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Sample records for mechanism rem bcdmem

  1. A Direct Test of the Differentiation Mechanism: REM, BCDMEM, and the Strength-Based Mirror Effect in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; White, Corey N.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2010-01-01

    We explore competing explanations for the reduction in false alarm rate observed when studied items are strengthened. Some models, such as Retrieving Effectively from Memory (REM; Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997), attribute the false alarm rate reduction to differentiation, a process in which strengthening memory traces at study directly reduces the…

  2. The Biology of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, John; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology. Specifically, this review outlines the historical origins of the discovery of REM sleep, the diversity of REM sleep expression across and within species, the potential functions of REM sleep (e.g., memory consolidation), the neural circuits that control REM sleep, and how dysfunction of REM sleep mechanisms underlie debilitating sleep disorders such as REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy. PMID:26766231

  3. Is the nonREM-REM sleep cycle reset by forced awakenings from REM sleep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grozinger, M; Beersma, DGM; Fell, J; Roschke, J

    In selective REM sleep deprivation (SRSD), the occurrence of stage REM is repeatedly interrupted by short awakenings. Typically, the interventions aggregate in clusters resembling the REM episodes in undisturbed sleep. This salient phenomenon can easily be explained if the nonREM-REM sleep process

  4. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  5. REM sleep selectively prunes and maintains new synapses in development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ma, Lei; Yang, Guang; Gan, Wen-Biao

    2017-03-01

    The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning. We further show that dendritic calcium spikes arising during REM sleep are important for pruning and strengthening new spines. Together, these findings indicate that REM sleep has multifaceted functions in brain development, learning and memory consolidation by selectively eliminating and maintaining newly formed synapses via dendritic calcium spike-dependent mechanisms.

  6. Automatic REM Sleep Detection Associated with Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG......, an automatic computerized REM detection algorithm has been implemented, using wavelet packet combined with artificial neural network. Results: When using the EEG, EOG and EMG modalities, it was possible to correctly classify REM sleep with an average Area Under Curve (AUC) equal to 0:900:03 for normal subjects...

  7. Intrahippocampal administration of anandamide increases REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel Ernesto; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Montes-Rodríguez, Corinne Jennifer; Pérez-Morales, Marcel; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2010-04-05

    A nascent literature has postulated endocannabinoids (eCBs) as strong sleep-inducing lipids, particularly rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs), nevertheless the exact mechanisms behind this effect remain to be determined. Anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol, two of the most important eCBS, are synthesized in the hippocampus. This structure also expresses a high concentration of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Recent extensive literature supports eCBs as important regulators of hippocampal activity. It has also been shown that these molecules vary their expression on the hippocampus depending on the light-dark cycle. In this context we decided to analyze the effect of intrahippocampal administration of the eCB anandamide (ANA) on the sleep-waking cycle at two points of the light-dark cycle. Our data indicate that the administration of ANA directly into the hippocampus increases REMs in a dose dependent manner during the dark but not during the light phase of the cycle. The increase of REMs was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM251. This effect was specific for the hippocampus since ANA administrations in the surrounding cortex did not elicit any change in REMs. These results support the idea of a direct relationship between hippocampal activity and sleep mechanisms by means of eCBs. The data presented here show, for the first time that eCBs administered into the hippocampus trigger REMs and support previous studies where chemical stimulation of limbic areas triggered sleep.

  8. REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

  9. Automatic REM sleep detection associated with idiopathic rem sleep Behavior Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, J; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sorensen, H B D

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG....

  10. REM sleep at its core—Circuits, neurotransmitters and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePeever

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available REM sleep is generated and maintained by the interaction of a variety of neurotransmitter systems in the brainstem, forebrain and hypothalamus. Within these circuits lies a core region that is active during REM sleep, known as the subcoeruleus nucleus (SubC or sublaterodorsal nucleus. It is hypothesized that glutamatergic SubC neurons regulate REM sleep and its defining features such as muscle paralysis and cortical activation. REM sleep paralysis is initiated when glutamatergic SubC activate neurons in the ventral medial medulla (VMM, which causes release of GABA and glycine onto skeletal motoneurons. REM sleep timing is controlled by activity of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG and dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi as well as melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons in the hypothalamus and cholinergic cells in the laterodorsal (LDT and pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT in the brainstem. Determining how these circuits interact with the SubC is important because breakdown in their communication is hypothesized to underlie cataplexy/narcolepsy and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD. This review synthesizes our current understanding of mechanisms generating healthy REM sleep and how dysfunction of these circuits contributes to common REM sleep disorders such as cataplexy/narcolepsy and RBD.

  11. Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) stress and fracture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The revised stress and fracture analysis of the Spartan REM hardware for current load conditions and mass properties is presented. The stress analysis was performed using a NASTRAN math model of the Spartan REM adapter, base, and payload. Appendix A contains the material properties, loads, and stress analysis of the hardware. The computer output and model description are in Appendix B. Factors of safety used in the stress analysis were 1.4 on tested items and 2.0 on all other items. Fracture analysis of the items considered fracture critical was accomplished using the MSFC Crack Growth Analysis code. Loads and stresses were obtaind from the stress analysis. The fracture analysis notes are located in Appendix A and the computer output in Appendix B. All items analyzed met design and fracture criteria.

  12. Is the nonREM–REM sleep cycle reset by forced awakenings from REM sleep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grözinger, Michael; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Fell, Jürgen; Röschke, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In selective REM sleep deprivation (SRSD), the occurrence of stage REM is repeatedly interrupted by short awakenings. Typically, the interventions aggregate in clusters resembling the REM episodes in undisturbed sleep. This salient phenomenon can easily be explained if the nonREM–REM sleep process

  13. Differential effects of non-REM and REM sleep on memory consolidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Rasch, Björn

    2014-02-01

    Sleep benefits memory consolidation. Previous theoretical accounts have proposed a differential role of slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and stage N2 sleep for different types of memories. For example the dual process hypothesis proposes that SWS is beneficial for declarative memories, whereas REM sleep is important for consolidation of non-declarative, procedural and emotional memories. In fact, numerous recent studies do provide further support for the crucial role of SWS (or non-REM sleep) in declarative memory consolidation. However, recent evidence for the benefit of REM sleep for non-declarative memories is rather scarce. In contrast, several recent studies have related consolidation of procedural memories (and some also emotional memories) to SWS (or non-REM sleep)-dependent consolidation processes. We will review this recent evidence, and propose future research questions to advance our understanding of the role of different sleep stages for memory consolidation.

  14. REM sleep deprivation during 5 hours leads to an immediate REM sleep rebound and to suppression of non-REM sleep intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, D.G.M.; Dijk, D.J.; Blok, Guus; Everhardus, I.

    Nine healthy male subjects were deprived of REM sleep during the first 5 h after sleep onset. Afterwards recovery sleep was undisturbed. During the deprivation period the non-REM EEG power spectrum was reduced when compared to baseline for the frequencies up to 7 Hz, despite the fact that non-REM

  15. REM and NREM sleep mentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Johnson, Patricia; McLaren, Deirdre; Harris, Erica; Beauharnais, Catherine; Auerbach, Sanford

    2010-01-01

    We review the literature on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states and associated dreams. REM is associated with enhanced activation of limbic and amygdalar networks and decreased activation in dorsal prefrontal regions while stage II NREM is associated with greater cortical activation than REM. Not surprisingly, these disparate brain activation patterns tend to be associated with dramatically different dream phenomenologies and dream content. We present two recent studies which content-analyzed hundreds of dream reports from REM and NREM sleep states. These studies demonstrated that dreamer-initiated aggressive social interactions were more characteristic of REM than NREM, and dreamer-initiated friendliness was more characteristic of NREM than REM reports. Both REM and NREM dreams therefore may function to simulate opposing types of social interactions, with the REM state specializing in simulation of aggressive interactions and the NREM state specializing in simulation of friendly interactions. We close our review with a summary of evidence that dream content variables significantly predict daytime mood and social interactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer models and output, Spartan REM: Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A computer model of the Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) is presented in a series of numerical charts and engineering drawings. A crack growth analysis code is used to predict the fracture mechanics of critical components.

  17. Diagnostic REM sleep muscle activity thresholds in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder with and without obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Sandness, David J; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to determine whether visual and automated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and comorbid obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In iRBD patients (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 30) with and without OSA, we visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, tonic, and "any" muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and automated REM atonia index (RAI). Group RSWA metrics were analyzed with regression models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in iRBD patients than in controls (p sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD), consistent with a common mechanism and presumed underlying etiology of synucleinopathy in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual hallucinations and pontine demyelination in a child: possible REM dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Stefanini, Maria Chiara; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo; Mariotti, Paolo

    2008-12-15

    An 11 year-old-boy acutely developed complex visual and acoustic hallucinations. Hallucinations, consisting of visions of a threatening, evil character of the Harry Potter saga, persisted for 3 days. Neurological and psychiatric examinations were normal. Ictal EEG was negative. MRI documented 3 small areas of hyperintense signal in the brainstem, along the paramedian and lateral portions of pontine tegmentum, one of which showed post-contrast enhancement. These lesions were likely of inflammatory origin, and treatment with immunoglobulins was started. Polysomnography was normal, multiple sleep latency test showed a mean sleep latency of 8 minutes, with one sleep-onset REM period. The pontine tegmentum is responsible for REM sleep regulation, and contains definite "REM-on" and "REM-off" regions. The anatomical distribution of the lesions permits us to hypothesize that hallucinations in this boy were consequent to a transient impairment of REM sleep inhibitory mechanisms, with the appearance of dream-like hallucinations during wake.

  19. APhA 2011 REMS white paper: Summary of the REMS stakeholder meeting on improving program design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pharmacists Association; Bough, Marcie

    2011-01-01

    To develop an improved risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) system for maximizing effective and safe patient medication use while minimizing burden on the health care delivery system. 34 stakeholders gathered October 6-7, 2010, in Arlington, VA, for the REMS Stakeholder Meeting, convened by the American Pharmacists Association (APhA). Participants included national health care provider associations, including representatives for physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists, as well as representatives for patient advocates, drug distributors, community pharmacists (chain and independent), drug manufacturer associations (brand, generic, and biologic organizations), and health information technology, standards, and safety organizations. Staff from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research participated as observers. The meeting built on themes from the APhA's 2009 REMS white paper. The current REMS environment presents many challenges for health care providers due to the growing number of REMS programs and the lack of standardization or similarities among various REMS programs. A standardized REMS process that focuses on maximizing patient safety and minimizing impacts on patient access and provider implementation could offset these challenges. A new process that includes effective provider interventions and standardized tools and systems for implementing REMS programs may improve patient care and overcome some of the communication issues providers and patients currently face. Metrics could be put in place to evaluate the effectiveness of REMS elements. By incorporating REMS program components into existing technologies and data infrastructures, achieving REMS implementation that is workflow neutral and minimizes administrative burden may be possible. An appropriate compensation model could ensure providers have adequate resources for patient care and REMS implementation. Overall

  20. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, Preeti; Fernandes, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG) while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  1. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Devnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  2. Materials properties, loads, and stress analysis, Spartan REM: Appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical properties, load tests, and stress analysis of the Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) is presented. The fracture properties of the components of the unit are also discussed. Detailed engineering drawings are included.

  3. REM sleep modulation by perifornical orexinergic inputs to the pedunculo-pontine tegmental neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M A; Mallick, B N

    2015-11-12

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is regulated by the interaction of the REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons located in the pedunculo-pontine-tegmentum (PPT) and the locus coeruleus (LC), respectively. Many other brain areas, particularly those controlling non-REMS (NREMS) and waking, modulate REMS by modulating these REMS-related neurons. Perifornical (PeF) orexin (Ox)-ergic neurons are reported to increase waking and reduce NREMS as well as REMS; dysfunction of the PeF neurons are related to REMS loss-associated disorders. Hence, we were interested in understanding the neural mechanism of PeF-induced REMS modulation. As a first step we have recently reported that PeF Ox-ergic neurons modulate REMS by influencing the LC neurons (site for REM-OFF neurons). Thereafter, in this in vivo study we have explored the role of PeF inputs on the PPT neurons (site for REM-ON neurons) for the regulation of REMS. Chronic male rats were surgically prepared with implanted bilateral cannulae in PeF and PPT and electrodes for recording sleep-waking patterns. After post-surgical recovery sleep-waking-REMS were recorded when bilateral PeF neurons were stimulated by glutamate and simultaneously bilateral PPT neurons were infused with either saline or orexin receptor1 (OX1R) antagonist. It was observed that PeF stimulation increased waking and decreased NREMS as well as REMS, which were prevented by OX1R antagonist into the PPT. We conclude that the PeF stimulation-induced reduction in REMS was likely to be due to inhibition of REM-ON neurons in the PPT. As waking and NREMS are inversely related, subject to confirmation, the reduction in NREMS could be due to increased waking or vice versa. Based on our findings from this and earlier studies we have proposed a model showing connections between PeF- and PPT-neurons for REMS regulation. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antidepressants Increase REM Sleep Muscle Tone in Patients with and without REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Sandness, David J; Arndt, Katlyn; Erickson, Maia; Tabatabai, Grace; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with antidepressant treatment, especially in younger patients; but quantitative REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) analyses of psychiatric RBD patients remain limited. We analyzed RSWA in adults receiving antidepressants, with and without RBD. We comparatively analyzed visual, manual, and automated RSWA between RBD and control groups. RSWA metrics were compared between groups, and regression was used to explore associations with clinical variables. Tertiary-care sleep center. Participants included traditional RBD without antidepressant treatment (n = 30, 15 Parkinson disease [PD-RBD] and 15 idiopathic); psychiatric RBD receiving antidepressants (n = 30); and adults without RBD, including antidepressant-treated psychiatric (n = 30), untreated psychiatric (n = 15), and OSA (n = 60) controls. N/A. RSWA was highest in traditional and psychiatric RBD, intermediate in treated psychiatric controls, and lowest in untreated psychiatric and OSA controls (P sleep without atonia (RSWA) even without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), suggesting that antidepressants, not depression, promote RSWA. Differences in RSWA distribution and type were also seen, with higher anterior tibialis RSWA in antidepressant-treated patients and higher tonic RSWA in Parkinson disease-RBD patients, which could aid distinction between RBD subtypes. These findings suggest that antidepressants may mediate different RSWA mechanisms or, alternatively, that RSWA type and distribution evolve during progressive neurodegeneration. Further prospective RSWA analyses are necessary to clarify the relationships between antidepressant treatment, psychiatric disease, and RBD. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhadze, I; Kamani, H; Kubin, L

    2011-12-01

    In the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of sleep and motor control, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and then phasic twitches gradually increase after the onset of REM sleep. To better characterize the central neural processes underlying this pattern, we quantified EMG of muscles innervated by distinct subpopulations of hypoglossal motoneurons and nuchal (N) EMG during transitions from non-REM sleep to REM sleep. In 8 chronically instrumented rats, we recorded cortical EEG, EMG at sites near the base of the tongue where genioglossal and intrinsic muscle fibers predominate (GG-I), EMG of the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, and N EMG. Sleep-wake states were identified and EMGs quantified relative to their mean levels in wakefulness in successive 10 s epochs. During non-REM sleep, the average EMG levels differed among the three muscles, with the order being N>GH>GG-I. During REM sleep, due to different magnitudes of phasic twitches, the order was reversed to GG-I>GH>N. GG-I and GH exhibited a gradual increase of twitching that peaked at 70-120 s after the onset of REM sleep and then declined if the REM sleep episode lasted longer. We propose that a common phasic excitatory generator impinges on motoneuron pools that innervate different muscles, but twitching magnitudes are different due to different levels of tonic motoneuronal hyperpolarization. We also propose that REM sleep episodes of average durations are terminated by intense activity of the central generator of phasic events, whereas long REM sleep episodes end as a result of a gradual waning of the tonic disfacilitatory and inhibitory processes.

  6. Proposed man-rem reference values of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents a proposal of referent collective dose (man-rem) values for occupational exposure related to operation of French pressurized water reactors. These values, permitting adequate choice of protection both at design and operation level, are dependent on the level of annual individual doses. The man-rem value, originating from annual individual doses less than 0.5 rem are estimated to 1 kf. The proposed value is 20 kf for annual individual exposures between 0.5 and 3 rem, and 90 kf for annual individual exposures between 3 and 5 rem. (author) [fr

  7. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. F.; Shabanova, O. V.; Pavlov, I. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Shabanov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM.

  8. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, V F; Shabanova, O V; Pavlov, I V; Pavlov, M V; Shabanov, A V

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM. (paper)

  9. REM Sleep EEG Instability in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Clonazepam Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to analyze quantitatively rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in controls, drug-naïve idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder patients (iRBD), and iRBD patients treated with clonazepam. Twenty-nine drug-naïve iRBD patients (mean age 68.2 years), 14 iRBD patients under chronic clonazepam therapy (mean age 66.3 years), and 21 controls (mean age 66.8 years) were recruited. Power spectra were obtained from sleep EEG (central derivation), using a 2-second sliding window, with 1-second steps. The power values of each REM sleep EEG spectral band (one every second) were normalized with respect to the average power value obtained during sleep stage 2 in the same individual. In drug-naïve patients, the normalized power values showed a less pronounced REM-related decrease of power in all bands with frequency sleep EEG structure changes found in this study disclose subtle but significant alterations in the cortical electrophysiology of RBD that might represent the early expression of the supposed neurodegenerative processes already taking place at this stage of the disease and might be the target of better and effective future therapeutic strategies for this condition. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A Neutron Rem Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J

    1964-01-15

    A neutron detector is described which measures the neutron dose rate in rem/h independently of the energy of the neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. The detector consists of a BF{sub 3} proportional counter surrounded by a shield made of polyethylene and boron plastic that gives the appropriate amount of moderation and absorption to the impinging neutrons to obtain rem response. Two different versions have been developed. One model can utilize standard BF{sub 3} counters and is suitable for use in installed monitors around reactors and accelerators and the other model is specially designed for use in a portable survey instrument. The neutron rem counter for portable instruments has a sensitivity of 2.4 cps/mrem/h and is essentially nondirectional in response. With correct bias setting the counter is insensitive to gamma exposure up to 200 r/h from Co-60.

  11. Posttraining Increases in REM Sleep Intensity Implicate REM Sleep in Memory Processing and Provide a Biological Marker of Learning Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Smith, Carlyle T.; Nixon, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraining rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been reported to be important for efficient memory consolidation. The present results demonstrate increases in the intensity of REM sleep during the night of sleep following cognitive procedural/implicit task acquisition. These REM increases manifest as increases in total number of rapid eye…

  12. RemBench: A Digital Workbench for Rembrandt Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Suzan; Van Leeuwen, Rudie; Gerritsen, G.H.; Boves, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present RemBench, a search engine for research into the life and works of Rembrandt van Rijn. RemBench combines the data from four different databases behind one interface using federated search technology. Metadata filtering is enabled through faceted search. RemBench enables art

  13. The Time Course of the Probability of Transition Into and Out of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Alejandro; Vivaldi, Ennio A.; Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: A model of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep expression is proposed that assumes underlying regulatory mechanisms operating as inhomogenous Poisson processes, the overt results of which are the transitions into and out of REM sleep. Design: Based on spontaneously occurring REM sleep episodes (“Episode”) and intervals without REM sleep (“Interval”), 3 variables are defined and evaluated over discrete 15-second epochs using a nonlinear logistic regression method: “Propensity” is the instantaneous rate of into-REM transition occurrence throughout an Interval, “Volatility” is the instantaneous rate of out-of-REM transition occurrence throughout an Episode, and “Opportunity” is the probability of being in non-REM (NREM) sleep at a given time throughout an Interval, a requisite for transition. Setting: 12:12 light:dark cycle, isolated boxes. Participants: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats Interventions: None. Spontaneous sleep cycles. Measurements and Results: The highest levels of volatility and propensity occur, respectively, at the very beginning of Episodes and Intervals. The new condition stabilizes rapidly, and variables reach nadirs at minute 1.25 and 2.50, respectively. Afterward, volatility increases markedly, reaching values close to the initial level. Propensity increases moderately, the increment being stronger through NREM sleep bouts occurring at the end of long Intervals. Short-term homeostasis is evidenced by longer REM sleep episodes lowering propensity in the following Interval. Conclusions: The stabilization after transitions into Episodes or Intervals and the destabilization after remaining for some time in either condition may be described as resulting from continuous processes building up during Episodes and Intervals. These processes underlie the overt occurrence of transitions. Citation: Bassi A; Vivaldi EA; Ocampo-Garcées A. The time course of the probability of transition into and out of REM sleep. SLEEP 2009

  14. REM behaviour disorder detection associated with neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Gertrud; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal skeleton muscle activity during REM sleep is characterized as REM Behaviour Disorder (RBD), and may be an early marker for different neurodegenerative diseases. Early detection of RBD is therefore highly important, and in this ongoing study a semi-automatic method for RBD detection......, a computerized algorithm has been attempted implemented. By analysing the REM and non-REM EMG activity, using advanced signal processing tools combined with a statistical classifier, it is possible to discriminate normal and abnormal EMG activity. Due to the small number of patients, the overall performance...

  15. Evaluating the evidence surrounding pontine cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Grace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep - characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity - is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of rapid eye movement (REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the ‘pontine REM sleep generator’ by cholinergic inputs. Here we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PFT is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv Cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail.

  16. REM-sleep alterations in children with co-existence of tic disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impact of hypermotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Banaschewski, Tobias; Uebel, Henrik; Kinkelbur, Jörg; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-06-01

    To characterize precisely the sleep pattern in children with co-existence of TD + ADHD. By means of polysomnography, sleep pattern was investigated in 19 children with TD + ADHD unmedicated before and during study and 19 healthy controls, matched for age, gender, and intelligence. Compared with healthy controls, children with TD + ADHD displayed shorter REM sleep latency and increased REM sleep duration. There was a negative correlational relationship between these REM-sleep alterations and they were determined by hyperactivity symptoms. Sleep in children with coexistence of TD + ADHD may be characterized by an elevated REM sleep drive. Common mechanisms are suggested to underpin hypermotor symptoms and REM sleep regulation.

  17. L-carnitine prevents memory impairment induced by chronic REM-sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Owaisi, Amani; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8h/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the radial arm water maze (RAWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Additionally, the hippocampus levels of antioxidant biomarkers/enzymes: reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were assessed. The results showed that chronic REM-sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory (Psleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus ratio of GSH/GSSG, activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD. No change was observed in TBARS among tested groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, chronic REM-sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with L-carnitine prevented this impairment through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A methodology for costing man-rem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, C.

    1976-03-01

    An attempt is made to provide a methodology for costing man-rem in a way that can be applied to station conditions, based on 1974 Pickering G.S. data. Factors taken into account were social costs, exposure costs (dose accounting, training, dosimetry) temporary labour costs, and permanent replacement labour costs. A figure of $620/ man-rem was derived. (LL)

  19. Levels of Interference in Long and Short-Term Memory Differentially Modulate Non-REM and REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraize, Nicolas; Carponcy, Julien; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Salin, Paul-Antoine; Malleret, Gaël; Parmentier, Régis

    2016-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that sleep is beneficial to memory processes, but it is still unclear if this benefit originates from improved memory consolidation or enhanced information processing. It has thus been proposed that sleep may also promote forgetting of undesirable and non-essential memories, a process required for optimization of cognitive resources. We tested the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) promotes forgetting of irrelevant information, more specifically when processing information in working memory (WM), while REM sleep (REMS) facilitates the consolidation of important information. We recorded sleep patterns of rats trained in a radial maze in three different tasks engaging either the long-term or short-term storage of information, as well as a gradual level of interference. We observed a transient increase in REMS amount on the day the animal learned the rule of a long-term/reference memory task (RM), and, in contrast, a positive correlation between the performance of rats trained in a WM task involving an important processing of interference and the amount of NREMS or slow wave activity. Various oscillatory events were also differentially modulated by the type of training involved. Notably, NREMS spindles and REMS rapid theta increase with RM training, while sharp-wave ripples increase with all types of training. These results suggest that REMS, but also rapid oscillations occurring during NREMS would be specifically implicated in the long-term memory in RM, whereas NREMS and slow oscillations could be involved in the forgetting of irrelevant information required for WM. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea during REM Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, R Nisha; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Kim, Ji Soo; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2018-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during REM sleep is a common disorder. Data on whether OSA that occurs predominantly during REM sleep is associated with health outcomes are limited. The present study examined the association between OSA during REM sleep and a composite cardiovascular endpoint in a community sample with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Full-montage home polysomnography was conducted as part of the Sleep Heart Health Study. The study cohort was followed for an average of 9.5 years, during which time cardiovascular events were assessed. Only participants with a non-REM apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of less than 5 events/h were included. A composite cardiovascular endpoint was determined as the occurrence of nonfatal or fatal events, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery revascularization, congestive heart failure, and stroke. Proportional hazards regression was used to derive the adjusted hazards ratios for the composite cardiovascular endpoint. The sample consisted of 3,265 subjects with a non-REM AHI of less than 5.0 events/h. Using a REM AHI of less than 5.0 events/h as the reference group (n = 1,758), the adjusted hazards ratios for the composite cardiovascular endpoint in those with severe REM OSA (≥30 events/h; n = 180) was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.85). Stratified analyses demonstrated that the association was most notable in those with prevalent cardiovascular disease and severe OSA during REM sleep with an adjusted hazards ratio of 2.56 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-4.47). Severe OSA that occurs primarily during REM sleep is associated with higher incidence of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, but in only those with prevalent cardiovascular disease.

  1. Why REM sleep? Clues beyond the laboratory in a more challenging world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jim

    2013-02-01

    REM sleep (REM) seems more likely to prepare for ensuing wakefulness rather than provides recovery from prior wakefulness, as happens with 'deeper' nonREM. Many of REM's characteristics are 'wake-like' (unlike nonREM), including several common to feeding. These, with recent findings outside sleep, provide perspectives on REM beyond those from the laboratory. REM can interchange with a wakefulness involving motor output, indicating that REM's atonia is integral to its function. Wakefulness for 'wild' mammals largely comprises exploration; a complex opportunistic behaviour mostly for foraging, involving: curiosity, minimising risks, (emotional) coping, navigation, when (including circadian timing) to investigate new destinations; all linked to 'purposeful, goal directed movement'. REM reflects these adaptive behaviours (including epigenesis), masked in laboratories having constrained, safe, unchanging, unchallenging, featureless, exploration-free environments with ad lib food. Similarly masked may be REM's functions for today's humans living safe, routine lives, with easy food accessibility. In these respects animal and human REM studies are not sufficiently 'ecological'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. REM sleep estimation only using respiratory dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Gih Sung; Choi, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jeong Su; Lee, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is currently considered the gold standard for assessing sleep quality. However, the numerous sensors that must be attached to the subject can disturb sleep and limit monitoring to within hospitals and sleep clinics. If data could be obtained without such constraints, sleep monitoring would be more convenient and could be extended to ordinary homes. During rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, respiration rate and variability are known to be greater than in other sleep stages. Hence, we calculated the average rate and variability of respiration in an epoch (30 s) by applying appropriate smoothing algorithms. Increased and irregular respiratory patterns during REM sleep were extracted using adaptive and linear thresholds. When both parameters simultaneously showed higher values than the thresholds, the epochs were assumed to belong to REM sleep. Thermocouples and piezoelectric-type belts were used to acquire respiratory signals. Thirteen healthy adults and nine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients participated in this study. Kappa statistics showed a substantial agreement (κ > 0.60) between the standard and respiration-based methods. One-way ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference between the techniques for total REM sleep. This approach can also be applied to the non-intrusive measurement of respiration signals, making it possible to automatically detect REM sleep without disturbing the subject

  3. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...

  4. Auditory Verbal Experience and Agency in Waking, Sleep Onset, REM, and Non-REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Harley, Trevor A; Speth, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking. Physiology was controlled with the nightcap sleep-wake mentation monitoring system. Sleep-onset hallucinations, traditionally at the focus of scientific attention on auditory verbal hallucinations, showed the lowest degree of VE and VA, whereas REM sleep showed the highest degrees. Degrees of different linguistic-pragmatic aspects of VE and VA likewise depend on the physiological states. The quantity and pragmatics of VE and VA are a function of the physiologically distinct state of consciousness in which they are conceived. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. The role of REM theta activity in emotional memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Camilla Hutchison

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While NREM sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of REM sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity – which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex – is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale PGO waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and the gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces observed in both wake and REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep acetylcholine levels – which are thought to reduce hippocampal afferent inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate recurrent activation within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus.

  6. Post training REMs coincident auditory stimulation enhances memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Weeden, K

    1990-06-01

    Sleep activity was monitored in 20 freshman college students for two consecutive nights. Subjects were assigned to 4 equal groups and all were asked to learn a complex logic task before bed on the second night. Two groups of subjects learned the task with a constant clicking noise in the background (cued groups), while two groups simply learned the task (non cued). During the night, one cued and one non cued group were presented with auditory clicks during REM sleep such as to coincide with all REMs of at least 100 microvolts. The second cued group was given auditory clicks during REM sleep, but only during the REMs "quiet" times. The second non-cued control group was never given any nighttime auditory stimulations. The cued REMs coincident group showed a significant 23% improvement in task performance when tested one week later. The non cued REMs coincident group showed only an 8.8% improvement which was not significant. The cued REMs quiet and non-stimulated control groups showed no change in task performance when retested. The results were interpreted as support for the idea that the cued auditory stimulation induced a "recall" of the learned material during the REM sleep state in order for further memory processing to take place.

  7. Noradrenaline from Locus Coeruleus Neurons Acts on Pedunculo-Pontine Neurons to Prevent REM Sleep and Induces Its Loss-Associated Effects in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Somarajan, Bindu I; Mehta, Rachna; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Normally, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) does not appear during waking or non-REMS. Isolated, independent studies showed that elevated noradrenaline (NA) levels inhibit REMS and induce REMS loss-associated cytomolecular, cytomorphological, psychosomatic changes and associated symptoms. However, the source of NA and its target in the brain for REMS regulation and function in health and diseases remained to be confirmed in vivo . Using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-siRNA and virus-coated TH-shRNA in normal freely moving rats, we downregulated NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) REM-OFF neurons in vivo . These TH-downregulated rats showed increased REMS, which was prevented by infusing NA into the pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons, normal REMS returned after recovery. Moreover, unlike normal or control-siRNA- or shRNA-injected rats, upon REMS deprivation (REMSD) TH-downregulated rat brains did not show elevated Na-K ATPase (molecular changes) expression and activity. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first in vivo findings in an animal model confirming that NA from the LC REM-OFF neurons (1) acts on the PPT REM-ON neurons to prevent appearance of REMS, and (2) are responsible for inducing REMSD-associated molecular changes and symptoms. These observations clearly show neuro-physio-chemical mechanism of why normally REMS does not appear during waking. Also, that LC neurons are the primary source of NA, which in turn causes some, if not many, REMSD-associated symptoms and behavioral changes. The findings are proof-of-principle for the first time and hold potential to be exploited for confirmation toward treating REMS disorder and amelioration of REMS loss-associated symptoms in patients.

  8. Diagnostic thresholds for quantitative REM sleep phasic burst duration, phasic and tonic muscle activity, and REM atonia index in REM sleep behavior disorder with and without comorbid obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Sandness, David J; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, "any," and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. N/A. Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. N/A. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Overnight improvements in two REM sleep-sensitive tasks are associated with both REM and NREM sleep changes, sleep spindle features, and awakenings for dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T; O'Reilly, C; Carr, M; Dumel, G; Godin, I; Solomonova, E; Lara-Carrasco, J; Blanchette-Carrière, C; Paquette, T

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is associated with sleep physiology but the contribution of specific sleep stages remains controversial. To clarify the contribution of REM sleep, participants were administered two REM sleep-sensitive tasks to determine if associated changes occurred only in REM sleep. Twenty-two participants (7 men) were administered the Corsi Block Tapping and Tower of Hanoi tasks prior to and again after a night of sleep. Task improvers and non-improvers were compared for sleep structure, sleep spindles, and dream recall. Control participants (N = 15) completed the tasks twice during the day without intervening sleep. Overnight Corsi Block improvement was associated with more REM sleep whereas Tower of Hanoi improvement was associated with more N2 sleep. Corsi Block improvement correlated positively with %REM sleep and Tower of Hanoi improvement with %N2 sleep. Post-hoc analyses suggest Tower of Hanoi effects-but not Corsi Block effects-are due to trait differences. Sleep spindle density was associated with Tower of Hanoi improvement whereas spindle amplitude correlated with Corsi Block improvement. Number of REM awakenings for dream reporting (but not dream recall per se) was associated with Corsi Block, but not Tower of Hanoi, improvement but was confounded with REM sleep time. This non-replication of one of 2 REM-sensitive task effects challenges both 'dual-process' and 'sequential' or 'sleep organization' models of sleep-dependent learning and points rather to capacity limitations on REM sleep. Experimental awakenings for sampling dream mentation may not perturb sleep-dependent learning effects; they may even enhance them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. REM sleep and dreaming functions beyond reductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen

    2013-12-01

    Brain activation patterns and mental, electrophysiological, and neurobiological features of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep suggest more functions than only elaborative encoding. Hence, the periodic occurrence of REM sleep episodes and dreaming may be regarded as a recurrent adaptive interference, which incorporates recent memories into a broader vital context comprising emotions, basic needs and individual genetic traits.

  11. Monitoring of the prompt GRB afterglow with the REM telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covino, S.; Zerbi, F.; Chincarini, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Conconi, P.; Molinari, E.; Rodono, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Antonelli, L.A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    In these pages we present REM (Rapid Eye Mount), a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput NIR (Z', J, H, K) camera and an Optical slitless spectrograph (ROSS) optimized for the monitoring of the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Bursts. Covering the NIR domain REM can discover objects at extremely high red-shift and trigger large telescopes to observe them when they are still bright. The synergy between REM-IR cam and ROSS makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena

  12. REM sleep rescues learning from interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Duggan, Katherine A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  13. The effect of REM sleep deprivation on motivation for food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Harder, Bridgette K; Kelley, Ann E; Benca, Ruth M

    2005-08-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome consisting of an increase in food intake yet a decrease in weight. Moreover, the increase in food intake generally precedes the weight loss, suggesting that sleep deprivation may affect appetitive behaviors. Using the multiple platform method to produce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation, we investigated the effect of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) on motivation for food reward utilizing food-reinforced operant tasks. In acquisition or maintenance of an operant task, REM sleep-deprived rats, with or without simultaneous food restriction, decreased responding for sucrose pellet reward in comparison to controls, despite the fact that all REM sleep-deprived rats lost weight. Furthermore, the overall response deficit of the REM sleep-deprived rats was due to a within-session decline in responding. REM sleep-deprived rats showed evidence of understanding the contingency of the task comparable to controls throughout deprivation period, suggesting that the decrements in responding were not primarily related to deficits in learning or memory. Rather, REM sleep deprivation appears to alter systems involved in motivational processes, reward, and/or attention.

  14. Lithium prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced impairments on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Simone M; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Suchecki, Deborah; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M; Tiba, Paula A

    2013-11-01

    Pre-training rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation affects memory acquisition and/or consolidation. It also produces major REMS rebound at the cost of waking and slow wave sleep (SWS). Given that both SWS and REMS appear to be important for memory processes, REMS rebound after training may disrupt the organization of sleep cycles, i.e., excessive amount of REMS and/or little SWS after training could be harmful for memory formation. To examine whether lithium, a drug known to increase SWS and reduce REMS, could prevent the memory impairment induced by pre-training sleep deprivation. Animals were divided in 2 groups: cage control (CC) and REMS-deprived (REMSDep), and then subdivided into 4 subgroups, treated either with vehicle or 1 of 3 doses of lithium (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) 2 h before training on the multiple trial inhibitory avoidance task. Animals were tested 48 h later to make sure that the drug had been already metabolized and eliminated. Another set of animals was implanted with electrodes and submitted to the same experimental protocol for assessment of drug-induced sleep-wake changes. Wistar male rats weighing 300-400 g. Sleep deprived rats required more trials to learn the task and still showed a performance deficit during test, except from those treated with 150 mg/kg of lithium, which also reduced the time spent in REM sleep during sleep recovery. Lithium reduced rapid eye movement sleep and prevented memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. These results indicate that these phenomena may be related, but cause-effect relationship cannot be ascertained.

  15. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  16. Vocabulary learning benefits from REM after slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Westerberg, Carmen E; Paller, Ken A

    2017-10-01

    Memory reactivation during slow-wave sleep (SWS) influences the consolidation of recently acquired knowledge. This reactivation occurs spontaneously during sleep but can also be triggered by presenting learning-related cues, a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Here we examined whether TMR can improve vocabulary learning. Participants learned the meanings of 60 novel words. Auditory cues for half the words were subsequently presented during SWS in an afternoon nap. Memory performance for cued versus uncued words did not differ at the group level but was systematically influenced by REM sleep duration. Participants who obtained relatively greater amounts of REM showed a significant benefit for cued relative to uncued words, whereas participants who obtained little or no REM demonstrated a significant effect in the opposite direction. We propose that REM after SWS may be critical for the consolidation of highly integrative memories, such as new vocabulary. Reactivation during SWS may allow newly encoded memories to be associated with other information, but this association can include disruptive linkages with pre-existing memories. Subsequent REM sleep may then be particularly beneficial for integrating new memories into appropriate pre-existing memory networks. These findings support the general proposition that memory storage benefits optimally from a cyclic succession of SWS and REM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....

  18. Family history of idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort.......To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort....

  19. Fear Extinction Memory Consolidation Requires Potentiation of Pontine-Wave Activity during REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372

  20. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH: role in REM sleep and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eTorterolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH is a peptidergic neuromodulator synthesized by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. MCHergic neurons project throughout the central nervous system, including areas such as the dorsal (DR and median (MR raphe nuclei, which are involved in the control of sleep and mood.Major Depression (MD is a prevalent psychiatric disease diagnosed on the basis of symptomatic criteria such as sadness or melancholia, guilt, irritability and anhedonia. A short REM sleep latency (i.e. the interval between sleep onset and the first REM sleep period, as well as an increase in the duration of REM sleep and the density of rapid-eye movements during this state, are considered important biological markers of depression. The fact that the greatest firing rate of MCHergic neurons occurs during REM sleep and that optogenetic stimulation of these neurons induces sleep, tends to indicate that MCH plays a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sleep, especially REM sleep. In addition, the acute microinjection of MCH into the DR promotes REM sleep, while immunoneutralization of this peptide within the DR decreases the time spent in this state. Moreover, microinjections of MCH into either the DR or MR promote a depressive-like behavior. In the DR, this effect is prevented by the systemic administration of antidepressant drugs (either fluoxetine or nortriptyline and blocked by the intra-DR microinjection of a specific MCH receptor antagonist. Using electrophysiological and microdialysis techniques we demonstrated also that MCH decreases the activity of serotonergic DR neurons.Therefore, there are substantive experimental data suggesting that the MCHergic system plays a role in the control of REM sleep and, in addition, in the pathophysiology of depression. Consequently, in the present report, we summarize and evaluate the current data and hypotheses related to the role of MCH in REM sleep and MD.

  1. Automatic detection of REM sleep in subjects without atonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic Rapid-Rye-Movement (REM) sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD) is a strong early marker of Parkinson's Disease and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and increased phasic muscle activity. Current proposed methods for detecting RSWA assume the presence of a manually scored...... hypnogram. In this study a full automatic REM sleep detector, using the EOG and EEG channels, is proposed. Based on statistical features, combined with subject specific feature scaling and post-processing of the classifier output, it was possible to obtain an mean accuracy of 0.96 with a mean sensititvity...

  2. Removal of ocular artifacts from the REM sleep EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterman, D.; Woestenburg, J.C.; Elton, M.; Hofman, W.; Kok, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present report concerns the first study in which electrooculographic (EOG) contamination of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is systematically investigated. Contamination of REM sleep EEG recordings in six subjects was evaluated in the frequency domain.

  3. Brain prolactin is involved in stress-induced REM sleep rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo Borges; Rocha, Murilo Ramos; Suchecki, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    REM sleep rebound is a common behavioural response to some stressors and represents an adaptive coping strategy. Animals submitted to multiple, intermittent, footshock stress (FS) sessions during 96h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) display increased REM sleep rebound (when compared to the only REMSD ones, without FS), which is correlated to high plasma prolactin levels. To investigate whether brain prolactin plays a role in stress-induced REM sleep rebound two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, rats were either not sleep-deprived (NSD) or submitted to 96h of REMSD associated or not to FS and brains were evaluated for PRL immunoreactivity (PRL-ir) and determination of PRL concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus. In experiment 2, rats were implanted with cannulas in the dorsal raphe nucleus for prolactin infusion and were sleep-recorded. REMSD associated with FS increased PRL-ir and content in the lateral hypothalamus and all manipulations increased prolactin content in the dorsal raphe nucleus compared to the NSD group. Prolactin infusion in the dorsal raphe nucleus increased the time and length of REM sleep episodes 3h after the infusion until the end of the light phase of the day cycle. Based on these results we concluded that brain prolactin is a major mediator of stress-induced REMS. The effect of PRL infusion in the dorsal raphe nucleus is discussed in light of the existence of a bidirectional relationship between this hormone and serotonin as regulators of stress-induced REM sleep rebound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS): educating the prescriber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Susan C; Peterson, Janet; Yektashenas, Behin

    2012-02-01

    The US FDA Amendments Act of 2007 was signed into law on 27 September 2007. A provision of this law granted the FDA new powers to enhance drug safety by requiring the pharmaceutical industry to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). REMS are deemed necessary when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. REMS constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients. This applies to existing drugs on the market, new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated NDAs (generics) and biologics licence applications. REMS represent an 'upgrade' from previously required risk minimization action plans, based on the strengthening of FDA powers of authority and enforceability to incur monetary penalties against individuals representing the pharmaceutical industry who fail to comply. For illustrative purposes, we chose the drug romiplostim (Nplate®) to present an REMS, as all components were utilized to help assuage risks associated with the drug. Romiplostim is an FDA-approved drug used to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura that has a significant adverse safety profile based on the risk of changes in bone marrow reticulin formation and bone marrow fibroses, and other associated risks. This review of current REMS policy is intended to provide the prescriber with a better understanding of current modalities in FDA-mandated drug safety programmes, which will impact day-to-day healthcare provider practices.

  5. Respiration amplitude analysis for REM and NREM sleep classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, X.; Foussier, J.; Fonseca, P.; Haakma, R.; Aarts, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous work, single-night polysomnography recordings (PSG) of respiratory effort and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals combined with actigraphy were used to classify sleep and wake states. In this study, we aim at classifying rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep states. Besides the

  6. Perifornical orexinergic neurons modulate REM sleep by influencing locus coeruleus neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R C; Khanday, M A; Mitra, A; Mallick, B N

    2014-10-24

    Activation of the orexin (OX)-ergic neurons in the perifornical (PeF) area has been reported to induce waking and reduce rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). The activities of OX-ergic neurons are maximum during active waking and they progressively reduce during non-REMS (NREMS) and REMS. Apparently, the locus coeruleus (LC) neurons also behave in a comparable manner as that of the OX-ergic neurons particularly in relation to waking and REMS. Further, as PeF OX-ergic neurons send dense projections to LC, we argued that the former could drive the LC neurons to modulate waking and REMS. Studies in freely moving normally behaving animals where simultaneously neuro-chemo-anatomo-physio-behavioral information could be deciphered would significantly strengthen our understanding on the regulation of REMS. Therefore, in this study in freely behaving chronically prepared rats we stimulated the PeF neurons without or with simultaneous blocking of specific subtypes of OX-ergic receptors in the LC while electrophysiological recording characterizing sleep-waking was continued. Single dose of glutamate stimulation as well as sustained mild electrical stimulation of PeF (both bilateral) significantly increased waking and reduced REMS as compared to baseline. Simultaneous application of OX-receptor1 (OX1R) antagonist bilaterally into the LC prevented PeF stimulation-induced REMS suppression. Also, the effect of electrical stimulation of the PeF was long lasting as compared to that of the glutamate stimulation. Further, sustained electrical stimulation significantly decreased both REMS duration as well as REMS frequency, while glutamate stimulation decreased REMS duration only. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Representation of the Self in REM and NREM Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; McLaren, Deirdre; Durso, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that representations of the Self (or the dreamer) in dreams would change systematically, from a prereflective form of Self to more complex forms, as a function of both age and sleep state (REM vs. non-REM). These hypotheses were partially confirmed. While the authors found that all the self-concept-related dream content indexes derived from the Hall/Van de Castle dream content scoring system did not differ significantly between the dreams of children and adults, adult Selves were more likely to engage in “successful” social interactions. The Self never acted as aggressor in NREM dream states and was almost always the befriender in friendly interactions in NREM dreams. Conversely, the REM-related dream Self preferred aggressive encounters. Our results suggests that while prereflective forms of Self are the norm in children’s dreams, two highly complex forms of Self emerge in REM and NREM dreams. PMID:19169371

  8. Brainstem circuitry regulating phasic activation of trigeminal motoneurons during REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Anaclet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS.To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS.These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2 separate brainstem neural circuits control postural and cranial muscle

  9. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  10. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  11. Clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of patients with REM sleep disordered breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Chaves Loureiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a 10–36% rate of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS associated with rapid eye movement (REM in the OSAS population. Prior studies have suggested an increased prevalence of psychiatric disorders and an effect of gender and age on these patients.Our aim was to study the clinical and polysomnograph (PSG characteristics of our patients with REM-related sleep disordered breathing (REM SDB.Inclusion criteria was the identification of REM SDB detected by PSG defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI in REM sleep ≥ 5 h, AHI in non-REM sleep (NREM ≤ 15 h and REM/NREM AHI ≥ 2.Several Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ version 1.02 parameters were analysed.The study comprised 19 patients with a mean age of 54.0 (SD ± 13.97, a mean BMI of 29.01 (SD ± 4.10 and a 0.58 female / male ratio. The mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was 12.74 (SD ± 4.86. Mean AHI was 9.16/h (SD 4.09; mean AHI in REM sleep 37.08/h (SD 25.87 and mean REM-AHI/NREM-AHI 8.86 (SD 8.63.The anxiety disorder rate was 33.3%; 44.4% in females, 16.7% in males.The average deep sleep was 20.7% (SD 10.42 and REM sleep 15.45% (SD 9.96, with a sleep efficiency of 85.3 (SD 8.70.No significant statistical correlation was found between the REM/NREM AHI index and anxiety symptoms, daytime sleepiness and sleep quality (REM and deep sleep percentages.These patients differ from the general OSAS population: on average, they are not obese, there are a greater number of females affected and they do not present a very significant diurnal hypersomnia. Reduced deep sleep and increased REM sleep were also present versus general population data, and sleep efficiency was just below the normal limit.Anxiety disorders were more prevalent in this group than described for the general population (3% and OSAS patients. Resumo: A síndroma de apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS associada ao sono REM tem uma incidência de 10–36% na

  12. Motivation and affect in REM sleep and the mentation reporting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark R; Antrobus, John S; Gordon, Evelyn; Tucker, Matthew A; Hirota, Yasutaka; Wamsley, Erin J; Ross, Lars; Doan, Tieu; Chaklader, Annie; Emery, Rebecca N

    2004-09-01

    Although the emotional and motivational characteristics of dreaming have figured prominently in folk and psychoanalytic conceptions of dream production, emotions have rarely been systematically studied, and motivation, never. Because emotions during sleep lack the somatic components of waking emotions, and they change as the sleeper awakens, their properties are difficult to assess. Recent evidence of limbic system activation during REM sleep suggests a basis in brain architecture for the interaction of motivational and cognitive properties in dreaming. Motivational and emotional content in REM and NREM laboratory mentation reports from 25 participants were compared. Motivational and emotional content was significantly greater in REM than NREM sleep, even after controlling for the greater word count of REM reports.

  13. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep...

  14. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  15. Why does rem sleep occur? A wake-up hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W R

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  16. Effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on prefrontal gamma activity and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B

    2015-05-01

    Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimate of man-rem expenditures for a mature CANDU 600 MW(e) station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, I.

    1978-08-01

    In recent years, man-rem expenditures at operating stations have come under close scrutiny in order to reduce operating personnel dosage. This increased awareness has led to concerted efforts to improve station design and to improve operating procedures to achieve lower man-rem expenditures. This paper is intended to highlight design improvements that have been made in the CANDU 600 MW(e) design and to show how these improvements will reduce man-rem expenditures. Other considerations, such as station decontaminations of the primary heat transport system and the fuelling machines and stricter chemistry control are presently available to help reduce man-rem consumption. Also, station management operating policy should emphasize man-rem awareness. (author)

  18. Rapid Eye Movements (REMs) and visual dream recall in both congenitally blind and sighted subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bértolo, Helder; Mestre, Tiago; Barrio, Ana; Antona, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate rapid eye movements (REMs) associated with visual dream recall in sighted subjects and congenital blind. During two consecutive nights polysomnographic recordings were performed at subjects home. REMs were detected by visual inspection on both EOG channels (EOG-H, EOG-V) and further classified as occurring isolated or in bursts. Dream recall was defined by the existence of a dream report. The two groups were compared using t-test and also the two-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Fisher test (for the features diagnosis (blind vs. sighted) and dream recall (yes or no) as a function of time). The average of REM awakenings per subject and the recall ability were identical in both groups. CB had a lower REM density than CS; the same applied to REM bursts and isolated eye movements. In the two-way ANOVA, REM bursts and REM density were significantly different for positive dream recall, mainly for the CB group and for diagnosis; furthermore for both features significant results were obtained for the interaction of time, recall and diagnosis; the interaction of recall and time was however, stronger. In line with previous findings the data show that blind have lower REMs density. However the ability of dream recall in congenitally blind and sighted controls is identical. In both groups visual dream recall is associated with an increase in REM bursts and density. REM bursts also show differences in the temporal profile. REM visual dream recall is associated with increased REMs activity.

  19. In-vivo staging of pathology in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karoline; Fedorova, Tatyana D.; Hansen, Allan K.

    2018-01-01

    originating in the locus coeruleus, and 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET to assess nigrostriatal dopamine storage capacity. For each imaging modality, we compared patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder with previously published reference data of controls without neurological disorders...... or cognitive impairment and with symptomatic patients with Parkinson's disease. We assessed imaging data using one-way ANOVA corrected for multiple comparisons. Findings: Between June 3, 2016, and Dec 19, 2017, we recruited 22 consecutive patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder to the study...... REM sleep behaviour disorder (pequal to that in diagnosed Parkinson's disease. These patients also showed noradrenergic...

  20. REM sleep respiratory behaviours mental content in narcoleptic lucid dreamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dodet, Pauline; Ledard, Nahema; Artru, Emilie; Rachidi, Inès; Similowski, Thomas; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2018-02-08

    Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps. Participants were instructed to modify their dream scenario so that it involved vocalizations or an apnoea, -two behaviours that require a cortical control of ventilation when executed during wakefulness. Most participants (86%) were able to signal lucidity in at least one nap. In 50% of the lucid naps, we found a clear congruence between the dream report (e.g., diving under water) and the observed respiratory behaviour (e.g., central apnoea) and, in several cases, a preparatory breath before the respiratory behaviour. This suggests that the cortico-subcortical networks involved in voluntary respiratory movements are preserved during REM sleep and that breathing irregularities during this stage have a cortical/subcortical origin that reflects dream content.

  1. Slow waves, sharp waves, ripples, and REM in sleeping dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein-Idelson, Mark; Ondracek, Janie M; Liaw, Hua-Peng; Reiter, Sam; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-04-29

    Sleep has been described in animals ranging from worms to humans. Yet the electrophysiological characteristics of brain sleep, such as slow-wave (SW) and rapid eye movement (REM) activities, are thought to be restricted to mammals and birds. Recording from the brain of a lizard, the Australian dragon Pogona vitticeps, we identified SW and REM sleep patterns, thus pushing back the probable evolution of these dynamics at least to the emergence of amniotes. The SW and REM sleep patterns that we observed in lizards oscillated continuously for 6 to 10 hours with a period of ~80 seconds. The networks controlling SW-REM antagonism in amniotes may thus originate from a common, ancient oscillator circuit. Lizard SW dynamics closely resemble those observed in rodent hippocampal CA1, yet they originate from a brain area, the dorsal ventricular ridge, that has no obvious hodological similarity with the mammalian hippocampus. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Differential effects of non-REM and REM sleep on memory consolidation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann Sandra; Rasch  Bjoern

    2013-01-01

    Sleep benefitsmemory consolidation. Previous theoretical accounts have proposed a differential role of slowwave sleep (SWS) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and stage N2 sleep for different types of memories. For example the dual process hypothesis proposes that SWS is beneficial for declarative memories whereas REMsleep is important for consolidation of non declarative procedural and emotional memories. In fact numerous recent studies do provide further support for the crucial role of SWS (or ...

  3. Development of a spherical neutron rem monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.G.; Madhavi, V.; Bansode, P.Y.; Jakati, R.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Desai, S.S.; Shaikh, A.M.; Sathian, V.

    2007-01-01

    A new neutron rem monitor based on spherical LINUS with the state of art electronic circuits has been designed in Electronics Division. This prototype instrument encompasses a spherical double polythene moderator to improve an isotropic response and a lead layer to extend its energy response compared to the conventional neutron rem monitors. A systematic testing and calibration of the energy and directional response of the prototype monitor have been carried out. Although the monitor is expected to perform satisfactorily upto an energy ∼ 55 MeV, at present its response has been tested upto 5 MeV. (author)

  4. REM sleep deprivation induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats: Roles of the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and supplementation with L-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaye; Gan, Zhongyuan; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Wenqi; Li, Hanqing; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Ke, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss can induce or aggravate the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of REM sleep deprivation on blood pressure in rats and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. After Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to REM sleep deprivation for 5 days, their blood pressures and endothelial function were measured. In addition, one group of rats was given continuous access to L-arginine supplementation (2% in distilled water) for the 5 days before and the 5 days of REM sleep deprivation to reverse sleep deprivation-induced pathological changes. The results showed that REM sleep deprivation decreased body weight, increased blood pressure, and impaired endothelial function of the aortas in middle-aged rats but not young rats. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations as well as endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in the aorta were decreased by REM sleep deprivation. Supplementation with L-arginine could protect against REM sleep deprivation-induced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and damage to the eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling pathway. The results of the present study suggested that REM sleep deprivation caused endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats via the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and that these pathological changes could be inhibited via L-arginine supplementation. The present study provides a new strategy to inhibit the signaling pathways involved in insomnia-induced or insomnia-enhanced cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Reassessment of NRC's dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a review and analysis of its dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy. As a result of this review, the NRC has decided to adopt a $2000 per person-rem conversion factor, subject it to present worth considerations, and limit its scope solely to health effects. This is in contrast to the previous policy and staff practice of using an undiscounted $1000 per person-rem conversion factor that served as a surrogate for all offsite consequences (health and offsite property). The policy shift has been incorporated in ''Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,'' NUREG/BR-0058, Revision 2, November 1995

  6. Venlafaxine-induced REM sleep behavioral disorder presenting as two fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ryan Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavioral disorder is characterized by the absence of muscular atonia during REM sleep. In this disorder, patients can violently act out their dreams, placing them at risk for traumatic fractures during these episodes. REM sleep behavioral disorder (RBD can be a sign of future neurodegenerative disease and has also been found to be a side effect of certain psychiatric medications. We present a case of venlafaxine-induced RBD in a 55 year old female who presented with a 13 year history of intermittent parasomnia and dream enactment in addition to a recent history of two fractures requiring intervention.

  7. Venlafaxine-induced REM sleep behavioral disorder presenting as two fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Williams, R; Sandigo, Gustavo

    2017-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavioral disorder is characterized by the absence of muscular atonia during REM sleep. In this disorder, patients can violently act out their dreams, placing them at risk for traumatic fractures during these episodes. REM sleep behavioral disorder (RBD) can be a sign of future neurodegenerative disease and has also been found to be a side effect of certain psychiatric medications. We present a case of venlafaxine-induced RBD in a 55 year old female who presented with a 13 year history of intermittent parasomnia and dream enactment in addition to a recent history of two fractures requiring intervention.

  8. Quantitative assessment of isolated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia without clinical REM sleep behavior disorder: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Ehrmann, Laura; Gabelia, David; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Inoue, Yuichi; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RWA) is observed in some patients without a clinical history of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). It remains unknown whether these patients meet the refined quantitative electromyographic (EMG) criteria supporting a clinical RBD diagnosis. We quantitatively evaluated EMG activity and investigated its overnight distribution in patients with isolated qualitative RWA. Fifty participants with an incidental polysomnographic finding of RWA (isolated qualitative RWA) were included. Tonic, phasic, and 'any' EMG activity during REM sleep on PSG were quantified retrospectively. Referring to the quantitative cut-off values for a polysomnographic diagnosis of RBD, 7/50 (14%) and 6/50 (12%) of the patients showed phasic and 'any' EMG activity in the mentalis muscle above the respective cut-off values. No patient was above the cut-off value for tonic EMG activity or phasic EMG activity in the anterior tibialis muscles. Patients with RWA above the cut-off value showed higher amounts of RWA during later REM sleep periods. This is the first study showing that some subjects with incidental RWA meet the refined quantitative EMG criteria for a diagnosis of RBD. Future longitudinal studies must investigate whether this subgroup with isolated qualitative RWA is at an increased risk of developing fully expressed RBD and/or neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  10. Assessing the Dream-Lag Effect for REM and NREM Stage 2 Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C.; Henley-Einion, Josephine A.; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Davies, Anna C.; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5–7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation. PMID:22046336

  11. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Blagrove

    Full Text Available This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM. This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2 dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  12. The spectrum of REM sleep-related episodes in children with type 1 narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelmi, Elena; Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Neccia, Giulia; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero; Filardi, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Liguori, Rocco; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a central hypersomnia due to the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons and characterized by cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. In children, close to the disease onset, type 1 narcolepsy has peculiar clinical features with severe cataplexy and a complex admixture of movement disorders occurring while awake. Motor dyscontrol during sleep has never been systematically investigated. Suspecting that abnormal motor control might affect also sleep, we systematically analysed motor events recorded by means of video polysomnography in 40 children with type 1 narcolepsy (20 females; mean age 11.8 ± 2.6 years) and compared these data with those recorded in 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Motor events were classified as elementary movements, if brief and non-purposeful and complex behaviours, if simulating purposeful behaviours. Complex behaviours occurring during REM sleep were further classified as 'classically-defined' and 'pantomime-like' REM sleep behaviour disorder episodes, based on their duration and on their pattern (i.e. brief and vivid-energetic in the first case, longer and with subcontinuous gesturing mimicking daily life activity in the second case). Elementary movements emerging either from non-REM or REM sleep were present in both groups, even if those emerging from REM sleep were more numerous in the group of patients. Conversely, complex behaviours could be detected only in children with type 1 narcolepsy and were observed in 13 patients, with six having 'classically-defined' REM sleep behaviour disorder episodes and seven having 'pantomime-like' REM sleep behaviour disorder episodes. Complex behaviours during REM sleep tended to recur in a stereotyped fashion for several times during the night, up to be almost continuous. Patients displaying a more severe motor dyscontrol during REM sleep had also more severe motor disorder during daytime (i

  13. The hypocretins (orexins mediate the “phasic” components of REM sleep: A new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Torterolo

    2014-03-01

    The hypocretinergic neurons are active during wakefulness in conjunction with the presence of motor activity that occurs during survival-related behaviors. These neurons decrease their firing rate during non-REM sleep; however there is still controversy upon the activity and role of these neurons during REM sleep. Hence, in the present report we conducted a critical review of the literature of the hypocretinergic system during REM sleep, and hypothesize a possible role of this system in the generation of REM sleep.

  14. Rem uncouples excitation–contraction coupling in adult skeletal muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqollari, Donald; Romberg, Christin F.; Filipova, Dilyana; Meza, Ulises; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation–contraction (EC) coupling requires depolarization-induced conformational rearrangements in L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) to be communicated to the type 1 ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel (RYR1) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via transient protein–protein interactions. Although the molecular mechanism that underlies conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1 has been investigated intensely for more than 25 years, the question of whether such signaling occurs via a direct interaction between the principal, voltage-sensing α1S subunit of CaV1.1 and RYR1 or through an intermediary protein persists. A substantial body of evidence supports the idea that the auxiliary β1a subunit of CaV1.1 is a conduit for this intermolecular communication. However, a direct role for β1a has been difficult to test because β1a serves two other functions that are prerequisite for conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1. Specifically, β1a promotes efficient membrane expression of CaV1.1 and facilitates the tetradic ultrastructural arrangement of CaV1.1 channels within plasma membrane–SR junctions. In this paper, we demonstrate that overexpression of the RGK protein Rem, an established β subunit–interacting protein, in adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis fibers markedly reduces voltage-induced myoplasmic Ca2+ transients without greatly affecting CaV1.1 targeting, intramembrane gating charge movement, or releasable SR Ca2+ store content. In contrast, a β1a-binding–deficient Rem triple mutant (R200A/L227A/H229A) has little effect on myoplasmic Ca2+ release in response to membrane depolarization. Thus, Rem effectively uncouples the voltage sensors of CaV1.1 from RYR1-mediated SR Ca2+ release via its ability to interact with β1a. Our findings reveal Rem-expressing adult muscle as an experimental system that may prove useful in the definition of the precise role of the β1a subunit in skeletal-type EC coupling. PMID:26078055

  15. Loss of Gnas imprinting differentially affects REM/NREM sleep and cognition in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Lassi

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that imprinted genes are important in the regulation of sleep. However, the fundamental question of whether genomic imprinting has a role in sleep has remained elusive up to now. In this work we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while REM and REM-linked behaviors are inhibited. This is the first demonstration that a specific overexpression of an imprinted gene affects sleep states and related complex behavioral traits. Furthermore, in parallel to the Gnas overexpression, we have observed an overexpression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT and a significant increase in thermoregulation that may account for the REM/NREM sleep phenotypes. We conclude that there must be significant evolutionary advantages in the monoallelic expression of Gnas for REM sleep and for the consolidation of REM-dependent memories. Conversely, biallelic expression of Gnas reinforces slow wave activity in NREM sleep, and this results in a reduction of uncertainty in temporal decision-making processes.

  16. Alpha reactivity to complex sounds differs during REM sleep and wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Ruby

    Full Text Available We aimed at better understanding the brain mechanisms involved in the processing of alerting meaningful sounds during sleep, investigating alpha activity. During EEG acquisition, subjects were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm including rare complex sounds called Novels (the own first name - OWN, and an unfamiliar first name - OTHER while they were watching a silent movie in the evening or sleeping at night. During the experimental night, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. During wakefulness, the decrease in alpha power (8-12 Hz induced by Novels was significantly larger for OWN than for OTHER at parietal electrodes, between 600 and 900 ms after stimulus onset. Conversely, during REM sleep, Novels induced an increase in alpha power (from 0 to 1200 ms at all electrodes, significantly larger for OWN than for OTHER at several parietal electrodes between 700 and 1200 ms after stimulus onset. These results show that complex sounds have a different effect on the alpha power during wakefulness (decrease and during REM sleep (increase and that OWN induce a specific effect in these two states. The increased alpha power induced by Novels during REM sleep may 1 correspond to a short and transient increase in arousal; in this case, our study provides an objective measure of the greater arousing power of OWN over OTHER, 2 indicate a cortical inhibition associated with sleep protection. These results suggest that alpha modulation could participate in the selection of stimuli to be further processed during sleep.

  17. Surface-atmospheric water cycle at Gale crater through multi-year MSL/REMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A. M.; Genzer, M.; McConnochie, T. H.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Smith, M. D.; Martinez, G.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Haberle, R. M.; Polkko, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Renno, N. O.; Kemppinen, O.; Paton, M.; Richardson, M. I.; Newman, C. E.; Siili, T. T.; Mäkinen, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) has been successfully operating for almost three Martian years. That includes an unprecedented long time series of atmospheric observations by the REMS instrument performing measurements of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity (REMS-H), temperature of the air, ground temperature, UV and wind speed and direction. The REMS-H relative humidity device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. and it makes use of three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The REMS-H humidity instrument has created an unprecedented data record of more than two full Martian. REMS-H measured the relative humidity and temperature at 1.6 m height for a period of 5 minutes every hour as part of the MSL/REMS instrument package. We focus on describing the annual in situ water cycle with the REMS-H instrument data for the period of almost three Martian years. The results will be constrained through comparison with independent indirect observations and through modeling efforts. We inferred the hourly atmospheric VMR from the REMS-H observations and compared these VMR measurements with predictions of VMR from our 1D column Martian atmospheric model and regolith to investigate the local water cycle, exchange processes and the local climate in Gale Crater. The strong diurnal variation suggests there are surface-atmosphere exchange processes at Gale Crater during all seasons, which depletes moisture to the ground in the evening and nighttime and release the moisture back to the atmosphere during the daytime. On the other hand, these processes do not seem to result in significant water deposition on the ground. Hence, our modelling results presumably indicate that adsorption processes take place during the nighttime and desorption during the daytime. Other processes, e.g. convective

  18. Localization of rem2 in the central nervous system of the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anna G; Scholles, Katie R; Hollis, David M

    2016-12-01

    Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca 2+ entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary. Thus, we sought to localize the rem2 gene in the central nervous system of an adult anamniotic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In situ hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled RNA probe was used to identify the regional distribution of rem2 expression throughout the trout central nervous system, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) further supported these findings. Based on in situ hybridization, the regional distribution of rem2 occurred within each major subdivision of the brain and included large populations of rem2 expressing cells in the dorsal telencephalon of the cerebrum, the internal cellular layer of the olfactory bulb, and the optic tectum of the midbrain. In contrast, no rem2 expressing cells were resolved within the cerebellum. These results were corroborated by rtPCR, where differential rem2 expression occurred between the major subdivisions assayed with the highest levels being found in the cerebrum, while it was nearly absent in the cerebellum. These data indicate that rem2 gene expression is broadly distributed and likely influences diverse functions in the adult fish central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Narcoleptic Features in Anti–Ma2-associated Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compta, Yaroslau; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Casamitjana, Roser; Graus, Francesc

    2007-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with anti-Ma2 paraneoplastic encephalitis presented with subacute onset of severe hypersomnia, memory loss, parkinsonism, and gaze palsy. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed bilateral damage in the dorsolateral midbrain, amygdala, and paramedian thalami. Videopolysomnography disclosed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and a Multiple Sleep Latency Test showed a mean sleep latency of 7 minutes and 4 sleep-onset REM periods. The level of hypocretin-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid was low (49 pg/mL). This observation illustrates that REM sleep behavior disorder and narcoleptic features are 2 REM-sleep abnormalities that (1) may share the same autoimmune-mediated origin affecting the brainstem, limbic, and diencephalic structures and (2) may occur in the setting of the paraneoplastic anti–Ma2-associated encephalitis. Citation: Compta Y; Iranzo A; Santamaría J et al. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Narcoleptic Features in Anti–Ma2-associated Encephalitis. SLEEP 2007;30(6):767-769. PMID:17580598

  20. Cholinergic Oculomotor Nucleus Activity Is Induced by REM Sleep Deprivation Negatively Impacting on Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia Dos; Targa, Adriano D S; Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Rodrigues, Lais S; Fagotti, Juliane; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2017-09-01

    Several efforts have been made to understand the involvement of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep for cognitive processes. Consolidation or retention of recognition memories is severely disrupted by REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). In this regard, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and other brainstem nuclei, such as pontine nucleus (Pn) and oculomotor nucleus (OCM), appear to be candidates to take part in this REM sleep circuitry with potential involvement in cognition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between the performance of Wistar rats in a declarative memory and PPT, Pn, and OCM activities after different periods of REMSD. We examined c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) expressions as indicators of neuronal activity as well as a familiarity-based memory test. The animals were distributed in groups: control, REMSD, and sleep rebound (REB). At the end of the different REMSD (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) and REB (24 h) time points, the rats were immediately tested in the object recognition test and then the brains were collected. Results indicated that OCM neurons presented an increased activity, due to ChaT-labeling associated with REMSD that negatively correlated (r = -0.32) with the cognitive performance. This suggests the existence of a cholinergic compensatory mechanism within the OCM during REMSD. We also showed that 24 h of REMSD impacted similarly in memory, compared to longer periods of REMSD. These data extend the notion that REM sleep is influenced by areas other than PPT, i.e., Pn and OCM, which could be key players in both sleep processes and cognition.

  1. Analysis of the environmental conditions at Gale Crater from MSL/REMS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Torre-Juarez, M. de la; Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Kemppinen, O.; Renno, N.; Lemmon, M.

    2016-07-01

    The environmental conditions at Gale Crater during the first 1160 sols of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission are assessed using measurements taken by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on-board the MSL Curiosity rover. REMS is a suite of sensors developed to assess the environmental conditions along the rover traverse. In particular, REMS has been measuring atmospheric pressure, atmospheric and ground temperature, relative humidity, UV radiation flux and wind speed. Here we analyze processed data with the highest confidence possible of atmospheric pressure, atmospheric and ground temperature and relative humidity. In addition, we estimate the daily UV irradiation at the surface of Gale Crater using dust opacity values derived from the Mastcam instrument. REMS is still in operation, but it has already provided the most comprehensive coverage of surface environmental conditions recorded by a spacecraft landed on Mars. (Author)

  2. CAN NON-REM SLEEP BE DEPRESSOGENIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects

  3. Can non-REM sleep be depressogenic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1992-01-01

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects

  4. Ventromedial medulla inhibitory neuron inactivation induces REM sleep without atonia and REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Garcia, Sara; Brischoux, Frédéric; Clément, Olivier; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Arthaud, Sébastien; Lazarus, Michael; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2018-02-05

    Despite decades of research, there is a persistent debate regarding the localization of GABA/glycine neurons responsible for hyperpolarizing somatic motoneurons during paradoxical (or REM) sleep (PS), resulting in the loss of muscle tone during this sleep state. Combining complementary neuroanatomical approaches in rats, we first show that these inhibitory neurons are localized within the ventromedial medulla (vmM) rather than within the spinal cord. We then demonstrate their functional role in PS expression through local injections of adeno-associated virus carrying specific short-hairpin RNA in order to chronically impair inhibitory neurotransmission from vmM. After such selective genetic inactivation, rats display PS without atonia associated with abnormal and violent motor activity, concomitant with a small reduction of daily PS quantity. These symptoms closely mimic human REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), a prodromal parasomnia of synucleinopathies. Our findings demonstrate the crucial role of GABA/glycine inhibitory vmM neurons in muscle atonia during PS and highlight a candidate brain region that can be susceptible to α-synuclein-dependent degeneration in RBD patients.

  5. Pedunculopontine Nucleus Gamma Band Activity-Preconscious Awareness, Waking, and REM Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Urbano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN is a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS that regulates waking and REM sleep, states of high frequency EEG activity. Recently, we described the presence of high threshold, voltage-dependent N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in RAS nuclei that subserve gamma band oscillations in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD. Cortical gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. That is, the RAS may play an early permissive role in volition. Our latest results suggest that, 1 the manifestation of gamma band activity during waking may employ a separate intracellular pathway compared to that during REM sleep, 2 neuronal calcium sensor (NCS-1 protein, which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, modulates gamma band oscillations in the PPN in a concentration-dependent manner, 3 leptin, which undergoes resistance in obesity resulting in sleep dysregulation, decreases sodium currents in PPN neurons, accounting for its normal attenuation of waking, and 4 following our discovery of electrical coupling in the RAS, we hypothesize that there are cell clusters within the PPN that may act in concert. These results provide novel information on the mechanisms controlling high frequency activity related to waking and REM sleep by elements of the RAS.

  6. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  7. Sleep stability and transitions in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Jennum, Poul; Koch, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at high risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). As wake/sleep-regulation is thought to involve neurons located in the brainstem and hypothalamic areas, we hypothesize that the neurodegeneration in i......RBD/PD is likely to affect wake/sleep and REM/non-REM (NREM) sleep transitions. Methods: We determined the frequency of wake/sleep and REM/NREM sleep transitions and the stability of wake (W), REM and NREM sleep as measured by polysomnography (PSG) in 27 patients with PD, 23 patients with iRBD, 25 patients...... with periodic leg movement disorder (PLMD) and 23 controls. Measures were computed based on manual scorings and data-driven labeled sleep staging. Results: Patients with PD showed significantly lower REM stability than controls and patients with PLMD. Patients with iRBD had significantly lower REM stability...

  8. REM sleep behavior disorder and narcoleptic features in anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compta, Yaroslau; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Casamitjana, Roser; Graus, Francesc

    2007-06-01

    A 69-year-old man with anti-Ma2 paraneoplastic encephalitis presented with subacute onset of severe hypersomnia, memory loss, parkinsonism, and gaze palsy. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed bilateral damage in the dorsolateral midbrain, amygdala, and paramedian thalami. Videopolysomnography disclosed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and a Multiple Sleep Latency Test showed a mean sleep latency of 7 minutes and 4 sleep-onset REM periods. The level of hypocretin-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid was low (49 pg/mL). This observation illustrates that REM sleep behavior disorder and narcoleptic features are 2 REM-sleep abnormalities that (1) may share the same autoimmune-mediated origin affecting the brainstem, limbic, and diencephalic structures and (2) may occur in the setting of the paraneoplastic anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis.

  9. Effects of chronic REM sleep restriction on D1 receptor and related signal pathways in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Wen, Xiaosa; Rong, Fei; Chen, Xinmin; Ouyang, Ruying; Wu, Shuai; Nian, Hua; Ma, Wenling

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates cognitive function that is sensitive to disruption by sleep loss, and molecular mechanisms regulating neural dysfunction induced by chronic sleep restriction (CSR), particularly in the PFC, have yet to be completely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic REM sleep restriction (REM-CSR) on the D1 receptor (D1R) and key molecules in D1R' signal pathways in PFC. We employed the modified multiple platform method to create the REM-CSR rat model. The ultrastructure of PFC was observed by electron microscopy. HPLC was performed to measure the DA level in PFC. The expressions of genes and proteins of related molecules were assayed by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The general state and morphology of PFC in rats were changed by CSR, and DA level and the expression of D1R in PFC were markedly decreased (P CSR rats (P CSR induced cognitive dysfunction, and the PKA pathway of D1R may play an important role in the impairment of advanced neural function.

  10. From bench to bed: putative animal models of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzer, Martina; Lu, Jun; Mayer, Geert; Oertel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    REM behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by REM sleep without atonia, leading to abnormal and potentially injurious behavior during REM sleep. It is considered one of the most specific predictors of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. In this paper, we provide an overview of animal models contributing to our current understanding of REM-associated atonia, and, as a consequence, the pathophysiology of RBD. The generator of REM-associated atonia is located in glutamatergic neurons of the pontine sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD), as shown in cats, rats and mice. These findings are supported by clinical cases of patients with lesions of the homologous structure in humans. Glutamatergic SLD neurons, presumably in conjunction with others, project to (a) the ventromedial medulla, where they either directly target inhibitory interneurons to alpha motor neurons or are relayed, and (b) the spinal cord directly. At the spinal level, alpha motor neurons are inhibited by GABAergic and glycinergic interneurons. Our current understanding is that lesions of the glutamatergic SLD are the key factor for REM sleep behavior disorder. However, open questions remain, e.g. other features of RBD (such as the typically aggressive dream content) or the frequent progression from idiopathic RBD to neurodegenerative disorders, to name only a few. In order to elucidate these questions, a constant interaction between basic and clinical researchers is required, which might, ultimately, create an early therapeutic window for neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Sleep stability and transitions in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Jennum, Poul; Koch, Henriette; Frandsen, Rune; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Arvastson, Lars; Christensen, Søren Rahn; Sorensen, Helge Bjarrup Dissing

    2016-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at high risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). As wake/sleep-regulation is thought to involve neurons located in the brainstem and hypothalamic areas, we hypothesize that the neurodegeneration in iRBD/PD is likely to affect wake/sleep and REM/non-REM (NREM) sleep transitions. We determined the frequency of wake/sleep and REM/NREM sleep transitions and the stability of wake (W), REM and NREM sleep as measured by polysomnography (PSG) in 27 patients with PD, 23 patients with iRBD, 25 patients with periodic leg movement disorder (PLMD) and 23 controls. Measures were computed based on manual scorings and data-driven labeled sleep staging. Patients with PD showed significantly lower REM stability than controls and patients with PLMD. Patients with iRBD had significantly lower REM stability compared with controls. Patients with PD and RBD showed significantly lower NREM stability and significantly more REM/NREM transitions than controls. We conclude that W, NREM and REM stability and transitions are progressively affected in iRBD and PD, probably reflecting the successive involvement of brain stem areas from early on in the disease. Sleep stability and transitions determined by a data-driven approach could support the evaluation of iRBD and PD patients. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  13. A moderate increase of physiological CO2 in a critical range during stable NREM sleep episode: A potential gateway to REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha eMadan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is characterized as rapid eye movement (REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Studies suggest that wake-related neurons in the basal forebrain, posterior hypothalamus and brainstem and NREM sleep-related neurons in the anterior-hypothalamic area inhibit each other, thus alternating sleep-wakefulness. Similarly, pontine REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons reciprocally inhibit each other for REM sleep modulation. It has been proposed that inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC REM-OFF neurons is pre-requisite for REM sleep genesis, but it remains ambiguous how REM-OFF neurons are hyperpolarized at REM sleep onset. The frequency of breathing pattern remains high during wake, slows down during NREM sleep but further escalates during REM sleep. As a result, brain CO2 level increases during NREM sleep, which may alter REM sleep manifestation. It has been reported that hypocapnia decreases REM sleep while hypercapnia increases REM sleep periods. The groups of brainstem chemosensory neurons, including those present in LC, sense the alteration in CO2 level and respond accordingly. For example; one group of LC neurons depolarize while other hyperpolarize during hypercapnia. In another group, hypercapnia initially depolarizes but later hyperpolarizes LC neurons. Besides chemosensory functions, LC’s REM-OFF neurons are an integral part of REM sleep executive machinery. We reason that increased CO2 level during a stable NREM sleep period may hyperpolarize LC neurons including REM-OFF, which may help initiate REM sleep. We propose that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  14. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yuet Ying Lau

    Full Text Available The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40 or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40 between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression, which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits, this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.

  15. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that “sleep gain” during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511

  16. Olfactory impairment is related to REM sleep deprivation in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F. Aurich

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olfactory dysfunction affects about 85-90% of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with severe deterioration in the ability of discriminate several types of odors. In addition, studies reported declines in olfactory performances during a short period of sleep deprivation. Besides, PD is also known to strongly affect the occurrence and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Methods: Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms involved on discrimination of a social odor (dependent on the vomeronasal system and a non-social odor (related to the main olfactory pathway in the rotenone model of PD. Also, a concomitant impairment in REM sleep was inflicted with the introduction of two periods (24 or 48 h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD. Rotenone promoted a remarkable olfactory impairment in both social and non-social odors, with a notable modulation induced by 24 h of REMSD for the non-social odor. Results: Our findings demonstrated the occurrence of a strong association between the density of nigral TH-ir neurons and the olfactory discrimination capacity for both odorant stimuli. Specifically, the rotenone-induced decrease of these neurons tends to elicit reductions in the olfactory discrimination ability. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the participation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system mainly in the olfactory discrimination of a non-social odor, probably through the main olfactory pathway. Such involvement may have produce relevant impact in the preclinical abnormalities found in PD patients.

  17. The effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation on the consolidation and affective evaluation of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Christian D; Pulst, Julika; Krause, Fanny; Elsner, Marike; Baving, Lioba; Pedersen, Anya; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Emotion boosts the consolidation of events in the declarative memory system. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is believed to foster the memory consolidation of emotional events. On the other hand, REM sleep is assumed to reduce the emotional tone of the memory. Here, we investigated the effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation, SWS deprivation, or wake on the affective evaluation and consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures. Prior to an 9-h retention interval, sixty-two healthy participants (23.5 ± 2.5 years, 32 female, 30 male) learned and rated their affect to 80 neutral and 80 emotionally negative pictures. Despite rigorous deprivation of REM sleep or SWS, the residual sleep fostered the consolidation of neutral and negative pictures. Furthermore, emotional arousal helped to memorize the pictures. The better consolidation of negative pictures compared to neutral ones was most pronounced in the SWS-deprived group where a normal amount of REM sleep was present. This emotional memory bias correlated with REM sleep only in the SWS-deprived group. Furthermore, emotional arousal to the pictures decreased over time, but neither sleep nor wake had any differential effect. Neither the comparison of the affective ratings (arousal, valence) during encoding and recognition, nor the affective ratings of the recognized targets and rejected distractors supported the hypothesis that REM sleep dampens the emotional reaction to remembered stimuli. The data suggest that REM sleep fosters the consolidation of emotional memories but has no effect on the affective evaluation of the remembered contents. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Daytime REM sleep affects emotional experience but not decision choices in moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola; Lotto, Lorella; Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela

    2017-09-11

    Moral decision-making depends on the interaction between automatic emotional responses and rational cognitive control. A natural emotional regulator state seems to be sleep, in particular rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We tested the impact of daytime sleep, either with or without REM, on moral decision. Sixty participants were presented with 12 sacrificial (6 Footbridge- and 6 Trolley-type) and 8 everyday-type moral dilemmas at 9 AM and at 5 PM. In sacrificial dilemmas, participants had to decide whether or not to kill one person to save more people (utilitarian choice), and to judge how morally acceptable the proposed choice was. In everyday-type dilemmas, participants had to decide whether to endorse moral violations involving dishonest behavior. At 12 PM, 40 participants took a 120-min nap (17 with REM and 23 with NREM only) while 20 participants remained awake. Mixed-model analysis revealed that participants judged the utilitarian choice as less morally acceptable in the afternoon, irrespective of sleep. We also observed a negative association between theta activity during REM and increased self-rated unpleasantness during moral decisions. Nevertheless, moral decision did not change across the day and between groups. These results suggest that although both time and REM sleep may affect the evaluation of a moral situation, these factors did not ultimately impact the individual moral choices.

  19. Functional role of diverse changes in sympathetic nerve activity in regulating arterial pressure during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Misa; Yoshida, Ikue; Miki, Kenju

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether REM sleep evoked diverse changes in sympathetic outflows and, if so, to elucidate why REM sleep evokes diverse changes in sympathetic outflows. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with electrodes to measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram, and catheters to measure systemic arterial and central venous pressure; these parameters were measured simultaneously and continuously during the sleep-awake cycle in the same rat. REM sleep resulted in a step reduction in RNSA by 36.1% ± 2.7% (P sleep. In contrast to REM sleep, RSNA, LSNA, systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate increased in a unidirectional manner associated with increases in physical activity levels in the order from NREM sleep, quiet awake, moving, and grooming state. Thus, the relationship between RSNA vs. LSNA and systemic arterial pressure vs. heart rate observed during REM sleep was dissociated compared with that obtained during the other behavioral states. It is suggested that the diverse changes in sympathetic outflows during REM sleep may be needed to increase systemic arterial pressure by balancing vascular resistance between muscles and vegetative organs without depending on the heart.

  20. Comorbidity and medication in REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Ju, Yo-El S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This controlled study investigated associations between comorbidity and medication in patients with polysomnographically confirmed idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort. METHODS: Data of a self-administered questionnaire...

  1. Slow wave and REM sleep deprivation effects on explicit and implicit memory during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sarah J; Solomons, Luke C; Steier, Joerg; Kabra, Neeraj; Burnside, Anna; Pengo, Martino F; Moxham, John; Goldstein, Laura H; Kopelman, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    It has been debated whether different stages in the human sleep cycle preferentially mediate the consolidation of explicit and implicit memories, or whether all of the stages in succession are necessary for optimal consolidation. Here we investigated whether the selective deprivation of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over an entire night would have a specific effect on consolidation in explicit and implicit memory tasks. Participants completed a set of explicit and implicit memory tasks at night, prior to sleep. They had 1 control night of undisturbed sleep and 2 experimental nights, during which either SWS or REM sleep was selectively deprived across the entire night (sleep conditions counterbalanced across participants). Polysomnography recordings quantified precisely the amount of SWS and REM sleep that occurred during each of the sleep conditions, and spindle counts were recorded. In the morning, participants completed the experimental tasks in the same sequence as the night before. SWS deprivation disrupted the consolidation of explicit memories for visuospatial information (ηp2 = .23), and both SWS (ηp2 = .53) and REM sleep (ηp2 = .52) deprivation adversely affected explicit verbal recall. Neither SWS nor REM sleep deprivation affected aspects of short-term or working memory, and did not affect measures of verbal implicit memory. Spindle counts did not correlate significantly with memory performance. These findings demonstrate the importance of measuring the sleep cycles throughout the entire night, and the contribution of both SWS and REM sleep to memory consolidation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Marta; Adamantidis, Antoine; Facchin, Laura; Bassetti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD) before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin/hypocretin (OX) systems. This study aims to 1) assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2) test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i) SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii) IS: ischemia; (iii) SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv) Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR. A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group. Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke.

  3. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pace

    Full Text Available Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH and orexin/hypocretin (OX systems. This study aims to 1 assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2 test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke.Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii IS: ischemia; (iii SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR.A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group.Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke.

  4. Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino Preparation promotes sleep by increasing REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sisi; Nie, Bo; Yao, Guihong; Yang, Hui; Ye, Ren; Yuan, Zhengzhong

    2018-05-15

    Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino Preparation (PTP) is widely used to treat insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine; however, its specific role is not clear. In this study, PTP was prepared at three concentrations. For locomotor activity tests, mice were treated with PTP and evaluated for 14 days. For polygraph recordings, mice were treated for 14 days and recorded after treatment. The main chemical constituents in PTP were identified by Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). The results showed that 0.9 g/mL PTP significantly reduced locomotor activity. The effect was related to the time of treatment. PTP reduced wakefulness and increased sleep in mice. Furthermore, PTP promoted sleep by increasing the number of REM sleep episodes with a duration of 64-128s and increasing the number of transitions from NREM sleep to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness. A total of 17 compounds were identified.

  5. REM Behaviour Disorder Detection Associated with Neurodegerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal skeleton muscle activity during REM sleep is characterized as REM Behaviour Disorder (RBD), and may be an early marker for different neurodegenerative diseases. Early detection of RBD is therefore highly important, and in this ongoing study a semi-automatic method for RBD detection...... is proposed by analyzing the motor activity during sleep. Method: A total number of twelve patients have been involved in this study, six normal controls and six patients diagnosed with Parkinsons Disease (PD) with RBD. All subjects underwent at least one ambulant polysomnographic (PSG) recording. The sleep...... recordings were scored, according to the new sleep-scoring standard from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, by two independent sleep specialists. A follow-up analysis of the scoring consensus between the two specialists has been conducted. Based on the agreement of the two manual scorings...

  6. Rev and Rex proteins of human complex retroviruses function with the MMTV Rem-responsive element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Jaquelin P

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV encodes the Rem protein, an HIV Rev-like protein that enhances nuclear export of unspliced viral RNA in rodent cells. We have shown that Rem is expressed from a doubly spliced RNA, typical of complex retroviruses. Several recent reports indicate that MMTV can infect human cells, suggesting that MMTV might interact with human retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV, and human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K. In this report, we test whether the export/regulatory proteins of human complex retroviruses will increase expression from vectors containing the Rem-responsive element (RmRE. Results MMTV Rem, HIV Rev, and HTLV Rex proteins, but not HERV-K Rec, enhanced expression from an MMTV-based reporter plasmid in human T cells, and this activity was dependent on the RmRE. No RmRE-dependent reporter gene expression was detectable using Rev, Rex, or Rec in HC11 mouse mammary cells. Cell fractionation and RNA quantitation experiments suggested that the regulatory proteins did not affect RNA stability or nuclear export in the MMTV reporter system. Rem had no demonstrable activity on export elements from HIV, HTLV, or HERV-K. Similar to the Rem-specific activity in rodent cells, the RmRE-dependent functions of Rem, Rev, or Rex in human cells were inhibited by a dominant-negative truncated nucleoporin that acts in the Crm1 pathway of RNA and protein export. Conclusion These data argue that many retroviral regulatory proteins recognize similar complex RNA structures, which may depend on the presence of cell-type specific proteins. Retroviral protein activity on the RmRE appears to affect a post-export function of the reporter RNA. Our results provide additional evidence that MMTV is a complex retrovirus with the potential for viral interactions in human cells.

  7. Altered functional connectivity in lesional peduncular hallucinosis with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Maiya R; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D E; McGinnis, Scott M; Golby, Alexandra J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic stroke. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2000-02-07

    The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were "not nonsense" but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis - Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic Books and Imago Publishing, 1954]. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dream reports, is now known to be is important for acquisition of some tasks [A. Karni, D. Tanne, B.S. Rubenstein, J.J.M. Askenasy, D. Sagi, Dependence on REM sleep of overnight improvement of a perceptual skill, Science 265 (1994) 679-682; C. Smith, Sleep states and learning: a review of the animal literature, Biobehav. Rev. 9 (1985) 157-168]; although why this is so remains obscure. It has been proposed that memories may be consolidated during REM sleep or that forgetting of unnecessary material occurs in this state [F. Crick, G. Mitchison, The function of dream sleep, Nature 304 (1983) 111-114; D. Marr, Simple memory: a theory for archicortex, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 262 (1971) 23-81]. We studied the firing of multiple single neurons in the hippocampus, a structure that is important for episodic memory, during familiar and novel experiences and in subsequent REM sleep. Cells active in familiar places during waking exhibited a reversal of firing phase relative to local theta oscillations in REM sleep. Because firing-phase can influence whether synapses are strengthened or weakened [C. Holscher, R. Anwyl, M.J. Rowan, Stimulation on the positive phase of hippocampal theta rhythm induces long-term potentiation that can be depotentiated by stimulation on the negative phase in area CA1 in vivo, J. Neurosci. 15 (1977) 6470-6477; P.T. Huerta, J.E. Lisman, Bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced by a single burst during cholinergic theta oscillation in CA1 in vitro, Neuron 15 (1995) 1053-1063; C. Pavlides, Y

  9. Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation reduces rat frontal cortex acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarini R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation induces several behavioral changes. Among these, a decrease in yawning behavior produced by low doses of cholinergic agonists is observed which indicates a change in brain cholinergic neurotransmission after REM sleep deprivation. Acetylcholinesterase (Achase controls acetylcholine (Ach availability in the synaptic cleft. Therefore, altered Achase activity may lead to a change in Ach availability at the receptor level which, in turn, may result in modification of cholinergic neurotransmission. To determine if REM sleep deprivation would change the activity of Achase, male Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-300 g, were deprived of REM sleep for 96 h by the flower-pot technique (N = 12. Two additional groups, a home-cage control (N = 6 and a large platform control (N = 6, were also used. Achase was measured in the frontal cortex using two different methods to obtain the enzyme activity. One method consisted of the obtention of total (900 g supernatant, membrane-bound (100,000 g pellet and soluble (100,000 g supernatant Achase, and the other method consisted of the obtention of a fraction (40,000 g pellet enriched in synaptic membrane-bound enzyme. In both preparations, REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in rat frontal cortex Achase activity when compared to both home-cage and large platform controls. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease of 16% in the membrane-bound Achase activity (nmol thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 in the 100,000 g pellet enzyme preparation (home-cage group 152.1 ± 5.7, large platform group 152.7 ± 24.9 and REM sleep-deprived group 127.9 ± 13.8. There was no difference in the soluble enzyme activity. REM sleep deprivation also induced a significant decrease of 20% in the enriched synaptic membrane-bound Achase activity (home-cage group 126.4 ± 21.5, large platform group 127.8 ± 20.4, REM sleep-deprived group 102.8 ± 14.2. Our results

  10. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  11. Spatial and reversal learning in the Morris water maze are largely resistant to six hours of REM sleep deprivation following training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair both hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and learning a new target location within a familiar environment: reversal learning. A 6-d protocol was divided into the initial spatial learning phase (3.5 d) immediately followed by the reversal phase (2.5 d). During the 6 h following four or 12 training trials/day of initial or reversal learning phases, REM sleep was eliminated and non-REM sleep left intact using the multiple inverted flowerpot method. Contrary to our hypotheses, REM sleep deprivation during four or 12 trials/day of initial spatial or reversal learning did not affect training performance. However, some probe trial measures indicated REM sleep-deprivation–associated impairment in initial spatial learning with four trials/day and enhancement of subsequent reversal learning. In naive animals, REM sleep deprivation during normal initial spatial learning was followed by a lack of preference for the subsequent reversal platform location during the probe. Our findings contradict reports that REM sleep is essential for spatial learning in the Morris water maze and newly reveal that short periods of REM sleep deprivation do not impair concurrent reversal learning. Effects on subsequent reversal learning are consistent with the idea that REM sleep serves the consolidation of incompletely learned items. PMID:21677190

  12. El trastorno de conducta del sueño rem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Iranzo De Riquer, Dr.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El trastorno de conducta durante el sueño REM (TCSR se caracteriza por conductas motoras vigorosas, pesadillas y ausencia de atonía muscular durante el sueño REM. Se debe a la disfunción directa o indirecta de las estructuras del tronco cerebral que regulan el sueño REM, especialmente el núcleo subceruleus. El TCSR puede ser idiopático o asociado a enfermedades neurológicas como la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP, la demencia con cuerpos de Lewy (DCL, la atrofia multisistémica (AMS y la narcolepsia. Los pacientes con la forma idiopática, especialmente los que tienen alterados el SPECT del transportador de la dopamina, la sonografía de la sustancia negra, los test de olfato y de la visión de colores, tienen un elevado riesgo de desarrollar la E P, DCL y AMS. El TCSR no debe considerarse como un simple trastorno del sueño, sino como una manifestación de una enfermedad neurológica. El clonazepam (0.25-4 mg y la melatonina (3-12 mg a la hora de acostarse mejoran los síntomas del TCSR pero no evitan, en la forma idiopática, la conversión a una enfermedad neurodegenerativa.

  13. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation.

  14. The role of REM sleep in the processing of emotional memories: evidence from behavior and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, S; Wilhelm, I; Diekelmann, S; Born, J

    2013-01-01

    Emotional memories are vividly remembered for the long-term. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been repeatedly proposed to support the superior retention of emotional memories. However, its exact contribution and, specifically, whether its effect is mainly on the consolidation of the contents or the processing of the affective component of emotional memories is not clear. Here, we investigated the effects of sleep rich in slow wave sleep (SWS) or REM sleep on the consolidation of emotional pictures and the accompanying changes in affective tone, using event-related potentials (ERPs) together with subjective ratings of valence and arousal. Sixteen healthy, young men learned 50 negative and 50 neutral pictures before 3-h retention sleep intervals that were filled with either SWS-rich early or REM sleep-rich late nocturnal sleep. In accordance with our hypothesis, recognition was better for emotional pictures than neutral pictures after REM compared to SWS-rich sleep. This emotional enhancement after REM-rich sleep expressed itself in an increased late positive potential of the ERP over the frontal cortex 300-500 ms after stimulus onset for correctly classified old emotional pictures compared with new emotional and neutral pictures. Valence and arousal ratings of emotional pictures were not differentially affected by REM or SWS-rich sleep after learning. Our results corroborate that REM sleep contributes to the consolidation of emotional contents in memory, but suggest that the affective tone is preserved rather than reduced by the processing of emotional memories during REM sleep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The monetary value of the collective dose equivalent unit (person-rem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, Reginald C.

    1978-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power reactor facilities, it is recommended that radiation exposures to the workers and the general public be kept as 'low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). In the process of implementing this principle cost-benefit evaluations are part of the decision making process. For this reason a monetary value has to be assigned to the collective dose equivalent unit (person-rem). The various factors such as medical health care, societal penalty and manpower replacement/saving are essential ingredients to determine a monetary value for the person-rem. These factors and their dependence on the level of risk (or exposure level) are evaluated. Monetary values of well under $100 are determined for the public dose equivalent unit. The occupational worker person-rem value is determined to be in the range of $500 to about $5000 depending on the exposure level and the type of worker and his affiliation, i.e., temporary or permanent. A discussion of the variability and the range of the monetary values will be presented. (author)

  16. Observations on muscle activity in REM sleep behavior disorder assessed with a semi-automated scoring algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jesper; Otto, Marit; Frederiksen, Yoon

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is defined by dream enactment due to a failure of normal muscle atonia. Visual assessment of this muscle activity is time consuming and rater-dependent. METHODS: An EMG computer algorithm for scoring 'tonic', 'phasic' and 'any......' submental muscle activity during REM sleep was evaluated compared with human visual ratings. Subsequently, 52 subjects were analyzed with the algorithm. Duration and maximal amplitude of muscle activity, and self-awareness of RBD symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: The computer algorithm showed high congruency...... sleep without atonia. CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed algorithm was able to detect and rate REM sleep without atonia allowing identification of RBD. Increased duration and amplitude of muscle activity bouts were characteristics of RBD. Quantification of REM sleep without atonia represents a marker of RBD...

  17. Locus Coeruleus and Tuberomammillary Nuclei Ablations Attenuate Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist-Mediated REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D; Nguyen, Alexander T; Warrier, Deepti R; Palmerston, Jeremiah B; Thomas, Alexia M; Morairty, Stephen R; Neylan, Thomas C; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Hypocretin 1 and 2 (Hcrts; also known as orexin A and B), excitatory neuropeptides synthesized in cells located in the tuberal hypothalamus, play a central role in the control of arousal. Hcrt inputs to the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC NE) system and the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN HA) are important efferent pathways for Hcrt-induced wakefulness. The LC expresses Hcrt receptor 1 (HcrtR1), whereas HcrtR2 is found in the TMN. Although the dual Hcrt/orexin receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases wakefulness and increases NREM and REM sleep time, the neural circuitry that mediates these effects is currently unknown. To test the hypothesis that ALM induces sleep by selectively disfacilitating subcortical wake-promoting populations, we ablated LC NE neurons (LCx) or TMN HA neurons (TMNx) in rats using cell-type-specific saporin conjugates and evaluated sleep/wake following treatment with ALM and the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (ZOL). Both LCx and TMNx attenuated the promotion of REM sleep by ALM without affecting ALM-mediated increases in NREM sleep. Thus, eliminating either HcrtR1 signaling in the LC or HcrtR2 signaling in the TMN yields similar effects on ALM-induced REM sleep without affecting NREM sleep time. In contrast, neither lesion altered ZOL efficacy on any measure of sleep-wake regulation. These results contrast with those of a previous study in which ablation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuated ALM-induced increases in NREM sleep time without affecting REM sleep, indicating that Hcrt neurotransmission influences distinct aspects of NREM and REM sleep at different locations in the sleep-wake regulatory network.

  18. From the skyscraper to the ground-scraper. Rem Koolhaas’s Japanese Kasbah

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Arce, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Rem Koolhaas, as a contemporary architect, draws from the proposals which were devel-oped by the architects who reacted to the ideas formulated on the International Congresses of Modern Architecture, like the Team 10 members. Woods, along with Candilis and Josic, worked out a new type of building that he called ground-scrapper, although it is better known by the name given by Alison Smithson: the mat-building. Rem Koolhaas, in the Nexus World building in Fukuoka, propose, as he says in S,M,L,...

  19. Calculations of dosimetric parameter and REM meter response for BE(d, n) source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao

    1988-01-01

    Based on the recent data about neutron spectra, the average energy, effictive energy and conversion coefficient of fluence to dose equivalent are calculated for some Be (α, n) neutron sources which have differene types and structures. The responses of 2202D and 0075 REM meter for thses spectral neutrons are also estimated. The results indicate that the relationship between average energy and conversion coefficient or REM meter responses can be described by simple functions

  20. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Updated Review of the Core Features, the RBD-Neurodegenerative Disease Association, Evolving Concepts, Controversies, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve, Bradley F.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia manifested by vivid, often frightening dreams associated with simple or complex motor behavior during REM sleep. Patients appear to “act out their dreams,” in which the exhibited behaviors mirror the content of the dreams, and the dream content often involves a chasing or attacking theme. The polysomnographic features of RBD include increased electromyographic tone +/- dream enactment behavior during REM sleep. Management with counseling and pharmacologic measures is usually straight-forward and effective. In this review, the terminology, clinical and polysomnographic features, demographic and epidemiologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and management strategies are discussed. Recent data on the suspected pathophysiologic mechanisms of RBD are also reviewed. The literature and our institutional experience on RBD are next discussed, with an emphasis on the RBD-neurodegenerative disease association and particularly the RBD-synucleinopathy association. Several issues relating to evolving concepts, controversies, and future directions are then reviewed, with an emphasis on idiopathic RBD representing an early feature of a neurodegenerative disease and particularly an evolving synucleinopathy. Planning for future therapies that impact patients with idiopathic RBD is reviewed in detail. PMID:20146689

  1. Increased Ventricular Premature Contraction Frequency During REM Sleep in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Watanabe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are reported to have a peak of sudden cardiac death at night, in contrast to patients without apnea whose peak is in the morning. We hypothesized that ventricular premature contraction (VPC frequency would correlate with measures of apnea and sympathetic activity.Methods Electrocardiograms from a sleep study of 125 patients with coronary artery disease were evaluated. Patients were categorized by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI into Moderate (AHI 15 apnea groups. Sleep stages studied were Wake, S1, S2, S34, and rapid eye movement (REM. Parameters of a potent autonomically-based risk predictor for sudden cardiac death called heart rate turbulence were calculated.Results There were 74 Moderate and 51 Severe obstructive sleep apnea patients. VPC frequency was affected significantly by sleep stage (Wake, S2 and REM, F=5.8, p<.005 and by AHI (F=8.7, p<.005. In Severe apnea patients, VPC frequency was higher in REM than in Wake (p=.011. In contrast, patients with Moderate apnea had fewer VPCs and exhibited no sleep stage dependence (p=.19. Oxygen desaturation duration per apnea episode correlated positively with AHI (r2=.71, p<.0001, and was longer in REM than in non-REM (p<.0001. The heart rate turbulence parameter TS correlated negatively with oxygen desaturation duration in REM (r2=.06, p=.014.Conclusions Higher VPC frequency coupled with higher sympathetic activity caused by longer apnea episodes in REM sleep may be one reason for increased nocturnal death in apneic patients.

  2. Changes in EEG power density of non-REM sleep in depressed patients during treatment with trazodone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Alex L. van; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1995-01-01

    Recently, it was hypothesized that acute or cumulative suppression of non-REM sleep intensity might be related to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants. This intensity has been proposed to be expressed in the EEG power density in non-REM sleep. In the present study, the relationship was

  3. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  4. Relabeling exchange method (REM) for learning in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Mammone, Richard J.

    1994-02-01

    The supervised training of neural networks require the use of output labels which are usually arbitrarily assigned. In this paper it is shown that there is a significant difference in the rms error of learning when `optimal' label assignment schemes are used. We have investigated two efficient random search algorithms to solve the relabeling problem: the simulated annealing and the genetic algorithm. However, we found them to be computationally expensive. Therefore we shall introduce a new heuristic algorithm called the Relabeling Exchange Method (REM) which is computationally more attractive and produces optimal performance. REM has been used to organize the optimal structure for multi-layered perceptrons and neural tree networks. The method is a general one and can be implemented as a modification to standard training algorithms. The motivation of the new relabeling strategy is based on the present interpretation of dyslexia as an encoding problem.

  5. Hallucinations and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease: dream imagery intrusions and other hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Repetto, Alessandra; Zangaglia, Roberta; Pacchetti, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep-related parasomnia which may be considered a "dissociated state of wakefulness and sleep", given that conflicting elements of REM sleep (dreaming) and of wakefulness (sustained muscle tone and movements) coexist during the episodes, leading to motor and behavioural manifestations reminiscent of an enacted dream. RBD has been reported in association with α-synucleinopathies: around a third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have full-blown RBD. Recent data indicate that PD patients with RBD are more prone to hallucinations than PD patients without this parasomnia. However it is still not clear why RBD in PD is associated with an increased prevalence of VHs. Data exist which suggest that visual hallucinations in PD may be the result of untimely intrusions of REM visual imagery into wakefulness. RBD, which is characterised by a REM sleep dissociation pattern, might be a condition that particularly favours such intrusions. However, other hypotheses may be advanced. In fact, deficits in attentional, executive, visuoperceptual and visuospatial abilities have been documented in RBD and found to occur far more frequently in PD with RBD than in PD without RBD. Neuropsychological deficits involving visual perception and attentional processes are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of VHs. On this basis, RBD in PD could be viewed as a contributory risk factor for VHs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  7. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson′s disease: A case from India confirmed with polysomnographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder is a condition characterized by dream enactment. This condition may accompany neurodegenerative disorders. However, only a few reports from India are available, that too, without any polysomnographic evidence. We are reporting a case of REM sleep behavior disorder with polysomnographic evidence.

  9. Why does serotonergic activity drastically decrease during REM sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kohji

    2013-10-01

    Here, I postulate two hypotheses that can explain the missing link between sleep and the serotonergic system in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. As dendritic spines contain many kinds of serotonin receptors, and the activation of serotonin receptors generally increases the number of spines in the cortex and hippocampus, I postulate that serotonin neurons are down-regulated during sleep to decrease spine number, which consequently maintains the total spine number at a constant level. Furthermore, since synaptic consolidation during REM sleep needs long-term potentiation (LTP), and serotonin is reported to inhibit LTP in the cortex, I postulate that serotonergic activity must drastically decrease during REM sleep to induce LTP and do memory consolidation. Until now, why serotonergic neurons show these dramatic changes in the sleep-wake cycle remains unexplained; however, making these hypotheses, I can confer physiological meanings on these dramatic changes of serotonergic neurons in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Using the relational event model (REM) to investigate the temporal dynamics of animal social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranmer, Mark; Marcum, Christopher Steven; Morton, F Blake; Croft, Darren P; de Kort, Selvino R

    2015-03-01

    Social dynamics are of fundamental importance in animal societies. Studies on nonhuman animal social systems often aggregate social interaction event data into a single network within a particular time frame. Analysis of the resulting network can provide a useful insight into the overall extent of interaction. However, through aggregation, information is lost about the order in which interactions occurred, and hence the sequences of actions over time. Many research hypotheses relate directly to the sequence of actions, such as the recency or rate of action, rather than to their overall volume or presence. Here, we demonstrate how the temporal structure of social interaction sequences can be quantified from disaggregated event data using the relational event model (REM). We first outline the REM, explaining why it is different from other models for longitudinal data, and how it can be used to model sequences of events unfolding in a network. We then discuss a case study on the European jackdaw, Corvus monedula , in which temporal patterns of persistence and reciprocity of action are of interest, and present and discuss the results of a REM analysis of these data. One of the strengths of a REM analysis is its ability to take into account different ways in which data are collected. Having explained how to take into account the way in which the data were collected for the jackdaw study, we briefly discuss the application of the model to other studies. We provide details of how the models may be fitted in the R statistical software environment and outline some recent extensions to the REM framework.

  11. A remorin gene SiREM6, the target gene of SiARDP, from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) promotes high salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Liu, Yuwei; Yu, Jingjuan

    2014-01-01

    Remorin proteins (REMs) form a plant-specific protein family, with some REMs being responsive to abiotic stress. However, the precise functions of REMs in abiotic stress tolerance are not clear. In this study, we identified 11 remorin genes from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and cloned a remorin gene, SiREM6, for further investigation. The transcript level of SiREM6 was increased by high salt stress, low temperature stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, but not by drought stress. The potential oligomerization of SiREM6 was examined by negative staining electron microscopy. The overexpression of SiREM6 improved high salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis at the germination and seedling stages as revealed by germination rate, survival rate, relative electrolyte leakage and proline content. The SiREM6 promoter contains two dehydration responsive elements (DRE) and one ABA responsive element (ABRE). An ABA responsive DRE-binding transcription factor, SiARDP, and an ABRE-binding transcription factor, SiAREB1, were cloned from foxtail millet. SiARDP could physically bind to the DREs, but SiAREB1 could not. These results revealed that SiREM6 is a target gene of SiARDP and plays a critical role in high salt stress tolerance.

  12. A remorin gene SiREM6, the target gene of SiARDP, from foxtail millet (Setaria italica promotes high salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yue

    Full Text Available Remorin proteins (REMs form a plant-specific protein family, with some REMs being responsive to abiotic stress. However, the precise functions of REMs in abiotic stress tolerance are not clear. In this study, we identified 11 remorin genes from foxtail millet (Setaria italica and cloned a remorin gene, SiREM6, for further investigation. The transcript level of SiREM6 was increased by high salt stress, low temperature stress and abscisic acid (ABA treatment, but not by drought stress. The potential oligomerization of SiREM6 was examined by negative staining electron microscopy. The overexpression of SiREM6 improved high salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis at the germination and seedling stages as revealed by germination rate, survival rate, relative electrolyte leakage and proline content. The SiREM6 promoter contains two dehydration responsive elements (DRE and one ABA responsive element (ABRE. An ABA responsive DRE-binding transcription factor, SiARDP, and an ABRE-binding transcription factor, SiAREB1, were cloned from foxtail millet. SiARDP could physically bind to the DREs, but SiAREB1 could not. These results revealed that SiREM6 is a target gene of SiARDP and plays a critical role in high salt stress tolerance.

  13. A new view of “dream enactment” in REM sleep behavior disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S.; Plumeau, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a disorder in which patients exhibit increased muscle tone and exaggerated myoclonic twitching during REM sleep. In addition, violent movements of the limbs, and complex behaviors that can sometimes appear to involve the enactment of dreams, are associated with RBD. These behaviors are widely thought to result from a dysfunction involving atonia-producing neural circuitry in the brainstem, thereby unmasking cortically generated dreams. Here we scrutinize the assumptions that led to this interpretation of RBD. In particular, we challenge the assumption that motor cortex produces twitches during REM sleep, thus calling into question the related assumption that motor cortex is primarily responsible for all of the pathological movements of RBD. Moreover, motor cortex is not even necessary to produce complex behavior; for example, stimulation of some brainstem structures can produce defensive and aggressive behaviors in rats and monkeys that are striking similar to those reported in human patients with RBD. Accordingly, we suggest an interpretation of RBD that focuses increased attention on the brainstem as a source of the pathological movements and that considers sensory feedback from moving limbs as an important influence on the content of dream mentation. PMID:26802823

  14. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria E Hoffman

    Full Text Available A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC, would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness.

  15. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  16. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Prodromal Neurodegeneration - Where are We Headed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Postuma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by loss of normal atonia during REM sleep, such that patients appear to act out their dreams. The most important implication of research into this area is that patients with idiopathic RBD are at very high risk of developing synucleinmediated neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson's disease [PD], dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB], and multiple system atrophy, with risk estimates that approximate 40–65% at 10 years. Thus, RBD disorder is a very strong feature of prodromal synucleinopathy. This provides several opportunities for future research. First, patients with REM sleep behavior disorder can be studied to test other predictors of disease, which could potentially be applied to the general population. These studies have demonstrated that olfactory loss, decreased color vision, slowing on quantitative motor testing, and abnormal substantia nigra neuroimaging findings can predict clinical synucleinopathy. Second, prospectively studying patients with RBD allows a completely unprecedented opportunity to directly evaluate patients as they transition into clinical neurodegenerative disease. Studies assessing progression of markers of neurodegeneration in prodromal PD are beginning to appear. Third, RBD are very promising subjects for neuroprotective therapy trials because they have a high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, which provides an opportunity for early intervention. As RBD research expands, collaboration between centers will become increasingly essential.

  17. REM optical/NIR observations of MAXI J1659-152

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Avanzo, P.; Goldoni, P.; Patruno, A.; Casella, P.; Campana, S.; Russell, D.M.; Belloni, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    We observed the optical and NIR counterpart of the recently discovered X-ray transient MAXI J1659-152 (Negoro et al. 2010, ATel #2873; Mangano et al. 2010, GCN #11296) with the REM telescope located in La Silla (Chile) in imaging mode using the V, R, I, J, H and K filters.

  18. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-29

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  19. REM sleep enhancement and behavioral cataplexy following orexin (hypocretin)-II receptor antisense perfusion in the pontine reticular formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, M M; Ramesh, V; Cape, E G; Winston, S; Strecker, R E; McCarley, R W

    1999-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin)-containing neurons of the hypothalamus project to brainstem sites that are involved in the neural control of REM sleep, including the locus coeruleus, the dorsal raphe nucleus, the cholinergic zone of the mesopontine tegmentum, and the pontine reticular formation (PRF). Orexin knockout mice exhibit narcolepsy/cataplexy, and a mutant and defective gene for the orexin type II receptor is present in dogs with an inherited form of narcolepsy/cataplexy. However, the physiological systems mediating these effects have not been described. We reasoned that, since the effector neurons for the majority of REM sleep signs, including muscle atonia, were located in the PRF, this region was likely implicated in the production of these orexin-related abnormalities. To test this possibility, we used microdialysis perfusion of orexin type II receptor antisense in the PRF of rats. Ten to 24 hours after antisense perfusion, REM sleep increased two- to three-fold during both the light period (quiescent phase) and the dark period (active phase), and infrared video showed episodes of behavioral cataplexy. Moreover, preliminary data indicated no REM-related effects following perfusion with nonsense DNA, or when perfusion sites were outside the PRF. More work is needed to provide precise localization of the most effective site of orexin-induced inhibition of REM sleep phenomena.

  20. Hypocretin-2 saporin lesions of the ventrolateral periaquaductal gray (vlPAG increase REM sleep in hypocretin knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satvinder Kaur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the sleep disorder narcolepsy was linked to the neuropeptide hypocretin (HCRT, also known as orexin. This disorder is characterized by excessive day time sleepiness, inappropriate triggering of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep and cataplexy, which is a sudden loss of muscle tone during waking. It is still not known how HCRT regulates REM sleep or muscle tone since HCRT neurons are localized only in the lateral hypothalamus while REM sleep and muscle atonia are generated from the brainstem. To identify a potential neuronal circuit, the neurotoxin hypocretin-2-saporin (HCRT2-SAP was used to lesion neurons in the ventral lateral periaquaductal gray (vlPAG. The first experiment utilized hypocretin knock-out (HCRT-ko mice with the expectation that deletion of both HCRT and its target neurons would exacerbate narcoleptic symptoms. Indeed, HCRT-ko mice (n = 8 given the neurotoxin HCRT2-SAP (16.5 ng/23nl/sec each side in the vlPAG had levels of REM sleep and sleep fragmentation that were considerably higher compared to HCRT-ko given saline (+39%; n = 7 or wildtype mice (+177%; n = 9. However, cataplexy attacks did not increase, nor were levels of wake or non-REM sleep changed. Experiment 2 determined the effects in mice where HCRT was present but the downstream target neurons in the vlPAG were deleted by the neurotoxin. This experiment utilized an FVB-transgenic strain of mice where eGFP identifies GABA neurons. We verified this and also determined that eGFP neurons were immunopositive for the HCRT-2 receptor. vlPAG lesions in these mice increased REM sleep (+79% versus saline controls and it was significantly correlated (r = 0.89 with loss of eGFP neurons. These results identify the vlPAG as one site that loses its inhibitory control over REM sleep, but does not cause cataplexy, as a result of hypocretin deficiency.

  1. Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation Process™BIO-REM, Inc. - Demonstration Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation Process™ developed by BIO-REM, Inc., uses microaerophilic bacteria and micronutrients (H-10) and surface tension depressants/penetrants for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater. The bacteria utilize hydroc...

  2. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...

  3. Non-REM sleep EEG power distribution in fatigue and sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Daniel; Mairesse, Olivier; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul; Le Bon, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the sleep-related differentiation between daytime fatigue and sleepiness. 135 subjects presenting with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS, n=58) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, n=52) with respective sleepiness or fatigue complaints and a control group (n=25) underwent polysomnography and psychometric assessments for fatigue, sleepiness, affective symptoms and perceived sleep quality. Sleep EEG spectral analysis for ultra slow, delta, theta, alpha, sigma and beta power bands was performed on frontal, central and occipital derivations. Patient groups presented with impaired subjective sleep quality and higher affective symptom intensity. CFS patients presented with highest fatigue and SAHS patients with highest sleepiness levels. All groups showed similar total sleep time. Subject groups mainly differed in sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, duration of light sleep (N1, N2) and slow wave sleep, as well as in sleep fragmentation and respiratory disturbance. Relative non-REM sleep power spectra distributions suggest a pattern of power exchange in higher frequency bands at the expense of central ultra slow power in CFS patients during all non-REM stages. In SAHS patients, however, we found an opposite pattern at occipital sites during N1 and N2. Slow wave activity presents as a crossroad of fatigue and sleepiness with, however, different spectral power band distributions during non-REM sleep. The homeostatic function of sleep might be compromised in CFS patients and could explain why, in contrast to sleepiness, fatigue does not resolve with sleep in these patients. The present findings thus contribute to the differentiation of both phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Médhi Gilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24 listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  5. Is a purpose of REM sleep atonia to help regenerate intervertebral disc volumetric loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryer Jerome CJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The nature of atonia in sleep continues to be enigmatic. This article discusses a new hypothesis for complete core muscle relaxation in REM sleep, suggesting a bottom-up recuperative perspective. That is, does the atonia in REM sleep provide a utility to help restore the mechanobiology and respective diurnal intervertebral disc hydraulic loss? By combining the effects of gravity with current compressive concepts in spinal stability, this article looks at vertebral approximation as a deleterious experience with an intrinsic biological need to keep vertebrae separated. Methods using polysomnography and recumbent MRI are discussed.

  6. REM Desensitization as a New Therapeutic Method for Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate potential efficacy of a new therapeutic approach in posttraumatic stress disorder in comparison with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR, a standard treatment approach and controls. Methods: the study was designed using a randomized controlled trial methodology. Participants were recruited from military servicemen aged between 25 to 50 years who were admitting hospitals of Bushehr, Iran, with the final diagnosis of PTSD. Finally 33 male patients were devided into three subgroups: G1: EMDR; G2: REM Desensitization; and group 3: controls who received no therapy. Mississippi Scale for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a 37 item death anxiety questionnaire were used for measures. Results: multiple comparisons showed that intrusive thoughts were significantly more likely to improve with REM Desensitization versus EMDR (P=0.03, while depression was more responsive to EMDR (p=0.03. Among the Pittsburgh scale for the quality of sleep items, sleep quality (p=0.02, sleep duration (p=0.001, and total sleep quality score (p=0.002 were significantly more likely to improve in the REM Desensitization group. Change in the absolute death anxiety scores was not different between subgroups excepting EMDR versus control group (p=0.05. Conclusion: REM, desensitization, the new therapeutic approach to PTSD is a highly effective strategy, even more than EMDR, the standard treatment, in most of the evaluated subjects, with special emphasis on sleep symptoms, and also in the management of intrusive thoughts. Depression is the only factor in which, REM Desensitization was significantly less likely to represent a superior therapeutic effect than EMDR. Key words: post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, new treatment.

  7. Schiphol - üks saar muudab Hollandi / Rem Koolhaas ; tõlk. Inga Raukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koolhaas, Rem, 1944-

    2000-01-01

    Schipholi lennuvälja ümberpaigutamine kunstlikule saarele meres. Hollandi arhitektuuribüroo OMA arhitektuurse projekti kirjeldus. Projekteerijad Rem Koolhaas, Reinier de Graaf, Jens Hommert, Mateo Poli, Adam Kurdahl, Anna Little, Bert Karel Deuten. 23 ill

  8. A relationship between REM sleep measures and the duration of posttraumatic stress disorder in a young adult urban minority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas A; Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Wilson, Bryonna; Hall Brown, Tyish S

    2014-08-01

    To determine relationships of polysomnographic (PSG) measures with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a young adult, urban African American population. Cross-sectional, clinical and laboratory evaluation. Community recruitment, evaluation in the clinical research unit of an urban University hospital. Participants (n = 145) were Black, 59.3% female, with a mean age of 23.1 y (SD = 4.8). One hundred twenty-one participants (83.4%) met criteria for trauma exposure, the most common being nonsexual violence. Thirty-nine participants (26.9%) met full (n = 19) or subthreshold criteria (n = 20) for current PTSD, 41 (28.3%) had met lifetime PTSD criteria and were recovered, and 65 (45%) were negative for PTSD. Evaluations included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and 2 consecutive nights of overnight PSG. Analysis of variance did not reveal differences in measures of sleep duration and maintenance, percentage of sleep stages, and the latency to and duration of uninterrupted segments of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by study group. There were significant relationships between the duration of PTSD and REM sleep percentage (r = 0.53, P = 0.001), REM segment length (r = 0.43, P = 0.006), and REM sleep latency (r = -0.34, P sleep with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relatively proximate to trauma exposure and nondisrupted or increased REM sleep with chronic PTSD. Mellman TA, Kobayashi I, Lavela J, Wilson B, Hall Brown TS. A relationship between REM sleep measures and the duration of posttraumatic stress disorder in a young adult urban minority population.

  9. The Association between Related Party Transactions and Real Earnings Management: Internal Governance Mechanism as Moderating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khober Limanto Genius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the association between related party transactions (RPT and real earnings management (REM. We also investigate the role of internal governance mechanism through the effectiveness of board of commissioner and audit committee in mitigating the association between RPT and REM. Our research sample consists of 386 firm-years of manufacturing firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX from year 2010 - 2014. Using linear regression, we find evidence that RPT has positive association with REM, only when the firm has higher RPT but not in the lower RPT. We find a contradictory result that board of commissioners strengthen the positive association between RPT and REM. Finally, we find evidence that the effectiveness of audit committees weaken the positive association between RPT and REM, both in full sample and in high RPT sample.

  10. A differentiating empirical linguistic analysis of dreamer activity in reports of EEG-controlled REM-dreams and hypnagogic hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Frenzel, Clemens; Voss, Ursula

    2013-09-01

    We present Activity Analysis as a new method for the quantification of subjective reports of altered states of consciousness with regard to the indicated level of simulated motor activity. Empirical linguistic activity analysis was conducted with dream reports conceived immediately after EEG-controlled periods of hypnagogic hallucinations and REM-sleep in the sleep laboratory. Reports of REM-dreams exhibited a significantly higher level of simulated physical dreamer activity, while hypnagogic hallucinations appear to be experienced mostly from the point of passive observer. This study lays the groundwork for clinical research on the level of simulated activity in pathologically altered states of subjective experience, for example in the REM-dreams of clinically depressed patients, or in intrusions and dreams of patients diagnosed with PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Personal dose assessment using region of interest analysis compared with harshaw TLD WinREMS software evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjei, D.

    2010-06-01

    Personal dose equivalents, Hp(10), have been evaluated manually using Region of Interest (ROI) analysis and compared with the automated computerized WinREMS software for the occupationally exposed in medical, industrial and research/teaching applications for 2008 and 2009. The mean annual effective dose estimated by the WinREMS software for medical, industrial and research/teaching applications for the study period are 0.459 mSv, 0.549mSv and 0.447 mSv, respectively compared with ROI analysis are 0.424 mSv, 0.520 mSv and 0.407 mSv respectively. The mean annual collective doses evaluated by the WinREMS software for medical, industrial and research/teaching applications for the two-year study period are 0.258 man-Sv, 0.084 man-Sv and 0.032 man-Sv respectively, compared with the ROI analysis with values: 0.238 man-Sv, 0.080 man-Sv and 0.029 man-Sv respectively. The individual doses for the occupationally exposed in Ghana fall within the typical range of individual doses in the UNSCEAR 2008 report. In calibration mode, the WinREMS method overestimated the personal dose equivalent by 51.3% for doses below 1 mSv and 12.0% above 1 mSv. The corresponding values for the Region of Interest analysis method are 13.2% and 6.5%. The results from the study indicate that the ROI analysis provides a better alternative to estimating the personal doses (au).

  12. Methodology and results of the impacts of modeling electric utilities: a comparative evaluation of MEMM and REM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This study compares two models of the US electric utility industry including the EIA's electric utility submodel in the Midterm Energy Market Model (MEMM), and the Baughman-Joskow Regionalized Electricity Model (REM). The method of comparison emphasizes reconciliation of differences in data common to both models, and the performance of simulation experiments to evaluate the empirical significance of certain structural differences in the models. The major research goal was to contrast and compare the effects of alternative modeling structures and data assumptions on model results; and, particularly to considered each model's approach to the impacts of generation technology and fuel use choices on electric utilities. The methodology used was to run the REM model first without and, then, with a representation of the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Act of 1978, assuming medium supply and demand curves and varying fuel prices. The models and data structures of the two models are described. The original 1978 data used in MEMM and REM are analyzed and compared. The computations and effects of different assumptions on fuel use decisions are discussed. The adjusted REM data required for the experiments are presented. Simulation results of the two models are compared. These results represent projections for 1985, 1990, and 1995 of: US power generation by plant type; amounts of each type of fuel used for power generation; average electricity prices; and the effects of additional or fewer nuclear and coal-fired plants. A significant result is that the REM model exhibits about 7 times as much gas and oil consumption in 1995 as the MEMM model. Continuing simulation experiments on MEMM are recommended to determine whether the input data to MEMM are reasonable and properly adjusted

  13. Psychoanalytic dream theory and recent neurobiological findings about REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, M D

    1984-01-01

    I have reviewed Hobson and McCarley's activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming which attempts to show that the instigation and certain formal aspects of dreaming are physiologically determined by a brainstem neuronal mechanism, their reasons for suggesting major revisions in psychoanalytic dream theory, and neurophysiological data that are inconsistent with their hypothesis. I then discussed the concept of mind-body isomorphism pointing out that they use this concept inconsistently, that despite their denials they regularly view physiology as primary and psychological processes as secondary, and that they frequently make the error of mixing the languages of physiology and psychology in their explanatory statements. Finally, in order to evaluate Hobson and McCarley's claim that their findings require revision of psychoanalytic dream theory, I examined their discussions of chase dreams, flying dreams, sexual dreams, the formal characteristics of dreams, the forgetting of dreams, and the instigation of dreams. I concluded that although their fascinating physiological findings may be central to understanding the neurobiology of REM sleep, they do not alter the meaning and interpretation of dreams gleaned through psychoanalytic study.

  14. The lateral paragigantocellular nucleus modulates parasympathetic cardiac neurons: a mechanism for rapid eye movement sleep-dependent changes in heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Wang, Xin; Lovett-Barr, Mary R; Jameson, Heather; Mendelowitz, David

    2010-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is generally associated with a withdrawal of parasympathetic activity and heart rate increases; however, episodic vagally mediated heart rate decelerations also occur during REM sleep. This alternating pattern of autonomic activation provides a physiological basis for REM sleep-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Medullary neurons within the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi) are thought to be active after REM sleep recovery and play a role in REM sleep control. In proximity to the LPGi are parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) within the nucleus ambiguus (NA), which are critical for controlling heart rate. This study examined brain stem pathways that may mediate REM sleep-related reductions in parasympathetic cardiac activity. Electrical stimulation of the LPGi evoked inhibitory GABAergic postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro brain stem slice preparation in rats. Because brain stem cholinergic mechanisms are involved in REM sleep regulation, we also studied the role of nicotinic neurotransmission in modulation of GABAergic pathway from the LGPi to CVNs. Application of nicotine diminished the GABAergic responses evoked by electrical stimulation. This inhibitory effect of nicotine was prevented by the alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, hypoxia/hypercapnia (H/H) diminished LPGi-evoked GABAergic current in CVNs, and this inhibitory effect was also prevented by alpha-bungarotoxin. In conclusion, stimulation of the LPGi evokes an inhibitory pathway to CVNs, which may constitute a mechanism for the reduced parasympathetic cardiac activity and increase in heart rate during REM sleep. Inhibition of this pathway by nicotinic receptor activation and H/H may play a role in REM sleep-related and apnea-associated bradyarrhythmias.

  15. Privação de sono REM em um modelo experimental da doença de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. F. Andrade

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigação prévia mostrou que ratos privados de sono (REM SD mostram acentuação de resposta a agonistas dopaminérgicos. As evidências indicam que essa ação parece ser mediada por supersensibilização de receptores dopaminérgicos pós-sinápticos. Com base nisso, foi feita REM SD em ratos com modelo experimental da doença de Parkinson, nos quais foi feita lesão eletrolítica bilateral de ambas as vias nigro-estriatais. Sete dias após a cirurgia os animais eram submetidos a REM SD por 72 horas. Imediatamente após o final deste período era feita observação em campo aberto para a ambulação, "rearing", "grooming" e latência. Em comparação com ratos não-privados foi observado aumento significativo na ambulação e "rearing", resposta que reapareceu após um segundo período de REM SD, realizado 21 dias após a cirurgia. Estes dados, de melhora de dois parâmetros de modelo experimental da doença de Parkinson, sugerem que a privação de sono pode ser útil nesta doença.

  16. Complex sound processing during human REM sleep by recovering information from long-term memory as revealed by the mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, M; Cantero, J L

    2001-05-18

    Perceptual learning is thought to be the result of neural changes that take place over a period of several hours or days, allowing information to be transferred to long-term memory. Evidence suggests that contents of long-term memory may improve attentive and pre-attentive sensory processing. Therefore, it is plausible to hypothesize that learning-induced neural changes that develop during wakefulness could improve automatic information processing during human REM sleep. The MMN, an objective measure of the automatic change detection in auditory cortex, was used to evaluate long-term learning effects on pre-attentive processing during wakefulness and REM sleep. When subjects learned to discriminate two complex auditory patterns in wakefulness, an increase in the MMN was obtained in both wake and REM states. The automatic detection of the infrequent complex auditory pattern may therefore be improved in both brain states by reactivating information from long-term memory. These findings suggest that long-term learning-related neural changes are accessible during REM sleep as well.

  17. Disappearance of "phantom limb" and amputated arm usage during dreaming in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Roberto; Arnulf, Isabelle; Montagna, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Limb amputation is followed, in approximately 90% of patients, by "phantom limb" sensations during wakefulness. When amputated patients dream, however, the phantom limb may be present all the time, part of the time, intermittently or not at all. Such dreaming experiences in amputees have usually been obtained only retrospectively in the morning and, moreover, dreaming is normally associated with muscular atonia so the motor counterpart of the phantom limb experience cannot be observed directly. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), in which muscle atonia is absent during REM sleep and patients act out their dreams, allows a more direct analysis of the "phantom limb" phenomena and their modifications during sleep.

  18. Sleep board review questions: sleep disordered breathing that improves in REM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at end of question. Which of the following breathing disorders is usually less severe in rapid eye movement (REM sleep compared to non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep?1.Sleep-related hypoxemia in COPD2.Obstructive Sleep Apnea3.Cheyne Stokes Breathing4.Hypoxemia in Pulmonary Hypertension

  19. Effects of Rare Earth Metals addition and aging treatment on the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of super duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Song, Chi-Bok

    2002-05-01

    Effects of rare earth metals addition and aging treatment on corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of super duplex stainless steels were investigated using optical/SEM/TEM metallographic examination, an X-ray diffraction test, a potentiodynamic anodic polarization test and a tensile test. The performance of the experimental alloy with 0.32% REM addition was compared with commercial super duplex stainless steel such as SAF 2507 when they were exposed to solution annealing heat treatment and aging treatment. The corrosion resistance in Cl- environments and mechanical properties of the experimental alloy were found superior to those of the commercial duplex stainless steel. The REM with larger atomic radii than those of Cr, Mo and W may fill vacancies inside the matrix and around the grain boundaries, retarding formation of harmful intermetallic σ and η phases. In addition, fine REM oxides/oxy-sulfides (1-3 μm) seemed to enhance the retardation effects. With REM additions, strength and ductility increased due to the phase and grain refinement caused by fine REM oxides and oxy-sulfides.

  20. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly ca...

  1. REM-3D Reference Datasets: Reconciling large and diverse compilations of travel-time observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    A three-dimensional Reference Earth model (REM-3D) should ideally represent the consensus view of long-wavelength heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle through the joint modeling of large and diverse seismological datasets. This requires reconciliation of datasets obtained using various methodologies and identification of consistent features. The goal of REM-3D datasets is to provide a quality-controlled and comprehensive set of seismic observations that would not only enable construction of REM-3D, but also allow identification of outliers and assist in more detailed studies of heterogeneity. The community response to data solicitation has been enthusiastic with several groups across the world contributing recent measurements of normal modes, (fundamental mode and overtone) surface waves, and body waves. We present results from ongoing work with body and surface wave datasets analyzed in consultation with a Reference Dataset Working Group. We have formulated procedures for reconciling travel-time datasets that include: (1) quality control for salvaging missing metadata; (2) identification of and reasons for discrepant measurements; (3) homogenization of coverage through the construction of summary rays; and (4) inversions of structure at various wavelengths to evaluate inter-dataset consistency. In consultation with the Reference Dataset Working Group, we retrieved the station and earthquake metadata in several legacy compilations and codified several guidelines that would facilitate easy storage and reproducibility. We find strong agreement between the dispersion measurements of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves, particularly when made using supervised techniques. The agreement deteriorates substantially in surface-wave overtones, for which discrepancies vary with frequency and overtone number. A half-cycle band of discrepancies is attributed to reversed instrument polarities at a limited number of stations, which are not reflected in the instrument response history

  2. Neural correlates of dream lucidity obtained from contrasting lucid versus non-lucid REM sleep: a combined EEG/fMRI case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Koch, Stefan P; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Obrig, Hellmuth; Sämann, Philipp G; Czisch, Michael

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of lucid dreaming. Parallel EEG/fMRI recordings of night sleep. Sleep laboratory and fMRI facilities. Four experienced lucid dreamers. N/A. Out of 4 participants, one subject had 2 episodes of verified lucid REM sleep of sufficient length to be analyzed by fMRI. During lucid dreaming the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, parietal lobules, and prefrontal and occipito-temporal cortices activated strongly as compared with non-lucid REM sleep. In line with recent EEG data, lucid dreaming was associated with a reactivation of areas which are normally deactivated during REM sleep. This pattern of activity can explain the recovery of reflective cognitive capabilities that are the hallmark of lucid dreaming.

  3. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Signal Peptide Uses a Novel p97-Dependent and Derlin-Independent Retrotranslocation Mechanism To Escape Proteasomal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyewon Byun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pathogens, including viruses and bacteria, manipulate endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD to avoid the host immune response and promote their replication. The betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV encodes Rem, which is a precursor protein that is cleaved into a 98-amino-acid signal peptide (SP and a C-terminal protein (Rem-CT. SP uses retrotranslocation for ER membrane extraction and yet avoids ERAD by an unknown mechanism to enter the nucleus and function as a Rev-like protein. To determine how SP escapes ERAD, we used a ubiquitin-activated interaction trap (UBAIT screen to trap and identify transient protein interactions with SP, including the ERAD-associated p97 ATPase, but not E3 ligases or Derlin proteins linked to retrotranslocation, polyubiquitylation, and proteasomal degradation of extracted proteins. A dominant negative p97 ATPase inhibited both Rem and SP function. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that Rem, but not SP, is polyubiquitylated. Using both yeast and mammalian expression systems, linkage of a ubiquitin-like domain (UbL to SP or Rem induced degradation by the proteasome, whereas SP was stable in the absence of the UbL. ERAD-associated Derlin proteins were not required for SP activity. Together, these results suggested that Rem uses a novel p97-dependent, Derlin-independent retrotranslocation mechanism distinct from other pathogens to avoid SP ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation.

  4. Why Does Rem Sleep Occur? A Wake-Up Hypothesis 1

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into ...

  5. Normal Morning MCH Levels and No Association with REM or NREM Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  6. Olfactory impairment in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease is associated with bulbar dopaminergic D2 activity after REM sleep deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Soares Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory and rapid eye movement (REM sleep deficits are commonly found in untreated subjects with a recent diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD. Besides different studies reported declines in olfactory performances during a short period of sleep deprivation. Mechanisms underlying these clinical manifestations are poorly understood although the impairment in the dopamine (DA neurotransmission in the olfactory bulb and in the nigrostriatal pathway may have important roles in olfactory as well as in REM sleep disturbances. Therefore, we have led to the hypothesis that a modulation of the dopaminergic D2 receptors in the olfactory bulb could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the olfactory deficits in PD and after a short period of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD. We decided to investigate the olfactory, neurochemical and histological alterations generated by the administration of piribedil (a selective D2 agonist or raclopride (a selective D2 antagonist, within the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, in rats submitted to intranigral rotenone and REMSD. Our findings provided a remarkable evidence of the occurrence of a negative correlation (r = - 0.52, P = 0.04 between the number of periglomerular TH-ir neurons and the bulbar levels of DA in the rotenone, but not sham groups. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.34, P = 0.03 was observed between nigral DA and olfactory discrimination index (DI, for the sham groups, indicating that increased DA levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc are associated to enhanced olfactory discrimination performance. Also, increased levels in bulbar and striatal DA induced by piribedil in the rotenone control and rotenone REMSD groups were consistent with reduced amounts of DI. The present evidence reinforce that DA produced by periglomerular neurons, and particularly the bulbar dopaminergic D2 receptors, are essential participants in the olfactory discrimination processes, as well as SNpc

  7. Sociality Affects REM Sleep Episode Duration Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions in the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gravett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.

  8. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Mahajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease (PD represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD, is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods: The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society‐United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS‐UPDRS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI. Cross‐sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS‐3 (motor score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD.Results: Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0% had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028. Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025.Discussion: PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD.

  9. Characteristic comparison of triglyceride-rich remnant lipoprotein measurement between a new homogenous assay (RemL-C and a conventional immunoseparation method (RLP-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikawa Shinichi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased serum remnant lipoproteins are supposed to predict cardiovascular disease in addition to increased LDL. A new homogenous assay for remnant lipoprotein-cholesterol (RemL-C has been developed as an alternative to remnant-like particle-cholesterol (RLP-C, an immunoseparation assay, widely used for the measurement of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol. Methods We evaluated the correlations and data validation between the 2 assays in 83 subjects (49 men and 34 women without diabetes, hypertension and medications for hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension, and investigated the characteristics of remnant lipoproteins obtained by the two methods (RLP-C and RemL-C and their relationships with IDL-cholesterol determined by our developed HPLC method. Results A positive correlation was significantly found between the two methods (r = 0.853, 95%CI 0.781–0.903, p RLP-C level. RemL-C (r = 0.339, 95%CI 0.152–0.903; p = 0.0005 significantly correlated with IDL-cholesterol, but not RLP-C (r = 0.17, 95%CI -0.047–0.372; p = 0.1237 in all the samples (n = 83. Conclusion These results suggest that there is generally a significant correlation between RemL-C and RLP-C. However, RemL-C assay is likely to reflect IDL more closely than RLP-C.

  10. Rem Koolhaas. Utopie ve sférách globálního trhu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnídková, Vendula

    -, Č. 19-20 (2006), s. 212-214 ISSN 1210-6887 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Rem Koolhaas * contemporary architecture * utopia of architectural production Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  11. Shutdown radiation level and man-rem control for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripps, S.J.; Regan, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of controlling the formation and subsequent deposition of active corrosion products (crud) is highlighted as a method of reducing occupational exposure. A semi-empirical model is described and used to predict the effectiveness of various methods of crud control. The relative merits of reactor coolant clean-up techniques including ion-exchange and electromagnetic filtration are assessed in terms of man-rem savings and associated cost penalties. (author)

  12. FDG PET, Dopamine Transporter SPECT, and Olfaction: Combining Biomarkers in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meles, Sanne K.; Vadasz, David; Renken, Remco J.; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Mayer, Geert; Depboylu, Candan; Reetz, Kathrin; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Pijpers, Angelique; Reesink, Fransje E.; van Laar, Teus; Heinen, Lisette; Teune, Laura K.; Höffken, Helmut; Luster, Marcus; Kesper, Karl; Adriaanse, Sofie M.; Booij, Jan; Leenders, Klaus L.; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Hyposmia, reduced dopamine transporter binding, and expression of the brain metabolic PD-related pattern were each associated with increased risk of conversion to PD. The

  13. An accurate and portable solid state neutron rem meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Bellinger, S.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Missouri University Research Reactor, Columbia, MO (United States); Myers, E.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Fronk, R.G.; Cooper, B.W [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Sobering, T.J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, KS (United States); Scott, P.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Ugorowski, P.; McGregor, D.S; Shultis, J.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Caruso, A.N., E-mail: carusoan@umkc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2013-08-11

    Accurately resolving the ambient neutron dose equivalent spanning the thermal to 15 MeV energy range with a single configuration and lightweight instrument is desirable. This paper presents the design of a portable, high intrinsic efficiency, and accurate neutron rem meter whose energy-dependent response is electronically adjusted to a chosen neutron dose equivalent standard. The instrument may be classified as a moderating type neutron spectrometer, based on an adaptation to the classical Bonner sphere and position sensitive long counter, which, simultaneously counts thermalized neutrons by high thermal efficiency solid state neutron detectors. The use of multiple detectors and moderator arranged along an axis of symmetry (e.g., long axis of a cylinder) with known neutron-slowing properties allows for the construction of a linear combination of responses that approximate the ambient neutron dose equivalent. Variations on the detector configuration are investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations to minimize the total instrument mass while maintaining acceptable response accuracy—a dose error less than 15% for bare {sup 252}Cf, bare AmBe, an epi-thermal and mixed monoenergetic sources is found at less than 4.5 kg moderator mass in all studied cases. A comparison of the energy dependent dose equivalent response and resultant energy dependent dose equivalent error of the present dosimeter to commercially-available portable rem meters and the prior art are presented. Finally, the present design is assessed by comparison of the simulated output resulting from applications of several known neutron sources and dose rates.

  14. Decreased sleep spindle density in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine whether sleep spindles (SS) are potentially a biomarker for Parkinson’s disease (PD). MethodsFifteen PD patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (PD+RBD), 15 PD patients without RBD (PD−RBD), 15 idiopathic RBD (iRBD) patients and 15 age-matched controls underwent...... polysomnography (PSG). SS were scored in an extract of data from control subjects. An automatic SS detector using a Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was developed and applied to the PSG recordings. The SS densities in N1, N2, N3, all NREM combined and REM sleep were obtained...

  15. The REM route to more syncrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1980-09-03

    Norcen will become the first industry major to support a feasibility study of REM, an acronym for Resource and Energy Management. The prospective joint project involving Norcen Energy Resources and the Federal Department of Energy, Mines and Resources will consider coal utilization in the recovery and upgrading of heavy crude from Western Canadian deposits. The project will facilitate smaller projects at Cold Lake and will also be relevant to large scale plants, whether in-situ or surface-mined tar sands or heavy oil applications. The innovation: gasifying coal (rather than burning natural gas or liquids) to raise steam and electric power in a synergistic combined cycle system, and electrolyzing water to win essential hydrogen and oxygen for the upgrading process. The bonuses: the generation of hydrogen and oxygen without the consumption of premium light hydrocarbons in a clean, energy efficient process. The objective: higher yield of light oil at lower unit cost, better sulfur control and modular design for small or large scale plants.

  16. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  17. A systematic search of sudden pressure drops on Gale crater during two Martian years derived from MSL/REMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez-Etxeberria, Iñaki; Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín

    2018-01-01

    nocturnal sudden pressure drops concentrate in the 20:00-23:00 LTST time interval and they only occur in spring and summer. We interpret these nocturnal events as a consequence of local mechanically forced turbulence. This interpretation is consistent with published results from simulations with the MRAMS model (Rafkin et al., 2016) that predict a competition between local orographic circulation and global Hadley cell circulation at Gale crater at summer night-time that can enhance forced turbulence at the surface. Bursts of pressure drops appear on particular sols, especially at night-time. Most of the vortex bursts occurred when MSL was in the region called Pahrump Hills characterized by a complex terrain. A comparison of the daytime pressure drops from REMS data with published results from the Pathfinder and Phoenix missions shows that the frequency of daytime events at Gale crater in spring and summer is similar to the one previously found at other locations. Finally, we present possible correlations between MSL activity and some daytime pressure drops. If such an instrumental effect is present in the REMS data its impact in this analysis is small and would only affect about 7% of our detections.

  18. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease: association with abnormal ocular motor findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui June; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-04-01

    The anatomical substrates associated with generalized muscle atonia during REM sleep are located on the pontine tegmentum and medial medulla oblongata. We examined whether patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have abnormal ocular movements suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional survey for the existence of RBD and abnormal ocular movements. Ocular movements were examined by video-oculography (VOG). A total of 202 patients were included in this study. One hundred and sixteen (57.4%) of the 202 patients have clinically probable RBD, and 28 (24.1%) of the 116 with clinically probable RBD patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction; whereas 86 of the 202 patients did not have clinically probable RBD, and only 7 (8.1%) of the 86 patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction (P=0.001). This study suggests that the presence of RBD is associated with more severe or extensive brainstem pathology or different distribution of pathology in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutron measurement in 12,13C+ 27Al system using CR-39 detectors and neutron rem meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, G.S.; Tripathy, S.P.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Sunil, C.; Joshi, D.S.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, neutron measurements carried out for the interaction of 60 and 67.5 MeV 12 C, 57.3 and 65 MeV 13 C ions with thick aluminium target by using CR-39 detectors and neutron rem meter is reported. Both the detector systems were irradiated at different angles viz. 0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg, 90 deg with respect to the beam direction. The normalized track density measurements (tracks/cm 2 /projectile at 1m) in CR-39 detectors were correlated with the normalized dose equivalent values (μSv/projectile at 1m) obtained using the neutron rem meter. The track density was found to be more in case of 13 C than 12 C. However in all the cases, the track density per incident projectile was found to decrease as the angle with respect to beam direction increases, indicating non-isotropic nature of neutron emission. The ratio between measured dose equivalent in rem meter to the measured track densities in CR-39 detectors was found to be 2.8±0.2, which remains constant irrespective of the change in angle from beam direction as well as neutron spectrum, indicating a flat dose response of CR-39 detectors. (author)

  20. Design and development of wide energy neutron REM equivalent spectrometer-dosimeters based on polycarbonates and Cr-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faermann, S.

    1985-03-01

    This work describes a system composed of a Rem response personnel neutron dosemeter, based on boron radiators and a polycarbonate track detector, for monitoring dose equivalents in the energy range 1 eV to 14 MeV, an electrochemical etching system for revealing damage sites in solid state track etch detectors, a reader for magnifying the etched pits and a microprocessor for evaluating the dose equivalents and their uncertainties. The performance and directional dependence of the dosemeter when exposed to monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron fields in the epithermal and fast energy regions are discussed. Saturation effects in polycarbonate foils are presented and a comparison is made between the response of polycarbonate and CR-39 foils, used as passive detectors in the dosemeter. A new passive miniature fast neutron spectrometer-dosimeter is also described. The device is based on the detection of proton tracks by electrochemical etching of CR-39 foils covered with thin polyethylene layers of different thicknesses. By means of this device it is possible to assess the fast neutron energy spectrum in 10 energy intervals in the energy range 0.5-15 MeV. Dose equivalents can be determined in the dose equivalent range 20 mRem to 8 Rem, approximately (author)

  1. Chronic REM-sleep deprivation of rats elevates metabolic rate and increases UCP1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Michael; Swinson, Kevin L

    2005-07-01

    A cluster of unique pathologies progressively develops during chronic total- or rapid eye movement-sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats. Two prominent and readily observed symptoms are hyperphagia and decline in body weight. For body weight to be lost despite a severalfold increase in food consumption suggests that SD elevates metabolism as the subject enters a state of negative energy balance. To test the hypothesis that mediation of this hypermetabolism involves increased gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which dissipates the thermodynamic energy of the mitochondrial proton-motive force as heat instead of ATP formation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we 1) established the time course and magnitude of change in metabolism by measuring oxygen consumption, 2) estimated change in UCP1 gene expression in BAT by RT-PCR and Western blot, and 3) assayed serum leptin because of its role in regulating energy balance and food intake. REM-SD of male Sprague-Dawley rats was enforced for 20 days with the platform (flowerpot) method, wherein muscle atonia during REM sleep causes contact with surrounding water and awakens it. By day 20, rats more than doubled food consumption while losing approximately 11% of body weight; metabolism rose to 166% of baseline with substantial increases in UCP1 mRNA and immunoreactive UCP1 over controls; serum leptin decreased and remained suppressed. The decline in leptin is consistent with the hyperphagic response, and we conclude that one of the mediators of elevated metabolism during prolonged REM-SD is increased gene expression of UCP1 in BAT.

  2. The effect of heat treatment on recrystallized microstructure, precipitation and ductility of hot-rolled Fe–Cr–Al–REM ferritic stainless steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H.P.; Lang, Y.P.; Yao, C.F.; Chen, H.T.; Yang, C.Q.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents research works about the effects of heat treatment on recrystallized equiaxed grain size, precipitation, room temperature (RT) toughness and ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of Fe–Cr–Al–REM ferritic stainless steel (FSS) hot-rolled sheet. Results showed that the recrystallization of hot-rolled Fe–Cr–Al–REM FSS sheet could be completed after annealing treatment at 750 °C for 15 min with the equiaxed grain diameter of approximately 50 μm. Inappropriate annealing treatment would inevitably leads to the unexpected grain coarsening. On the other hand, a great deal of needle-like or spot-like fine aluminum–lanthanum compound Al 11 La 3 precipitates were observed in the ferrite matrix after 1 h aging treatment at 750 °C. The microstructure observation results associated with the impact test definitely illustrated that the Al 11 La 3 precipitates was the reason for the brittle crack in the as-casted ingot and as-forged slab. The real DBTT of the annealed Fe–Cr–Al–REM FSS sheet with average grain size of about 50 μm was −4 °C. Meanwhile, the DBTT of the hot-rolled Fe–Cr–Al–REM stainless steel sheet was evidently increased as the recrystallized grain size increased.

  3. The effect of heat treatment on recrystallized microstructure, precipitation and ductility of hot-rolled Fe-Cr-Al-REM ferritic stainless steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, H.P., E-mail: quhuapeng0926@163.com [Institute for Special Steels (Formerly Institute for Structural Materials), Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), 76 HaiDianNan Road, Beijing 100081 (China); Lang, Y.P. [Institute for Special Steels (Formerly Institute for Structural Materials), Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), 76 HaiDianNan Road, Beijing 100081 (China); Yao, C.F. [Institute for Special Steels (Formerly Institute for Structural Materials), Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), 76 HaiDianNan Road, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhuozhou Works, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), 2 HuoJuNan Road, Zhuozhou 072750, Hebei (China); Chen, H.T.; Yang, C.Q. [Institute for Special Steels (Formerly Institute for Structural Materials), Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), 76 HaiDianNan Road, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-02-01

    This study presents research works about the effects of heat treatment on recrystallized equiaxed grain size, precipitation, room temperature (RT) toughness and ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of Fe-Cr-Al-REM ferritic stainless steel (FSS) hot-rolled sheet. Results showed that the recrystallization of hot-rolled Fe-Cr-Al-REM FSS sheet could be completed after annealing treatment at 750 Degree-Sign C for 15 min with the equiaxed grain diameter of approximately 50 {mu}m. Inappropriate annealing treatment would inevitably leads to the unexpected grain coarsening. On the other hand, a great deal of needle-like or spot-like fine aluminum-lanthanum compound Al{sub 11}La{sub 3} precipitates were observed in the ferrite matrix after 1 h aging treatment at 750 Degree-Sign C. The microstructure observation results associated with the impact test definitely illustrated that the Al{sub 11}La{sub 3} precipitates was the reason for the brittle crack in the as-casted ingot and as-forged slab. The real DBTT of the annealed Fe-Cr-Al-REM FSS sheet with average grain size of about 50 {mu}m was -4 Degree-Sign C. Meanwhile, the DBTT of the hot-rolled Fe-Cr-Al-REM stainless steel sheet was evidently increased as the recrystallized grain size increased.

  4. Alexithymia associated with nightmare distress in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jaques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is characterized by atypical REM sleep motor activity, vivid dreams and nightmares, and dream-enacting behaviors that can result in injuries to the patient and bed partner. It is also a known predictor of Parkinson disease (PD). Alexithymia has been associated with disturbances in sleep and dreaming (e.g., nightmares) and is a non-motor symptom of PD. We assessed alexithymia and disturbed dreaming in iRBD patients with the aim of determining if these two factors are elevated and interrelated among this population. Questionnaire study of clinically diagnosed patients. Clinical sleep disorders center. Thirty-two iRBD patients and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched control participants. Participants completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Dream Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. iRBD patients obtained higher TAS-20 total scores (62.16 ± 13.90) than did controls (52.84 ± 7.62; F 1,59 = 10.44, P sleep behavior disorder patients, and especially a difficulty in identifying feelings, parallels evidence of dysautonomia in this population. The higher incidence of distressing nightmares and the association of nightmares with alexithymia further extend similar findings for both clinical and non-clinical samples and suggest that an affect regulation disturbance may be common to the two sets of symptoms.

  5. Sleep-related declarative memory consolidation and verbal replay during sleep talking in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Uguccioni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. METHODS: Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation. In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. RESULTS: Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3. The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index. Daytime consolidation (-9±19% was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03 in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally related to the text learned before sleep. CONCLUSION: Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level.

  6. Rem Koolhaas y la nueva Babel. De la torre metropolitana al monumento al vacío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Tallón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Un primer acercamiento a las reflexiones de Rem Koolhaas en torno a la tipología de torre introduce al rascacielos neoyorquino como la alegoría del “automonumen­to”: una construcción en esencia destinada a reafirmar su sola presencia y que se distingue del resto por medio de su estatura, que la monumentaliza. La torre de Babel, símbolo inquebrantable de la leyenda de la construcción en altura, escenifi­ca una historia de construcción y destrucción que está vinculada ineludiblemente al pensamiento crítico de Rem Koolhaas en torno a la torre como tipología desa­creditada. Un recorrido por las distintas “Babel” que Rem Koolhaas cataloga en el glosario de términos incluido en el texto SMLXL construye un discurso en torno a la destrucción de la torre bíblica y la construcción de la nueva Babel koolhaasiana que inicia su recorrido con el rascacielos para acabar reclamando un nuevo estado de monumentalidad: la ausencia en su estado más puro representado por el muro, el máximo ejemplo de ausencia como la forma más elevada de presencia monu­mental. Una mirada crítica que comienza con la torre metropolitana como la nueva Babel para finalizar con el muro como el monumento al vacío

  7. Effects of REM and Ba Additions on the Characteristics of the Third Generation Duplex Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Soon Tae

    2006-01-01

    The third generation super duplex stainless steel having excellent corrosion resistance, embrittlement resistance, castability, weldability and hot workability has been developed. REM and Ba added to the alloy, with larger atomic radius than those of Cr, Mo and W, seem to fill vacancies inside the matrix and around the grain boundaries, retarding formation of brittle σ and χ phases. In addition, fine oxides/ oxy-sulfides of REM and Ba (1∼3 μm in diameter) seem to enhance the retardation effects. The alloys have also shown higher strength and ductility resulting from phase and grain refinements caused by those oxides and oxy-sulfides. Accordingly it is judged that the core technology can provide the method for remarkably suppressing formation of intermetallic phases by adding new alloy elements, and improving a applied to sea water and flue gas desulfurization facility

  8. The sleeping brain in Parkinson's disease: A focus on REM sleep behaviour disorder and related parasomnias for practicing neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Rattanachaisit, Watchara; Truong, Daniel D

    2017-03-15

    Sleep disorders are identified as common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and recently this recognition has been expanded to include parasomnias, encompassing not only REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), but also other non-REM forms. RBD, a prototypical parasomnia in PD, exists even in the prodromal stage of the disease, and is characterized by the presence of dream enactment behaviours occurring alongside a loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep. In contrast, non-REM parasomnias are more frequently observed in the late stage PD. However, the development of these disorders often overlaps and it is not uncommon for PD patients to meet the criteria for more than one type of parasomnias, thus making a clinical distinction challenging for practicing neurologists who are not sleep specialists. Indeed, clinical recognition of the predominant form of parasomnia does not just depend on video-polysomnography, but also on an individual physician's clinical acumen in delineating pertinent clinical history to determine the most likely diagnosis and proceed accordingly. In this review article, we highlight the various forms of parasomnias that have been reported in PD, including, but not limited to, RBD, with a focus on clinical symptomatology and implications for clinical practice. In addition, we review the differences in PD-related parasomnias compared to those seen in general populations. With advances in sleep research and better technology for ambulatory home monitoring, it is likely that many unanswered questions on PD-related parasomnias will soon be resolved resulting in better management of this nocturnal challenge in PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalencia de los factores que afectan el sueño REM y el brote de ondas lentas en los estudios con CPAP en apnea obstructiva del sueño

    OpenAIRE

    Osuna S, Edgar; Siddiqui, Fouzia; Vanegas, Marco A; Walters, Arthur S; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2008-01-01

    Background. In patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) treatment with CPAP results in an increase of REM sleep and slow wave sleep, but there is limited information about the prevalence of REM rebound in patients with OSAS and possible factors related to the rebound. Objective. REM rebound (RR) and slow wave sleep rebound (SWSR) has been described as a frequent phenomenon that occurs during CPAP titration, but the quantity that qualify for RR has not been mentioned in literature...

  10. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9−41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and 19:00 h. Both treatments impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis—at least at the hypothalamic level—is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.

  11. Rivastigmine for refractory REM behavior disorder in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Lapenta, Leonardo; Mariotti, Paolo; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-03-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) are both associated with a degeneration of ponto-medullary cholinergic pathways. We conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot trial of Rivastigmine (RVT) in 25 consecutive patients with MCI, who presented RBD refractory to conventional first-line treatments (melatonin up to 5 mg/day and clonazepam up to 2 mg/day). RVT treatment was followed by a significant reduction of RBD episodes when compared with placebo. Our data suggest that, in MCI patients with RBD resistant to conventional therapies (muscle relaxants benzodiazepines or melatonin,) treatment with RVT may induce a reduction in the frequency of RBD episodes compared to placebo.

  12. SIFAT MEKANIK BAHAN GESEK REM KOMPOSIT DIPERKUAT SERAT BAMBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno -

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan gesek komposit diperkuat serat bambu untuk kampas rem otomotif dibuat menggunakan mesin pres isostatik panas pada 19oC selama 3 jam. Jumlah serat bambu dan serbuk logam di dalam pencampuran dioptimasi, setiap komposisi komponen lain dibuat tetap, pengaruhnya pada sifat-sifat mekanik dan struktur mikro diselidiki. Serat bambu disini digunakan sebagai pengganti serat asbes yang jumlahnya divariasi antara 2,86-17,14% dari volume total dan fraksi berat masing-masing unsur penyusun ditentukan menggunakan energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Angka kekerasan Brinell, kekuatan tarik maksimum, dan ketahanan aus khas bahan gesek yang difabrikasi berada pada rentang 21,7-43,4 kg/mm2, 0,021-0,036 ton, dan 1,5exp-11-5,2exp-11 m2/N.Friction materials of bamboo fibers reinforced composites for automotive brakes were made using hot isostatic pressing machine at 190oC for 3 hours. The contents of bamboo fiber and metal powder in the mixing were optimized, each composition of other components was fixed, its effects on mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. Bamboo fibers were used here as substitutes for asbestos fibers whose number varied between 2.86 to 17.14% of the total volume and weight fraction of each constituent element is determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Brinell hardness number, the maximum tensile strength and specific wear resistance of friction materials fabricated in the ranges of 21.7 to 43.4 kg/mm2, 0.021 to 0.036 tons, and 1.5 exp-11-5, 2exp-11 m2 / N, respectively.

  13. Pas de remède miracle Parvenir à une couverture santé universelle ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 oct. 2012 ... Pas de remède miracle Parvenir à une couverture santé universelle grâce à des systèmes de santé équitables ... Le Nigeria, qui compte parmi les pays qui affichent les taux les plus élevés de mortalité des mères, des enfants et des nouveau-nés, a fait des soins de santé primaires sa plus grande priorité.

  14. Did Immanuel Kant have dementia with Lewy bodies and REM behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Slachevsky, Andrea; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego

    2010-06-01

    Immanuel Kant, one of the most brilliant minds of the XVIII century and of western philosophy, suffered from dementia in his late years. Based on the analysis of testimonies of his close friends, in this report we describe his neurological disorder which, after 8years of evolution, led to his death. His cognitive decline was strongly associated with a parasomnia compatible with a severe rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder (RBD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  16. One step replica symmetry breaking and extreme order statistics of logarithmic REMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Cao, Yan V. Fyodorov, Pierre Le Doussal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the one-step replica symmetry breaking formalism, duly understood and ramified, we show that the sequence of ordered extreme values of a general class of Euclidean-space logarithmically correlated random energy models (logREMs behave in the thermodynamic limit as a randomly shifted decorated exponential Poisson point process. The distribution of the random shift is determined solely by the large-distance ("infra-red", IR limit of the model, and is equal to the free energy distribution at the critical temperature up to a translation. the decoration process is determined solely by the small-distance ("ultraviolet", UV limit, in terms of the biased minimal process. Our approach provides connections of the replica framework to results in the probability literature and sheds further light on the freezing/duality conjecture which was the source of many previous results for log-REMs. In this way we derive the general and explicit formulae for the joint probability density of depths of the first and second minima (as well its higher-order generalizations in terms of model-specific contributions from UV as well as IR limits. In particular, we show that the second min statistics is largely independent of details of UV data, whose influence is seen only through the mean value of the gap. For a given log-correlated field this parameter can be evaluated numerically, and we provide several numerical tests of our theory using the circular model of $1/f$-noise.

  17. Study of the response of a lithium yttrium borate scintillator based neutron rem counter by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, C.; Tyagi, Mohit; Biju, K.; Shanbhag, A. A.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2015-12-01

    The scarcity and the high cost of 3He has spurred the use of various detectors for neutron monitoring. A new lithium yttrium borate scintillator developed in BARC has been studied for its use in a neutron rem counter. The scintillator is made of natural lithium and boron, and the yield of reaction products that will generate a signal in a real time detector has been studied by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A 2 cm lead introduced to enhance the gamma rejection shows no appreciable change in the shape of the fluence response or in the yield of reaction products. The fluence response when normalized at the average energy of an Am-Be neutron source shows promise of being used as rem counter.

  18. Study of the response of a lithium yttrium borate scintillator based neutron rem counter by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, C., E-mail: csunil11@gmail.com [Accelerator Radiation Safety Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, Mohit [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Biju, K.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Bandyopadhyay, T. [Accelerator Radiation Safety Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-12-11

    The scarcity and the high cost of {sup 3}He has spurred the use of various detectors for neutron monitoring. A new lithium yttrium borate scintillator developed in BARC has been studied for its use in a neutron rem counter. The scintillator is made of natural lithium and boron, and the yield of reaction products that will generate a signal in a real time detector has been studied by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A 2 cm lead introduced to enhance the gamma rejection shows no appreciable change in the shape of the fluence response or in the yield of reaction products. The fluence response when normalized at the average energy of an Am–Be neutron source shows promise of being used as rem counter.

  19. Experiences in troubleshooting of neutron rem monitor electronics and its subsequent calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, Atul; Dash, Amit Kumar; Vijayasekaran, P.; Mathews, Geo; Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the troubleshooting of the signal processing and counting electronics of two no's of Neutron Rem monitors and its subsequent calibration. Electronics servicing with respect to detection of fault in the circuit board, replacement of faulty ICs, circuits (Analog and Digital) tracing and installation of new rechargeable battery pack was done. Electronic calibration using Test pulse generator was carried out for dose rate measurements, amplitude measurements and discriminator level setting. Serial communication settings were checked with both HyperTerminal and software for the monitors. Neutron Source calibration was also carried out for both the monitors. (author)

  20. Man-rem audit - a tool for exposure ALARA at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivaramakrishnan, N.R.; Eswaran, G.; Gangamohan, M.; Sathish, A.V.; Ramasubramanian, K.V.; Gandhimathinathan, S.; Selvam, S.; Moolya, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    ALARA - acronym for As Low As Reasonably Achievable, which means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical. ICRP has recommended ALARA to be implemented as a formal practice into the System of Dose Limitation, which contains three parts, 1) Justification of practice 2) Optimization 3) Dose Limits. As with the human endeavor, there is always room for improvement. Keeping this in mind, ALARA program is being practiced in our Nuclear Power Plants over the years. There has been a gradual reduction of collective dose in our Nuclear Power Plants due to successful implementation of the ALARA programs. This was possible due to the rigorous application of O and M experience, feedback and active participation of workforce towards ALARA. Furthermore, ALARA is an ongoing continual improvement programme towards collective dose reduction and has enough scope for improvement at any point of time. In order to substantiate the gains of ALARA programme and to improve it further, first time Mam-rem Audit was conducted at MAPS during the month of Sep-Oct 2010. This paper gives the brief outline about the method man-rem audit, its findings, corrective action implementation and the benefits derived from it. Man-rem audit similar to financial audit, serves as a tool for finding out grey areas where improvements is required so that station collective dose can be further optimized. It is one of the identified missions to achieve excellence in area of reducing station collective dose, unplanned exposures and RPP deviation. The scope of this audit is to bring further improvements in the reduction in station collective dose, create more awareness among the employees about ALARA principles and seek valuable suggestions for improvements. Audit team consisting of senior HP persons had one to one interaction with the individuals of the respective section in the field and tried to gather the information from the individual and

  1. Implementation and evaluation of pH-dependent cloud chemistry and wetdeposition in the chemical transport model REM-Calgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banzhaf, S.; Schaap, M.; Kerschbaumer, A.; Reimer, E.; Stern, R.; Swaluw, E. van der; Builtjes, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Chemistry Transport Model REM-Calgrid (RCG) has been improved by implementing an enhanced description of aqueous-phase chemistry and wet deposition processes including droplet pH. A sensitivity study on cloud and rain droplet pH has been performed to investigate its impact on model sulphate

  2. Colonic Oxidative and Mitochondrial Function in Parkinson’s Disease and Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Morén, C.; González-Casacuberta, Í.; Navarro-Otano, J.; Juárez-Flores, D.; Vilas, D.; Garrabou, G.; Milisenda, J. C.; Pont-Sunyer, C.; Catalán-García, M.; Guitart-Mampel, M.; Tobías, E.; Cardellach, F.; Valldeoriola, F.; Iranzo, A.; Tolosa, E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine potential mitochondrial and oxidative alterations in colon biopsies from idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. Methods Colonic biopsies from 7 iRBD subjects, 9 subjects with clinically diagnosed PD, and 9 healthy controls were homogenized in 5% w/v mannitol. Citrate synthase (CS) and complex I (CI) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Oxidative damage was assessed either by lipid peroxidation, through malondialdehyde and h...

  3. In-Home Sleep Recordings in Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reveal Less REM and Deep Sleep <1 Hz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Onton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm. For this study, 71 control subjects and 60 military-related PTSD subjects were analyzed for percentage of time spent in Light, Hi Deep (1–3 Hz, Lo Deep (<1 Hz, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep stages, as well as sleep efficiency and fragmentation. The results showed a significant tendency for PTSD sleepers to spend a smaller percentage of the night in REM (p < 0.0001 and Lo Deep (p = 0.001 sleep, while spending a larger percentage of the night in Hi Deep (p < 0.0001 sleep. The percentage of combined Hi+Lo Deep sleep did not differ between groups. All sleepers usually showed EDA peaks during Lo, but not Hi, Deep sleep; however, PTSD sleepers were more likely to lack EDA peaks altogether, which usually coincided with a lack of Lo Deep sleep. Linear regressions with all subjects showed that a decreased percentage of REM sleep in PTSD sleepers was accounted for by age, prazosin, SSRIs and SNRIs (p < 0.02, while decreased Lo Deep and increased Hi Deep in the PTSD group could not be accounted for by any factor in this study (p < 0.005. Linear regression models with only the PTSD group showed that decreased REM correlated with self-reported depression, as measured with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; p < 0.00001. DASS anxiety was associated with increased REM time (p < 0.0001. This study shows altered sleep patterns in sleepers with PTSD that can be partially accounted

  4. Spherical Harmonics Reveal Standing EEG Waves and Long-Range Neural Synchronization during Non-REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Siddharth S; Namath, Amalia G; Galán, Roberto F

    2016-01-01

    quantum mechanics suggests that the variances (eigenvalues) of the principal components follow a Boltzmann distribution, or equivalently, that standing waves are in a sort of "thermodynamic" equilibrium during non-REM sleep. By extension, we speculate that consciousness emerges as the brain dynamics deviate from such equilibrium.

  5. REM - the Shape of Potentials for f(R) Theories in Cosmology and Tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Vulcanov, Dumitru N; Sporea, Ciprian A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the reverse engineering method (REM) for constructing the potential of the scalar field in cosmological theories based on metric f(R) gravity and Friedman Robertson Walker (FRW) metric. Then transposing the new field and Friedman equations in an algebraic computing special library (in Maple + GrTennsorII platform) we graphically investigate the shape of the potentials in terms of the scalar field in at least two type of cosmology with exponential and linear scale factor expansion. Some perspectives and conclusions relating these results with tachyonic cosmology theories are noticed.

  6. Conditions associated with REM sleep behaviour disorder: Description of a hospital series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenza Abildúa, M J; Miralles Martinez, A; Arpa Gutiérrez, F J; Lores Gutiérrez, V; Algarra Lucas, C; Jimeno Montero, C; Sánchez García, B; Mata Álvarez-Santullano, M; Borrue Fernández, C; Cordero Martín, G; Gutiérrez Cueto, G; Torrecillas Narváez, M D; Thuissard Vasallo, I; Gómez Aceña, A

    2017-02-16

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by violent behaviours (screaming, kicking, vivid dreams) during REM sleep. It has a prevalence of 1% to 2% of the general population and is especially frequent in men and the population older than 60. In the last decade, RBD has been suggested to be a prodrome of neurodegenerative disease. We analysed associated neurological diseases and responses to drug treatment in 33 patients with RBD treated in the multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit at Hospital Infanta Sofía. We conducted an observational descriptive retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RBD and treated in our multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit between October 2012 and December 2015. We recorded age, sex, associated diseases, and treatments administered to these patients. A total of 365 patients were attended at our unit, including 33 with RBD: 13 women (40%) and 20 men (60%). Mean age was 62.72 years. An associated disorder was identified in 48%, with the most common being mild cognitive impairment (69%). The percentage of patients with RBD and an associated disorder among patients older than 60 was 68%. Eighty-two percent of the patients required treatment. The most commonly used drug was clonazepam (76%), followed by melatonin (9%), gabapentin (6%), and trazodone (3%). In our series, 48% of the patients had an associated disorder. The likelihood of detecting an associated disorder increases with patients' age. The vast majority of patients required drug treatment due to symptom severity; the most frequently administered drug was clonazepam (76%). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro model for the study of the role of the mesopontine region in rapid eye movement (REM sleep and wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de estratégias neurais para a organização do comportamento em vertebrados constitui um desafio maior para a neurociencia. O avanço do conhecimento nessa área depende criticamente da utilização de modelos experimentais adequados que suportem múltiplos níveis de análise (por exemplo: comportamental, circuital, celular,  sináptico e molecular e abordagens por múltiplas técnicas. Decidiu-se analisar in vitro uma rede neural da união mesopontina do tronco encefálico criticamente envolvida no controle do sono de movimentos oculares rápidos (S-REM. Apesar da riqueza de provas que sustentam o papel desta rede em relação ao S-REM, os mecanismos celulares e sinápticos subjacentes a este controle são pouco conhecidos e permanecem sob intensa investigação. Para avançar no conhecimento desses mecanismos, caracterizou-se morfológica e funcionalmente uma fatia de tronco encefálico de rato, na qual as estruturas críticas para o controle do S-REM, i.e.: núcleos tegmentais laterodorsal e pedunculopontino, e sua projeção para o núcleo reticular pontis oralis (PnO estão presentes e operantes. A inclusão do núcleo motor do trigêmeo na fatia permitiu detectar mudanças da excitabilidade das motoneuronas provocadas por manipulações farmacológicas do PnO, representativas das alterações do tônus muscular associados com operações semelhantes quando realizados in vivo. A utlização deste modelo in vitro de S-REM permitirá contribuir para a elucidação de estratégias neurais que operam em níveis intermedios de organização do SN de mamíferos para a geração e regulação de um estado comportamental.

  8. Man-rem exposure--a forcing function in remote maintenance of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erion, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the need for remote tooling systems in order to comply with the proposed NRC strategies relative to occupational radiation exposure (ORE) during maintenance outages. In addition to developing tooling to help or remove man from a radiation environment, present efforts to make that environment a less hostile one in the future are underway. A program to decontaminate the channelhead is underway. The obvious benefit of reducing the radiation source strength, and therefore man-rem exposure, has been indicated. Specialized tooling for local decontamination purposes, development of an advanced computer-controlled manipulator, and comprehensive personnel training programs can all reduce downtime and personnel exposures

  9. Risk Factors for Neurodegeneration in Idiopathic REM sleep Behavior Disorder: A Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postuma, RB; Iranzo, A; Hogl, B; Arnulf, I; Ferini-Strambi, L; Manni, R; Miyamoto, T.; Oertel, W; Dauvilliers, Y; Ju, Y; Puligheddu, M; Sonka, K; Pelletier, A; Santamaria, J; Frauscher, B; Leu-Semenescu, S; Zucconi, M; Terzaghi, M; Miyamoto, M.; Unger, MM; Carlander, B; Fantini, ML; Montplaisir, JY

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess whether risk factors for Parkinson’s disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies increase rate of defined neurodegenerative disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder Methods 12 centers administered a detailed questionnaire assessing risk factors for neurodegenerative synucleinopathy to patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Variables included demographics, lifestyle factors, pesticide exposures, occupation, co-morbid conditions, medication use, family history, and autonomic/motor symptoms. After 4-years follow-up, patients were assessed for dementia or parkinsonism. Disease risk was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis, and epidemiologic variables were compared between convertors and those still idiopathic using logistic regression. Results Of 305 patients, follow-up information was available for 279, of whom 93 (33.3%) developed defined neurodegenerative disease. Disease risk was 25% at 3 years, and 41% after 5 years. Patients who converted were older (difference=4.5 years, pconversion. Although occupation was similar between groups, those who converted had a lower likelihood of pesticide exposure (occupational insecticide=2.3% vs. 9.0%). Convertors were more likely to report family history of dementia (OR=2.09), without significant differences in Parkinson’s disease or sleep disorders. Medication exposures and medical history were similar between groups. Autonomic and motor symptoms were more common among those who converted. Risk factors for primary dementia and parkinsonism were generally similar, except for a notably higher clonazepam use in dementia convertors (OR=2.6). Interpretation Patients with idiopathic RBD are at very high risk of neurodegenerative synucleinopathy. Risk factor profiles between convertors and non-convertors have both important commonalities and differences. PMID:25767079

  10. Not only … but also: REM sleep creates and NREM Stage 2 instantiates landmark junctions in cortical memory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Sue; Hobson, J Allan

    2015-07-01

    This article argues both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep contribute to overnight episodic memory processes but their roles differ. Episodic memory may have evolved from memory for spatial navigation in animals and humans. Equally, mnemonic navigation in world and mental space may rely on fundamentally equivalent processes. Consequently, the basic spatial network characteristics of pathways which meet at omnidirectional nodes or junctions may be conserved in episodic brain networks. A pathway is formally identified with the unidirectional, sequential phases of an episodic memory. In contrast, the function of omnidirectional junctions is not well understood. In evolutionary terms, both animals and early humans undertook tours to a series of landmark junctions, to take advantage of resources (food, water and shelter), whilst trying to avoid predators. Such tours required memory for emotionally significant landmark resource-place-danger associations and the spatial relationships amongst these landmarks. In consequence, these tours may have driven the evolution of both spatial and episodic memory. The environment is dynamic. Resource-place associations are liable to shift and new resource-rich landmarks may be discovered, these changes may require re-wiring in neural networks. To realise these changes, REM may perform an associative, emotional encoding function between memory networks, engendering an omnidirectional landmark junction which is instantiated in the cortex during NREM Stage 2. In sum, REM may preplay associated elements of past episodes (rather than replay individual episodes), to engender an unconscious representation which can be used by the animal on approach to a landmark junction in wake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. REM dream activity of insomnia sufferers: a systematic comparison with good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérusse, Alexandra D; De Koninck, Joseph; Pedneault-Drolet, Maude; Ellis, Jason G; Bastien, Célyne H

    2016-04-01

    The dream activity of patients with primary insomnia (PI) has rarely been studied, especially using in-laboratory dream collection, although dreams could be linked to their state of hyperarousal and their negative waking experiences. The objective of the study was to compare patients with PI and good sleeper controls (GSCs) in terms of dream recall frequency and dream content. Polysomnography was recorded in 12 patients with PI and 12 GSCs (aged between 30 and 45 years) for five consecutive nights. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep awakenings were enforced on nights 3 and 5 for dream collections. The REM dream collections revealed that the groups were similar in terms of dream recall frequency (p ≤ 0.7). With respect to dream content variables, the dreams of GSCs tended to comprise more positive emotions (p = 0.06), whereas the dreams of patients with PI were characterized by more negative elements than positive ones (p = 0.001). Subjectively, GSCs characterized their dreams as being more pleasant and containing more joy, happiness, and vividness (p ≤ 0.03) than patients with PI. Finally, elevated negative dream content was associated with lower sleep efficiencies in insomnia (p = 0.004). These results suggest that less positive emotions and greater negative content characterize the dreams of patients with PI, which is in line with their waking experiences. One potential explanation could be hyperarousal exacerbating presleep negative mentation, thus contributing to poorer sleep quality. The lack of difference in dream recall frequency is most likely due to the forced awakening "dream collection" procedure. The study of dream activity seems a promising avenue for understanding the 24-h experience of insomnia better and exploring the potential benefits of dream management techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cordance derived from REM sleep EEG as a biomarker for treatment response in depression--a naturalistic study after antidepressant medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamczyk, M.; Gazea, M.; Wollweber, B.; Holsboer, F.; Dresler, M.; Steiger, A.; Pawlowski, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether prefrontal cordance in theta frequency band derived from REM sleep EEG after the first week of antidepressant medication could characterize the treatment response after 4 weeks of therapy in depressed patients. METHOD: 20 in-patients (15 females, 5 males) with a

  13. Utilização de plantas medicinais como remédio caseiro na Atenção Primária em Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Bertarello Zeni

    Full Text Available Resumo Na última década foi observado um aumento no uso de práticas terapêuticas alternativas apoiadas por políticas no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, em particular o uso de plantas medicinais e de fitoterápicos. Este estudo investigou o uso de remédios caseiros pelos usuários da Atenção Primária da Saúde do município de Blumenau, em Santa Catarina. Estudo epidemiológico observacional seccional, cujos dados foram obtidos através de questionário aplicado a 701 indivíduos. Utilizou-se um modelo de regressão logística não condicional para estimar a associação entre uso de remédios caseiros e variáveis sociodemográficas e médicoassistenciais. Observou-se que 21,9% dos entrevistados utilizaram remédios caseiros, sendo as plantas medicinais obtidas no quintal das casas a principal escolha. Como as mais citadas destacaram-se erva-cidreira, camomila, hortelã e limão. O uso de remédios caseiros se mostrou associado ao sexo feminino, à idade mais avançada e à modalidade de serviço, Estratégia Saúde da Família. Os resultados mostraram que as plantas medicinais são utilizadas como alternativa terapêutica. Entretanto, é necessário que os serviços de atenção primária garantam o acesso aos produtos naturais, bem como profissionais qualificados capazes de fornecer orientações sobre sua utilização.

  14. The extended range neutron rem counter LINUS: overview and latest developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Rancati, T.; Esposito, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Ferrari, A.; Silari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The 'history' of the extended range neutron rem counter LINUS, since its first conception in 1990 is reviewed, along with the latest developments. These include the calibration of the initially cylindrical version with nearly monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range 34-66 MeV, a detailed evaluation of the anisotropy of its response function, the construction and calibration of an improved spherical version, and recent measurements in reference high energy stray radiation fields. The instrument can now be considered as being fully characterized. Similar monitors built by other laboratories following the present design have confirmed its performances. The instrument is now in semi-routine use at a number of particle accelerator facilities and is one of several devices used on-board of aircrafts for assessing the exposure to cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. (author)

  15. Brain mechanisms that control sleep and waking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jerome

    This review paper presents a brief historical survey of the technological and early research that laid the groundwork for recent advances in sleep-waking research. A major advance in this field occurred shortly after the end of World War II with the discovery of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) as the neural source in the brain stem of the waking state. Subsequent research showed that the brain stem activating system produced cortical arousal via two pathways: a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route through the hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The nuclei, pathways, and neurotransmitters that comprise the multiple components of these arousal systems are described. Sleep is now recognized as being composed of two very different states: rapid eye movements (REMs) sleep and non-REM sleep. The major findings on the neural mechanisms that control these two sleep states are presented. This review ends with a discussion of two current views on the function of sleep: to maintain the integrity of the immune system and to enhance memory consolidation.

  16. DOSIMETRIC response of a REM-500 in low energy neutron fields typical of nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam; Matysiak, W; Atanackovic, J; Waker, A J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the response of a REM-500 to assess neutron quality factor and dose equivalent in low energy neutron fields, which are commonly encountered in the workplace environment of nuclear power stations. The McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility was used to measure the response of the instrument in monoenergetic neutron fields in the energy range 51 to 727 keV by bombarding a thin LiF target with 1.93-2.50 MeV protons. The energy distribution of the neutron fields produced in the facility was measured by a (3)He filled gas ionization chamber. The MCA mode of the REM-500 instrument was used to collect lineal energy distributions at varying neutron energies and to calculate the frequency and dose-mean lineal energies. The effective quality factor, Q-, was also calculated using the values of Q(y)listed in the REM-500 operation manual and compared with those of ICRP 60. The authors observed a continuously increasing trend in y - F, y-D, and Q-with an increase in neutron energy. It is interesting to note that standard tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) filled with tissue equivalent(TE) gas give rise to a similar trend for these microdosimetric quantities of interest in the same energy range; however, the averages calculated in this study are larger by about 15%compared to a TEPC filled with propane-based TE gas probably because of the larger stopping power of protons in propane compared to TE gas. These somewhat larger event sizes did not result in any significant increase in the Q-compared to those obtained from a TEPC filled with TE gas and were found to be in good agreement with other measurements reported earlier at corresponding neutron energies. The instrument quality factor response, R(Q), defined as the ratio of measured quality factor to the calculated quality factor in an ICRU tissue sphere,was found to vary with neutron energy. The instrument response,R(Q), was ~0.6 at 727 keV, which deteriorates further to

  17. Association between REM sleep behaviour disorder and impulse control disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellosta Diago, E; Lopez Del Val, L J; Santos Lasaosa, S; López Garcia, E; Viloria Alebesque, A

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between impulse control disorder (ICD) and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) has not yet been clarified, and the literature reports contradictory results. Our purpose is to analyse the association between these 2 disorders and their presence in patients under dopaminergic treatment. A total of 73 patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and treated with a single dopamine agonist were included in the study after undergoing clinical assessment and completing the single-question screen for REM sleep behaviour disorder and the short version of the questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease. Mean age was 68.88 ± 7.758 years. Twenty-six patients (35.6%) were classified as probable-RBD. This group showed a significant association with ICD (P=.001) and had a higher prevalence of non-tremor akinetic rigid syndrome and longer duration of treatment with levodopa and dopamine agonists than the group without probable-RBD. We found a significant correlation between the use of oral dopamine agonists and ICD. Likewise, patients treated with oral dopamine agonists demonstrated a greater tendency toward presenting probable-RBD than patients taking dopamine agonists by other routes; the difference was non-significant. The present study confirms the association between RBD and a higher risk of developing symptoms of ICD in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. REM sleep behaviour disorder: prodromal and mechanistic insights for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekriwal, Anand; Kern, Drew S; Tsai, Jean; Ince, Nuri F; Wu, Jianping; Thompson, John A; Abosch, Aviva

    2017-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by complex motor enactment of dreams and is a potential prodromal marker of Parkinson's disease (PD). Of note, patients with PD observed during RBD episodes exhibit improved motor function, relative to baseline states during wake periods. Here, we review recent epidemiological and mechanistic findings supporting the prodromal value of RBD for PD, incorporating clinical and electrophysiological studies. Explanations for the improved motor function during RBD episodes are evaluated in light of recent publications. In addition, we present preliminary findings describing changes in the activity of the basal ganglia across the sleep-wake cycle that contribute to our understanding of RBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. In-Home Sleep Recordings in Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reveal Less REM and Deep Sleep <1 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onton, Julie A; Matthews, Scott C; Kang, Dae Y; Coleman, Todd P

    2018-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA) and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm. For this study, 71 control subjects and 60 military-related PTSD subjects were analyzed for percentage of time spent in Light, Hi Deep (1-3 Hz), Lo Deep (spend a smaller percentage of the night in REM ( p spending a larger percentage of the night in Hi Deep ( p < 0.0001) sleep. The percentage of combined Hi+Lo Deep sleep did not differ between groups. All sleepers usually showed EDA peaks during Lo, but not Hi, Deep sleep; however, PTSD sleepers were more likely to lack EDA peaks altogether, which usually coincided with a lack of Lo Deep sleep. Linear regressions with all subjects showed that a decreased percentage of REM sleep in PTSD sleepers was accounted for by age, prazosin, SSRIs and SNRIs ( p < 0.02), while decreased Lo Deep and increased Hi Deep in the PTSD group could not be accounted for by any factor in this study ( p < 0.005). Linear regression models with only the PTSD group showed that decreased REM correlated with self-reported depression, as measured with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; p < 0.00001). DASS anxiety was associated with increased REM time ( p < 0.0001). This study shows altered sleep patterns in sleepers with PTSD that can be partially accounted for by age and medication use; however, differences in deep sleep related to PTSD could not be linked to any known factor. With several medications [prazosin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs

  20. Cordance derived from REM sleep EEG as a biomarker for treatment response in depression--a naturalistic study after antidepressant medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marek; Gazea, Mary; Wollweber, Bastian; Holsboer, Florian; Dresler, Martin; Steiger, Axel; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether prefrontal cordance in theta frequency band derived from REM sleep EEG after the first week of antidepressant medication could characterize the treatment response after 4 weeks of therapy in depressed patients. 20 in-patients (15 females, 5 males) with a depressive episode and 20 healthy matched controls were recruited into 4-week, open label, case-control study. Patients were treated with various antidepressants. No significant differences in age (responders (mean ± SD): 45 ± 22) years; non-responders: 49 ± 12 years), medication or Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score (responders: 23.8 ± 4.5; non-responders 24.5 ± 7.6) at inclusion into the study were found between responders and non-responders. Response to treatment was defined as a ≥50% reduction of HAM-D score at the end of four weeks of active medication. Sleep EEG of patients was recorded after the first and the fourth week of medication. Cordance was computed for prefrontal EEG channels in theta frequency band during tonic REM sleep. The group of 8 responders had significantly higher prefrontal theta cordance in relation to the group of 12 non-responders after the first week of antidepressant medication. This finding was significant also when controlling for age, gender and number of previous depressive episodes (F1,15 = 6.025, P = .027). Furthermore, prefrontal cordance of all patients showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.52; P = .019) with the improvement of HAM-D score between the inclusion week and fourth week of medication. The results suggest that prefrontal cordance derived from REM sleep EEG could provide a biomarker for the response to antidepressant treatment in depressed patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Daytime Ayahuasca administration modulates REM and slow-wave sleep in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanoj, Manel J; Riba, Jordi; Clos, S; Giménez, S; Grasa, E; Romero, S

    2008-02-01

    Ayahuasca is a traditional South American psychoactive beverage and the central sacrament of Brazilian-based religious groups, with followers in Europe and the United States. The tea contains the psychedelic indole N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and beta-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties that render DMT orally active. DMT interacts with serotonergic neurotransmission acting as a partial agonist at 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor sites. Given the role played by serotonin in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle, we investigated the effects of daytime ayahuasca consumption in sleep parameters. Subjective sleep quality, polysomnography (PSG), and spectral analysis were assessed in a group of 22 healthy male volunteers after the administration of a placebo, an ayahuasca dose equivalent to 1 mg DMT kg(-1) body weight, and 20 mg d-amphetamine, a proaminergic drug, as a positive control. Results show that ayahuasca did not induce any subjectively perceived deterioration of sleep quality or PSG-measured disruptions of sleep initiation or maintenance, in contrast with d-amphetamine, which delayed sleep initiation, disrupted sleep maintenance, induced a predominance of 'light' vs 'deep' sleep and significantly impaired subjective sleep quality. PSG analysis also showed that similarly to d-amphetamine, ayahuasca inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, decreasing its duration, both in absolute values and as a percentage of total sleep time, and shows a trend increase in its onset latency. Spectral analysis showed that d-amphetamine and ayahuasca increased power in the high frequency range, mainly during stage 2. Remarkably, whereas slow-wave sleep (SWS) power in the first night cycle, an indicator of sleep pressure, was decreased by d-amphetamine, ayahuasca enhanced power in this frequency band. Results show that daytime serotonergic psychedelic drug administration leads to measurable changes in PSG and sleep power spectrum and suggest an

  2. Short-Term Total Sleep-Deprivation Impairs Contextual Fear Memory, and Contextual Fear-Conditioning Reduces REM Sleep in Moderately Anxious Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazah F. Qureshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The conditioning tasks have been widely used to model fear and anxiety and to study their association with sleep. Many reports suggest that sleep plays a vital role in the consolidation of fear memory. Studies have also demonstrated that fear-conditioning influences sleep differently in mice strains having a low or high anxiety level. It is, therefore, necessary to know, how sleep influences fear-conditioning and how fear-conditioning induces changes in sleep architecture in moderate anxious strains. We have used Swiss mice, a moderate anxious strain, to study the effects of: (i sleep deprivation on contextual fear conditioned memory, and also (ii contextual fear conditioning on sleep architecture. Animals were divided into three groups: (a non-sleep deprived (NSD; (b stress control (SC; and (c sleep-deprived (SD groups. The SD animals were SD for 5 h soon after training. We found that the NSD and SC animals showed 60.57% and 58.12% freezing on the testing day, while SD animals showed significantly less freezing (17.13% only; p < 0.001 on the testing day. Further, we observed that contextual fear-conditioning did not alter the total amount of wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. REM sleep, however, significantly decreased in NSD and SC animals on the training and testing days. Interestingly, REM sleep did not decrease in the SD animals on the testing day. Our results suggest that short-term sleep deprivation impairs fear memory in moderate anxious mice. It also suggests that NREM sleep, but not REM sleep, may have an obligatory role in memory consolidation.

  3. Exposure to dim artificial light at night increases REM sleep and awakenings in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Bok, Ki-Nam; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Leen; Lee, Eun-Il

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) has become increasing common, especially in developed countries. We investigated the effect of dALAN exposure during sleep in healthy young male subjects. A total of 30 healthy young male volunteers from 21 to 29 years old were recruited for the study. They were randomly divided into two groups depending on light intensity (Group A: 5 lux and Group B: 10 lux). After a quality control process, 23 healthy subjects were included in the study (Group A: 11 subjects, Group B: 12 subjects). Subjects underwent an NPSG session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two different dim light conditions (5 or 10 lux, dom λ: 501.4 nm) for a whole night (Night 2). We found significant sleep structural differences between Nights 1 and 2, but no difference between Groups A and B. Exposure to dALAN during sleep was significantly associated with increased wake time after sleep onset (WASO; F = 7.273, p = 0.014), increased Stage N1 (F = 4.524, p = 0.045), decreased Stage N2 (F = 9.49, p = 0.006), increased Stage R (F = 6.698, p = 0.017) and non-significantly decreased REM density (F = 4.102, p = 0.056). We found that dALAN during sleep affects sleep structure. Exposure to dALAN during sleep increases the frequency of arousals, amount of shallow sleep and amount of REM sleep. This suggests adverse effects of dALAN during sleep on sleep quality and suggests the need to avoid exposure to dALAN during sleep.

  4. REM meter for pulsed sources of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.E.; Hunt, G.F.; Rueppel, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A rem meter was constructed specifically for measuring neutrons produced by fusion experiments for which the source pulses last 10 ms or longer. The detector is a 6 Li glass scintillator, 25.4 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm thick, surrounded by 11.5 cm of polyethylene. This detector has a sensitivity of 8.5 x 10 4 counts/mrem. The signals from this fast scintillator are shaped using a shorted delay line to produce pulses that are only 10 ns long so that dose equivalent rates up to 12 mrem/s can be measured with less than a 1% counting loss. The associated electronic circuits store detector counts only when the count rate exceeds a preset level. When the count rate returns to background, a conversion from counts to dose equivalent is made and the results are displayed. As a means of recording the number of source pulses that have occurred, a second display shows how many times the preset count rate has been exceeded. Accumulation of detector counts and readouts can also be controlled manually. The unit will display the integrated dose equilavent up to 200 mrem in 0.01 mrem steps. A pulse-height discriminator rejects gamma-ray interactions below 1 MeV, and the detector size limits the response above that energy. The instrument can be operated from an ac line or will run on rechargeable batteries for up to 12 hours

  5. Validation of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment and Detection of Residual Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Pevernagie, Dirk; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    the performance of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex (Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA) automatically adjusted positive airway pressure (APAP) mode to manually titrated, fixed pressure CPAP and to validate the device's breathing event detection capabilities against attended in-laboratory PSG. METHODS...

  6. Automatic detection of slow-wave sleep and REM-sleep stages using polysomnographic ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemiri, S.; Aloui, K.; Naceur, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe in this paper a new approach of classifying the different sleep stages only by focusing on the polysomnographic ECG signals. We show the pre-processing technique of the ECG signals. At the same time the identifcation and elimination of the different types of artifacts which contain the signal and its reconstruction are shown. The automatic classification of the slow-deep sleep and the rapid eye movement sleep called in this work REM-sleep consists in extracting physiological indicators that characterize these two sleep stages through the polysomnographic ECG signal. In other words, this classification is based on the analysis of the cardiac rhythm during a night's sleep.

  7. Burden of proof for the illegal immissions as prerequisite of in rem removal claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the question of the burden of proof for the facts that imply illegal immission as prerequisite of in rem removal claim. The approach is different to the standard doctrine and it is in according to the general rule of the burden of proof in litigation - so called modified norm theory. In the centre of the attention is distinction of so called constitutive and impeditive facts, and criteria for distinction. The implementation of modified norm theory regarding issue of this paper shows that primal distinguishing point is not suitable, so the other modification methods should be applied, in order to get the answer.

  8. Abnormal metabolic network activity in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-02-18

    To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.

  9. Reflex epileptic mechanisms in humans: Lessons about natural ictogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The definition of reflex epileptic seizures is that specific seizure types can be triggered by certain sensory or cognitive stimuli. Simple triggers are sensory (most often visual, more rarely tactile or proprioceptive; simple audiogenic triggers in humans are practically nonexistent) and act within seconds, whereas complex triggers like praxis, reading and talking, and music are mostly cognitive and work within minutes. The constant relation between a qualitatively, often even quantitatively, well-defined stimulus and a specific epileptic response provides unique possibilities to investigate seizure generation in natural human epilepsies. For several reflex epileptic mechanisms (REMs), this has been done. Reflex epileptic mechanisms have been reported less often in focal lesional epilepsies than in idiopathic "generalized" epilepsies (IGEs) which are primarily genetically determined. The key syndrome of IGE is juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), where more than half of the patients present reflex epileptic traits (photosensitivity, eye closure sensitivity, praxis induction, and language-induced orofacial reflex myocloni). Findings with multimodal investigations of cerebral function concur to indicate that ictogenic mechanisms in IGEs largely (ab)use preexisting functional anatomic networks (CNS subsystems) normally serving highly complex physiological functions (e.g., deliberate complex actions and linguistic communication) which supports the concept of system epilepsy. Whereas REMs in IGEs, thus, are primarily function-related, in focal epilepsies, they are primarily localization-related. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Genetic and Reflex Epilepsies, Audiogenic Seizures and Strains: From Experimental Models to the Clinic". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease with impulse control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Maria Livia; Figorilli, Michela; Arnulf, Isabelle; Zibetti, Maurizio; Pereira, Bruno; Beudin, Patricia; Puligheddu, Monica; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Lacomblez, Lucette; Benchetrit, Eve; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Cicolin, Alessandro; Lopiano, Leonardo; Marques, Ana; Durif, Franck

    2018-03-01

    Because the association between rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been debated, we assessed the sleep characteristics and the frequency of RBD using video-polysomnography (v-PSG) in patients with PD with versus without ICDs. Eighty non-demented patients with PD consecutively identified during routine evaluation at three movement disorders centres were enrolled in a case-control study. Forty patients (22 men; mean age: 62.6±9.7 years, Hoehn & Yahr: 2.1±0.6) with one or more current ICDs were age-matched and sex-matched with 40 patients with no history of ICDs (22 men, mean age: 64.9±7.8 years, Hoehn & Yahr: 2.2±0.6). They underwent a detailed sleep interview followed by a full-night in-lab v-PSG. Sleep was scored blindly to ICDs condition and RBD diagnosis included a clinical complaint of enacted dreams and/or documented behaviour during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, with the presence of quantified REM sleep without atonia (RSWA). Patients with ICDs had a higher arousal index and higher RSWA than those without ICDs (51.9%±28.2%vs 32.2±27.1%, p=0.004). In addition, RBD was more frequent in the ICD group (85%vs53%, p=0.0001). RBD was still associated with ICDs in a multivariate regression analysis including age of onset, PD duration and severity, treatment duration, levodopa-equivalent and dopamine agonist-equivalent daily doses and antidepressant use (OR: 4.9 (95% CI 1.3 to 18.5), p=0.02). This large, controlled series of patients with PD with ICDs assessed by v-PSG confirms the association between ICDs and RBD. Increased surveillance of symptoms of ICDs should be recommended in patients with PD with RBD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Thermophysical Properties Along Curiosity's Traverse in Gale Crater, Mars, Derived from the REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Michael Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The REMS instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has measured ground temperature nearly continuously at hourly intervals for two Mars years. Coverage of the entire diurnal cycle at 1 Hz is available every few martian days. We compare these measurements with predictions of surface atmosphere thermal models to derive the apparent thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo along the rovers traverse after accounting for the radiative effects of atmospheric water ice during fall and winter, as is necessary to match the measured seasonal trend. The REMS measurements can distinguish between active sand, other loose materials, mudstone, and sandstone based on their thermophysical properties. However, the apparent thermal inertias of bedrock dominated surfaces [approx. 350-550 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1 s(exp. -1/2 )] are lower than expected. We use rover imagery and the detailed shape of the diurnal ground temperature curve to explore whether lateral or vertical heterogeneity in the surface materials within the sensor footprint might explain the low inertias. We find that the bedrock component of the surface can have a thermal inertia as high as 650-1700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. -1/2) for mudstone sites and approx. 700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. - 1/2) for sandstone sites in models runs that include lateral and vertical mixing. Although the results of our forward modeling approach may be non-unique, they demonstrate the potential to extract information about lateral and vertical variations in thermophysical properties from temporally resolved measurements of ground temperature.

  12. The effects of leptin on REM sleep and slow wave delta in rats are reversed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, C M; Fitch, T E; Gershenfeld, H K

    1999-09-01

    Leptin (ob protein) is an adipose tissue derived circulating hormone that acts at specific receptors in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake. The protein is also critically involved in energy balance and metabolic status. Here the effect of leptin on sleep architecture in rats was evaluated because food consumption and metabolic status are known to influence sleep. Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically implanted with electrodes for EEG and EMG recording and diurnal sleep parameters were quantified over 9-h periods following leptin administration. Murine recombinant leptin (rMuLep) was administered systemically to rats that either had undergone 18 h of prior food deprivation or had received food ad libitum. In the normally fed rats, leptin significantly decreased the duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) by about 30% and increased the duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) by about 13%, the latter effect reflecting enhanced power in the delta frequency band. These results are consistent with studies that have linked changes in metabolic rate with effects on sleep. Leptin administration has previously been shown to alter neuroendocrine parameters that could have mediated these changes in sleep architecture. Unexpectedly, prior food deprivation negated the effect of leptin on both REMS and SWS, a result that emphasizes the significance of the apparent coupling between sleep parameters and energy status.

  13. Decreased sleep spindle density in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julie A E; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Leonthin, Helle L; Arvastson, Lars; Christensen, Søren R; Sorensen, Helge B D; Jennum, Poul

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether sleep spindles (SS) are potentially a biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifteen PD patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (PD+RBD), 15 PD patients without RBD (PD-RBD), 15 idiopathic RBD (iRBD) patients and 15 age-matched controls underwent polysomnography (PSG). SS were scored in an extract of data from control subjects. An automatic SS detector using a Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was developed and applied to the PSG recordings. The SS densities in N1, N2, N3, all NREM combined and REM sleep were obtained and evaluated across the groups. The SS detector achieved a sensitivity of 84.7% and a specificity of 84.5%. At a significance level of α=1%, the iRBD and PD+RBD patients had a significantly lower SS density than the control group in N2, N3 and all NREM stages combined. At a significance level of α=5%, PD-RBD had a significantly lower SS density in N2 and all NREM stages combined. The lower SS density suggests involvement in pre-thalamic fibers involved in SS generation. SS density is a potential early PD biomarker. It is likely that an automatic SS detector could be a supportive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of iRBD and PD patients. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced upper obstructions in N3 and increased lower obstructions in REM sleep stage detected with manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Markus; Schramm, Juliane; Bautz, Maximilian; Hofauer, Benedikt; Edenharter, Günther; Ott, Armin; Heiser, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), airway obstruction occurs at different anatomic levels. The frequency and location of obstructions play a crucial role in the planning of surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharyngeal obstruction levels in different sleep stages with manometry in OSA patients. In addition, the manometry results were compared with drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). Forty-one patients with OSA received manometry measurements during one night of sleep. All patients were simultaneously evaluated with polysomnography. The frequency of obstructions in different sleep stages was assessed. Twenty patients were additionally studied with DISE. Obstruction levels detected with manometry were compared with DISE. The frequency of upper and to a lesser extent lower obstructions decreased in sleep stage N3. In rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, lower obstructions increased. The overall proportion of upper and lower obstructions detected with manometry corresponded with DISE in 13 of 20 cases. A significant change in the obstruction levels was detected with manometry in N3 and REM sleep. The reduction of both upper and to a lesser extent lower obstructions in N3 suggests more stable airways in slow-wave sleep. Relevant lower obstructions were not detected in DISE compared to manometry in 5 out of 20 examinations. This could be a potential reason for treatment failure of site-specific surgical OSA treatment when only performing DISE preoperatively. Therefore, manometry could be a useful complementary tool in the preoperative evaluation for OSA.

  15. Development of Rural Emergency Medical System (REMS) with Geospatial Technology in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, W. H.; Shahrizal, I. M.; Noordin, A.; Nurulain, M. I.; Norhan, M. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Emergency medical services are dedicated services in providing out-of-hospital transport to definitive care or patients with illnesses and injuries. In this service the response time and the preparedness of medical services is of prime importance. The application of space and geospatial technology such as satellite navigation system and Geographical Information System (GIS) was proven to improve the emergency operation in many developed countries. In collaboration with a medical service NGO, the National Space Agency (ANGKASA) has developed a prototype Rural Emergency Medical System (REMS), focusing on providing medical services to rural areas and incorporating satellite based tracking module integrated with GIS and patience database to improve the response time of the paramedic team during emergency. With the aim to benefit the grassroots community by exploiting space technology, the project was able to prove the system concept which will be addressed in this paper.

  16. Analysis of the concept of Ministry of Public Health of the former USSR (35 rem) and republic concept of population residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Concept of safe population residence at the contaminated territories accepted by Ministry of Public Health of the USSR in November, 1988 following the Chernobyl accident is discussed. Groundlessness of the introduced 'dose for life' equal 35 rem is marked as well as incompetence of the approach to population residence at contaminated territories. Republic concept of population residence at Belarussian contaminated territories is presented

  17. Costly Signaling Theory of REM Sleep and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNamara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of REM sleep dreaming is still unknown. We situate our approach to understanding dream phenomenology and dream function within that part of evolutionary theory known as Costly Signaling Theory (CST. We contend that many of the signals produced by the dreaming brain can be and should be construed as “costly signals”—emotions or mental simulations that produce daytime behavioral dispositions that are costly to the dreamer. For example, often the dreamer will appear in the dream as handicapped in some way (i.e., no clothes, no ID, no money, is under attack, being chased etc.. The dreamer, during waking life, is then influenced by the carry-over effect of the unpleasant dream content. The informational and affective content of the dream creates a mental set in the dreamer that operates during the daytime to facilitate the signaling of a “handicapped” Self. The subtle signaling effect might be via display of the intense emotions or physical demeanor that had first appeared in the dream. When the dreamer shares his dream with others the dream has a more direct impact on waking life and social interactions. In effect, the dreamer uses his or her dreams to adopt a self-handicapping strategy when dealing with significant others. The increased use of costly signals (the self-handicapping strategy during the daytime then facilitates some vital communicative goal of the dreamer.

  18. Sleep and dreaming: induction and mediation of REM sleep by cholinergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A

    1992-12-01

    The most important recent work on the neurobiology of sleep has focused on the precise cellular and biochemical mechanisms of rapid eye movement sleep mediation. Direct and indirect evidence implicates acetylcholine-containing neurons in the peribrachial pons as critical in the triggering and maintenance of rapid eye movement sleep. Other new studies provide support for the hypothesis that the cholinergic generator system is gated during waking by serotonergic and noradrenergic influences. A growing consensus regarding the basic neurobiology has stimulated new thinking about the brain basis of consciousness during waking and dreaming.

  19. The Dramatic Development of the Parable of the Prodigal Son in the Sacramental Play by Alonso Remón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Massanet Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The parable of the prodigal son is circumscribed as a predominant theme for the authors of the Spanish Golden Age to develop the plot of some of his autos sacramentales. However, among all these playwrights, the figure of Alonso Remón and his piece have been largely ignored. This article reviews the sacramental career of this author and highlights its importance and differences compared to other comedies that address the same theme.

  20. Enhancement of Neocortical-Medial Temporal EEG Correlations during Non-REM Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Axmacher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interregional interactions of oscillatory activity are crucial for the integrated processing of multiple brain regions. However, while the EEG in virtually all brain structures passes through substantial modifications during sleep, it is still an open question whether interactions between neocortical and medial temporal EEG oscillations also depend on the state of alertness. Several previous studies in animals and humans suggest that hippocampal-neocortical interactions crucially depend on the state of alertness (i.e., waking state or sleep. Here, we analyzed scalp and intracranial EEG recordings during sleep and waking state in epilepsy patients undergoing presurgical evaluation. We found that the amplitudes of oscillations within the medial temporal lobe and the neocortex were more closely correlated during sleep, in particular during non-REM sleep, than during waking state. Possibly, the encoding of novel sensory inputs, which mainly occurs during waking state, requires that medial temporal dynamics are rather independent from neocortical dynamics, while the consolidation of memories during sleep may demand closer interactions between MTL and neocortex.

  1. Medical image of the week: REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahapetian RR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. A 55 year old female with a past medical history significant for Parkinson disease status-post implantation of bilateral deep brain stimulators, depression, and restless legs syndrome, who initially presented to the sleep clinic on referral by neurology for evaluation of disordered sleep. Medications included carbidopa-levodopa, escitalopram, gabapentin, lorazepam, ambien, and pramipexole. Her subjective sleep complaints included snoring, restless sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, sleep related anxiety, dream enactment behavior, nightmares, and sleep talking. She was sent to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of suspected rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD. Overnight polysomnogram did not show evidence for sleep disordered breathing. The sleep study was notable for rapid eye movement (REM sleep without atonia, visible arm and leg movements, and audible moaning, speaking, and crying out. These findings corroborated the subjective complaints expressed by the patient and her husband. Her medication regimen was altered. Zolpidem and lorazepam were discontinued and she ...

  2. Rodinný dům s ateliérem, Roztoky u Prahy

    OpenAIRE

    Degr, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    Předmětem této bakalářské práce je novostavba rodinného domu s ateliérem v Roztokách u Prahy. Objekt se dělí na dvě části. První - obytná část je dvoupodlažní a je izolována od komunikace druhou částí. Druhá část je jednopodlažní s otevřeným pracovním prostorem, oddělenou kanceláří a zasedací místností. Objekt je navržen jako zděný z broušených cihelných bloků s keramickou stropní konstrukcí. Střecha objektu je plochá a na jednopodlažní části domu slouží zároveň jako terasa. Stavební pozemek ...

  3. Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep Mimicking REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A New Form of Periodic Limb Movement Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaig, Carles; Iranzo, Alex; Pujol, Montserrat; Perez, Hernando; Santamaria, Joan

    2017-03-01

    To describe a group of patients referred because of abnormal sleep behaviors that were suggestive of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in whom video-polysomnography ruled out RBD and showed the reported behaviors associated with vigorous periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS). Clinical history and video-polysomnography review of patients identified during routine visits in a sleep center. Patients were 15 men and 2 women with a median age of 66 (range: 48-77) years. Reported sleep behaviors were kicking (n = 17), punching (n = 16), gesticulating (n = 8), falling out of bed (n = 5), assaulting the bed partner (n = 2), talking (n = 15), and shouting (n = 10). Behaviors resulted in injuries in 3 bed partners and 1 patient. Twelve (70.6%) patients were not aware of displaying abnormal sleep behaviors that were only noticed by their bed partners. Ten (58.8%) patients recalled unpleasant dreams such as being attacked or chased. Video-polysomnography showed (1) frequent and vigorous stereotyped PLMS involving the lower limbs, upper limbs, and trunk (median PLMS index 61.2; median PLMS index in NREM sleep 61.9; during REM sleep only 8 patients had PLMS and their median PLMS index in REM sleep was 39.5); (2) abnormal behaviors (e.g., punching, groaning) during some of the arousals that immediately followed PLMS in NREM sleep; and (3) ruled out RBD and other sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. Dopaminergic agents were prescribed in 14 out of the 17 patients and resulted in improvement of abnormal sleep behaviors and unpleasant dreams in all of them. After dopaminergic treatment, follow-up video-polysomnography in 7 patients showed a decrease in the median PLMS index from baseline (108.9 vs. 19.2, p = .002) and absence of abnormal behaviors during the arousals. Abnormal sleep behaviors and unpleasant dreams simulating RBD symptomatology may occur in patients with severe PLMS. In these cases, video-polysomnography ruled out RBD and

  4. State- or trait-like individual differences in dream recall: Preliminary findings from a within-subjects study of multiple nap REM sleep awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eScarpelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined the question whether the role of EEG oscillations in predicting presence/absence of dream recall (DR is explained by state- or trait-like factors. Six healthy subjects were awakened from REM sleep in a within-subjects design with multiple naps, until a recall (REC and a non-recall (NREC condition were obtained. Naps were scheduled in the early afternoon and were separated by one week. Topographical EEG data of the 5-min of REM sleep preceding each awakening were analyzed by power spectral analysis [Fast Fourier Transform (FFT] and by a method to detect oscillatory activity [Better OSCillations (BOSC].Both analyses show that REC is associated to higher frontal theta activity (5-7 Hz and theta oscillations (6.06 Hz compared to NREC condition, but only the second comparison reached significance. Our pilot study provides support to the notion that sleep and wakefulness share similar EEG correlates of encoding in episodic memories, and supports the state-like hypothesis: dream recall may depend on the physiological state related to the sleep stage from which the subject is awakened rather than on a stable individual EEG pattern.

  5. Charpy impact test pada kampas rem hybrid komposit phenolic resin matrik dengan penguat serbuk basalt-Alumina-kulit kerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N. G. Suma Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini adalah difokuskan untuk mengamati ketahanan impact dari material kampas rem kendaraan bermotor. Kampasrem yang diujikan adalah kampas yang terbuat dari material hybrid komposit dengan penguat serbuk basalt – serbuk kulitkerang dan alumina dan pengikat phenolic resin. Material kampas rem hibrid komposit diproses melalui proses sinteringdengan penekanan 2 ton, temperatur 150ºC selama 30 menit. Tujuan penelitian adalah menginvestigasi kekuatan impact daripada bahan hybrid komposit untuk masing – masing variasi terhadap perlakuan impact charpy yang didasarkan pada standarASTM D6110–04. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menganalisa nilai energy yang mampu diserap oleh bahan akibat bebanimpact, selanjutnya patahan impact charpy dianalisa dengan SEM. Diperoleh hasil pengujian charpy impact untuk masing –masing variasi hybrid komposit adalah nilai kekuatan yang tinggi terjadi pada hibrid komposit variasi 2 (HK2 dengan nilai0,000339547 J/mm2, ini disebabkan karena mempunyai ikatan antara metrik dan basalt yang lebih kuat dan sempurnadibandingkan dengan hibrid komposit lainnya. Untuk nilai hibrid komposit variasi 1 (HK1 adalah 0,000304851 J/mm², hibridkomposit variasi 3 (HK3 adalah 0,000334516 J/mm², hibrid komposit variasi 4 (HK4 adalah 0,000325059 J/mm², hibridkomposit variasi 5 (HK5 adalah 0,0003327 J/mm². (2 Dari perbandingan antara kampas rem dipasaran dengan kampas remhibrid komposit maka didapat nilai kekuatannya berbeda pada hibrid komposit variasi 2 (HK2 dengan kampas pembanding(KP yang memiliki nilai kekuatannya lebih besar yaitu, 0,000374867 J/mm².Kata kunci : Kampas rem, Impact charpy, Hibrid komposit, Basalt, Aluminium, Kulit Kerang Abstract: This research is focused to observe the impact resistance of motor vehicles brake lining material. Brake tested are canvasmade of hybrid composite materials with basalt powder reinforced – seashells, alumina powder, and a phenolic resin matrix.Hybrid composite brake

  6. The rem mutations in the ATP-binding groove of the Rad3/XPD helicase lead to Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Moyano, Emilia; Moriel-Carretero, María; Montelone, Beth A; Aguilera, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    The eukaryotic TFIIH complex is involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and transcription initiation. We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes). We found that, in these mutants, incomplete NER reactions lead to replication fork breaking and the subsequent engagement of the homologous recombination machinery to restore them. Nevertheless, the penetrance varies among mutants, giving rise to a phenotype gradient. Interestingly, the mutations analyzed reside at the ATP-binding groove of Rad3 and in vivo experiments reveal a gain of DNA affinity upon damage of the mutant Rad3 proteins. Since mutations at the ATP-binding groove of XPD in humans are present in the Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome (XP-CS), we recreated rem mutations in human cells, and found that these are XP-CS-like. We propose that the balance between the loss of helicase activity and the gain of DNA affinity controls the capacity of TFIIH to open DNA during NER, and its persistence at both DNA lesions and promoters. This conditions NER efficiency and transcription resumption after damage, which in human cells would explain the XP-CS phenotype, opening new perspectives to understand the molecular basis of the role of XPD in human disease.

  7. Prolonged REM sleep restriction induces metabolic syndrome-related changes: Mediation by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Chronic sleep restriction in human beings results in metabolic abnormalities, including changes in the control of glucose homeostasis, increased body mass and risk of cardiovascular disease. In rats, 96h of REM sleep deprivation increases caloric intake, but retards body weight gain. Moreover, this procedure increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may be involved with the molecular mechanism proposed to mediate insulin resistance. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a chronic protocol of sleep restriction on parameters of energy balance (food intake and body weight), leptin plasma levels and its hypothalamic receptors and mediators of the immune system in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT). Thirty-four Wistar rats were distributed in control (CTL) and sleep restriction groups; the latter was kept onto individual narrow platforms immersed in water for 18h/day (from 16:00h to 10:00h), for 21days (SR21). Food intake was assessed daily, after each sleep restriction period and body weight was measured daily, after the animals were taken from the sleep deprivation chambers. At the end of the 21day of sleep restriction, rats were decapitated and RPAT was obtained for morphological and immune functional assays and expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was assessed in skeletal muscle. Another subset of animals was used to evaluate blood glucose clearance. The results replicated previous findings on energy balance, e.g., increased food intake and reduced body weight gain. There was a significant reduction of RPAT mass (pmetabolic syndrome-related alterations that may be mediated by inflammation of the RPAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement in reduced-mode (REM) diodes enable 315 W from 105-μm 0.15-NA fiber-coupled modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanskar, M.; Bao, L.; Chen, Z.; Dawson, D.; DeVito, M.; Dong, W.; Grimshaw, M.; Guan, X.; Hemenway, M.; Martinsen, R.; Urbanek, W.; Zhang, S.

    2018-02-01

    High-power, high-brightness diode lasers have been pursued for many applications including fiber laser pumping, materials processing, solid-state laser pumping, and consumer electronics manufacturing. In particular, 915 nm - and 976 nm diodes are of interest as diode pumps for the kilowatt CW fiber lasers. As a result, there have been many technical thrusts for driving the diode lasers to have both high power and high brightness to achieve high-performance and reduced manufacturing costs. This paper presents our continued progress in the development of high brightness fiber-coupled product platform, nLIGHT element®. In the past decade, the power coupled into a single 105 μm and 0.15 NA fiber has increased by over a factor of ten through improved diode laser brightness and the development of techniques for efficiently coupling multiple emitters. In this paper, we demonstrate further brightness improvement and power-scaling enabled by both the rise in chip brightness/power and the increase in number of chips coupled into a given numerical aperture. We report a new chip technology using x-REM design with brightness as high as 4.3 W/mm-mrad at a BPP of 3 mm-mrad. We also report record 315 W output from a 2×12 nLIGHT element with 105 μm diameter fiber using x-REM diodes and these diodes will allow next generation of fiber-coupled product capable of 250W output power from 105 μm/0.15 NA beam at 915 nm.

  9. Sleep apnea and REM sleep behavior disorder in patients with Chiari malformations Apnéia do sono e distúrbio do comportamento da fase do sono com REM em pacientes com malformações de Chiari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio A. Henriques-Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chiari malformations (CM may result in the appearance of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS that can be considered markers of brain stem dysfunction. PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of RBD and SAS in patients with CM type I and II. METHOD: Were evaluated 103 patients with CM by means of full night polysomnography. Were scoring different sleep stages, frequency of abnormal movements (through video monitoring and abnormal respiratory events. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients, 36 showed CM type I and 67 CM type II. Episodes of RBD were observed in 23 patients. Abnormal apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was observed in 65 patients. CONCLUSION: The high rate of RBD suggests that this parassomnia and the increased frequency of central sleep apnea episodes, may be considered as a marker of progressive brain stem dysfunction.INTRODUÇÃO: Malformações de Chiari (MC podem gerar o aparecimento de distúrbio comportamental da fase do sono com REM (DCR e síndrome da apnéia do sono (SAS, sugerindo a ocorrência de disfunção do tronco cerebral. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de DCR e SAS em pacientes com MC I ou II. MÉTODO: Utilizou-se a polissonografia de noite inteira para a avaliação de 103 pacientes. Classificaram-se as diferentes fases do sono e analisou-se a freqüência de movimentos anormais (monitorada por vídeo e de eventos respiratórios anormais. RESULTADOS: Dos 103 pacientes analisados, 36 eram portadores de MC I e 67 de MC II. Episódios de DCR foram observados em 23 pacientes. O índice de apnéia/hipopnéia foi considerado anormal em 65 pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: A alta freqüência de DCR e o aumento da freqüência de episódios de apnéia central do sono podem ser considerados manifestação de disfunção progressiva do tronco cerebral.

  10. Response functions of the Andersson-Braun and extended range rem counters for neutron energies from thermal to 10 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mares, V; Schraube, H

    2002-01-01

    This work is devoted to the calculation of responses as functions of neutron energy for a paired set of Andersson-Braun rem counters, which is commercially available. Different Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP, LAHET, HADRON and MCNPX were applied in the calculations. The study extended to frontal, lateral and isotropic neutron incidence. For an estimation of the contribution of charged high-energy particles to the reading, the responses to protons and pions were also determined. The results obtained give good bases for the practical use of the new instrument in high-energy neutron fields.

  11. A computerized glow curve analysis (GCA) method for WinREMS thermoluminescent dosimeter data using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, John A.; Rodrigues, Miesher L.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2011-01-01

    A computerized glow curve analysis (GCA) program for handling of thermoluminescence data originating from WinREMS is presented. The MATLAB program fits the glow peaks using the first-order kinetics model. Tested materials are LiF:Mg,Ti, CaF 2 :Dy, CaF 2 :Tm, CaF 2 :Mn, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, and CaSO 4 :Dy, with most having an average figure of merit (FOM) of 1.3% or less, with CaSO 4 :Dy 2.2% or less. Output is a list of fit parameters, peak areas, and graphs for each fit, evaluating each glow curve in 1.5 s or less. - Highlights: → Robust algorithm for performing thermoluminescent dosimeter glow curve analysis. → Written in MATLAB so readily implemented on variety of computers. → Usage of figure of merit demonstrated for six different materials.

  12. Activation of inactivation process initiates rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Birendra Nath; Singh, Abhishek; Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Interactions among REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons form the basic scaffold for rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) regulation; however, precise mechanism of their activation and cessation, respectively, was unclear. Locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenalin (NA)-ergic neurons are REM-OFF type and receive GABA-ergic inputs among others. GABA acts postsynaptically on the NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons in the LC and presynaptically on the latter's projection terminals and modulates NA-release on the REM-ON neurons. Normally during wakefulness and non-REMS continuous release of NA from the REM-OFF neurons, which however, is reduced during the latter phase, inhibits the REM-ON neurons and prevents REMS. At this stage GABA from substantia nigra pars reticulate acting presynaptically on NA-ergic terminals on REM-ON neurons withdraws NA-release causing the REM-ON neurons to escape inhibition and being active, may be even momentarily. A working-model showing neurochemical-map explaining activation of inactivation process, showing contribution of GABA-ergic presynaptic inhibition in withdrawing NA-release and dis-inhibition induced activation of REM-ON neurons, which in turn activates other GABA-ergic neurons and shutting-off REM-OFF neurons for the initiation of REMS-generation has been explained. Our model satisfactorily explains yet unexplained puzzles (i) why normally REMS does not appear during waking, rather, appears following non-REMS; (ii) why cessation of LC-NA-ergic-REM-OFF neurons is essential for REMS-generation; (iii) factor(s) which does not allow cessation of REM-OFF neurons causes REMS-loss; (iv) the association of changes in levels of GABA and NA in the brain during REMS and its deprivation and associated symptoms; v) why often dreams are associated with REMS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative simulation of feed and bleed operation during the total loss of feedwater event by RELAP5/MOD3 and CEFLASH-4AS/REM computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.M.; Ro, T.S.; Song, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Ulchin 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, which are two-loop 2,825 MW(thermal) pressurized water reactors designed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, adopted a safety depressurization system (SDS) to mitigate the beyond-design-basis event of a total loss of feedwater (TLOFW). A comparative simulation by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM and RELAP5/MOD3 computer codes for the TLOFW event without operator recovery and the TLOFW event with feed and bleed (F and B) operation is performed for Ulchin 3 and 4. In the analyses, the SDS bleed paths are modeled by orifices located on the top of the pressurizer, where the analytical area of the bleed path is based on the Ulchin 3 and 4 SDS design flow capacity. An additional case, where the SDS piping and valves are modeled explicitly, is considered for the RELAP5 analysis. The predictions by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM of the transient two-phase system behavior show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those by the RELAP5 simulation. The RELAP5 case with explicit piping results in less repressurization and lower reactor coolant system pressure than that of the case without explicit SDS modeling. However, the two cases of RELAP5 analyses result in essentially the same transient scenarios for TLOFW with F and B operation. The results of the simulation demonstrate the validity of the Ulchin 3 and 4 design approach, which employs CEFLASH-4AS/REM computer code and SDS bleed paths modeled by orifices located on the top of the pressurizer. The results also indicate that the decay heat removal and core inventory makeup function can be successfully accomplished by F and B operation by using the SDS for Ulchin 3 and 4

  14. Sleepiness in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Neutel, Dulce; Herlin, Bastien; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Vidailhet, Marie

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether patients with idiopathic and symptomatic RBD were sleepier than controls, and if sleepiness in idiopathic RBD predicted earlier conversion to Parkinson disease. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and its determinants were compared at the time of a video-polysomnography for an RBD diagnosis in patients with idiopathic RBD, in patients with Parkinson disease, and in controls. Whether sleepiness at time of RBD diagnosis predicted an earlier conversion to neurodegenerative diseases was retrospectively analyzed in the followed-up patients. The 75 patients with idiopathic RBD were sleepier (ESS: 7.8 ± 4.6) at the time of RBD diagnosis than 74 age- and sex-matched controls (ESS: 5.0 ± 3.6, P sleep measures. Among the 69 patients with idiopathic RBD who were followed up for a median 3 years (1-15 years), 16 (23.2%) developed parkinsonism (n = 6), dementia (n = 6), dementia plus parkinsonism (n = 2), and multiple system atrophy (n = 2). An ESS greater than 8 at time of RBD diagnosis predicted a shorter time to phenoconversion to parkinsonism and dementia, from RBD onset, and from RBD diagnosis (when adjusted for age and time between RBD onset and diagnosis). Sleepiness is associated with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and predicts more rapid conversion to parkinsonism and dementia, suggesting it is an early marker of neuronal loss in brainstem arousal systems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. REM sleep pathways and anticholinesterase intoxication: A mechanism for nerve agent-induced, central respiratory failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism of death following exposure to anticholinesterases, such as the highly toxic nerve agents soman and VX, and other organophosphate anticholinesterases such as the insecticide parathion, remains unclear, although evidence from nerve agent research suggests that death occurs by an

  16. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sonolência diurna excessiva pós-traumatismo de crânio: associação com movimentos periódicos de pernas e distúrbio de comportamento do sono REM: relato de caso Excessive daytime sleepiness after traumatic brain injury: association with periodic limb movements and REM behavior disorder: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato D. Rodrigues

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Um homem de 52 anos, procurou o Hospital. Universitário de Brasília com queixa de sono agitado. Sua esposa relatava, desde há cerca de 10 anos, intensa movimentação de membros e agressividade em meio a sonhos violentos. Desde então apresentava sonolência diurna excessiva. Havia relato de traumatismo de crânio há 34 anos e coma de 2 meses de duração. A vídeo-polissonografia revelou comportamento agressivo e agitado durante o sono REM, e movimentos periódicos de pernas. Havia importante sonolência diurna no teste de latências de sono. Foi instituído tratamento com levodopa-benzerazida 100/25 mg à noite. Após 10 semanas de evolução, houve melhora da movimentação noturna global, e desaparecimento dos episódios ligados a sonhos de conteúdo violento. Este caso nos permite analisar a associação entre trauma craniano e alterações nas vias dopaminérgicas (movimentos periódicos das pernas e distúrbio de comportamento do sono REM e revisar a importância dos distúrbios na produção de hipocretina hipotalâmica na fisiopatologia desse quadro clínico.A 52 year-old male patient, had complaint of "restless sleep". His wife informed that for the past ten years the patient had presented intense and aggressive body movements, and sometimes, violent dreams. The patient also complained of excessive daytime sleepiness. His relevant previous medical history included a traumatic brain injury at the age of 28 which left him in coma for two months. A video-polysomnography showed periodic leg movements and, during REM sleep, aggressive and agitated behaviour. The multiple sleep latency test revealed extremely short latencies. Initially, he was treated with levodopa-benzerazide, 100/25 mg, 2 hours before bedtime. After 10 weeks his overnight behaviour pattern improved and leg movements diminished. This case supports the hypothesis of an association between cranial trauma and alterations in the dopaminergic pathways represented by periodic

  18. Effects of Rare Earth on the Microstructure and Impact Toughness of H13 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Gao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of H13 steel suggest that under appropriate conditions, additions of rare-earth metals (REM can significantly enhance mechanical properties, such as impact toughness. This improvement is apparently due to the formation of finer and more dispersive RE inclusions and grain refinement after REM additions. In this present work, the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of H13 steel with rare earth additions (0, 0.015, 0.025 and 0.1 wt.% were investigated. The grain size, inclusions and fracture morphology were systematically studied by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results indicate that REM addition of 0.015 wt.% can result in good improvement of performance compared to the REM additions of 0.025 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%. It is found that the impact toughness is significantly enhanced with the addition of 0.015% REM, which can be improved 90% from 10 J to 19 J. Such an addition of REM can result in a huge volume fraction of finer and more dispersive inclusions which are extremely good to toughness.

  19. Pareidolias in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Possible Predictive Marker of Lewy Body Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Mori, Etsuro; Inoue, Yuichi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate conditions and clinical significance of pareidolias in patients with idiopathic rapid eyemovent (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). This cross-sectional study examined 202 patients with iRBD (66.8 ± 8.0 yr, 58 female) and 46 healthy control subjects (64.7 ± 5.8 years, 14 females). They underwent the Pareidolia test, a newly developed instrument for evoking pareidolias, video polysomnography, olfactory tests, and Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-revised. Results show that 53.5% of iRBD patients exhibited one or more pareidolic responses: The rate was higher than control subjects showed (21.7%). The pictures evoking pareidolic responses were more numerous for iRBD patients than for control subjects (1.2 ± 1.8 vs. 0.4 ± 0.8, p Pareidolias in iRBD are useful as a predictive marker of future development of Lewy body diseases. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Longitudinal connectome-based predictive modeling for REM sleep behavior disorder from structural brain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, Luca; Ellmore, Timothy M.; Suescun, Jessika; Ocasio, Laura; Kamali, Arash; Riascos-Castaneda, Roy; Schiess, Mya C.

    2018-02-01

    Methods to identify neuroplasticity patterns in human brains are of the utmost importance in understanding and potentially treating neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson disease (PD) research will greatly benefit and advance from the discovery of biomarkers to quantify brain changes in the early stages of the disease, a prodromal period when subjects show no obvious clinical symptoms. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for an in-vivo estimation of the structural connectome inside the brain and may serve to quantify the degenerative process before the appearance of clinical symptoms. In this work, we introduce a novel strategy to compute longitudinal structural connectomes in the context of a whole-brain data-driven pipeline. In these initial tests, we show that our predictive models are able to distinguish controls from asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing PD (REM sleep behavior disorder, RBD) with an area under the receiving operating characteristic curve of 0.90 (pParkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. By analyzing the brain connections most relevant for the predictive ability of the best performing model, we find connections that are biologically relevant to the disease.

  1. Daydreams and nap dreams: Content comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-11-01

    Differences between nighttime REM and NREM dreams are well-established but only rarely are daytime REM and NREM nap dreams compared with each other or with daydreams. Fifty-one participants took daytime naps (with REM or NREM awakenings) and provided both waking daydream and nap dream reports. They also provided ratings of their bizarreness, sensory experience, and emotion intensity. Recall rates for REM (96%) and NREM (89%) naps were elevated compared to typical recall rates for nighttime dreams (80% and 43% respectively), suggesting an enhanced circadian influence. All attribute ratings were higher for REM than for NREM dreams, replicating findings for nighttime dreams. Compared with daydreams, NREM dreams had lower ratings for emotional intensity and sensory experience while REM dreams had higher ratings for bizarreness and sensory experience. Results support using daytime naps in dream research and suggest that there occurs selective enhancement and inhibition of specific dream attributes by REM, NREM and waking state mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The first film presentation of REM sleep behavior disorder precedes its scientific debut by 35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slavko M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The perplexing and tantalizing disease of rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by peculiar, potentially dangerous behavior during REM sleep. It was described both in animals and humans. RBD in mammals was first described by Jouvet and Delorme in 1965, based on an experimental model induced by lesion in pontine region of cats [1]. In 1972, Passouant et al. described sleep with eye movements and persistent tonic muscle activity induced by tricyclic antidepressant medication [2], and Tachibana et al., in 1975, the preservation of muscle tone during REM sleep in the acute psychosis induced by alcohol and meprobamate abuse [3]. However, the first formal description of RBD in humans as new parasomnia was made by Schenck et al in 1986 [4-7]. Subsequently, in 1990, the International Classification of Sleep Disorders definitely recognized RBD as new parasomnia [8]. To our knowledge, arts and literature do not mention RBD. Except for the quotation, made by Schenck et al [6] in 2002, of Don Quixote de la Mancha whose behavior in sleep strongly suggested that Miguel de Servantes actually described RBD, no other artistic work has portrayed this disorder. Only recently we become aware of the cinematic presentation of RBD which by decades precedes the first scientific description. The first presentation of RBD on film was made prior to the era of advanced electroencephalography and polysomnography, and even before the discovery of REM sleep by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953. [9]. The artistic and intuitive presentation of RBD was produced in Technicolor in a famous film "Cinderella" created by Walt Disney in 1950, some 35 years prior to its original publication in the journal "Sleep" [2]. Since there is an earlier version of the film initially produced in 1920, presumably containing this similar scene, we can only speculate that the first cinematic presentation of RBD might precede its scientific debut by 65 years. In a scene

  3. [The first film presentation of REM sleep behavior disorder precedes its scientific debut by 35 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Slavko M; Sokić, Dragoslav V; Vojvodić, Nikola M; Ristić, Aleksandar J

    2006-01-01

    The perplexing and tantalizing disease of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by peculiar, potentially dangerous behavior during REM sleep. It was described both in animals and humans. RBD in mammals was first described by Jouvet and Delorme in 1965, based on an experimental model induced by lesion in pontine region of cats. In 1972, Passouant et al. described sleep with eye movements and persistent tonic muscle activity induced by tricyclic antidepressant medication, and Tachibana et al., in 1975, the preservation of muscle tone during REM sleep in the acute psychosis induced by alcohol and meprobamate abuse. wever, the first formal description of RBD in humans as new parasomnia was made by Schenck et al in 1986. Subsequently, in 1990, the International Classification of Sleep Disorders definitely recognized RBD as new parasomnia. To our knowledge, arts and literature do not mention RBD. Except for the quotation, made by Schenck et al [n 2002, of Don Quixote de la Mancha whose behavior in sleep strongly suggested that Miguel de Servantes actually described RBD, no other artistic work has portrayed this disorder. Only recently we become aware of the cinematic presentation of RBD which by decades precedes the first scientific description. The first presentation of RBD on film was made prior to the era of advanced electroencephalography and polysomnography, and even before the discovery of REM sleep by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953. The artistic and intuitive presentation of RBD was produced in Technicolor in a famous film "Cinderella" created by Walt Disney in 1950, some 35 years prior to its original publication in the journal "Sleep". Since there is an earlier version of the film initially produced in 1920, presumably containing this similar scene, we can only speculate that the first cinematic presentation of RBD might precede its scientific debut by 65 years. In a scene in a barn, clumsy and goofy dog Bruno is, as dogs

  4. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Natalia; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Latreille, Véronique; Panisset, Michel; Chouinard, Sylvain; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33% to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. One hundred sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language. PD patients with RBD had poorer and clinically impaired performance in several cognitive tests compared to PD patients without RBD and healthy subjects. These two latter groups were similar on all cognitive measures. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis frequency was almost threefold higher in PD patients with RBD compared to PD patients without RBD (66% vs. 23%, p < .001). Moreover, subjective cognitive decline was reported in 89% of PD patients with RBD compared to 58% of PD patients without RBD (p = .024). RBD in PD is associated with a more impaired cognitive profile and higher MCI diagnosis frequency, suggesting more severe and widespread neurodegeneration. This patient subgroup and their caregivers should receive targeted medical attention to better detect and monitor impairment and to enable the development of management interventions for cognitive decline and its consequences. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of the granitic magmatism along the Remígio - Pocinhos shear zone, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Jefferson V.; Guimarães, Ignez de P.; Santos, Lucilene; Amorim, José Victor A.; Farias, Douglas José S.

    2017-04-01

    Two granitoid plutons (Pilõezinhos and Curral de Cima) intruded along the Remígio - Pocinhos shear zone, eastern part of the Borborema Province. The Pilõezinhos and Curral de Cima granites were dated at 566 ± 3 Ma and 618 ± 5 Ma respectively. The granitoids from both plutons have distinct initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios, expressed by εNd(t) values, i.e. the granitoids of Pilõezinhos pluton have lower εNd(t) values (-15.47 to -15.81) and negative εHf (t = 570 Ma) values (-16.0 to -18.6), while the granitoids of the Curral de Cima pluton have εNd(t) values between -1.12 and -5.23. The granitoids of the Curral de Cima pluton are epidote bearing, magnesian calcalkaline I-type granitoids, crystallized under high fO2 conditions. The granitoids of the Pilõezinhos pluton are alkaline, low-fO2, ferroan, ilmenite-series, A2-type granite intrusions. The geochemical and isotopic signatures suggest that the origin of magma of the Curral de Cima granitoids involved mixing/mingling at depth between crustal and mantle magmas, associated to decompression (lateral escape) during the convergent stage of Brasiliano/Pan/African orogeny, which lead the asthenosphere melts to rise into the lower crust. The source of magma of the granitoids of the Pilõezinhos pluton involved a strong crustal component with geochemical and isotopic signatures similar to the orthogneisses of the Serrinha-Pedro Velho Complex, and small mantle component. The emplacement of the Pilõezinhos pluton is associated to an extensional space formed during high-T strike-slip shearing developed by the synchronic movement of the Matinhas sinistral shear zone and Remígio - Pocinhos dextral shear zone.

  6. Ecotoxicity testing and environmental risk assessment of iron nanomaterials for sub-surface remediation – Recommendations from the FP7 project NanoRem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Coutris, Claire; Nguyen, Nhung

    2017-01-01

    engineered Fe nanomaterials, specifically, Nano-Goethite, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites, Carbo-Iron® and FerMEG12, developed within the European FP7 project NanoRem for sub-surface remediation towards a test battery consisting of eight ecotoxicity tests on bacteria (V. fisheri, E. coli), algae (P. subcapitata...... milled nZVI (FerMEG12), showed no toxicity in the test battery when tested in concentrations up to 100 mg/L, which is the cutoff for hazard labeling in chemicals regulation in Europe. However it should be noted that Fe nanomaterials proved challenging to test adequately due to their turbidity...

  7. Slow dissolving of emotional distress contributes to hyperarousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, J.S.; Dekker, Kim; Moens, Sarah; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; van der Sluis, Sophie; van der Werf, Ysbrand; Talamini, Lucia; Walker, Matthew; Schalkwijk, Frans; van Someren, Eus

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying hyperarousal, the key symptom of insomnia, have remained elusive, hampering cause-targeted treatment. Recently, restless rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep emerged as a robust signature of sleep in insomnia. Given the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation, we hypothesized

  8. Test of the rem-counter WENDI-II from Eberline in different energy-dispersed neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutermuth, F.; Radon, T.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Siekmann, R.

    2004-03-01

    The neutron rem-counter WENDI-II from Eberline was tested in high-energy particle accelerator produced neutron fields. A radioactive 241 Am-Be(αn) source was used as a reference. The experimentally determined responses are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations of the response function done by R. H. Olsher et al. (2000). The energy spectra of the accelerator produced neutron fields were determined employing Monte-Carlo simulations, too. According to the simulations done by C. Birattari et al. (1998) and in this work these neutron fields exhibit large contributions to the ambient dose equivalent resulting from neutrons with kinetic energy of more than 20 MeV up to a few 100 MeV. The WENDI-II detector proved to show a response of approximately 3.10 9 pulses per Sievert ambient dose equivalent. Considering the experimental and statistical uncertainties the results are consistent with the assumption that the dose response of the WENDI-II reproduces quite accurately the function for the ambient dose equivalent of the ICRP 74

  9. El enriquecimiento sin causa y la acción in rem versó en materia de responsabilidad estatal por realización de obras, prestación de servicios y suministro de bienes sin contrato estatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Luis Arias Fonseca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines bibliographically and under a critical rationale method the principle of unjust enrichment and action de in rem verso especially for Government liability derived from provided services, asset provision, and the execution of construction works in favor of the Government without any existing formal contract or when there is a wrongful contract between the Government and the contractor, thus, causing impoverishment to the latter and a correlative unjust enrichment to the former. To that effect, a brief historical review of these principles is performed; their notions, requirements, and functional conditions established by jurisprudence are revised; and finally, the current stance of the Administrative Court on the implementation of the unjust enrichment thesis and the merits of the actio de in rem verso in terms of Government liability in the abovementioned events is pointed out.

  10. A comunicação visual de bulas de remédios: análise ergonômica da diagramação e forma tipográfica com pessoas de terceira idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tiemi Lopes Fujita

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A comunicação visual é o meio necessário para transmissão de informações. Considerando-se que as bulas de remédios oferecem dificuldades de legibilidade para o consumidor da terceira idade propõe-se uma análise de sua composição gráfica da bula de remédio feita por investigação ergonômica textual quanto à sua adequação tipográfica e de diagramação. O estudo realizou pesquisa descritiva com análise da bula de medicamento e de duas coletas de dados por entrevista individual com pessoas acima de 65 anos. A análise da bula do Medicamento X, conforme fatores de legibilidade, apresenta inadequação quanto à confusão entre letras e seu tamanho reduzido para a distância de leitura que são combinados com as alterações visuais do envelhecimento. A primeira coleta confirma essas dificuldades de leitura da bula do Medicamento X. A segunda coleta de dados consistiu da apresentação da bula do Medicamento X comparada com dois modelos que se diferenciaram quanto á tipografia - Arial e Times New Roman, porém, com uma mesma diagramação, obedecendo os fatores de legibilidade de texto de Dull (1995 . Os resultados de melhor legibilidade para a bula indicam o modelo com tipo Arial. Conclui-se pela necessidade de equilíbrio entre diagramação e tipografia para uma comunicação visual de bulas de remédios.

  11. The role of sleep and sleep deprivation in consolidating fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, M M; Rihm, J S; Salari, N; Born, J; Kalisch, R; Pape, H C; Marshall, L; Büchel, C

    2013-07-15

    Sleep, in particular REM sleep, has been shown to improve the consolidation of emotional memories. Here, we investigated the role of sleep and sleep deprivation on the consolidation of fear memories and underlying neuronal mechanisms. We employed a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm either followed by a night of polysomnographically monitored sleep, or wakefulness in forty healthy participants. Recall of learned fear was better after sleep, as indicated by stronger explicitly perceived anxiety and autonomous nervous responses. These effects were positively correlated with the preceding time spent in REM sleep and paralleled by activation of the basolateral amygdala. These findings suggest REM sleep-associated consolidation of fear memory in the human amygdala. In view of the critical participation of fear learning mechanisms in the etiology of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, deprivation of REM sleep after exposure to distressing events is an interesting target for further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Predicts Neurodegeneration in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junying; Zhang, Jihui; Lam, Siu Ping; Chan, Joey Wy; Mok, Vincent; Chan, Anne; Li, Shirley Xin; Liu, Yaping; Tang, Xiangdong; Yung, Wing Ho; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2017-05-01

    To determine the association of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with the conversion of neurodegenerative diseases in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). A total of 179 patients with iRBD (79.1% males, mean age = 66.3 ± 9.8 years) were consecutively recruited. Forty-five patients with Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥14 were defined as having EDS. Demographic, clinical, and polysomnographic data were compared between iRBD patients with and without EDS. The risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases was examined using Cox proportional hazards model. After a mean follow-up of 5.8 years (SD = 4.3 years), 50 (27.9%) patients developed neurodegenerative diseases. There was a significantly higher proportion of conversion in patients with EDS compared to those without EDS (42.2 % vs. 23.1%, p = .01). EDS significantly predicted an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases (adjusted hazard ratios [HR] = 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37 to 4.77) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, current depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and periodic limb movements during sleep. Further analyses demonstrated that EDS predicted the conversion of Parkinson's disease (PD) (adjusted HR = 3.55, 95% CI 1.59 to 7.89) but not dementia (adjusted HR = 1.48, 95% CI 0.44 to 4.97). EDS is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, especially PD, in patients with iRBD. Our findings suggest that EDS is a potential clinical biomarker of α-synucleinopathies in iRBD. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder: a multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Marelli, Sara; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Högl, Birgit; Birgit, Högl; Manni, Raffaele; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Fantini, Maria-Livia; Puligheddu, Monica; Jennum, Poul; Sonka, Karel; Santamaria, Joan; Zucconi, Marco; Rancoita, Paola M V; Leu-Semenescu, Smeranda; Frauscher, Birgit; Terzaghi, Michele; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Unger, Marcus; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Desautels, Alex; Wolfson, Christina; Pelletier, Amélie; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic symptoms between our iRBD patients and controls emerged in the gastrointestinal domain. Interestingly, it has been reported that an altered gastrointestinal motility can predate the motor phase of PD. The cardiovascular domain SCOPA-AUT score in our study in iRBD patients was intermediate with respect to the scores reported in PD patients by other authors. Our findings underline the importance of collecting data on autonomic symptoms in iRBD. These data may be used in prospective studies for evaluating the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Effects of Rare Earth on the Microstructure and Impact Toughness of H13 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jinzhu; Fu, Paixian; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Dianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Studies of H13 steel suggest that under appropriate conditions, additions of rare-earth metals (REM) can significantly enhance mechanical properties, such as impact toughness. This improvement is apparently due to the formation of finer and more dispersive RE inclusions and grain refinement after REM additions. In this present work, the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of H13 steel with rare earth additions (0, 0.015, 0.025 and 0.1 wt.%) were investigated. The grain size, ...

  15. Slow dissolving of emotional distress contributes to hyperarousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Dekker, Kim; Moens, Sarah; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; van der Sluis, Sophie; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Talamini, Lucia M; Walker, Matthew P; Schalkwijk, Frans; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying hyperarousal, the key symptom of insomnia, have remained elusive, hampering cause-targeted treatment. Recently, restless rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep emerged as a robust signature of sleep in insomnia. Given the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation, we hypothesized that restless REM sleep could interfere with the overnight resolution of emotional distress, thus contributing to accumulation of arousal. Participants (n = 1,199) completed questionnaires on insomnia severity, hyperarousal, self-conscious emotional distress, and thought-like nocturnal mentation that was validated to be a specific proxy for restless REM sleep (selective fragmentation: R = 0.57, P insomnia severity (β = 0.29, P Insomnia severity was associated with hyperarousal (β = 0.47, P insomnia was mediated specifically by reduced overnight resolution of emotional distress. The model outperformed all alternative mediation pathways. The findings suggest that restless REM sleep reflects a process that interferes with the overnight resolution of distress. Its accumulation may promote the development of chronic hyperarousal, giving clinical relevance to the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation in insomnia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

  16. Prodromal Parkinsonism and Neurodegenerative Risk Stratification in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Thomas R; Lawton, Michael; Rolinski, Michal; Evetts, Samuel; Baig, Fahd; Ruffmann, Claudio; Gornall, Aimie; Klein, Johannes C; Lo, Christine; Dennis, Gary; Bandmann, Oliver; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hu, Michele T M

    2017-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is the most specific marker of prodromal alpha-synucleinopathies. We sought to delineate the baseline clinical characteristics of RBD and evaluate risk stratification models. Clinical assessments were performed in 171 RBD, 296 control, and 119 untreated Parkinson's (PD) participants. Putative risk measures were assessed as predictors of prodromal neurodegeneration, and Movement Disorders Society (MDS) criteria for prodromal PD were applied. Participants were screened for common leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)/glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) gene mutations. Compared to controls, participants with RBD had higher rates of solvent exposure, head injury, smoking, obesity, and antidepressant use. GBA mutations were more common in RBD, but no LRRK2 mutations were found. RBD participants performed significantly worse than controls on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III, timed "get-up-and-go", Flamingo test, Sniffin Sticks, and cognitive tests and had worse measures of constipation, quality of life (QOL), and orthostatic hypotension. For all these measures except UPDRS-III, RBD and PD participants were equally impaired. Depression, anxiety, and apathy were worse in RBD compared to PD participants. Stratification of people with RBD according to antidepressant use, obesity, and age altered the odds ratio (OR) of hyposmia compared to controls from 3.4 to 45.5. 74% (95% confidence interval [CI] 66%, 80%) of RBD participants met the MDS criteria for probable prodromal Parkinson's compared to 0.3% (95% CI 0.009%, 2%) of controls. RBD are impaired across a range of clinical measures consistent with prodromal PD and suggestive of a more severe nonmotor subtype. Clinical risk stratification has the potential to select higher risk patients for neuroprotective interventions. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  17. Cerebral correlates of delta waves during non-REM sleep revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Laureys, Steven; Degueldre, Christian; Perrin, Fabien; Phillips, Christophe; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

    2005-10-15

    We aimed at characterizing the neural correlates of delta activity during Non Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in non-sleep-deprived normal young adults, based on the statistical analysis of a positron emission tomography (PET) sleep data set. One hundred fifteen PET scans were obtained using H(2)(15)O under continuous polygraphic monitoring during stages 2-4 of NREM sleep. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and delta power (1.5-4 Hz) spectral density were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Delta power values obtained at central scalp locations negatively correlated during NREM sleep with rCBF in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the basal forebrain, the striatum, the anterior insula, and the precuneus. These regions embrace the set of brain areas in which rCBF decreases during slow wave sleep (SWS) as compared to Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness (Maquet, P., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Aerts, J., Peters, J.M., Luxen, A., Franck, G., 1997. Functional neuroanatomy of human slow wave sleep. J. Neurosci. 17, 2807-S2812), supporting the notion that delta activity is a valuable prominent feature of NREM sleep. A strong association was observed between rCBF in the ventromedial prefrontal regions and delta power, in agreement with electrophysiological studies. In contrast to the results of a previous PET study investigating the brain correlates of delta activity (Hofle, N., Paus, T., Reutens, D., Fiset, P., Gotman, J., Evans, A.C., Jones, B.E., 1997. Regional cerebral blood flow changes as a function of delta and spindle activity during slow wave sleep in humans. J. Neurosci. 17, 4800-4808), in which waking scans were mixed with NREM sleep scans, no correlation was found with thalamus activity. This latter result stresses the importance of an extra-thalamic delta rhythm among the synchronous NREM sleep oscillations. Consequently, this rCBF distribution might preferentially reflect a particular modulation of the

  18. The monetary value of the man.rem and optimization in radiation therapy (brachytherapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennow, K.R.; Jessen, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The personnel exposed by sources used for intracavitary radiation therapy in Denmark receive more than 40% of the collective dose recorded by personal dosemeters in Denmark. As the application of after-loading technique has become generally accepted by the medical profession in Denmark as a replacement to a considerable degree for manual radium therapy, the most promising suggestion for reduction of radiation doses is the introduction of after-loading facilities in all radiation therapy centres. Such facilities are now being planned in Denmark but their realization will entail great expense and therefore the financial aspects of these plans will be very important. At present the advantage of after-loading cannot be simply demonstrated to the politicians holding the purse strings, i.e. in terms of improved therapeutical gain, e.g. increased survival, although the incidence of complications has been shown to be lower, but the reduction in personnel radiation doses by the change to after-loading will be evident and be an important part of the cost-benefit analysis. By detailed investigation of all expenditures and savings, cost-benefit analysis has been carried out in order to isolate the relationship between expense and the collective dose reduction. If after-loading facilities are established in Denmark today with the intention of reducing the risk for employees and without any expectation of improvements in treatment, the monetary value of the man.rem implied is 10,000 kr. or 2000 US dollars. (author)

  19. Igreja Matriz de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Quevedos, RS: Uma Reflexão Patrimonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Lampert Batista

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretar e valorar os elementos de uma paisagem perpassa pela capacidade que tem o receptor de organizar mentalmente sua percepção do local, bem como com o seu conhecimento sobre a história dos elementos que a constituem. No município de Quevedos, observa-se uma fraca percepção da necessidade de preservar o passado e as memórias coletivas do lugar. Partindo dessas premissas, o presente trabalho objetiva realizar uma leitura, sob o enfoque patrimonial, frente à antiga Igreja Matriz de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, que foi destruída para dar espaço a uma nova Igreja, mais moderna e mais ampla. A metodologia foi embasada na revisão bibliográfica e na perspectiva da pesquisa qualitativa, de caráter empírico por meio da observação direta e participante, por registro visual, fotográfico e de depoimentos. Constatou-se que, mesmo com a existência de uma rica memória individual e coletiva em Quevedos, não há uma valoração dos elementos constitutivos para paisagem local.

  20. Effects of Rare Earth Metal addition on the cavitation erosion-corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Ik; Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Soon-Tae; Song, Chi-Bok

    2002-05-01

    Austenitic stainless steels such as AISI 316L have been used in equipment in which fluid flows at high speeds which can induce cavitation erosion on metallic surfaces due to the collapse of cavities, where the collapse is caused by the sudden change of local pressure within the liquid. Usually AISI 316L is susceptible to cavitation erosion. This research focuses on developing a better material to replace the AISI 316L used in equipment with high speed fluid flow, such as impellers. The effects of Rare Earth Metal (REM) additions on the cavitation erosion-corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels were studied using metallographic examination, the potentiodynamic anodic polarization test, the tensile test, the X-ray diffraction test and the ultrasonic cavitation erosion test. The experimental alloys were found to have superior mechanical properties due to interstitial solid solution strengthening, by adding high nitrogen (0.4%), as well as by the refinement of phases and grains induced by fine REM oxides and oxy-sulfides. Corrosion resistance decreases in a gentle gradient as the REM content increases. However, REM containing alloys show superior corrosion resistance compared with that of other commercial alloys (SAF 2507, AISI 316L). Owing to their excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, the alloys containing REM have high cavitation erosion-corrosion resistance.

  1. Finsler-Geometric Continuum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    incremental boundary value problems. Crucial to deriving such equations is an extension of the divergence theorem for- warded in reference 56. Application of...to Ω in Eq. 16, as can spatial versions of the coordinate-free Stokes’ theorem in Eq. 18 and Rund’s horizontal divergence theo- rem in Eq. 19. 2.3... divergence theorem Eq. 19 and repeated integration by parts then gives the following equivalent integral form of Eq. 49: − ∫ M {[PAa|A + (PAa CCBC + ∂̄BPAa

  2. Challenging the myth of REM sleep behavior disorder: no evidence of heightened aggressiveness in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Armando; Manni, Raffaele; Limosani, Ivan; Terzaghi, Michele; Cavallotti, Simone; Scarone, Silvio

    2012-06-01

    Dreams are commonly described as violent, threatening, and aggressive in patients with REM behavior disorder (RBD), but very few studies have directly investigated dream content in this population. We systematically assessed dreams in subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic RBD (iRBD) and explored psychological traits within the group with specific focus on aggressiveness. A total of 129 dream reports was collected, of which 77 belonged to 12 iRBD patients and 52 belonged to 12 control subjects. Transcripts were analyzed with measures of both form and content. The Thematic Apperception Test was used to assess patients' personality traits and to yield information on formal aspects of waking thought processes. No statistically significant differences were found between the dreams of iRBD patients and those of normal controls in any of the applied measures. In wakefulness, passivity was found to differ between the two populations and was being higher in the iRBD group (F(9,14)=4.84, pdreams of RBD patients contain more aggressive elements than those of the general population. However, over 80% of the patients were on treatment at the time of data collection. The "mild" waking temperament could be interpreted as an early subtle sign of the apathy that is commonly described in the context of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. I know how you felt last night, or do I? Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM sleep dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Pilleriin; Valli, Katja; Virta, Tiina; Revonsuo, Antti

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiences in dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated. Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratory and awakened from every rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage 5 min after the onset of the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dream emotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated the participants' emotions expressed in the dream reports, using the same scale. The two approaches produced diverging results. Self-ratings, as compared to external ratings, resulted in greater estimates of (a) emotional dreams; (b) positively valenced dreams; (c) positive and negative emotions per dream; and (d) various discrete emotions represented in dreams. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentation of positive emotions in dream reports. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonrapid Eye Movement-Predominant Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Detection and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Motoo; Fujita, Yukio; Kumamoto, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Ohnishi, Yoshinobu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Strohl, Kingman P; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be severe and present in higher numbers during rapid eye movement (REM) than nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; however, OSA occurs in NREM sleep and can be predominant. In general, ventilation decreases an average 10% to 15% during transition from wakefulness to sleep, and there is variability in just how much ventilation decreases. As dynamic changes in ventilation contribute to irregular breathing and breathing during NREM sleep is mainly under chemical control, our hypothesis is that patients with a more pronounced reduction in ventilation during the transition from wakefulness to NREM sleep will have NREM- predominant rather than REM-predominant OSA. A retrospective analysis of 451 consecutive patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5) undergoing diagnostic polysomnography was performed, and breath-to-breath analysis of the respiratory cycle duration, tidal volume, and estimated minute ventilation before and after sleep onset were examined. Values were calculated using respiratory inductance plethysmography. The correlation between the percent change in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions and the percentage of apnea-hypopneas in NREM sleep (%AHI in NREM; defined as (AHI-NREM) / [(AHI-NREM) + (AHI-REM)] × 100) was the primary outcome. The decrease in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions was 15.0 ± 16.6% (mean ± standard deviation), due to a decrease in relative tidal volume. This decrease in estimated minute ventilation was significantly correlated with %AHI in NREM (r = -0.222, p sleep contributes to the NREM predominant OSA phenotype via induced ventilatory instability. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. Validation of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment and Detection of Residual Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Pevernagie, Dirk; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    the performance of the System One RemStar Auto A-Flex (Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA) automatically adjusted positive airway pressure (APAP) mode to manually titrated, fixed pressure CPAP and to validate the device's breathing event detection capabilities against attended in-laboratory PSG. METHODS......: Sixty-one patients investigated in five centers for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea between May 2012 and June 2013 were invited to participate. Participants underwent two full-night attended polysomnograms in random order with manually titrated, fixed pressure CPAP versus APAP. RESULTS: Fifty......-three participants with a mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 45.9 ± 23 completed two sleep studies and were included in the analysis. There were significant but not clinically relevant differences between APAP and CPAP respectively: Apnea index [1.0 (2.8 ± 0.8), median (mean ± standard deviation)] versus [1.8 (5...

  6. A dopamine receptor d2-type agonist attenuates the ability of stress to alter sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, F; Ehlen, J C; Williams, N S; Montemarano, J J; Paul, K N

    2014-11-01

    Although sleep disruptions that accompany stress reduce quality of life and deteriorate health, the mechanisms through which stress alters sleep remain obscure. Psychological stress can alter sleep in a variety of ways, but it has been shown to be particularly influential on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Prolactin (PRL), a sexually dimorphic, stress-sensitive hormone whose basal levels are higher in females, has somnogenic effects on REM sleep. In the current study, we examined the relationship between PRL secretion and REM sleep after restraint stress to determine whether: 1) the ability of stress to increase REM sleep is PRL-dependent, and 2) fluctuating PRL levels underlie sex differences in sleep responses to stress. Because dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary gland are the primary regulator of PRL secretion, D2 receptor agonist, 1-[(6-allylergolin-8β-yl)-carbonyl]-1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylurea (cabergoline), was used to attenuate PRL levels in mice before 1 hour of restraint stress. Mice were implanted with electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording electrodes and received an ip injection of either 0.3-mg/kg cabergoline or vehicle before a control procedure of 1 hour of sleep deprivation by gentle handling during the light phase. Six days after the control procedure, mice received cabergoline or vehicle 15 minutes before 1 hour of restraint stress. Cabergoline blocked the ability of restraint stress to increase REM sleep amount in males but did not alter REM sleep amount after stress in females even though it reduced basal REM sleep amount in female controls. These data provide evidence that the ability for restraint stress to increase REM sleep is dependent on PRL and that sex differences in REM sleep amount may be driven by PRL.

  7. Colonic Oxidative and Mitochondrial Function in Parkinson's Disease and Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, C; González-Casacuberta, Í; Navarro-Otano, J; Juárez-Flores, D; Vilas, D; Garrabou, G; Milisenda, J C; Pont-Sunyer, C; Catalán-García, M; Guitart-Mampel, M; Tobías, E; Cardellach, F; Valldeoriola, F; Iranzo, A; Tolosa, E

    2017-01-01

    To determine potential mitochondrial and oxidative alterations in colon biopsies from idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. Colonic biopsies from 7 iRBD subjects, 9 subjects with clinically diagnosed PD, and 9 healthy controls were homogenized in 5% w/v mannitol. Citrate synthase (CS) and complex I (CI) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Oxidative damage was assessed either by lipid peroxidation, through malondialdehyde and hydroxyalkenal content by spectrophotometry, or through antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), and catalase (CAT) by western blot. The presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions was assessed by long PCR and electrophoresis. Nonsignificant trends to CI decrease in both iRBD (45.69 ± 18.15; 23% decrease) and PD patients (37.57 ± 12.41; 37% decrease) were found compared to controls (59.51 ± 12.52, p : NS). Lipid peroxidation was maintained among groups (iRBD: 27.46 ± 3.04, PD: 37.2 ± 3.92, and controls: 31.71 ± 3.94; p : NS). Antioxidant enzymes SOD2 (iRBD: 2.30 ± 0.92, PD: 1.48 ± 0.39, and controls: 1.09 ± 0.318) and Gpx1 (iRBD 0.29 ± 0.12, PD: 0.56 ± 0.33, and controls: 0.38 ± 0.16) did not show significant differences between groups. CAT was only detected in 2 controls and 1 iRBD subject. One iRBD patient presented a single mtDNA deletion.

  8. RadWorks Project. ISS REM - to - BIRD - to - HERA: The Evolution of a Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of particle detectors based on technologies developed for use in high-energy physics applications has enabled the development of a completely new generation of compact low-power active dosimeters and area monitors for use in space radiation environments. One such device, the TimePix, is being developed at CERN, and is providing the technology basis for the most recent line of radiation detection devices being developed by the NASA AES RadWorks project. The most fundamental of these devices, an ISS-Radiation Environment Monitor (REM), is installed as a USB device on ISS where it is monitoring the radiation environment on a perpetual basis. The second generation of this TimePix technology, the BIRD (Battery-operated Independent Radiation Detector), was flown on the NASA EFT-1 flight in December 2014. Data collected by BIRD was the first data made available from the Trapped Belt region of the Earth's atmosphere in over 40 years. The 3rdgeneration of this technology, the HERA (Hybrid Electronic Radiation Assessor), is planned to be integrated into the Orion EM-1, and EM-2 vehicles where it will monitor the radiation environment. For the EM-2 flight, HERA will provide Caution and Warning notification for SPEs as well as real time dose measurements for crew members. The development of this line of radiation detectors provide much greater information and characterization of charged particles in the space radiation environment than has been collected in the past, and in the process provide greater information to inform crew members of radiation related risks, while being very power and mass efficient.

  9. Characteristics of the behavior of rare-earth oxides and composites on their base by charged particles and neutrons irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuseev, T.; Aksenova, T.I.; Berdauletov, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    In this work the results of comparative investigation of adsorption curves versus REM order number (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Gd) and dose neutron irradiation are presented. It is discovered that the original REM oxides have high adsorption capacity both for donor gases and for acceptor ones. The adsorption capacity for oxygen and hydrogen becomes lower when the REM order number is higher, but it is contrary for water molecules. The obtained results showed that adsorption properties of REM oxides were changing on identical laws. But oxides of metals, having anomalous properties (variable valency, high cross-section capture) revealed especial adsorption properties under irradiation. In the time of consideration of possible mechanism of radiation - stimulated gas adsorption on oxide surface it is necessary to take in attention both the formation of radiation defects in crystal lattice and the characteristics of electron structure and presence of 4 f - cover in rare-earth metals

  10. Prevention of microcracking by REM addition to alloy 690 filler metal in laser clad welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okauchi, Hironori; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    Effect of REM addition to alloy 690 filler metal on microcracking prevention was verified in laser clad welding. Laser clad welding on alloy 132 weld metal or type 316L stainless steel was conducted using the five different filler metals of alloy 690 varying the La content. Ductility-dip crack occurred in laser clad welding when La-free alloy 690 filler metal was applied. Solidification and liquation cracks occurred contrarily in the laser cladding weld metal when the 0.07mass%La containing filler metal was applied. In case of laser clad welding on alloy 132 weld metal and type 316L stainless steel, the ductility-dip cracking susceptibility decreased, and solidification/liquation cracking susceptibilities increased with increasing the La content in the weld metal. The relation among the microcracking susceptibility, the (P+S) and La contents in every weld pass of the laser clad welding was investigated. Ductility-dip cracks occurred in the compositional range (atomic ratio) of La/(P+S) 0.99(on alloy 132 weld metal), >0.90 (on type 316L stainless steel), while any cracks did not occur at La/(P+S) being between 0.21-0.99 (on alloy 132 weld metal) 0.10-0.90 (on type 316L stainless steel). Laser clad welding test on type 316L stainless steel using alloy 690 filler metal containing the optimum La content verified that any microcracks did not occurred in the laser clad welding metal. (author)

  11. REM sleep behavior disorder: association with motor complications and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S; Yang, Hui-Jun; Ehm, Gwanhee; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Jong-Min

    2014-10-01

    Clinical phenotypes such as old age, longer disease duration, motor disability, akineto-rigid type, dementia and hallucinations are known to be associated with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the relationship between motor fluctuations/impulse control and related behaviors (ICRB) and RBD is not clear. We designed this study to elucidate the clinical manifestations associated with RBD to determine the implications of RBD in PD. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 994 patients with PD were interviewed to determine the presence of RBD and their associated clinical features including motor complications and ICRB. Of the 944 patients, 578 (61.2%) had clinical RBD. When comparing the clinical features between patients with RBD (RBD group) and without RBD (non-RBD group), older age, longer disease duration, higher Hoehn and Yahr stage (H&Y stage), higher levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), and the existence of wearing off, dyskinesia, freezing, and ICRB, especially punding, were associated with the RBD group compared to the non-RBD group (P < .05 in all). Multivariate analysis showed that motor complications including wearing off, peak dose dyskinesia, and diphasic dyskinesia were the only relevant factors for RBD after adjusting for age and disease duration. Motor complications and ICRB are more frequent in patients with RBD than in patients without RBD. In addition, motor complications are related to RBD even after adjusting for age and disease duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural basis for plant plasma membrane protein dynamics and organization into functional nanodomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronnier, Julien; Crowet, Jean-Marc; Habenstein, Birgit; Nasir, Mehmet Nail; Bayle, Vincent; Hosy, Eric; Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Gouguet, Paul; Raffaele, Sylvain; Martinez, Denis; Grelard, Axelle; Loquet, Antoine; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Der, Christophe; Bayer, Emmanuelle M; Jaillais, Yvon; Deleu, Magali; Germain, Véronique; Lins, Laurence; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2017-07-31

    Plasma Membrane is the primary structure for adjusting to ever changing conditions. PM sub-compartmentalization in domains is thought to orchestrate signaling. Yet, mechanisms governing membrane organization are mostly uncharacterized. The plant-specific REMORINs are proteins regulating hormonal crosstalk and host invasion. REMs are the best-characterized nanodomain markers via an uncharacterized moiety called REMORIN C-terminal Anchor. By coupling biophysical methods, super-resolution microscopy and physiology, we decipher an original mechanism regulating the dynamic and organization of nanodomains. We showed that targeting of REMORIN is independent of the COP-II-dependent secretory pathway and mediated by PI4P and sterol. REM-CA is an unconventional lipid-binding motif that confers nanodomain organization. Analyses of REM-CA mutants by single particle tracking demonstrate that mobility and supramolecular organization are critical for immunity. This study provides a unique mechanistic insight into how the tight control of spatial segregation is critical in the definition of PM domain necessary to support biological function.

  13. PEMANFAATAN SERBUK TEMPURUNG KELAPA SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF SERAT PENGUAT BAHAN FRIKSI NON-ASBES PADA KAMPAS REM SEPEDA MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kiswiranti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbuk tempurung kelapa dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai serat penguat bahan friksi non-asbes. Dalam penelitian ini, komposisi 20%dan 30% serbuk tempurung kelapa ditemukan yang paling optimum untuk parameter kekerasan dan keausan. Bahan friksi dengankomposisi 20% memiliki kekerasan sebesar 77,5 kgf.mm-2 dan keausan sebesar 28,25 mm2/kg. Bahan friksi dengan komposisi30% serbuk tempurung kelapa mempunyai kekerasan sebesar 58,8 kgf.mm-2 dan keausan sebesar 34 mm2/kg. Untuk dapatdiaplikasikan pada sepeda motor, desain sampel disesuaikan dengan spesifikasi kampas rem sepeda motor. Coconut char powder can be used as reinforcement fibers of non asbestos brake frikcion materials.In this research, the contents ofcoconut char powder of 20 % and 30 % show optimum hardnes and wear resistances. The brake frikcion material with 20 % coconutchar powder is found hardnes as well as 77,5 kgf.mm-2 and the wear resistance is 28,25 kgf.mm-2/kg. The brake frikcion materialwith the coconut char powder 30% volume has hardnes of 58,8 kgf.mm-2/kg and the wear resistance of 34 mm2/kg. To be applied inthe fabrication of motorcycle spare spart, the sample design is necessary adapted with motorcycle brake.Keywords: frictim material; motorcycle brake; fiber material; coconut char powder

  14. Neural Markers of Responsiveness to the Environment in Human Sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Poulsen, Andreas Trier; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2016-01-01

    by Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZc), a measure shown to track arousal in sleep and anesthesia. Neural activity related to the semantic content of stimuli was conserved in light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, these processes were suppressed in deep NREM sleep and, importantly, also in REM sleep...... could be related to modulation in sleep depth. InREMsleep, however, this relationship was reversed.Wetherefore propose that, in REM sleep, endogenously generated processes compete with the processing of external input. Sleep can thus be seen as a self-regulated process in which external information can...... be processed in lighter stages but suppressed in deeper stages. Last, our results suggest drastically different gating mechanisms in NREM and REM sleep....

  15. BEYOND BIGNESS. SOBRE LAS IMPLICACIONES CRÍTICAS DE UNA LECTURA FORMAL DE LA OBRA DE REM KOOLHAAS (1987-1993 / Beyond bigness. On the critical implications of a formal reading of the work of Rem Koolhaas (1987-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González de Canales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En la historia de la arquitectura más reciente, la noción de bigness (grandeza, que tiene la cualidad de grande, aparece íntimamente ligada al lanzamiento internacional de la carrera de Rem Koolhaas a principios de los 90. En tiempos de la autonomía disciplinar y el regionalismo crítico bigness parecía traer libertad, frescura y desprejuicio, haciendo que una generación más joven de arquitectos y teóricos proclamara la nueva hegemonía de Koolhaas como el triunfo de una nueva posición “post-crítica”, eminentemente pragmática o incluso cínica, y que el propio arquitecto holandés lideraría con un éxito inapelable. Lo que trata de demostrar este texto a través de una lectura formal de la obra de Koolhaas es lo contrario; es decir, que los principios fundamentales que motivan su obra son principalmente críticos respecto a la producción espacial y las condiciones sociales y culturales en las que se generan, y que son estos los que inician una búsqueda formal continua en su obra. Centrándose en un periodo particular de su carrera entre 1987 y 1993, el ensayo propondrá la hipótesis de que el desplazamiento de Koolhaas, desde su interés por revisar retóricamente el lenguaje de las vanguardias a la recuperación del concepto de bigness y otros mecanismos de proyecto complementarios desde finales de los 80, se fundamenta en una búsqueda incesante de la liberación de la acción del habitante respecto a la normatividad social y SUMMARY In the recent history of architecture the notion of bigness has be closely related to the launching of Rem Koolhaas career in the early 1990s. In the times of disciplinary autonomy and critical regionalism Koolhaas’ bigness meant freshness, liberation and a certain sense of freedom from prejudices. As a consequence, a younger generation of architects and theorists has claimed Koolhaas’ work as a model for a new “post-critical” position, mostly pragmatic or even cynical, and

  16. Effects of Optogenetic inhibition of BLA on Sleep Brief Optogenetic Inhibition of the Basolateral Amygdala in Mice Alters Effects of Stressful Experiences on Rapid Eye Movement Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Mayumi; Wellman, Laurie L; Fitzpatrick Bs, Mairen E; Hallum Bs, Olga; Sutton Bs, Amy M; Lonart, György; Sanford, Larry D

    2017-04-01

    Stressful events can directly produce significant alterations in subsequent sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep (REM); however, the neural mechanisms underlying the process are not fully known. Here, we investigated the role of the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala (BLA) in regulating the effects of stressful experience on sleep. We used optogenetics to briefly inhibit glutamatergic cells in BLA during the presentation of inescapable footshock (IS) and assessed effects on sleep, the acute stress response, and fear memory. c-Fos expression was also assessed in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both regions involved in coping with stress, and in brain stem regions implicated in the regulation of REM. Compared to control mice, peri-shock inhibition of BLA attenuated an immediate reduction in REM after IS and produced a significant overall increase in REM. Moreover, upon exposure to the shock context alone, mice receiving peri-shock inhibition of BLA during training showed increased REM without altered freezing (an index of fear memory) or stress-induced hyperthermia (an index of acute stress response). Inhibition of BLA during REM under freely sleeping conditions enhanced REM only when body temperature was high, suggesting the effect was influenced by stress. Peri-shock inhibition of BLA also led to elevated c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala and mPFC and differentially altered c-Fos activity in the selected brain stem regions. Glutamatergic cells in BLA can modulate the effects of stress on REM and can mediate effects of fear memory on sleep that can be independent of behavioral fear. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Colonic Oxidative and Mitochondrial Function in Parkinson’s Disease and Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Morén

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine potential mitochondrial and oxidative alterations in colon biopsies from idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD and Parkinson’s disease (PD subjects. Methods. Colonic biopsies from 7 iRBD subjects, 9 subjects with clinically diagnosed PD, and 9 healthy controls were homogenized in 5% w/v mannitol. Citrate synthase (CS and complex I (CI were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Oxidative damage was assessed either by lipid peroxidation, through malondialdehyde and hydroxyalkenal content by spectrophotometry, or through antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2, glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1, and catalase (CAT by western blot. The presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA deletions was assessed by long PCR and electrophoresis. Results. Nonsignificant trends to CI decrease in both iRBD (45.69±18.15; 23% decrease and PD patients (37.57±12.41; 37% decrease were found compared to controls (59.51±12.52, p: NS. Lipid peroxidation was maintained among groups (iRBD: 27.46±3.04, PD: 37.2±3.92, and controls: 31.71±3.94; p: NS. Antioxidant enzymes SOD2 (iRBD: 2.30±0.92, PD: 1.48±0.39, and controls: 1.09±0.318 and Gpx1 (iRBD 0.29±0.12, PD: 0.56±0.33, and controls: 0.38±0.16 did not show significant differences between groups. CAT was only detected in 2 controls and 1 iRBD subject. One iRBD patient presented a single mtDNA deletion.

  18. Prophylactic Role of Oral Melatonin Administration on Neurogenesis in Adult Balb/C Mice during REM Sleep Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela López-Armas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of melatonin in the proliferation of neural progenitors, melatonin concentration, and antiapoptotic proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice exposed to 96 h REM sleep deprivation (REMSD prophylactic administration of melatonin for 14 days. Material and Methods. Five groups of Balb/C mice were used: (1 control, (2 REMSD, (3 melatonin (10 mg/kg plus REMSD, (4 melatonin and intraperitoneal luzindole (once a day at 5 mg/kg plus REMSD, and (5 luzindole plus REMSD. To measure melatonin content in hippocampal tissue we used HPLC. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins were measured by Western Blot and neurogenesis was determined by injecting 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU and BrdU/nestin expressing cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were quantified by epifluorescence. Results. The melatonin-treated REMSD group showed an increased neural precursor in 44% with respect to the REMSD group and in 28% when contrasted with the control group (P<0.021. The melatonin-treated REMSD group also showed the highest expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion. The exogenous administration of melatonin restores the tissue levels of sleep-deprived group and appears to be an efficient neuroprotective agent against the deleterious effects of REMSD.

  19. REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, E.; Covino, S.; D' Avanzo, P.; Chincarini, G.; Zerbi, F.M.; Conconi, P.; Malaspina, G.; Campana, S.; Rizzuto, D.; Tagliaferri, G. [Osserv Astron Brera, INAF, I-23807 Merate, LC, (Italy); Vergani, S.D.; Meurs, E.J.A.; Ward, P.A. [DIAS, Dunsink Observ, Dublin 15, (Ireland); Vergani, S.D.; Norci, L. [Dublin City Univ, Sch Phys Sci, NCPST, Dublin 9, (Ireland); Malesani, D. [SISSA, ISAS, I-34014 Trieste, (Italy); Malesani, D. [Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Dark Cosmol Ctr, DK-2100 Copenhagen, (Denmark); D' Avanzo, P. [Univ Insubria, Dipartimento Matemat and Fis, I-22100 Como, (Italy); Chincarini, G.; Rizzuto, D. [Univ Milan, I-20126 Milan, (Italy); Antonelli, L.A.; Testa, V.; Vitali, F.; D' Alessio, F.; Guetta, D.; Piranomonte, S.; Stella, L. [Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, (Italy); Tosti, G. [Univ Perugia, Dipartimento Fis, Osservatorio Astron, I-06123 Perugia, (Italy); Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N. [IASF Bologna, INAF, I-40129 Bologna, (Italy); Goldoni, P. [APC, Lab Astroparticule and Cosmol, UMR 7164, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Goldoni, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Context. Gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is believed to originate in highly relativistic fireballs. Aims. Currently, only lower limits were securely set to the initial fireball Lorentz factor {gamma}{sub 0}. We aim to provide a direct measure of {gamma}{sub 0}. Methods. The early-time afterglow light curve carries information about {gamma}{sub 0}, which determines the time of the afterglow peak. We have obtained early observations of the near-infrared afterglows of GRB060418 and GRB060607A with the REM robotic telescope. Results. For both events, the afterglow peak could be clearly singled out, allowing a firm determination of the fireball Lorentz of {gamma}{sub 0} similar to 400, fully confirming the highly relativistic nature of GRB fireballs. The deceleration radius was inferred to be R-dec approximate to 10{sup 17} cm. This is much larger than the internal shocks radius (believed to power the prompt emission), thus providing further evidence for a different origin of the prompt and afterglow stages of the GRB. (authors)

  20. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Agreed record. Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-20

    The Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000) was held in Tarawa, Kiribati, from September 20 to September 26, 2000. This meeting was sponsored by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. Countries present in the meeting were the Cook Islands, Micronesia, the Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Japan. In the meeting, a draft Regional Energy Logical Framework Matrix was recognized, and it was advised that the plan should be achieved by June 2001 by cooperation of CROP-EWG (the Committee of the Regional Organizations of the Pacific Working Group). In the meeting, the report on hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation was presented by CROP-EWG. For the hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation, efforts have been made, but they are still in a stage of the laboratory level. There is arising a feeling of unrest because the commercial exhibition is being made only in the Pacific region. To advise the order of priority in the energy field, CROP-EWG started the investigation into activities/plans of regional energy organizations. (NEDO)

  1. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Guidance of FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and enlightenment to drug risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) aims to drugs or biological products known or potential serious risk management. Analysis with the example of the content of the Onsolis REMS named FOCOS. Our country can be reference for the analysis of relevant experience and establish a scientific evaluation mechanism, strengthen the drug risk consciousness, promote the rational drug use, organic combined with the before-marketing and post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the evaluation of risk management of the drug development and improvement.

  3. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Überzeugen, Stupsen, Zwingen – Die Konzeption von Nudge und Libertärem Paternalismus und ihr Verhältnis zu anderen Formen der Verhaltenssteuerung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düber Dominik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trotz der überwältigenden öffentlichen wie wissenschaftlichen Resonanz, auf die der Nudge-Ansatz von Thaler und Sunstein gestoßen ist, bleiben die genauen Konturen dieses Theorie und Policyvorschlages unscharf. So ist an vielen Stellen unklar, worin die spezifische Differenz gegenüber klassischen Formen der Verhaltenssteuerung liegen soll. Für eine Bewertung des Ansatzes in seinen Vorzügen und Nachteilen gegenüber klassischen Steuerungsformen ist eine solche klärende Einordnung jedoch notwendige Vorbedingung. Der Aufsatz arbeitet daher die bestehenden Definitions- und Abgrenzungsprobleme von „Nudge“ und „Libertärem Paternalismus“ heraus und plädiert sodann für einen Kernbegriff von „Nudge“, der dessen Extension einschränkt, um ihn als originären und eigenständigen Vorschlag einzugrenzen. Ein so präzisiertes Verständnis von Nudge wird dann hinsichtlich seiner Eigenschaften sowie der Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede zu klassischen Formen der Verhaltenssteuerung ins Verhältnis gesetzt.

  5. SNCA 3'UTR genetic variants in patients with Parkinson's disease and REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, M; Dreussi, E; Cecchin, E; Valente, M; Sanvilli, N; Montico, M; Gagno, S; Garziera, M; Polano, M; Savarese, M; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Placidi, F; Terzaghi, M; Toffoli, G; Gigli, G L

    2017-07-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is an early marker of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, it is still unclear which patients with RBD will eventually develop PD. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of alpha-synuclein (SNCA) have been associated with PD, but at present, no data is available about RBD. The 3'UTR hosts regulatory regions involved in gene expression control, such as microRNA binding sites. The aim of this study was to determine RBD specific genetic features associated to an increased risk of progression to PD, by sequencing of the SNCA-3'UTR in patients with "idiopathic" RBD (iRBD) and in patients with PD. We recruited 113 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of iRBD (56 patients) or PD (with or without RBD, 57 patients). Sequencing of SNCA-3'UTR was performed on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out to predict the potential effect of the identified genetic variants on microRNA binding. We found three SNCA-3'UTR SNPs (rs356165, rs3857053, rs1045722) to be more frequent in PD patients than in iRBD patients (p = 0.014, 0.008, and 0.008, respectively). Four new or previously reported but not annotated specific genetic variants (KP876057, KP876056, NM_000345.3:c*860T>A, NM_000345.3:c*2320A>T) have been observed in the RBD population. The in silico approach highlighted that these variants could affect microRNA-mediated gene expression control. Our data show specific SNPs in the SNCA-3'UTR that may bear a risk for RBD to be associated with PD. Moreover, new genetic variants were identified in patients with iRBD.

  6. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Probable REM Behavior Disorder in Thai Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patama Gomutbutra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that Parkinson’s disease (PD patients who have REM behavior disorder (PD with RBD might be a PD subtype since they have different symptom clusters and disease trajectories from PD without RBD. Objective. To study the prevalence of PD with pRBD and to compare the clinical characteristics with PD without pRBD. The feasibility of clinical interview of items adopted from the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire was also to be determined. Methods. A total of 140 Parkinson's patients visiting neurological clinics during January to December 2016 were enrolled in this study. “Probable RBD (pRBD” was defined as present when the patient answered “yes” to a question adapted from the first Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ. The demographic data, motor symptoms, and nonmotor symptoms were obtained. Results. The prevalence of pRBD among this study’s PD patients was 48.5% (68 out of the total of 140. The median onset of RBD before PD diagnosis was 5 years (range: 0–11 years. By comparison of PD with pRBD and PD without pRBD, this study showed significant difference in the levodopa equivalent dose (742 mg/day versus 566 mg/day; p<0.01, prevalence of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension (35.3% versus 8.3%; p<0.01. The multivariable analysis found that pRBD is independently associated with orthostatic hypotension (OR = 5.02, p<0.01. Conclusion. The findings regarding prevalence and main clinical features of PD with pRBD in this study were similar to those of a previous study of PD with polysomnogram- (PSG- proven RBD. This study hypothesized that interviewing by adopted MSQ may be a cost-effective tool for screening RBD. Further studies with direct comparison are needed.

  7. Nighttime Infrared radiative cooling and opacity inferred by REMS Ground Temperature Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano, María; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot; Lepinette, Alain; Sebastián, Eduardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    Due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere, the temperature of the surface is controlled primarily by solar heating, and infrared cooling to the atmosphere and space, rather than heat exchange with the atmosphere. In the absence of solar radiation the infrared (IR) cooling, and then the nighttime surface temperatures, are directly controlled by soil termal inertia and atmospheric optical thickness (τ) at infrared wavelengths. Under non-wind conditions, and assuming no processes involving latent heat changes in the surface, for a particular site where the rover stands the main parameter controlling the IR cooling will be τ. The minimal ground temperature values at a fixed position may thus be used to detect local variations in the total dust/aerosols/cloud tickness. The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) and Air Temperature Sensor (ATS) in the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover provides hourly ground and air temperature measurements respectively. During the first 100 sols of operation of the rover, within the area of low thermal inertia, the minimal nightime ground temperatures reached values between 180 K and 190 K. For this season the expected frost point temperature is 200 K. Variations of up to 10 K have been observed associated with dust loading at Gale at the onset of the dust season. We will use these measurements together with line-by-line radiative transfer simulations using the Full Transfer By Optimized LINe-by-line (FUTBOLIN) code [Martín-Torres and Mlynczak, 2005] to estimate the IR atmospheric opacity and then dust/cloud coverage over the rover during the course of the MSL mission. Monitoring the dust loading and IR nightime cooling evolution during the dust season will allow for a better understanding of the influence of the atmosphere on the ground temperature and provide ground truth to models and orbiter measurements. References Martín-Torres, F. J. and M. G. Mlynczak

  8. The Effect of Exercise on Learning and Spatial Memory Following Stress-Induced Sleep Deprivation (Sleep REM in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darkhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Stress induced by sleep deprivation can cause degradation of learning in the acquisition phase, and low-intensity exercise can prevent the negative effects of stress. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the moderating role of aerobic exercise on spatial memory and learning following stress-induced insomnia (sleep REM in animal models. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats that were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups were exposed to sleep deprivation induced stress, following which the experimental group was exposed to exercise training (experimental, n = 8; control, n = 8. The stress intervention was undertaken through 24 hours of sleep deprivation using a modified sleep deprivation platform (MMD. The exercise protocol included mild aerobic exercise on a treadmill (30 minutes a day, seven days, and Morris Water Maze (MWM protocols were applied to assess spatial memory and learning. Data were analyzed by an independent t-test and dependent t-test. Results The results showed that, after seven days of aerobic exercise on a treadmill, the experimental group showed better performance escape latency (P < 0.05 and distance traveled (P < 0.05 than the control group in the MWM, while there was no difference between these two groups in the pre-test. Conclusions The role of exercise is greater in the retention than the acquisition phase for recalling past experiences.

  9. Open issues concerning cross border trade mechanism in southeastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugu, Florin; Mihailescu, Florentina; Cirlan, Florica

    2004-01-01

    The first South East Europe Electricity Regulatory Forum (SEEER) has agreed that all participants in the 'Athens Process' (AP) should collaborate efficiently in achieving a clear common objective consisting in the creation of a competitive Regional Electricity Market (REM) in South-Eastern Europe (SEE), based on the rules currently in force and being developed in the European Union. The 'Memorandum of Understanding on the REM in SEE and its integration in EU Internal Electricity Market (IEM)' has charged CEER to undertake actions for pursuing a series of specific technical activities. One of the most important actions was the implementation of a trading mechanism such as cross border tariffs. Based on this mechanism the Transmission System Operators, TSO, shall receive compensation for costs incurred as a result of hosting transit flows of electricity on their network. An important problem is the Horizontal Network (HN) cost calculation. Horizontal Network is defined as a part of the transmission network that is most significantly influenced by the cross border exchanges. The calculation of the cost of the SEE HN is in some way problematic because the reorganization of the SEE power sector in different countries is often at the beginning. The paper presents the impact on the TSO's cost claim of the following technical issues which, at present, are not solved in conformity to ETSO CBT mechanism for 2003: - 110 kV network inclusion in the HN definition and its impact on HN cost; - Consideration of the standard cost in the calculation of the HN annual cost; - Consideration of the annual consumption for the calculation of the HN annual cost due to transits (transit key). The Cross Border Trade, CBT, mechanism represents an harmonized payment scheme for the compensation of the national transmission systems for their usage by the cross border flows. The paper addresses the following issues: 1. Assessment of the current state of play in the SEE region; 2. Main principles

  10. Rapid eye movements during sleep in mice: High trait-like stability qualifies rapid eye movement density for characterization of phenotypic variation in sleep patterns of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulda Stephany

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, rapid eye movements (REM density during REM sleep plays a prominent role in psychiatric diseases. Especially in depression, an increased REM density is a vulnerability marker for depression. In clinical practice and research measurement of REM density is highly standardized. In basic animal research, almost no tools are available to obtain and systematically evaluate eye movement data, although, this would create increased comparability between human and animal sleep studies. Methods We obtained standardized electroencephalographic (EEG, electromyographic (EMG and electrooculographic (EOG signals from freely behaving mice. EOG electrodes were bilaterally and chronically implanted with placement of the electrodes directly between the musculus rectus superior and musculus rectus lateralis. After recovery, EEG, EMG and EOG signals were obtained for four days. Subsequent to the implantation process, we developed and validated an Eye Movement scoring in Mice Algorithm (EMMA to detect REM as singularities of the EOG signal, based on wavelet methodology. Results The distribution of wakefulness, non-REM (NREM sleep and rapid eye movement (REM sleep was typical of nocturnal rodents with small amounts of wakefulness and large amounts of NREM sleep during the light period and reversed proportions during the dark period. REM sleep was distributed correspondingly. REM density was significantly higher during REM sleep than NREM sleep. REM bursts were detected more often at the end of the dark period than the beginning of the light period. During REM sleep REM density showed an ultradian course, and during NREM sleep REM density peaked at the beginning of the dark period. Concerning individual eye movements, REM duration was longer and amplitude was lower during REM sleep than NREM sleep. The majority of single REM and REM bursts were associated with micro-arousals during NREM sleep, but not during REM sleep. Conclusions Sleep

  11. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide excites medial pontine reticular formation neurons in the brainstem rapid eye movement sleep-induction zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Reiner, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although it has long been known that microinjection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) induces a state that resembles rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, it is likely that other transmitters contribute to mPRF regulation of behavioral states. A key...... candidate is the peptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which innervates the mPRF and induces REM sleep when injected into this region of the brainstem. To begin understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effects of VIP on mPRF cells using whole-cell patch...... conclude that VIP excites mPRF neurons by activation of a sodium current. This effect is mediated at least in part by G-protein stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinase A. These data suggest that VIP may play a physiological role in REM induction by its actions on mPRF neurons....

  12. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.

    2008-01-01

    and shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and increased periodic leg movements. Three HD patients (12%) had REM sleep behavior disorders. No sleep abnormality correlated with CAG repeat length. Reduced REM sleep duration (but not REM sleep behavior disorders) was present in premanifest carriers and patients...... with very mild HD and worsened with disease severity. In contrast to narcoleptic patients, HD patients had no cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, or sleep paralysis. Four HD patients had abnormally low (sleep latencies, but none had multiple sleep-onset REM periods. Conclusions......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  13. Propagandas de remédio na imprensa ilustrada e a imagem da enfermeira brasileira (1920-1925 Propagandas de remedios en la prensa ilustrada y la imagen de la enfermera brasileña (1920-1925 Medication advertisements in the illustrated press and the image of Brazilian nurses (1920-1925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Porto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo histórico-social sobre efeito simbólico das propagandas de remédios protagonizadas por mulheres com representações objetais utilizadas por enfermeiras, veiculadas na Revista Fon-Fon, que descreve as propagandas de remédios veiculadas neste meio de comunicação; analisa as representações objetais da imagem da enfermeira presente nessas propagandas e discute o efeito simbólico dessas representações para o consumo do remédio pela sociedade brasileira. As fontes documentais foram escritas, iconográficas e literatura referentes à História do Brasil, da Imprensa, da Propaganda e da Enfermagem. As propagandas de remédios analisadas, mediante uma matriz de análise baseada em conceitos da semiótica, derivam da Revista Fon-Fon. O estudo evidenciou que as propagandas analisadas investiram em representações objetais utilizadas pelas enfermeiras, de modo a obterem credibilidade em relação ao medicamento anunciado.Estudio histórico-social sobre el efecto simbólico de las propagandas de remedios protagonizadas por mujeres con representaciones objetivas utilizadas por enfermeras, publicadas en la Revista Fon-Fon, que describe las propagandas de remedios exhibidas en tal publicación, analiza las representaciones objetivas de la imagen de la enfermera presente en tales propagandas y discute el efecto simbólico de tales representaciones para el consumo del medicamento por parte de la sociedad brasileña. Las fuentes documentales fueron escritas, iconográficas y bibliografía referente a la historia de Brasil, de la prensa, de la publicidad y de la enfermería. Las propagandas de remedios examinadas a través de una matriz de análisis basada en conceptos de semiótica, corresponden a la citada revista Fon-Fon. El estudio evidenció que las propagandas estudiadas se orientaron a utilizar a la enfermera como representación objetiva con el fin de que el medicamento anunciado goce de una mayor credibilidad.This is a historical and

  14. Remote electronic monitoring and the landing obligation – some insights into fishers’ and fishery inspectors’ opinions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber Plet-Hansen, Kristian; Qvist Eliasen, Søren; Mortensen, Lars O.

    2017-01-01

    , for such changes to be successful, it is vital to ensure stakeholders acceptance, and it is prudent to consider possible means to verify compliance with the new regulation. Remote Electronic Monitoring (REM) with Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) has been tested in a variety of fisheries worldwide for different...... purposes and is currently considered as one possible tool to ensure compliance with a European ban on discards. This study focuses on Danish fishery inspectors and on fishers with REM experience, whose opinions are less well known. Their views on the landing obligation and on the use of REM were...... investigated using interviews and questionnaires, and contrasted to some fishers without REM experience. 80% of fishery inspectors and 58% of REM-experienced fishers expressed positive views on REM. 9 out of 10 interviewed fishers without REM experience were against REM. Participation in a REM trial has...

  15. Mecanismos do ciclo sono-vigília Sleep-wake cycle mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Alóe

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Três sub-divisões hipotalâmicas são importantes no ciclo sono-vigília: o hipotálamo anterior (núcleos gabaérgicos e núcleos supraquiasmáticos, o hipotálamo posterior (núcleo túbero-mamilar histaminérgico e o hipotálamo lateral (sistema hipocretinas. O sistema gabaérgico inibitório do núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral (VLPO do hipotálamo anterior é responsável pelo início e manutenção do sono NREM. Os neurônios supraquiasmáticos (NSQs do hipotálamo anterior são responsáveis pelo ritmo circadiano do ciclo sono-vigília. Os núcleos aminérgicos, histaminérgicos, as hipocretinas e núcleos colinérgicos do prosencéfalo basal apresentam-se ativos durante a vigília, inibindo o núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral, promovendo a vigília. O processo de inibição-estimulação é a base do modelo da interação recíproca entre os grupos de células wake-off-sleep-on e células wake-off-sleep-on reguladores do ciclo sono-vigília. O modelo da interação recíproca também se aplica aos núcleos colinérgicos (células REM-on e aminérgicos (células REM-off do tronco cerebral no controle temporal do sono REM-NREM.Neurochemically distinct systems interact regulating sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness is promoted by aminergic, acetylcholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Each of these arousal systems supports wakefulness and coordinated activity is required for alertness and EEG activation. Neurons in the pons and preoptic area control rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Mutual inhibition between these wake- and sleep-regulating systems generate behavioral states. An up-to-date understanding of these systems should allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the effects of drugs, lesions, and neurologic disease on sleep and wakefulness.

  16. Increased delta power and discrepancies in objective and subjective sleep measurements in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Feige, Bernd; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Richter, Harald; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Lieb, Klaus; Riemann, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have shown depression-like sleep abnormalities in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, findings in BPD are not unequivocal for REM dysregulation, as well as for a decrement of slow wave sleep and sleep continuity disturbances. Earlier findings in sleep EEG abnormalities in BPD may have been confounded by concomitant depressive symptoms. Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients without current comorbid major depression and 20 sex- and age-matched control subjects entered the study. Conventional polysomnographic parameters and for the first time sleep EEG spectral power analysis was performed on two sleep laboratory nights. Subjective sleep parameters were collected by sleep questionnaires in order to assess the relationship between objective and subjective sleep measurements. BPD patients showed a tendency for shortened REM latency and significantly decreased NonREM sleep (stage 2). Spectral EEG analysis showed increased delta power in total NREM sleep as well as in REM sleep in BPD patients. Subjective ratings documented drastically impaired sleep quality in BPD patients for the two weeks before the study and during the two laboratory nights. Not-depressed BPD patients only showed tendencies for depression-like REM sleep abnormalities. Surprisingly, BPD patients displayed higher levels of delta power in the sleep EEG in NREM sleep than healthy control subjects. There was a marked discrepancy between objective and subjective sleep measurements, which indicates an altered perception of sleep in BPD. The underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of these alterations are still unclear and need to be clarified in future studies including interventions on a pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral level.

  17. Morning rapid eye movement sleep naps facilitate broad access to emotional semantic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the study was to assess semantic priming to emotion and nonemotion cue words using a novel measure of associational breadth for participants who either took rapid eye movement (REM) or nonrapid eye movement (NREM) naps or who remained awake; assess relation of priming to REM sleep consolidation and REM sleep inertia effects. The associational breadth task was applied in both a priming condition, where cue-words were signaled to be memorized prior to sleep (primed), and a nonpriming condition, where cue words were not memorized (nonprimed). Cue words were either emotional (positive, negative) or nonemotional. Participants were randomly assigned to either an awake (WAKE) or a sleep condition, which was subsequently split into NREM or REM groups depending on stage at awakening. Hospital-based sleep laboratory. Fifty-eight healthy participants (22 male) ages 18 to 35 y (Mage = 23.3 ± 4.08 y). The REM group scored higher than the NREM or WAKE groups on primed, but not nonprimed emotional cue words; the effect was stronger for positive than for negative cue words. However, REM time and percent correlated negatively with degree of emotional priming. Priming occurred for REM awakenings but not for NREM awakenings, even when the latter sleep episodes contained some REM sleep. Associational breadth may be selectively consolidated during REM sleep for stimuli that have been tagged as important for future memory retrieval. That priming decreased with REM time and was higher only for REM sleep awakenings is consistent with two explanatory REM sleep processes: REM sleep consolidation serving emotional downregulation and REM sleep inertia. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. The inappropriate occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep in narcolepsy is not due to a defect in homeostatic regulation of rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Alexis; Meftah, Soraya; Arthaud, Sébastien; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Peyron, Christelle

    2018-06-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is a disabling disorder with four primary symptoms: excessive-daytime-sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. The later three symptoms together with a short rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency have suggested impairment in REM sleep homeostatic regulation with an enhanced propensity for (i.e. tendency to enter) REM sleep. To test this hypothesis, we challenged REM sleep homeostatic regulation in a recognized model of narcolepsy, the orexin knock-out (Orex-KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We first performed 48 hr of REM sleep deprivation using the classic small-platforms-over-water method. We found that narcoleptic mice are similarly REM sleep deprived to WT mice. Although they had shorter sleep latency, Orex-KO mice recovered similarly to WT during the following 10 hr of recovery. Interestingly, Orex-KO mice also had cataplexy episodes immediately after REM sleep deprivation, anticipating REM sleep rebound, at a time of day when cataplexy does not occur in baseline condition. We then evaluated REM sleep propensity using our new automated method of deprivation that performs a specific and efficient REM sleep deprivation. We showed that REM sleep propensity is similar during light phase in Orex-KO and WT mice. However, during the dark phase, REM sleep propensity was not suppressed in Orex-KO mice when hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides are normally released. Altogether our data suggest that in addition to the well-known wake-promoting role of hypocretin/orexin, these neuropeptides would also suppress REM sleep. Therefore, hypocretin/orexin deficiency would facilitate the occurrence of REM sleep at any time of day in an opportunistic manner as seen in human narcolepsy.

  19. Determining of the growth mechanisms in the MBE growth of ternary Cd1-xAxTe (A = Zn, Mn, Hg) compounds. Part I - Methods of analysis of surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is the first part of an extended abstract of the PhD thesis entitled 'Determining of the growth mechanisms in MBE growth of ternary Cd 1-x A x Te (A = Zn, Mn, Hg) compounds' written on the base of experiments performed in the MBE Lab. in Institute of Vacuum Technology, Warsaw. In that paper, the scientific problems to be solved in thesis are described. Also the analytical techniques (reflection quadrupole mass spectroscopy (REMS), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and laser interferometry (LI)) used in investigation and its implementation to 'in situ' measurements in MBE growth system are depicted. The experiments and extracted scientific results will be presented in the following paper, in next Elektronika issue. (author)

  20. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    effect of remifentanil on melatonin secretion. We found that the risk of atypical sleep compared to normal sleep was significantly lower (p REM) sleep was only observed during the nonsedation period. We found preserved diurnal pattern of melatonin...... secretion in these patients. Remifentanil did not affect melatonin secretion but was associated with lower risk of atypical sleep pattern. REM sleep was only registered during the period of nonsedation.......Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...

  1. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: a focus on the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven

    2013-03-01

    To review the history of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mToR) inhibitors, evaluate their required REMS elements, and delineate the reasons for them being released from their REMS requirements. Articles were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2007-July 2012) using the search terms: risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, everolimus, sirolimus and organ transplant (individual organs also were searched). Information from the Federal Register, the Food and Drug Administration, and the manufacturers of the mToR inhibitors was also evaluated. REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product. The mToR inhibitors have been associated with several potential risks, including proteinuria, graft thrombosis, and wound-healing complications. The Food and Drug Administration approved REMS programs for both sirolimus and everolimus. The manufacturers of both medications complied with the components of their approved REMS, but after less than 2 years, both medications have been relieved of their REMS obligations. The only element of the sirolimus REMS was a medication guide, whereas the everolimus REMS consisted of a medication guide and a communication plan. The sirolimus REMS was implemented more than 10 years after its initial approval by the Food and Drug Administration, but was released from its REMS requirement within 7 months of its implementation. The everolimus REMS was instituted upon initial approval and was removed approximately 2 years later. Both medications' REMS were always intended to educate health care providers and patients about the potential risks associated with this transplant immunosuppressant. Transplant practitioners should be familiar with the mToR inhibitors' associated risks and properly educate patients regarding the

  2. Remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater by sorption onto hydoxyapatite derived from catfish bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxyapatite was prepared from catfish bones, called catfish hydroxyapatite (CFHA), by mechanical and chemical treatment methods and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. The ability of CFHA to rem...

  3. Phosphodiesterase 10A inhibition attenuates sleep deprivation-induced deficits in long-term fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lengqiu; Guo, Zhuangli; Luo, Xiaoqing; Liang, Rui; Yang, Shui; Ren, Haigang; Wang, Guanghui; Zhen, Xuechu

    2016-12-02

    Sleep, particularly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is implicated in the consolidation of emotional memories. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of a phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor MP-10 on deficits in long-term fear memory induced by REM sleep deprivation (REM-SD). REM-SD caused deficits in long-term fear memory, however, MP-10 administration ameliorated the deleterious effects of REM-SD on long term fear memory. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) were altered in specific brain regions associated with learning and memory in REM-SD rats. Accordingly, REM-SD caused a significant decrease of pCREB in hippocampus and striatum and a significant decrease of BDNF in the hippocampus, striatum and amygdala, however, MP-10 reversed the effects of REM-SD in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that REM-SD disrupts the consolidation of long-term fear memory and that administration of MP-10 protects the REM-SD-induced deficits in fear memory, which may be due to the MP-10-induced expression of BDNF in the hippocampus, striatum and amygdala, and phosphorylation of CREB in the hippocampus and striatum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E

    2013-03-14

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.

  5. Hyperactivation in the habenula as a link between depression and sleep disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori eAizawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression occurs frequently with sleep disturbance such as insomnia. Sleep in depression is associated with disinhibition of the rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Despite the coincidence of the depression and sleep disturbance, neural substrate for depressive behaviors and sleep regulation remains unknown.Habenula is an epithalamic structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain stem. Since the imaging studies showed blood flow increase in the habenula of depressive patients, hyperactivation of the habenula has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the depression. Recent electrophysiological studies reported a novel role of the habenular structure in regulation of REM sleep. In this article, we propose possible cellular mechanisms which could elicit the hyperactivation of the habenular neurons and a hypothesis that dysfunction in the habenular circuit causes the behavioral and sleep disturbance in depression. Analysis of the animals with hyperactivated habenula would open the door to understand roles of the habenula in the heterogeneous symptoms such as reduced motor behavior and altered REM sleep in depression.

  6. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414571-07$15.00/0.

  7. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  8. Smart operation of nitritation/denitritation virtually abolishes nitrous oxide emission during treatment of co-digested pig slurry centrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lai; Carvajal-Arroyo, José M; Seuntjens, Dries; Prat, Delphine; Colica, Giovanni; Pintucci, Cristina; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2017-12-15

    The implementation of nitritation/denitritation (Nit/DNit) as alternative to nitrification/denitrification (N/DN) is driven by operational cost savings, e.g. 1.0-1.8 EUR/ton slurry treated. However, as for any biological nitrogen removal process, Nit/DNit can emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Challenges remain in understanding formation mechanisms and in mitigating the emissions, particularly at a low ratio of organic carbon consumption to nitrogen removal (COD rem /N rem ). In this study, the centrate (centrifuge supernatant) from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry was treated in a sequencing batch reactor. The process removed approximately 100% of ammonium a satisfactory nitrogen loading rate (0.4 g N/L/d), with minimum nitrite and nitrate in the effluent. Substantial N 2 O emission (around 17% of the ammonium nitrogen loading) was observed at the baseline operational condition (dissolved oxygen, DO, levels averaged at 0.85 mg O 2 /L; COD rem /N rem of 2.8) with ∼68% of the total emission contributed by nitritation. Emissions increased with higher nitrite accumulation and lower organic carbon to nitrogen ratio. Yet, higher DO levels (∼2.2 mg O 2 /L) lowered the aerobic N 2 O emission and weakened the dependency on nitrite concentration, suggesting a shift in N 2 O production pathway. The most effective N 2 O mitigation strategy combined intermittent patterns of aeration, anoxic feeding and anoxic carbon dosage, decreasing emission by over 99% (down to ∼0.12% of the ammonium nitrogen loading). Without anaerobic digestion, mitigated Nit/DNit decreases the operational carbon footprint with about 80% compared to N/DN. With anaerobic digestion included, about 4 times more carbon is sequestered. In conclusion, the low COD rem /N rem feature of Nit/DNit no longer offsets its environmental sustainability provided the process is smartly operated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rare earth metals-primary resources and prospects of processing secondary resources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of Rare earth metals (REMs) in modern technological applications is associated with their spectroscopic and magnetic properties. The occurrence of rare earths in mixed form is commonly reported and their separation to the individual metal is a challenging task because of the similar chemical properties. The economical processing of the primary ores of rare earths is limited to a few countries and their supply at the international level is currently dominated by China. Hence assessing the present scenario of the primary resources of rare earths vis-à-vis their applications and demand is crucial at this stage, besides looking at the alternate resources to ensure availability of REMs; such aspects are covered in the manuscript. In view of the environmental concerns in the processing of ores such as monazite, xenotime, bastnasite, etc, and increasing demand of REMs, corresponding increase in demand of the raw materials has been recorded. It is therefore, necessary to utilize the end-of the-life rare earth containing materials as a rich resource by developing an appropriate recycling technology, which is emerging as a high priority area. To recover the REMs, major secondary resources such as electronic wastes, industrial wastes, spent catalysts and magnets, and phosphors powder, etc, have been considered for now. This will not only open the prospects of utilizing the wastes containing REMs, but will also limit the imports while lowering the production cost and decreasing the load on the primary reserves. The paper also examines the efficient recycling methods to recover a fairly good amount of rare earths which are relevant to India in view of the limited exploitation of the ores. Recovery of REMs from secondary resources using mechanical treatment followed by hydrometallurgical methods is prevalent and the same is reviewed in some detail. The recent R and D work pursued at CSIR-NML to extract (leaching and metal separation using some phosphatic reagents

  10. S, M, L, XL: SEBUAH PANDANGAN PERALIHAN MODERN URBANISME MENUJU POSTMODERN URBANISME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Affrilyno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teori Bigness yang digulirkan Rem Koolhaas merupakan teori yang menurut Rem Koolhaas mampu menghasilkan logika sendiri. Sekalipun teori ini dianggap sebagai bentuk yang berbeda dalam wacana arsitektur, namun keberadaannya memiliki pertumbuhan tersendiri. Ihwal teori ini berakar pada tatanan program Manhattanism yang ditulis Rem Koolhaas pada bukunya, Delirious New York (1978. Pada buku selanjutnya, S, M, L, XL (1995, Rem Koolhaas secara lebih terperinci memberikan implementasi aktual dari Manhattanism melalui berbagai proyek yang terealisasi maupun tidak terealisasi beserta tulisan-tulisan yang melingkupinya. Melalui karya tekstualnya, Rem Koolhaas telah mengembangkan pendekatan yang spesifik terhadap urbanisme dan arsitektur. Terkait problematika dalam arsitektur dan urbanisme yang menggulirkan permasalahan terhadap penolakan kompleksitas, kurangnya kontrol, oposisi, kontradiksi, dan skala yang besar, Rem Koolhaas justru merangkul kondisi ini dan menyatakannya sebagai titik awal untuk proyek-proyek mereka. Dalam konteks urban secara spesifik, Rem Koolhaas menyatakan permasalahan urban tidak lagi dapat dikendalikan dengan cara 'klasik' Modernisme. Permasalahan yang ada selanjutnya berfungsi sebagai sarana struktural untuk mengakomodasi permasalahan yang tidak dapat dikontrol. Isu-isu ini selanjutnya berperan sebagai instrumen baru dalam tatanan urbanisme dan arsitektur   Theory of Bigness as Koolhaas refers to it generates its own logic. Although the concept suffers from neglect in architectural discourse, it has prospered on its own. The program for Manhattanism has been established in 'Delirious New York' (1978. Furthermore, in the next book, S, M, L, XL (1995, Rem Koolhaas gives a record of the actual implementation of Manhattanism throughout the various (unrealized projects and texts. Through his books, Rem Koolhaas has developed a very specific approach towards urbanism and architecture. Related to the scope of the problems in

  11. Comparisons of Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency risk management implementation for recent pharmaceutical approvals: report of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research risk benefit management working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Yvonne; Roberts, Melissa H; Kamble, Shital; J Guo, Jeff; Raisch, Dennis W

    2012-12-01

    1) To compare the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) and European Medicines Agency's (EMA's) Risk Management Plan (RMP) guidances and 2) to compare REMS and RMPs for specific chemical entities and biological products. FDA, EMA, and pharmaceutical company Web sites were consulted for details pertaining to REMS and RMPs. REMS requirements include medication guides, communication plans, elements to ensure safe use, implementation systems, and specified assessment intervals. RMP requirements are increased pharmacovigilance and risk minimization activities. We compared these requirements for drugs requiring both REMS and RMPs. We identified 95 drugs on FDA's REMS list as of March 2010. Of these, there were 29 drugs (11 biologics and 18 new chemical entities) with EMA RMPs. REMS and RMPs are similar in objectives, with comparable toolkits. Both allow flexibility in product-specific actions, recognizing adverse effects of potential concern. Of the 29 drugs reviewed, REMS requirements not included in RMPs were patient medication guides (100% of the drugs), provider communication plans (38%), and routine monitoring of REMS (66%). RMP requirements not included in REMS were specific adverse event reporting (45% of the drugs), prospective registry studies (34%), prospective epidemiology studies (24%), additional trial data (28%), and Summary of Product Characteristics contraindications (76%). Both REMS and RMPs provide positive guidance for identification, monitoring, and minimization of risk to patient safety. Currently, neither agency provides specific guidance on how risk should be related to benefit either qualitatively or quantitatively. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterising non-linear dynamics in nocturnal breathing patterns of healthy infants using recurrence quantification analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2013-05-01

    Breathing dynamics vary between infant sleep states, and are likely to exhibit non-linear behaviour. This study applied the non-linear analytical tool recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to 400 breath interval periods of REM and N-REM sleep, and then using an overlapping moving window. The RQA variables were different between sleep states, with REM radius 150% greater than N-REM radius, and REM laminarity 79% greater than N-REM laminarity. RQA allowed the observation of temporal variations in non-linear breathing dynamics across a night's sleep at 30s resolution, and provides a basis for quantifying changes in complex breathing dynamics with physiology and pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Late postoperative nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia and associated sleep pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Wildschiødtz, G; Pedersen, M H

    1994-01-01

    significantly after surgery (P REM) sleep decreased significantly on the first night after operation (P REM sleep (rebound) on the second, third or both nights after operation compared with the preoperative night. Slow wave sleep...... was depressed significantly on the first two nights after operation (P REM sleep-associated hypoxaemic episodes for individual patients increased about three-fold on the second and third nights after operation compared with the night before operation (P sleep...... pattern is disturbed severely with early depression of REM and slow wave sleep and with rebound of REM sleep on the second and third nights. Postoperative rebound of REM sleep may contribute to the development of sleep disordered breathing and nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia....

  14. The sixth plenary meeting of the seminar 'Steel and nonmetallic inclusions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The sixth plenary session of the 'Steel and non-metallic inclusions' seminar held in Volgograd in July of 1976 dealt, primarily with the application of rare-earth REM and alkaline earth AEM metals in metallurgy. The following problems were discussed: REM sources, alloyages with REM and AEM rational methods of producing them, industrial application of REM in metallurgy, the effect of REM on the quality of steel and the physicochemical nature of at effect. The seminar ended with a summary of the discussion and recommendations as to the areas of application of REM in metallurgy, as well as a summary of the basic requirements to be met in employing those metals in any field of metallurgy

  15. Neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI)-induced paradoxical sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Moe; Fukuda, Satoru; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Takata, Junko; Sawamura, Shigehito

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptideglutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI) as well as melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is cleaved from the 165 amino acid protein, prepro-melanin concentrating hormone (prepro-MCH). Among many physiological roles of MCH, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH induced increases in REM sleep episodes as well as in non REM sleep episodes. However, there are no studies on the effect of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle. As for the sites of action of MCH for induction of REM sleep, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) has been reported to be one of its site of action. Although MCH neurons contain NEI, GABA, MCH, and other neuropeptides, we do not know which transmitter(s) might induce REM sleep by acting on the vlPAG. Thus, we first examined the effect of icv injection of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle, and investigated how microinjection of either NEI, MCH, or GABA into the vlPAG affected REM sleep in rats. Icv injection of NEI (0.61μg/5μl: n=7) significantly increased the time spent in REM episodes compared to control (saline: 5μl; n=6). Microinjection of either NEI (61ng/0.2μl: n=7), MCH (100ng/0.2μl: n=6) or GABA (250mM/0.2μl: n=7) into the vlPAG significantly increased the time spent in REM episodes and the AUC. Precise hourly analysis of REM sleep also revealed that after those microinjections, NEI and MCH increased REM episodes at the latter phase, compared to GABA which increased REM episodes at the earlier phase. This result suggests that NEI and MCH may induce sustained REM sleep, while GABA may initiate REM sleep. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that NEI, a cleaved peptide from the same precursor, prepro-MCH, as MCH, induce REM sleep at least in part through acting on the vlPAG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel NREM and REM parasomnia with sleep breathing disorder associated with antibodies against IgLON5: a case series, pathological features, and characterization of the antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Lidia; Gaig, Carles; Gelpi, Ellen; Bataller, Luis; Lewerenz, Jan; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Contreras, Angeles; Giometto, Bruno; Compta, Yaroslau; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Autoimmunity may be involved in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe a neurological syndrome with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a previously unknown neuronal antigen. Methods In this observational study, clinical and video-polysomnography (V- PSG) investigations identified a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of Hospital Clinic University of Barcelona for abnormal sleep behaviors and obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). They had antibodies against a neuronal surface antigen also present in five additional patients referred to our laboratory for antibody studies. These five patients had been evaluated with PSG and in two, the study was done or reviewed in our Sleep Unit. Two patients underwent postmortem brain examination. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the antigen and to develop a diagnostic test. Serum or CSF from 285 patients with neurodegenerative, sleep, or autoimmune disorders served as controls. Findings All eight patients (five women; range: 52–76 years, median 59) had abnormal sleep movements and behaviors and OSA confirmed by PSG. Six patients had a chronic evolution (range 2–12 years, median 5.5); in four the sleep disorder was the initial and most prominent feature, and in two it was preceded by gait instability, and followed by dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, or chorea. Two patients had a rapid evolution with disequilibrium, dysarthria, dysphagia, and central hypoventilation, and died two and six months after symptom onset. In 5/5 patients, the V-PSG reviewed in our Unit disclosed OSA, stridor, and abnormal sleep architecture with undifferentiated NREM sleep or poorly structured stage N2 with simple movements and finalistic behaviors, normalization of NREM sleep by the end of the night, and REM sleep behavior disorder. Four/4 patients carried the HLA-DRB1*1001 and HLA-DQB1*0501 alleles. All patients had antibodies (mainly IgG4

  17. The tongue and its control by sleep state-dependent modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, R L

    2011-12-01

    The neural networks controlling vital functions such as breathing are embedded in the brain, the neural and chemical environment of which changes with state, i.e., wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and REM sleep, and with commonly administered drugs such as anaesthetics, sedatives and ethanol. One particular output from the state-dependent chemical brain is the focus of attention in this paper; the motor output to the muscles of the tongue, specifically the actions of state-dependent modulators acting at the hypoglossal motor pool. Determining the mechanisms underlying the modulation of the hypoglossal motor output during sleep is relevant to understanding the spectrum of increased upper airway resistance, airflow limitation, hypoventilation and airway obstructions that occur during natural and drug-influenced sleep in humans. Understanding the mechanisms underlying upper airway dysfunction in sleep-disordered breathing is also important given the large and growing prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome which constitutes a major public health problem with serious clinical, social and economic consequences.

  18. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH: a new sleep factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eTorterolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that utilize the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH as a neuromodulator are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamus and the incerto-hypothalamic area, and have widespread projections throughout the brain. While the biological functions of this neuropeptide are exerted in humans through two metabotropic receptors, the MCHR1 and MCHR2, only the MCHR1 is present in rodents. Recently, it has been shown that the MCHergic system is involved in the control of sleep. We can summarize the experimental findings as follows:1. The areas related to the control of sleep and wakefulness have an important density of MCHergic fibers and receptors.2. MCHergic neurons are active during sleep, especially during REM sleep.3. Genetically-modified animals without MCH have less REM sleep, notably under conditions of negative energy balance. 4. Systemically administered MCHR1 antagonists reduce sleep. 5. Intraventricular microinjection of MCH increases both slow wave sleep (SWS and REM sleep; however, the increment in REM sleep is more pronounced.6. Microinjection of MCH into the dorsal raphe nucleus increases REM sleep time. REM seep is inhibited by immunoneutralization of MCH within this nucleus.7. Microinjection of MCH in the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat enhances REM sleep time and reduces REM sleep latency.All these data strongly suggest that MCH has a potent role in the promotion of sleep. Although both SWS and REM sleep are facilitated by MCH, REM sleep seems to be more sensitive to MCH modulation.

  19. Sleep Resilience, Comorbid Anxiety, and Treatment in a Murine Model of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    cell replication. Diabetes 56: 1792– 1801. 32. Benington JH, Kodali SK, Heller HC (1994) Scoring transitions to REM sleep in rats based on the EEG...RL, Abbott SB, Depuy SD, Fortuna MG, et al. (2010) Central CO2 chemoreception and integrated neural mechanisms of cardiovas- cular and respiratory

  20. Análisis de límites y alcances de aranceles específicos y ad-valórem. Caso Alby store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Carolina Tierra Tierra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene por objetivo analizar los límites y alcances de los aranceles y específicos ad-valórem aplicados a los importadores del sector textil y de calzado ecuatoriano, mediante el estudio de caso de las tiendas al detal Alby Store. Se compararon y analizaron las ventas en unidades de ropa y calzado, nacionales e importados desde Panamá, Perú, Colombia y Estados Unidos, entre el 2008 y agosto de 2014, con las variaciones de los aranceles aplicados en este rango de tiempo. De esta manera, se determinó que la salvaguardia de $6 por cada par de zapato impuesta en enero de 2009 afectó en mayor grado a las ventas del calzado que las impuestas a la ropa. En consecuencia, el calzado importado sí fue reemplazado casi en su totalidad por el calzado ecuatoriano en los siete años analizados, ya que los nuevos tributos incrementaron en un buen grado el precio de venta al público de la mercancía. En contraste, la ropa importada no se reemplazó por completo ya que la variedad de modelos es más extensa y moderna que la nacional, por lo que continuó siendo adquirida por los clientes de Alby Store y esto se reflejó en la recuperación en ventas desde el 2011. Palabras clave: Economía de la empresa, política pública y regulaciones

  1. REM sleep deprivation produces a motivational deficit for food reward that is reversed by intra-accumbens amphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Benca, Ruth M; Baldo, Brian A; Kelley, Ann E

    2010-10-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome of increase in food intake accompanied by, paradoxically, decrease in weight, suggesting a potential alteration in motivation for food reward. Using the multiple platform method to produce REM sleep deprivation (REMSD), we investigated the effect of REMSD on motivation for food reinforcement with a progressive ratio operant task, which yields a measure of the motor effort that a hungry animal is willing to expend to obtain food (the point at which the animal quits responding is termed the "break-point"). We found that REMSD rats decreased the break point for sucrose pellet reinforcement in comparison to controls, as revealed by a within-session decline in responding. This behavioral deficit is similar to that observed in rats with diminished dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), and, considering that stimulants are frequently used in the clinical setting to reverse the effects of sleepiness, we examined the effect of systemic or intra-Acb amphetamine on break point in REMSD rats. Animals were given either systemic or intra-Acb amphetamine injections on days 3 and 5 of REMSD. Systemic amphetamine (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5mg/kg) did not increase break point in REMSD rats. In contrast, intra-Acb infusions of amphetamine (1, 10, or 30μg/0.5μl bilaterally) reversed the REMSD-induced suppression of progressive ratio responding. Specifically, the two higher doses of intra-Acb amphetamine were able to prolong responding within the session (resulting in an increased break point) on day 3 of REMSD while only the highest dose was sufficient following 5 days of REMSD. These data suggest that decreased motivation for food reward caused by REMSD may result from a suppression of dopamine function in the Acb. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutron detection time distributions of multisphere LiI detectors and AB rem meter at a 20 MeV electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Rokni, S.; Vylet, V.; Arora, R.; Semones, E.; Justus, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron detection time distribution is an important factor for the dead-time correction for moderator type neutron detectors used in pulsed radiation fields. Measurements of the neutron detection time distributions of multisphere LiL detectors (2''3'' , 5'', 8'', 10'' and 12'' in diameter) and an AB rem meter were made inside an ANL 20 MeV electron linac room. Calculations of the neutron detection time distributions were also made using Monte Carlo codes. The first step was to calculate the neutron energy spectra at the target and detector positions, using a coupled EGS4-MORSE code with a giant-resonant photoneutron generation scheme. The calculated detector spectrum was found in agreement with the multisphere measurements. Then, neutrons hitting the detector surface were scored as a function of energy and the travel time in the room using MCNP. Finally, the above neutron fluence as a function of energy and travel time was used as the source term, and the neutrons detected by 6 Li or 10 B in the sensor were scored as a function of detection time for each detector using MCNP. The calculations of the detection time distributions agree with the measurements. The results also show that the detection time distributions of detectors with large moderators depend mainly on the moderator thickness and neutron spectrum. However, for small detectors, the neutron travel time in the field is also crucial. Therefore, all four factors (neutron spectrum, neutron travel time in the field, detector moderator thickness and detector response function) may play inter-related roles in the detection time distribution of moderator type detectors. (Author)

  3. Study of anticipated impact on DOE programs from proposed reductions to the external occupational radiation exposure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    A study of the impact of reducing the occupational radiation exposure limit from 5 rem/yr to 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 rem/yr, respectively produced the following conclusions: reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in total accumulated exposure to the current radiation worker population and could require an increase in the work force; important programs would have to be abandoned at a planned exposure limit of 0.5 rem/yr; some engineering technology is not sufficiently developed to design or operate at the 0.5 rem/yr limit; even a factor of 2 reduction (2.5 rem/yr) would significantly increase costs and would result in an increase in total exposure to the work force; in addition to a significant one-time initial capital cost resulting from a 0.5 rem/yr limit, there would be a significant increase in annual costs; the major emphasis in controlling occupational exposure should be on further reduction of total man-rem; and current standards are used only as a limit. For example, 97% of the employees receive less than 0.5 rem/yr

  4. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eChouchou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: 1 non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS, characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and 2 rapid eye movement sleep (REMS, characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: 1 the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, 2 differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and 3 the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders.

  5. Wilson?s disease presenting as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a possible window to early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotthard G. Tribl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease. Method Questionnaire-based interviews (patients and relatives, neurological examinations, two-week prospective dream-diary, video-polysomnography, transcranial sonography, MRI. Results Four Wilson’s disease cases with REM sleep behavior disorder were described; three had REM sleep behavior disorder as initial symptom. All showed mesencephalic tegmental/tectal sonographic hyperechogenicities and two presented ponto-mesencephalic tegmental MRI hyperintensities. Conclusion This first description of REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease in literature documents REM sleep behavior disorder as a possible presenting symptom of Wilson’s disease and adds further evidence to the parallelism of Parkinson’s disease and Wilson’s disease in phenotype and brainstem topography, which ought to be further studied. REM sleep behavior disorder has prognostic relevance for neurodegeneration in α-synucleinopathies. In Wilson’s disease, usefulness of early diagnosis and treatment are already well established. REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease offers a possible theoretical model for potential early treatment in this extrapyramidal and brainstem paradigm syndrome, previewing the possibility of neuroprotective treatment for REM sleep behavior disorder in “pre-clinical” Parkinson’s disease.

  6. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  7. Chronic escitalopram treatment attenuated the accelerated rapid eye movement sleep transitions after selective rapid eye movement sleep deprivation: a model-based analysis using Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyalik, Diána; Vas, Szilvia; Kátai, Zita; Kitka, Tamás; Gyertyán, István; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Tóthfalusi, László

    2014-11-19

    Shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and increased REM sleep amount are presumed biological markers of depression. These sleep alterations are also observable in several animal models of depression as well as during the rebound sleep after selective REM sleep deprivation (RD). Furthermore, REM sleep fragmentation is typically associated with stress procedures and anxiety. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants reduce REM sleep time and increase REM latency after acute dosing in normal condition and even during REM rebound following RD. However, their therapeutic outcome evolves only after weeks of treatment, and the effects of chronic treatment in REM-deprived animals have not been studied yet. Chronic escitalopram- (10 mg/kg/day, osmotic minipump for 24 days) or vehicle-treated rats were subjected to a 3-day-long RD on day 21 using the flower pot procedure or kept in home cage. On day 24, fronto-parietal electroencephalogram, electromyogram and motility were recorded in the first 2 h of the passive phase. The observed sleep patterns were characterized applying standard sleep metrics, by modelling the transitions between sleep phases using Markov chains and by spectral analysis. Based on Markov chain analysis, chronic escitalopram treatment attenuated the REM sleep fragmentation [accelerated transition rates between REM and non-REM (NREM) stages, decreased REM sleep residence time between two transitions] during the rebound sleep. Additionally, the antidepressant avoided the frequent awakenings during the first 30 min of recovery period. The spectral analysis showed that the SSRI prevented the RD-caused elevation in theta (5-9 Hz) power during slow-wave sleep. Conversely, based on the aggregate sleep metrics, escitalopram had only moderate effects and it did not significantly attenuate the REM rebound after RD. In conclusion, chronic SSRI treatment is capable of reducing several effects on sleep which might be the consequence

  8. Characteristics of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Frandsen, Rune Asger Vestergaard; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with Parkinsonian disorders, but is also reported in narcolepsy. Most patients...... of hypocretin deficiency. Thus, hypocretin deficiency is linked to the two major disturbances of REM sleep motor regulation in narcolepsy: RBD and cataplexy. Moreover, it is likely that hypocretin deficiency independently predicts periodic limb movements in REM and NREM sleep, probably via involvement...... of the dopaminergic system. This supports the hypothesis that an impaired hypocretin system causes general instability of motor regulation during wakefulness, REM and NREM sleep in human narcolepsy. We propose that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor tone control during wakefulness and sleep in humans...

  9. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  10. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  11. Sleep electroencephalography as a biomarker in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiger A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Axel Steiger, Marcel Pawlowski, Mayumi Kimura Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany Abstract: The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG provides biomarkers of depression, which may help with diagnosis, prediction of therapy response, and prognosis in the treatment of depression. In patients with depression, characteristic sleep EEG changes include impaired sleep continuity, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep, and impaired non-REM sleep. Most antidepressants suppress REM sleep in depressed patients, healthy volunteers, and in animal models. REM suppression appears to be an important, but not an absolute requirement, for antidepressive effects of a substance. Enhanced REM density, a measure for frequency of REM, characterizes high-risk probands for affective disorders. REM-sleep changes were also found in animal models of depression. Sleep-EEG variables were shown to predict the response to treatment with antidepressants. Furthermore, certain clusters of sleep EEG variables predicted the course of the disorder for several years. Some of the predicted sleep EEG markers appear to be related to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal system activity. Keywords: biomarkers, depression, sleep EEG, antidepressants, prediction, animal models

  12. Circadian distribution of sleep phases after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gogenur, I.; Wildschiotz, G.; Rosenberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. It is believed that the severely disturbed night-time sleep architecture after surgery is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity with rebound of rapid eye movement (REM). The daytime sleep pattern of patients after major general surgery has not been investigated before. We...... nights after operation. Sleep was scored independently by two blinded observers and the recordings were reported as awake, light sleep (LS, stages I and II), slow wave sleep (SWS, stages III and IV), and REM sleep. Results. There was significantly increased REM sleep (P=0.046), LS (P=0.020), and reduced...... time awake (P=0.016) in the postoperative daytime period compared with the preoperative daytime period. Five patients had REM sleep during the daytime after surgery. Three of these patients did not have REM sleep during the preceding postoperative night. There was significantly reduced night-time REM...

  13. Quantification of muscle activity during sleep for patients with neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Umaer; Trap, Lotte; Jennum, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a very strong predictor for later development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA), resulting in increased muscle activity during REM sleep. Abundant studies have shown the loss of atonia during REM...... sleep, but our aim was to investigate whether iRBD and PD patients have increased muscle activity in both REM and NREM sleep compared to healthy controls. This was achieved by developing a semi-automatic algorithm for quantification of mean muscle activity per second during all sleep stages...... to the different sleep stages and muscle activity beyond the threshold was counted. The results were evaluated statistically using the two-sided Mann-Whitney U-test. The results suggested that iRBD patients also exhibit distinctive muscle activity characteristics in NREM sleep, however not as evident as in REM...

  14. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Chouchou, Florian; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: (1) non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS), characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and (2) rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. M...

  15. UV production of methane from surface and sedimenting IDPs on Mars in light of REMS data and with insights for TGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John E.; Smith, Christina L.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2017-11-01

    This paper refines model predictions for the production of methane from UV-irradiated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) now that the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover has made the first measurements of the UV environment on the surface of Mars, at Gale Crater. Once these measurements are included in a UV radiative transfer model, we find that modelled UV sol-integrated energies across the planet are lower than pre-measurement estimates by 35% on average, considering all latitudes and seasons. This reduction, in turn, reduces the predicted production of methane from individual accreting IDPs, extending their lifetimes and increasing the surface concentration of organics that must accumulate in order to emit sufficient methane to balance the accretion of organic compounds to Mars. Emission from reasonable accumulations of IDPs could range up to ∼7.9 × 10-4 ppbv sol-1. Richer deposits of organic carbon at the surface may emit methane at no more than 3.9 ppbv sol-1. An examination of IDP-derived methane production during atmospheric settling indicates that no more than 0.32% of organic carbon from meteor streams may be deposited in the atmosphere. Thus, such a process cannot explain either the spikes observed in methane nor the low equilibrium values observed by MSL. Instead, this discrepancy may be explained if geographical and vertical distribution will be an important input for models attempting to understand the results to be derived from the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission that will map methane concentrations in the martian atmosphere in 2018 at 0.01 ppbv.

  16. Research and Development in Support of the Surface Chemistry Branch. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    RETURN 2700C0 REM ********* : 27003 - REMI * 700~5 REM * PRINT RESULTS 270o9 REM* --70󈧎 REM *****..~* 2710C. HTA’o -7110 VTAtL 2 1 271-_. PRINTr r:, 114...endotherm for PEDCM was very weak :indicating a low level of crystallirity. PEM partially iso - merizes to the fumarate ester structure during polymerization...This measurement asoatthe conductivity of the film is too low nectscdy. NY. 1985; Thin Solid Film. ISOS , M*13307, to electrically short thadetadles

  17. Manufacturing Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-26

    have now appeared on the market which satisfy or exceed the original design specifications. By combining resources from several funding sources it...added to perform functions of bill of material processing, master scheduling, market forecasting, and management spread-sheet analysis. W t"" ie 0 EM n...100) 3󈨊 NLINE = 0 340) REM *************** 350 REM * INPUT LINES AND SEPARATE 360 REM ** ** * ** 370 REM 3S0 FOR LINES = 1 TO 100 390 INPUT #1

  18. SLEEP phenomena as an early biomarker for Parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic Rapid-Eye-Movement (REM) sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD) is one of the most potential biomarkers for Parkinson's Disease (PD) and some atypical PD (AP). It is characterized by REM sleep with abnormal high surface EMG (sEMG) activity. Some twitching during REM sleep is normal, but no one...... has defined what normal is, and no well-defined methodology for measuring muscle activity in REM sleep exists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of detecting abnormal high muscle activity during REM sleep in subjects diagnosed with iRBD. This has been achieved by considering...... the abnormal high muscle activity during REM sleep in iRBD subjects as an outlier detection problem, while exploiting that iRBD muscle activity is more grouped. It was possible to correctly discriminate all iRBD subjects from healthy elderly control subjects and subjects diagnosed with periodic limb movement...

  19. SLEEP AND MENTAL DISORDERS: A META-ANALYSIS OF POLYSOMNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Chiara; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Regen, Wolfram; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Reynolds, Charles F.; Riemann, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Investigating sleep in mental disorders has the potential to reveal both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic psychophysiological mechanisms. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of several mental disorders. Relevant studies were searched through standard strategies. Controlled PSG studies evaluating sleep in affective, anxiety, eating, pervasive developmental, borderline and antisocial personality disorders, ADHD, and schizophrenia were included. PSG variables of sleep continuity, depth, and architecture, as well as rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep were considered. Calculations were performed with the “Comprehensive Meta-Analysis” and “R” softwares. Using random effects modeling, for each disorder and each variable, a separate meta-analysis was conducted if at least 3 studies were available for calculation of effect sizes as standardized means (Hedges’g). Sources of variability, i.e., sex, age, and mental disorders comorbidity, were evaluated in subgroup analyses. Sleep alterations were evidenced in all disorders, with the exception of ADHD and seasonal affective disorders. Sleep continuity problems were observed in most mental disorders. Sleep depth and REM pressure alterations were associated with affective, anxiety, autism and schizophrenia disorders. Comorbidity was associated with enhanced REM sleep pressure and more inhibition of sleep depth. No sleep parameter was exclusively altered in one condition; however, no two conditions shared the same PSG profile. Sleep continuity disturbances imply a transdiagnostic imbalance in the arousal system likely representing a basic dimension of mental health. Sleep depth and REM variables might play a key role in psychiatric comorbidity processes. Constellations of sleep alterations may define distinct disorders better than alterations in one single variable. PMID:27416139

  20. [Parkinson Disease With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy.

  1. Sleep spindle-related reactivation of category-specific cortical regions after learning face-scene associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til O; Mölle, Matthias; Diedrichs, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Newly acquired declarative memory traces are believed to be reactivated during NonREM sleep to promote their hippocampo-neocortical transfer for long-term storage. Yet it remains a major challenge to unravel the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG......-coupled reactivation of brain regions representing the specific task stimuli was traced during subsequent NonREM sleep with EEG-informed fMRI. Relative to the control task, learning face-scene associations triggered a stronger combined activation of neocortical and hippocampal regions during subsequent sleep. Notably......) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in humans, we show that sleep spindles play a key role in the reactivation of memory-related neocortical representations. On separate days, participants either learned face-scene associations or performed a visuomotor control task. Spindle...

  2. Strain differences in the influence of open field exposure on sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangdong; Xiao, Jihua; Liu, Xianling; Sanford, Larry D

    2004-09-23

    The open field (OF) is thought to induce anxiety in rodents. It also allows an opportunity for exploration in a novel environment. Less activity in the OF is thought to indicate greater anxiety whereas more activity may reflect greater exploration, and possibly greater exploratory learning. Anxiety and learning have poorly understood relationships to sleep. In order to determine how anxiety and exploration in the OF could influence sleep, we recorded sleep in mouse strains (C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cJ (C), DBA/2J (D2), and CB6F1/J (CB6)) with different levels of anxiety and exploration after 30 min in an OF. In all strains, OF exposure induced immediate decreases in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) followed by longer latency increases in REM. The time course and amount of REM decreases and increases varied among strains. Compared to less anxious B6, D2 and CB6 mice, C mice had greater and longer lasting immediate decreases in REM. C mice also displayed longer periods of decreases REM and a smaller, longer latency increase in REM. OF exploratory activity was positively correlated to percentage of REM increases from 6 to 10h after OF exposure. The results suggest that the anxiogenic component of the OF produced an immediate decrease in REM that was greater in more "anxious" mice. In contrast, exploration in the OF was associated with increased REM, with the increase greater in less anxious mice. The results are discussed with respect to the potential influences of anxiety and learning on sleep.

  3. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Kato, T; Kolta, A; Sessle, B J

    2003-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported by 8% of the adult population and is mainly associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) characterized by repetitive jaw muscle contractions (3 bursts or more at a frequency of 1 Hz). The consequences of SB may include tooth destruction, jaw pain, headaches, or the limitation of mandibular movement, as well as tooth-grinding sounds that disrupt the sleep of bed partners. SB is probably an extreme manifestation of a masticatory muscle activity occurring during the sleep of most normal subjects, since RMMA is observed in 60% of normal sleepers in the absence of grinding sounds. The pathophysiology of SB is becoming clearer, and there is an abundance of evidence outlining the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of rhythmic jaw movements (RJM) in relation to chewing, swallowing, and breathing. The sleep literature provides much evidence describing the mechanisms involved in the reduction of muscle tone, from sleep onset to the atonia that characterizes rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Several brainstem structures (e.g., reticular pontis oralis, pontis caudalis, parvocellularis) and neurochemicals (e.g., serotonin, dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA], noradrenaline) are involved in both the genesis of RJM and the modulation of muscle tone during sleep. It remains unknown why a high percentage of normal subjects present RMMA during sleep and why this activity is three times more frequent and higher in amplitude in SB patients. It is also unclear why RMMA during sleep is characterized by co-activation of both jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscles instead of the alternating jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscle activity pattern typical of chewing. The final section of this review proposes that RMMA during sleep has a role in lubricating the upper alimentary tract and increasing airway patency. The review concludes with an outline of questions for future research.

  4. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  5. Investigations of morning and laboratory dream recall and content in depressive patients during baseline conditions and under antidepressive treatment with trimipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, D; Löw, H; Schredl, M; Wiegand, M; Dippel, B; Berger, M

    1990-06-01

    REM sleep abnormalities like shortened REM (rapid eye movement) latency, prolongation of the first REM period and heightening of REM density often found in patients with a major depression have prompted an increasing number of studies investigating the neurobiology and neurophysiology of REM sleep in depressive patients, as well as in healthy humans and animals. On the other hand, since the early 1970s investigation of the psychological concomitant of REM sleep, i.e., dreaming, in depressive patients has been extremely sparse. The present study aimed at investigating morning and laboratory dream recall and content in patients with a major depressive disorder to shed more light on this neglected area. In short, morning as well as laboratory dream recall in depressive inpatients was drastically reduced. The low number of scorable dream reports collected did not reveal a heightened incidence of "masochistic" or "negative" content, indeed were rather mundane. In contrast, depressive outpatients (probably less depressed) had a higher rate of morning dream recall. Interestingly, antidepressive treatment with trimipramine (an antidepressant which does not suppress REM sleep) led to a positive influence on patients' mood that was paralleled by a change of dream mood in a positive direction.

  6. Observations of Near-Bottom Flow in a Wave-Dominated Nearshore Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    E 0 0 0 ~- X : (- 1.. pI m~ ffm ~o .pcr onf> ..... X • -- E X/• x,. "£ "*.. . .. . 0o 0 0 a c c ,(s0wO) (S/PH w) (SlUwo) . 7109 I 3 I Mean of LDV...1 I 8250 ASM X,ANDA #&HBF :REM 0000 OXXX ACCA 8260 ASM X,ANDB #&HBF :REM 0000 1XXX ACCB 8270 ASM X,STAB &H17 :REM /CS=0 3 8280 ASM X,STAA &H17 :REM

  7. Reentrant Information Flow in Electrophysiological Rat Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Zhang, Yunxiang; Guo, Fengru; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that the rodent brain shows a default mode network (DMN) activity similar to that in humans, offering a potential preclinical model both for physiological and pathophysiological studies. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying rodent DMN remains poorly understood. Here, we used electrophysiological data to analyze the power spectrum and estimate the directed phase transfer entropy (dPTE) within rat DMN across three vigilance states: wakeful rest (WR), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). We observed decreased gamma powers during SWS compared with WR in most of the DMN regions. Increased gamma powers were found in prelimbic cortex, cingulate cortex, and hippocampus during REMS compared with WR, whereas retrosplenial cortex showed a reverse trend. These changed gamma powers are in line with the local metabolic variation of homologous brain regions in humans. In the analysis of directional interactions, we observed well-organized anterior-to-posterior patterns of information flow in the delta band, while opposite patterns of posterior-to-anterior flow were found in the theta band. These frequency-specific opposite patterns were only observed in WR and REMS. Additionally, most of the information senders in the delta band were also the receivers in the theta band, and vice versa. Our results provide electrophysiological evidence that rat DMN is similar to its human counterpart, and there is a frequency-dependent reentry loop of anterior-posterior information flow within rat DMN, which may offer a mechanism for functional integration, supporting conscious awareness.

  8. Anesthesia recovery comparison between remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-desflurane guided by Bispectral Index® monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Grossi Rocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: There is a strong demand for fast and predictable anesthesia recovery with few side effects. Choice of the hypnotic agent could impact on that. This study investigated the differences between recoveries after remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-desflurane anesthesias guided by bispectral index (BIS®. Methods: Forty patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups according to the anesthesia technique applied: remifentanil-propofol (REM-PRO and remifentanil-desflurane (REM-DES. After the discontinuation of the anesthetics, the times to extubation, to obey commands and to recover the airway protection reflex were recorted. In the post-anesthetic recovery room (PACU it was recorded the occurrence of nausea and vomiting (PONV, scores of Ramsay sedation scale and of numeric pain scale (NPS, morphine dose and length of stay in the unit. Results: Data from 38 patients were analyzed: 18 from REM-PRO and 20 from REM-DES group. Anesthesia times were similar (REM-PRO = 193 min, SD 79.9 vs. 175.7 min, SD 87.9 REM-DES; p = 0.5. REM-DES had shorter times than REM-PRO group: time to follow command (8.5 min; SD 3.0 vs. 5.6 min; SD 2.5; p = 0.0 and extubation time (6.2 min; 3.1–8.5 vs. 9.5 min; 4.9–14.4; p = 0.0. Times to recover airway protective reflex were similar: 16 patients from REM-PRO (88.9% restored the airway protective reflex 2 min after extubation vs. 17 from REM-DES (89.5%; and 2 patients from REM-PRO (11.1% vs. 2 from REM-DES (10.5% 6 min after extubation, p = 1. Ramsay sedation score, NPS, PONV incidents, morphine dose and PACU stay of length PACU were also similar. Conclusion: Remifentanil-desflurane-based anesthesia has a faster extubation time and to follow command than remifentanil-propofol-based anesthesia when both guided by BIS®. Resumo: Justificativa e objetivos: Há uma forte demanda por recuperação pós-anestésica rápida e previsível com poucos efeitos adversos. A escolha do agente

  9. In-Home Sleep Recordings in Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reveal Less REM and Deep Sleep <1 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onton, Julie A.; Matthews, Scott C.; Kang, Dae Y.; Coleman, Todd P.

    2018-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA) and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm. For this study, 71 control subjects and 60 military-related PTSD subjects were analyzed for percentage of time spent in Light, Hi Deep (1–3 Hz), Lo Deep (Deep (p = 0.001) sleep, while spending a larger percentage of the night in Hi Deep (p Deep sleep did not differ between groups. All sleepers usually showed EDA peaks during Lo, but not Hi, Deep sleep; however, PTSD sleepers were more likely to lack EDA peaks altogether, which usually coincided with a lack of Lo Deep sleep. Linear regressions with all subjects showed that a decreased percentage of REM sleep in PTSD sleepers was accounted for by age, prazosin, SSRIs and SNRIs (p Deep and increased Hi Deep in the PTSD group could not be accounted for by any factor in this study (p deep sleep related to PTSD could not be linked to any known factor. With several medications [prazosin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs); p < 0.03], as well as SSRIs were associated with less sleep efficiency (b = -3.3 ± 0.95; p = 0.0005) and more sleep fragmentation (b = -1.7 ± 0.51; p = 0.0009). Anti-psychotics were associated with less sleep efficiency (b = -4.9 ± 1.4; p = 0.0004). Sleep efficiency was negatively impacted by SSRIs, antipsychotic medications, and depression (p < 0.008). Increased sleep fragmentation was associated with SSRIs, SNRIs, and anxiety (p < 0.009), while prazosin and

  10. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder as an outlier detection problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Nikolic, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is a strong early marker of Parkinson's disease and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia and/or dream enactment. Because these measures are subject to individual interpretation, there is consequently need...... for quantitative methods to establish objective criteria. This study proposes a semiautomatic algorithm for the early detection of Parkinson's disease. This is achieved by distinguishing between normal REM sleep and REM sleep without atonia by considering muscle activity as an outlier detection problem. METHODS......: Sixteen healthy control subjects, 16 subjects with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder, and 16 subjects with periodic limb movement disorder were enrolled. Different combinations of five surface electromyographic channels, including the EOG, were tested. A muscle activity score was automatically...

  11. Human regional cerebral blood flow during rapid-eye-movement sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Holm, S; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    Owing to the coupling between CBF and neuronal activity, regional CBF is a reflection of neural activity in different brain regions. In this study we measured regional CBF during polysomnographically well-defined rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep by the use of single photon emission computerized...... tomography and the new tracer 99mTc-dl-hexamethylpropyleneamine. Eleven healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 27 years were studied. CBF was measured on separate nights during REM sleep and during EEG-verified wakefulness. On awakening from REM sleep, all subjects reported visual dreams. During REM sleep...... dream experiences. On the other hand, the reduced involvement of the inferior frontal cortex observed during REM sleep might explain the poor temporal organization and bizarreness often experienced in dreams....

  12. Elaboration of the Reciprocal-Engagement Model of Genetic Counseling Practice: a Qualitative Investigation of Goals and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger-Grosse, Krista; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; LeRoy, Bonnie S; Zierhut, Heather

    2017-12-01

    As the genetic counseling field evolves, a comprehensive model of practice is critical. The Reciprocal-Engagement Model (REM) consists of 5 tenets and 17 goals. Lacking in the REM, however, are well-articulated counselor strategies and behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to further elaborate and provide supporting evidence for the REM by identifying and mapping genetic counseling strategies to the REM goals. A secondary, qualitative analysis was conducted on data from two prior studies: 1) focus group results of genetic counseling outcomes (Redlinger-Grosse et al., Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2015); and 2) genetic counselors' examples of successful and unsuccessful genetic counseling sessions (Geiser et al. 2009). Using directed content analysis, 337 unique strategies were extracted from focus group data. A Q-sort of the 337 strategies yielded 15 broader strategy domains that were then mapped to the successful and unsuccessful session examples. Differing prevalence of strategy domains identified in successful sessions versus the prevalence of domains identified as lacking in unsuccessful sessions provide further support for the REM goals. The most prevalent domains for successful sessions were Information Giving and Use Psychosocial Skills and Strategies; and for unsuccessful sessions, Information Giving and Establish Working Alliance. Identified strategies support the REM's reciprocal nature, especially with regard to addressing patients' informational and psychosocial needs. Patients' contributions to success (or lack thereof) of sessions was also noted, supporting a REM tenet that individual characteristics and the counselor-patient relationship are central to processes and outcomes. The elaborated REM could be used as a framework for certain graduate curricular objectives, and REM components could also inform process and outcomes research studies to document and further characterize genetic counselor strategies.

  13. A guide to understanding and implementing risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tichy, Eric M

    2013-03-01

    To review the components of the Congressional mandate for risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) managed by the Food and Drug Administration and assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplant arena. A non-date-limited search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2007-June 2012) was conducted by using the following search terms: risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, and organ transplant, including a query of the individual organs. Information from the Federal Register and the Food and Drug Administration was also evaluated. REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product. Elements of REMS programs may consist of 3 levels: a medication guide, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use. A medication guide is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patients' decision making, and enhance medication adherence. Communication plans help educate health care providers and encourage adherence with REMS. The elements to assure safe use is a restrictive process implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure safe access for patients to products with known serious risks. In transplant medicine, REMS currently exist for belatacept (medication guide and communication plan) and the mycophenolic acid derivatives (medication guide and elements to assure safe use). REMS are another step in the evolution of the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents. Use of REMS in solid-organ transplant is becoming common. Transplant clinicians must provide required patient education and become involved with other aspects of REMS implementation to reduce the serious risks of pharmaceuticals and to improve patients' outcomes.

  14. Risk of whole body radiation exposure and protective measures in fluoroscopically guided interventional techniques: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Jose

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroscopic guidance is frequently utilized in interventional pain management. The major purpose of fluoroscopy is correct needle placement to ensure target specificity and accurate delivery of the injectate. Radiation exposure may be associated with risks to physician, patient and personnel. While there have been many studies evaluating the risk of radiation exposure and techniques to reduce this risk in the upper part of the body, the literature is scant in evaluating the risk of radiation exposure in the lower part of the body. Methods Radiation exposure risk to the physician was evaluated in 1156 patients undergoing interventional procedures under fluoroscopy by 3 physicians. Monitoring of scattered radiation exposure in the upper and lower body, inside and outside the lead apron was carried out. Results The average exposure per procedure was 12.0 ± 9.8 seconds, 9.0 ± 0.37 seconds, and 7.5 ± 1.27 seconds in Groups I, II, and III respectively. Scatter radiation exposure ranged from a low of 3.7 ± 0.29 seconds for caudal/interlaminar epidurals to 61.0 ± 9.0 seconds for discography. Inside the apron, over the thyroid collar on the neck, the scatter radiation exposure was 68 mREM in Group I consisting of 201 patients who had a total of 330 procedures with an average of 0.2060 mREM per procedure and 25 mREM in Group II consisting of 446 patients who had a total of 662 procedures with average of 0.0378 mREM per procedure. The scatter radiation exposure was 0 mREM in Group III consisting of 509 patients who had a total 827 procedures. Increased levels of exposures were observed in Groups I and II compared to Group III, and Group I compared to Group II. Groin exposure showed 0 mREM exposure in Groups I and II and 15 mREM in Group III. Scatter radiation exposure for groin outside the apron in Group I was 1260 mREM and per procedure was 3.8182 mREM. In Group II the scatter radiation exposure was 400 mREM and with 0.6042 mREM

  15. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Xu

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1 constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  16. Effects of an alkaloid-rich extract from Mitragyna speciosa leaves and fluoxetine on sleep profiles, EEG spectral frequency and ethanol withdrawal symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaha, Dania; Keawpradub, Niwat; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Phukpattaranont, Pimpimol; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit

    2015-10-15

    Many antidepressants are effective in alleviating ethanol withdrawal symptoms. However, most of them suppress rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Thus, development of antidepressants without undesirable side effects would be preferable. Previously, crude alkaloid extract from Mitragyna speciosa (MS) Korth was found to produce antidepressant activities. It was hypothesized that the alkaloid extract from MS may attenuate ethanol withdrawal without REM sleep disturbance. Adult male Wistar rats implanted with electrodes over the frontal and parietal cortices were used for two separated studies. For an acute study, 10 mg/kg fluoxetine or 60 mg/kg alkaloid extract from MS were administered intragastrically. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded for 3 h to examine sleep profiles and EEG fingerprints. Another set of animal was used for an ethanol withdrawal study. They were rendered dependent on ethanol via a modified liquid diet (MLD) containing ethanol ad libitum for 28 days. On day 29, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or alkaloid extract from MS (60 mg/kg) were administered 15 min before the ethanol-containing MLD was replaced with an isocaloric ethanol-free MLD to induced ethanol withdrawal symptoms. The sleep analysis revealed that alkaloid extract from MS did not change any REM parameters which included average duration of each REM episode, total REM time, number of REM episode and REM latency whereas fluoxetine significantly suppressed all REM parameters and delayed REM latency. However, power spectral analysis revealed similar fingerprints for fluoxetine and alkaloid extract from MS characterized by decreasing powers in the slow frequency range in frontal and parietal cortical EEG. Neither treatment affected spontaneous motor activity. Finally, both alkaloid extract from MS and fluoxetine were found to significantly attenuate ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability (increases gamma activity) in both cortices and to reduce locomotor activity. The present study

  17. A novel, mouse mammary tumor virus encoded protein with Rev-like properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indik, Stanislav; Guenzburg, Walter H.; Salmons, Brian; Rouault, Francoise

    2005-01-01

    We have identified a novel, multiple spliced, subgenomic mRNA species in MMTV producing cells of different origin containing an open reading frame encoding a 39-kDa Rev-like protein, Rem (regulator of expression of MMTV). An EGFP-Rem fusion protein is shown to be predominantly in the nucleolus. Further leptomycin B inhibits the nuclear export of nonspliced MMTV transcripts, implicating Rem in nuclear export by the Crm1 pathway in MMTV. Rem is thus reminiscent of the Rec protein from the related endogenous human retrovirus, HERV-K

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonism Normalizes Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Valladares, Edwin M.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background In alcohol dependence, markers of inflammation are associated with increases in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is thought to be a prognostic indicator of alcohol relapse. This study was undertaken to test whether blockade of biologically active tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) normalizes REM sleep in alcohol-dependent adults. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 abstinent alcohol-dependent male adults received a single dose of etanercept (25 mg) versus placebo in a counterbalanced order. Polysomnographic sleep was measured at baseline and for 3 nights after the acute dose of etanercept or placebo. Results Compared with placebo, administration of etanercept produced significant decreases in the amount and percentage of REM sleep. Decreases in REM sleep were robust and approached low levels typically found in age-comparable control subjects. Individual differences in biologically active drug as indexed by circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II negatively correlated with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions Pharmacologic neutralization of TNF-α activity is associated with significant reductions in REM sleep in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. These data suggest that circulating levels of TNF-α may have a physiologic role in the regulation of REM sleep in humans. PMID:19185287

  19. Why are seizures rare in rapid eye movement sleep? Review of the frequency of seizures in different sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Marcus; Pavlova, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia. Multiple independent studies confirm that, in REM sleep, there is a strikingly low proportion of seizures (~1% or less). We review a total of 42 distinct conventional and intracranial studies in the literature which comprised a net of 1458 patients. Indexed to duration, we found that REM sleep was the most protective stage of sleep against focal seizures, generalized seizures, focal interictal discharges, and two particular epilepsy syndromes. REM sleep had an additional protective effect compared to wakefulness with an average 7.83 times fewer focal seizures, 3.25 times fewer generalized seizures, and 1.11 times fewer focal interictal discharges. In further studies REM sleep has also demonstrated utility in localizing epileptogenic foci with potential translation into postsurgical seizure freedom. Based on emerging connectivity data in sleep, we hypothesize that the influence of REM sleep on seizures is due to a desynchronized EEG pattern which reflects important connectivity differences unique to this sleep stage.

  20. Transcranial electrical currents to probe EEG brain rhythms and memory consolidation during sleep in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Marshall

    Full Text Available Previously the application of a weak electric anodal current oscillating with a frequency of the sleep slow oscillation (∼0.75 Hz during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM sleep boosted endogenous slow oscillation activity and enhanced sleep-associated memory consolidation. The slow oscillations occurring during NonREM sleep and theta oscillations present during REM sleep have been considered of critical relevance for memory formation. Here transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS oscillating at 5 Hz, i.e., within the theta frequency range (theta-tDCS is applied during NonREM and REM sleep. Theta-tDCS during NonREM sleep produced a global decrease in slow oscillatory activity conjoint with a local reduction of frontal slow EEG spindle power (8-12 Hz and a decrement in consolidation of declarative memory, underlining the relevance of these cortical oscillations for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In contrast, during REM sleep theta-tDCS appears to increase global gamma (25-45 Hz activity, indicating a clear brain state-dependency of theta-tDCS. More generally, results demonstrate the suitability of oscillating-tDCS as a tool to analyze functions of endogenous EEG rhythms and underlying endogenous electric fields as well as the interactions between EEG rhythms of different frequencies.

  1. Using Rubber-Elastic Material-Ideal Gas Analogies To Teach Introductory Thermodynamics. Part I: Equations of State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brent

    2002-01-01

    Describes equations of state as a supplement to an introductory thermodynamics undergraduate course. Uses rubber-elastic materials (REM) which have strong analogies to the concept of an ideal gas and explains the molar basis of REM. Provides examples of the analogies between ideal gas and REM and mathematical analogies. (Contains 22 references.)…

  2. Understanding risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven

    2011-07-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) be required of manufacturers. These REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with drugs and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product, including once the product becomes available as generic. The elements of an individual REMS program consist of three levels: medication guide or patient package insert, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). A medication guide or patient package insert is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patient decision making, and enhance drug adherence. Communication plans are used to educate health care providers and to encourage their compliance with REMS. The ETASU is a restrictive process that is implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure that patients have safe access to products with known serious risks that would otherwise be unavailable. To review the components of REMS and specifically assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplantation arena, a literature search of the MEDLINE database (January 2007-December 2010) was performed, and published materials from the FDA and its Web site were also reviewed. In transplantation, REMS programs exist for both everolimus (medication guide and communication plan) and sirolimus (medication guide). The FDA has stated that all mycophenolic acid derivatives will be subject to a proposed REMS that has not yet been approved; however, both branded mycophenolic acid agents already have approved medication guides. The REMS are a permanent fixture in the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents, and their further implementation in solid organ transplantation is inevitable. Transplantation providers should take a proactive role in patient education and implementation of REMS within the therapeutic area

  3. The diagnostic value of power spectra analysis of the sleep electroencephalography in narcoleptic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Munk, Emil Gammelmark Schreiner; Peppard, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Manifestations of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) include disturbed nocturnal sleep – hereunder sleep–wake instability, decreased latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and dissociated REM sleep events. In this study, we characterized the electroencephalography (EEG) of various sleep...... show (1) increased alpha power in REM sleep, (2) decreased sigma power in wakefulness, and (3) decreased delta power in stage N1 versus wakefulness. Sensitivity of these features ranged from 4% to 10% with specificity around 98%, and it did not vary substantially with and without treatment. Conclusions......: EEG spectral analysis of REM sleep, wake, and differences between N1 and wakefulness contain diagnostic features of NC. These traits may represent sleepiness and dissociated REM sleep in patients with NC. However, the features are not sufficient for differentiating NC from controls, and further...

  4. Inhibition in Parkinson’s disease: A focus on prepulse inhibition and Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: α-synucleinopathies are characterized by degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway and midbrain dopamine function. These disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), are associated with sensorimotor gating deficits and show an increased prevalence of the parasomnia REM sleep...... with daytime motor function in Parkinsonism, the relation to the increased motor activity during REM sleep as seen in RBD is unclear. Aim: The objective of this thesis was 1) to examine prepulse inhibition of the acoustic blink reflex in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD), Parkinson...... in the striatum. Moreover, our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep in iRBD is associated with the nigrostriatal dopamine system, while EMG-activity during REM-sleep in PD is associated with dopaminergic medication....

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however...... with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic...

  6. Fourteenth annual report radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    All Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors are required by DOE Order 5484.1, Chapter IV, to submit occupational exposure records to a central repository. The data required includes a summary of whole-body exposures to ionizing radiation, a summary of internal depositions of radioactive materials above specified limits, and occupational exposure reports for terminating employees. This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1981. A total of 82,873 DOE and DOE contractor employees were monitored for whole-body ionizing radiation exposures in 1981. In addition to the employees, 84,343 visitors were monitored. Of all employees monitored, 54.43% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 44.04% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.53% an exposure granter than 1 rem. the exposure received by 88.14% of the visitors to DOE facilities was less than measurable. Only 11.85% of the visitors received a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 0.0% of the visitors received an exposure greater than 1 rem. No employees or visitors received a dose equivalent greater than 5 rem. The collective dose equivalent for DOE and DOE contractors employees was 6,902 person-rem. The collective dose equivalent for visitors was 579 person-rem. The total dose equivalent for employees and visitors combined was 7,481 person-rem. The average dose equivalent for all individuals (employees and visitors) monitored was 45 mrem and the average dose equivalent for all individuals who received a measurable exposure was 157 mrem. The highest average dose equivalent was observed for employees monitored at fuel processing facilities (342 mrem) and the lowest among visitors (7 mrem) to DOE facilities. These averages are significantly less than the DOE 5-rem/year radiation protection standard for whole-body exposures

  7. Using Ripple Effect Mapping to Evaluate Program Impact: Choosing or Combining the Methods That Work Best for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Mary; Higgins, Lorie; Chazdon, Scott; Hansen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    A mind mapping approach to evaluation called Ripple Effects Mapping (REM) has been developed and used by a number of Extension faculty across the country recently. This article describes three approaches to REM, as well as key differences and similarities. The authors, each from different land-grant institutions, believe REM is an effective way to…

  8. rems and mrems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-07-01

    In view of the discussions about the effect of nuclear power on the environment, these notes on sources of radiation and the amounts received by man may be of assistance. They are extracted from 'Nuclear Energy and the Environment' produced by the Agency as an addendum to its annual report to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, 1969-70. (author)

  9. Radiation exposure to the staff of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, 1969-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1983-07-01

    Evaluation of the data from the personnel dosimetry of the staff monitored from 1969 until 1981 at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH) gives a total external dose of 6,335 rem including natural radiaiton background. The occupational exposure of the radiation workers within this period comes to 3,076 rem, which gives an average annual external occupational exposure of 0.14 rem. In 1,832 cases an annual dose between 0.5 and 1.5 rem per year and in 353 cases a dose of more than 1.5 rem per year have been measured. The highest value, measured in 1972, amounted to 6.8 rem. During the period from 1969 until 1981 more than 34,000 incorporation measurements were performed with the whole body counter and the lung counter, 1,963 cases with positive findings. In 96% of the cases the values of incorporated activity were inferior to 1% - in 70% even inferior to 0.1% - of the maximum permissible body burden values of ICRP 2. Only 5 cases exceeded these values. (orig.) [de

  10. Adenosine and sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A 1 receptors, 3 H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for 3 H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in 3 H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress

  11. Sleep and mental disorders: A meta-analysis of polysomnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Chiara; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Regen, Wolfram; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Reynolds, Charles F; Riemann, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Investigating sleep in mental disorders has the potential to reveal both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic psychophysiological mechanisms. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of several mental disorders. Relevant studies were searched through standard strategies. Controlled PSG studies evaluating sleep in affective, anxiety, eating, pervasive developmental, borderline and antisocial personality disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia were included. PSG variables of sleep continuity, depth, and architecture, as well as rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep were considered. Calculations were performed with the "Comprehensive Meta-Analysis" and "R" software. Using random effects modeling, for each disorder and each variable, a separate meta-analysis was conducted if at least 3 studies were available for calculation of effect sizes as standardized means (Hedges' g). Sources of variability, that is, sex, age, and mental disorders comorbidity, were evaluated in subgroup analyses. Sleep alterations were evidenced in all disorders, with the exception of ADHD and seasonal affective disorders. Sleep continuity problems were observed in most mental disorders. Sleep depth and REM pressure alterations were associated with affective, anxiety, autism and schizophrenia disorders. Comorbidity was associated with enhanced REM sleep pressure and more inhibition of sleep depth. No sleep parameter was exclusively altered in 1 condition; however, no 2 conditions shared the same PSG profile. Sleep continuity disturbances imply a transdiagnostic imbalance in the arousal system likely representing a basic dimension of mental health. Sleep depth and REM variables might play a key role in psychiatric comorbidity processes. Constellations of sleep alterations may define distinct disorders better than alterations in 1 single variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

  13. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

  14. The median preoptic nucleus reciprocally modulates activity of arousal-related and sleep-related neurons in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsova, Natalia; Guzman-Marin, Ruben; Kumar, Sunil; Alam, Md Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald; McGinty, Dennis

    2007-02-14

    The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF/LH) contains neuronal groups playing an important role in control of waking and sleep. Among the brain regions that regulate behavioral states, one of the strongest sources of projections to the PF/LH is the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) containing a sleep-active neuronal population. To evaluate the role of MnPN afferents in the control of PF/LH neuronal activity, we studied the responses of PF/LH cells to electrical stimulation or local chemical manipulation of the MnPN in freely moving rats. Single-pulse electrical stimulation evoked responses in 79% of recorded PF/LH neurons. No cells were activated antidromically. Direct and indirect transsynaptic effects depended on sleep-wake discharge pattern of PF/LH cells. The majority of arousal-related neurons, that is, cells discharging at maximal rates during active waking (AW) or during AW and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, exhibited exclusively or initially inhibitory responses to stimulation. Sleep-related neurons, the cells with elevated discharge during non-REM and REM sleep or selectively active in REM sleep, exhibited exclusively or initially excitatory responses. Activation of the MnPN via microdialytic application of L-glutamate or bicuculline resulted in reduced discharge of arousal-related and in excitation of sleep-related PF/LH neurons. Deactivation of the MnPN with muscimol caused opposite effects. The results indicate that the MnPN contains subset(s) of neurons, which exert inhibitory control over arousal-related and excitatory control over sleep-related PF/LH neurons. We hypothesize that MnPN sleep-active neuronal group has both inhibitory and excitatory outputs that participate in the inhibitory control of arousal-promoting PF/LH mechanisms.

  15. A Model for Evidence Accumulation in the Lexical Decision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Steyvers, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G. W.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2004-01-01

    We present a new model for lexical decision, REM-LD, that is based on REM theory (e.g., Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997). REM-LD uses a principled (i.e., Bayes' rule) decision process that simultaneously considers the diagnosticity of the evidence for the 'WORD' response and the 'NONWORD' response. The model calculates the odds ratio that the presented…

  16. Sleep-wake stability in narcolepsy patients with normal, low and unmeasurable hypocretin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    movement (REM) sleep, and the occurrence of sleep onset REM (SOREM) in the nocturnal polysomnography were also measured. RESULTS: Participants with undetectable hypocretin-1 levels had significantly higher frequencies of transitions than controls and those with normal hypocretin-1 levels. Participants...... hypocretin-1 levels in particular, but also low hypocretin-1 levels, were associated with a less stable phenotype featuring more sleep state transitions and SOREM episodes. In addition, there was a distinction between nocturnal and diurnal REM sleep in hypocretin-deficient participants, expressed...... as increased diurnal REM sleep, which was not reflected in nocturnal sleep....

  17. Mental time travel to the future might be reduced in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Speth, Clemens

    2017-02-01

    We present a quantitative study of mental time travel to the future in sleep. Three independent, blind judges analysed a total of 563 physiology-monitored mentation reports from sleep onset, REM sleep, non-REM sleep, and waking. The linguistic tool for the mentation report analysis is based on established grammatical and cognitive-semantic theories and has been validated in previous studies. Our data indicate that REM and non-REM sleep must be characterized by a reduction in mental time travel to the future, which would support earlier physiological evidence at the level of brain function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Treatment Response in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    conducted in PTSD samples, these sleep measurement methods do not allow the identification of neurobio - logical underpinnings of trauma-related...vided valuable insights into the potential neurobio - logical underpinnings of altered REM and NREM sleep mechanisms following stress exposure PTSD...nightmare patients often report improvements In sleep quality, feeling more rested upon awakening and having more davtime energy , and reduction in

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  20. Early Automatic Detection of Parkinson's Disease Based on Sleep Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Helge B D; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is most likely the earliest sign of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and consequently increased muscle activity. However, some muscle twitching in normal subjects occurs...... during REM sleep. PURPOSE: There are no generally accepted methods for evaluation of this activity and a normal range has not been established. Consequently, there is a need for objective criteria. METHOD: In this study we propose a full-automatic method for detection of RSWA. REM sleep identification...... the number of outliers during REM sleep was used as a quantitative measure of muscle activity. RESULTS: The proposed method was able to automatically separate all iRBD test subjects from healthy elderly controls and subjects with periodic limb movement disorder. CONCLUSION: The proposed work is considered...

  1. Support system and method for detecting neurodegenerative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and a method for detection of abnormal motor activity during REM sleep, and further to systems and method for assisting in detecting neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's. One embodiment relates to a method for detection of abnormal motor activity...... during REM sleep comprising the steps of: performing polysomnographic recordings of a sleeping subject, thereby obtaining one or more electromyography (EMG) derivations, preferably surface EMG recordings, and one or more EEG derivations, and/or one or more electrooculargraphy (EOG) derivations, detecting...... one or more REM sleep stages, preferably based on the one or more EEG and/or EOG derivations, determining the level of muscle activity during the one or more REM sleep stages based on the one or more EMG derivations, wherein a subject having an increased level of muscle activity during REM sleep...

  2. Restorative effects of curcumin on sleep-deprivation induced memory impairments and structural changes of the hippocampus in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Karimi, Fatemeh; Kamali, Ali-Mohammad; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Nami, Mohammad

    2017-11-15

    The present study examined the consequences of rapid eye-movement sleep-deprivation (REM-SD) with or without curcumin treatment. The outcome measures comprised quantitative features in the three-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) CA1 and dentate gyrus in experimental and control animals using stereological procedures. Male rats were arbitrarily assigned to nine groups based on the intervention and treatment administered including: 1-cage control+distilled water, 2-cage control+curcumin (100mg/kg/day), 3-cage control+olive oil, 4-REM-SD+distilled water, 5-REM-SD+curcumin, 6-REM-SD+olive oil, 7-grid-floor control+distilled water, 8-grid-floor control+curcumin, and 9-grid-floor control+olive oil. Animals in the latter three groups were placed on wire-mesh grids in the sleep-deprivation box. REM-SD was induced by an apparatus comprising a water tank and multiple platforms. After a period of 21days, rats were submitted to the novel object-recognition task. Later, their brains were excised and evaluated using stereological methods. Our results indicated a respective 29% and 31% reduction in the total volume of CA1, and dentate gyrus in REM-SD+distilled water group as compared to the grid-floor control+distilled water group (pcurcumin compared to the REM-SD+distilled water group. This suggests the potential neuro-restorative effects of curcumin in our model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  4. Occupational radiation exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power reactors 1983. Volume 5. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents an updated compilation of occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors for the years 1969 through 1983. The summary based on information received from the 75 light-water-cooled reactors (LWRs) and one high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The total number of personnel monitored at LWRs in 1983 was 136,700. The number of workers that received measurable doses during 1983 and 85,600 which is about 1000 more than that found in 1982. The total collective dose at LWRs for 1983 is estimated to be 56,500 man-rems (man-cSv), which is about 4000 more man-rems (man-cSv) than that reported in 1982. This resulted in the average annual dose for each worker who received a measurable dose increasing slightly to 0.66 rems (cSv), and the average collective dose per reactor increasing by about 50 man-rems (man-cSv), and the average collective dose per reactor increasing by about 50 man-rems (man-cSv) to a value of 753 man-rems (man-cSv). The collective dose per megawatt of electricity generated by each reactor also increased slightly to an average value of 1.7 man-rems (man-cSv) per megawatt-year. Health implications of these annual occupational doses are discussed

  5. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models.

  6. Prediction of later clinical course by a specific glucose metabolic pattern in non-demented patients with probable REM sleep behavior disorder admitted to a memory clinic: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazumi; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Kasanuki, Koji; Kondo, Daizo; Chiba, Yuhei; Murayama, Norio; Arai, Heii; Sato, Kiyoshi; Iseki, Eizo

    2016-02-28

    The present study is a follow-up study of 11 non-demented patients with probable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) at our memory clinic. During the follow-up period (mean±SD of 46.7±6.4 months), all 11 patients exhibited cognitive decline: four (Group A) exhibited core clinical features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), along with severe cognitive decline, and were subsequently diagnosed as having probable DLB; four (Group B) did not exhibit core clinical features of DLB; and the remaining three (Group C) were diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD). Positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose-F18 at baseline revealed that Groups A and B exhibited glucose hypometabolism in the occipital lobe, especially in the primary visual cortex, and Group A tended to present hypometabolism in the parieto-temporal area as well. Group C tended to present hypometabolism in the medial prefrontal area and anterior cingulate gyrus. Neuropsychological examinations indicated poor performance in verbal memory and visuoperception in all groups. This case study suggests that patterns of hypometabolism and neuropsychological examinations at baseline may be indicators of the later clinical course of probable RBD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perancangan Rem Linier Memakai Fluida MR dengan Kendali Arus Listrik Berbasis Fungsi Linier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estiko Rijanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magneto rheological (MR fluid has been used in various electro mechanical devices since it has advantages of being able to be controlled by external magnetic force. However, application of the MR fluid for linear brakes is still scarce. This article proposes a new design of linear MR brake. It has multiple magnetic poles, and its core can be connected in series inside the piston. Equations which express relationships between mechanical force and magnetic force as well as magnetic force and electric current have been derived. As a result, a polynomial function was obtained which expressed mechanical force of the brake as a function of electric current. Parameter values of geometric dimension and magnetic permeabilities of components were substituted into the equation, and a control law is proposed to control the brake force by manipulating current using the inverse of a linear function. When electric current of 1 A was supplied into the coil, brake force of 111.4 Newton was obtained. Various values of brake force can easily be realized by controlling electric current based on the derived linear function control law.

  8. Blood glucose control for individuals with type-2 diabetes: acute effects of resistance exercise of lower cardiovascular-metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Sérgio R; Simões, Graziela C; Moraes, José Fernando V N; Motta, Daisy F; Campbell, Carmen S G; Simões, Herbert G

    2012-10-01

    This study compared the effects of resistance exercise (RE) intensities on blood glucose (GLUC) of individuals without (ND) and with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nine individuals with T2D and 10 ND performed: (a) RE circuit at 23% of 1 maximal repetition (1RM) (RE_L); (b) RE circuit at 43% 1RM (RE_M); and (c) control (CON) session. Blood lactate (LAC) and GLUC were measured before, during, and postinterventions. Double product (DP) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. The area under the curve (AUC) revealed the effects of RE circuits in reducing GLUC in individuals with T2D (RE_L: 12,556 ± 3,269 vs. RE_M: 13,433 ± 3,054 vs. CON: 14,576 ± 3,922 mg.dl(-1).145 minutes; p AUC of GLUC in RE_L in comparison to RE_M. Similarly, for ND the RE_L reduced the AUC of GLUC when compared with RE_M and CON (RE_L: 10,943 ± 956 vs. RE_M: 12,156 ± 1,062 vs. CON: 11,498 ± 882 mg.dl(-1).145 minutes; p AUC of GLUC was higher for T2D compared with ND on CON condition (p = 0.02). However, after RE circuits the difference between groups for AUC of GLUC was abolished. The RE_M for T2D was more stressful when compared with RE_L for LAC (CON: 1.3 ± 0.5 vs. RE_L: 5.5 ± 1.5 vs. RE_M: 6.8 ± 1.3 mmol·L(-1); p < 0.05), DP (CON: 8,415 ± 1,223 vs. RE_L: 15,980 ± 2,007 vs. RE_M: 18,047 ± 3,693 mmHg.bpm(-1); p < 0.05), and RPE (RE_L: 11 ± 2 vs. RE_M: 13 ± 2 Borg Scale; p < 0.05). We concluded that RE_L and RE_M were effective in reducing GLUC for individuals with T2D, with lower cardiovascular-metabolic and perceptual stress being observed for RE_L. These data suggest that acute RE sessions at light or moderate intensities are effective for controlling GLUC in individuals with T2D.

  9. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Experimentally investigated is the radiation-electromagnetic effect (REM) in germanium monocrystals on excitation of excess current carriers by α particles, protons and X-rays in magnetic fields up to 8 kOe. A cyclotron was used as an α particle source, and a standard X-ray tube with a copper anode - as an X-ray source. The e.m.f. of the REM effect linearly increases with the increase of the magnetic field and is proportional to the charged particle flux at small flux values, saturation occurs at great flux values (approximately 5x10 11 part./cm 2 xs). In the 4-40 MeV energy range the e.m.f. of the REM effect practically does not depend on the α particle energy. On irradiation of the samples with a grinding front surface the REM e.m.f. changes its sign. The REM and Hall effect measurement on α particle irradiated samples has shown that during irradiation a p-n transition is formed in the samples, which must be taken into account while studying the REM effect. The e.m.f. measured for the even REM effect quadratically increases with the magnetic field increase. The barrier radiation-voltaic effect (the effect e.m.f. is measured between the irradiated and nonirradiated sample faces) is studied. Using special masks the samples with a set of consecutive p-n transitions are produced by irradiation of germanium crystals by α particles. Investigation of the photovoltaic and photoelectromagnetic effects on such samples has shown that using this method the efficiency of the REM devices can be increased

  10. Sleep transitions in hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by instability of sleep-wake, tonus, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. It is associated with severe hypothalamic hypocretin deficiency, especially in patients with cataplexy (loss of tonus). As the hypocretin neurons coordinate and stabilize the brain's sleep-wake pattern, tonus, and REM flip-flop neuronal centers in animal models, we set out to determine whether hypocretin deficiency and/or cataplexy predicts the unstable sleep-wake and REM sleep pattern of the human phenotype. We measured the frequency of transitions in patients with narcolepsy between sleep-wake states and to/from REM and NREM sleep stages. Patients were subdivided by the presence of +/- cataplexy and +/- hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep laboratory studies conducted from 2001-2011. In total 63 narcolepsy patients were included in the study. Cataplexy was present in 43 of 63 patients and hypocretin-1 deficiency was present in 37 of 57 patients. Hypocretin-deficient patients with narcolepsy had a significantly higher frequency of sleep-wake transitions (P = 0.014) and of transitions to/from REM sleep (P = 0.044) than patients with normal levels of hypocretin-1. Patients with cataplexy had a significantly higher frequency of sleep-wake transitions (P = 0.002) than those without cataplexy. A multivariate analysis showed that transitions to/from REM sleep were predicted mainly by hypocretin-1 deficiency (P = 0.011), whereas sleep-wake transitions were predicted mainly by cataplexy (P = 0.001). In human narcolepsy, hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are both associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep control, indicating that the disorder may serve as a human model for the sleep-wake and REM sleep flip-flop switches.

  11. Validating severity of illness scoring systems in the prediction of outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Szpunar, Susan; Khatib, Riad

    2013-08-01

    Severity of illness scores are helpful in predicting mortality; however, no standardized scoring system has been validated in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). The modified Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), the CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age 65) and the Charlson weighted index of comorbidity (CWIC) were compared in predicting outcomes at the onset of SAB. All adult inpatients with SAB from July 15, 2008, to December 31, 2009, were prospectively assessed. The 3 scoring systems were applied: REMS, CURB-65 and CWIC. The end points were attributable and overall mortality. A total of 241 patients with SAB were reviewed during the study period. The all-cause mortality rate was 22.8% and attributable mortality 14.1%. Patients who died had higher mean CURB-65 score and REMS than those who lived, whereas the difference in the CWIC score was not significant. Two logistic regression models based on CURB-65 score or REMS, after controlling for CWIC, revealed that both scores were independent predictors of mortality, with an odds ratio of 3.38 (P < 0.0001) and 1.45 (P < 0.0001) for CURB-65 and REMS, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a cutoff point of 3.0 (CURB-65) and 6.0 (REMS) provided the highest sensitivity and specificity. The area under the curves for all-cause mortality were 0.832 and 0.806, and for attributable mortality 0.845 and 0.819, for CURB-65 and REMS, respectively. REMS and CURB-65 scores outperformed CWIC as predictors of mortality in SAB and may be effective in predicting the severity of illness at the onset of bacteremia.

  12. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees Eighteenth annual report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    All US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors are required to submit occupational radiation exposure records to a central repository. The data required include a summary of whole-body exposures to ionizing radiation, a summary of internal depositions of radioactive materials above specified limits, and occupational exposure reports for terminating employees. This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1985. A total of 95,806 DOE and DOE contractor employees were monitored for whole-body ionizing radiation exposures in 1985. In addition to the employees, 96,665 visitors were monitored. Of all employees monitored, 58.4% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 39.8% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.9% an exposure greater than 1 rem. One employee received a dose equivalent greater than 5 rem (8.66 rem). The exposure received by 91.9% of the visitors to DOE facilities was less than measurable. No visitors received a dose equivalent greater than 2 rem. The collective dose equivalent for DOE and DOE contractor employees was 8223 person-rem. The collective dose equivalent for visitors was 461 person-rem. These averages are significantly less than the DOE 5-rem/year radiation protection standard for whole-body exposures. Ten new cases of internal depositions were reported in 1985 that exceeded 50% of the pertinent annual dose-equivalent standard. Of these ten cases, eight occurred in a previous year and are reported now because recent revisions in the dose calculations established these cases as reportable depositions. Twenty-six cases reported during 1985 were considered to be the continued tracking of previous depositions. 5 figs., 32 tabs

  13. Determination of permissible exposure doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Ministry of Transportation defines on radioactive doses in the controlled area that exterior radioactive dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week; concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations otherwise specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week and that densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities provided in a table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in a list attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible densities for the employees, calculation of doses by interior exposure and permissible densities outside the inspected surrounding area are stipulated in detail with attached lists. (Okada, K.)

  14. Improvements in the susceptibility to hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, T.; Sato, S.; Shimomura, J.; Aso, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of sulphur content at extremely low level on the susceptibility to hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking in 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels was studied. The reduction of sulphur content and/or the addition of REM (rare earth metal) or Ca in accordance with sulphur content remarkably improve the resistivity against hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking. Micro-structural examination has showed that there exist Mn-REM-S-Al-O complex particles in the REM-added steels. It is concluded that the effect of REM on hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking is to reduce ''the free sulphur'' in 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels

  15. Hypocretin and its emerging role as a target for treatment of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Michelle; Guilleminault, Christian

    2011-04-01

    The neuropeptides hypocretin-1 and -2 (orexin A and B) are critical in the regulation of arousal and maintenance of wakefulness. Understanding the role of the hypocretin system in sleep/wake regulation has come from narcolepsy-cataplexy research. Deficiency of hypocretin results in loss of sleep/wake control with consequent unstable transitions from wakefulness into non-rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep, and clinical manifestations including daytime hypersomnolence, sleep attacks, and cataplexy. The hypocretin system regulates sleep/wake control through complex interactions between monoaminergic/cholinergic wake-promoting and GABAergic sleep-promoting neuronal systems. Research for the hypocretin agonist and the hypocretin antagonist for the treatment of sleep disorders has vigorously increased over the past 10 years. This review will focus on the origin, functions, and mechanisms in which the hypocretin system regulates sleep and wakefulness, and discuss its emerging role as a target for the treatment of sleep disorders.

  16. Sleep and delirium in unsedated patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, H C; Andersen, J H; Bendtsen, A O

    2016-01-01

    . Delirium assessment was done using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). RESULTS: Of four patients who were delirium free, only one had identifiable sleep on PSG. Sleep was disrupted with loss of circadian rhythm, and diminished REM sleep. In the remaining three patients...... the PSGs were atypical, meaning that no sleep signs were found, and sleep could not be quantified from the PSGs. Clinical total sleep time (ClinTST) ranged from 2.0-13.1 h in patients without delirium. Six patients with delirium all had atypical PSGs, so sleep could not be quantified. Short periods of REM......BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation and delirium are major problems in the ICU. We aimed to assess the sleep quality by polysomnography (PSG) in relation to delirium in mechanically ventilated non-sedated ICU patients. METHODS: Interpretation of 24-h PSG and clinical sleep assessment in 14 patients...

  17. MO-F-16A-06: Implementation of a Radiation Exposure Monitoring System for Surveillance of Multi-Modality Radiation Dose Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B; Kanal, K; Dickinson, R; Zamora, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We have implemented a commercially available Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) to enhance the processes of radiation dose data collection, analysis and alerting developed over the past decade at our sites of practice. REMS allows for consolidation of multiple radiation dose information sources and quicker alerting than previously developed processes. Methods: Thirty-nine x-ray producing imaging modalities were interfaced with the REMS: thirteen computed tomography scanners, sixteen angiography/interventional systems, nine digital radiography systems and one mammography system. A number of methodologies were used to provide dose data to the REMS: Modality Performed Procedure Step (MPPS) messages, DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports (RDSR), and DICOM header information. Once interfaced, the dosimetry information from each device underwent validation (first 15–20 exams) before release for viewing by end-users: physicians, medical physicists, technologists and administrators. Results: Before REMS, our diagnostic physics group pulled dosimetry data from seven disparate databases throughout the radiology, radiation oncology, cardiology, electrophysiology, anesthesiology/pain management and vascular surgery departments at two major medical centers and four associated outpatient clinics. With the REMS implementation, we now have one authoritative source of dose information for alerting, longitudinal analysis, dashboard/graphics generation and benchmarking. REMS provides immediate automatic dose alerts utilizing thresholds calculated through daily statistical analysis. This has streamlined our Closing the Loop process for estimated skin exposures in excess of our institutional specific substantial radiation dose level which relied on technologist notification of the diagnostic physics group and daily report from the radiology information system (RIS). REMS also automatically calculates the CT size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) as well as provides

  18. MO-F-16A-06: Implementation of a Radiation Exposure Monitoring System for Surveillance of Multi-Modality Radiation Dose Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, B; Kanal, K; Dickinson, R; Zamora, D [University Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have implemented a commercially available Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) to enhance the processes of radiation dose data collection, analysis and alerting developed over the past decade at our sites of practice. REMS allows for consolidation of multiple radiation dose information sources and quicker alerting than previously developed processes. Methods: Thirty-nine x-ray producing imaging modalities were interfaced with the REMS: thirteen computed tomography scanners, sixteen angiography/interventional systems, nine digital radiography systems and one mammography system. A number of methodologies were used to provide dose data to the REMS: Modality Performed Procedure Step (MPPS) messages, DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports (RDSR), and DICOM header information. Once interfaced, the dosimetry information from each device underwent validation (first 15–20 exams) before release for viewing by end-users: physicians, medical physicists, technologists and administrators. Results: Before REMS, our diagnostic physics group pulled dosimetry data from seven disparate databases throughout the radiology, radiation oncology, cardiology, electrophysiology, anesthesiology/pain management and vascular surgery departments at two major medical centers and four associated outpatient clinics. With the REMS implementation, we now have one authoritative source of dose information for alerting, longitudinal analysis, dashboard/graphics generation and benchmarking. REMS provides immediate automatic dose alerts utilizing thresholds calculated through daily statistical analysis. This has streamlined our Closing the Loop process for estimated skin exposures in excess of our institutional specific substantial radiation dose level which relied on technologist notification of the diagnostic physics group and daily report from the radiology information system (RIS). REMS also automatically calculates the CT size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) as well as provides

  19. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J A; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppmMSL relative humidity observation provides good dataHighest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75.

  20. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Bridging Plant and Human Radiation Response and DNA Repair through an In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharenia Nikitaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of response to radiation exposure are conserved in plants and animals. The DNA damage response (DDR pathways are the predominant molecular pathways activated upon exposure to radiation, both in plants and animals. The conserved features of DDR in plants and animals might facilitate interdisciplinary studies that cross traditional boundaries between animal and plant biology in order to expand the collection of biomarkers currently used for radiation exposure monitoring (REM in environmental and biomedical settings. Genes implicated in trans-kingdom conserved DDR networks often triggered by ionizing radiation (IR and UV light are deposited into biological databases. In this study, we have applied an innovative approach utilizing data pertinent to plant and human genes from publicly available databases towards the design of a ‘plant radiation biodosimeter’, that is, a plant and DDR gene-based platform that could serve as a REM reliable biomarker for assessing environmental radiation exposure and associated risk. From our analysis, in addition to REM biomarkers, a significant number of genes, both in human and Arabidopsis thaliana, not yet characterized as DDR, are suggested as possible DNA repair players. Last but not least, we provide an example on the applicability of an Arabidopsis thaliana—based plant system monitoring the role of cancer-related DNA repair genes BRCA1, BARD1 and PARP1 in processing DNA lesions.

  2. Effects of a newly developed potent orexin-2 receptor-selective antagonist Compound1m on sleep/wake states in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi eEtori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orexins (also known as hypocretins, which are hypothalamic neuropeptides, play critical roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states by activating two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, orexin 1 (OX1R and orexin 2 receptors (OX2R. In order to know the difference between effects of OX2R-selective antagonists (2-SORA and dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORA, and to understand the mechanisms underlying orexin-mediated regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, we examined the effects of a newly developed 2-SORA, Compound 1m (C1m, and a DORA, suvorexant, on sleep/wakefulness states in C57BL/6J mice. After oral administration in the dark period, both C1m and suvorexant exhibited potent sleep-promoting properties with similar efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. While C1m did not increase NREM and REM sleep episode durations, suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered groups. When compounds were injected during light period, C1m did not show a significant change in sleep/wakefulness states in the light period, whereas suvorexant slightly but significantly increased the sleep time. We also found that C1m did not affect the time of REM sleep, while suvorexant markedly increased it. This suggests that although OX1R-mediated pathway plays a pivotal role in promoting wakefulness, OX1R-mediated pathway also plays an additional role. OX1R-mediated pathway also plays a role in suppression of REM sleep. Fos-immunostaining showed that both compounds affected the activity of arousal-related neurons with different patterns. These results suggest partly overlapping and partly distinct roles of orexin receptors in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states.

  3. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  4. Ultradian and circadian modulation of dream recall: EEG correlates and age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi; Cajochen, Christian

    2013-08-01

    Dreaming occurs during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which both are regulated by homeostatic, ultradian, and circadian processes. However, the magnitude of how ultradian REM and NREM sleep and its EEG correlates impact onto dream recall remains fairly unknown. In this review, we address three questions: 1. Is there an ultradian NREM-REM sleep modulation in successful dream recall, which is gated by the circadian clock? 2. What are the key electrophysiological correlates that account for dream recall during NREM and REM sleep and 3. Are there age-related changes in the ultradian and circadian regulation in dream recall and its electrophysiological correlates? Knowledge on the specific frequency and topography NREM and REM sleep differences prior to dream recall may pinpoint to the cerebral correlates that account for this cognitive process, and hint to their possible physiological meaning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HTGR accident initiation and progression analysis status report. Volume VII. Occupational radiation exposures from gas-borne and plateout activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    As a part of the Accident Initiation and Progression Analysis (AIPA) program, calculations were performed of the occupational dose rates and man-rem exposures from gas-borne and plateout activities in a reference 3000-MW(t) HTGR plant. The study included a preliminary survey to determine the most important contributors by operation or radiation source to the man-rem exposures. This survey was followed by detailed calculations for the most important cases. Median and 95 percent-confidence-level man-rem exposures per year were obtained for the gaseous activity in the containment building, moisture monitor system, analytic instrumentation, helium regeneration system, gas waste system, and reflector-block shipping. Median and 95 percent-confidence-level man-rem exposures per operation were obtained for the main-circulator removal, steam-generator tube plugging, and steam-generator removal and replacement. For each of these cases, the contributions to the man-rem exposures were calculated for the important isotopes

  6. Acute effect of methyl bromide on sleep-wakefulness and its

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Arito, H; Abuku, S; Imamiya, S

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the acute effects of methyl bromide on the central nervous system, abnormal electrocorticographic activity and changes in sleep-wakefulness and its circadian rhythms were investigated after a single injection of methyl bromide. The effects of possible hydrolyzed products of methyl bromide, methanol and bromine ions on sleep and its rhythms were also examined. It was found that the hydrolyzed products of methyl bromide, bromine ions and methanol exerted little effect on the amounts of wakefulness (W), non-REM sleep (NREMS) and REM sleep (REMS) at the same molar dose as 45 mg methyl bromide/kg. Thus, it can be concluded that the methyl bromide-induced changes in sleep-wakefulness and its circadian rhythms are due to methyl bromide and not to the hydrolyzed products. It was also found that amounts of W, NREMS and REMS were changed dose-dependently after a single injection of methyl bromide and that methyl bromide significantly disrupted the circadian REMS rhythm. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  7. Recovery from Gz-induced Loss of Consciousness: Psychophysiologic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    hypnagogic hallucinations). REM activity been considered to occur during REM sleep, non-REM during narcoleptic episodes is usually present at the on...is difficult to ascertain whether the sidered adequate for our purposes. Fig. 3 depicts an "dreams" reported were either " hypnagogic " (as the...necessary. Currently, it is difficult to obtain EEG data in the ac- HYPNAGOGIC HYPNOPOMPIC celeration environment. However, current studies are PERIOD

  8. Present situation of occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imabori, Akira

    1979-01-01

    The present situation of the radiation exposure of workers, including both employes and subcontractors, in the nuclear power plants in Japan, is presented. Twenty seven nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction are tabulated with the name, the owner, the electric output and the commissioning year of each plant. The results of exposure of the workers in these plants are shown, classifying the dose rate into less than 0.5 rem, 0.5 - 1.5 rem, 1.5 - 2.5 rem, 2.5 - 5 rem and more than 5 rem, and the workers into employes and subcontractors. It is noted that the exposure dose of the subcontractors occupies about 88% of all exposure dose, and the exposure is concentrated during regular inspection period. The exposure dose of about 80% of the workers is less than 0.5 rem, and no one was irradiated more than 5 rem in a year. The total exposure dose, which has especially the tendency of increasing with extended maintenance period and decreasing during plant operation period, shows also the trend of increasing with the lapse of operation years. As for the point of view of whole exposure dose, the value is 0.06 -- 0.43 man-rem/10 6 kWh in 1976 FY. It is considered to be necessary to grasp the total exposure dose of each worker wandering from one plant to another, and the central registration center for the workers in radioactive environment was established in 1978. The whole exposure dose data of each worker are stored in the central computer in this center. This system is highly appreciated in radiation exposure management. The total exposure dose is related to the rate of utilization of nuclear plants, and it is expected to decrease with the decrease of plant outage. (Nakai, Y.)

  9. Review of ICRP-60: Implications for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation exposure has generally been managed based on exposure or dose limits. These limits have undergone revisions every decade or so as further information on the biological effects of various types of radiation become available. For example, in the early 1950's for workers, a whole body dose limit of 3 mSv (0.3 rem) per week was being used in the United States until 1957 when the National council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, (NCRP) recommended a limit of 50 mSv (5 rem) per year. Currently, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) specifies a whole body limit of 1.25 rem per calendar quarter (5 rem/y)(10CFR 20)

  10. Contrasting expressions of aggressive behavior released by lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodzka, J; Hedberg, C E; Mann, G L; Morrison, A R

    1998-06-01

    Whether damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ace) contributes to the predatorylike attack sometimes observed in rapid eye movement sleep without atonia (REM-A), created in cats by bilateral pontine lesions, was examined. Such lesions eliminate REM sleep skeletal muscle atonia and release elaborate behavior. Unilateral damage to the Ace alone increased affective defensive aggressive behavior toward humans and conspecifics without altering predatory behavior in wakefulness. Pontine lesions added at loci normally not leading to aggression induced predatorylike attacks in REM-A as well as the waking affective defense. Alterations of autonomic activity, the absence of relevant environmental stimuli in REM-A, or both may explain the state-related differences.

  11. Determination of permissible doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation. In the controlled area exterior radiation dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week by the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week. The densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities stipulated in the table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in the table attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible concentrations are defined in detail for the employees and outside the inspected surrounding area. Calculation of exposure dose in the case of interior exposure is particularly provided for. (Okada, K.)

  12. Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. University hospital sleep disorder unit. Case-control study. Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Narcolepsy is a novel, easy model for studying lucid dreaming. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Bistability breaks-off deterministic responses to intracortical stimulation during non-REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pigorini

    2015-04-01

    These results point to bistability as the underlying critical mechanism that prevents the emergence of complex interactions in human thalamocortical networks during NREM sleep. Besides sleep, the same basic neurophysiological dynamics may play a role in pathological conditions(Casali et al., 2013; Rosanova et al., 2012 where cortico-cortical communication and consciousness are impaired in spite of preserved neuronal activity.

  14. Functional neuroimaging insights into the physiology of human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Functional brain imaging has been used in humans to noninvasively investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of sleep stages. On the one hand, REM sleep has been associated with the activation of the pons, thalamus, limbic areas, and temporo-occipital cortices, and the deactivation of prefrontal areas, in line with theories of REM sleep generation and dreaming properties. On the other hand, during non-REM (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more recent studies have characterized the brain activations related to phasic events within specific sleep stages. In particular, they have demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves. These data highlight that, even during NREM sleep, brain activity is increased, yet regionally specific and transient. Besides refining the understanding of sleep mechanisms, functional brain imaging has also advanced the description of the functional properties of sleep. For instance, it has been shown that the sleeping brain is still able to process external information and even detect the pertinence of its content. The relationship between sleep and memory has also been refined using neuroimaging, demonstrating post-learning reactivation during sleep, as well as the reorganization of memory representation on the systems level, sometimes with long-lasting effects on subsequent memory performance. Further imaging studies should focus on clarifying the role of specific sleep patterns for the processing of external stimuli, as well as the consolidation of freshly encoded information during sleep.

  15. Heat- and radiation-resistant scintillator for electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosov, A.V.; Petrov, S.A.; Puzyr', A.P.; Chetvergov, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a scintillator consisting of a single crystal of bismuth orthogermanate, which has high heat and radiation resistance, in REM-100, REM-200, and REM-100U electron microscopes is described. A study of the heat and radiation stabilities of single crystals of bismuth orthogermanate (Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 ) has shown that they withstood multiple electron-beam heating redness (T ∼ 800 0 C) without changes in their properties

  16. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Araujo, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversi...

  17. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  18. Preliminary radiological analysis of the transportation of remote-handled transuranic waste within the state of New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daer, G.; Harvill, J.

    1985-07-01

    This analysis assesses the potential radiological impacts on the citizens of New Mexico from the transport of RH-TRU waste to the WIPP by rail or by truck. Assuming exclusive use of the truck transport mode, the combined annual exposure to the public from accident-free shipment of waste is estimated to be 11.5 person-rem/year. It is estimated that a theoretical member of the public receiving maximum exposure to the combined truck shipments of RH-TRU waste to the WIPP would receive an annual whole body dose equivalent of 0.00072 rem. Such an exposure is insignificant in comparison to the average annual whole body dose equivalent to an individual living in the Colorado Plateau area of between 0.075 and 0.140 rem from naturally occurring radiation. The highest average annual dose commitment to any organ from potential accidents along all New Mexico truck routes to the WIPP is projected as 0.012 person-rem/year to bone surfaces. Assuming sole use of the rail transport mode, the combined annual exposure to the public from accident-free shipment of waste is estimated to be 1.3 person-rem/year. A theoretical member of the public receiving combined maximum exposure to rail shipments of RH-TRU waste to the WIPP would receive an annual whole body dose equivalent of 0.000014 rem. The highest average annual dose commitment to any organ from potential accidents along the New Mexico rail routes to the WIPP is projected as 0.0004 person-rem/year to bone surfaces

  19. Operator product expansion in Liouville field theory and Seiberg-type transitions in log-correlated random energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiangyu; Le Doussal, Pierre; Rosso, Alberto; Santachiara, Raoul

    2018-04-01

    We study transitions in log-correlated random energy models (logREMs) that are related to the violation of a Seiberg bound in Liouville field theory (LFT): the binding transition and the termination point transition (a.k.a., pre-freezing). By means of LFT-logREM mapping, replica symmetry breaking and traveling-wave equation techniques, we unify both transitions in a two-parameter diagram, which describes the free-energy large deviations of logREMs with a deterministic background log potential, or equivalently, the joint moments of the free energy and Gibbs measure in logREMs without background potential. Under the LFT-logREM mapping, the transitions correspond to the competition of discrete and continuous terms in a four-point correlation function. Our results provide a statistical interpretation of a peculiar nonlocality of the operator product expansion in LFT. The results are rederived by a traveling-wave equation calculation, which shows that the features of LFT responsible for the transitions are reproduced in a simple model of diffusion with absorption. We examine also the problem by a replica symmetry breaking analysis. It complements the previous methods and reveals a rich large deviation structure of the free energy of logREMs with a deterministic background log potential. Many results are verified in the integrable circular logREM, by a replica-Coulomb gas integral approach. The related problem of common length (overlap) distribution is also considered. We provide a traveling-wave equation derivation of the LFT predictions announced in a precedent work.

  20. Mechanics of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Buckling Modes and Failure Under Compression Along Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Kholmogorov, S. A.; Gazizullin, R. K.

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional linearized problems on the possible buckling modes of an internal or peripheral layer of unidirectional multilayer composites with rectilinear fibers under compression in the fiber direction are considered. The investigations are carried out using the known Kirchhoff-Love and Timoshenko models for the layers. The binder, modeled as an elastic foundation, is described by the equations of elasticity theory, which are simplified in accordance to the model of a transversely soft layer and are integrated along the transverse coordinate considering the kinematic coupling relations for a layer and foundation layers. Exact analytical solutions of the problems formulated are found, which are used to calculate a composite made of an HSE 180 REM prepreg based on a unidirectional carbon fiber tape. The possible buckling modes of its internal and peripheral layers are identified. Calculation results are compared with experimental data obtained earlier. It is concluded that, for the composite studied, the flexural buckling of layers in the uniform axial compression of specimens along fibers is impossible — the failure mechanism is delamination with buckling of a fiber bundle according to the pure shear mode. It is realized (due to the low average transverse shear modulus) at the value of the ultimate compression stress equal to the average shear modulus. It is shown that such a shear buckling mode can be identified only on the basis of equations constructed using the Timoshenko shear model to describe the deformation process of layers.

  1. Effects of Drift-Shell Splitting by Chorus Waves on Radiation Belt Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. A.; Zheng, L.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Elkington, S. R.; Albert, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drift shell splitting in the radiation belts breaks all three adiabatic invariants of charged particle motion via pitch angle scattering, and produces new diffusion terms that fully populate the diffusion tensor in the Fokker-Planck equation. Based on the stochastic differential equation method, the Radbelt Electron Model (REM) simulation code allows us to solve such a fully three-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation, and to elucidate the sources and transport mechanisms behind the phase space density variations. REM has been used to perform simulations with an empirical initial phase space density followed by a seed electron injection, with a Tsyganenko 1989 magnetic field model, and with chorus wave and ULF wave diffusion models. Our simulation results show that adding drift shell splitting changes the phase space location of the source to smaller L shells, which typically reduces local electron energization (compared to neglecting drift-shell splitting effects). Simulation results with and without drift-shell splitting effects are compared with Van Allen Probe measurements.

  2. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming

  3. Sleep Changes in a Rat Prenatal Stress Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoven, Christian; Sickman, Helle M.; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    Major depression is one of the most frequently occurring mental health disorders, but is characterized by diverse symptomatology. Sleep disturbances, however, are commonplace in depressive patients. These alterations include increased duration of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REMS) and increased sleep...... determination of sleep-wakefulness state. As traumatic episodes can trigger episodes of clinical depression, we also investigated effects of an acute stressor during the recording period. PNS animals (n=21) had an 82% increase in amount of REMS (11.6±1.4% vs 6.3±0.9%; p...-related increase in REMS after lights-off (pREMS rebound thus seems blunted in PNS animals. PNS alters sleep-wakefulness behavior under baseline conditions and after acute stress. This underscores the value of the PNS...

  4. Approaching disturbed sleep in late Parkinson's Disease: first step toward a proposal for a revised UPDRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J

    2001-10-01

    nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of motor centers in LPD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and non-REM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates LPD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. L-Dopa has also an arousal effect on Non-REM sleep, repeatedly awakening the patient and enhancing the fragmentation due to the involuntary movements. (c) Socio-physical assistance. (3) The specific therapy consists of: LFS-Sinemet CR, Tolcapone, Intranasal Desmopressin, Domperidon, Cisapride and neurosurgery; SRBD-CPAP, UPPP, nasal interventions, losing weight; RLS-PLM-Benzodiazepine (Clonazepam), Opioid, Apomorphine infusion; RBD-Clonazepam and dopaminergic agonists; SRH-Clozapine, Risperidone; SRPD-Nortriptyline, Clozapine, Olanzepine; SA-adjustment; EDS-arousing drugs. Each therapeutic approach must be tailored to the individual LPD patient.

  5. Cost basis for implementing ALARA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    A method of implementing effective ALARA programs is discussed. A basic element of the cost benefit methodology is the valuation of a man-rem. In the program, this is derived from an assessment of radiation exposure risk and societal valuation of harmful effects. The man-rem value is used as an element in the cost benefit analysis. The analysis includes an assessment of the differential man-rem resulting from the action, implementation cost, and operational savings

  6. Sleep Transitions in Hypocretin-Deficient Narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by instability of sleep-wake, tonus, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. It is associated with severe hypothalamic hypocretin deficiency, especially in patients with cataplexy (loss of tonus). As the hypocretin neurons coordinate and stabilize the brain......'s sleep-wake pattern, tonus, and REM flip-flop neuronal centers in animal models, we set out to determine whether hypocretin deficiency and/or cataplexy predicts the unstable sleep-wake and REM sleep pattern of the human phenotype....

  7. Sleep and memory. I: The influence of different sleep stages on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, V S

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to the sleep stages role in memory is discussed in the context of the two opposite patterns of behavior-search activity and renunciation of search. Search activity is activity designed to change the situation (or the subjects attitudes to it) in the absence of a definite forecast of the results of such activity, but with the constant consideration of these results at all stages of activity. Search activity increases general adaptability and body resistance while renunciation of search decreases adaptability and requires REM sleep for its compensation. Unprepared learning, which is often accompanied by failures on the first steps of learning, is suggested to produce renunciation of search, which decreases learning ability, suppress retention, and increase REM sleep requirement. A prolonged REM sleep deprivation before training causes learned helplessness and disturbs the learning process, while short REM sleep deprivation cause the "rebound" of the compensatory search activity that interferes with passive avoidance. REM sleep deprivation performed after a training session can increase distress caused by a training procedure, with the subsequent negative outcome on retention.

  8. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, W; Hopper, M; Corriere, R; Hart, J; Switzer, A

    1977-09-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients' dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.

  9. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  10. Radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is a basic document with which all rules and regulations, etc., concerning protection from ionizing radiations of workers and the general population have to conform. Basic concepts, dimensions, units, and terms used in the area of radiation safety are defined. Radiation exposures are sorted out into three categories: A, to personnel; B, to individual members of the popul;tion; and C, to the general population. Critical organs, furthermore, comprise four groups, the first of them being applicable to the whole-body gonads and bone marrow. Category A maximum permissible dose (MPD) to first group critical organs is 5 rem/year; to second group, 15 rem/year; to thrid group, 3O rem/year; and to fourth group, 75 rem/year. These rate figures include doses from both external and internal radiation exposure. Quality factors needed in computing doses from various types of radiation are provided. Permissible planned exposure levels are specified and guidelines given for accidental exposures. A radiation accident is considered to have occurred if the relevant critical organ dose is 5 times the annual MPD for that organ. For individual members of the population (category B), annual somatic doses to first group critical organs shall not exceed 0,5 rem. Population exposure is controlled in terms of genetically significant dose, which shall not exceed 5 rem/30 years. (G.G.)

  11. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem)

  12. Managing risk in developing transplant immunosuppressive agents: the new regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, S; Halloran, P F; Friedewald, J

    2011-09-01

    Recent adverse experience with a number of medications after their approval, including rofecoxib, erythropoietin and rosiglitazone, has led to an increased focus on safety in drug development in the postmarketing setting. The result was implementation of new measures to address perceived deficits in the system for drug approval and postmarketing safety. The resulting legislation introduced risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) and postmarketing requirements (PMRs). Although these initiatives have the potential to improve patient outcomes, many healthcare practitioners are not yet familiar with REMS or PMRs or may have misconceptions regarding their goals and limitations. REMS is a program to manage known or potential serious risks associated with pharmaceutical products and is designed to ensure that the benefits of using a particular product outweigh the risks. Although the concepts underlying REMS and PMRs are not novel, the FDA now has legal authority to enforce such measures as part of the drug approval process. This article outlines the objectives and limitations of REMS and PMRs, with a focus on how these regulatory measures may impact the clinical specialty of transplantation. The article also briefly describes efforts to address aspects of drug safety less amenable to management through REMS and PMRs. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Clean energy industries and rare earth materials: Economic and financial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Lucia; Peri, Massimo; Vandone, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, rare earth materials (REM) prices have experienced a strong increase due to geopolitical and sustainability issues. Financial markets could already have factored in concerns about shortages of REM supplies into clean energy companies’ valuations. We use a multifactor market model for the period January 2006 to September 2012 to analyze the impact of REM price trends – specifically dysprosium and neodymium – on six clean energy indices (NYSE–BNEF) tracking the world's most important companies in the clean energy sector. The results show that during period of price increase, there is a negative relationships between REM price changes and the stock market performance of some clean energy indices. The European clean energy index is also negatively affected, and this effect could be relevant to policy makers, considering that Europe is implementing some relevant policy actions to support the development of the clean energy industry. - Highlights: • Clean energy is an industry with a double-digit growth market rate in the last years. • Rare earth materials are a key component in the development process of this industry. • Recently REMs’ prices have skyrocketed and the clean energy industry is in turmoil. • We analyze the effect of REMs price on the stock market performances of clean industry. • We find negative relation between REMs price increase and stock market performances

  14. Effects of three hypnotics on the sleep-wakefulness cycle in sleep-disturbed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Shigemoto, Yuki; Omichi, Junji; Utsu, Yoshiaki; Mio, Mitsunobu; Kamei, Chiaki

    2004-04-01

    New sleep disturbance model in rats is useful for estimating the characteristics of some hypnotics. The present study was undertaken to investigate the utility of a sleep disturbance model by placing rats on a grid suspended over water using three kinds of hypnotics, that is, short-acting benzodiazepine (triazolam), intermediate-acting benzodiazepine (flunitrazepam) and long-acting barbiturate (phenobarbital). Electrodes for measurement of EEG and EMG were implanted into the frontal cortex and the dorsal neck muscle of rats. EEG and EMG were recorded with an electroencephalogram. SleepSign ver.2.0 was used for EEG and EMG analysis. Total times of wakefulness, non-REM and REM sleep were measured from 0900 to 1500 hours. In rats placed on the grid suspended over water up to 1 cm under the grid surface, not only triazolam but also flunitrazepam and phenobarbital caused a shortening of sleep latency. Both flunitrazepam and phenobarbital were effective in increasing of total non-REM sleep time in rats placed on sawdust or the grid, and the effects of both drugs in rats placed on the grid were larger than those in rats placed on sawdust. Measurement of the hourly non-REM sleep time was useful for investigating the peak time and duration of effect of the three hypnotics. Phenobarbital showed a decrease in total REM sleep time in rats placed on the grid, although both triazolam and flunitrazepam were without effect. The present insomnia model can be used as a sleep disturbance model for testing not only the sleep-inducing effects but also the sleep-maintaining effects including non-REM sleep and REM sleep of hypnotics.

  15. Lucid Dreaming in Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy Settings: University hospital sleep disorder unit Design: Case-control study Participants: Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls Methods: Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Results: Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P dreams/month (P dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Conclusion: Narcoleptics have a high propensity for lucid dreaming without differing in REM sleep characteristics from people without narcolepsy. This suggests narcolepsy patients may provide useful information in future studies on the nature of lucid dreaming. Citation: Dodet P, Chavez M, Leu-Semenescu S, Golmard JL, Arnulf I. Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2015;38(3):487–497. PMID:25348131

  16. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  17. Urotensin II modulates rapid eye movement sleep through activation of brainstem cholinergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Sánchez-Alavez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    administration of UII into the PPT nucleus increases REM sleep without inducing changes in the cortical blood flow. Intracerebroventricular injection of UII enhances both REM sleep and wakefulness and reduces slow-wave sleep 2. Intracerebroventricular, but not local, administration of UII increases cortical...... dorsal tegmental nuclei. This distribution suggests that the UII system is involved in functions regulated by acetylcholine, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we tested the hypothesis that UII influences cholinergic PPT neuron activity and alters rapid eye movement (REM) sleep patterns in rats. Local...... synaptic transmission because it persisted in the presence of TTX and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate, GABA, and glycine receptors. Collectively, these results suggest that UII plays a role in the regulation of REM sleep independently of its cerebrovascular actions by directly activating cholinergic...

  18. A study on the development of the radiation protection numerical guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M. S.; Kang, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    The present paper intends to develope the radiation protection numerical guideline for next generation nuclear power plants. For the determining a value for a societal life, medical costs method, wages and investments method, and GNP method are used. In assessing the risk factors due to radiation exposure, it is accepted that fatal cancer risk, nonfatal cancer risk, and genetic risk factors proposed by ICRP 60. It is calculated that the societal value of life with corresponding range of from $886,500 to $3,406,000 in 1996 U.S. dollars. The person-rem cost estimates can be found to range from $650 per person-rem to $2,500 per person-rem. The radiation protection numerical guideline for next generation nuclear power plants is proposed by $1,600 per person-rem

  19. Identification of high-risk areas for harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch using remote electronic monitoring and satellite telemetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Tougaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    grounds, quantify fishing effort and document harbour porpoise bycatch. Movement data from 66 harbour porpoises equipped with satellite transmitters from 1997 to 2012 were used to model population density. A simple model was constructed to investigate the relationship between the response (number...... telemetry or REM data allow for identification of areas of potential high and low bycatch risk, and better predictions are obtained when combining the 2 sources of data. The final model can thus be used as a tool to identify areas of bycatch risk...... and lower risk of porpoise bycatch. From May 2010 to April 2011, 4 commercial gillnet vessels were equipped with remote electronic monitoring (REM) systems. The REM system recorded time, GPS position and closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage of all gillnet hauls. REM data were used to identify fishing...

  20. A comparative study of methods for automatic detection of rapid eye movement abnormal muscular activity in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Alexander Neergaard; Cesari, Matteo; Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard

    2018-01-01

    atonia index (RAI), supra-threshold REM EMG activit ymetric (STREAM), and Frandsen method (FR) were calculated from polysomnography recordings of 20 healthy controls, 18 clinic controls (subjects suspected with narcolepsy but finally diagnosed without any sleep abnormality), 16 narcolepsy type 1 without...... REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), 9 narcolepsy type 1 with RBD, and 18 narcolepsy type 2. Diagnostic value of metrics in differentiating between groups was quantified by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Correlations among the metrics and cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1...... in narcolepsy 1 compared to controls. This finding might play a supportive role in diagnosing narcolepsy and in discriminating narcolepsy subtypes. Moreover, the negative correlation between CSF-hcrt-1 level and REM muscular activity supported a role for hypocretin in the control of motor tone during REM sleep....

  1. Sleep: The hebbian reinforcement of the local inhibitory synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet, Claude

    2015-09-01

    Sleep is ubiquitous among the animal realm, and represents about 30% of our lives. Despite numerous efforts, the reason behind our need for sleep is still unknown. The Theory of neuronal Cognition (TnC) proposes that sleep is the period of time during which the local inhibitory synapses (in particular the cortical ones) are replenished. Indeed, as long as the active brain stays awake, hebbian learning guarantees that efficient inhibitory synapses lose their efficiency – just because they are efficient at avoiding the activation of the targeted neurons. Since hebbian learning is the only known mechanism of synapse modification, it follows that to replenish the inhibitory synapses' efficiency, source and targeted neurons must be activated together. This is achieved by a local depolarization that may travel (wave). The period of time during which such slow waves are experienced has been named the "slow-wave sleep" (SWS). It is cut into several pieces by shorter periods of paradoxical sleep (REM) which activity resembles that of the awake state. Indeed, SWS – because it only allows local neural activation – decreases the excitatory long distance connections strength. To avoid losing the associations built during the awake state, these long distance activations are played again during the REM sleep. REM and SWS sleeps act together to guarantee that when the subject awakes again, his inhibitory synaptic efficiency is restored and his (excitatory) long distance associations are still there. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic–Hypnopompic Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Cheyne, Allan J.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before. In the current article, we make detailed comparisons between sleep-related experiences and hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia and eye disease, at the levels of phenomenology (content, sensory modalities involved, perceptual attributes) and of brain function (brain activations, resting-state networks, neurotransmitter action). Findings show that sleep-related experiences share considerable overlap with hallucinations at the level of subjective descriptions and underlying brain mechanisms. Key differences remain however: (1) Sleep-related perceptions are immersive and largely cut off from reality, whereas hallucinations are discrete and overlaid on veridical perceptions; and (2) Sleep-related perceptions involve only a subset of neural networks implicated in hallucinations, reflecting perceptual signals processed in a functionally and cognitively closed-loop circuit. In summary, both phenomena are non-veridical perceptions that share some phenomenological and neural similarities, but insufficient evidence exists to fully support the notion that the majority of hallucinations depend on REM processes or REM intrusions into waking consciousness. PMID:27358492

  3. What Is REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Legislation and Public Policy (OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific Branches Grants Management Branch (GMB) Office of Committee Management ( ...

  4. The REM Observing Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Stefanon

    2010-01-01

    Together they grant the system safety, automatically schedule and perform observations with two simultaneous cameras of user-defined targets, and drive fast reaction to satellite alerts. Subsequent data reduction is left to pipelines managed by each camera.

  5. RemTech Expo 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione MediaGEO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Remtech Expo 2015, September 23/25, the event on the remediation and redevelopment of the territory organized by Ferrara Fiere (partner the Regionof Emilia-Romagna, sponsors Eni Saipem .

  6. DNA-extractie zonder remming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moleculaire technieken voor de detectie en identificatie van plantenpathogenen maken gebruik van het DNA of RNA van de ziekteverwekker. Voor een aantal substraten, zoals grond, is de extractie van amplificeerbaar nucleïnezuur een probleem. Tijdens de DNA-extractie uit sommige moeilijke substraten

  7. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Stereolab "Instant O In The Universe", Masters Of Gregorian Chant "Chapter IV", R.E.M. "In Time. The Best Of R.E.M.", Celia Cruz "Regalo de alma", John Mayer "Heavier Things", Dayampert "Shapes & Colors"

  8. Processing of Phosphorus Slag with Recovery of Rare Earth Metals and Obtaining Silicon Containing Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshigina, Zaure; Abisheva, Zinesh; Bochevskaya, Yelena; Akcil, Ata; Sharipova, Aynash; Sargelova, Elmira

    2016-10-01

    The present research is devoted to the processing of slag generating during the yellow phosphorus production. In this paper are presented studies on leaching of phosphorus production slag by nitric acid with recovery of rare earth metals (REMs) into solution. REMs recovery into the solution achieved 98 % during the leaching process with using 7.5 mol/L of HNO3, liquid-to-solid ratio is 2.6:1, temperature is 60°C, process duration is 1 hour and stirrer speed is 500 rpm. Behaviour during the leaching of associated components such as calcium, aluminium, and iron was studied. After the leaching cake contains ∼⃒75-85 % of SiO2 and it might be useful for obtaining of precipitated silicon dioxide. With the purpose of separation from the impurities, recovery and concentrating of REMs, the obtained solution after leaching was subjected to extraction processing methods. The influence of ratio of organic and aqueous phases (O: A) on the extraction of rare earth metals by tributyl phosphate (TBP) with concentrations from 20 up to 100 % was studied. The REMs extraction with increasing TBP concentration under changes O:A ratio from 1:20 down to 1:1 into the organic phase from the solutions after nitric acid leaching increased from 22.2 up to 99.3%. The duration effect of REMs extraction process was studied by tributyl phosphate. It is revealed that with increasing of duration of the extraction process from 10 to 30 minutes REMs recovery into the organic phase almost did not changed. The behaviour of iron in the extraction process by TBP was studied. It was found that such accompanying components as calcium and aluminium by tributyl phosphate didn't extracted. To construct isotherm of REMs extraction of by tributyl phosphate was used variable volume method. It was calculated three-step extrac