connectivity among bipolar subjects compared to healthy controls in two CMS circuits. One circuit included the medial aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus and the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus. The other included the medial aspect of the right superior frontal gyrus, the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus and the right medial frontal gyrus and surrounding region. Our results indicate that CMS circuit dysfunction persists in the euthymic state and thus may represent trait pathology. Future studies should address whether these circuits contribute to relapse of illness. Our results also suggest the possibility that aberrations of superior frontal circuitry may impact default mode network and cognitive processes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Quantification of beta A4 protein deposition in the medial temporal lobe: a comparison of Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia of the Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentleman, S M; Williams, B; Royston, M C; Jagoe, R; Clinton, J; Perry, R H; Ince, P G; Allsop, D; Polak, J M; Roberts, G W

    1992-08-03

    The distribution of beta-amyloid protein (beta A4) was examined in the medial temporal lobes from cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 13), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) (n = 12) and age matched controls (n = 9). Using a previously described image analysis technique the extent of beta A4 pathology was determined in ten distinct anatomical sites within the medial temporal lobe. AD and SDLT cases contained very similar amounts of beta A4 in the areas sampled and both contained significantly more beta A4 than the age matched controls, particularly in the dentate and parahippocampal gyri. The similarity of the beta A4 load in the two conditions is in contrast to reported differences in the number of neurofibrillary tangles which can be observed. It is suggested that AD and SDLT represent a spectrum of pathology which centres around the aberrant processing of the beta A4 precursor protein.

  17. The mechanism of abrupt transition between theta and hyper-excitable spiking activity in medial entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Kispersky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that stellate cells (SCs of the medial entorhinal cortex become hyper-excitable in animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy. These studies have also demonstrated the existence of recurrent connections among SCs, reduced levels of recurrent inhibition in epileptic networks as compared to control ones, and comparable levels of recurrent excitation among SCs in both network types. In this work, we investigate the biophysical and dynamic mechanism of generation of the fast time scale corresponding to hyper-excitable firing and the transition between theta and fast firing frequency activity in SCs. We show that recurrently connected minimal networks of SCs exhibit abrupt, threshold-like transition between theta and hyper-excitable firing frequencies as the result of small changes in the maximal synaptic (AMPAergic conductance. The threshold required for this transition is modulated by synaptic inhibition. Similar abrupt transition between firing frequency regimes can be observed in single, self-coupled SCs, which represent a network of recurrently coupled neurons synchronized in phase, but not in synaptically isolated SCs as the result of changes in the levels of the tonic drive. Using dynamical systems tools (phase-space analysis, we explain the dynamic mechanism underlying the genesis of the fast time scale and the abrupt transition between firing frequency regimes, their dependence on the intrinsic SC's currents and synaptic excitation. This abrupt transition is mechanistically different from others observed in similar networks with different cell types. Most notably, there is no bistability involved. 'In vitro' experiments using single SCs self-coupled with dynamic clamp show the abrupt transition between firing frequency regimes, and demonstrate that our theoretical predictions are not an artifact of the model. In addition, these experiments show that high-frequency firing is burst-like with a duration modulated by an M-current.

  18. Neuronal populations in the occipital cortex of the blind synchronize to the temporal dynamics of speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Markus Johannes; Barbero, Francesca M; Mattioni, Stefania; Bottini, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    The occipital cortex of early blind individuals (EB) activates during speech processing, challenging the notion of a hard-wired neurobiology of language. But, at what stage of speech processing do occipital regions participate in EB? Here we demonstrate that parieto-occipital regions in EB enhance their synchronization to acoustic fluctuations in human speech in the theta-range (corresponding to syllabic rate), irrespective of speech intelligibility. Crucially, enhanced synchronization to the intelligibility of speech was selectively observed in primary visual cortex in EB, suggesting that this region is at the interface between speech perception and comprehension. Moreover, EB showed overall enhanced functional connectivity between temporal and occipital cortices that are sensitive to speech intelligibility and altered directionality when compared to the sighted group. These findings suggest that the occipital cortex of the blind adopts an architecture that allows the tracking of speech material, and therefore does not fully abstract from the reorganized sensory inputs it receives. PMID:29338838

  19. Cortico-hippocampal systems involved in memory and cognition: the PMAT framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review evidence that the cortical pathways to the hippocampus appear to extend from two large-scale cortical systems: a posterior medial (PM) system that includes the parahippocampal cortex and retrosplenial cortex, and an anterior temporal (AT) system that includes the perirhinal cortex. This "PMAT" framework accounts for differences in the anatomical and functional connectivity of the medial temporal lobes, which may underpin differences in cognitive function between the systems. The PM and AT systems make distinct contributions to memory and to other cognitive domains, and convergent findings suggest that they are involved in processing information about contexts and items, respectively. In order to support the full complement of memory-guided behavior, the two systems must interact, and the hippocampal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex may serve as sites of integration between the two systems. We conclude that when considering the "connected hippocampus," inquiry should extend beyond the medial temporal lobes to include the large-scale cortical systems of which they are a part. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-Term and Procedural Memory for Colours and Inferior Temporal Cortex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castro-Sierra

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two children (male, 10 years, and female, 13 years one month with tumours of the inferior temporal (IT cortex of the brain were studied post-surgically for their abilities to carry out a short-term memory test. This involved: differences in colour, number and shape of small plastic objects; differences in receptacles where these objects should be placed and in ways in which this placement should be done; a procedural task involving differences either in colour or in size of wooden rings employed in the task. Their performances in these tests, and those of patients with tumours of other encephalic areas, were compared with the performances of normal controls. The subjects with IT tumours spent a significantly greater amount of time than normal subjects of their age in carrying out the procedural task involving differences in colour. One of the IT subjects also spent a significantly greater amount of time in the procedural task involving size differences. Other differences in the performances of patients with encephalic tumours and the performances of normal controls were not significant. Results are discussed in relation to findings of colour and size perception and memory localized to the inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices.

  1. Subliminal semantic priming changes the dynamic causal influence between the left frontal and temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging experiments have revealed that subliminal priming of a target stimulus leads to the reduction of neural activity in specific regions concerned with processing the target. Such findings lead to questions about the degree to which the subliminal priming effect is based only on decreased activity in specific local brain regions, as opposed to the influence of neural mechanisms that regulate communication between brain regions. To address this question, this study recorded EEG during performance of a subliminal semantic priming task. We adopted an information-based approach that used independent component analysis and multivariate autoregressive modeling. Results indicated that subliminal semantic priming caused significant modulation of alpha band activity in the left inferior frontal cortex and modulation of gamma band activity in the left inferior temporal regions. The multivariate autoregressive approach confirmed significant increases in information flow from the inferior frontal cortex to inferior temporal regions in the early time window that was induced by subliminal priming. In the later time window, significant enhancement of bidirectional causal flow between these two regions underlying subliminal priming was observed. Results suggest that unconscious processing of words influences not only local activity of individual brain regions but also the dynamics of neural communication between those regions.

  2. Toward a clinic of temporality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau Jonveaux, Thérèse; Batt, Martine; Trognon, Alain

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of time cells has expanded our knowledge in the field of spatial and temporal information coding and the key role of the hippocampus. The internal clock model complemented with the attentional gate model allows a more in-depth understanding of the perception of time. The motor representation of duration is ensured by the basal ganglia, while the cerebellum synchronizes short duration for the movement. The right prefrontal cortex seemingly intervenes in the handling of temporal information in working memory. The temporal lobe ensures the comparison of durations, especially the right lobe for the reference durations and the medial lobe for the reproduction of durations in episodic memory. During normal aging, the hypothesis of slowing of the temporal processor is evoked when noting the perception of the acceleration of the passage of time that seemingly occurs with advancing age. The various studies pertaining specifically to time cognition, albeit heterogeneous in terms of methodology, attest to the wide-ranging disturbances of this cognitive field during the course of numerous disorders, whether psychiatric - depression and schizophrenia notably - or neurological. Hence, perturbations in temporality are observed in focal brain lesions and in subcortical disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's chorea. Alzheimer's disease represents a particularly fertile field of exploration with regard to time cognition and temporality. The objectified deconstruction of temporal experience provides insights into the very processes of temporality and their nature: episodic, semantic and procedural. In addition to exploration based on elementary stimuli, one should also consider the time lived, i.e. that of the subject, to better understand cognition as it relates to time. While the temporal dimension permeates the whole cognitive field, it remains largely neglected: integration of a genuine time cognition and temporality clinic in daily practice remains

  3. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  4. Thalamo-Cortical Disruption Contributes to Short-Term Memory Deficits in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Natalie L; Menke, Ricarda A L; Jbabdi, Saad; Husain, Masud; Stacey, Richard; Carpenter, Katherine; Adcock, Jane E

    2015-11-01

    Short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have largely been considered as separate brain systems reflecting fronto-parietal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) functions, respectively. This functional dichotomy has been called into question by evidence of deficits on aspects of working memory in patients with MTL damage, suggesting a potentially direct hippocampal contribution to STM. As the hippocampus has direct anatomical connections with the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that damage to thalamic nuclei regulating cortico-cortical interactions may contribute to STM deficits in patients with hippocampal dysfunction. We used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography to identify anatomical subdivisions in patients with MTL epilepsy. From these, we measured resting-state functional connectivity with detailed cortical divisions of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Whereas thalamo-temporal functional connectivity reflected LTM performance, thalamo-prefrontal functional connectivity specifically predicted STM performance. Notably, patients with hippocampal volume loss showed thalamic volume loss, most prominent in the pulvinar region, not detected in patients with normal hippocampal volumes. Aberrant thalamo-cortical connectivity in the epileptic hemisphere was mirrored in a loss of behavioral association with STM performance specifically in patients with hippocampal atrophy. These findings identify thalamo-cortical disruption as a potential mechanism contributing to STM deficits in the context of MTL damage. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Differential effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in the medial prefrontal cortex during aversive and incidental taste memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, J; Nuñez-Jaramillo, L; Morán-Guel, E; Miranda, M I

    2010-08-11

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain area crucial for memory, attention, and decision making. Specifically, the noradrenergic system in this cortex is involved in aversive learning, as well as in the retrieval of these memories. Some evidence suggests that this area has an important role during taste memory, particularly during conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a model of aversive memory. Despite some previous evidence, there is scarce information about the role of adrenergic receptors in the mPFC during formation of aversive taste memory and appetitive/incidental taste memory. The goal of this research was to evaluate the role of mPFC beta-adrenergic receptors during CTA acquisition/consolidation or CTA retrieval, as well as during incidental taste memory formation using the model of latent inhibition of CTA. The results showed that infusions in the mPFC of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol before CTA acquisition impaired both short- and long-term aversive taste memory formation, and also that propranolol infusions before the memory test impaired CTA retrieval. However, propranolol infusions before pre-exposure to the taste during the latent inhibition procedure had no effect on incidental taste memory acquisition or consolidation. These data indicate that beta-adrenergic receptors in the mPFC have different functions during taste memory formation: they have an important role during aversive taste association as well as during aversive retrieval but not during incidental taste memory formation. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The posterior medial cortex is involved in visual but not in verbal memory encoding processing: an intracerebral recording study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillová, K; Jurák, P; Chládek, J; Halámek, J; Telecká, S; Rektor, I

    2013-03-01

    The objective is to study the involvement of the posterior medial cortex (PMC) in encoding and retrieval by visual and auditory memory processing. Intracerebral recordings were studied in two epilepsy-surgery candidates with depth electrodes implanted in the retrosplenial cingulate, precuneus, cuneus, lingual gyrus and hippocampus. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERP) evoked by visual and auditory memory encoding-retrieval tasks. In the hippocampus, ERP were elicited in the encoding and retrieval phases in the two modalities. In the PMC, ERP were recorded in both the encoding and the retrieval visual tasks; in the auditory modality, they were recorded in the retrieval task, but not in the encoding task. In conclusion, the PMC is modality dependent in memory processing. ERP is elicited by memory retrieval, but it is not elicited by auditory encoding memory processing in the PMC. The PMC appears to be involved not only in higher-order top-down cognitive activities but also in more basic, rather than bottom-up activities.

  7. Cell-Type Specific Changes in Glial Morphology and Glucocorticoid Expression During Stress and Aging in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Chan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to stressors is known to produce large-scale remodeling of neurons within the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Recent work suggests stress-related forms of structural plasticity can interact with aging to drive distinct patterns of pyramidal cell morphological changes. However, little is known about how other cellular components within PFC might be affected by these challenges. Here, we examined the effects of stress exposure and aging on medial prefrontal cortical glial subpopulations. Interestingly, we found no changes in glial morphology with stress exposure but a profound morphological change with aging. Furthermore, we found an upregulation of non-nuclear glucocorticoid receptors (GR with aging, while nuclear levels remained largely unaffected. Both changes are selective for microglia, with no stress or aging effect found in astrocytes. Lastly, we show that the changes found within microglia inversely correlated with the density of dendritic spines on layer III pyramidal cells. These findings suggest microglia play a selective role in synaptic health within the aging brain.

  8. Impulse control disorder and response-inhibition alterations in Parkinson's disease. A rare case of totally absent functionality of the medial-prefrontal cortex and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Sara; Morese, Rosalba; Zibetti, Maurizio; Dematteis, Francesca; Sirgiovanni, Stefano; Stanziano, Mario; Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2017-11-01

    This report illustrates a Parkinson's disease (PD) patient with impulse-control disorder (ICD) and selective impairment in response-inhibition abilities as revealed by the performance in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) anterior cingulate cortex - sensitive go-nogo task. In line with hypothesis on the role of response-inhibition disabilities in the arising of impulsivity in PD, the patient completely failed the go-nogo task. Moreover, fMRI acquisition revealed absent task-sensitive activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices for the contrast nogo versus go, which signifying that a hypo-function of this network could be associated with ICD. A fronto-striatal and cingulo-frontal dysfunction may reflect impairment in metacognitive-executive abilities (such as response-inhibition, action monitoring, and error awareness) and promote compulsive repetition of behavior. Response-inhibition tasks may be useful in PD post-diagnostic phase, to better identify individuals at risk of developing ICD with dopaminergic medication.

  9. P1-24: Neural Representation of Gloss in the Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nishio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the appearance such as gloss provides one of the most important information for object recognition. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms related to the perception of gloss. We examined whether the neurons in the inferior temporal (IT cortex of the monkeys are coding gloss of objects. We made visual stimuli which have various surface reflectance properties, and tested responses of IT neurons to these stimuli while a monkey was performing a visual fixation task. We found that there exist neurons in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus that selectively responded to specific stimuli. The selectivity was largely maintained when the object shape or illumination condition was changed. In contrast, neural selectivity was lost when the pixels of objects were randomly rearranged. In the former manipulation of the stimuli, gloss perceptions were maintained, whereas in the latter manipulation, gloss perception was dramatically changed. These results indicate that these IT neurons selectively responded to gloss, not to the irrelevant local image features or average luminance or color. Next, to understand how the responses of gloss selective neurons are related to perceived gloss, responses of gloss selective neurons were mapped in perceptual gloss space in which glossiness changes uniformly. I found that responses of most gloss selective neurons can be explained by linear combinations of two parameters that are shown to be important for gloss perception. This result suggests that the responses of gloss selective neurons of IT cortex are closely related to gloss perception.

  10. Regulation of Alcohol Extinction and Cue-Induced Reinstatement by Specific Projections among Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Nucleus Accumbens, and Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keistler, Colby R; Hammarlund, Emma; Barker, Jacqueline M; Bond, Colin W; DiLeone, Ralph J; Pittenger, Christopher; Taylor, Jane R

    2017-04-26

    The ability to inhibit drinking is a significant challenge for recovering alcoholics, especially in the presence of alcohol-associated cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that the regulation of cue-guided alcohol seeking is mediated by the basolateral amygdala (BLA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, given the high interconnectivity between these structures, it is unclear how mPFC projections to each subcortical structure, as well as projections between BLA and NAc, mediate alcohol-seeking behaviors. Here, we evaluate how cortico-striatal, cortico-amygdalar, and amygdalo-striatal projections control extinction and relapse in a rat model of alcohol seeking. Specifically, we used a combinatorial viral technique to express diphtheria toxin receptors in specific neuron populations based on their projection targets. We then used this strategy to create directionally selective ablations of three distinct pathways after acquisition of ethanol self-administration but before extinction and reinstatement. We demonstrate that ablation of mPFC neurons projecting to NAc, but not BLA, blocks cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and neither pathway is necessary for extinction of responding. Further, we show that ablating BLA neurons that project to NAc disrupts extinction of alcohol approach behaviors and attenuates reinstatement. Together, these data provide evidence that the mPFC→NAc pathway is necessary for cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, expand our understanding of how the BLA→NAc pathway regulates alcohol behavior, and introduce a new methodology for the manipulation of target-specific neural projections. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The vast majority of recovering alcoholics will relapse at least once and understanding how the brain regulates relapse will be key to developing more effective behavior and pharmacological therapies for alcoholism. Given the high interconnectivity of cortical, striatal, and limbic

  11. Decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during self-referential processing in bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Dorrit; Usnich, Tatiana; Spengler, Stephanie; Sajonz, Bastian; Bauer, Michael; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-09-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder in mania exhibit symptoms pointing towards altered self-referential processing, such as decreased self-focus, flight of ideas and high distractibility. In depression, the opposite pattern of symptoms has been connected to increased activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during self-referential processing. In this study, we hypothesized that (1) patients with mania will exhibit decreased activation in the mPFC during self-referential processing and (2) will be more alexithymic and that levels of alexithymia will correlate negatively with mPFC activation. The neural response to standardized pictures was compared in 14 patients with bipolar I disorder in mania to 14 healthy controls using blood oxygen level dependent contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were asked to indicate with button press during the scanning session for each picture whether the pictures personally related to them or not. Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) scores were recorded from all participants. In the group analysis, patients with mania exhibited decreased activation in a predefined region of interest in the mPFC during self-referential processing compared to healthy controls. Patients with mania showed significantly higher levels of alexithymia, attributable to difficulties in identifying and describing emotions. Activation in the mPFC correlated negatively with levels of alexithymia. Results presented here should be replicated in a larger group, potentially including unmedicated patients. The finding of decreased mPFC activation during self-referential processing in mania may reflect decreased self-focus and high distractibility. Support for this view comes from the negative correlation between higher alexithymia scores and decreased mPFC activation. These findings represent an opposite clinical and neuroimaging pattern to findings in depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Laser technique for anatomical-functional study of the medial prefrontal cortex of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Huerta, Laura; Hernandez, Adan; Ayala, Griselda; Marroquin, Javier; Silva, Adriana B.; Khotiaintsev, Konstantin S.; Svirid, Vladimir A.; Flores, Gonzalo; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.

    1999-05-01

    The brain represents one of the most complex systems that we know yet. In its study, non-destructive methods -- in particular, behavioral studies play an important role. By alteration of brain functioning (e.g. by pharmacological means) and observation of consequent behavior changes an important information on brain organization and functioning is obtained. For inducing local alterations, permanent brain lesions are employed. However, for correct results this technique has to be quasi-non-destructive, i.e. not to affect the normal brain function. Hence, the lesions should be very small, accurate and applied precisely over the structure (e.g. the brain nucleus) of interest. These specifications are difficult to meet with the existing techniques for brain lesions -- specifically, neurotoxical, mechanical and electrical means because they result in too extensive damage. In this paper, we present new laser technique for quasi-non- destructive anatomical-functional mapping in vivo of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of the rat. The technique is based on producing of small-size, well-controlled laser- induced lesions over some areas of the MPFC. The anesthetized animals are subjected to stereotactic surgery and certain points of the MPFC are exposed the confined radiation of the 10 W cw CO2 laser. Subsequent behavioral changes observed in neonatal and adult animals as well as histological data prove effectiveness of this technology for anatomical- functional studies of the brain by areas, and as a treatment method for some pathologies.

  13. The neural dynamics of reward value and risk coding in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansong; Vanni-Mercier, Giovanna; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is known to carry information regarding expected reward, risk and experienced outcome. Yet, due to inherent limitations in lesion and neuroimaging methods, the neural dynamics of these computations has remained elusive in humans. Here, taking advantage of the high temporal definition of intracranial recordings, we characterize the neurophysiological signatures of the intact orbitofrontal cortex in processing information relevant for risky decisions. Local field potentials were recorded from the intact orbitofrontal cortex of patients suffering from drug-refractory partial epilepsy with implanted depth electrodes as they performed a probabilistic reward learning task that required them to associate visual cues with distinct reward probabilities. We observed three successive signals: (i) around 400 ms after cue presentation, the amplitudes of the local field potentials increased with reward probability; (ii) a risk signal emerged during the late phase of reward anticipation and during the outcome phase; and (iii) an experienced value signal appeared at the time of reward delivery. Both the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex encoded risk and reward probability while the lateral orbitofrontal cortex played a dominant role in coding experienced value. The present study provides the first evidence from intracranial recordings that the human orbitofrontal cortex codes reward risk both during late reward anticipation and during the outcome phase at a time scale of milliseconds. Our findings offer insights into the rapid mechanisms underlying the ability to learn structural relationships from the environment. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Updating expected action outcome in the medial frontal cortex involves an evaluation of error type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin E; Steinhauser, Marco

    2013-10-02

    Forming expectations about the outcome of an action is an important prerequisite for action control and reinforcement learning in the human brain. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been shown to play an important role in the representation of outcome expectations, particularly when an update of expected outcome becomes necessary because an error is detected. However, error detection alone is not always sufficient to compute expected outcome because errors can occur in various ways and different types of errors may be associated with different outcomes. In the present study, we therefore investigate whether updating expected outcome in the human MFC is based on an evaluation of error type. Our approach was to consider an electrophysiological correlate of MFC activity on errors, the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), in a task in which two types of errors could occur. Because the two error types were associated with different amounts of monetary loss, updating expected outcomes on error trials required an evaluation of error type. Our data revealed a pattern of Ne/ERN amplitudes that closely mirrored the amount of monetary loss associated with each error type, suggesting that outcome expectations are updated based on an evaluation of error type. We propose that this is achieved by a proactive evaluation process that anticipates error types by continuously monitoring error sources or by dynamically representing possible response-outcome relations.

  15. Connectivity-based parcellation of the human orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Chang, Luke J; Park, Soyoung Q; Heinzle, Jakob; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2012-05-02

    The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in reward processing, learning, and decision making. Research in monkeys has shown that this region is densely connected with higher sensory, limbic, and subcortical regions. Moreover, a parcellation of the monkey OFC into two subdivisions has been suggested based on its intrinsic anatomical connections. However, in humans, little is known about any functional subdivisions of the OFC except for a rather coarse medial/lateral distinction. Here, we used resting-state fMRI in combination with unsupervised clustering techniques to investigate whether OFC subdivisions can be revealed based on their functional connectivity profiles with other brain regions. Examination of different cluster solutions provided support for a parcellation into two parts as observed in monkeys, but it also highlighted a much finer hierarchical clustering of the orbital surface. Specifically, we identified (1) a medial, (2) a posterior-central, (3) a central, and (4-6) three lateral clusters spanning the anterior-posterior gradient. Consistent with animal tracing studies, these OFC clusters were connected to other cortical regions such as prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortices but also subcortical areas in the striatum and the midbrain. These connectivity patterns provide important implications for identifying specific functional roles of OFC subdivisions for reward processing, learning, and decision making. Moreover, this parcellation schema can provide guidance to report results in future studies.

  16. Being asked to tell an unpleasant truth about another person activates anterior insula and medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa M; Dietz, Martin J; Fitzgerald, Des; Knudsen, Kasper J; Tonks, James

    2015-01-01

    "Truth" has been used as a baseline condition in several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of deception. However, like deception, telling the truth is an inherently social construct, which requires consideration of another person's mental state, a phenomenon known as Theory of Mind. Using a novel ecological paradigm, we examined blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses during social and simple truth telling. Participants (n = 27) were randomly divided into two competing teams. Post-competition, each participant was scanned while evaluating performances from in-group and out-group members. Participants were asked to be honest and were told that their evaluations would be made public. We found increased BOLD responses in the medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula and precuneus when participants were asked to tell social truths compared to simple truths about another person. At the behavioral level, participants were slower at responding to social compared to simple questions about another person. These findings suggest that telling the truth is a nuanced cognitive operation that is dependent on the degree of mentalizing. Importantly, we show that the cortical regions engaged by truth telling show a distinct pattern when the task requires social reasoning.

  17. [Pathological neocortical findings in patients with medication-resistant medial temporal lobe epilepsy submitted to surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán-Díaz, B; Morales-Chacón, L M; Lorigados-Pedre, L; García-Maeso, I; Bender-del Busto, J E; Trápaga-Quincoses, O; Hidalgo-Portal, L; García-Navarro, M E; Sánchez-Coroneaux, A; Orozco-Suárez, S

    The dual pathology consisting of hippocampal sclerosis plus focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is often reported in patients with medication-resistant medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). To determine the histopathological changes that take place in the neocortex of patients with medication-resistant MTLE submitted to surgery and to evaluate the relation between the histopathological changes, pathological background and the clinical course of patients who had received surgical treatment. Tissue obtained by en bloc resection from the neocortex of 18 patients with MTLE refractory to medical treatment was processed histologically and a tailored temporal lobectomy was performed with electrocorticography. Dual pathology was diagnosed in 13 patients (72.2%). Imaging studies confirmed the existence of mesial sclerosis of the temporal in 100% of cases and there was no evidence of neocortical lesions. Histologically, 46.15% and 38.46% of the patients were diagnosed as belonging to FCD type 1a and FCD type 1b, respectively. Only one patient presented FCD type 2a. A statistically significant relation was found between the presence of dual pathology and the existence of an early precipitating injury (p = 0.04). One year after surgery, 72.7% (8/11) patients with dual pathology were classified as belonging to Engel class I. In patients with MTLE there are microscopic FCD-type alterations in the neocortex. There is an association between these alterations and the existence of an initial precipitating injury. Complete resection of the epileptogenic area, which is guaranteed by the lobectomy tailored by electrocorticography, allows patients to enjoy a favourable post-surgical progression one year after surgery.

  18. Differential contributions of the anterior temporal and medial temporal lobe to the retrieval of memory for person identity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Suzuki, Chisato; Shigemune, Yayoi; Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko

    2008-12-01

    Although previous studies have suggested the importance of the bilateral anterior temporal (ATL) and medial temporal lobes (MTL) in the retrieval of person identity information, there is little evidence concerning how these regions differentially contribute to the process. Here we investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Before scanning, subjects learned associations among faces (F), names (N), and job titles (as a form of person-related semantics, S). During retrieval with fMRI, subjects were presented with previously learned and new S stimuli, and judged whether the stimuli were old or new. Successful retrieval (H) trials were divided into three conditions: retrieval of S and associated F and N (HSFN); retrieval of S and associated F (HSF); and retrieval of S only (HS). The left ATL was significantly activated in HSFN, compared to HSF or HS, whereas the right ATL and MTL were significantly activated in HSFN and HSF relative to HS. In addition, activity in bilateral ATL was significantly correlated with reaction time for HSFN, whereas we found no significant correlation between activity in the right MTL and reaction time in any condition. The present findings suggest that the left ATL may mediate associations between names and person-related semantic information, whereas the right ATL mediates the association between faces and person-related semantic information in memory for person identity information. In addition, activation of the right MTL region implies that this area may contribute to a more general relational processing of associative components, including memory for person identity information. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Different role of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex on modulation of innate and associative learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, S F; Stecchini, M F; Corrêa, F M A; Guimarães, F S; Resstel, L B M

    2010-12-15

    Reversible inactivation of the ventral portion of medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) of the rat brain has been shown to induce anxiolytic-like effects in animal models based on associative learning. The role of this brain region in situations involving innate fear, however, is still poorly understood, with several contradictory results in the literature. The objective of the present work was to verify in male Wistar rats the effects of vMPFC administration of cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), a selective inhibitor of synaptic activity, in rats submitted to two models based on innate fear, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB), comparing the results with those obtained in two models involving associative learning, the contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and Vogel conflict (VCT) tests. The results showed that, whereas CoCl(2) induced anxiolytic-like effects in the CFC and VCT tests, it enhanced anxiety in rats submitted to the EPM and LDB. Together these results indicate that the vMPFC plays an important but complex role in the modulation of defensive-related behaviors, which seems to depend on the nature of the anxiety/fear inducing stimuli. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient learning mechanisms hold in the social domain and are implemented in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid-Fatemi, Azade; Tobler, Philippe N

    2015-05-01

    When we are learning to associate novel cues with outcomes, learning is more efficient if we take advantage of previously learned associations and thereby avoid redundant learning. The blocking effect represents this sort of efficiency mechanism and refers to the phenomenon in which a novel stimulus is blocked from learning when it is associated with a fully predicted outcome. Although there is sufficient evidence that this effect manifests itself when individuals learn about their own rewards, it remains unclear whether it also does when they learn about others' rewards. We employed behavioral and neuroimaging methods to address this question. We demonstrate that blocking does indeed occur in the social domain and it does so to a similar degree as observed in the individual domain. On the neural level, activations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) show a specific contribution to blocking and learning-related prediction errors in the social domain. These findings suggest that the efficiency principle that applies to reward learning in the individual domain also applies to that in the social domain, with the mPFC playing a central role in implementing it. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The neurobiology of thalamic amnesia: Contributions of medial thalamus and prefrontal cortex to delayed conditional discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Robert G; Miller, Rikki L A; Wormwood, Benjamin A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Onos, Kristen D; Gibson, Brett M

    2015-07-01

    Although medial thalamus is well established as a site of pathology associated with global amnesia, there is uncertainty about which structures are critical and how they affect memory function. Evidence from human and animal research suggests that damage to the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior, mediodorsal (MD), midline (M), and intralaminar (IL) nuclei contribute to different signs of thalamic amnesia. Here we focus on MD and the adjacent M and IL nuclei, structures identified in animal studies as critical nodes in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-related pathways that are necessary for delayed conditional discrimination. Recordings of PFC neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed non-matching-to position (DNMTP) task revealed discrete populations encoding information related to planning, execution, and outcome of DNMTP-related actions and delay-related activity signaling previous reinforcement. Parallel studies recording the activity of MD and IL neurons and examining the effects of unilateral thalamic inactivation on the responses of PFC neurons demonstrated a close coupling of central thalamic and PFC neurons responding to diverse aspects of DNMTP and provide evidence that thalamus interacts with PFC neurons to give rise to complex goal-directed behavior exemplified by the DNMTP task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resting state connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex covaries with individual differences in high-frequency heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J Richard; Sheu, Lei K; Kuan, Dora C-H; Manuck, Stephen B; Gianaros, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Resting high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) relates to cardiac vagal control and predicts individual differences in health and longevity, but its functional neural correlates are not well defined. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) encompasses visceral control regions that are components of intrinsic networks of the brain, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN). Might individual differences in resting HF-HRV covary with resting state neural activity in the DMN and SN, particularly within the mPFC? This question was addressed using fMRI data from an eyes-open, 5-min rest period during which echoplanar brain imaging yielded BOLD time series. Independent component analysis yielded functional connectivity estimates defining the DMN and SN. HF-HRV was measured in a rest period outside of the scanner. Midlife (52% female) adults were assessed in two studies (Study 1, N = 107; Study 2, N = 112). Neither overall DMN nor SN connectivity strength was related to HF-HRV. However, HF-HRV related to connectivity of one region within mPFC shared by the DMN and SN, namely, the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, an area with connectivity to other regions involved in autonomic control. In sum, HF-HRV does not seem directly related to global resting state activity of intrinsic brain networks, but rather to more localized connectivity. A mPFC region was of particular interest as connectivity related to HF-HRV was shared by the DMN and SN. These findings may indicate a functional basis for the coordination of autonomic cardiac control with engagement and disengagement from the environment. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Removing the effect of response time on brain activity reveals developmental differences in conflict processing in the posterior medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Joshua; Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Taylor, Stephan F; Weissman, Daniel H

    2012-01-02

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, researchers often attempt to ensure that group differences in brain activity are not confounded with group differences in mean reaction time (RT). However, even when groups are matched for performance, they may differ in terms of the RT-BOLD relationship: the degree to which brain activity varies with RT on a trial-by-trial basis. Group activation differences might therefore be influenced by group differences in the relationship between brain activity and time on task. Here, we investigated whether correcting for this potential confound alters group differences in brain activity. Specifically, we reanalyzed data from a functional MRI study of response conflict in children and adults, in which conventional analyses indicated that conflict-related activity did not differ between groups. We found that the RT-BOLD relationship was weaker in children than in adults. Consequently, after removing the effect of RT on brain activity, children exhibited greater conflict-related activity than adults in both the posterior medial prefrontal cortex and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results identify the RT-BOLD relationship as an important potential confound in fMRI studies of group differences. They also suggest that the magnitude of the RT-BOLD relationship may be a useful biomarker of brain maturity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic activity in striate and extrastriate cortex in the hooded rat: contralateral and ipsilateral eye input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurlow, G.A.; Cooper, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of changes in glucose metabolism resulting from ipsilateral and contralateral eye activity in the posterior cortex of the hooded rat was demonstrated by means of the C-14 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique. By stimulating one eye with square wave gratings and eliminating efferent activation from the other by means of enucleation or intraocular TTX injection, differences between ipsilaterally and contralaterally based visual activity in the two hemispheres were maximized. Carbon-14 levels in layer IV of autoradiographs of coronal sections were measured and combined across sections to form right and left matrices of posterior cortex metabolic activity. A difference matrix, formed by subtracting the metabolic activity matrix of cortex contralateral to the stimulated eye from the ipsilateral depressed matrix, emphasized those parts of the visual cortex that received monocular visual input. The demarcation of striate cortex by means of cholinesterase stain and the examination of autoradiographs from sections cut tangential to the cortical surface aided in the interpretation of the difference matrices. In striate cortex, differences were maximal in the medial monocular portion, and the lateral or binocular portion was shown to be divided metabolically into a far lateral contralaterally dominant strip along the cortical representation of the vertical meridian, and a more medial region of patches of more or less contralaterally dominant binocular input. Lateral peristriate differences were less than those of striate cortex, and regions of greater and lesser monocular input could be distinguished. We did not detect differences between the two hemispheres in either anterior or medial peristriate areas

  5. Time course of cell death due to acoustic overstimulation in the mouse medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Frohlich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that acoustic overstimulation induces cell death and extensive cell loss in key structures of the central auditory pathway. A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss was hypothesized for the cochlear nucleus and colliculus inferior. To determine the role of cell death in noise-induced cell loss in thalamic and cortical structures, the present mouse study (NMRI strain describes the time course following noise exposure of cell death mechanisms for the ventral medial geniculate body (vMGB, medial MGB (mMGB, and dorsal MGB (dMGB and the six histological layers of the primary auditory cortex (AI 1–6. Therefore, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dioxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay (TUNEL was performed in these structures 24 h, 7 days, and 14 days after noise exposure (3 h, 115 dB sound pressure level, 5–20 kHz, as well as in unexposed controls. In the dMGB, TUNEL was statistically significant elevated 24 h postexposure. AI-1 showed a decrease in TUNEL after 14 days. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the other brain areas investigated. dMGB’s widespread connection within the central auditory pathway and its nontonotopical organization might explain its prominent increase in TUNEL compared to the other MGB subdivisions and the AI. It is assumed that the onset and peak of noise-induced cell death is delayed in higher areas of the central auditory pathway and takes place between 24 h and 7 days postexposure in thalamic and cortical structures.

  6. Does a single session of theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation of inferior temporal cortex affect tinnitus perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Tobias

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical excitability changes as well as imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits play a distinct pathophysiological role in chronic tinnitus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the temporoparietal cortex was recently introduced to modulate tinnitus perception. In the current study, the effect of theta-burst stimulation (TBS, a novel rTMS paradigm was investigated in chronic tinnitus. Twenty patients with chronic tinnitus completed the study. Tinnitus severity and loudness were monitored using a tinnitus questionnaire (TQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS before each session. Patients received 600 pulses of continuous TBS (cTBS, intermittent TBS (iTBS and intermediate TBS (imTBS over left inferior temporal cortex with an intensity of 80% of the individual active or resting motor threshold. Changes in subjective tinnitus perception were measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS. Results TBS applied to inferior temporal cortex appeared to be safe. Although half of the patients reported a slight attenuation of tinnitus perception, group analysis resulted in no significant difference when comparing the three specific types of TBS. Converting the NRS into the VAS allowed us to compare the time-course of aftereffects. Only cTBS resulted in a significant short-lasting improvement of the symptoms. In addition there was no significant difference when comparing the responder and non-responder groups regarding their anamnestic and audiological data. The TQ score correlated significantly with the VAS, lower loudness indicating less tinnitus distress. Conclusion TBS does not offer a promising outcome for patients with tinnitus in the presented study.

  7. Amygdala lesions disrupt modulation of functional MRI activity evoked by facial expression in the monkey inferior temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Bell, Andrew H.; Gothard, Katalin M.; Luh, Wen-Ming; Tootell, Roger B. H.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that facial expressions modulate functional MRI activity in the face-processing regions of the macaque monkey’s amygdala and inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Specifically, we showed that faces expressing emotion yield greater activation than neutral faces; we term this difference the “valence effect.” We hypothesized that amygdala lesions would disrupt the valence effect by eliminating the modulatory feedback from the amygdala to the IT cortex. We compared the valence effects within the IT cortex in monkeys with excitotoxic amygdala lesions (n = 3) with those in intact control animals (n = 3) using contrast agent-based functional MRI at 3 T. Images of four distinct monkey facial expressions—neutral, aggressive (open mouth threat), fearful (fear grin), and appeasing (lip smack)—were presented to the subjects in a blocked design. Our results showed that in monkeys with amygdala lesions the valence effects were strongly disrupted within the IT cortex, whereas face responsivity (neutral faces > scrambled faces) and face selectivity (neutral faces > non-face objects) were unaffected. Furthermore, sparing of the anterior amygdala led to intact valence effects in the anterior IT cortex (which included the anterior face-selective regions), whereas sparing of the posterior amygdala led to intact valence effects in the posterior IT cortex (which included the posterior face-selective regions). Overall, our data demonstrate that the feedback projections from the amygdala to the IT cortex mediate the valence effect found there. Moreover, these modulatory effects are consistent with an anterior-to-posterior gradient of projections, as suggested by classical tracer studies. PMID:23184972

  8. The medial temporal lobe supports sensing-based visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Robin I; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-08-01

    It is well established that the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, is essential for long-term memory. In addition, recent studies suggest that the MTL may also support visual working memory (VWM), but the conditions under which the MTL plays a critical role are not yet clear. To address this issue, we used a color change detection paradigm to examine the effects of MTL damage on VWM by analyzing the receiver operating characteristics of patients with MTL damage and healthy age- and education-matched controls. Compared to controls, patients with MTL damage demonstrated significant reductions in VWM accuracy. Importantly, the patients were not impaired at making accurate high-confidence judgments that a change had occurred; however, they were impaired when making low-confidence responses indicating that they sensed whether or not there had been a visual change. Moreover, these impairments were observed under conditions that emphasized the retrieval of complex bindings or the retrieval of high-resolution bindings. That is, patients with MTL damage exhibited VWM impairments when they were required to remember either a larger number of low-resolution bindings (i.e., set size of 5 and obvious color changes) or a smaller number of high-resolution bindings (i.e., set size of 3 and subtle color changes). The results indicate that only some VWM processes are dependent on the MTL, and are consistent with the proposal that the MTL plays a critical role in forming complex, high-resolution bindings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance in patients with MTL lesions on tasks with short retention intervals, or no retention interval, and neuroimaging findings with similar tasks have been interpreted to mean that the MTL is sometimes needed for working memory and possibly even for visual perception itself. We present a reappraisal of this interpretation. Our main conclusion is that, if the material to be learned exceeds working memory capacity, if the material is difficult to rehearse, or if attention is diverted, performance depends on long-term memory even when the retention interval is brief. This fundamental notion is better captured by the terms subspan memory and supraspan memory than by the terms short-term memory and long-term memory. We propose methods for determining when performance on short-delay tasks must depend on long-term (supraspan) memory and suggest that MTL lesions impair performance only when immediate memory and working memory are insufficient to support performance. In neuroimaging studies, MTL activity during encoding is influenced by the memory load and correlates positively with long-term retention of the material that was presented. The most parsimonious and consistent interpretation of all the data is that subspan memoranda are supported by immediate memory and working memory and are independent of the MTL. PMID:22180053

  10. Integrating automatic and controlled processes into neurocognitive models of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2006-03-24

    Interest in the neural systems underlying social perception has expanded tremendously over the past few decades. However, gaps between behavioral literatures in social perception and neuroscience are still abundant. In this article, we apply the concept of dual-process models to neural systems in an effort to bridge the gap between many of these behavioral studies and neural systems underlying social perception. We describe and provide support for a neural division between reflexive and reflective systems. Reflexive systems correspond to automatic processes and include the amygdala, basal ganglia, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral temporal cortex. Reflective systems correspond to controlled processes and include lateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe region. This framework is considered to be a working model rather than a finished product. Finally, the utility of this model and its application to other social cognitive domains such as Theory of Mind are discussed.

  11. Sex differences in social interaction behaviors in rats are mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Nicole; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Considerable sex differences occur in the incidence and prevalence of anxiety disorders where women are more anxious than men, particularly in situations where social interaction is required. In preclinical studies, the social interaction test represents a valid animal model to study sex differences in social anxiety. Indeed, female rats engage less in conspecific interactions than their male counterparts, which are behaviors indicative of higher social anxiety in female rats. In this work, we implicated extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating social interaction. Indeed, female rats’ had lower ERK2 expression compared to male rats, and overexpression of ERK2 in the mPFC increases their social interaction to the level seen in their male counterparts. These data indicate that the sexually dimorphic expression of ERK2 mediates social anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:22521590

  12. Manual Planimetry of the Medial Temporal Lobe Versus Automated Volumetry of the Hippocampus in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez González, Manuel; Suárez-Sanmartin, Esther; García, Ciara; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andy

    2016-03-26

    Though a disproportionate rate of atrophy in the medial temporal lobe (MTA) represents a reliable marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, measurement of the MTA is not currently widely used in daily clinical practice. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement in clinical practice (volumetric methods), are poorly explored (linear and planimetric methods), or lack objectivity (visual rating). Here, we aimed to compare the results of a manual planimetric measure (the yearly rate of absolute atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, 2D-yrA-MTL) with the results of an automated volumetric measure (the yearly rate of atrophy of the hippocampus, 3D-yrA-H). A series of 1.5T MRI studies on 290 subjects in the age range of 65-85 years, including patients with AD (n = 100), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 100), and matched controls (n = 90) from the AddNeuroMed study, were examined by two independent subgroups of researchers: one in charge of volumetric measures and the other in charge of planimetric measures. The means of both methods were significantly different between AD and the other two diagnostic groups. In the differential diagnosis of AD against controls, 3D-yrA-H performed significantly better than 2D-yrA-MTL while differences were not statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of AD against MCI. Automated volumetry of the hippocampus is superior to manual planimetry of the MTL in the diagnosis of AD. Nevertheless, the 2D-yrAMTL is a simpler method that could be easily implemented in clinical practice when volumetry is not available.

  13. Medial prefrontal brain activation to anticipated reward and loss in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, C; Beucke, J C; Preuße, F; Endrass, T; Schlagenhauf, F; Heinz, A; Juckel, G; Kathmann, N

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with dysfunctional brain activity in several regions which are also involved in the processing of motivational stimuli. Processing of reward and punishment appears to be of special importance to understand clinical symptoms. There is evidence for higher sensitivity to punishment in patients with OCD which raises the question how avoidance of punishment relates to activity within the brain's reward circuitry. We employed the monetary incentive delay task paradigm optimized for modeling the anticipation phase of immediate reward and punishment, in the context of a cross-sectional event-related FMRI study comparing OCD patients and healthy control participants (n = 19 in each group). While overall behavioral performance was similar in both groups, patients showed increased activation upon anticipated losses in a medial and superior frontal cortex region extending into the cingulate cortex, and decreased activation upon anticipated rewards. No evidence was found for altered activation of dorsal or ventral striatal regions. Patients also showed more delayed responses for anticipated rewards than for anticipated losses whereas the reverse was true in healthy participants. The medial prefrontal cortex has been shown to implement a domain-general process comprising negative affect, pain and cognitive control. This process uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions by integrating signals arriving from subcortical regions. Our results support the notion that OCD is associated with altered sensitivity to anticipated rewards and losses in a medial prefrontal region whereas there is no significant aberrant activation in ventral or dorsal striatal brain regions during processing of reinforcement anticipation.

  14. Vocal amusia in a professional tango singer due to a right superior temporal cortex infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Shindoh, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Chiyoko; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Arai, Noritoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shouji

    2006-01-01

    We describe the psychophysical features of vocal amusia in a professional tango singer caused by an infarction mainly involving the superior temporal cortex of the right hemisphere. The lesion also extended to the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior aspect of the postcentral gyrus and the posterior insula. She presented with impairment of musical perception that was especially pronounced in discriminating timbre and loudness but also in discriminating pitch, and a severely impaired ability to reproduce the pitch just presented. In contrast, language and motor disturbances were almost entirely absent. By comparing her pre- and post-stroke singing, we were able to show that her singing after the stroke lacked the fine control of the subtle stress and pitch changes that characterized her pre-stroke singing. Such impairment could not be explained by the impairment of pitch perception. The findings suggest that damage to the right temporoparietal cortex is enough to produce both perceptive and expressive deficits in music.

  15. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  16. Norepinephrine regulates cocaine-primed reinstatement via α1-adrenergic receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karl T; Schroeder, Jason P; Foster, Stephanie L; Squires, Katherine; Smith, Brilee M; Pitts, Elizabeth G; Epstein, Michael P; Weinshenker, David

    2017-06-01

    Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats is thought to reflect relapse-like behavior and is mediated by the integration of signals from mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and corticostriatal glutamatergic innervation. Cocaine-primed reinstatement can also be attenuated by systemic administration of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitors, which prevent norepinephrine (NE) synthesis, or by α1-adrenergic receptor (α1AR) antagonists, indicating functional modulation by the noradrenergic system. In the present study, we sought to further discern the role of NE in cocaine-seeking behavior by determining whether α1AR activation can induce reinstatement on its own or is sufficient to permit cocaine-primed reinstatement in the absence of all other AR signaling, and identifying the neuroanatomical substrate within the mesocorticolimbic reward system harboring the critical α1ARs. We found that while intracerebroventricular infusion of the α1AR agonist phenylephrine did not induce reinstatement on its own, it did overcome the blockade of cocaine-primed reinstatement by the DBH inhibitor nepicastat. Furthermore, administration of the α1AR antagonist terazosin in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but not the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, attenuated cocaine-primed reinstatement. Combined, these data indicate that α1AR activation in the mPFC is required for cocaine-primed reinstatement, and suggest that α1AR antagonists merit further investigation as pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Asymmetric temporal integration of layer 4 and layer 2/3 inputs in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Giao B; Dan, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Neocortical neurons in vivo receive concurrent synaptic inputs from multiple sources, including feedforward, horizontal, and feedback pathways. Layer 2/3 of the visual cortex receives feedforward input from layer 4 and horizontal input from layer 2/3. Firing of the pyramidal neurons, which carries the output to higher cortical areas, depends critically on the interaction of these pathways. Here we examined synaptic integration of inputs from layer 4 and layer 2/3 in rat visual cortical slices. We found that the integration is sublinear and temporally asymmetric, with larger responses if layer 2/3 input preceded layer 4 input. The sublinearity depended on inhibition, and the asymmetry was largely attributable to the difference between the two inhibitory inputs. Interestingly, the asymmetric integration was specific to pyramidal neurons, and it strongly affected their spiking output. Thus via cortical inhibition, the temporal order of activation of layer 2/3 and layer 4 pathways can exert powerful control of cortical output during visual processing.

  18. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal Lobe Lesions and Perception of Species-Specific Vocalizations by Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Henry E.; Heffner, Rickye S.

    1984-10-01

    Japanese macaques were trained to discriminate two forms of their coo vocalization before and after unilateral and bilateral ablation of the temporal cortex. Unilateral ablation of the left superior temporal gyrus, including auditory cortex, resulted in an initial impairment in the discrimination, but similar unilateral ablation of the right superior temporal gyrus had no effect. Bilateral temporal lesions including auditory cortex completely abolished the ability of the animals to discriminate their coos. Neither unilateral nor bilateral ablation of cortex dorsal to and sparing the auditory cortex had any effect on the discrimination. The perception of species-specific vocalizations by Japanese macaques seems to be mediated by the temporal cortex, with the left hemisphere playing a predominant role.

  20. Projections of the central medial nucleus of the thalamus in the rat: Node in cortical, striatal and limbic forebrain circuitry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vertes, R. P.; Hoover, W. B.; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 219, 6 SEP (2012), s. 120-136 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : medial prefrontal cortex * insular cortex * nucleus acc umbens Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2012

  1. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Episodic Future Thinking: Scene Construction or Future Projection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, D J; Hayes, S M; Peterson, K M; Keane, M M; Verfaellie, M

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are more strongly engaged when individuals think about the future than about the present, leading to the suggestion that future projection drives MTL engagement. However, future thinking tasks often involve scene processing, leaving open the alternative possibility that scene-construction demands, rather than future projection, are responsible for the MTL differences observed in prior work. This study explores this alternative account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we directly contrasted MTL activity in 1) high scene-construction and low scene-construction imagination conditions matched in future thinking demands and 2) future-oriented and present-oriented imagination conditions matched in scene-construction demands. Consistent with the alternative account, the MTL was more active for the high versus low scene-construction condition. By contrast, MTL differences were not observed when comparing the future versus present conditions. Moreover, the magnitude of MTL activation was associated with the extent to which participants imagined a scene but was not associated with the extent to which participants thought about the future. These findings help disambiguate which component processes of imagination specifically involve the MTL. Published by Oxford University Press 2016.

  2. Modulation of neural activity by reward in medial intraparietal cortex is sensitive to temporal sequence of reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Stacey, Richard Greg; Tsoulfas, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    To restore movements to paralyzed patients, neural prosthetic systems must accurately decode patients' intentions from neural signals. Despite significant advancements, current systems are unable to restore complex movements. Decoding reward-related signals from the medial intraparietal area (MIP) could enhance prosthetic performance. However, the dynamics of reward sensitivity in MIP is not known. Furthermore, reward-related modulation in premotor areas has been attributed to behavioral confounds. Here we investigated the stability of reward encoding in MIP by assessing the effect of reward history on reward sensitivity. We recorded from neurons in MIP while monkeys performed a delayed-reach task under two reward schedules. In the variable schedule, an equal number of small- and large-rewards trials were randomly interleaved. In the constant schedule, one reward size was delivered for a block of trials. The memory period firing rate of most neurons in response to identical rewards varied according to schedule. Using systems identification tools, we attributed the schedule sensitivity to the dependence of neural activity on the history of reward. We did not find schedule-dependent behavioral changes, suggesting that reward modulates neural activity in MIP. Neural discrimination between rewards was less in the variable than in the constant schedule, degrading our ability to decode reach target and reward simultaneously. The effect of schedule was mitigated by adding Haar wavelet coefficients to the decoding model. This raises the possibility of multiple encoding schemes at different timescales and reinforces the potential utility of reward information for prosthetic performance. PMID:25008408

  3. Modulation of neural activity by reward in medial intraparietal cortex is sensitive to temporal sequence of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Stacey, Richard Greg; Tsoulfas, Georgios; Musallam, Sam

    2014-10-01

    To restore movements to paralyzed patients, neural prosthetic systems must accurately decode patients' intentions from neural signals. Despite significant advancements, current systems are unable to restore complex movements. Decoding reward-related signals from the medial intraparietal area (MIP) could enhance prosthetic performance. However, the dynamics of reward sensitivity in MIP is not known. Furthermore, reward-related modulation in premotor areas has been attributed to behavioral confounds. Here we investigated the stability of reward encoding in MIP by assessing the effect of reward history on reward sensitivity. We recorded from neurons in MIP while monkeys performed a delayed-reach task under two reward schedules. In the variable schedule, an equal number of small- and large-rewards trials were randomly interleaved. In the constant schedule, one reward size was delivered for a block of trials. The memory period firing rate of most neurons in response to identical rewards varied according to schedule. Using systems identification tools, we attributed the schedule sensitivity to the dependence of neural activity on the history of reward. We did not find schedule-dependent behavioral changes, suggesting that reward modulates neural activity in MIP. Neural discrimination between rewards was less in the variable than in the constant schedule, degrading our ability to decode reach target and reward simultaneously. The effect of schedule was mitigated by adding Haar wavelet coefficients to the decoding model. This raises the possibility of multiple encoding schemes at different timescales and reinforces the potential utility of reward information for prosthetic performance. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Comparison of (stereotactic) parcellations in mouse prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werd, H.J.J.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the cytoarchitectonic parcellation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the mouse as presented in publications that are commonly used for identifying brain areas. Agreement was found to be greater for boundaries in the medial PFC than in the lateral PFC and lowest for those in the

  5. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-08

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration.

  6. Memory retrieval in response to partial cues requires NMDA receptor-dependent neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Sang; Choi, June-Seek

    2014-03-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been suggested to play a crucial role in retrieving detailed contextual information about a previous learning episode in response to a single retrieval cue. However, few studies investigated the neurochemical mechanisms that mediate the prefrontal retrieval process. In the current study, we examined whether N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the mPFC were necessary for retrieval of a well-learned spatial location on the basis of partial or degraded spatial cues. Rats were initially trained to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze using four extramaze cues in the surrounding environment. Their retrieval performance was subsequently tested under different cue conditions. Infusions of DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), a NMDAR antagonist, significantly disrupted memory retrieval when three of the original cues were removed. By contrast, APV injections into the mPFC did not affect animals' retrieval performance when the original cues were presented or when three novels landmarks were added alongside the original cues. These results indicate that prefrontal NMDARs are required for memory retrieval when allocentric spatial information is degraded. NMDAR-dependent neurotransmission in the mPFC may facilitate an active retrieval process to reactivate complete contextual representations associated with partial retrieval cues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Theta synchronization between medial prefrontal cortex and cerebellum is associated with adaptive performance of associative learning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Yi-jie; Yang, Li; Sui, Jian-feng; Hu, Zhi-an; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Associative learning is thought to require coordinated activities among distributed brain regions. For example, to direct behavior appropriately, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) must encode and maintain sensory information and then interact with the cerebellum during trace eyeblink conditioning (TEBC), a commonly-used associative learning model. However, the mechanisms by which these two distant areas interact remain elusive. By simultaneously recording local field potential (LFP) signals from the mPFC and the cerebellum in guinea pigs undergoing TEBC, we found that theta-frequency (5.0–12.0 Hz) oscillations in the mPFC and the cerebellum became strongly synchronized following presentation of auditory conditioned stimulus. Intriguingly, the conditioned eyeblink response (CR) with adaptive timing occurred preferentially in the trials where mPFC-cerebellum theta coherence was stronger. Moreover, both the mPFC-cerebellum theta coherence and the adaptive CR performance were impaired after the disruption of endogenous orexins in the cerebellum. Finally, association of the mPFC -cerebellum theta coherence with adaptive CR performance was time-limited occurring in the early stage of associative learning. These findings suggest that the mPFC and the cerebellum may act together to contribute to the adaptive performance of associative learning behavior by means of theta synchronization. PMID:26879632

  8. Activation of the mouse primary visual cortex by medial prefrontal subregion stimulation is not mediated by cholinergic basalo-cortical projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Nam eNguyen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC exerts top-down control of primary visual cortex (V1 activity. As there is no direct neuronal projection from mPFC to V1, this functional connection may use an indirect route, i.e., via basalo-cortical cholinergic projections. The cholinergic projections to V1 originate from neurons in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB, which receive neuronal projections from the ventral part of the mPFC, composed of prelimbic (PrL and infralimbic cortices (IL. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of mice mPFC subregions activate 1 V1 neurons and 2 HDB cholinergic neurons, suggesting that the HDB serves as a relay point in the mPFC-V1 interaction. Neuronal activation was quantified using c-Fos immunocytochemistry or thallium autometallography for each V1 layer using automated particle analysis tools and optical density measurement. Stimulation of IL and PrL induced significantly higher c-Fos expression or thallium labelling in layers II/III and V of V1 in the stimulated hemisphere only. A HDB cholinergic neuron-specific lesion by saporin administration reduced IL-induced c-Fos expression in layers II/III of V1 but not in layer V. However, there was no c-Fos expression or thallium labelling in the HDB neurons, suggesting that this area was not activated by IL stimulation. Stimulation of another mPFC subarea, the anterior cingulate cortex (AC, which is involved in attention and receives input from V1, activated neither V1 nor HDB. The present results indicate that IL and PrL, but not AC, stimulation activates V1 with the minor involvement of the HDB cholinergic projections. These results suggest a functional link between the ventral mPFC and V1, but this function is only marginally supported by HDB cholinergic neurons and may involve other brain regions.

  9. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Eisinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.

  10. Conceptual control across modalities: graded specialisation for pictures and words in inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Teige, Catarina; Davey, James; Hymers, Mark; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Controlled semantic retrieval to words elicits co-activation of inferior frontal (IFG) and left posterior temporal cortex (pMTG), but research has not yet established (i) the distinct contributions of these regions or (ii) whether the same processes are recruited for non-verbal stimuli. Words have relatively flexible meanings – as a consequence, identifying the context that links two specific words is relatively demanding. In contrast, pictures are richer stimuli and their precise meaning is ...

  11. Comparative density of CCK- and PV-GABA cells within the cortex and hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul David Whissell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK- and parvalbumin (PV-expressing neurons constitute the two major populations of perisomatic GABAergic neurons in the cortex and the hippocampus. As CCK- and PV-GABA neurons differ in an array of morphological, biochemical and electrophysiological features, it has been proposed that they form distinct inhibitory ensembles which differentially contribute to network oscillations and behaviour. However, the relationship and balance between CCK- and PV-GABA neurons in the inhibitory networks of the brain is currently unclear as the distribution of these cells has never been compared on a large scale. Here, we systemically investigated the distribution of CCK- and PV-GABA cells across a wide number of discrete forebrain regions using an intersectional genetic approach. Our analysis revealed several novel trends in the distribution of these cells. While PV-GABA cells were more abundant overall, CCK-GABA cells outnumbered PV-GABA cells in several subregions of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral temporal cortex. Interestingly, CCK-GABA cells were relatively more abundant in secondary/association areas of the cortex (V2, S2, M2, and AudD/AudV than they were in corresponding primary areas (V1, S1, M1 and Aud1. The reverse trend was observed for PV-GABA cells. Our findings suggest that the balance between CCK- and PV-GABA cells in a given cortical region is related to the type of processing that area performs; inhibitory networks in the secondary cortex tend to favour the inclusion of CCK-GABA cells more than networks in the primary cortex. The intersectional genetic labelling approach employed in the current study expands upon the ability to study molecularly defined subsets of GABAergic neurons. This technique can be applied to the investigation of neuropathologies which involve disruptions to the GABAergic system, including schizophrenia, stress, maternal immune activation and autism.

  12. The medial prefrontal cortex is involved in spatial memory retrieval under partial-cue conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Sang; Park, Eun Hye; Kim, Il Hwan; Park, Soon Kwon; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Taek; Choi, June-Seek

    2007-12-05

    Brain circuits involved in pattern completion, or retrieval of memory from fragmented cues, were investigated. Using different versions of the Morris water maze, we explored the roles of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in spatial memory retrieval under various conditions. In a hidden platform task, both CA3 and mPFC lesions disrupted memory retrieval under partial-cue, but not under full-cue, conditions. For a delayed matching-to-place task, CA3 lesions produced a deficit in both forming and recalling spatial working memory regardless of extramaze cue conditions. In contrast, damage to mPFC impaired memory retrieval only when a fraction of cues was available. To corroborate the lesion study, we examined the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in mPFC and the hippocampus. After training of spatial reference memory in full-cue conditions for 6 d, the same training procedure in the absence of all cues except one increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in mPFC and CA3. Furthermore, mPFC inactivation with muscimol, a GABA agonist, blocked memory retrieval in the degraded-cue environment. However, mPFC-lesioned animals initially trained in a single-cue environment had no difficulty in retrieving spatial memory when the number of cues was increased, demonstrating that contextual change per se did not impair the behavioral performance of the mPFC-lesioned animals. Together, these findings strongly suggest that pattern completion requires interactions between mPFC and the hippocampus, in which mPFC plays significant roles in retrieving spatial information maintained in the hippocampus for efficient navigation.

  13. Prefrontal cortex and somatosensory cortex in tactile crossmodal association: an independent component analysis of ERP recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Ku

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies on scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs showed that somatosensory N140 evoked by a tactile vibration in working memory tasks was enhanced when human subjects expected a coming visual stimulus that had been paired with the tactile stimulus. The results suggested that such enhancement represented the cortical activities involved in tactile-visual crossmodal association. In the present study, we further hypothesized that the enhancement represented the neural activities in somatosensory and frontal cortices in the crossmodal association. By applying independent component analysis (ICA to the ERP data, we found independent components (ICs located in the medial prefrontal cortex (around the anterior cingulate cortex, ACC and the primary somatosensory cortex (SI. The activity represented by the IC in SI cortex showed enhancement in expectation of the visual stimulus. Such differential activity thus suggested the participation of SI cortex in the task-related crossmodal association. Further, the coherence analysis and the Granger causality spectral analysis of the ICs showed that SI cortex appeared to cooperate with ACC in attention and perception of the tactile stimulus in crossmodal association. The results of our study support with new evidence an important idea in cortical neurophysiology: higher cognitive operations develop from the modality-specific sensory cortices (in the present study, SI cortex that are involved in sensation and perception of various stimuli.

  14. Using fNIRS to Examine Occipital and Temporal Responses to Stimulus Repetition in Young Infants: Evidence of Selective Frontal Cortex Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lauren L.; Cannon, Grace; Palmeri, Holly; Richards, John E.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2016-01-01

    How does the developing brain respond to recent experience? Repetition suppression (RS) is a robust and well-characterized response of to recent experience found, predominantly, in the perceptual cortices of the adult brain. We use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate how perceptual (temporal and occipital) and frontal cortices in the infant brain respond to auditory and visual stimulus repetitions (spoken words and faces). In Experiment 1, we find strong evidence of repetition suppression in the frontal cortex but only for auditory stimuli. In perceptual cortices, we find only suggestive evidence of auditory RS in the temporal cortex and no evidence of visual RS in any ROI. In Experiments 2 and 3, we replicate and extend these findings. Overall, we provide the first evidence that infant and adult brains respond differently to stimulus repetition. We suggest that the frontal lobe may support the development of RS in perceptual cortices. PMID:28012401

  15. Chronic Gestational Stress Leads to Depressive-Like Behavior and Compromises Medial Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function during the Postpartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Benedetta; Fredericks, Peter J.; Nealer, Connor; Albin-Brooks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression, which affects approximately 15% of new mothers, is associated with impaired mother-infant interactions and deficits in cognitive function. Exposure to stress during pregnancy is a major risk factor for postpartum depression. However, little is known about the neural consequences of gestational stress. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain region that has been linked to stress, cognition, maternal care, and mood disorders including postpartum depression. Here we examined the effects of chronic gestational stress on mPFC function and whether these effects might be linked to structural modifications in the mPFC. We found that in postpartum rats, chronic gestational stress resulted in maternal care deficits, increased depressive-like behavior, and impaired performance on an attentional set shifting task that relies on the mPFC. Furthermore, exposure to chronic stress during pregnancy reduced dendritic spine density on mPFC pyramidal neurons and altered spine morphology. Taken together, these findings suggest that pregnancy stress may contribute to postpartum mental illness and its associated symptoms by compromising structural plasticity in the mPFC. PMID:24594708

  16. Chronic gestational stress leads to depressive-like behavior and compromises medial prefrontal cortex structure and function during the postpartum period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Leuner

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression, which affects approximately 15% of new mothers, is associated with impaired mother-infant interactions and deficits in cognitive function. Exposure to stress during pregnancy is a major risk factor for postpartum depression. However, little is known about the neural consequences of gestational stress. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is a brain region that has been linked to stress, cognition, maternal care, and mood disorders including postpartum depression. Here we examined the effects of chronic gestational stress on mPFC function and whether these effects might be linked to structural modifications in the mPFC. We found that in postpartum rats, chronic gestational stress resulted in maternal care deficits, increased depressive-like behavior, and impaired performance on an attentional set shifting task that relies on the mPFC. Furthermore, exposure to chronic stress during pregnancy reduced dendritic spine density on mPFC pyramidal neurons and altered spine morphology. Taken together, these findings suggest that pregnancy stress may contribute to postpartum mental illness and its associated symptoms by compromising structural plasticity in the mPFC.

  17. SPECT image analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Junko

    2004-01-01

    The author examined interictal 123 I-IMP SPECT images using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in 19 temporal lobe epilepsy patients who revealed hippocampal sclerosis with MRI. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were shown for eight patients in the medial temporal lobe, six patients in the lateral temporal lobe and five patients in the both medial and lateral temporal lobe. These patients were classified into two types; medial type and lateral type, the former decreased rCBF only in medial and the latter decreased rCBF in the other temporal area. Correlation of rCBF and clinical parameters in the lateral type, age at seizure onset was significantly older (p=0.0098, t-test) than those of patients in the medial type. SPM analysis for interictal SPECT of temporal lobe epilepsy clarified location of decreased rCBF and find correlations with clinical characteristics. In addition, SPM analysis of SPECT was useful to understand pathophysiology of the epilepsy. (author)

  18. Social cognition in patients following surgery to the prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, L.M.; Andrewes, D.G.; Nicholas, C.L.; Drummond, K.J.; Moffat, B.A.; Phal, P.; Desmond, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired social cognition, including emotion recognition, may explain dysfunctional emotional and social behaviour in patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the VMPFC is a large, poorly defined area that can be sub-divided into orbital and medial sectors. We

  19. Encoding of contextual fear memory requires de novo proteins in the prelimbic cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Valerio; Touzani, Khalid; Raveendra, Bindu L.; Swarnkar, Supriya; Lora, Joan; Kadakkuzha, Beena M.; Liu, Xin-An; Zhang, Chao; Betel, Doron; Stackman, Robert W.; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite our understanding of the significance of the prefrontal cortex in the consolidation of long-term memories (LTM), its role in the encoding of LTM remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of new protein synthesis in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in encoding contextual fear memory. Methods Because a change in the association of mRNAs to polyribosomes is an indicator of new protein synthesis, we assessed the changes in polyribosome-associated mRNAs in the mPFC following contextual fear conditioning (CFC) in the mouse. Differential gene expression in mPFC was identified by polyribosome profiling (n = 18). The role of new protein synthesis in mPFC was determined by focal inhibition of protein synthesis (n = 131) and by intra-prelimbic cortex manipulation (n = 56) of Homer 3, a candidate identified from polyribosome profiling. Results We identified several mRNAs that are differentially and temporally recruited to polyribosomes in the mPFC following CFC. Inhibition of protein synthesis in the prelimbic (PL), but not in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) region of the mPFC immediately after CFC disrupted encoding of contextual fear memory. Intriguingly, inhibition of new protein synthesis in the PL 6 hours after CFC did not impair encoding. Furthermore, expression of Homer 3, an mRNA enriched in polyribosomes following CFC, in the PL constrained encoding of contextual fear memory. Conclusions Our studies identify several molecular substrates of new protein synthesis in the mPFC and establish that encoding of contextual fear memories require new protein synthesis in PL subregion of mPFC. PMID:28503670

  20. Strategic neuronal encoding in medial prefrontal cortex of spatial working memory in the T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Mailman, Richard B

    2018-05-02

    Strategic neuronal encoding in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the rat was correlated with spatial working memory (sWM) assessed by behavior in the T-maze. Neurons increased their firing rate around choice, with the increase largely occurring before choice as a prospective encode of behavior. This could be classified as sensitive-to-spatial information or sensitive-to-choice outcome. The sensitivity-to-spatial choice was defined by distinct firing rate changes before left- or right-choice. The percentage of left-choice sensitive neurons was not different from the percentage of right-choice sensitive neurons. There was also location-related neuronal activity in which neurons fired at distinct rates when rats were in a left- or right-location. More neurons were sensitive to left-location, as most of them were recorded from rats preferring to enter the right-location. The sensitivity to outcome was defined by a distinct firing rate around correct or error choice. Significantly more neurons were sensitive to error outcome, and, among these, more preferred to encode prospectively, increasing firing in advance of an error outcome. Similar to single neuron activity, the mPFC enhanced its neuronal network as measured by the oscillation of local field potential. The maximum power of oscillation was around choice, and occurred slightly earlier before error versus before correct outcome. Thus, sWM modulation in the mPFC includes not only spatial, but also outcome-related inputs, and neuronal ensembles monitor behavioral outcome to make strategic adjustments ensuring successful task performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluid consumption and taste novelty determines transcription temporal dynamics in the gustatory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inberg, Sharon; Jacob, Eyal; Elkobi, Alina; Edry, Efrat; Rappaport, Akiva; Simpson, T Ian; Armstrong, J Douglas; Shomron, Noam; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-02-09

    Novel taste memories, critical for animal survival, are consolidated to form long term memories which are dependent on translation regulation in the gustatory cortex (GC) hours following acquisition. However, the role of transcription regulation in the process is unknown. Here, we report that transcription in the GC is necessary for taste learning in rats, and that drinking and its consequences, as well as the novel taste experience, affect transcription in the GC during taste memory consolidation. We show differential effects of learning on temporal dynamics in set of genes in the GC, including Arc/Arg3.1, known to regulate the homeostasis of excitatory synapses. We demonstrate that in taste learning, transcription programs were activated following the physiological responses (i.e., fluid consumption following a water restriction regime, reward, arousal of the animal, etc.) and the specific information about a given taste (i.e., taste novelty). Moreover, the cortical differential prolonged kinetics of mRNA following novel versus familiar taste learning may represent additional novelty related molecular response, where not only the total amount, but also the temporal dynamics of transcription is modulated by sensory experience of novel information.

  2. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  3. Kinetic properties and adrenergic control of TREK-2-like channels in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ładno, W; Gawlak, M; Szulczyk, P; Nurowska, E

    2017-06-15

    TREK-2-like channels were identified on the basis of electrophysiological and pharmacological tests performed on freshly isolated and enzymatically/mechanically dispersed pyramidal neurons of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Single-channel currents were recorded in cell-attached configuration and the impact of adrenergic receptors (α 1 , α 2 , β) stimulation on spontaneously appearing TREK-2-like channel activity was tested. The obtained results indicate that noradrenaline decreases the mean open probability of TREK-2-like channel currents by activation of β 1 but not of α 1 - and α 2 -adrenergic receptors. Mean open time and channel conductance were not affected. The system of intracellular signaling pathways depends on the activation of protein kinase A. We also show that adrenergic control of TREK-2-like channel currents by adrenergic receptors was similar in pyramidal neurons isolated from young, adolescent, and adult rats. Immunofluorescent confocal scans of mPFC slices confirmed the presence of the TREK-2 protein, which was abundant in layer V pyramidal neurons. The role of TREK-2-like channel control by adrenergic receptors is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes.

  5. Effects of the mode of re-socialization after juvenile social isolation on medial prefrontal cortex myelination and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu; Ikawa, Daisuke; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yasunori; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kimoto, Sohei; Yamauchi, Takahira; Okumura, Kazuki; Komori, Takashi; Fukami, Shin-Ichi; Yoshino, Hiroki; Kanba, Shigenobu; Wanaka, Akio; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-07-14

    Social isolation is an important factor in the development of psychiatric disorders. It is necessary to develop an effective psychological treatment, such as cognitive rehabilitation, for children who have already suffered from social isolation, such as neglect and social rejection. We used socially isolated mice to validate whether elaborate re-socialization after juvenile social isolation can restore hypomyelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the attendant functions manifested in socially isolated mice. While mice who underwent re-socialization with socially isolated mice after juvenile social isolation (Re-IS mice) demonstrated less mPFC activity during exposure to a strange mouse, as well as thinner myelin in the mPFC than controls, mice who underwent re-socialization with socially housed mice after juvenile social isolation (Re-SH mice) caught up with the controls in terms of most mPFC functions, as well as myelination. Moreover, social interaction of Re-IS mice was reduced as compared to controls, but Re-SH mice showed an amount of social interaction comparable to that of controls. These results suggest that the mode of re-socialization after juvenile social isolation has significant effects on myelination in the mPFC and the attendant functions in mice, indicating the importance of appropriate psychosocial intervention after social isolation.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex modulates the propensity to help in costly helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chong; Wu, Song; Luo, Yue-Jia; Guan, Qing; Cui, Fang

    2018-05-01

    Social decision-making engages traditional decision-making processes (e.g. valuation), as well as social cognition processes (e.g. inferring the affective and mental states of another person). Neuroimaging and neuro-stimulation studies have suggested the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a variety of social decision-making tasks. Yet no study has investigated the effect of the cortical excitability of mPFC in the decision-making of costly helping behavior. Here, we used tDCS to demonstrate the causal relationship between the cortical excitability of mPFC and costly helping decision-making. Subjects assigned to the anodal, cathodal and sham groups were required to decide whether they would like to cost their own money to relieve another subject (a confederate actually) from painful electrical shocks with a certain probability of success. Results showed that the subjects receiving anodal stimulation acted more prosaically than the subjects receiving cathodal stimulation. And this effect was only significant when the probability of success was high. We proposed that tDCS induced modulation of the cortical excitability, targeting the mPFC, can affect the prosocial propensity in costly helping behavior, and the possible underlying mechanisms were discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced gamma frequency in the medial frontal cortex of aged rats during behavior and rest: implications for age-related behavioral slowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Nathan; Patron, Lilian A; Hoang, Lan T; Nematollahi, Saman; Schimanski, Lesley A; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A

    2012-11-14

    Age-related cognitive and behavioral slowing may be caused by changes in the speed of neural signaling or by changes in the number of signaling steps necessary to achieve a given function. In the mammalian cortex, neural communication is organized by a 30-100 Hz "gamma" oscillation. There is a putative link between the gamma frequency and the speed of processing in a neural network: the dynamics of pyramidal neuron membrane time constants suggest that synaptic integration is framed by the gamma cycle, and pharmacological slowing of gamma also slows reaction times on behavioral tasks. The present experiments identify reductions in a robust 40-70 Hz gamma oscillation in the aged rat medial frontal cortex. The reductions were observed in the form of local field potentials, later peaks in fast-spiking neuron autocorrelations, and delays in the spiking of inhibitory neurons following local excitatory signals. Gamma frequency did not vary with movement speed, but rats with slower gamma also moved more slowly. Gamma frequency age differences were not observed in hippocampus. Hippocampal CA1 fast-spiking neurons exhibited interspike intervals consistent with a fast (70-100 Hz) gamma frequency, a pattern maintained across theta phases and theta frequencies independent of fluctuations in the average firing rates of the neurons. We propose that an average lengthening of the cortical 15-25 ms gamma cycle is one factor contributing to age-related slowing and that future attempts to offset cognitive declines will find a target in the response of fast-spiking inhibitory neurons to excitatory inputs.

  8. Specialized prefrontal auditory fields: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal auditory field as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  9. Cognitive impairment and medial temporal lobe structure in young adults with a depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donix, Markus; Haussmann, Robert; Helling, Franziska; Zweiniger, Anne; Lange, Jan; Werner, Annett; Donix, Katharina L; Brandt, Moritz D; Linn, Jennifer; Bauer, Michael; Buthut, Maria

    2018-09-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in patients with a depressive episode although the predictors for their development and severity remain elusive. We investigated whether subjective and objective cognitive impairment in young depressed adults would be associated with cortical thinning in medial temporal subregions. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, cortical unfolding data analysis, and comprehensive assessments of subjective and objective cognitive abilities were performed on 27 young patients with a depressive episode (mean age: 29.0 ± 5.8 years) and 23 older participants without a history of a depressive disorder but amnestic mild cognitive impairment (68.5 ± 6.6 years) or normal cognition (65.2 ± 8.7 years). Thickness reductions in parahippocampal, perirhinal and fusiform cortices were associated with subjective memory deficits only among young patients with a depressive episode and a measurable cognitive impairment. Long-term longitudinal data would be desirable to determine the trajectories of cognitive impairment associated with depression in patients with or without cortical structure changes. The presence of clinically significant cognitive deficits in young people with a depressive episode may identify a patient population with extrahippocampal cortical thinning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal exposure to an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 reduces density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and enhances phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion but not behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine in postpubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abekawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Koki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2007-06-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits of parvalbumin-immunoreactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex have been reported in schizophrenia. Glutamate influences the proliferation of this type of interneuron by an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-mediated mechanism. The present study hypothesized that prenatal blockade of NMDA receptors would disrupt GABAergic neurodevelopment, resulting in differences in effects on behavioral responses to a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), and a dopamine releaser, methamphetamine (METH). GABAergic neurons were immunohistochemically stained with parvalbumin antibody. Psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was measured using an infrared sensor. Prenatal exposure (E15-E18) to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 reduced the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex on postnatal day 63 (P63) and enhanced PCP-induced hyperlocomotion but not the acute effects of METH on P63 or the development of behavioral sensitization. Prenatal exposure to MK-801 reduced the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons even on postnatal day 35 (P35) and did not enhance PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, the acute effects of METH on P35, or the development of behavioral sensitization to METH. These findings suggest that prenatal blockade of NMDA receptors disrupts GABAergic neurodevelopment in medial prefrontal cortex, and that this disruption of GABAergic development may be related to the enhancement of the locomotion-inducing effect of PCP in postpubertal but not juvenile offspring. GABAergic deficit is unrelated to the effects of METH. This GABAergic neurodevelopmental disruption and the enhanced PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in adult offspring prenatally exposed to MK-801 may prove useful as a new model of the neurodevelopmental process of pathogenesis of treatment-resistant schizophrenia via an NMDA-receptor-mediated hypoglutamatergic mechanism.

  11. A million-plus neuron model of the hippocampal dentate gyrus: Dependency of spatio-temporal network dynamics on topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Phillip J; Yu, Gene J; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a million-plus granule cell compartmental model of the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, including excitatory, perforant path input from the entorhinal cortex, and feedforward and feedback inhibitory input from dentate interneurons. The model includes experimentally determined morphological and biophysical properties of granule cells, together with glutamatergic AMPA-like EPSP and GABAergic GABAA-like IPSP synaptic excitatory and inhibitory inputs, respectively. Each granule cell was composed of approximately 200 compartments having passive and active conductances distributed throughout the somatic and dendritic regions. Modeling excitatory input from the entorhinal cortex was guided by axonal transport studies documenting the topographical organization of projections from subregions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, plus other important details of the distribution of glutamatergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. Results showed that when medial and lateral entorhinal cortical neurons maintained Poisson random firing, dentate granule cells expressed, throughout the million-cell network, a robust, non-random pattern of spiking best described as spatiotemporal "clustering". To identify the network property or properties responsible for generating such firing "clusters", we progressively eliminated from the model key mechanisms such as feedforward and feedback inhibition, intrinsic membrane properties underlying rhythmic burst firing, and/or topographical organization of entorhinal afferents. Findings conclusively identified topographical organization of inputs as the key element responsible for generating a spatio-temporal distribution of clustered firing. These results uncover a functional organization of perforant path afferents to the dentate gyrus not previously recognized: topography-dependent clusters of granule cell activity as "functional units" that organize the processing of entorhinal signals.

  12. The blockade of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase decreases symptoms and central sequelae in the medial prefrontal cortex of neuropathic rats

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    Di Marzo Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain is a chronic disease resulting from dysfunction within the "pain matrix". The basolateral amygdala (BLA can modulate cortical functions and interactions between this structure and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are important for integrating emotionally salient information. In this study, we have investigated the involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 and the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH in the morphofunctional changes occurring in the pre-limbic/infra-limbic (PL/IL cortex in neuropathic rats. Results The effect of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT, a hybrid FAAH inhibitor and TPRV1 channel antagonist, was tested on nociceptive behaviour associated with neuropathic pain as well as on some phenotypic changes occurring on PL/IL cortex pyramidal neurons. Those neurons were identified as belonging to the BLA-mPFC pathway by electrical stimulation of the BLA followed by hind-paw pressoceptive stimulus application. Changes in their spontaneous and evoked activity were studied in sham or spared nerve injury (SNI rats before or after repeated treatment with AA-5-HT. Consistently with the SNI-induced changes in PL/IL cortex neurons which underwent profound phenotypic reorganization, suggesting a profound imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the mPFC neurons, we found an increase in extracellular glutamate levels, as well as the up-regulation of FAAH and TRPV1 in the PL/IL cortex of SNI rats. Daily treatment with AA-5-HT restored cortical neuronal activity, normalizing the electrophysiological changes associated with the peripheral injury of the sciatic nerve. Finally, a single acute intra-PL/IL cortex microinjection of AA-5-HT transiently decreased allodynia more effectively than URB597 or I-RTX, a selective FAAH inhibitor or a TRPV1 blocker, respectively. Conclusion These data suggest a possible involvement of endovanilloids in the cortical

  13. Correlación entre la memoria subjetiva y objetiva episódica en pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo temporal medial intratable

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn Zaldivar Bermúdez; Lilia María Morales Chacón; Otto Trápaga Quincoses; María García Navarro; Abel Sánchez Curuneaux

    2013-01-01

    Introducción. En la literatura científica revisada prevalece una discordancia en las investigaciones sobre la relación entre la memoria subjetiva y objetiva en pacientes con Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal medial intratable (ELTmi). Objetivo. Identificar la existencia o no de relación entre la memoria subjetiva y objetiva episódica en pacientes con ELTmi. Metodología. Se estudiaron 32 pacientes, con edades entre 15 y 60 años, empleándose el método clínico. Se aplicó una entrevista semiestructur...

  14. Network Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease via MRI based Shape Diffeomorphometry and High Field Atlasing

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    Michael I Miller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines MRI analysis of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD in a network of structures within the medial temporal lobe using diffeomorphometry methods coupled with high-field atlasing in which the entorhinal cortex is partitioned into nine subareas. The morphometry markers for three groups of subjects (controls, preclinical AD and symptomatic AD are indexed to template coordinates measured with respect to these nine subareas. The location and timing of changes are examined within the subareas as it pertains to the classic Braak and Braak staging by comparing the three groups. We demonstrate that the earliest preclinical changes in the population occur in the lateral most sulcal extent in the entorhinal cortex (alluded to as trans entorhinal cortex by Braak and Braak, and then proceeds medially which is consistent with the Braak and Braak staging. We use high field 11T atlasing to demonstrate that the network changes are occurring at the junctures of the substructures in this medial temporal lobe network. Temporal progression of the disease through the network is also examined via changepoint analysis demonstrating earliest changes in entorhinal cortex. The differential expression of rate of atrophy with progression signaling the changepoint time across the network is demonstrated to be signaling in the intermediate caudal subarea of the entorhinal cortex, which has been noted to be proximal to the hippocampus. This coupled to the findings of the nearby basolateral involvement in amygdala demonstrates the selectivity of neurodegeneration in early AD.

  15. Dissociating basal forebrain and medial temporal amnesic syndromes: insights from classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Catherine E; Bryant, Deborah; DeLuca, John; Gluck, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    In humans, anterograde amnesia can result from damage to the medial temporal (MT) lobes (including hippocampus), as well as to other brain areas such as basal forebrain. Results from animal classical conditioning studies suggest that there may be qualitative differences in the memory impairment following MT vs. basal forebrain damage. Specifically, delay eyeblink conditioning is spared after MT damage in animals and humans, but impaired in animals with basal forebrain damage. Recently, we have likewise shown delay eyeblink conditioning impairment in humans with amnesia following anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm rupture, which damages the basal forebrain. Another associative learning task, a computer-based concurrent visual discrimination, also appears to be spared in MT amnesia while ACoA amnesics are slower to learn the discriminations. Conversely, animal and computational models suggest that, even though MT amnesics may learn quickly, they may learn qualitatively differently from controls, and these differences may result in impaired transfer when familiar information is presented in novel combinations. Our initial data suggests such a two-phase learning and transfer task may provide a double dissociation between MT amnesics (spared initial learning but impaired transfer) and ACoA amnesics (slow initial learning but spared transfer). Together, these emerging data suggest that there are subtle but dissociable differences in the amnesic syndrome following damage to the MT lobes vs. basal forebrain, and that these differences may be most visible in non-declarative tasks such as eyeblink classical conditioning and simple associative learning.

  16. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, Nazli; Rajimehr, Reza; Esteky, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance. PMID:25404900

  17. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress

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    Kelly M. Moench

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies.

  18. The role of medial prefrontal cortex in extinction and reinstatement of alcohol-seeking in rats.

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    Willcocks, Andrea L; McNally, Gavan P

    2013-01-01

    The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to play opposing roles in drug-seeking behaviour. Specifically, the PL promotes drug-seeking whereas the IL is necessary for the inhibition of drug-seeking during extinction. We studied the roles of the PL, IL and dorsal peduncular PFC (DP) in the expression of context-induced reinstatement, reacquisition and extinction of alcoholic beer-seeking. In context-induced reinstatement (renewal), animals were trained to nosepoke for alcoholic beer (context A), extinguished (context B) and then tested in context A and B. In reacquisition, animals received the same instrumental training and extinction without any contextual manipulation. On test, alcoholic beer was again available and responding was compared with naive controls. Just prior to the test, rats received bilateral infusion of baclofen/muscimol into the PL, IL or DP. Reversible inactivation of the PL attenuated ABA renewal but augmented reacquisition. Reversible inactivation of IL had no effect on the reinstatement or reacquisition of alcoholic beer-seeking and had no effect on extinction expression (ABB and AAA). IL inactivation did, however, increase the latencies with which animals responded on test but only when animals