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Sample records for meat sheep breeds

  1. Lambing Ease is Heritable but not Correlated to Litter Size in Danish Meat Sheep Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Valasek, P; Pedersen, Jørn

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of lambing ease (LE) and litter size (LS) in four common Danish meat sheep breeds. Data from 1990 to 2006 were analysed. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of genetic parameters. Lambing ease showed a low heritability, both...... the LE and LS was found, which means that selection to improve one trait should not affect the other trait. Lambing ease should therefore be included in the selection criterion....

  2. Suitability of linear scoring in meat sheep: the practical case of Merinizzata Italiana breed

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    Andrea Giontella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear scoring is widely applied in domestic animal species, mainly in cattle and horses. There are only few cases of linear scoring in sheep, probably because the small body size and the narrow range of the classes make difficult to correctly evaluate the measures. In this paper the results of a linear scoring test carried out on Merinizzata Italiana sheep breed in order to verify the feasibility of this method in sheep, are reported. Twenty untrained people, with three different levels of scoring experience in meat sheep morphology, evaluated 52 pluriparous ewes for body length, chest circumference, chest width, rump height, rump width, and withers height; to check for misclassification, their scores were compared with a reference score, previously obtained measuring the same animals by the suitable tools (measuring tape and a Lydtin stick. The percentage of correct scoring ranged from 44.4% for body length to 61.8% for withers height, and was not affected by the experience of the judge. In all characters, the distance of the class from the trait mean had a significant effect in increasing the intensity of misclassifications; the judge’s experience showed a positive effect in reducing the intensity of the misclassification for body length, that was the hardest trait to score. These results encourage to further verifying in practice the linear scoring in the Merinizzata Italiana sheep and in other meat breeds.

  3. Myostatin gene (MSTN polymorphism with a negative effect on meat productivity in Dzhalginsky Merino sheep breed

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    VLADIMIR TRUKHACHEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important negative regulator of muscle grow in mammalians is myostatin. Some mutations in myostatin gene (MSTN can decrease the effect of protein and play role in meat quality of sheep. Therefore, in genome selection, knowledge of MSTN gene structure is very important. We investigated the polymorphism of the MSTN gene and its influence on body parameters in Russian sheep breed Dzhalginsky Merino. To detect alleles, we use NimbleGen sequencing technolog. In this breed, we found 20 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. That is SNP in promoter: с.-1866, с.-1404, с.-1401, с.-1213, с.-1128, с.-958, с.-783; 5'UTR: с.-40; exon I: с.101; intron 1-2: c.373+18, c.373+241, c.373+243, c.373+259, c.373+563; intron 2-3: с.747+164, с.747+309, с.748-810, с.748-229G>A, с.748-475; 3'UTR: с.*1232. Three of detected SNP (c.-1128, c.-958, c.-40 have a negative effect on the body parameters – decrease weight, height and other. Other three SNP (c.101, c.373+18, с.*1232 have not significant influence on this parameters. Our investigation is a base of next research of affection of different MSTN gene alleles on meat quality and can be used to prepare a PCR test-system for genomic selection.

  4. Short communication: Consumer’s willingness to pay for indigenous meat products: The case of a Spanish sheep breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, A.; Magistris, T. de

    2016-11-01

    European farmers of indigenous local breeds have benefited from European Union economic support in the past and it is forecast to continue being supported in the future. However, it is in the public debate that economic support cannot last forever. Then, for the long-run maintenance of indigenous local breeds to be possible, the derived meat products from these breeds should be demanded by consumers or at least by a group of local consumers. This is the aim of this paper, to study consumers’ demand for indigenous local meat products. In particular, to assess how much consumers are willing to pay for a Spanish lamb meat from an indigenous sheep breed (“Ojinegra de Teruel”). To do that, a non-hypothetical experimental auction with local consumers (those living in a medium-size town around 150 km the producing area of this meat) was used. Results indicated that consumers were willing to pay, on average, €0.45 (15% of the market price) more for the lamb meat with the “Ojinegra de Teruel” breed claim than for the one without breed indication (as it is now sold in the market). Then, local consumers clearly accept the differentiated meat through the indigenous breed indication. Then, producers in the area could have more opportunities to sell in the local market if they differentiate their meat using the indigenous “Ojinegra de Teruel” claim than using the undifferentiated strategy they are undertaken now. (Author)

  5. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, Marie; Griffon, Laurent; Moureaux, Sophie; De Rochambeau, Hubert; Danchin-Burge, Coralie; Verrier, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH), Blanc du Massif Central (BMC), Charollais (CHA) and Limousin (LIM); the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH) and Solognot (SOL). Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount). The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not) for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH), 144 (BMC), 112 (CHA), 69 (LIM), 40 (RLH) and 49 (SOL). Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH), +0.045 (CHA), +0.036 (LIM), +0.098 (RLH) and +0.062 (SOL). The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  6. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Danchin-Burge

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii in the Cornigliese sheep breed in Italy: Meat juice serology, in vitro isolation and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismarra, A; Barilli, E; Miceli, M; Mangia, C; Genchi, M; Brindani, F; Kramer, L; Bacci, C

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii is considered one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses globally and sheep are important intermediate hosts of the parasite. Meat and milk from infected sheep are considered an important source of infection for humans. Here, the authors evaluated T. gondii infection in the Italian Cornigliese sheep breed using meat juice ELISA, and in vitro assay for followed by Real Time-PCR and PCR-RFLP. Twenty-one hearts were collected at slaughter. Meat juice serology was carried out on all samples, while eleven hearts with the highest antibody titres were subjected to acid-peptic digestion and seeding onto Vero cells. DNA was extracted at three different time points following seeding. PCR-positive samples were then genotyped by PCR-RFLP. All the meat juice samples were positive for IgG antibodies against p30 protein of T. gondii. Five of the 11 samples, seeded onto Vero cells, were positive in PCR made on DNA extracted after 21days of culture and the PCR-RFLP revealed a Type-II or Type II variant profile at 9/10 loci. Two out of five samples showed an increase in terms of parasite growth by comparing the Cq values at three different time points. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of in vitro cultivation of T. gondii from muscle tissue of naturally-infected sheep. In vitro assays may be a promising alternative to bioassays and further studies are necessary in order to improve assay performance and to identify possible early markers of parasite proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic parameters and factors influencing survival to 24 hrs after birth in Danish meat sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxa, J; Sharifi, A R; Pedersen, J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, influential factors and (co)variance components for survival to 24 h after birth were determined and estimated for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data from 1992 to 2006 containing 138,813 survival records were extracted from the sheep...... recording database at the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Estimation of (co)variance components was carried out using univariate animal models, applying logistic link functions. The logistic functions were also used for estimation of fixed effects. Both direct and maternal additive genetic effects......, as well as common litter effects, were included in the models. The mean survival to 24 h after birth was 92.5, 91.7, and 88.5% for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, respectively. There was a curvilinear relationship between survival to 24 h after birth and birth weight, with survival less for light...

  9. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

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    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  10. Preliminary Results Regarding Organic Sheep Meat Consumption in Romania

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    Elena Ilisiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With a national flock of  10.07 million sheep, Romania currently occupies the 3rd place in the EU (after the UK and Spain in terms of the sheep numbers. However, only 0.85% (85.419 heads are being reared in organic production systems. The development of sheep breeding in organic systems is very heavily influenced by the economic factors, but also by the consumer demand for organic products. An empirical study on consumer behavior towards sheep meat produced in organic system was developed in 2016. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of developing sheep breeding sector in the organic system, in the terms of the consumer’s behavior towards  sheep meat obtained in organic system in order to develop strategies that will lead to sustainable development of the sector. The finding shown that 85% of consumers consider that sheep meat produced in organic farming system is more expensive compared to that produced in the conventional systems. However, 74% of respondents believe that higher prices are justified. The availability of the respondents to pay an additional price for organic sheep product is high, hovering around 77%. Current research highlights the potential production and marketing of sheep from Romania in organic system, which could have a positive impact on overall farm income and on animal welfare.

  11. Nutritional and organoleptic quality of Beni-Guil lamb meat breeding in eastern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Kamal; Mansouri, Farid; Sindic, Marianne; Boukharta, M; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Abid, M; Serghini; Elamrani, A

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays in Morocco, 98% of red meat production is ensured by cattles, sheeps and goast. The eastern Morocco represents one of the main sheep farming areas, characterized by the specificity of its production systems. So it is well known by the quality of the sheep meat produced. The Beni-Guil breed is a dominate breed in this breeding area, labeled Protected Geographical Indication (PIG). Thus, it’s an important protein source for the population in this geographical site and highly appreciate...

  12. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  13. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

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    Huihua Wang

    Full Text Available Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed.We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality and EDAR (associated with hair thickness were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9 were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study.Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  14. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Zhang, Li; Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  15. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  16. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

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    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  17. Authentic sheep meat in the European Union: Factors influencing and validating its unique meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara W; Muller, Magdalena; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2017-05-01

    Authentic meat products are gaining attention through their unique quality characteristics linked to their origin. Various factors are known to influence the quality of fresh meat. This review describes the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) lamb types and discusses the factors which influences its unique sensory and chemical characteristics. Flavour, aroma, texture and colour play an integral part in the sensory quality of denomination of origin fresh meat products. For authentic fresh sheep meat the sensory (as well as chemical) quality is largely influenced by diet followed by breed, age and gender. However, diet forms the link with the geographical area of origin, which together with the traditional production system and sheep breeds used, lends the product its authentic nature. This review shows how diet linked to origin can affect the quality of the meat and furthermore how other factors such as breed can also have an effect. Research relating to the authentic lamb types were evaluated and the shortcomings highlighted in order to assist with the development of PDO and PGI specifications in the future. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  19. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

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    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  20. Analysis of DNA polymorphism of CAST gene in Local Karnobat and Stara Zagora sheep breeds

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    D. Hristova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Considered calpastatin as a candidate gene for meat and growth traits in sheep production it is important to understand the genetic variability in this locus. The present work was oriented to identification of calpastatin gene polymorphism and analysis of genetic structure of the populations representing two bulgarian sheep breeds – Local Karnobat and Stara Zagora.The material involved 96 sheep of breeds and genomic DNA was isolated by commersial purified kit and used in order to estimate calpastatin genotypes by PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme as a result were detected two different genotypes in the observed locus – homozygous MM and heterozygous MN in Stara Zagora sheep population with frequencies 0.937 and 0.063, respectively. M and N allele frequencies were identified with 0.968 and 0.032. The observed heterozygosity in Stara Zagora sheep population was 0.063 and the chi-square test confirmed the existence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population (P>0.05. In the total population of Local Karnobat sheep was detected homozygous MM only. The results presented in this study show polymorphism of the calpastatin gene in the population of Stara Zagora sheep. Therefore,we could be confirm the importance of this gene as a potential DNA marker in marker-assisted selection with respect to meat production.

  1. Sheep and goat fermented meat sausages — health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Rodrigues, Sandra; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2016-01-01

    The most common sausages use only pork meat and are ripened for long periods. However, some countries with great tradition of sheep and goat meat consumption have the habit of eating some processed products of these meats. In Mediterranean countries as well as in other parts of the world, the meat from young lamb or kid is very usual and appreciated. These young milk fed animals producing lightweight carcasses are highly appreciated by consumers and are traditionally comm...

  2. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

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    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  3. Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan, Pakistan by random amplified polymorphic DNAs. ... The highest number of polymorphic loci 40 was observed in the Mengali breed, while the lowest 28 was in Balochi. Further, 33 and 31 polymorphic loci were seen in Beverigh and Harnai breeds, ...

  4. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbr...

  5. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the

  6. Leg tissue composition and physico-chemical parameters of sheep meat fed annatto coproduct

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    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate leg tissue composition and physico-chemical quality parameters of sheep meat fed with increasing levels of annatto coproduct. 32 male uncastrated animals without a defined breed were randomized in four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 of annatto coproduct in the DM diet. After 78 days of confinement, the animals were slaughtered and body components were recorded. Reconstituted leg weight, total muscle weight, biceps weight and semitendinosus weight showed a negative linear behavior (P 0.05 were found for leg tissue composition (%, muscle:bone ratio, relative fat or leg muscle. Meat physico-chemical parameters (color, shear force, water retention capacity and cooking losses were not affected by the inclusion of the annatto coproduct in the diet. The annatto coproduct can be included in up to 300 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter without negative effects to the leg tissue composition (% and physical parameters of confined sheep meat.

  7. Genetic correlations between wool traits and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, S I; Hatcher, S; Fogarty, N M; van der Werf, J H J; Brown, D J; Swan, A A; Jacob, R H; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L; Edwards, J E Hocking; Ponnampalam, E N; Warner, R D; Pearce, K L; Pethick, D W

    2017-10-01

    Genetic correlations between 29 wool production and quality traits and 25 meat quality and nutritional value traits were estimated for Merino sheep from an Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations among the meat quality and nutritional value traits are also reported. The IN comprised 8 flocks linked genetically and managed across a range of sheep production environments in Australia. The wool traits included over 5,000 yearling and 3,700 adult records for fleece weight, fiber diameter, staple length, staple strength, fiber diameter variation, scoured wool color, and visual scores for breech and body wrinkle. The meat quality traits were measured on samples from the and included over 1,200 records from progeny of over 170 sires for intramuscular fat (IMF), shear force of meat aged for 5 d (SF5), 24 h postmortem pH (pHLL; also measured in the , pHST), fresh and retail meat color and meat nutritional value traits such as iron and zinc levels, and long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels. Estimated heritabilities for IMF, SF5, pHLL, pHST, retail meat color lightness (), myoglobin, iron, zinc and across the range of long-chain fatty acids were 0.58 ± 0.11, 0.10 ± 0.09, 0.15 ± 0.07, 0.20 ± 0.10, 0.59 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.20 ± 0.09, 0.11 ± 0.09, and range of 0.00 (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acids) to 0.14 ± 0.07 (linoleic acid), respectively. The genetic correlations between the wool production and meat quality traits were low to negligible and indicate that wool breeding programs will have little or no effect on meat quality. There were moderately favorable genetic correlations between important yearling wool production traits and the omega-3 fatty acids that were reduced for corresponding adult wool production traits, but these correlations are unlikely to be important in wool/meat breeding programs because they have high SE, and the omega-3 traits have little or no genetic variance. Significant genetic

  8. Recent developments in cattle, pig, sheep and horse breeding - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Svitáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to summarize new genetic approaches and techniques in the breeding of cattle, pigs, sheep and horses. Often production and reproductive traits are treated separately in genetic evaluations, but advantages may accrue to their joint evaluation. A good example is the system in pig breeding. Simplified breeding objectives are generally no longer appropriate and consequently becoming increasingly complex. The goal of selection for improved animal performance is to increase the profit of the production system; therefore, economic selection indices are now used in most livestock breeding programmes. Recent developments in dairy cattle breeding have focused on the incorporation of molecular information into genetic evaluations and on increasing the importance of longevity and health in breeding objectives to maximize the change in profit. For a genetic evaluation of meat yield (beef, pig, sheep, several types of information can be used, including data from performance test stations, records from progeny tests and measurements taken at slaughter. The standard genetic evaluation method of evaluation of growth or milk production has been the multi-trait animal model, but a test-day model with random regression is becoming the new standard, in sheep as well. Reviews of molecular genetics and pedigree analyses for performance traits in horses are described. Genome – wide selection is becoming a world standard for dairy cattle, and for other farm animals it is under development.

  9. Economic values for production traits for different sheep breeds in Kosovo

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    Hysen Bytyqi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.

  10. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  11. Characterization of the Sardi Sheep Breed in Morocco

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    A. Chikhi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 811 reproduction records, 1430 fleece weights, 1024 growth and viability records, and 154 fattening and carcass quality records of Sardi sheep were analyzed. Data were collected over seven periods from 1993-1994 to 1999- 2000 at Deroua Experimental Station of INRA. Average gestation length of Sardi ewes was 151 days, fertility rate was 98%, litter sizes at birth and at weaning (90 days were 1.29 and 1.25 lambs, respectively, and litter weights at birth and at weaning were 5.30 and 27.9 kg, respectively. Lamb weight was 4.10 kg at birth, 10.9 kg at 30 days and 22.5 kg at 90 days. Average daily gain was 224 g from birth to 30 days and 194 g from 30 to 90 days. The mortality rate of lambs from birth to 90 days was 7%. After an average fattening period of 66.4 days, the average daily gain of Sardi lambs born single was 283 g and feed efficiency averaged 4.87 kg of feed per kilogram of weight gained. Slaughtered at 168 days of age on average, slaughter weight of lambs averaged 45.5 kg, hot carcass weight 23.2 kg, dressing percentage 50.9%, and weight of kidney fat 295 g. It was concluded that the Sardi breed had high potential that could be developed to increase meat production in Morocco.

  12. Crossbreeding locally adapted hair sheep to improve productivity and meat quality

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    Juliano Issakowicz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of lambs from crossing of local with specialized sheep breeds for meat production may lead to higher meat deposition and a smaller fat amount in the carcass, with a more adequate nutritional profile for human consumption. This study investigated the performance, carcass and meat characteristics of lambs from the Morada Nova and Santa Inês locally adapted hair breeds and crosses between Dorper × Morada Nova and Dorper × Santa Inês slaughtered at approximately 35 kg. Morada Nova lambs showed lower (p < 0.05 performance compared to the other genetic groups resulting in a higher age at slaughter (p < 0.05. Crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês and Dorper × Morada Nova lambs showed better characteristics for meat production with better (p < 0.05 conformation as well as leg and carcass compacteness index. Dorper × Santa Inês have a fatty acid profile that is more suitable for human consumption than Dorper × Morada Nova lambs do (p < 0.05; however, both had lower (p < 0.05 intramuscular lipid content (as measured by ether extract levels from Longíssimus lumborum compared with purebred lambs. Therefore, when the objective is to obtain lean meat, with improved nutritional profile to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease, the use of breeds and crosses that reduce animal slaughter age, such as the ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês crossbred, is an interesting alternative.

  13. Genetic relationships between six eastern Pyrenean sheep breeds assessed using microsatellites

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    Ainhoa Ferrando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the genetic composition and relationships among livestock breeds is a necessary step for the implementation of management and conservation plans. This study aims to characterise the genetic diversity and relationships among six sheep breeds of meat aptitude that are spread through the eastern Pyrenees: Tarasconnaise, Castillonnaise and Rouge du Roussillon from France, and Aranesa, Xisqueta and Ripollesa from Spain. All but Tarasconnaise are catalogued as endangered. These breeds do not share the same ancestral origin but commercial trades and gene flow between herds are known to have occurred for centuries. Additionally, two outgroup breeds were included: the Guirra, from a different geographical location, and the Lacaune, a highly selected breed of dairy aptitude. A total of 410 individuals were typed using a panel of 12 microsatellite markers. Statistical, phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses showed that eastern Pyrenean breeds retained high levels of genetic diversity and low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation (FST = 4.1%. While outgroups were clearly differentiated from other breeds, Pyrenean breeds tended to form two clusters. The first encompassed Tarasconnaise and Aranesa, which probably descend from a common meta-population. The second tended to group the other four breeds. However, none reached high mean Q-values of membership to a discrete cluster. This is consistent with the recent past gene flow between breeds, despite different ancestral genetic origins. The genetic characterisation carried out of the eastern Pyrenean sheep populations provides useful information to support decision making on their conservation and focusing efforts and resources to more singular breeds.

  14. Paradox of Genetic Diversity in the Case of Prionic Diseases in Sheep Breeds from Romania

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    Gheorghe Hrinca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main target of this debate is the revaluation of the biodiversity concept and especially of its significance in the animal husbandry field. The paper analyzes the genetic diversity at the determinant locus of scrapie (PrP in the sheep breeds from Romania: Palas Merino, Tsigai, Tsurcana, Botosani Karakul, Palas Meat Breed and Palas Milk Breed. The prionic genetic diversity (d has been quantified by means of informational energy (e. This study highlights the impact of increasing the genetic diversity from the PrP locus level on the health status of ovine species and especially on human food safety. The informational statistics processing shows that the resistance / susceptibility to scrapie is in relation to the degree of prionic genetic diversity. The limitation of genetic diversity by selecting the individuals possessing the ARR allele in both homozygous status and in combination with alleles ARQ, ARH AHQ confers to sheep herds certain levels of resistance to contamination with scrapie disease. Instead, promoting to reproduction also individuals possessing the VRQ allele in all possible genotypic combinations (including ARR allele increases genetic diversity but also has as effect increasing the susceptibility of sheep to prion disease onset. From the point of view of morbid phenomenon, the Botosani Karakul breed is clearly advantaged compared to all other indigenous sheep breeds from Romania. For methodological coherency in the interpretative context of this issue, the genetic diversity was analyzed in association with the heterozygosity degree of breeds and their Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium at the PrP locus level. Finally, the paper refers to decisions that the improvers must take to achieve the genetic prophylaxis in the scrapie case taking into account the polymorphism degree of prion protein.

  15. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed

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    Mohammad Farhadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

  16. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

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    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  17. Genetic diversity of two Tunisian sheep breeds using random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to study genetic diversity and population structure in six sheep populations belonging to two native Tunisian breeds (the Barbarine and the Western thin tail). A total of 96 samples were typed using eight RAPD primers. 62 bands were scored, of which 44 ...

  18. Importance of determining the climatic domains of sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, D; Boujenane, I

    2018-07-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the capacity of the major sheep breeds in Morocco to cope with climate changes through the ranges of several climate parameters in which they can be found. We first delimitated the climatic 'domains' of each breed by constructing a database including altitude and climatic parameters (minima mean of the coldest month, maxima mean of the hottest month, annual rainfall, pluviothermic coefficient of Emberger Q 2, annual minima mean and annual maxima mean) on a 30-year period using the representative stations of each breed distribution. The overlap between each breed combination was quantified through a canonical analysis that extracted the most discriminant parameters. The variance analysis of each climatic parameter evidenced two breeds remarkable by their tolerance. The first one is the Timahdite, mainly settled in areas over 1100 m, which can tolerate the greatest variations in annual rainfall and pluviothermic coefficient. In spite of this feature, this breed is endangered owing to the decreasing quality of pastures. The second one is the D'man which apparently can support high variations in extreme temperatures. In fact, this breed is not well adapted to pastures and requires a special microclimate offered by oases. The information reported in this study will be the basis for the establishment of characterization and selection strategies for Moroccan sheep.

  19. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  20. Breeding for meat quality in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of improving pig meat quality by selection. Therefore, literature is reviewed to determine the meat quality traits to be used and genetic parameters of those meat quality traits are calculated. A method is described to obtain

  1. Sheep meat commercialization in the retail market in Brazilian cities

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    Ricardo Firetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper explored the mix market characteristics of sheep meat as a product for sale in different cities in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. For this, 81 products were purchased in 21 outlets sampled in a “non-probabilistic” manner for convenience and then subjected to analysis of yield of meat, bone, and fat. Imported products represented 20% of the total, being marketed in hypermarkets. It was observed that 37% of the total products were obtained in hypermarkets, 31% in supermarkets, 23% in butcher shops, and 8.6% in meat outlets. Almost 9% of the products had not undergone the official slaughter inspection system. The main types of products identified were palettes and legs with bones (33.3 and 24.7%, respectively; however, only 25% were satisfactorily displayed to consumers. The yields obtained in meat and deboned portions were 74% and 59% of the total weight, significantly affecting the average adjusted sales prices of the products, respectively US$13.01/kg sale price; US$17.82/kg deboned; and US$22.52/kg lean meat. The low yield of clean and boned meat observed in the samples can lead to negative experiences of these products by consumers.

  2. Inclusion of liver in meat products from sheep

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    T. H. Borghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical (pH, color, water retention capacity, cooking losses, shear force, iron content, and lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of koftas and sausages prepared from lamb meat and enriched with sheep liver. Meat from eight lambs weaned at 60 days and slaughtered at a body weight of 32.0 ± 0.2 kg was used. Percentages of 10 and 20% sheep liver were included in koftas and of 15 and 30% in sausages. A completely randomized experimental design was used and the data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The inclusion of liver in koftas linearly increased pH (P=0.001 and shear force (P=0.028, and reduced luminosity (P=0.005 and lipid oxidation at the time of (P=0.001 and 24 hours after (P=0.004 fabrication of the products. In sausages, the inclusion of liver linearly increased shear force (P=0.03. The inclusion of liver exerted decreasing linear effects on the scores related to the flavor of kofta and sausage products (P=0.001 and 0.033, respectively and a quadratic effect (P=0.008 on the overall acceptance of sausages. Although the inclusion of liver altered some relevant quality-related attributes of sheep koftas and sausages, the physicochemical and sensory characteristics were not compromised.

  3. Breed traceability of buffalo meat using microsatellite genotyping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Bheemashankar H; Fairoze, Md Nadeem; Girish, P S; Karabasanavar, Nagappa; Rudresh, B H

    2017-02-01

    Although buffalo has emerged as a major meat producing animal in Asia, major research on breed traceability has so far been focused on cattle (beef). This research gap on buffalo breed traceability has impelled development and validation of buffalo breed traceability using a set of eight microsatellite (STR) markers in seven Indian buffalo breeds (Bhadawari, Jaffaarabadi, Murrah, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Pandharpuri and Surti). Probability of sharing same profile by two individuals at a specific locus was computed considering different STR numbers, allele pooling in breed and population. Match probabilities per breed were considered and six most polymorphic loci were genotyped. Out of eight microsatellite markers studied, markers CSSMO47, DRB3 and CSSM060 were found most polymorphic. Developed technique was validated with known and unknown, blood and meat samples; wherein, samples were genetically traced in 24 out of 25 samples tested. Results of this study showed potential applications of the methodology and encourage other researchers to address the problem of buffalo traceability so as to create a world-wide archive of breed specific genotypes. This work is the first report of breed traceability of buffalo meat utilizing microsatellite genotyping technique.

  4. Variation of the Surface of the Longissimus Dorsi (LD Muscle and the Section of the Leg of Mutton at Young Sheep of Different Breed Structures

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    Elena Ilişiu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was done on carcasses from the slaughter of young male sheep intensively fattened belonging to the local Tsigai race of mountain ecotype and its half-breeds with Suffolk and German blackface (GCCN. The purpose of the research was to determine Logissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, because these parts provide information on Ist meat quality. Research results have noted that lots of half-breeds achieved higher Longissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, compared with the pure breed batch. Compared with Tsigai breed, Longissimus dorsi (LD area deterrmined was higher with 10,75% to Suffolk x Tsigai half-breeds, and 0,07% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Leg of moutton area was higher with 17,27% to Suffolk x Tsigai halfbreeds, and 2,75% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Research carried out special information on Ist meat quality on carcass.

  5. Behaviour and production traits correlation of five breeds of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Information about correlations among behavioral traits and production traits may facilitate using easily measured traits to be used as alternative criteria for indirect selection to improve other traits in sheep. The purpose of this study was to estimate correlations among behavioral and production traits of five breeds of sheep. A total of 128 head of weaned lambs and 168 ewes with nursing lambs of five breeds were used in this study, i.e. Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Composite Garut (KG, Local Garut (LG, Composite Sumatra (KS and St. Croix Cross (SC. Temperament was assessed in a test arena, for subsequent association with growth rate and ewe productivity. Analysis of variance of production and behavioral traits among breeds was carried out using PROC GLM of SAS software Ver. 9.0. PROCCORR was used to estimate correlations among production and behavioral variables. Weaned lambs that were more docile towards the observer had higher daily gains. Ewes that bleated more frequently when separated from their lamb had higher lamb weaning weights and lamb survival than ewes bleating fewer times under the same conditions. In BC ewes, a positive correlation was observed between frequency of bleats and lamb survival.

  6. Consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa under blind and informed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; Nalério, Elen Silveira; Giongo, Citieli; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2018-03-01

    The development of air-dried cured sheep meat products represents an interesting option to add value to the meat of adult animals. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa, an innovative product. Four sheep meat coppa samples were formulated by varying smoking (smoked vs. non-smoked) and salt content (4.5% vs. 3.4%), and compared with two commercial samples of regular pork meat coppa. Samples were evaluated under blind or informed conditions by 202 consumers, who had to rate their liking and to answer a check-all-that-apply question. Sheep and pork meat coppa samples did not largely differ in their overall liking in both experimental conditions. Smoking and high salt content significantly increased consumers' hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa. The information included in the labels did not modify consumer hedonic perception but influenced their sensory description, particularly for the terms related to the type of meat used in their manufacture. Results indicate positive market opportunities for sheep meat coppa in the Brazilian market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and Reproduction Efficiency in Turcana and Ratca Sheep Breeds

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    Maria Sauer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate the production and reproduction efficiency in indigenous Turcana and endangered Ratca sheep breeds. Milk yield for the two breeds was on average 68.23±2.33 kg for Ratca ewes and 76.81±2.99 kg in Turcana, respectively, differences between two breeds were significant (p≤0.01. Conception rates were of 97.7±0.87% in Ratca and of 94.8±0.65% in Turcana ewes, respectively, differences were significant between the two flocks (p≤0.05, with the Ratca ewes achieving better fertility rates, compared to their counterparts, the Turcana breed. For prolificacy, the Turcana ewes outperformed significantly (p≤0.01 the Ratca, with an average litter size of 124.2±1.86% and 110.1±1.44%, respectively. Lambs survival and adult ewe culling rates were not affected by the breed factor (p>0.05. Adult ewes body weight when put to ram was significantly (p≤0.05 influenced by the breed, with Turcana ewes having on average 53.8±2.89 kg, compared to 48.0±3.22 kg for the Ratca ewes. The average farm yearly incomes were estimated to be of 150.32 EUR for Ratca ewe-unit and of 144.97 EUR for the Turcana ewe-unit. Although the Turcana outperformed the Ratca ewes, the annual revenue was higher for the Ratca, due to the state conservation subsidy for rare and endangered breeds.

  8. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

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    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  9. Considerations on Trends in the Romanian Sheep and Goat Meat Market, 1990-2009

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    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to identify the main trends in the Romanian sheep and goat meat market based on the analysis of the specific indicators regarding sheep and goat livestock and production at country level and by region, using the data provided by National Institute of Statistic for the period 1990-2009. About 198,729 farmers are raising sheep and goats and the average farm size is about 16 heads. The sheep and goat livestock declined by 34 % in the analyzed period accounting for 10,058 thousand heads in 2009. Sheep/goat ratio changed from 14/1 in 1990 to 9.96/1 in 2009, in the advantage of goats. Sheep and goats are mainly grown in Central, North-Eastern and South-Western Romania. Mutton and goat meat production accounted for 1,443 thousand tons in 2009, being by 40 % lower than in 1990  because of  livestock  decline.  About 23 % mutton and sheep meat is produced in the South-Eastern Romania, 18 % in the Central part and 14 % in North-East. The share of mutton and goat meat declined from 8.38 % in 1990 to 7.21 % in 2009 in total meat production in the country. As a conclusion,  mutton  and goat meat market registered a decline during the last decades, in favour of pork and poultry meat.

  10. Reproduction and Production Performances of Boujaâd Breed of Sheep in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chikhi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concerned the analysis of 1264 reproduction performances, 1698 fleece weights, 1588 growth and viability performances and 184 fattening and carcass performances of Boujaâd breed of sheep. Data were collected during seven periods, between 1993-94 and 1999-2000, at the Deroua Experimental Station of INRA. The ewes’ fertility rate and gestation length were 98% and 151 days, respectively, litter size at birth and weaning (90 days 1.29 and 1.24, respectively, and litter weights at birth and weaning 5.03 and 26.8 kg, respectively. Fleece weight averaged 3.47 kg. Lambs weighed 3.89 kg at birth, 10.3 kg at 30 days and 21.8 kg at 90 days of age. Their average daily gain was 213 g from birth to 30 days and 190 g between 30 and 90 days. The mortality rate from birth to 90 days averaged 8%. After a fattening period of 66.4 days, male lambs born single exhibited an average daily gain of 280 g and a feed efficiency of 4.70 kg of feed per kilogram of weight gained. Slaughtered at 171 days of age, their slaughtering weight averaged 44.8 kg, hot carcass weight 22.4 kg, and dressing yield 50%. It was concluded that the Boujaâd sheep breed has promising potentialities that could be developed to increase meat production in Morocco.

  11. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  12. Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality

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    Y. X. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer’s preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05. Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05. Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001. Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20, back fat thickness (0.19, marbling score (0.17, and color score (0.16 while negatively correlated with cooking loss (−0.24 and shear force (−0.20. Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed.

  13. Bovicola ovis and Melophagus ovinus: Spatial distribution on Menz breed Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Mersha Chanie

    2011-01-01

    This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5) points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6) different reg...

  14. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-10-15

    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetics similarity among four breeds of sheep in Egypt detected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genetic analysis using RAPD markers was performed for studying variation in four breeds of sheep (Baladi, Barki, Rahmani and Saffolk). Nineteen random primers were used to amplify DNA fragments in these breeds. RAPD patterns with a level of polymorphism were detected between breeds. Results showed closer ...

  16. Defining the breeding goal for a sheep breed including production and functional traits using market data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, A; Ragkos, A; Rose, G; Roustemis, D; Arsenos, G

    2017-11-16

    In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal. The estimated economic values of the traits revealed their economic impact on the definition of the breeding goal for the specified production system. Milk production and fertility had the highest economic values (€40.30 and €20.28 per standard genetic deviation (SDa)), while, mastitis only had a low negative value of -0.57 €/SDa. Therefore, breeding for clinical mastitis will have a minor impact on farm profitability because it affects a small proportion of the flock and has low additive variance. The production traits, which include milk production, prolificacy and milking speed, contributed most to the breeding goal (70.0%), but functional traits still had a considerable share (30.0%). The results of this study highlight the importance of the knowledge of economic values of traits in the design of a breeding program. It is also suggested that the production and functional traits under consideration can be categorized as those which can be efficiently treated through genetic improvement (e.g. milk production and fertility) while others would be better dealt with through managerial interventions (e.g. mastitis occurrence). Also, sub-clinical mastitis that affects a higher proportion of flocks could have a higher contribution to breeding goals.

  17. Slaughter performance and meat quality of three Italian chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Chiericato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to study the slaughter performance and the meat quality of three Italian dual-purpose chicken breeds: Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, Robusta lionata (RL and Robusta maculata (RM. Females were studied from June to October from 47 days of life until slaughtered age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. Each genotype had access to outdoor and indoor spaces. RL and RM birds showed a higher final body weight, and provided heavier carcass and commercial cuts than ER (P<0.01, at both ages. The dressing-out percentage of RL and RM females was more favourable than ER ones, in particular at II age (P<0.01. Differences in carcass conformation were observed at II age: the ER carcass showed a higher (P<0.01 proportion of leg and wing. The RM carcass had a higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast. The thigh meat/ bone ratio was higher in RL at I age (P<0.01 and II (P<0.05 age. Significant differences in breast colour were observed among the breeds; ER thigh showed the highest (P<0.05 a* value. At II age, lipids were lower (P<0.01 in ER breast; thigh lipids were similar among the groups. Slaughtering at I age seem to be more advantageous for the ER breed since it is more precocious.

  18. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming

  19. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus.

  20. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Bowles

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits and PRLR (reproductive performance traits also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the

  1. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits

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    DOMINIKA GUZEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  2. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  3. The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W. Bremer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.

  4. Productivity of Sumateran Composite dan Barbados Cross sheep breed in the field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years field study has been carried out in the Purwakarta district , West Java, to evaluate sheep productivity of Sumateran Composite (K and Barbados cross (BC breeds introduced to the farmers, compared with locally thin tail sheep breed (L that were maintained by the farmers. Genotype compositions of K sheep were Barbados Blackbelly 25%, St. Croix 25%, and Sumateran sheep 50%; and for BC were Barbados Blackbelly 50% and Sumateran sheep 50%. Sheep those were introduced was new breed from breeding improvement of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Litter size of K, BC, and L ewes was 1.3; 1.4; and 1.5 respectively. Pre-weaning mortality rate were 5.0; 5.0 and 8.0% respectively for K, BC, and L lambs. Ewe Reproduction Rate (LRI = number of lamb at weaning/ewe/year of L (2.14 was higher than BC (2.0 and K (1.85. The ewe productivity (PI = kg lambs/ewe/year is the average of weaning weight timed LRI. Because the weaning weight of L (7.0 kg were significantly lowest than BC (10.5 kg and K (9.25 kg will affect on PI. PI of L (14.98 ewe were significantly (P<00.5 lowest than BC (21 and K (17.11. Body weight of crossbred (K X L and BCxL under the same physiologic status were similarly with BC and K. According to the result of productivity evaluation of introduced sheep breed in the field condition, can be sumarize that productivity of K and BC sheep were significantly better than locally thin tail sheep.

  5. The Effect of Crude Protein Content on Meat and Fat Production in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawati, S.; Restitrisnani, V.; Soedarsono

    2018-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) content on meat protein and fat production in sheep. Twenty four male thin tail sheep aged 6-7 months with average body weight of 13±1.56 kg were used in this study. The sheep were fed 10-14% CP. Sheep with the average body weight amount 16.75 kg were slaughter after 4 months rising. Parameters observed in this study were carcass weight, meat weight and fat weight of thin tail sheep. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis. The result of this study showed that CP content on diet had weak and negative correlation with meat production (r = -0.06) (y = -0.148x + 62.54) but had weak and possitive correlation with fat production (r = 0.3) (y = 0.807x2 -18.40x + 119.1). Based on the result, it can be concluded that the optimum CP content for sheep is 12.5% CP.

  6. Meat production in sheep hybrids in agro-ecological feeding and growing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research points out the effect of feeding young hybrid sheep (Black-faced German x Ţurcană in the conditions of permanent hill grasslands with two technological systems of improving grasslands: the conventional chemical (NPK fertilisation system and the agro-ecological organic fertilisation (sheep folding and over-sowing system. Studies show that the changes in the floristic structure of the grasslands have influenced both fodder yield and quality and meat production and quality. Meat production depending on experimental factors ranged between 189 and 393 kg/ha in the grasslands improved conventionally and between 191 and 461 kg/ha in the grasslands fertilised organically.

  7. Water holding capacity of meat from rabbits (Belgian Giant breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Meat science has always been most interested in practical applications and macroscopic effects of internal/external factors in relation to water holding capacity (WHC. Research has been motivated by technological and sensory aspects, both finally linked to economic benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of gender and different muscle groups from rabbits on WHC of their meat. Determining WHC was carried out by compression of the meat over filter paper between two plates. The biological material was collected from 56 Belgian Giant breed rabbits (25 males and 31 females. Aged 11-12 months, the rabbits had an average body weight of 11.5 kg. Measurements were performed on the muscles Longissimus dorsi (LD, Psoas major (PM and Semimembranosus (SM 24 hours after slaughter. The percentage of WHC was calculated as ratio (per cent of weight of released water to intact meat. WHC for females, in LD, had an average value of 8%, in PM it had an average value of 9.31%, and in SM it had an average value of 12.91%. For males, WHC in LD was 7.6%, in PM 8.23% and in SM 11.43%. The average value for WHC was higher for females than for males. Regarding the statistical significance of differences by gender, distinct significant differences for SM and very significant differences for PM were recorded. For PM, a higher average value of WHC is probably due to the smaller diameter of muscle fibres and also to water higher percentage of them.

  8. Genetic structure of South African Nguni (Zulu) sheep populations reveals admixture with exotic breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selepe, Mokhethi Matthews; Ceccobelli, Simone; Lasagna, Emiliano; Kunene, Nokuthula Winfred

    2018-01-01

    The population of Zulu sheep is reported to have declined by 7.4% between 2007 and 2011 due to crossbreeding. There is insufficient information on the genetic diversity of the Zulu sheep populations in the different area of KwaZulu Natal where they are reared. The study investigated genetic variation and genetic structure within and among eight Zulu sheep populations using 26 microsatellite markers. In addition, Damara, Dorper and South African Merino breeds were included to assess the genetic relationship between these breeds and the Zulu sheep. The results showed that there is considerable genetic diversity among the Zulu sheep populations (expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.57 to 0.69) and the level of inbreeding was not remarkable. The structure analysis results revealed that Makhathini Research Station and UNIZULU research station share common genetic structure, while three populations (Nongoma, Ulundi and Nquthu) had some admixture with the exotic Dorper breed. Thus, there is a need for sustainable breeding and conservation programmes to control the gene flow, in order to stop possible genetic dilution of the Zulu sheep.

  9. Genetic structure of South African Nguni (Zulu sheep populations reveals admixture with exotic breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhethi Matthews Selepe

    Full Text Available The population of Zulu sheep is reported to have declined by 7.4% between 2007 and 2011 due to crossbreeding. There is insufficient information on the genetic diversity of the Zulu sheep populations in the different area of KwaZulu Natal where they are reared. The study investigated genetic variation and genetic structure within and among eight Zulu sheep populations using 26 microsatellite markers. In addition, Damara, Dorper and South African Merino breeds were included to assess the genetic relationship between these breeds and the Zulu sheep. The results showed that there is considerable genetic diversity among the Zulu sheep populations (expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.57 to 0.69 and the level of inbreeding was not remarkable. The structure analysis results revealed that Makhathini Research Station and UNIZULU research station share common genetic structure, while three populations (Nongoma, Ulundi and Nquthu had some admixture with the exotic Dorper breed. Thus, there is a need for sustainable breeding and conservation programmes to control the gene flow, in order to stop possible genetic dilution of the Zulu sheep.

  10. Determination of erythrocyte susceptibility of Chinese sheep (Tan mutton breed) and French sheep (Vendéen breed) to Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) by in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Brisseau, Nadine; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Chauvin, Alain

    2010-05-28

    The Babesia species "BQ1 (Lintan)" is infective to sheep and goats. The species was isolated from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected in the Gannan Tibet Autonomous Region, China in April 2000. In this study, an in vitro culture system was developed for the propagation of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan). Continuous cultivation and 5.0% parasitemia was obtained in vitro in RPMI 1640 medium with sheep red blood cells (RBC) (7.5%) supplemented with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) (20%), Amphotericin B (0.5 microg/ml) and Gentamicin (50 microg/ml) in an incubator at 37 degrees C and 6% CO(2) in 24-well and 6-well plates. Parasitemia could attain 10% in 75 cm(2) flasks with the same culture medium but with 2.5% RBC. A clonal line of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) was screened using the limiting dilution method and designated G7. Growth of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) in vitro was measured by microtitre-based spectrophotometric method and from parasitemia counts. The generation time was between 20.57 h (based the A(405) of the culture supernatant) and 26.41 h (based on parasitemia). Three French sheep were successfully infected with the culture and the infectivity of the clonal line G7 was determined. Finally, this in vitro culture system was used to compare the susceptibility (capacity to sustain Babesia sp. growth in vitro) of RBC from French sheep (Vendéen breed) and Chinese sheep (Tan mutton breed) for Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) and B. divergens. The lower susceptibility to B. divergens and Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) of RBC from French sheep, compared to Chinese sheep, is discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic beef production by Maremmana breed: qualitative meat characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mele, Prof. Marcello; Morbidini, Prof. Luciano; Cozza, Dr. Francesca; Pauselli, Prof. Mariano; Pollicardo, Dr. Alice

    2008-01-01

    Meat quality of Maremmana young bulls and steers was evaluated during three consecutive years, according to an extension service experimental program. Cooking loss values of meat samples were lower in meat from steers, whereas shear force values were higher. Meat from steers was darker than meat from young bulls, as a consequence of a low level of Lightness and a high level of Chroma. Meat chemical composition showed a higher content of intramuscular fat in steer meat, which showed also a low...

  12. Do traditional sheep breeders perform conscious selection? An example from a participatory breeding program of Morada Nova sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandas, Janaina Kelli Gomes; Alves, Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves; Facó, Olivardo; Belchior, Ernandes Barboza; Shiotsuki, Luciana; de Arruda Leite, Paulo Márcio Barbosa; Ribeiro, Maria Norma

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of sustainable breeding programs requires genetic breeding strategies that are appropriate for the reality production systems. It is also essential that the choice of animal selection criteria be based on breeders' knowledge and objectives. This work is an ethno-zootechnical study of the Morada Nova sheep breed and its crossbreeds. The goals of this study were to register and analyze indigenous breeders' knowledge and practices regarding animal selection criteria and to generate technical information to support a participatory breeding program of the breed. This study was conducted in the Morada Nova municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were evaluated using two groups of individuals, purebred Morada Nova sheep breeders (RMN, n = 13) and breeders of Morada Nova crossbreeds (MMN, n = 48). Interview questions were used to identify local selection criteria adopted by each group in the choice of animals for breeding. Data from the interviews were submitted to frequency distribution analysis and the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify their distribution. Later, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the two groups of farmers based on that information, in addition to multivariate statistical analysis and evaluation of Smith salience index. Breeders in the RMN group used selection criteria related to breed standards, such as pelage color. In contrast, breeders of the MMN group used criteria related to productivity, such as body conformation and milk production. Breeders should be engaged in the development of breeding programs, and it is important to consider their preferences and objectives when evaluating breeding animals.

  13. Reproductive performance and mortality rate in Menz and Horro sheep following controlled breeding in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhan, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n = 4890) of Horro and Menz ewes following controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analyzed. Sheep were treated with flugestone acetate (FGA) intravaginal sponges during the wet and dry seasons to compare the reproductive performance of the two indigenous

  14. Effects of sheep breed and soybean meal supplementation on rumen environment and degradation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, A.; Cone, J.W.; Fontes, P.; Dias-Da-Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the in vivo digestibility and intake differences, observed in previous studies, between Ile-de-France (IF) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ) sheep breeds, were due to rumen environment and degradability differences. The intake, digestibility, rumen environment

  15. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, A.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as

  16. Sheep resources of Ethiopia : genetic diversity and breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremichael, S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of

  17. Assessing genetic diversity of Hamdani sheep breed in Kurdistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variation in Hamdani sheep in the Kurdistan region of Iraq was studied using 35 microsatellite markers. All 35 markers were found to be highly polymorphic. The mean number of observed alleles ranged from four at BMS1494 to twenty five at BM6444 and INRABERN185 loci. The polymorphic information ...

  18. Sensory Characterization and Consumer Preference Mapping of Fresh Sausages Manufactured with Goat and Sheep Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... The cluster analysis shows that Najdi breed is genetically different from both Harri and Awassi and .... Genetic distance value of 0.0 reflects very high similarity between ..... The State of the Worlds Animal Genetic Resources for.

  20. Biodiversity of Helminths of Sheep Breed in Vojvodina (Northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan PAVLOVIĆ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vojvodina is situated in the northern part of Serbia. The region is divided into: Bačka in the northwest, Banat in the east and Srem in the southwest. A small part of the Mačva region is also located in Vojvodina, in the Srem District. Vojvodina is abundant with numerous grasslands suitable for sheep grazing. The present study was conducted in 90 sheep flocks from the territory of Vojvodina in the period of March 2014 to January 2015, using into consideration the biodiversity and sesonal occurance and prevalence of isolated parasites. Fecal samples were examined by using qualitative and quantitative coprological methods. Infection we occurred at 81.22% of sheep. We found eggs of Nematodirus sp. (71.22%, Ostertagia sp. (69.22%, Trichostrongylus sp. (66.55%, Haemonchus sp. (64.44%, Chabertia ovina (60.11%, Dictyocaulus spp. (49.00%, Oesophagostomum sp.(36.77%, Dicrocelium dendriticum (34.66%, Marshallagia sp. (29.66%, Cooperia sp. (27.88%, Moniezia sp. (26.77%, Bunostomum sp. (22.33% and Skrjabinema sp. (13,66%.

  1. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Jalali, Mohammad; Weese, J Scott

    2014-02-05

    Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans.

  2. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos Henriques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control; irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  3. Morphological study of Socorro Island Merino sheep and its crosses with hair breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan Augusto; Lepe, Marissa; Macedo, Rafael; Arredondo, Victalina; Cortez, Carlos Eliseo; García, Luis Jorge; Prado, Omar

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Socorro Island Merino sheep. A total of 67 sheep, 62 females, 26 purebred and 36 crossbred with hair breeds, and five males were scored for 10 body measurements in addition to live weight, and four racial and seven functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex and crossbreeding on the body measurements and indices was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and morphological harmony was determined using Spearman correlation. With exception of rump length, body measurements and live weight were significantly greater in males than in females. Sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 78 % heavier than females. Socorro Island Merino sheep were dolichocephalous, elipometric, with a convex curve rump, and with a high and low morphological harmony for females and males, respectively. They had undefined zootechnical aptitude tended toward dairy phenotype as long as crossbreeding with hair breeds did not affect their functional or productive aptitude. It can be concluded that Socorro Island Merino sheep is a new biotype of the Merino breed, which is necessary to preserve and evaluate as a source of genetic characteristics such as adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.

  4. Water, land and carbon footprints of sheep and chicken meat produced in Tunisia under different farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibidhi, R.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Chouchane, Hatem

    2017-01-01

    Meat production puts larger demands on water and land and results in larger greenhouse gas emissions than alternative forms of food. This study uses footprint indicators, the water, land and carbon footprint, to assess natural resources use and greenhouse gas emissions for sheep and chicken meat

  5. Dynamics of growth of Вопе in sheep of romni-marsh breed

    OpenAIRE

    Slesarcnco, In; Nikitchenko, V.; Nikitchenko, D.

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out on the growth of bones in young male sheep of the romni-marsh breed aged 4, 7, 10 and 48 months old. It was found out that in the axial region of male sheep, the thoracic region has the most intensive growth in the postnatal period from which the intensity of growth decreases in the cranial and caudal area. With the increase in the relative weight of bones of the limbs, their weight (in relation to the weight of bones of the carcass) decreases, with this; the more dist...

  6. A genome wide survey of SNP variation reveals the genetic structure of sheep breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Kijas

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of sheep reflects their domestication and subsequent formation into discrete breeds. Understanding genetic structure is essential for achieving genetic improvement through genome-wide association studies, genomic selection and the dissection of quantitative traits. After identifying the first genome-wide set of SNP for sheep, we report on levels of genetic variability both within and between a diverse sample of ovine populations. Then, using cluster analysis and the partitioning of genetic variation, we demonstrate sheep are characterised by weak phylogeographic structure, overlapping genetic similarity and generally low differentiation which is consistent with their short evolutionary history. The degree of population substructure was, however, sufficient to cluster individuals based on geographic origin and known breed history. Specifically, African and Asian populations clustered separately from breeds of European origin sampled from Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America. Furthermore, we demonstrate the presence of stratification within some, but not all, ovine breeds. The results emphasize that careful documentation of genetic structure will be an essential prerequisite when mapping the genetic basis of complex traits. Furthermore, the identification of a subset of SNP able to assign individuals into broad groupings demonstrates even a small panel of markers may be suitable for applications such as traceability.

  7. COLOUR AND pH VALUE OF ISTRIAN SHEEP LAMBS MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Držaić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sex and slaughter weight of Istrian sheep lambs on pH value and meat colour. The study included 118 lambs of both sexes (64 male and 54 female which were, prior slaughter, divided into two groups: light (17.76 kg; 28 male and 32 female and heavy (20.17 kg; 3 male and 22 female. Carcass weight was determined immediately after carcass processing and after 24 hours, while the pH value and meat colour were determined 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughter. Average hot and cold carcass weights in light lambs were 9.76 and 9.47 kg, and in heavy lambs 11.80 and 11.49 kg, with chilling loss of 2.96 and 2.60% respectively. Istrian sheep lambs carcasses are quite uniform in relation to sex in terms of all the investigated traits, except value of L* and a* colour parameters. For the production of larger lamb meat quantities it might be recommended to increase lambs slaughter weight since the higher slaughter weight has the positive effect on carcass weight and chilling loss while retaining the desirable values of meat quality parameters.

  8. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  9. Effect of some candidate genes on meat characteristics of three cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Valentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to assess if some molecular markers can help to select animals for meat characteristics, we studied 84 individuals equally representing the Marchigiana, Maremmana, and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds genotyped at 288 SNPs located within candidate genes. Several SNPs were found associated with meat quality parameters but with P which was higher than the Bonferroni threshold. However, several SNPs had a low P at different times during meat maturation, suggesting their involvement in the meat quality variation. Of particular interest for the biological role and potential for selection were: cathepsin G affecting MFI, IGF1R affecting pH and collagen XVIII affecting colour.

  10. Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Postpartum Reproductive Indices in Tigaia Sheep Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Padeanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.

  11. High and low rigor temperature effects on sheep meat tenderness and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Peachey, Bridget M; Lowe, Timothy E; Ingram, John R; Cook, Christian J

    2002-02-01

    Immediately after electrical stimulation, the paired m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) of 40 sheep were boned out and wrapped tightly with a polyethylene cling film. One of the paired LT's was chilled in 15°C air to reach a rigor mortis (rigor) temperature of 18°C and the other side was placed in a water bath at 35°C and achieved rigor at this temperature. Wrapping reduced rigor shortening and mimicked meat left on the carcass. After rigor, the meat was aged at 15°C for 0, 8, 26 and 72 h and then frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1×1 cm cross-section. The shear force values of meat for 18 and 35°C rigor were similar at zero ageing, but as ageing progressed, the 18 rigor meat aged faster and became more tender than meat that went into rigor at 35°C (Prigor at each ageing time were significantly different (Prigor were still significantly greater. Thus the toughness of 35°C meat was not a consequence of muscle shortening and appears to be due to both a faster rate of tenderisation and the meat tenderising to a greater extent at the lower temperature. The cook loss at 35°C rigor (30.5%) was greater than that at 18°C rigor (28.4%) (P<0.01) and the colour Hunter L values were higher at 35°C (P<0.01) compared with 18°C, but there were no significant differences in a or b values.

  12. Effect of Transportation and Low Voltage Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality Characteristics of Omani Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam T. Kadim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of road transportation during the hot season (36 oC and low voltage electrical stimulation on meat quality characteristics of Omani sheep. Twenty intact male sheep (1-year old were divided into two equal groups: 3 hrs transported or non-transported. The transported group was transferred to the slaughterhouse the day of slaughter in an open truck covering a distance of approximately 300 km. The non-transported group was kept in a lairage of a commercial slaughterhouse with ad libitum feed and water for 3 days prior to slaughter. Blood samples were collected from the animals before loading and prior to slaughter in order to assess their physiological response to stress in terms of hormonal levels. Fifty percent of the carcasses from each group were randomly assigned to low voltage (90 V at 20 min postmortem. Muscle ultimate pH, expressed juice, cooking loss percentage, WB-shear force value, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and colour L*, a*, b* were measured on samples from Longissimus dorsi muscles collected 24 hrs postmortem at 2-4 oC. The transported sheep had significantly (P<0.05 higher cortisol adrenaline, nor-adrenaline, and dopamine levels than the non-transported group. Muscles from electrically-stimulated carcasses had significantly (P<0.05 lower pH values, longer sarcomere length, lower shear force value, higher expressed juice, myofibrillar fragmentation index and L* values than those from non-stimulated ones. Transportation significantly influenced meat quality characteristics of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. Muscle ultimate pH and shear force values were significantly higher, while CIE L*, a*, b*, expressed juice and cooking loss were lower in transported than non-transported sheep. This study indicated that pre-slaughter transportation at high ambient temperatures can cause noticeable changes in muscle physiology in sheep. Nevertheless, meat quality of transported

  13. Impact of Echinococcosis on Quality of Sheep Meat in the South Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Valieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 2,123 slaughtered adult sheep in markets of the south-east Kazakhstan established that the average contamination of animals by Echinococcus granulosus is 9.1% with primary localization of cysts in livers and lungs. The histologic structure of the muscle tissue of infected sheep displayed destructive changes with a prevalence of granular dystrophy. The amount of protein, fat, calcium and energetical value of such meat considerably decreased. Besides in the muscle tissue of the animals infected with echinococcosis there was a substantial increase of humidity and amount of ash as well as qualitative and quantitative changes of the amino acids profile. Along with damage to the synthesis of proteins and sharp insufficiency of vitamins A, E, B1, and B2 there was a shift in a lipidic exchange that was expressed as a noticeable reduction in the level of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The data support the conclusion that the meat from the sheep infected with echinococcosis is of inferior quality and quantity compared to that of healthy animals.

  14. Chemical composition, cholesterol content, and fatty acid profile of pigeon meat as influenced by meat-type breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomianowski, J F; Mikulski, D; Pudyszak, K; Cooper, R G; Angowski, M; Józwik, A; Horbanczuk, J O

    2009-06-01

    Two muscles, breast and thigh, were excised from 3 pigeon meat-type breeds (Europigeon, Wrocławski, King) and were analyzed for proximate analysis, cholesterol content, and fatty acid (FA) profile. Among the breeds considered, the lowest protein content of breast muscle was found in Kings (21.73%), whereas the highest fat (7.07%) and ash (1.11%) content of breast muscle (P pigeons. The cholesterol content of both muscles was lowest in Europigeon (23.6 to 25.2 mg/100 g of tissue) as compared with the King and Wrocławski pigeons (30.2 to 44.4 mg/100 g of tissue). The total content of polyunsaturated FA was lower in thigh than in breast muscles (by 4.5 to 12%, depending on the breed). As far as FA composition is concerned, pigeon meat resembles meat types of poultry species. However, due to low cholesterol and a fairly high protein content, pigeon meat can be used as a valuable inclusive component of the human diet.

  15. Effect of breed on mineral composition of meat from light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Barać

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and mineral content of light lambs muscle (derived from Istrian and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds were studied. The M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD samples of 30 carcasses were analysed and the effects of breed and sex were studied. Although lambs of investigated breeds were similar for slaughter age (2.5 months, Dalmatian Pramenka had significantly higher carcass weights (CW; P<0.05. Breed had a significant influence on moisture and fat contents, whilst mineral composition (with the exception of selenium was scarcely affected by breed and sex. Fat and moisture contents were significantly correlated with cold CW. The magnesium, calcium, manganese and selenium contents were significantly correlated (r=0.50, -0.46, 0.44, 0.54; P<0.05 respectively with CW. This study contributes to characterization of lamb carcasses from Istrian Sheep and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds and provides new data on the composition of the MLD of light lambs.

  16. Chemical composition and meat quality attributes of indigenous sheep and goats from traditional production system in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shija, Dismas S; Mtenga, Louis A; Kimambo, Abiliza E; Laswai, Germana H; Mushi, Daniel E; Mgheni, Dynes M; Mwilawa, Angello J; Shirima, Eligy J M; Safari, John G

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition and quality attributes of meat between male long fat tailed sheep (n = 17) and Small East African goats (n = 17) existing in Tanzania. Animals of 1.5 to 2 yrs in age and live body weight of 22.59±0.50 kg were purchased from livestock auction markets. Animals were fasted for 18 h and slaughtered according to standard halal procedure. Left carcasses were dissected into muscles, fat and bone and the muscle and fat were mixed together and chemically analysed. Meat quality attributes were measured based on Muscle longissimus thoracis et lumborum excised from right sides of carcasses. Goat carcasses had significant higher (p = 0.0302) moisture content (70.65% vs 66.96%) and lower (p = 0.0027) ether extract (2.49% vs 5.82%) than sheep but there was no significant species differences in protein and ash content. Sheep had lower (p = 0.0157) ultimate pH (5.74 vs 5.88) and higher (p = 0.0307) temperature (3.77°C vs 3.15°C) than goat carcasses. Sheep meat had lower (p = 0.0021) shear force values (29.83 N vs 34.07 N) than goat. Within species, at day 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 44.63% and 34.18% for sheep and goat. Pooled data showed that at d 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 39.25% (from 39.54 N to 24.02 N) compared to tenderness of meat which was not aged at day one of slaughter. The present study demonstrated the differences in chemical composition and quality attributes of meat existing between sheep and goats originated from East Africa.

  17. Guava ( L. Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L. powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I and 1.0% (Treatment II and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%, phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05 in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05 in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05 due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods.

  18. Fatty acid and transcriptome profiling of longissimus dorsi muscles between pig breeds differing in meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaifan; Shu, Gang; Yuan, Fangfang; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wang, Songbo; Wang, Lina; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Shouquan; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Yan; Wu, Tongshan; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Qingyan

    2013-01-01

    Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH(45min), pH(24h) and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition.

  19. Differences among four meat goat breeds for doe fitness indicator traits in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Nguluma, A; Leite-Browning, M L; Browning, R

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable meat goat production begins with the identification and use of maternal breeds that demonstrate relatively enhanced levels of fitness under less-than-optimal conditions. The Myotonic goat is a heritage breed that is lacking in comparative assessment for female fitness. In this study, Boer ( = 73), Kiko ( = 115), Myotonic ( = 80), and Spanish ( = 114) meat goat does were compared for traits associated with health and reproduction. The herd was semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture for 6 yr. The study included 838 doe-year matings and over 2,000 records for BW, fecal egg count (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV). Body weights of Boer and Kiko does were heavier ( meat goat doe performance under limited-input management conditions. Myotonic does maintained the lowest FEC among all doe breeds and warrant further evaluation as a genetic resource for controlling gastrointestinal parasitism.

  20. Genetic correlations between ewe reproduction and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Greeff, J C; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Taylor, P J; van der Werf, J H J

    2008-12-01

    Genetic correlations between reproduction traits in ewes and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino rams were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The carcass data were from 5870 Merino rams slaughtered at approximately 18 months of age that were the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks over 7 years. The carcass traits included ultrasound scan fat and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) measured on live animals, dressing percentage and carcass tissue depth (at the GR site FATGR and C site FATC), eye muscle depth, width and area and the meat quality indicator traits of muscle final pH and colour (L*, a*, b*). The reproduction data consisted of 13 464 ewe joining records for number of lambs born and weaned and 9015 records for LS. The genetic correlations between reproduction and fat measurements were negative (range -0.06 +/- 0.12 to -0.37 +/- 0.12), with smaller correlations for live measurement than carcass traits. There were small favourable genetic correlations between reproduction traits and muscle depth in live rams (EMDUS, 0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.20 +/- 0.12), although those with carcass muscle traits were close to zero. The reproduction traits were independent of meat colour L* (relative brightness), but tended to be favourably correlated with meat colour a* (relative redness, 0.12 +/- 0.17 to 0.19 +/- 0.16). There was a tendency for meat final pH to have small negative favourable genetic correlations with reproduction traits (0.05 +/- 0.11 to -0.17 +/- 0.12). This study indicates that there is no antagonism between reproduction traits and carcass and meat quality indicator traits, with scope for joint improvement of reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

  1. A study of the influence of breed and strain on the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus controtus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1976-07-01

    Breed appears to influence the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infection. Experiments on Masai and Merino sheep indicated that the Masai appear innately capable of reacting more vigorously to throw off H. contortus infection, this reaction being enhanced by previous experience. Following challenge, tangible resistance develops consistently in Masai, compared to a partial resistance, at best, in Merino. Resistance appears to be a short-lived phenomenon in both breeds. A field trial was carried out, to determine the influence of hemoglobin type on the susceptibility of Merino sheep. Sheep of hemoglobin types AA, AB and BB were used. A lower egg production occurred in hemoglobin type AA sheep, contrary to results obtained in the laboratory where ''massive'' experimental infection (250 Haemonchus larvae/kg liveweight) was effected. Tracer techniques involving 51 Cr- labelled erythrocytes and 125 I-tagged plasma were applied

  2. Transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to horse and sheep milk and meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semioshkina, N.; Voigt, G.; Savinkov, A.; Mukusheva, M. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg, (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Over a period of 40 years the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) located in the Republic of Kazakhstan was the most important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union resulting in a total of 456 nuclear tests. Until 1989 access to the STS was restricted and the area was not used for agriculture, but since closure of the test site agricultural activities have restarted. Herds of sheep and horses belonging to collective farms around the STS are grazing without any restriction including the areas of Ground Zero, Lake Balapan and the Degelen mountains identified as potential high contaminated sites. In the literature there is no information available on the transfer of radionuclides from vegetation to meat and milk of horses, representing a major component of the diet of the local population of the STS. As a consequence, the transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to horse meat and milk has been studied in the laboratory and under field conditions representative for the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan by us to be included in site specific dose calculation models for dose estimates. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to sheep has been well investigated and quantified in the consequence of the Chernobyl accident and many laboratory studies mainly in the EC. However, few information on the behaviour on these radionuclides in non-European environments is available. In order to better and more reliable predict doses received by the local population of the STS experimental transfer studies in the field and in laboratory have been conducted. In this contribution the results of experiments on site-specific transfer behaviour of two important radionuclides to major diet components (sheep and horse milk and meat) to the local population in Kazakhstan is presented. It has been realized in this work for the first time under field and laboratory conditions. (author)

  3. Transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to horse and sheep milk and meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semioshkina, N.; Voigt, G.; Savinkov, A.; Mukusheva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Over a period of 40 years the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) located in the Republic of Kazakhstan was the most important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union resulting in a total of 456 nuclear tests. Until 1989 access to the STS was restricted and the area was not used for agriculture, but since closure of the test site agricultural activities have restarted. Herds of sheep and horses belonging to collective farms around the STS are grazing without any restriction including the areas of Ground Zero, Lake Balapan and the Degelen mountains identified as potential high contaminated sites. In the literature there is no information available on the transfer of radionuclides from vegetation to meat and milk of horses, representing a major component of the diet of the local population of the STS. As a consequence, the transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to horse meat and milk has been studied in the laboratory and under field conditions representative for the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan by us to be included in site specific dose calculation models for dose estimates. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to sheep has been well investigated and quantified in the consequence of the Chernobyl accident and many laboratory studies mainly in the EC. However, few information on the behaviour on these radionuclides in non-European environments is available. In order to better and more reliable predict doses received by the local population of the STS experimental transfer studies in the field and in laboratory have been conducted. In this contribution the results of experiments on site-specific transfer behaviour of two important radionuclides to major diet components (sheep and horse milk and meat) to the local population in Kazakhstan is presented. It has been realized in this work for the first time under field and laboratory conditions. (author)

  4. Animal breeding strategies can improve meat quality attributes within entire populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Conroy, S; Pabiou, T; Cromie, A R

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of animal breeding to changes in animal performance is well documented across a range of species. Once genetic variation in a trait exists, then breeding to improve the characteristics of that trait is possible, if so desired. Considerable genetic variation exists in a range of meat quality attributes across a range of species. The genetic variation that exists for meat quality is as large as observed for most performance traits; thus, within a well-structured breeding program, rapid genetic gain for meat quality could be possible. The rate of genetic gain can be augmented through the integration of DNA-based technologies into the breeding program; such DNA-based technologies should, however, be based on thousands of DNA markers dispersed across the entire genome. Genetic and genomic technologies can also have beneficial impact outside the farm gate as a tool to segregate carcasses or meat cuts based on expected meat quality features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity of Cryptosporidium species occurring in sheep and goat breeds reared in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupke, Agnieszka; Michalski, Mirosław M; Rzeżutka, Artur

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species and assessment of their prevalence in different breeds of sheep and goat reared in Poland. In addition, the relationship between animal age, breed type, and the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections was determined. Fecal samples from 234 lambs and 105 goat kids aged up to 9 weeks, representing 24 breeds and their cross-breeds were collected from 71 small ruminant farms across Poland. The identification of Cryptosporidium species was performed at the 18 SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and COWP loci followed by subtyping of C. parvum and C. hominis strains at GP60 gene locus. The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA at the 18 SSU rRNA locus was detected in 45/234 (19.2%) lamb feces samples and in 39/105 (37.1%) taken from goats. The following Cryptosporidium species: C. xiaoi, C. bovis, C. ubiquitum, C. parvum, and C. hominis were detected in small ruminants. Infections caused by C. xiaoi were predominant without favoring any tested animal species. Subsequent GP60 subtyping revealed the presence of C. parvum IIaA17G1R1 subtype in sheep and IIdA23G1 subtype in goats. IIdA23G1 subtype was detected in a goat host for the first time. There were no significant differences found in frequency of infections between the age groups ( 0.05) or goat kids (P = 0.06, α > 0.05). In addition, there was no correlation observed between the frequency in occurrence of particular parasite species and breed type in relation to native sheep breeds (F = 0.11; P = 0.990 > 0.05). In the case of goats, more breed-related differences in parasite occurrence were found. The results of this study improve our knowledge on the breed-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium infections in the population of small ruminants reared in Poland.

  6. The body constitution type influence on charolais breeds cattle meat production and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jukna V.; Jukna Č.; Pečiulaitienė N.; Meškinytė-Kaušilienė E.

    2011-01-01

    The article presents data the most common body constitution types and their impact on meat production and quality on Charolais breed. Four body constitution types were researched in the breed: large, small, muscular and lightweight (commercial) type. For each type were selected in 15-16 uncastrated bulls, which were reared Control feeding station in identical feeding and storage conditions of up to 500 days age. Feeding control has been carried out from 210...

  7. Investigation of FecB Mutation in Four Romanian Sheep Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Emil Georgescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.

  8. MEAT AND FAT CONTENT AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS OF POLISH LARGE WHITE BREED OF DIFFERENT GROWTH RATE

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    Jerzy NOWACHOWICZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research were 40 gilts of Polish Large White breed, which were separatively kept and fed under control. They were slaughtered on 185th day of life. Particular dissection of primary cuts and evaluation of some traits of meat quality such as pH1, meat colour and soluble protein content were conducted according to methodology applied in Polish Pig Testing Station. Depending on growth rate during fattening period gilts were divided into two groups (20 individuals each, i.e. lower daily gains of body weight (up to 680 g and higher daily gains of body weight (above 680 g. The limit value regarding daily gain of body weight amounted 680 g and resulted from distribution of this trait in tested population of animals. Significance of differences between tested groups of different growth rate was estimated by using t-Student test and computer program Statistica PL. Tested gilts characterized by higher growth rate had statistically high significant meat weight in primary cuts such as proper ham, loin, belly and ribs by 0.52; 0.38, 0.26 and 0.07 kg, respectively. Differences in total meat weight in primary cuts between group of pigs of higher and lower daily gains were 1.58 kg (P≤0.01. However, percentage meat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass shaped on similar level in tested groups of gilts. Fat weight in particular primary cuts and percentage fat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass and relations between percentage meat content and percentage fat content in 1 kg of half-carcass in gilts of tested groups were statistically not diversed. In range of traits characterizing meat quality statistically significant differences between group of pigs of higher and lower daily gains of body weight also were not stated. Therefore, the impact of growth rate on percentage meat and fat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass and meat quality of pigs of Polish Large White breed was not proved.

  9. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

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    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  10. PIGS BREEDING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

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    Đuro Senčić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fertile Slavonia is known for production of several types of cured meats: kulen, kulen sis, sausage, ham and bacon, and other pork products (“krvavica” - blood sausage, “švargl” - a type of brawn where chopped parts of head are stuffed inside the pig’s stomach, “čvarci” - a variant of pork crisps, fat. These products require “mature pigs” of adequate slaughter quality. Production of pigs intended for traditional meat products may take place in different production systems (open, closed, semi-open, “organic”. Each of these systems provides a specific quality of pigs for slaughter, reflecting on the quality of the final product. Production systems can have a significant impact on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs. This effect arises from the interaction between housing conditions, the amount and composition of food and used pig genotype. The choice of a production system depends on local production conditions, pig genotype, consumer demand (market for a given product quality, and other factors. Due to their quality, the traditional Slavonian meat products can become a recognizable Croatian brand in both domestic and international markets. Production of standard quality products requires standard quality of pigs. Therefore this book is focused on such pigs production.

  11. Meat tenderness genetic polymorphisms occurrence and distribution in five Zebu breeds in Mexico

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    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Although the relatively low occurrence of favorable alleles in assessed loci may limit their use in selection programs, genotyping availability might be a practical and comprehensive tool for introgression programs by marker assisted selection and management as to improve meat tenderness of Zebu breeds.

  12. Classification of rabbit meat obtained with industrial and organic breeding by means of spectrocolorimetric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesatti, P.; D'Andrea, S.; Negretti, P.

    2007-09-01

    Rabbit meat is for its nutritional characteristics a food corresponding to new models of consumption. Quality improvement is possible integrating an extensive organic breeding with suitable rabbit genetic typologies. Aim of this work (financed by a Project of the Lazio Region, Italy) was the characterization of rabbit meat by a statistic model, able to distinguish rabbit meat obtained by organic breeding from that achieved industrially. This was pursued through the analysis of spectral data and colorimetric values. Two genetic typologies of rabbit, Leprino Viterbese and a commercial hybrid, were studied. The Leprino Viterbese has been breeded with two different systems, organic and industrial. The commercial hybrid has been bred only industrially because of its characteristics of high sensibility to diseases. The device used for opto-electronic analysis is a VIS-NIR image spectrometer (range: 400-970 nm). The instrument has a stabilized light, it works in accordance to standard CIE L*a*b* technique and it measures the spectral reflectance and the colorimetric coordinates values. The statistic data analysis has been performed by Partial Least Square technique (PLS). A part of measured data was used to create the statistic model and the remaining data were utilized in phase of test to verify the correct model classification. The results put in evidence a high percentage of correct classification (90%) of the model for the two rabbit meat classes, deriving from organic and industrial breeding. Moreover, concerning the different genetic typologies, the percentage of correct classification was 90%.

  13. Radioactivity in sheep meat, cow and goat milk, 1988-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, R.

    2005-09-01

    The report summarizes the results of monitoring 137Cs in sheep, cow and goats milk from selected farms in 2004 and long-term effects from 1988-2004.The results give a basis for this years slaughter forecasts in 2004 and give information about the levels, variation and long-term effects of 137Cs in some of Norway's most important food chains. Sheep classification zones made clean feeding necessary wholly or partially in 34 municipalities in 2004. Effective ecological half-times for 137Cs in goat milk from Nord-Trondelag and Oppland were 9-10 years for the period 1989-2004. Effective ecological half-times for 137Cs in cow milk were 7 years in farms from Nordland county and 10 years in farms from Oppland county. Concentration of 137Cs in sheep meat from Oppland county measured in 1989-2004, showed an estimated effective ecological half-time of 10 years for ewes and 11 years for lambs. (Author)

  14. Meat quality of "Galician Mountain" foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughter age and livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of lean meat (20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of meat cattle breeding under respecialization programs in the Gomel area [Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, A.F.; Mostovenko, A.L.; Radchikov, V.F.; Tsaj, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was studied scientific management of introduction of 8 programmes of meat cattle breeding in regions of radioactive pollution in Gomel region. In course of the realized study there were analyzed land areas of the local farms, degree of soil contamination with radionuclides, coefficients of radionuclide transfer into plants and animal husbandry products, rate of production volumes, structure of arable lands and main herds, economic indexes of realized activities, etc. Introduction of programs of development of meat cattle breeding in the polluted areas made it possible to increase both the total and pedigree stock in the Gomel area, to create industrial base for reproduction of livestock and a wide circulation of specialized meat livestock in other farms of the polluted regions

  16. Anatomical characterization of hoof growth pattern in six Iranian sheep breeds and its possible implication for trimming recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpajouh, S; Marchewka, J; Segura Correa, J C; Calderón Díaz, J A

    2018-03-11

    The objective of this study was to compare hoof anatomy, hoof growth pattern, and hoof weight-bearing surface of six different Iranian sheep breeds to identify possible differences in the hoof anatomical features that could help to minimize adverse effects of hoof trimming methods. Front and hind hooves of 2-year-old, previously untrimmed, pastured dairy ewes of six Iranian breeds (Afshari, Moghani, Kurdi, Makoui, Chaleshtori, and Lori-Bakhtiari; n = 180 ewes; 30 ewes per breed) were collected after slaughter. Medial and lateral claws were incised sagittally and anatomical measurements such as toe length, heel height, toe height, sole thickness, sole length, and toe angle were recorded in each claw. Data were analyzed using mixed model equations including breed, claw (lateral or medial), hoof (front or hind) and their interactions as fixed effects, and ewe as random effect. Breed differences were observed for all hoof measurements (P < 0.05). Chaleshtori sheep had higher measurements for most of the traits studied while Afshari and Makoui sheep had lower measurements. All measurements, except for toe length and toe height to solar surface to heel height ratio, were significantly greater in the front hooves than in the hind hooves (P < 0.05). Soles were longer in the medial claws compared to the lateral claws of the front hooves (P < 0.05). Results suggest the observed breed differences could interfere with establishing a standard, uniform hoof trimming method for sheep. For instance, it might be possible that while Afshari and Makoui sheep could require more conservative trimming, Chaleshtori sheep could require to be trimmed more. In consequence, hoof trimming methods might need to be adjusted to specific breed characteristics to avoid possible tissue damage.

  17. Morphohistological and surgical anatomy of the sinus interdigitalis in Egyptian native breeds of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Awaad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to characterize the gross and microscopic structures of the interdigital sinus in Egyptian native breeds of sheep and goats (Baladi sheep and goats to aid in conducting farther studies on such sinus and its surgical importance. The study was carried out on the distal fore and hind limb specimens (below the fetlock joint obtained from healthy mature ten Baladi sheep and ten Baladi goats of both sexes. For sheep, thirty specimens were subjected to gross anatomical investigation and the other ten specimens were used for histological examination. While, the forty goats fore and hind feet specimens were examined grossly. The results obtained revealed the presence of a well-developed interdigital sinus in Baladi sheep, but there was no evidence for the existence of this unique structure in all examined specimens of Baladi goats. Such sinus appeared grossly as a pipe-like, composed of two parts; body (corpus and neck (column which opened in the skin of the interdigital area with an external orifice. The body consisted of three distinct parts in the forefeet and a single part in the hind feet. Histologically, the wall in body and neck regions of the interdigital sinus composed of three distinct layers; epidermis, dermis and a fibrous capsule. Many sebaceous glands, hair follicles and sweat glands in addition to the glandular apocrine gland were distributed within the dermis. The secretory adenomers of the interdigital sinus arranged in different lobules and lined with cuboidal cells with bleb-like projections. It reacted positively with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Sudan black and Sudan III stains, on the other hand it negatively reacted with Alcian blue stain (AB.

  18. Effect of muscle restraint on sheep meat tenderness with rigor mortis at 18°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Wells, Robyn W

    2002-02-01

    The effect on shear force of skeletal restraint and removing muscles from lamb m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) immediately after slaughter and electrical stimulation was undertaken at a rigor temperature of 18°C (n=15). The temperature of 18°C was achieved through chilling of electrically stimulated sheep carcasses in air at 12°C, air flow 1-1.5 ms(-2). In other groups, the muscle was removed at 2.5 h post-mortem and either wrapped or left non-wrapped before being placed back on the carcass to follow carcass cooling regimes. Following rigor mortis, the meat was aged for 0, 16, 40 and 65 h at 15°C and frozen. For the non-stimulated samples, the meat was aged for 0, 12, 36 and 60 h before being frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1 × 1 cm cross-section. Commencement of ageing was considered to take place at rigor mortis and this was taken as zero aged meat. There were no significant differences in the rate of tenderisation and initial shear force for all treatments. The 23% cook loss was similar for all wrapped and non-wrapped situations and the values decreased slightly with longer ageing durations. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Such techniques allows muscles to be removed and placed in a controlled temperature environment to enable precise studies of ageing processes.

  19. Meat production traits of local Karayaka sheep in Turkey 1. The meat quality characteristic of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. AKSOY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation into the meat quality parameters of Karayaka lambs at differentslaughter weights (SWs. The single-born Karayaka male lambs (n=30 selected for this study were an average live-weight of 20 kg and weaned at 2.5-3 months of age. The animals with pre-specifiedSWs were divided into slaughter weight (SW groups (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 kg using a fully randomized design. To determine the M. longissimus dorsi et thoracis (LD muscle meat qualitycharacteristics, six lambs from each weight group were slaughtered. Results revealed significant differences among the slaughter groups with regard to pH, color parameters (L*-lightness,a*-redness, b* -yellowness, cooking loss (CL, drip loss (DL, moisture (M, crude protein (CP and intramuscular fat (IF ratios. Increasing water holding capacities (WHCs and hardness valueswere observed with increasing SW. Significant differences were also observed among the slaughter groups with regard to total monounsaturated fatty acid + total polyunsaturated fatty acid/totalsaturated fatty acid ratios and total cholesterol content.

  20. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05) throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  1. Marketing of meat sheep with intensive finishing in southern state of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime; Hernández-Martínez, Juvencio; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio Arturo; García-Martínez, Anastacio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the marketing margins of cold sheep carcass and barbacoa meat in the southern state of Mexico. Data were obtained from the production chain links (production, industrialization, and marketing) where the marketing margins were calculated along with the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. In the absolute marketing margin of the final consumer price per kilogram of carcass meat, the producer obtained US$2.7/kg (47 %) of the utilities, while the intermediaries obtained US$3.1/kg (53 %). Considering the final cooked product in barbacoa (typical dish), the margin was US$6.3/kg (29 %) for the producer and US$15.2/kg (71 %) for the intermediaries. The B/C ratio was 1.0, 1.1, 2, and 1.3 for the producer, stocker, butcher, and barbacoa seller, respectively. It is concluded that the best marketing channel for the producer was the producer-stocker-processor (butcher and barbacoa seller). The highest marketing margin was for the intermediaries followed by the producer. The order of importance of the B/C kilogram ratio of meat was for the butcher first, then barbacoa seller, and lastly stocker and producer.

  2. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05 total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability.

  3. Comparison of meat quality characteristics and fatty acid composition of finished goat kids from indigenous and dairy breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcintan, Hulya; Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa

    2018-03-03

    The aim of the study was to compare the certain carcass and meat quality traits and also fatty acid composition of goat kids from indigenous breeds (Gokceada and Hair Goat) and dairy breeds (Saanen and Maltese). A total 40 male kids from Saanen, Gokceada, Maltese and Hair Goat breeds were collected from commercial farms after weaning. Kids were finished for 56 days with grower concentrate and alfalfa hay in the sheepfold until slaughter. Higher mean values were found for Saanen kids in terms of slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and real dressing compared with Maltese, Hair Goat and Gokceada kids under the same intensive conditions. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between breeds in terms of instrumental meat quality traits, except meat colour. Meat from Gokceada and Hair Goat kids had higher lightness and Hue angle values than Saanen kids after 24 h of blooming. High meat redness values were observed for Saanen kids after 0 and 1 h of blooming. Panellist appreciated cooked meat from Saanen and Maltese kids in overall acceptability. If the fatty acid composition of meat was taken into consideration, kids from Saanen and Gokceada breeds displayed better values, because of the lower ƩSFA percentage and higher desirable fatty acids (C18:0 + ΣMUFA + ΣPUFA) percentage than Maltese and Hair Goat kids. Our results indicate that male kids for Saanen which is dairy breed could be assessable for quality goat meat production.

  4. Significance of pH-value for meat quality of broilers: Influence of breed lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristic M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For determination of poultry quality shortly after slaughtering, physical criteria (pH-value, conductivity, colour, juice retention are of importance. However, they are affected by breeding, transport, cooling and the storage period. PH-values of breast meat (genetically structured material were recorded shortly after slaughtering (15 min p.m. and differences between breeding line and gender were found (n=5109. The pH1-values ranged from 5.50 to 6.79. Male broilers showed significantly lower pH1-values than female ones (6.02:6.10. There were also significant differences concerning breeding line and gender. Meat quality (PSE, DFD of broilers can be recorded quickly and accurately determining the pH1-value of breast meat. Threshold ranges to be considered are ≤ 5.8 (PSE, 5.9-6.2 (standard meat properties and ≥ 6.3 (DFD. This classification is not to be compared to the deviation of pork.

  5. The Effects of Pre-slaughter Stress and Season on the Activity of Plasma Creatine Kinase and Mutton Quality from Different Sheep Breeds Slaughtered at a Smallholder Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Chulayo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter stress, season and breed on the activity of plasma creatine kinase (CK and the quality of mutton. One hundred and seventy-three (173 castrated sheep from Dormer (DM, South African Mutton Merino (SAMM, Dorper (DP and Blackhead Persian (BP sheep breeds were used in the study. The animals were grouped according to age-groups as follows: Group 1 (6 to 8 months, Group 2 (9 to 12 months and Group 3 (13 to 16 months. Blood samples were collected during exsanguinations using disposable vacutainer tubes for CK analysis. Representative samples of the Muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL were collected from 84 castrated sheep, of different breeds (28 per breed 24 h after slaughter. The following physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined; meat pH (pH24, color (L*, a* and b*, thawing and cooking losses and Warner Braztler Shear Force (WBSF. The activity of plasma CK was significantly higher (p0.001 levels (1,358.6±191.08 of CK. South African Mutton Merino had higher values for pH24 (5.9±0.06, L* (34.2±0.97, b* (12.2±0.50 and WBSF (26.8±1.51 and Blackhead Persian had higher values (35.5±2.17 for cooking loss (CL% than the other breeds. Computed Principal Component Analyses (PCA on the activity of plasma CK and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton revealed no correlations between these variables. However, positive correlations were observed between pH24, L*, a*, b*, CL% and WBSF. Relationships between pre-slaughter stress, CK activity and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were also observed. It was therefore concluded that although mutton quality and creatine kinase were not related, pre-slaughter stress, season and breed affected the activity of creatine kinase and mutton quality.

  6. Relationships between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers and Meat Quality Traits of Duroc Breeding Stocks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relationships of five intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers (protein kinase adenosine monophosphate-activated γ3 subunit [PRKAG3], fatty acid synthase [FASN], calpastatin [CAST], high mobility group AT-hook 1 [HMGA1], and melanocortin-4 receptor [MC4R] and meat quality traits of Duroc breeding stocks in Korea. A total of 200 purebred Duroc gilts from 8 sires and 40 dams at 4 pig breeding farms from 2010 to 2011 reaching market weight (110 kg were slaughtered and their carcasses were chilled overnight. Longissimus dorsi muscles were removed from the carcass after 24 h of slaughter and used to determine pork properties including carcass weight, backfat thickness, moisture, intramuscular fat, pH24h, shear force, redness, texture, and fatty acid composition. The PRKAG3, FASN, CAST, and MC4R gene SNPs were significantly associated with the meat quality traits (p<0.003. The meats of PRKAG3 (A 0.024/G 0.976 AA genotype had higher pH, redness and texture than those from PRKAG3 GG genotype. Meats of FASN (C 0.301/A 0.699 AA genotype had higher backfat thickness, texture, stearic acid, oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid than FASN CC genotype. While the carcasses of CAST (A 0.373/G 0.627 AA genotype had thicker backfat, and lower shear force, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid content, they had higher stearic acid content than those from the CAST GG genotype. The MC4R (G 0.208/A 0.792 AA genotype were involved in increasing backfat thickness, carcass weight, moisture and saturated fatty acid content, and decreasing unsaturated fatty acid content in Duroc meat. These results indicated that the five SNP markers tested can be a help to select Duroc breed to improve carcass and meat quality properties in crossbred pigs.

  7. Meat cuts and non-carcass of sheep finished on pasture with different levels of supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaqueu Gonçalves Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the yield of meat cuts and other body components of sheep kept on pasture Panicum maximum, Massai cultivar, fed increasing amounts of concentrate. The animals were divided into four treatments according to the concentrate intake in relation to body weight (zero, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1%. After slaughter of the sheep, the weights of non-hollow viscera (tongue, lung, liver, diaphragm, kidney and spleen, hollow ones (trachea, esophagus, heart, gallbladder, bladder, rumen, omasum, abomasum, small and larger intestines, other components (blood, skin, feet, head, tail and mammary gland and fat in the viscera (omental, mesenteric, perirenal and cavity. In carcasses, the commercial cuts were made (shoulder, ribs, loin, leg, and neck. The cuts except the neck, did not alter their weights, however, there were changes in their proportions. Only the percentage of loin did not change. With the intake of 1.42% in concentrate for body weight, there was an increase of ribs over the leg. The total weight of the non-carcass did not change, however, there was variations in its proportion. Amongst the most noticeable changes is the amount of visceral fat, which greatly increased when the sheep ingested 1.35% in concentrate for body weight. Therefore, concentrate intake by culling ewes does not increase mass commercial cuts. The proportions of commercial cuts and other body constituents change diffusely. With the maturity has been reached, the observed weight gain is, in most cases, result of increased visceral fat.

  8. Study on contamination of sheep meat in Shahrekord area with Listeria ivanovii and determination its antibiotic resistance pattern

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    Farid Khalili Borujeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii are two pathogenic species of Listeria. The role of Listeria ivanovii is important in abortion, stillbirth, septicemia in animals and this bacterium sometimes is pathogenic in humans. Contamination of ovine carcasses during the slaughter and processing can cause foodborne infections in humans. In this study we examined the contamination of sheep meat in slaughter house of Shahrekord city to Listeria ivanovii and determined its antibiotic resistance pattern.Material and Methods: A total 200 samples of sheep meat were collected from abattoir and processed by use of two enrichment method. After doing specific biochemical tests and PCR, Listeria spp was identified and antibiotic resistance of isolated Listeria were tested by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: The contamination of sheep carcasses with listeria was 2.5% (5 out of 200 samples. All five isolates (2.5% were recognized as Listeria ivanovii and were resistant to four antibiotics, sensitive to six antibiotics and intermediate to other antibiotics.  Conclusion: According to the contamination rate in sheep carcasses with Listeria ivanovii and the relatively high antibiotic resistance specified in this bacteria, the role of red meat in transmission of Listeria spp. and appropriate use of antibiotics against this bacteria should be considered.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Highlight the Potential for Different Genetic Mechanisms for Litter Size Among Sheep Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Song; Gao, Lei; Xie, Xing-Long; Ren, Yan-Ling; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Feng; Shen, Min; Eyϸórsdóttir, Emma; Hallsson, Jón H.; Kiseleva, Tatyana; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Reproduction is an important trait in sheep breeding as well as in other livestock. However, despite its importance the genetic mechanisms of litter size in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are still poorly understood. To explore genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in litter size, we conducted multiple independent genome-wide association studies in five sheep breeds of high prolificacy (Wadi, Hu, Icelandic, Finnsheep, and Romanov) and one low prolificacy (Texel) using the Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip, respectively. We identified different sets of candidate genes associated with litter size in different breeds: BMPR1B, FBN1, and MMP2 in Wadi; GRIA2, SMAD1, and CTNNB1 in Hu; NCOA1 in Icelandic; INHBB, NF1, FLT1, PTGS2, and PLCB3 in Finnsheep; ESR2 in Romanov and ESR1, GHR, ETS1, MMP15, FLI1, and SPP1 in Texel. Further annotation of genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that different biological pathways could be involved in the variation in litter size of females: hormone secretion (FSH and LH) in Wadi and Hu, placenta and embryonic lethality in Icelandic, folliculogenesis and LH signaling in Finnsheep, ovulation and preovulatory follicle maturation in Romanov, and estrogen and follicular growth in Texel. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the prolificacy trait in sheep and other mammals, suggesting targets for selection where the aim is to increase prolificacy in breeding projects.

  10. Carcass and physical meat characteristics of thin tail sheep (TTS based on calpastatin gene (CAST (Locus intron 5 – exon 6 genotypes variation

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    Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sheep carcass is mostly determined by the total lean meat production, meat distribution on the carcass and the quality of meat. Calpastatin gene (CAST is known to have an association with carcass and meat quality traits. The objective of this research was to identify the association between CAST polymorphisms and carcass characteristics in Thin Tail Sheep (TTS. Thirty three heads of sheep representing three genotypes of CAST (CAST-11, CAST-12 and CAST-22 were identified for carcass and meat characterisation. There was no significant difference between CAST polymorphisms with meat tenderness, pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss, neither with carcass weight and dressing percentage among genotypes. Shoulder proportion of CAST-11 genotype was larger than that of CAST-12 or CAST-22, but the lean meat proportion of CAST-22 genotype in shoulder, rack and loin were higher than those of CAST-11 but not different from CAST-12. The fat percentage of CAST-11 was the highest among the genotypes. CAST-22 genotype has higher lean meat percentage than the CAST-11. Variation in CAST gene could be used as marker assisted selection in sheep for higher lean meat proportion.

  11. Estimation of genetic parameters for milk traits in Romanian local sheep breed

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    Pelmus RS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Estimate the genetic parameters for milk traits in a Romanian local sheep population Teleorman Black Head. Material and methods. Records of 262 sheep belonging to 17 rams and 139 ewes were used in the study. The following traits were investigated: milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage and protein percentage. The genetic parameters were estimated using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, with a model including maternal effects. Results. The results from our study revealed that direct heritability estimates were moderate for milk yield (0.449, fat yield (0.442, protein yield (0.386 while for protein percentage (0.708 and fat percentage (0.924 were high. The high direct and maternal genetic correlation was between milk yield and protein yield (0.979, 0.973 and between protein yield and fat yield (0.952, 0.913 while the phenotypic correlation between the milk yield and fat yield (0.968, the milk yield and protein yield (0.967, fat yield and protein yield (0.936 was high and positive. Conclusions. The genetic parameters are important in selection program on this breed for genetic improvement.

  12. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

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    Sandstedt Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

  13. Altitude, pasture type, and sheep breed affect bone metabolism and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in grazing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Helen; Leiber, Florian; Kohler, Martina; Kreuzer, Michael; Liesegang, Annette

    2013-05-15

    This study aimed to investigate the bone development of two mountain sheep breeds during natural summer grazing either in the lowlands or on different characteristic alpine pastures. Pasture types differed in topographic slope, plant species composition, general nutritional feeding value, Ca and P content, and Ca:P ratio of herbage. Twenty-seven Engadine sheep (ES) lambs and 27 Valaisian Black Nose sheep (VS) lambs were divided into four groups of 6 to 7 animals per breed and allocated to three contrasting alpine pasture types and one lowland pasture type. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 wk of experimental grazing. The steep alpine pastures in combination with a high (4.8) to very high (13.6) Ca:P ratio in the forage decreased total bone mineral content as measured in the middle of the left metatarsus of the lambs from both breeds, and cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone mineral density of ES lambs. Breed × pasture type interactions occurred in the development of total and cortical bone mineral content, and in cortical thickness, indicating that bone metabolism of different genotypes obviously profited differently from the varying conditions. An altitude effect occurred for 25-hydroxyvitamin D with notably higher serum concentrations on the three alpine sites, and a breed effect led to higher concentrations for ES than VS. Despite a high variance, there were pasture-type effects on serum markers of bone formation and resorption.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of the World's Sheep Breeds Reveals High Levels of Historic Mixture and Strong Recent Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijas, James W.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R.; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species. PMID:22346734

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Kijas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Sheep Breeds from Albania, Greece, and Italy Assessed by Mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear Polymorphisms (SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Pariset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed mtDNA and nuclear SNPs to investigate the genetic diversity of sheep breeds of three countries of the Mediterranean basin: Albania, Greece, and Italy. In total, 154 unique mtDNA haplotypes were detected by means of D-loop sequence analysis. The major nucleotide diversity was observed in Albania. We identified haplogroups, A, B, and C in Albanian and Greek samples, while Italian individuals clustered in groups A and B. In general, the data show a pattern reflecting old migrations that occurred in postneolithic and historical times. PCA analysis on SNP data differentiated breeds with good correspondence to geographical locations. This could reflect geographical isolation, selection operated by local sheep farmers, and different flock management and breed admixture that occurred in the last centuries.

  17. THE FAMILY AGRICULTURE IN THE PRODUCTIVE CHAIN OF SHEEP AND GOAT MEAT IN THE SEMI-ARID OF BRAZIL

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    João Virgínio Emerenciano Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of family farming in food production in Brazil, this review aims to highlight the peculiarities of this productive sector. The labor used in family farming is still not qualified, preventing the application of new technologies in rural activities. This factor is still impressive with regard to management of farms, which is empirically, without sufficient knowledge for entering the market. The meat from sheep sold in Brazil has a large share of the foreign market. The production chain of meat from goat and sheep is dismantled and disorganized, where there is no integration between the chain links. The lack of standard, seasonality of production and low quality products are the limiting factors to the development of this activity in Rio Grande do Norte and the Northeast. Family farming is a palpable alternative to increase the rates of agricultural productivity, take upon them the responsibility to increase food production.

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF UDDER MORPHOLOGY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić, Zoran; Mioč, Boro; Vnučec, Ivan; Pavić, Vesna; Konjačić, Miljenko

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, selection of dairy sheep breeds was focused almost exclusively on increasing the amount of milk produced and so today they produce several times more milk than breeds selected for meat and wool. However, due to the permanent striving for increasing sheep milk production udder weight becomes too great, and suspensory system can not withstand this overweight so it ruptures more often. That significantly shortens the duration of animal’s production life and adversely affects udde...

  19. The measurement of chest girth as an alternative to weight determination in the performance recording of meat sheep

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    Francesco Panella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess, for two Italian meat sheep breeds (Appenninica and Merinizzata italiana, the relationshipbetween an easily recorded measurement (girth of chest and the character used for selection purposes (weight,and to define the most appropriate mathematical methods to infer the second from the first.For the Appenninica 1392 lambs were measured, for the Merinizzata italiana 1559 lambs were measured. The possibilityof estimating weight through chest girth (CG measurement was evaluated, separately for each breed, by taking themost suitable model between those including different kinds of regression effect. The model was chosen in relation to thevalue of the determination coefficient and the sum of square residuals. The prediction accuracy of the model was assessedby comparing the expected values with the observed ones through a number of statistical tests.A further prediction analysis was carried out using the mean values of the observed weights that fell in each 1 cm classof girth, in order to reduce the error derived by the varying numbers of observations per unit of chest girth.The model including the square regression nested within the sex effect and the flock random effect nested within the sexeffect was observed to be the most suitable one to predict the weight from the chest girth; the determination coefficientsranged between 0.944 (Appenninica and 0.955 (Merinizzata. The prediction parameters were: -10.458+ 0.241 (CG +0.004 (CG2 for the Appenninica males; -6.121 + 0.093 (CG + 0.005 (CG2 for the Appenninica females; -6.325 + 0.189(CG + 0.004 (CG2 for the Merinizzata males; -4.676 + 0.078 (CG + 0.005 (CG2 for the Merinizzata females. The correlationbetween the observed and expected values was always higher than 0.97. The equations estimated using themean weights for each girth showed extremely high determination coefficients (˜ = 0.99 due to the reduction of variabilityimplied by this method. Choosing between the

  20. Effect of pig genotypes from Slovak and Polish breeds on meat quality

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    O. Debrecéni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, meat and meat products from indigenous pig breeds are desired by consumers for their high sensory quality. For that reason, the trend to use indigenous pig breeds for production of these products has widened. The aim of this study was to compare physical and chemical parameters of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD as well as content of cholesterol and fatty acid profiles among Mangalitsa, the crossbreed Mangalitsa  ×  Duroc, and pig meat breed Slovak Large White with Polish indigenous breeds Pulawska and Zlotnicka spotted. In the study, 48 pigs were used. The pigs were divided into 5 groups of different genotypes: Mangalitsa breed (n  =  9, the crossbreed Mangalitsa  ×  Duroc (n  =  9, Slovak Large White – SLW (n  =  10, Zlotnicka spotted (n  =  10 and Pulawska (n  =  10. The pigs were reared under intensive conditions, and they were fed by an ad libitum system with complete feed mixtures. The fattening period lasted from 30 to 100 kg of live weight. The SLW had the highest average daily gain with the lowest feed intake compared to Mangalitsa, the crossbreed Ma  ×  Du and Polish indigenous breeds (P  <  0.001. SLW had the highest meat content in the carcass while Mangalitsa had the lowest (P  <  0.001. Mangalitsa and their crossbreed Ma  ×  Du had the highest fat content in the carcass, but the SLW and Polish indigenous pig breeds had the lowest fat content in the carcass (P  <  0.001. As regards the physical properties of MLD, the Polish indigenous pig breeds achieved the highest values of pH45 min post mortem, the lowest drip loss values, the lowest colour values of CIE L* and the highest values of CIE b* compared to other genotypes in the experiment (P  <  0.001. However the meat of crossbreed Ma  ×  Du had pale, soft and exudative (PSE-like conditions due to the low pH45 min post mortem, the high values

  1. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

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    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  2. Effect of breed on performance and meat quality of first parity sows in a seasonal organic rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Claudi-Magnussen, Chris; Hermansen, John Erik

    2011-01-01

    to be characterized by a special nutty taste. CONCLUSION: The traditional breed has lower productivity and thereby higher costs of production compared to the modern genotypes. On the other hand, the meat and fat of the traditional purebred have special characteristics that might trigger a market premium......BACKGROUND: The objective was to compare the performance and meat quality of two different pig breeds: the modern crossbred Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and the traditional Danish Black-Spotted (BS) breed. The LY gilts and four of the BS gilts were inseminated with semen from Duroc (D) boars...

  3. Divergence at the casein haplotypes in dairy and meat goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Julia; Chessa, Stefania; Rignanese, Daniela; Caroli, Anna; Erhardt, Georg

    2010-02-01

    Casein genes have been proved to have an influence on milk properties, and are in addition appropriate for phylogeny studies. A large number of casein polymorphisms exist in goats, making their analysis quite complex. The four casein loci were analyzed by molecular techniques for genetic polymorphism detection in the two dairy goat breeds Bunte Deutsche Edelziege (BDE; n=96), Weisse Deutsche Edelziege (WDE; n=91), and the meat goat breed Buren (n=75). Of the 35 analyzed alleles, 18 were found in BDE, and 17 in Buren goats and WDE. In addition, a new allele was identified at the CSN1S1 locus in the BDE, showing a frequency of 0.05. This variant, named CSN1S1*A', is characterized by a t-->c transversion in intron 9. Linkage disequilibrium was found at the casein haplotype in all three breeds. A total of 30 haplotypes showed frequencies higher than 0.01. In the Buren breed only one haplotype showed a frequency higher than 0.1. The ancestral haplotype B-A-A-B (in the order: CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) occurred in all three breeds, showing a very high frequency (>0.8) in the Buren.

  4. Tissue composition of the leg and meat quality of sheep fed castor bean hulls in replacement of tifton hay

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    Stela Antas Urbano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100% on the leg tissue composition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5% and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%. The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissue composition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.

  5. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2006-11-01

    Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters.

  6. Diagnostic and control functions of the radioisotope methods for the reproduction management of cattle and sheep breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, M.; Georgiev, P.; Vasilev, K.

    1988-01-01

    The following applications of radioimmunoassay were studied: 1) for early diagnosis of pregnance in caws and sheep by determination of progesterone (PG) in milk and blood plasma via veterinary radioimmunological test STERON - RM 125 ; 2) for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian disturbances in cows by RIA of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and PG in blood plasma; 3) for control of the biological efficiency of sheep estrus synchronisation with MAP (vaginal tampons) and Estrophan (PgF 2 α); 4) for control of the reproductive condition of rams and effect of Tribestan in treatment of different forms of impotention by RIA of testosterone in blood. It was established that the use of RIA objectified the process of decision-making in regulation of the reproduction deviations in ruminating farm animals by veterinary means. Conclusions are drawn and suppositions are made for introduction of the radioisotope methods in the reproduction control of cattle and sheep breeding in practice. 4 tabs.; 15 refs

  7. Recent advances in understanding the genetic resources of sheep breeds locally-adapted to the UK uplands : opportunities they offer for sustainable productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna eBowles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Locally adapted breeds of livestock are of considerable interest since they represent potential reservoirs of adaptive fitness traits that may contribute to the future of sustainable productivity in a changing climate.Recent research, involving three hill sheep breeds geographically concentrated in the northern uplands of the UK has revealed the extent of their genetic diversity from one another and from other breeds. Results from the use of SNPs, microsatellites and retrovirus insertions are reviewed in the context of related studies on sheep breeds world-wide to highlight opportunities offered by the genetic resources of locally adapted hill breeds. One opportunity concerns reduced susceptibility to Maedi-Visna, a lentivirus with massive impacts on sheep health and productivity globally. In contrast to many mainstream breeds used in farming, each of the hill breeds analysed are likely to be far less susceptible to the disease threat. A different opportunity, relating specifically to the Herdwick breed, is the extent to which the genome of the breed has retained primitive features, no longer present in other mainland breeds of sheep in the UK and offering a new route for discovering unique genetic traits of use to agriculture.

  8. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of morphological characteristics relating to the production and reproduction of fat-tailed sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourlis, Aris F

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey the literature pertinent to some morphological traits which are related with the production and reproduction of fat-tailed sheep breeds. The fat-tailed breeds were identified according to Food and Agriculture Organization databases. Articles referring to all these sheep breeds were evaluated. The morphology of udders and their measurable variables were collected and described. The particularities of pelt and fleece features which are important from an economic point of view were summarized. Linear, planar, and spatial parameters of body, slaughter, and carcass factors were compared at various ages of breeding. Testicular dimensions and semen characteristics were recorded. Their relationships with productive and reproductive performance were discussed. The pattern of ovarian follicle development and the involution of the genital tract were assessed from the anatomical point of view in normal and untreated animals. The data presented here provide useful baseline information on the normal morphological aspects which are important in the animal production of these breeds.

  10. PASTORALISM AND THE ROMANIANS HISTORY 2. PEOPLE, LANGUAGES, GENES AND THE LOCAL SHEEP BREEDS, IN NORTH-EASTERN BLACK SEA STEPPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRĂGĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 17 gubernyias of the former Russian Empire of 1740-1812-1918 years, was identified (1912-1924 some 7 breeds of the Romanian Walachian phyletic group, of sheep breeds and in some gubernyias the Romanian Tsigai breed. It seems that from the present Moldavian Republic to the rivers Bug and Dnieper the sheep production was of sedentary type, connected with some local Romanian inhabitants. It see also that over the Dnieper the breed presence was connected also with the transhumance practiced up to 1918 by the Transylvanian Romanian transhumance shepherds, some of them organizers after 1918 Romanian of sheep breeds association in Crimea and North Caucasus area. The official statistics from 1925 year registered in the former SSSR (without Bassarabia some 259,324 Romanians. Different historical sources estimated a higher number (1.2 million, 600,000 just in Siberia A possible explanation of founded sheep and man presence in this area can be the fact that it was the antique borderland between Thraco-Dacia and Scythia border, and the Walachian (=Romanian sheep were the sheep of Thraco-Geto-Dacs, Romanian ancestors. Transylvanian transhumance and Romanian from SE Romania introduced later Tsigai in North Pontic, this breed being introduced later by Roman in Carpathian bend.

  11. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk......-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk...... the extensive production systems used, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control plans, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat...

  12. Carcass characteristics, physicochemical changes and oxidative stress indicators of meat from sheep fed diets with coffee pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salinas-Rios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how feeding sheep coffee pulp affects carcass characteristics and what changes occur in physicochemical, antioxidant capacity and oxidation of the meat during refrigerated storage. The experiment was carried out in 15 Blackbelly lambs weighing an average 22.86±0.76kg. The animals were assigned to three treatments: T0=control diet, T1=diet with 8% coffee pulp, and T2=diet with 16% coffee pulp. After fattening for 56 days, the sheep were slaughtered and the carcasses assessed. The inclusion of 16% coffee pulp in the diet increased carcass dressing from 48.19 to 50.83% and decreased the amount of fat in rumen and intestines from 3.43 to 2.53% (P<0.05. The inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet did not alter the amount of crude protein or fat in meat or its oxidation and antioxidant capacity during refrigerated storage. However, the inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet decreased fat in the rumen and intestines, and thus increased the amount of usable meat.

  13. Preliminary investigation on the relationship of Raman spectra of sheep meat with shear force and cooking loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Heinar; Scheier, Rico; Hopkins, David L

    2013-01-01

    A prototype handheld Raman system was used as a rapid non-invasive optical device to measure raw sheep meat to estimate cooked meat tenderness and cooking loss. Raman measurements were conducted on m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum samples from two sheep flocks from two different origins which had been aged for five days at 3-4°C before deep freezing and further analysis. The Raman data of 140 samples were correlated with shear force and cooking loss data using PLS regression. Both sample origins could be discriminated and separate correlation models yielded better correlations than the joint correlation model. For shear force, R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.86 were obtained for the two sites. Results for cooking loss were comparable: separate models yielded R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.83 for the two sites. The results show the potential usefulness of Raman spectra which can be recorded during meat processing for the prediction of quality traits such as tenderness and cooking loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory properties and fatty acids profiles of fermented dry sausages made of pork meat from various breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parunović, N.; Radović, Č.; Savić, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the parallel examinations on fatty acid profiles and sensory properties of fermented dry sausages are presented. Three types of kulen and sremska sausages were made, which varied depending on the percentage of meat and fat derived from different pig breeds: autochthonous (Swallow-Belly Mangalitsa and Moravka) and commercial (Swedish Landrace). In sausages made from meat of commercial pig breed, the highest cholesterol content was detected. However, sausage made from the Mangalitsa pork meat contained higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), and lower saturated fatty acid levels (SFA).The level of polyunsaturated (PUFA) in sausage made of Landrace pork meat was significantly higher than levels in other types. These differences between fatty acids were mostly deriving by higher total n-6 PUFA content. In a sausage made of Mangulitsa meat, the values of atherogenic (IA) and thrombogenic (IT) health lipid indexes are lower. Kulen and sremska sausages made from the Mangalitsa pork meat was superior in terms of colour, odour, taste, after taste and overall acceptability. This study demonstrate that pig breed have an effect on the chemical content, fatty acids profiles and sensory properties of dry fermented sausages.

  15. Factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination with cooled semen in meat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, I; Yániz, J L; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Quintín-Casorrán, F J; Sevilla-Mur, E; Santolaria, P

    2012-06-01

    Field results of 18,328 cervical artificial inseminations (AI) with cooled semen in Rasa Aragonesa meat sheep under field conditions in north-eastern Spain AI were analyzed. Logistic regression procedures were used including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and year, month of AI, farm, hours between extraction and insemination, number of ewes inseminated in a set of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, total number of synchronization treatment per ewe, inseminating ram and AI technician as independent factors. Previous parturitions, lambing-AI interval, month, farm, inseminating ram and technician were factors with significant impact on AI fertility. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in ewes with more than five previous parturitions (by a factor of 0.87, 0.79 and 0.66 for the 6th, 7th and ≥8 parturitions, respectively); in ewes with lambing-AI interval higher than 240 days (by a factor of 0.8); and for inseminations performed during the spring period, (March, April, May and June, 0.70, 0.76, 0.66, and 0.76, respectively). We noted a higher fertility in seven inseminating rams (odds ratios between 1.4 and 1.7) and lower in two rams (odds ratios between 0.6 and 0.7). Of the 17 AI technicians, two were related to fertilities improved by odds ratio of 1.6, and 1.30, whereas two technicians were attributed fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.68 and 0.40. These findings should be taken into account to evaluate the AI technique performance and make decisions to enhance fertility results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Características sensoriais da carne ovina Sensorial characteristics of sheep meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos da Silveira Osório

    2009-07-01

    , que nem sempre está educado para melhor apreciar as características sensoriais do produto. Para medir as propriedades sensoriais perceptíveis do alimento, ou seja, os atributos desse alimento que é possível detectar e avaliar por meio dos sentidos humanos, está à análise sensorial. Para que se possa alcançar a "mais alta satisfação possível do consumidor" não somente devem-se buscar no alimento as características desejadas; mas, também é necessário que o consumidor seja educado para melhor apreciar estas características.Considering that the world-wide trend is to produce what is consumed and that the science of the meat looks for the highest degree of satisfaction of the consumer, the study approaches the characteristics that propitiate this satisfaction in the sheep meat.The use of the human senses in the perception of the characteristics that provoke the highest consumer acceptability determines the definition of "quality"; this indicates important sensorial characteristics of lamb: the succulence (water holding capacity, colour, texture (tenderness, odour and flavour. These characteristics vary in accordance with the species, race, age, sex, feeding, handling after-mortem and the conditions and duration of the conservation of the product. Despite that the majority of research relates these characteristics, direct or indirectly, with the product after cocking, the producer, the industry and the segments of the chain must take into account that the acceptable sensorial properties are basic at the moment of selling and consumption. In the meat sector, all the chain segments are responsible and participate, direct or indirectly, in the maximum satisfaction of the consumer, either through the product attributes or through its price. Thus, to get a quality product, the improvement of the production, industrialization and commercialization processes could be consolidated if there would be techniques, clear and practical; to describe the characters

  17. [Fertility after treatment with Eazi-breedTM CIDR G for 6 or 12 days outside the breeding season in Lacaune dairy sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, A; Piechotta, M; Bollwein, H; Janett, F

    2013-07-01

    This study compares the fertility after short- and long-term synchronization using a progesterone intravaginal device in Lacaune dairy sheep outside the breeding season. For the experiment 108 Lacaune sheep were treated with Eazi-breed™ CIDR® G intravaginal devices (Pfizer Animal Health, Zürich) for 12 days (Group L, n = 60) or 6 days (Group K, n = 48) in combination with eCG (Group L) or with eCG and 125 μg Cloprostenol (Group K) at device removal. Thereafter the ewes were kept together with rams for 60 days, ewes in estrus were recorded and the fertility was assessed after lambing. Blood progesterone concentration was measured at device application, withdrawal and 14 days later. Results show that neither treatment nor parity had an influence on estrus rate (Group L 91.7 %, Group K 93.8 %, nulli- and pluriparous animals 96.9 % and 90.8 %, respectively). Group L showed a tendency towards a better first cycle lambing rate and a significantly (P sheep of Group K (71.7 % vs. 60.4 % and 83.3 % vs. 72.9 %). Pluriparous ewes had higher (P synchronized ewe than nulliparous sheep for the first cycle (75.0 % vs. 46.9 % and 1.4 ± 1.0 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1) as well as for the overall service period (92.1 % vs. 46.9 % and 1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1). Fourteen days after insert withdrawal progesterone concentrations were higher (P progesterone treatment and nulliparous ewes were less suitable for estrus induction outside the breeding season.

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE MAIN TRAITS OF WOOL PRODUCTION ON PALAS SHEEP LINE FOR MEAT, MILK AND HIGH PROLIFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ENCIU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the coefficient of phenotypic correlation and regression between main wool production traits for the sheep belonging to the Palas line specialized for meat, milk and with high prolificacy. The study was performed on a 10 years interval, the phenotypic correlation and the regression being determined for age groups and body weight classes for the following traits: raw wool production, the staple length, wool diameter and body weight at shearing. The obtained results are showing that for the specialized sheep lines the efficiency of wool production is also higher for the sheep with moderate body weights but for these sheep lines the selection for body weight will be done based on the morphoproductive parameters specific to the purpose of exploitation (milk production, meat production or high prolificacy.

  19. Meat Performance of the Hen’s Breed Oravka after Reproductive and Laying Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper was evaluated the meat performance cocks and hens of breed Oravka after reproductive and laying period. The results from this study show that carcass yield cocks and hens of Oravka were higher in comparison with STN 46 64 15 (72.84, respectively 71.02%. We recorded that sex had statistically significant effect on some carcass characteristics (live weight, carcass weight, breast weight, things weight and back weight. Anyhow, we found that sex affected abdominal fat weight (in profit of hens and percentage of some carcass parts - percentage of breast (in profit of hens and percentage of things and back (in profit of cocks.

  20. Amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed and its crossbreds with Australian merino and Ile de France from internal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slavov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A comparative analysis of amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed (I gr. and its crossbreds from internal breeding with 25% heredity from the Australian merino (II gr. and Ile de France (III gr. breeds was conducted. Upon starting the experiment lambs were equal and during the experiment they were placed under similar conditions of feeding and rearing. To establish the amino acid composition of meat slaughter analyses were performed at 100 and 130 days of age. From the carcass of each slaughtered animal individual mean samples were taken. Studies were carried out in the Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture at Trakia University. As a result of the studies the following conclusions were made: ¼ Ile de France crossbreds in a sophisticated crossing have the highest total amino acid content, including essential amino acids in the meat of 100- and 130-day-old lambs, 6.87% and 7.36%, respectively. The lysine/arginine ratio, relating to protein atherogenicity, varies within narrow ranges among groups and marks slight increase with age – from 1.31-1.37 at 100 days to 1.41-1.46 at 130 days. With the increase of age in crossbreds from internal breeding total protein amino acid content grows, that being most prominent in lambs from the III group – from 41.92 to 43.49%. The values of total protein indices increase compared to the reference protein (from 117.97% to 118.22% for II group and from 116.44% to 120.80% for III group and the whole egg protein (from 89.39% to 91.92% for II group and from 90.53% to 93.93 for III group. It has been found that internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Ile de France breed has positive effect concerning the total amino acid content of lamb meat at 100 and 130 days of age, essential amino acid content in it and the levels of total amino acid indices. Internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Australian merino breed

  1. Genetic characterization of Egyptian and Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2015-06-01

    The matrix of pairwise differences among breeds was used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. This analysis showed that the Italian breeds are clearly separated from the Egyptian breeds; moreover the Egyptian Barki breed is separated from Ossimi and Rahmani.

  2. Identification of the GDF9 mutation in two sheep breeds by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genetic mutation with major effects on the litter size in sheep was recently identified in the growth differentiation factor (GDF9) gene of the TGF-B super family (transforming growth factor). GDF9 gene has been localized to chromosome 5 in sheep. In order to evaluate the GDF9 gene polymorphism, blood samples were ...

  3. Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene Arabi sheep breed in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovine scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease caused by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (Prnp); especially the amino acid residue alterations at codons 136, 154, and 174, in sheep have been found to be associated with susceptibility to scrapie disease. We studied Prnp polymorphisms in local sheep of ...

  4. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  5. Reproduction Efficiency and Health Traits in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai Sheep Breeds under Temperate European Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gavojdian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current pilot study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and health indicators in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai breed ewes managed semi-intensively under European temperate conditions. A total of 544 ewe-year units were observed, with ewes (ranging from 1.5 to 8 years of age managed under identical rearing conditions for a period of two consecutive production cycles (2012 through 2013 and 2013 through 2014. In general, significant (p≤0.001 genotype-related disparities were found in occurrence rates for all health parameters taken into study. Clinical mastitis incidence was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in Dorper (9.4% and White Dorper (10.8% breeds compared to that of Tsigai ewes (17.4%. Significant differences (p≤0.05 for lameness were found between Dorper and Tsigai breeds, with occurrence rates of 8.0% and 2.9%, respectively. Incidence for pneumonia and abortion was not influenced (p>0.05 by the ewes’ genotype. Litter size was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in White Dorper breed than for Dorper and Tsigai ewes, of 1.21, 1.40, and 1.45, respectively. Conception rates and lambs survival were not affected (p>0.05 by genotype. Results suggest that South African Dorper and White Dorper sheep breeds have adapted well to the specific rearing conditions.

  6. Analysis of the genetic diversity between Gentile di Puglia, Sopravissana and Sarda sheep breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Catillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Italian sheep breeds – Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana – have undergone a consistent decline in numbers and have been widely substituted by the Sarda breed, which gives higher milk yield. With the aim to provide a basis for con- servation decisions, the genetic variability of the three breeds was investigated in this study. DNA of 60 animals was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: CSSM43, CSSM47, CSSM60, TGLA110, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA377, ETH3, ETH10, ETH225, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and SPS115. Allele frequencies, gene diversity and genetic distances were calculat- ed. The highest differences in allele frequencies were found at the following loci: TGLA377, TGLA122, NRAMP1, OARCP20 and ETH3, while at the other loci the most frequent alleles were the same. The average inbreeding rate was 0.156 in the Gentile di Puglia, 0.158 in the Sopravissana and 0.137 in the Sarda. Average gene diversity of the analysed microsatel- lites was 0.59. Genetic distance between Gentile di Puglia and Sopravissana (0.081 indicates moderate differentiation; distances between the Sarda and the endangered breeds – 0.111 from the Gentile di Puglia and 0.107 from the Sopravissana - indicate a medium-high differentiation rate. The disappearance of the two less productive breeds would entail a consistent loss of genetic diversity. The inbreeding values are low enough to allow the implementation of sound conservation programmes.

  7. Breeding of guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus, L. 1758) for meat production in Butembo, Democratic Republic of Congo : Literature review and breeding scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Sikiminywa, K.-L.; Godeau, Jean-Marie; Nyongombe, U.-F.; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Providing animal proteins to humans requires choosing the animal species to be raised when access to land is limited. Butembo, is a refuge city of conflicts area in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo, where guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus) is considered as food. Therefore the breeding of this animal is an option to make more meat available. Genetic selection of guinea pigs and popularization of improved farming techniques can contribute to solve problems of food security in the region. The ...

  8. Electrocardiographic Analysis of ST-Segment Duration and Morphology in Sheep and Goats: Effect of Species, Breed, Age and Sex

    OpenAIRE

    SAMIMI, Amir Saeed; TAJIK, Javad; AGHAMIRI, Seyyed Morteza; TAHERI, Talieh

    2016-01-01

        The importance of obtaining normal values of ST-segment for specific breeds of animals besides the high variability of indices in small ruminant has been emphasized. The animals were assigned into 4 groups (G1-4), according to their age: G1<3 months, 3 months ≤G2< 1 year, 1 year≤G3<3 years, and G4 ≥ 3 years old. There were 34 animals in each study group. The animals were assigned to two comprising groups: sheep, goat, male and female. Also, the animals were divided in...

  9. Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Prestice Black-Pied Pig Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Matoušek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality in pigs of Prestice Black-Pied breed in relation to slaughter weight (SW and gender (barrows and gilts, resp.. Pigs were divided into weight categories: SW1 (75 to 99.9 kg, SW2 (100 to 109.9 kg and SW3 (110 to 130 kg and all individual traits were analyzed by the general linear model procedure (SAS 9.3. Average SW of each weight group was as follows: SW1 94.2 kg, SW2 105.8 kg, and SW3 115.2 kg. Differences among average backfat thickness of 36.07 mm in SW1, 40.16 mm in SW2, and 43.21 mm in SW3 were significant (p<0.01. Lean meat content was 48.94% (SW1, 48.78% (SW2, and 48.76% (SW3. Pigs were slaughtered at average weight of 105.7 kg for barrows and 104.4 kg for gilts. Average backfat thickness for barrows was 40.90 mm and 38.72 mm for gilts (significant difference p<0.05. Lean meat content was 48.75% in barrows and 48.91% in gilts. The values of pH45, characterizing the meat of very good quality. The loin in SW3 was darker than the muscles of SW1 and SW2. Drip loss was the lowest in SW1 (1.96%, compared to the highest drip loss in SW3 (2.59%. Content of intramuscular fat was 2.68% in SW3, 2.79% in SW2, and SW1 had the lowest content 2.47%. The values of pH45, colour lightness and drip loss were similar in both genders. However barrows had higher intramuscular fat content by 0.31% than gilts (p<0.05.

  10. Meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat as affected by the sire breed, season, parity order and gender in an organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dalle Zotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate some meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat when considering 2 sire breeds (SB: Vienna Blue [VB]; Burgundy Fawn [BF]; both coloured and slow-growing breeds, several parity orders (P: 1, 2, ≥3, gender (G, and 2 slaughter seasons (SS: spring, summer in an organic production system. The effect of storage time (ST at frozen state (2 mo at –20°C of Longissimus lumborum (LL meat was also evaluated. Animals were slaughtered when they reached 2.8 kg of live weight. Then, pH and L*a*b* colour values of Biceps femoris (BF and LL muscles, water loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force of LL and hind leg (HL meat, and the fibre typing and enzymatic activity of LL muscle were analysed. LL meat from females showed higher b* values than males (0.04 vs. –1.25; P<0.05. Significant (P<0.05 SB×P, SB×G and P×G interactions were observed for the b* value of LL: VB and BF crossbreds presented a higher b* value when born as P≥3 and P2 respectively, VB females showed higher b* value than VB males, and P2 and P≥3 produced males with a significantly lower b* value. HL thawing losses were significantly (P<0.05 higher in rabbits slaughtered in summer than in those slaughtered in spring, whereas the opposite result was obtained for LL meat (P<0.01. Cooking loss of LL meat was significantly lower in P2 group than P≥3 group (P<0.05. The lactate dehydrogenase activity in LL muscle was higher in VB than in BF crossbreds (930 vs. 830 IU; P<0.05, albeit not supported by differences in fibre type distribution. The ST significantly (P<0.01 reduced pH, a* and b* colour values, and increased lightness of LL meat. It was concluded that the crossbreeds derived from VB and BF genotypes and farmed organically did not show remarkable sexual dimorphism, considering their elder slaughter age than rabbits reared under intensive conditions. Physical quality of meat was mainly affected by slaughter season, indicating

  11. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  13. Animal breeding in the age of biotechnology: the investigative pathway behind the cloning of Dolly the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the 1996 cloning of Dolly the sheep, locating it within a long-standing tradition of animal breeding research in Edinburgh. Far from being an end in itself, the cell-nuclear transfer experiment from which Dolly was born should be seen as a step in an investigative pathway that sought the production of medically relevant transgenic animals. By historicising Dolly, I illustrate how the birth of this sheep captures a dramatic redefinition of the life sciences, when in the 1970s and 1980s the rise of neo-liberal governments and the emergence of the biotechnology market pushed research institutions to show tangible applications of their work. Through this broader interpretative framework, the Dolly story emerges as a case study of the deep transformations of agricultural experimentation during the last third of the twentieth century. The reorganisation of laboratory practice, human resources and institutional settings required by the production of transgenic animals had unanticipated consequences. One of these unanticipated effects was that the boundaries between animal and human health became blurred. As a result of this, new professional spaces emerged and the identity of Dolly the sheep was reconfigured, from an instrument for livestock improvement in the farm to a more universal symbol of the new cloning age.

  14. Influence of different production strategies on the stability of color, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhenyu; Miao, Jing; Xie, Li; Dai, Yan; Li, Xingmin; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Dai, Ruitong

    2014-02-01

    Fifty male Ningxia Tan sheep were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group). Different feeding strategies were applied to each group for 120 days prior to slaughter. The sheep belong to five groups were pastured for 0 h (feedlot-fed), 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h per day on a natural grazing ground, respectively. M. semitendinosus muscle from Tan sheep was obtained after slaughter. Instrumental color, pH values, oxygen consumption rate, metmyoglobin reducing activity and relative metmyoglobin percentages were analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Long-term daily grazing and herbage-based diet were conducive to maintain a lower oxygen consumption rate, higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower metmyoglobin accumulation. The combination of pasture-fed and feedlot-fed was conducive to weight gain, and at the same time, increased the color stability of the meat from Ningxia Tan sheep. © 2013.

  15. Genetic diversity of Najdi sheep based on microsatellite analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUNEEB

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... purpose breed, primarily used for meat, milk and wool production. Najdi has ... PET-Red, NED-Yellow and VIC-Green provided by Applied. Biosystems™ (CA ..... Copper status of Najdi sheep in eastern. Saudi Arabia under ...

  16. Características de crescimento para avaliar o desempenho de ovelhas lanadas em cruzamento absorvente Growth characteristics to evaluate the wool sheep performance at cross-breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aidar de Queiroz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho produtivo de cruzas de animais lanados, foram utilizados os dados da escrituração zootécnica do rebanho ovino pertencente à FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP. Os dados da escrituração foram oriundos de 312 ovelhas, com 129 da raça Ideal, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Ideal, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Ideal e 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, submetidas ao cruzamento absorvente para a raça Ile de France. As análises das características produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, peso aos 180 dias, ganho médio diário e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal foram realizadas no SAS (1996. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos avaliados para as caracteristicas produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal com valores médios de 3,08, 15, 67kg e 270,75 dias, respectivamente. Para as características ganho médio diário e peso aos 180 dias, houve efeito significativo para o genótipo 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal com volores de 0,214 e 40,53kg respectivamente. O sistema de cruzamento utilizado possibilita às próximas gerações características produtivas satisfatórias para produção de carne, e as fêmeas provenientes desses cruzamentos que forem utilizadas para reposição podem aumentar as características produtivas de seus descendentes.In order to study productive and reproductive performance of crossbred sheep, data from the sheep recording of the ovine cattle from Paulista State University, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil were used. The record data came from 312 sheep (129 of Polwarth breed, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Polwarth, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Polwarth and 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Polwarth submitted to absorber cross-breeding for Ile de France. Productive characteristic analysis: body weight at birth, body weight at weaning, body weight with 180 days, daily weight gain average and necessary period for animals to get 32

  17. Mutual relationships among body condition score, live weight, and back tissue development in meat sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ptáček

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body tissue development and proportion affect predisposition to optimum functioning of production attributes, health, and fertility of sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine relationships among indicators of mature ewes’ nutritional status documented by the body condition score and live weight using ultrasonic evaluation of backfat thickness and depth of musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis. The monitoring was carried out in Suffolk sheep (n = 942 for a period of 2 years. A significant increase (P P P P in vivo. Results of the present study could serve in flock management as a tool for evaluation of the current nutritional status as well as a basic ground for further research focused on development of sheep fattiness and carcass traits evaluation.

  18. An examination of melanogenic traits and TYRP1 polymorphism in Nanping and Romney Marsh sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mutations of the gene for tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1 on the black muscles and coat color in Nanping black-boned sheep were investigated. Tyrosinase activity and melanin content in plasma were measured and compared in three random groups of sheep: Nanping black-boned (101 heads, Nanping normal (106 heads and Romney Marsh sheep (82 heads, Ovis aries. Eight exons and their partial flanking regions of the TYRP1 gene were amplified. Six intronic mutations and six exonic polymorphisms including two non-synonymous mutations [c.203C  >  T (p.A68V and c.1202T  >  C (p.V401A] were identified. Using a bi-directional polymerase chain reaction allele-specific amplification (bi-PASA of the mutation c.203C  >  T it was shown that the frequencies of allele C in the Nanping black-boned, Nanping normal and Romney Marsh sheep were respectively 0.955, 0.967 and 0.744. For the mutation c.1202T  >  C, the frequencies of allele T in the three populations of sheep were respectively 0.777, 0.745 and 0.793 as measured using the single-strand conformation polymorphism. When the data from sheep of all three populations with the CC genotype of SNP c.203C  >  T were pooled, it was found that there was significantly higher (P  <  0.05 tyrosinase activity, content of alkali-soluble melanin and ratio of eumelanin : total melanin than in the plasma of sheep with the CT and TT genotypes. This was not so within each of the three groups of sheep. No significant effect of the TRYP1 genotype on coat color was found. Further studies will be necessary to determine the cause of the black traits in Nanping black-boned sheep.

  19. Microbiological quality and sensory evaluation of new cured products obtained from sheep and goat meat

    OpenAIRE

    Tolentino, Georgina Santos; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Pascoal, Ananias; Rodrigues, Sandra; Teixeira, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of species and seasoning time on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cured legs of sheep and goats. Three cure periods were used: two for sheep and one for goat legs. Legs of lamb were cured for 7 and 8 months whereas legs of goat were cured for 8 months only. Samples were evaluated regarding pH, water activity and indicators of food microbial q uality and safety. A trained panel carried out the sensory analysis, with a...

  20. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in West African Dwarf goat and Djallonké sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosso, N.A.; Cissé, M.F.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Fall, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The International Trypanotolerance Centre's small ruminant breeding programme was initiated in 1995. The aim was to increase the efficiency of meat production and the trypanotolerance of the animals (sheep and goat). To achieve that goal, selection was based on estimated breeding values for daily

  1. Nutritional quality evaluation of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed corelated with fatty acids content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Frunză

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed in terms of content of fatty acids. The biological material consisted of 42 rabbits (17 females and 15 males from which were collected Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Triceps Brachii muscles immediately after slaughter. The samples were vacuum packaged, frozen at -80 0C, and immediately after thawing have been minced and freeze-dried at -110 0C (using lyophilizer CoolSafe Scanvac. The content in fatty acids was followed through NIRS methodology, using FOSS 6500 spectrophotometer, by gender. Was determined: the saturated fatty acids: C14:0 (Myristic acid, C15: 0 (Pentadecanoic acid, C16: 0 (Palmitic acid, C17: 0 (Heptadecanoic acid and C18: 0 (Stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acids: Palmitoleic acid (C16: 1n-7, Vaccenic acid, cis-isomer of oleic acid (C18: 1n-7 and oleic acid (C18: 1n-9 and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 and ω6: C18: 2n-6 (linoleic acid, C18: 3n-3 (Linolenic acid, C20: 2n-6 (Eicosadienoic acid, C20: 3n-6 (Eicosatrienoic acid, C20: 4n-6 (arachidonic acid, C20: 5n-3 (Eicosapentaenoic acid, C22: 4n-6 (Docosatetraenoic acid, C22: 5n-3 (Docosopentaenoic acid and C22: 6n- 3 (docosahexaenoic acid. The results were statistically analyzed, including analysis of variance (ANOVA and was observed significant differences between gender.

  2. Selection and use of microsatellite markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Tingting; Zhu, Chao; Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2018-06-01

    Meat traceability based on molecular markers is exerting a great influence on food safety and will enhance its key role in the future. This study aimed to investigate and verify the polymorphism of 23 microsatellite markers and select the most suitable markers for individual identification and meat traceability of six swine breeds in the Chinese market. The mean polymorphism information content value of these 23 loci was 0.7851, and each locus exhibited high polymorphism in the pooled population. There were 10 loci showing good polymorphism in each breed, namely, Sw632, S0155, Sw2406, Sw830, Sw2525, Sw72, Sw2448, Sw911, Sw122 and CGA. When six highly polymorphic loci were combined, the match probability value for two random individual genotypes among the pig breeds (Beijing Black, Sanyuan and Taihu) was lower than 1.151 E-06. An increasing number of loci indicated a gradually decreasing match probability value and therefore enhanced traceability accuracy. The validation results of tracing 18 blood and corresponding meat samples based on five highly polymorphic loci (Sw2525, S0005, Sw0107, Sw911 and Sw857) were successful, with 100% conformation probability, which provided a foundation for establishing a traceability system for pork in the Chinese market.

  3. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest.

  4. Selection for scrapie resistance and simultaneous restriction of inbreeding in the rare sheep breed "Mergellander"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Meuleman, H.; Lansbergen, L.M.T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Scrapie is a fatal infectious neurodegenerative disease for which susceptibility is associated with polymorphisms in the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene. Scrapie-eradication programmes are based on eliminating the susceptible VRQ allele and/or breeding for the resistant ARR allele. In rare breeds or

  5. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than

  6. Performance and Meat Quality of Thin Tailed Sheep in Supplementary Feeding Lemuru Fish Oil Protected By Saponification with Different NaOH Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinah Setyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to obtain oil and the exact saponification with different NaOH concentration to protect unsaturated fats, which does can result in good production performance and lamb meat quality with low saturated fatty acid. Stage one studied the performance of sheep production on supplementing lemuru fish oil (LFO protected with different saponification optimization. Twenty lambs aged 5-6 months early weighing 8-14 kg were divided into 4 treatments, namely P0 basal feed (50% elephant grass + 50% concentrate, P1 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 10%, P2 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 20% and P3 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 30% with completely randomized design and 5 replication for performance and 3 replication for meat quality. The results showed that the treatment effect was not significant (P>0.05 on the consumption of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrien (TDN, daily gain and blood cholesterol. P2 yield the highest daily gain 130.95 ± 19.29 g/head/day of cholesterol at the same time low of 58.67 mg/dl. Stage two studied the criteria of lamb carcass and meat quality in supplementary feeding LFO protected with different saponification optimization. Twelve sheeps were slaughtered for P0, P1, P2 and P3. The results showed that the treatment effect was not significant (P> 0.05 to slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, the physical quality of meat (pH, water holding capacity, cooking losses and tenderness, and chemical quality of the meat (DM levels, CP , EE, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids except in EPA and DHA increased very significantly (P<0.01. Conclusively, giving soap LFO with different optimization did not significantly affect the appearance and quality of sheep meat production, except in EPA and DHA which were significantly increased

  7. Importance of birthcoat for lamb survival and growth in the Romane sheep breed extensively managed on rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, D; Foulquié, D; Autran, P; Francois, D; Bouix, J

    2014-01-01

    The Romane sheep breed proved to be adapted to harsh conditions with high prolificacy and lamb survival in outdoor farming, even under bad climate conditions. This breed shows large variability in its fleece type at birth and it has been suggested that lamb survival could be related to birthcoat type. The aim of the present study was to: i) characterize the coat of the lamb at birth and quantify lamb survival in relation to the birthcoat type and its protective properties concerning heat loss in the Romane breed raised under permanent exposure outdoors from birth, and ii) estimate genetic parameters of birthcoat type in relation to lamb survival and live body weight. A total of 7,880 lambs from 104 sires and 1,664 dams were used in a 14-yr experiment. The pedigree file included 9,625 individuals over 15 generations. Birthcoat type, coat surface temperature, coat depth, lamb survival, and growth were measured from birth to weaning. Weather data (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation) were recorded daily during lambing time. Two types of coats were observed at birth: hairy coat (62.9% of lambs) with a long coat depth (average 23.3 mm) or woolly 1 (37.1% of lambs) with a short coat depth (average 8.3 mm). Birthcoat type was an important factor affecting lamb survival and growth from birth in the Romane breed. Total mortality rate was significantly less in hairy-bearing coat lambs than in short-woolly coat ones: 7.0% vs. 9.6%, 11.6 % vs. 14.8%, and 15.7 % vs. 20.1 % at 2, 10, and 50 d, respectively, and the relative risks of death increased by 37%, 67%, and 46 % at 2, 10, and 50 d of age, respectively, in short-woolly lambs. At birth, a significant lower coat surface temperature, indicating less heat loss, was observed in long-hairy coat lambs compared with others (21.1°C vs. 26.1°C). Heavier body weights and better growth performances up to the age of 50 d were observed in long-hairy-bearing coat lambs. Lamb survival was positively correlated

  8. Application of microsatellite markers for breeding and genetic conservation of herds of Pantaneiro sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno do Amaral Crispim

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the statistical parameters indicated that populations of Pantaneiro sheep require special attention on herd management, and it's further necessary to implement breeder exchange programs in order to preserve the genetic variability of these populations. Furthermore, the maintenance of those populations in their typical habitats is rather required to allow different responses from the herds to the interactions between genotype and environment.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF HAMBURGER USING ADULT SHEEP MEAT AND OAT FLOUR DESENVOLVIMENTO DE HAMBÚRGUER DE CARNE DE OVINOS DE DESCARTE ENRIQUECIDO COM FARINHA DE AVEIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Oliveira dos Santos Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to produce a hamburger using adult sheep meat – which is not usually well accepted for in natura consumption – and oat flour. Centesimal composition, pH, water activity, color, fatty acid content, water retention capacity and cooking loss (of both adult sheep meat and the burger patty were assessed. Carbohydrates, total calorie content and sensory characteristics of the formulated products were also considered. Adult sheep meat contained 19% of protein, 5.4% of lipids, 1.18% of ashes and 76% of humidity. The meat from adult sheep and that from young animals differed remarkably in terms of lipid content. All other parameters complied with current meat regulations, although the addition of oats and/or pork to the burgers modified the ash and humidity contents. The sensory evaluation revealed that the sample containing 50% of adult sheep meat, 46% of pork and 4% of oats – which represents the maximum content allowed by law for non-meat sources of protein – enjoyed more widespread acceptance. The hamburgers made of adult sheep meat and oat flour were well accepted by the sensory panel and conform to current regulations, being therefore suitable for the manufacture of meat derivatives.

    Key words: Centesimal composition, dietary fiber, sensorial analysis.
    O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um produto cárneo do tipo hambúrguer, adicionado de farinha de aveia, visando ao aproveitamento da carne de ovinos de descarte, uma matéria-prima de pouca aceitação na forma in natura. Foram avaliadas a composição centesimal, o pH, a atividade de água, a cor, a capacidade de retenção de água e perda de peso por cozimento da carne e dos hambúrgueres, bem como carboidratos, valor calórico total e análise sensorial dos produtos formulados. A carne ovina apresentou em média 19% de proteína, 5,4% de lipídios, 1,18% de cinzas e 76% de umidade, sendo o conte

  10. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of the Padovana chicken breed, a commercial line, and their cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the Padovana Camosciata local chicken breed (PC; n=59, the slow-growing line Berlanda- Gaina (BG; n=62, and their cross (BGxPC; n=57 for carcass and meat quality features. Animals were reared under the same experimental conditions and slaughtered at 3 different ages. An analysis of variance was performed on carcass and meat traits using a linear model that included fixed effects of genotype, sex, age at slaughter, and interactions between them. The PC local breed was approximately 1 kg lighter (P<0.001 at slaughter and exhibited greater dressing percentage (+1.50%; P<0.05 than BG. Breast skin of PC was bluer (-2.74; P<0.001, and breast muscle was darker (-2.65; P<0.001 and redder (+0.48; P<0.001 than that of BG. The pH (+0.16; P<0.001, thawing (+0.90%; P<0.01 and cooking (+2.28%; P<0.001 losses determined on breast muscle were higher for PC than BG. Crossbred animals performed better than the average of BG and PC chickens for breast weight (+22.81 g; P<0.01 and dressing percentage (+1.38%; P<0.05. Breast skin of BGxPC was darker (-1.74; P<0.05, less red (-0.23; P<0.05, and bluer (-1.54; P<0.01 than the average of BG and PC, and breast muscle was more yellow (+0.64; P<0.05 for BGxPC. Cooking losses were lower (-0.99%; P<0.05 for crossbred than the average of BG and PC chickens. Results confirmed the specificity of meat characteristics of PC local breed and demonstrated the potential benefit of crossbreeding to improve production traits of PC breed without compromising the peculiar quality of its meat.

  11. Varying pasture growth and commodity prices change the value of traits in sheep breeding objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, P.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding programs for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system. Economic weights are commonly based on average conditions. In pasture based livestock production systems the cost of feed is an important profit driver, but

  12. Increasing litter size in a sheep breed by marker-assisted selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China ... breed population (1.76±0.03) was significantly greater than ... BMPR1B gene slightly acted on the growth trait of the 12-.

  13. Comparison of external udder measurements of the sheep breeds Improved Valachian, Tsigai, Lacaune and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Makovický

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological udder traits have recently become of greater interest from farmers to researchers. In dairy ewes, the udder is very important due to its physiological and conformational characteristics. External udder traits were measured in ewes (Ovis aries L. of nine genotypes (355 ewes created of the basis of Improved Valachian (IV, Tsigai (T, and Lacaune (LC breeds (six traits; 1185 data for each trait during the milking period 2002-2008. Udder measurements were assessed for: udder length (UL, udder width (UW, rear udder depth (RUD, cistern depth (CDE, teat length (TL, and teat angle (TA. Data were processed by restricted maximum likelihood (REML methodology using a MIXED procedure from the SAS statistical package. All studied parameters were influenced by the genotype (P < 0.001, many of them also by the effect of parity and lactation stage. The exactly detected UL, UW and RUD during the lactation and with the age of ewes expand gradually (P < 0.001. Teat length was greater in older ewes (expanding, with the parity. Indicator TA during lactation worsened. Crosses with 25 to 75% share of genetic dairy breeds (in particular with LC, to a lesser extent 'East Friesian' -EF were in most cases larger than the udder cisterns of purebred ewes T and IV. Purebred LC had the largest udders, with the largest cisterns. In conclusion, crosses with specialized dairy breeds have more suitable udders for machine milking than purebred default breeds (T, IV, LC and are suitable for machine milking.

  14. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Johnson, D D; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2012-01-01

    Additive genetic Angus-Brahman differences, heterosis effects, and least squares means for six carcass and six meat palatability traits were estimated using data from 1367 steers from the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida collected from 1989 to 2009. Brahman carcasses had higher dressing percent (PAngus carcasses. Brahman beef was less tender (PAngus beef. Heterosis increased hot carcass weight (PAngus-Brahman crossbred steers. Results indicated that crossbred animals with up to 50% Brahman showed limited negative impact on meat quality while maximizing meat yield due to heterosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body size, carcass and meat quality of three commercial beef categories of 'Serrana de Teruel' breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Albertí, P.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, J.; Blasco, I.; Sanz, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse three commercial beef categories of the 'Serrana de Teruel breed' to define the appropriate commercial option. Twenty 'Serrana de Teruel' male calves at 9 months were assigned to the commercial beef categories (young bulls, bulls and steers), slaughtered at 12, 22 and 22 months of age, respectively. The in vivo ultrasound backfat thickness was greater than the dorsal fat thickness, and the young bulls and steers had a similar fat thickness, that was greater than the bulls in both areas. The slaughter weight and cold carcass weight were significantly different between the commercial categories. However, the differences were not sufficient to modify the dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness degree between the young bulls and bulls. The maximum stress of the muscle at 7 d of ageing was lower in the steers than in the young bulls and bulls. In general, the lightness of the meat in the bulls was lower than that in the young bulls and steers. The subcutaneous fat of the bull carcasses had a vivid colour and stored more carotenoids than that of the young bulls and steers. Hence, bulls produced heavier and better conformed carcasses with more edible meat and less fat than the other categories. However, steers are recommended to produce large carcasses with more trim and cover fat than the other categories. Finally, it seems that bulls are the most suitable commercial category to 'Serrana de Teruel' breed. (Author)

  17. Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

  18. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockett Noelle E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

  19. Effects of transportation during the hot season, breed and electrical stimulation on histochemical and meat quality characteristics of goat longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, Isam T; Mahgoub, Osman; Al-Marzooqi, Waleed; Khalaf, Samera; Al-Sinawi, Shadia S H; Al-Amri, Issa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of transportation and electrical stimulation (90 V) on physiological, histochemical and meat quality characteristics of two breeds of Omani goats were assessed. Twenty 1-year-old male goats from each breed (Batina and Dhofari) were divided into two groups: 3 h transported during the hot season (42 degrees C day time temperature) and non-transported. Animals were blood-sampled before loading and prior to slaughter. Electrical stimulation was applied 20 min postmortem to 50% randomly selected carcasses of both breeds. Temperature and pH decline of the Longissimus was monitored. Ultimate pH, shear force, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss and colour were measured from samples of Longissimus dorsi muscles. Electrical stimulation and transportation had a significant effect on most biochemical and meat quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi. The transported goats had higher plasma cortisol (P goats. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (P Meat from transported goats had significantly higher pH, expressed juice and shear force, but contained significantly lower sarcomere length and L* values than non-transported goats. The proportion of the myosin ATPase staining did not change as a function of stimulation, transportation or breed. These results indicated that subjecting goats to transportation for 3 h under high ambient temperatures can generate major physiological and muscle metabolism responses. Electrical stimulation improved quality characteristics of meat from both groups. This indicates that electrical stimulation may reduce detrimental effects of transportation on meat quality of Omani goats.

  20. The ecological adaptability of cloned sheep to free-grazing in the Tengger Desert of Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin LI,Huijuan WANG,Guanghua SU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Wuni-MENGHE,Yanhui HOU,Changqing YU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the birth of the first cloned sheep, somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been successfully used to clone a variety of mammals. Cloned livestock have no apparent health risks, and the quality and safety of the cloned animal products are similar to non-cloned animals. The social behavior and environmental adaptability of postnatal cloned animals, especially when used for grassland farm production purposes, is unknown. In the present study, the cloned Dorper sheep equipped with GPS location devices were free-grazed in a harsh natural environment similar to conditions commonly experienced by Mongolian sheep. The main findings of this research were as follows. (1 Under free-grazing conditions, the cloned sheep showed excellent climatic and ecological adaptability. In extreme temperature conditions ranging from -30 to 40ºC, the cloned sheep maintained acceptable body condition and behaved as other sheep. (2 The cloned sheep quickly adapted from a herd feeding strategy to the harsh environment and quickly exhibited a grazing regimen as other free-grazing sheep. (3 The cloned sheep exhibited free-grazing patterns and social behavior as other sheep. (4 The cloned sheep in the harsh environment thrived and produced healthy lambs. Overall, the cloned Dorper sheep exhibited excellent ecological adaptation, which is an important consideration for breeding meat sheep by cloning. The Dorper sheep readily adapted to the free-grazing conditions on the Mongolian plateau grassland, which attests to their ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions.

  1. Somatic cell banking - An alternative technology for the conservation of endangered sheep breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.; Gupta, S.C.; Ahlawat, S.P.S.; Sharma, R.; Taneja, R.; Gupta, K.

    2005-01-01

    Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham's F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline. Average cell doubling time was 30 h in males and 29.6 h in females. Skin fibroblast cell growth curves were in lag phase for the first 2 days, entered log phase (3rd to 7th days) and plateaued on day 8. Diploid chromosomal counts in proliferating cells up to the 5th passage were normal (2N=54), with no gross chromosomal aberrations recorded. Cells frozen from cycling cells at 80-90% confluency showed superior post-thaw growth compared with cells from overconfluent cultures. DMSO at 10% (v/v) in freezing media was optimal. Controlled-rate freezing at -1 deg. C/min showed better post-thaw cell viability and growth potential. Direct plating of thawed cells without removing DMSO and other contents of the freezing medium gave better post-thaw survival and proliferation rates. (author)

  2. Risk factors and impacts of clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial meat-producing sheep flocks in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julie; Dubreuil, Pascal; Higgins, Robert; Bélanger, Denise

    2008-11-17

    We conducted a prospective observational study on clinical and subclinical mastitis in 30 commercial meat-producing sheep flocks from 2 regions of the province of Quebec, Canada. A total of 2,792 ewes selected in late gestation were followed from lambing to weaning of lambs. The incidence of clinical mastitis for the total lactation period (average of 58 days) ranged among flocks from 0 to 6.6%, with a median of 1.2%. The most frequently isolated bacteria from the cases of clinical mastitis, in pure or mixed culture, were Mannheimia haemolytica (26%), Staphylococcus aureus (23%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (17%). Incidence of clinical mastitis was higher in ewes that gave birth to 3 or more lambs and from the Estrie region, and was associated with an increase in ewe mortality, an increase in lamb mortality at the litter level, and a decrease in lamb's weaning weight for lambs born in multiple litter size or from ewes >or=4 years old. Among 354 selected ewes with clinically normal udder at the end of lactation, 28.8% had potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from milk. The most prevalent bacteria were S. aureus (9.3%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.3%). The risk of having a positive culture in at least one half was different between the two regions. Prevalence of ewes (n=261) with California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive result in at least one half was 24.1 and 14.9% using a cut-off of >or=1+ and >or=2+, respectively. Prevalence of culture-positive udder halves was 11.7% for CMT-negative compared with 53.6% for CMT 3+ halves. CMT status was positively associated with the isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci, M. haemolytica, S. aureus, and various Streptococcus species, but not with other isolated bacteria. Additionally, prevalence of CMT-positive halves was higher in ewes from the Estrie region, aged of >or=4 years versus 1 year, having clinical mastitis previously detected in the lactation and/or with low body condition score. Lamb

  3. Perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de ovelhas de descarte de dois grupos genéticos submetidas a dois sistemas de manejo Fatty acids profile in meat from culling ewes of two breed submitted to two managing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Vilani de Pelegrini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar se a raça e/ou o sistema de criação afetam o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de ovelhas de descarte. Foram utilizadas 20 ovelhas, sendo 10 da raça Ideal e 10 da raça Texel, aleatoriamente distribuídas por grupo genético, em dois sistemas de manejo: confinadas e recebendo dieta à base de silagem de sorgo e concentrado ou mantidas em uma pastagem cultivada de clima temperado. Os principais ácidos graxos presentes no músculo Longissimus das ovelhas em todos os tratamentos foram o oléico (C18:1, o palmítico (C16:0 e o esteárico (C18:0. O grupo genético não afetou o perfil de ácidos graxos encontrados nesse músculo. No entanto, os teores de ácidos graxos do tipo ù3 foram mais altos e a relação ù6/ù3 foi mais baixa nas ovelhas mantidas a pasto. Com base no perfil de ácidos graxos, as ovelhas terminadas em pastagem cultivada proporcionaram uma carne mais saudável para o consumo humano que as ovelhas terminadas em confinamento.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate if the fatty acids profile in meat is affected by sheep breed or managing system. Twenty sheep, being 10 of the Ideal and 10 of the Texel breed, were randomly distributed according to its genetic group in two managing systems: feedlot and receiving sorghum silage and concentrate-based diet or grazing on a temperate pasture. The major fatty acids present in Longissimus muscle of sheep in all treatments were the oleic (C18:1, palmitoleic (C16:0 and stearic (C18:0. The genetic group did not affect the fatty acids profile of this muscle. However, the content of ù3 fatty acids was higher (P<.05 and the ù6/ù3 ratio was lower (P<.05 in meat of sheep grazing the temperate pasture. Based on fatty acids profile, the sheep finished on temperate pasture provided a healthier meat for the human consumption than sheep managed in feedlot.

  4. Comparison of Performance, Meat Lipids and Oxidative Status of Pigs from Commercial Breed and Organic Crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rearing systems for pig production, as concerns performance, meat lipid content, the fatty acid profile, histidinic antioxidants, coenzyme Q10, and TBARs. One hundred pigs were assigned to one of three treatments: intensively reared commercial hybrid pig (I, free range commercial hybrid pig (FR or organically reared crossbred pig (O, according to organic EU Regulations. I pigs showed the best productive performance, but FR and O increased: C20:1n9, Δ9-desaturase (C18 and thioesterase indices in meat. Lipid, dipeptides and CoQ10 appeared correlated to glycolytic and oxidative metabolic pathways. We can conclude that all studied parameters were influenced by the rearing system used, and that differences were particularly evident in the O system, which produced leaner meat with higher oxidative stability. In this respect, the organic pig rearing system promotes and enhances biodiversity, environmental sustainability and food quality.

  5. Carcass yield traits of kids from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goat breeds semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Phelps, O; Chisley, C; Getz, W R; Hollis, T; Leite-Browning, M L

    2012-03-01

    Bucklings (n = 275) from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goats were slaughtered at 7 mo of age (4 mo postweaning) to evaluate genetic effects on carcass yield. Breed of sire did not affect (P > 0.05) live, carcass, and primal weights. Conversely, breed of dam was a consistently significant source of variation for carcass weight traits. Kiko dams produced kids with heavier (P 0.05) from Boer or Kiko. Subjective conformation scores for muscularity were affected (P 0.05) by breeds of sire or dam. Direct effects of Boer were negative for carcass weight, dressing percent, and shoulder weight and positive for proportional leg weight. Direct effects of Kiko were positive for carcass weight and shoulder weight and negative for proportional leg weight. Direct effects of Spanish did not differ (P > 0.10) from 0 for any trait tested. Heterosis levels were similar among breed pairings. Heterosis was substantial (P ≤ 0.05) for live, carcass, and primal weights (5 to 9%) but not for dressing percent, proportional boneless meat yield, or primal weight proportions (genetic variation was observed among goat breeds for carcass yield traits. Dam breed was more influential than sire breed. Boer germplasm was not superior to Kiko or Spanish germplasm for carcass yield when semi-intensively managed on humid, subtropical pasture. Results emphasize the importance of comparative breed evaluations to provide industry with reliable information on carcass yield among goat genotypes.

  6. meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    These nutrient values determined in meat from red hartebeest could ... percentage of a-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) (Wiklund et al., 2001). .... system (1525 HPLC with a binary gradient delivery, 717 auto-sampler and Injector, 1500 ..... polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb, beef and pork: A review.

  7. Birth to weaning kid traits from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goat breeds semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L

    2011-09-01

    Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goats were semi-intensively managed in a complete 3-breed diallel mating scheme to evaluate genetic effects on preweaning kid performance. Over a 6-yr period, 1,547 kids were born in March and May with 1,173 kids raised by their dams to weaning at 3 mo of age. March-born kids were lighter (P 0.10). Maternal Boer effects were negative (P 0.5) for preweaning ADG or weaning weight. Heterosis for birth weight was exhibited (P genetic variation was observed between meat goat breeds for kid performance to weaning. Maternal breed effects were more influential than direct breed effects. Boer goats were not superior to Kiko or Spanish for preweaning kid performance when semi-intensively managed on humid, subtropical pasture. Kiko should be a preferred breed and to a lesser extent Spanish for enhancing birth to weaning kid performance. Findings of this study emphasize the importance of proper doe breed selection in achieving desired kid performance to weaning in meat goats.

  8. The content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer groups in milk of two Polish sheep breeds determined by silver ion liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Radzik-Rant, Aurelia; Rant, Witold; Czauderna, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Sheep milk is rich in CLA isomers which are biologically active components influencing human health. There are four geometric CLA isomer pairs: cis, trans; trans, cis; trans, trans and cis, cis. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CLA isomer groups content by Ag+-HPLC in milk fat of Zelazneńska (ZS) and Wrzosówka (WS) sheep breeds. The ewes of both breeds were kept under the same environmental and nutritional conditions. Milk samples were collected from 60 suckling ewes (30 from each breed), at the age of 3-4 years and in their 4th week of lactation. A higher total amount of all CLA isomer groups was obtained in milk of ZS ewes, however, this result was statistically insignificant. The percentage of the main c9, t11 isomer in total CLA was higher in Wrzosówka milk (68% vs. 74%). The content of the trans, trans isomer group in milk fat of the studied breeds was similar. The percentage of this group in total CLA in milk of WS and ZS constitutes 7.2% and 7.7%, respectively. The amount of cis,cis isomers in milk fat of ZS was higher thanWS (P < or = 0.01).

  9. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  10. Hormone profiles and haematological characteristics during oestrous cycle, pregnancy and lactation in Egyptian breeds of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.H.; Badawy, A.M.; El-Nouty, F.D.; Hassan, G.A.; Latif, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclic animals showed an increase around oestrus in rectal temperature (RT), serum protein, blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils, and plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T 4 ). This was accompanied by a decline in blood haemoglobin (Hb) and lymphocytes and in plasma progesterone levels. The lower incidence of oestrous activity during the spring season was associated with higher average plasma progesterone levels. The seasonal changes in plasma cortisol and T 4 were noted only in Rahmani ewes. In the pregnant animals there was a gradual decline in blood glucose, Hb and serum proteins, with minimum values at parturition. This was associated with a decline in plasma osmolality and an increase in plasma aldosterone during the second half of gestation. There was a rise in plasma cortisol, accompanied by a rise in blood total leucocyte counts and neutrophils and a decline in lymphocytes two weeks before parturition, showing a peak on day of lambing. Plasma T 4 and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) declined particularly during late pregnancy. Progesterone concentration increased with the advance of pregnancy, showing a sharp rise after the third month and a sharp decline during the week before parturition. Plasma progesterone level can be used successfully for the early diagnosis of pregnancy. Summer pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the overall mean plasma T 4 , and an increase in plasma osmolality, aldosterone, progesterone and cortisol; these seasonal changes were noted only in the Rahmani ewes. Plasma cortisol and T 3 were low during early lactation, tended to rise around mid-lactation to late lactation, and were negatively related to levels of milk production. Present results suggest that the temperate evolved Rahmani is more sensitive to unfavourable environmental conditions than the desert adapted Barki breed. 39 refs, 5 figs

  11. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. leaf with ratio of 100:0 (Group A = control, 75:25 (Group B, 50:50 (Group C and 0:100 (Group D. Forages were given 2.5-3% (dry matter of liveweight. All groups were supplemented with 100g/head/day concentrate (crude protein = 16%, but during late pregnancy and lactation they were supplemented at 200 g/head/day. Results showed that feeding gliricidia 25-100% of total forages improved body weight due to the increasing protein intake. The maximum concentration of progesteron increased from 0.81 to 2.78 ng/ml. The ovulation rate and prolification also increased significantly (P<0.05 from 1.6 to 3.0 and 1.33 to 2.38, respectively. Individual birth and weaning weights of the lambs were not affected. It is concluded that feeding gliricidia continuously up to 100% as forages and supplemented with concentrate gives positive effect on bodyweight gain, reproduction and production performances in second breeding of JFT sheep.

  12. Using sheep genomes from diverse U.S. breeds to identify missense variants in genes affecting fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Access to sheep genome sequences significantly improves the chances of identifying genes that may influence the health, welfare, and productivity of these animals. Methods: A public, searchable DNA sequence resource for U.S. sheep was created with whole genome sequence (WGS) of 96 rams. ...

  13. Radioactivity in sheep meat, cow and goat milk, 1988-2004; Radioaktiv forurensning i sauekjoett, ku- og geitemelk, 1988-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.

    2005-09-01

    The report summarizes the results of monitoring 137Cs in sheep, cow and goats milk from selected farms in 2004 and long-term effects from 1988-2004.The results give a basis for this years slaughter forecasts in 2004 and give information about the levels, variation and long-term effects of 137Cs in some of Norway's most important food chains. Sheep classification zones made clean feeding necessary wholly or partially in 34 municipalities in 2004. Effective ecological half-times for 137Cs in goat milk from Nord-Trondelag and Oppland were 9-10 years for the period 1989-2004. Effective ecological half-times for 137Cs in cow milk were 7 years in farms from Nordland county and 10 years in farms from Oppland county. Concentration of 137Cs in sheep meat from Oppland county measured in 1989-2004, showed an estimated effective ecological half-time of 10 years for ewes and 11 years for lambs. (Author)

  14. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza, A.; Rey, A. I.; Lopez Carrasco, C.; Lopez-Bote, C. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of gender on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed. Sixteen calves, eight males and eight females, were used. The calves were fattened under intensive conditions, housed in confinement and fed with the same feed and cereal straw from 230.7 to 478.3 kg. The males grew more than the females (1.390 vs 0.932 kg day{sup 1} respectively). Carcass weight, carcass length, leg length, leg perimeter, carcass and leg compactness, legs, fore-quarters and loins weights and forequarters percentage regarding carcass weight were higher (p < 0.05) in males than in females. The gender had not significant influence on CIE a*, b*, chroma and hue variables but CIE L* value was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in males than in females. The a* value decreased and b* and hue values increased with ageing time. The subcutaneous back fat from the females had significantly (p < 0.05) higher C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, S MUFA and lower C10:0, C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:0, C20:3 n-9, C20:4 n-6, C22:5 n-3, {Sigma} n-6, {Sigma} n-3 and {Sigma} PUFA proportions than that from males. It is concluded that the gender has influence on growth performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous backfat; gender does not have effect on instrumental colour variables; and meat colour can reach acceptable values for consumers until four days after slaughter. (Author) 34 refs.

  15. Efficiency of Sanitary Treatment in Poultry Breeding and Poultry Meat Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kašková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effectiveness of disinfection on a broiler farm and in a plant processing the poultry from this farm. The broiler farm was disinfected with a preparation based on peracetic acid while a preparation based on quarternary ammonium salt was used in the processing plant. We evaluated swabs taken from surfaces, which come into contact with broilers and broiler meat. Results of the swabs taken by standard microbiological swabbing method were evaluated with results of the swabs taken by the ATP-bioluminescence method. The microbiological examination included total counts of microorganisms, coliform count and moulds. When using the standard plate counts method on the broiler farm we found that the plate counts in 0% of swabs were 100 CFU. In the processing plant, out of 22% of swabs 100. The bioluminescence method was applied only in the processing plant where 300 RLU were measured in 80, 10 and 10% of swabs, resp. Our observations and results allowed us to conclude that the disinfectants tested appeared suitable for the respective premises and the ATP bioluminescence method could be use as a as a suitable complement for detection of cleanliness of individual surfaces.

  16. Qualidade de carnes provenientes de cortes da carcaça de cordeiros e de ovinos adultos Quality of meats from cuts of lamb and adult sheep carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar as características qualitativas da carne de ovinos de diferentes categorias quanto aos músculos dos cortes da carcaça (paleta, lombo e perna, utilizaram-se 18 ovinos ½ Ile de France ½ Ideal (seis cordeiros não-castrados, seis ovelhas de descarte e seis machos adultos castrados. Os animais foram criados em pasto de capim-tifton 85 e receberam suplementação (concentrado. Os cordeiros foram abatidos aos 32 kg, com aproximadamente 5 meses de idade, e as ovelhas e os machos adultos castrados, com 55 kg e aos 60 meses de idade. Não houve diferenças nos valores de pH 45 minutos e pH 24 horas entre as categorias animais e nos músculos dos cortes da carcaça. A idade de abate influenciou a luminosidade da carne de todos os músculos. O teor de vermelho não diferiu entre os animais adultos, mas foi superior aos valores obtidos na carne dos cordeiros. A carne de animais adultos é mais escura que a de cordeiros. As perdas por cocção no músculo Triceps brachii são maiores que no Longissimus lumborum e Semimembranosus. Os valores de pH e a capacidade de retenção de água são similares entre as categorias animais.Eighteen ½ Ile de France ½ Polwarth sheep (6 no castrated lambs, 6 discarded ewes and 6 discarded wethers were used to evaluate qualitative traits of meat from different categories of sheep for muscle cuts (shoulder, loin and leg. The animals were raised in grazing system with tifton-85 pastures and supplemented with concentrate. Lambs were slaughtered at 32 kg body weight, close to 5 months of age. Ewes and wethers were slaughtered with 55 kg and 60 months of age. There were no differences in pH45mim and pH24h values among different animal categories and muscles of carcass cuts. There was difference in meat luminosity between lambs and adult animals, considering all the evaluated muscles. The red level did not differ between adult categories, but it was higher than values observed in lambs. In

  17. Concentration of biologically active polyamines in meat and liver of sheep and lambs after slaughter and their changes in mutton during storage and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadáková, Eva; Pelikánová, Tamara; Kalač, Pavel

    2011-02-01

    Putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) concentrations using a UPLC method, in chilled mutton, lamb and livers 24 h after slaughter were determined. PUT concentrations were quantifiable only in some samples. Mean SPD concentrations were 4-6, 13.5 and 16.8 mg kg-1 in the meats, sheep and lamb livers, respectively. The respective SPM concentrations were 17-25, 128 and 79 mg kg-1. SPD and SPM losses of about one fifth and half of the initial level, respectively, were apparent in mutton loins stored at -18°C for 6 months. Significant losses of SPD and SPM were found in mutton loins stored aerobically, vacuum-packaged or in a modified atmosphere at +2°C. Boiling and stewing of mutton legs caused SPD and SPM losses of about 40% and roasting of about 60% of the initial content. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY AND ITS CONTROL IN SPANISH SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Gómez Brunet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat breeds from subtropical, middle and high latitudes show seasonal changes in reproductive activity. In general, the breeding season starts in autumn and ends in winter, with anoestrus in spring/summer. An endogenous circannual rhythm driven and synchronised by the annual photoperiod cycle regulates the onset and offset of the breeding season. However, the timing and duration of the breeding season can be affected by interactions between the photoperiod and factors such as breed, geographical origin, nutritional and lactational status, social interactions, and the season of parturition. Seasonality in reproduction is naturally accompanied by variation in the availability and price of meat, milk and cheese over the year, affecting the economy of farmers, consumers and the food industry alike. The control of reproduction outside the normal breeding season by inducing and synchronizing oestrus and ovulation plus the use of artificial insemination and/or natural mating would help ensure the year-round availability of products. This review describes the seasonal variation in the sexual activity of ovine and caprine species with special regard to local Spanish sheep and goats breeds, examines how the photoperiod regulates their annual reproductive cycle, and discusses a number of strategies that can be used to induce and synchronise ovulation outside the natural breeding season.

  19. Reproductive pattern of local sheep in Egypt with special reference to the effects of breed, season and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakha, A.M.; Essawy, S.A.; El Azab, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  20. Ecological safety of meat products

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.

  1. Improvement of meat quality evaluation by ultrasound in Carpathian goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lazar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In goat, the evaluation of carcass quality was mainly done by using the classical method of animal slaughtering. This paper proposes a non-invasive method for goat carcass estimation, very efficient and easy to use, without sacrificing and able to keep the animals for reproduction: ultrasound method. In the present study, the following parameters were measured by ultrasound method: fat layer, muscle depth, eye muscle area, eye muscle perimeter in Longissimus Dorssi, between two measurements point (12th rib and between 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebra. Young goats (33.65kg, BW, 9 months of age, and adult female goats (35.99 kg BW, were used. In young goat, fat layer (1.86, 1.94 mm, muscle depth (18.97, 17.34 mm, eye muscle area (8.18, 8.25 cm2 and eye muscle perimeter (123.93, 125.06 mm was similar with those founded in other goat breeds. Very high correlations were found between body weight and ultrasound parameters for muscle depth (0.81, 0.61 and eye muscle area (0.74, 0.67 in young goats. In adults, the ultrasound measurements showed 1.99, 2.04 mm for fat, 19.96, 19.26 mm for muscle depth and 9.02 and 9.17 cm2 for eye muscle area. High correlations were found also for adult goats for the same parameters, body weight and ultrasound for muscle depth (0.61, 0.63 and eye muscle area (0.45, 0.41. In the second phase of this study correlations with carcass derived from slaughtered animals will be carried out.

  2. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić, S.; Fang, Sun; Di, Liu; Petrović, M.M.; Pantelić, V.; Stanišić, N.; Ostojić-Andrić, D.; Petričević, M.; Nikšić, D.; Delić, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  3. Genetic variability of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds Variabilidade genética de raças de ovelhas deslanadas do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA - Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals, Rabo Largo (48, Somali (48, Morada Nova (48 and Bergamasca (46, collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a origem racial de ovinos Santa Inês e avaliar a unicidade das populações das principais raças naturalizadas brasileiras de ovinos deslanado. Foi realizado um estudo dos padrões de semelhança molecular a partir de marcadores RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se 238 indivíduos dos Estados de Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, e Ceará assim como do Distrito Federal, distribuídos entre as raças Santa Inês (48 animais, Bergamácia (46, Rabo Largo (48, Morada Nova (48 e Somali (48. Após triagem com 140 primers, foram selecionados 54 locos a partir de 19 primers e todas as raças apresentaram marcadores específicos. Análises qualitativas mostraram a presença de marcadores diagnóstico-específicos para todas as raças. As diferenças inter-raciais foram

  4. Water requirements and metabolism of Egyptian sheep and goats as affected by breed, season and physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, G.A.; El-Nouty, F.D.; Salem, M.H.; Latif, M.G.; Badawy, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Water requirements and metabolism and some physiological and blood characteristics were studied in dry non-pregnant Barki and Rahmani ewes and in Baladi goats during spring, summer and winter seasons. The Rahmani sheep showed greater thermal discomfort than the Barki during the summer season. Pregnancy was associated with a significant increase in body weight and a decline in PCV and total serum protein, and these changes were greater in goats than in sheep. They were accompanied by significant increases in TBW and WTR. All these changes were more pronounced during late pregnancy than during mid-pregnancy, although the effect of stage of pregnancy on TBW did not occur in the Barki ewes. The pregnancy induced changes in total protein and WTR were greater in spring, while those in TBW were greater in winter. The above parameters also showed similar changes during lactation (particularly during early lactation), but lactating animals showed a decrease instead of an increase in body weight. Goats showed greater reductions in body weight, PCV and water t 1/2 and greater increases in WTR than sheep during the spring season. Withdrawal of drinking water for four days caused a reduction in body weight, blood glucose and plasma T 3 and T 4 , and an increase in PCV, total serum protein and plasma osmolality. Plasma aldosterone increased slightly during dehydration but increased markedly during the rehydration period, particularly in the Rahmani sheep during the summer season. The above parameters changed similarly when the animals were starved for four days (feed but not water was withheld), but total serum protein showed a decrease instead of an increase. Changes during dehydration were more pronounced in summer, while those during starvation were greater in winter. 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  5. BIO-ECOLGICAL PHENOMENON OF POLY-PARASITISM – ACTUAL MAJOR PROBLEM IN BREEDING OF SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.

  6. COMPARATIVE RESEARCHE REGARDING METABOLIC PROFILE OF THE CALIFORNIAN, NEW ZEALAND WHITE, GRAND CHINCHILLA MEAT RABIT BREEDS AND THE F1 NZCH HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA-MARCELA TOBĂ (GOINA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Precious biological characteristics of rabbits make their breeding a very profitable occupation. The rabbit meat, organoleptically same to the white meat, is rich in proteins, but low in fats. Biological researched done in direction to elucidate the biochemical systems that are the basis for organism physiological processes, have revealed that the level in which this process are develop directly influence the rabbits productivity capacity. 60 rabbit’s heads was used as biological material, distributed in: 15 Californian, 15 New Zeeland White, 15 Grand Chinchilla and 15 F1NZCH hybrids obtained from cross-breeding the New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form. Blood was sampled from the rabbit and was biochemical analyzed. The studied indices were: total protein, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total bilirubine, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose. The experimental lot formed from F1 NZCH hybrids registered a concentration of 2.1 mg/dl uric acid, and in the other three lots the concentration was under 2 mg/dl. In all four lots, uric acid value was in normal limits. The determined creatinine registered very low values, under 1 mg/dl, at the low limit of reference values. At hybrids from New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form, in equal environmental conditions, the serum biochemical analysis haven’t registered significant differences compared to pure breeds individuals.

  7. Comparison of growth performance, carcass components, and meat quality between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line slaughtered at 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this research was to make a full study of the meat from Mos-breed roosters (Spanish indigenous chicken). To achieve this purpose, the type of breed (Mos vs. a hybrid line, Sasso T-44) and the effect of finishing treatment in the last month (corn vs. commercial fodder) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality (physicochemical and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile, and sensorial description were studied. The finishing feeding effect did not modify the growth, but the differences between genotypes were statistically significant (P 0.05) were found, and carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. Drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44 birds, whereas breast (15.2%), that is the most highly valued piece of the chicken, was similar for both genotypes. Significant differences in pH, protein, and ash content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had an effect on myoglobin and redness index (P roosters fed with corn had a higher luminosity. Despite the fact of the slaughtered age of birds, values of shear force were slightly higher than 2 kg (2.11 kg) for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Mos breed showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (25.90 vs. 22.74; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (35.14 vs. 38.95; P < 0.001) than Sasso T-44 chicken muscles. Surprisingly, birds finishing with the corn diet (2 times higher in linolenic acid than fodder) did not increase their polyunsaturated fatty acid level in the breast, obtaining in the Mos breed a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.69. The amino acid profile of the indigenous-breed breast was not similar to that of the commercial-strain breast; besides, finishing feeding treatment had more of an effect on amino acid profile, affecting the majority of amino acids, with the

  8. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects in Growth Traits of Sangsari Sheep Using Gibbs Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Small ruminants, especially native breed types, play an important role in livelihoods of a considerable part of human population in the tropics from socio-economic aspects. Therefore, integrated attempt in terms of management and genetic improvement to enhance production is of crucial importance. Knowledge of genetic variation and co-variation among traits is required for both the design of effective sheep breeding programs and the accurate prediction of genetic progress from these programs. Body weight and growth traits are one of the economically important traits in sheep production, especially in Iran where lamb sale is the main source of income for sheep breeders while other products are in secondary importance. Although mutton is the most important source of protein in Iran, meat production from the sheep does not cover the increasing consumer demand. On the other hand, increase in sheep number to increase meat production has been limited by low quality and quantity of forage range. Therefore, enhancing meat production should be achieved by selecting the animals that have maximum genetic merit as next generation parents. To design an efficient improvement program and genetic evaluation system for maximization response to selection for economically important traits, accurate estimates of the genetic parameters and the genetic relationships between the traits are necessary. Studies of various sheep breeds have shown that both direct and maternal genetic influences are of importance for lamb growth. When growth traits are included in the breeding goal, both direct and maternal genetic effects should be taken into account in order to achieve optimum genetic progress. The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components and heritability, for growth traits, by fitting six animal models in the Sangsari sheep using Gibbs sampling. Material and Method Sangsari is a fat-tailed and relatively small sized breed of sheep

  9. An effective rotational mating scheme for inbreeding reduction in captive populations illustrated by the rare sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Lansbergen, L.M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Within breeds and other captive populations, the risk of high inbreeding rates and loss of diversity can be high within (small) herds or subpopulations. When exchange of animals between different subpopulations is organised according to a rotational mating scheme, inbreeding rates can be restricted.

  10. Effect of breed of female local sheep on blood biochemical and sexual hormonal levels during mating, pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.; El-Sayed, A.I.; Nada, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ewes breeds on some blood biochemical and hormones levels during mating, pregnancy and post.partum periods. A total number of 42 ewes, 1.5 . 3.5 years of age with body weight ranged between 45 to 55 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. Animals were divided into two groups according to their breed. The first group included 18 Ossimi breed ewes and the second group included 24 Rahmani breed ewes. Blood samples were collected from both breed at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions and at 30 and 60 days of post. partum. Serum total lipids and cholesterol, progesterone (P4) and estradiol . 17β (E2) were determined. It was found that Ossimi ewes had lower level of both sexual hormones than Rahmani once. Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17 β levels increased gradually as pregnancy time passed reaching its maximum level at the 140th day of the pregnancy period in Rahmani and Ossimi, then decreased during the last 5 days. Additionally, Rahmani ewes had relatively higher mean values of estradiol-17 β at 30th and 60th days compared with Ossime ewes. While, the least squares mean of progesterone decreased in Rahmani ewes compared with Ossime ewes at the same time of estimation. Ossimi ewes having higher means of total lipids (L) and cholesterol (C) than in Rahmani ewes while, the values of L/C ratio were found to be higher in Rahmani ewes than Ossimi ones. Total lipids level increased gradually from Farghaly et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1318 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 10th days of pregnancy from 273.09 and 267.75mg/dI to 342.92 and 338.9 mg/dl in 145th days in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. Similarly, the levels of cholesterol were 93.49 and 90.35 mg /dl in 10th days of pregnancy and 134.79 and 141.81 mg/dl in 145th days of pregnancy for Ossimi and Rahmani ewes, respectively. The same trend was found

  11. The effect of intense light pulses on the sensory quality and instrumental color of meat from different animal breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašević I.

    2015-01-01

    Intense light pulses (ILP) are an emerging processing technology, which has a potential to decontaminate food products. The light generated by ILP lamps consists of a continuum broadband spectrum from deep UV to the infrared, especially rich in UV range below 400 nm, which is germicidal. Evaluation of the effect of intense light pulses (ILP) on sensory quality of meat, game and poultry was performed using two kinds of red meat (beef and pork), two kinds of ...

  12. Oestrous behaviour and ovarian activity in D'man and Sardi breeds of Moroccan sheep under normal and experimental photoperiods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahlou-Kassi, A.; Boukhliq, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of photoperiod on sexual activity was investigated in Sardi and D'man ewes. Twenty ewes from each breed were subjected to an experimental photoperiod corresponding to latitude 56 deg. N. Control ewes (12 per breed) were maintained under natural photoperiod (32 deg. N). Behavioural oestrus and ovarian activity were monitored using penis deviated rams and plasma progesterone levels. Preliminary results from this study show that an increase in amplitude of photoperiod variations causes a decrease in the expression of oestrous behaviour in D'man ewes during the period of decreasing daylight. Ovarian activity remained unchanged. Sardi ewes were not markedly affected by change in photoperiod. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  13. Meat characteristics of chickens from an F1 cross of two improved Spanish breeds depending on slaughter age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, J. A.; Escoda, L.; Cubilo, M. D.; Tor, M.; Asenjo, B.; Ciria, J.; Francesch, A.

    2011-07-01

    The present study analysed the meat characteristics of i) improved Castellana Negra chickens slaughtered at 18 weeks (CN-18) and ii) F1 crossbred chickens from improved Castellana Negra hens and improved Penedesenca Negra cocks (CNPN) slaughtered at 12 weeks and 18 weeks of age (young and adult animals, respectively). Purebred and crossbred specimens were compared at similar weights (CN-18 and CNPN-12) and ages (CN-18 and CNPN-18). The protein content of the meat was similar for the three types of animals; heavier animals (CNPN-18) had more fat than those slaughtered at lower weights (CNPN-12 and CN-18). Adults had a higher saturated fatty acid content and the young CNPN chickens had more monounsaturated fatty acids than CN chickens. In the CNPN adults, less water was lost during cooking, which is directly related to the juiciness of the meat. With regard to sensory analysis, a darker colour was observed in the meat as much as the internal fat of adult animals, in addition to greater colour uniformity. The meat of young CNPN birds was juicier, whereas that of the CN chickens was more fibrous. Therefore, we conclude that meat from CNPN chickens presents chemical, physical, and sensorial characteristics that make these animals a genetic base for alternative poultry production. (Author) 42 refs.

  14. Composite selection signals can localize the trait specific genomic regions in multi-breed populations of cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. Results The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature

  15. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and muscle amino-acid profile of different rabbits breeds and their crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Abd-Elhamid, Tamer; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Meat production efficiency can be enhanced by crossbreeding to capture heterosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of rabbit genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acids profile. A total of 504 weaned rabbits from nine genotypes of full factorial crossing of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CA) and Rex (RX) were used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were assessed for meat quality and amino acids profile. There were no differences between groups at weaning and 6weeks, but by 10weeks differences were significant (Pmeat quality. CA×RX and RX×NZW had the heaviest body weight at 10weeks of age and highest body weight gain during the whole finishing period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of breeding strategy and feeding system on the within-herd variation of lean meat percents in Danish slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Bagger, J; Nielsen, J P; Ersbøll, A K

    2011-08-01

    In several countries slaughter pigs are paid for individually, according to slaughter weight and lean meat percent (LMP). Production of uniform batches of pigs within the optimal weight and LMP limits will obtain the best price. Therefore, all pigs should have a similar growth rate (average daily gain, ADG) and reach an appropriate slaughter weight within the same time period. LMP may serve as a proxy for ADG since pigs with low LMP have significantly higher ADG than pigs with high LMP and vice versa. Both breeding strategy and feeding system may influence the range of variation among pigs. The aim of this study was to test the two following hypotheses: (1) Herds purchasing breeding gilts have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds producing their own breeding gilts and (2) Herds using restricted feeding of finishers have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds with ad libitum feeding of finishers. The study included 72 herds and a total of 345,132 pigs slaughtered during one year. Among the 72 herds, 40 were home-breeders and 32 purchased breeding gilts from a breeding company. Nineteen herds used restricted feeding, of which 8 (42%) were home-breeders. Fifty-three herds used ad libitum feeding, of which 32 (60%) were home-breeders. Breeding strategy had a significant effect on SDLMP (p=0.003), where purchase of breeding gilts resulted in a significantly lower standard deviation of the monthly LMP compared to home-bred gilts (a difference in median SDLMP of 0.2 percentage points or 8% difference between groups). Feeding system had a significant effect on the meanLMP (p<0.001), with a significantly higher meanLMP in herds using restrictive feeding compared to ad libitum feeding (60.7% versus 60.0%). Restrictive feeding also resulted in a significantly lower SDLMP (p<0.001) compared to ad libitum feeding (2.2% versus 2.5% or a 12% difference between groups). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  17. Evaluating the impact of breed, pregnancy, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Preston, W D; Joseph, S R; LaPlace, L; Hillman, P E; Gebremedhin, K G; Lee, C N; Collier, R J

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregnancy, breed, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate (SR) of hair sheep. St. Croix White (STX; = 9) and Dorper × STX (DRPX; = 9) ewes (3.6 yr of age) were evaluated over 4 d at 126 d of gestation (PREG) and over 4 d at 46 d postpartum (OPEN) in the shade and sun and in the morning (AM; 0900 to 1200 h) and afternoon (PM; 1300 to 1600 h) after a 20 min acclimation to each condition on each day. Data loggers recorded vaginal temperature (VT) at 10-min intervals for 96 h. Rectal temperature (RT) was measured using a digital veterinary thermometer, and respiration rate (RR) was measured as breaths per minute (bpm). Sweating rate was calculated from measured air properties passing over a shaved (300 cm) and unshaved area of the ewes' body using a portable calorimeter. Data were analyzed using GLM procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with breed, pregnancy status, sun exposure, and time of day as main effects. Mean temperature, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index, wind speed, and solar radiation on the days of data collection were 28.2°C, 82.8%, 80.3, 4.2 km/h, and 237.5 W/m, respectively. There was no difference ( > 0.10) in RT, RR, and SR between DRPX and STX ewes. The PREG ewes had lower RT ( ewes (38.5 ± 0.2 vs. 39.1 ± 0.2°C, 70.2 ± 3.1 vs. 88.3 ± 3.1 g⋅m⋅h, and 79.5 ± 2.2 vs. 72.1 ± 2.2 bpm, respectively). During the PM, RR, RT ( 0.10) in RT. There was no difference in SR ( > 0.10) between the shaved and unshaved area of the ewe. The DRPX ewes had higher ( ewes. The PREG ewes had higher ( ewes during the night time and lower VT than the OPEN ewes during the day time ( ewes had a greater ( ewes did (2.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4°C, respectively), but there was no breed difference ( > 0.10). Hair coat did not have an influence on the SR of the ewes, and PREG ewes appeared to use increased respiration as opposed to sweating to help control RT. The narrower range of body

  18. Changes of vitamins A, E, and C and lipid peroxidation status of breeding and pregnant sheep during dry seasons on medium-to-low quality forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi-Fani, Mehdi; Mirzaei, Abdollah; Nazifi, Saeed; Shabbooie, Zahra

    2012-02-01

    This study assessed the changes of plasma vitamin A, E, and C and the lipid peroxidation status of sheep during breeding and pregnancy under drought conditions. The study was conducted on 105 cross-bred fat tailed ewes, 3-5 years old with body condition scores (BCS) of 2.5 to 3.5. The ewes were grazing on medium-to-low quality forages during summer and low quality forages within the succeeding months and had ad libitum access to a mixture of alfalfa hay (40%) and wheat straw (60%) in the afternoons. From 3 weeks before breeding till 1 month after the introduction of rams, 300 g of barley grain/head/day was offered to the ewes and then the supplemental grain was reduced to 100 g/head/day. For better synchronization of estrus cycles in ewes, they were isolated from the rams for at least 2 months and then kept in close proximity of the rams for 1 week before the introduction of the rams to the ewe flock. Then, whole blood samples were collected on days 1, 7, 21, and 120 after ram introduction. Vitamins A, E, and C were measured in plasma. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in the hemolysate as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. Plasma progesterone (P4) was measured in the samples of day 120 for assessing pregnancy status of the ewes. Vitamins A and C showed continuous and significant declines (P 0.05). A positive correlation between vitamins E and C was detected at day 120 (r = 0.349, P < 0.01). Age and BCS did not affect the patterns of changes. Assuming that the ewes with P4 concentrations ≥2.5 ng/ml were pregnant, 95 out of 105 ewes (90.5%) were pregnant at day 120 of the study. Under the conditions of the present study with medium-to-low quality pastures as the main sources of feed, ewes of various ages and body conditions may suffer from oxidative stress during breeding and pregnancy.

  19. Effect of temperament on milk production, somatic cell count, chemical composition and physical properties in Lacaune dairy sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Tóth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of temperament on milk yield, lactation length, physico-chemical properties and somatic cell count of Lacaune ewes were evaluated. The investigation was carried out at a sheep farm in the county of Győr-Moson-Sopron. The temperament of 106 Lacaune ewes was measured by the temperament 5-point-scale test (1=very nervous, 5=very quiet during milking. Furthermore, 42 ewes were randomly selected from a herd of 106 animals for the analysis of milk composition (fat, protein and lactose, pH, electrical conductivity as well as somatic cell count. It was found that the temperament had a significant effect on lactation length and lactation milk production, lactose, electrical conductivity and somatic cell count. Calm ewes had significantly longer lactation (4 score: 220.7 day; 5 score: 201.4 day as well as higher milk production (4 score: 207.9 kg; 5 score: 193.3 kg compared to more temperamental animals (2+3 scores: 166.5 day and 135.5 kg; P<0.05. The content of lactose was significantly lower (4.32 in the more temperamental group, while electrical conductivity was higher (4.81 mS cm-1 compared to calmer animals (4.69 % and 4.16 mS cm-1. Additionally, significant differences were found in milk somatic cell count among the temperament categories. Calmer ewes had a lower somatic cell count in milk (5.17 log cm-3 than more temperamental ones (5.67 log cm-3; P<0.05.

  20. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features.

  1. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin × Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (Psheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  4. Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, H.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

  5. Udder Morphological Traits and Milk Yield of Chilota and Suffolk Down Sheep Breeds Morfología Mamaria y Producción Lechera de las Razas Ovinas Chilota y Suffolk Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Martínez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 m

  6. Ecological safety of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.

  7. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Sheep herding plays a significant role in the livelihoods of rural households in Mali and other semi-arid countries of West Africa. Although sheep herding could improve the incomes of rural women, its potential is not being realized because a lack of feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry ...

  8. Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P free-range days on the BW at 42 d of age (P > 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P free-range days (P free-range days (P 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Commercial cuts and carcass characteristics of sheep and goats supplemented with multinutritional blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Araújo C

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aimed to identify the weight and yield of the commercial cuts, muscularity, and adiposity in the carcasses of sheep and goats grazing in the Caatinga supplemented with different sources of supplementations; these include feed-blocks. Material and methods. Sixty non-castrated males an initial average body weight of 18.63 ± 1.93 kg were used: 30 goats and 30 sheep all animals did not have a defined breed standard (WDBS. The experimental design used was entirely randomized (DIC, in factorial scheme 3x2 (three types of supplementation: mineral salt, MBs and MBs + buffel hay, and two species: sheep and goats and 10 replications. Animals were raised in a rangeland grazing system in an area with vegetation characteristic of Caatinga ecosystem under three types of supplementation: 1: only mineral salt; 2: Feed blocks (MBs; and 3: MBs + buffel hay There were measured the weight, yield and the components of left half-part of carcass of lambs and kids. Results. The sheep were superior to goats in carcass conformation, loin-eye area, index of muscularity of the leg and compactness index of the leg while the goats were superior to sheep in leg muscles weight. Conclusions. Sheep and Goats, when fed with supplementation of pasture feeding blocks in the Caatinga ecosystem; Supplementation with mineral salt and Multinutritional Blocks with and without Buffel can be used to improve herds in the caatinga, with similar results among the three. Sheep show more adiposity of meat than goats, in contrast, goats have higher musculature than sheep when fed with feed blocks.

  10. Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study

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    Sezen Ocak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G, an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C, and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC. The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing.

  11. Genome-wide genetic diversity and differentially selected regions among Suffolk, Rambouillet, Columbia, Polypay, and Targhee sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifan Zhang

    Full Text Available Sheep are among the major economically important livestock species worldwide because the animals produce milk, wool, skin, and meat. In the present study, the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip was used to investigate genetic diversity and genome selection among Suffolk, Rambouillet, Columbia, Polypay, and Targhee sheep breeds from the United States. After quality-control filtering of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms, we used 48,026 SNPs, including 46,850 SNPs on autosomes that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and 1,176 SNPs on chromosome × for analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on all 46,850 SNPs clearly separated Suffolk from Rambouillet, Columbia, Polypay, and Targhee, which was not surprising as Rambouillet contributed to the synthesis of the later three breeds. Based on pair-wise estimates of F(ST, significant genetic differentiation appeared between Suffolk and Rambouillet (F(ST = 0.1621, while Rambouillet and Targhee had the closest relationship (F(ST = 0.0681. A scan of the genome revealed 45 and 41 differentially selected regions (DSRs between Suffolk and Rambouillet and among Rambouillet-related breed populations, respectively. Our data indicated that regions 13 and 24 between Suffolk and Rambouillet might be good candidates for evaluating breed differences. Furthermore, ovine genome v3.1 assembly was used as reference to link functionally known homologous genes to economically important traits covered by these differentially selected regions. In brief, our present study provides a comprehensive genome-wide view on within- and between-breed genetic differentiation, biodiversity, and evolution among Suffolk, Rambouillet, Columbia, Polypay, and Targhee sheep breeds. These results may provide new guidance for the synthesis of new breeds with different breeding objectives.

  12. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  13. The morphology of skin sheep of different genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    LADYSH I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of the morphology by the merino sheep skin Askania and Prekos breed in the different natureclimatic conditions were studied. The breeds and age peculiarities of the morphology skin layers were established.

  14. A review of some characteristics, socio-economic aspects and utilization of Zulu sheep: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Nokuthula Winfred; Bezuidenhout, Carlos C; Nsahlai, Ignatius V; Nesamvuni, Edward A

    2011-08-01

    Zulu sheep are Nguni sheep of Zululand and are adapted to the harsh conditions of KwaZulu-Natal. They are used by rural farmers for economic purposes. Their numbers are declining, indicating a potential extinction threat. Knowledge of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics is essential for conservation planning. In this review, there is a focus on the utilization, socio-economic aspects, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics as well as a proposed breeding programme. A survey has shown that rural farmers in the areas of northern KwaZulu-Natal prefer to keep this breed for its adaptability, resistance to diseases and meat quality. Zulu sheep are small-framed multi-coloured animals. Mature males weigh up to 38 kg and females up to 32 kg. Based on four morphological traits and live weight, phenotypic diversity between three populations was estimated at 48%. A genetic diversity between these three populations was estimated at 22%. Live weight of Zulu sheep can be estimated using the heart girth and wither height measurements. Scrotum circumference of young rams (up to 22 months old) is reliable for estimating the live weight. Animals that were characterized in the studies were grazed extensively and no supplements were provided. There is therefore a potential of weight increase if these animals are reared in a semi-extensive environment. An open nucleus breeding scheme is thus recommended for a sustainable use and conservation of this breed. For more conclusive results, larger numbers of phenotypic and genetic characteristics, in larger numbers of Zulu sheep populations, should be investigated.

  15. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Retamal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects on lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P < 0.05 than Suffolk Down, but with a higher proportion of hide (P < 0.05 and hooves (P < 0.05. The type of pasture only affected hot carcass yield, which was higher in Chilote lamb with naturalized pasture than with rangeland (P < 0.05. There were no effects of breed or pasture type on the main characteristics of the lamb carcasses.

  16. Occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep breed Santa Ines with surface reactive lymph nodes at Uberlândia region, Minas Gerais

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    Vinícius de Morais Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis and tuberculosis in Santa Ines sheep, with the presence of reactive superficial lymph nodes on clinical examination, it was examined 650 adult animals, between one and four years of age from 11 farms in the region of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tuberculin cervical comparative test (CCT was performed, as well as microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR for positive cultures and serum samples for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis identification. From the total of 650 sheep examined, 14.6% (96/650 had at least one presented swelling superficial lymph node, and the frequency was: pre-scapular reactive lymph nodes (41.9%, submandibular (38.1%, parotid (14 3% and pre-crural (5.7%. The microbiological culture punctured material showed growth of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in 81.8% of the samples (18/22, Staphylococcus sp and Escherichia coli in 4.6% (1/22 and no growth in 13.6% (3/22. All 18 samples of the culture of C. pseudotuberculosis were positive by PCR and only (3/22 serum samples positive by PCR. The TCC made of 96 sheep, 93 negative tests and 3 inconclusive. It is concluded that in Santa Inês sheep with the presence of swelling in superficial lymph node, the incidence of caseous lymphadenitis was 81.8% (18/22 and 3.1% (3/96 of animals were inconclusive in the tuberculin cervical comparative test.

  17. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....

  18. Productivity Analysis of the Botosani Karakul Sheep Depending on the Genetic Types of Serum Transferrin

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    Gheorghe Hrincă

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the sheep productivity of the Botosani Karakul breed in relation to their belonging in different transferrin genotypes. Thirteen electrophoretic phenotypes of transferrin have been identified in this breed. Experimental results show that it is possible to establish correlations between genetic types of serum transferrin and quantitative characteristics of production (meat, wool, milk in this breed depending on age and sex of animals. In lambs, the values of the productive parameters are more grouped in most transferrin genotypes, while in adult animals, more important differentiations of productivity occur among different transferrin genotypes. In adult animals, the productive differentiation among the genotypes Tf is more obvious in rams than in ewes. Irrespective of age and sex, the differences of productivity among transferrin genotypes, in their reciprocity, seldom present significant statistical assurance, a relatively frequent part of them is situated near the first critical threshold of significance, and most of them are unsignificant. Thus, a certain production metabolism is characteristic to each genotype transferrin. But the transferrin genotypes which enhance the sheep productivity, those that differ significantly from the rest of transferrin genotypes, deserve to be taken into account, in the selection works of this breed for its productive improvement.

  19. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at Ghezel sheep breeding station in west Azerbaijan and data was analyzed using

  20. Age, breed, sex distribution and nutrition of a population of working farm dogs in New Zealand: results of a cross-sectional study of members of the New Zealand Sheep Dog Trial Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, I; Tucker, L A; Gendall, P; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K J; Cline, J; Thomas, D G

    2011-05-01

    To establish baseline information about age, breed, sex distribution and feeding practices for a population of working farm dogs owned by members of the New Zealand Sheep Dog Trial Association (NZSDTA) throughout New Zealand. Questionnaires were sent to members of the NZSDTA in August 2007, requesting information on the size and terrain of the farms where they worked, as well as the breed, weight, age and sex of each working dog they owned, feeding regime employed, diet fed, work levels, and general health of their dogs. The survey was completed by 542/676 (81%) of the eligible sample population, and provided information on 2,861 dogs, excluding those dog owners surveyed worked on sheep and beef-cattle farms. The median farm size was 440 [Inter-quartile range (IQR) 132-1,200] ha and varied with region. The majority of farms were situated on either hill country (184/542; 34%) or a mixture of hilly and flat terrain (260/542; 48%), and had a median of six (IQR 5-8) working dogs per farm. The median age of dogs was 3.0 (IQR 2.0-6.0) years. Heading dogs were the most common type of working dog (1,510/2,861; 52.8%), followed by Huntaways (1,161/2,861; 40.6%). The gender distribution of all dogs was biased towards males (57%), but this decreased with age. There was a positive association between the number of dogs on a farm and perceived level of tiredness of dogs (pdogs once a day. The most common diet fed was a combination of dry food and homekill, which was fed by 328/542 (61%) owners during peak and 313/542 (58%) during off-peak periods of work. This study has established baseline information on the age, breed, gender and nutrition of a large population of working farm dogs in New Zealand. Current feeding practices employed by owners include offering a substantial amount of homekill to their animals. Homekill may be deficient or marginal in vitamins and minerals, therefore opportunities could exist to improve the diets and therefore the longevity and performance of

  1. Nutrient composition and technological quality of meat from alpacas reared in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvá, Bettit K; Zumalacárregui, José M; Figueira, Ana C; Osorio, María T; Mateo, Javier

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge on alpaca meat quality characteristics. Twenty Huacaya breed alpacas, reared under a traditional unspecialized production system at the Andean region of Peru, were slaughtered at ages between 18 and 24months. Analyses were carried out on Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle (LTLM), unless otherwise specified. These included composition parameters: moisture, fat, protein, ash, minerals, amino acids, fatty acid profile (of both LTLM and perirenal fat), retinol and tocopherol concentrations and myoglobin and collagen contents. Other meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, colour, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force. Alpaca LTLM was characterized by a low intramuscular fat content and mineral and amino acid compositions, polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and conjugated linoleic acid content comparable to those found for beef and sheep meat. However, specifically, alpaca meat showed a relatively high n-6 to n-3 (3.7) ratio and low vitamin E concentration. Values of alpaca meat technological quality parameters were in the ranges reported for more conventional red meats, the exception being a lower b(∗) value.

  2. Carcass and meat quality of “Leccese” breed lambs suckling from ewes fed diets containing vegetable by-pass protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tateo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is considered necessary to supplement the majority of dietary proteins for the rearing of goats and sheep (Pulina et al., 1990; Robinson, 1987. In ruminants, 70 % of protein requirement is satisfied by cytoplasmic synthesised protein, while the remaining 30 % is provided by the regular diet. In juvenile animals, when the rumen is not completely developed (Donkin et al., 1987; Thaler et al., 1992, bacterial proteins are not sufficient to satisfy the protein requirements. Naturally available sheep diet is deficient in the proteins required and contributes to low efficiency in protein utilisation in these species (Corino et al., 1995; Rossi et al., 1991...

  3. Influence of stewing time on the texture, ultrastructure and in vitro digestibility of meat from the yellow-feathered chicken breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jun; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Huhu; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian

    2018-02-01

    This study assessed the influence of stewing (1, 2 or 3 h) on the texture, ultrastructure and in vitro digestibility of meat from the yellow-feathered chicken, which is a popular broiler chicken in Asia. Results indicated that longer stewing considerably increased cooking loss of the chicken carcass and tenderness of thigh meat. After 3 h of stewing, protein digestibility decreased from 90.5% to 80.3% and fiber diameter decreased by 8.63 μm. The shear force value of breast meat decreased from 32.34 N at 1 h to 10.29 N at 2 h, and then increased to 39.98 N at 3 h. The texture profile of breast meat remarkably decreased during stewing. Moreover, increased stewing time induced longitudinal and transversal shrinkage of muscle fibers and the degradation of the myosin heavy chain. These findings suggested that prolonged stewing (3 h) resulted in decreased meat qualities, based on the changes in cooking loss, digestibility and texture profile, but that stewing for 2 h increased thigh and breast tenderness. Producers could utilize this information to stew yellow-feathered chicken meat with desirable qualities. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. ECONOMIC UNITY OF PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF SLAUGHTER ANIMALS AND MEAT (PATHS OF INITIATION OF LONG TERM SOLUTIONS IN CROATIAN ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsto Benčević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available For starting a long term programmes in Croatian animal production, formation of "economic unities" is necessary. Presentation and explanation of production and trade unity for animal production and marketing with subjects and phases is given here. It is pointed out that production of slaughter animals and meat is key interest of market and economic policy as well as of development of agricultural country. It seems that production and trade of meat in Croatia is not organized enough in overall market competition and in meat processing. Creating the economic unity of production and trade of slaughter animals can help in relative fast and efficient solving of problems accumulated in agriculture, especialy in meat production (PIK Vrbovec, Danica, Bejle etc. For initiating and getting in function the phases of production and trade of slaughter animals and meat, proper legislation should be introduced. This legislation should comprehencively define the idea of agricultural economy as a subject of legislative and normisation acts for overall, process and market oriented functioning of multidisciplinary agricultural systems. Additionaly, law on trade of slaughter animals, meat and agricultural products should be introduced in order to form a market and determine the share and obligations of certain participants in structure of such market.

  5. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  6. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Z. Njisane

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*, pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s. Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04% values than castrates (35.1±0.95%. Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N. There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  7. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  8. A high resolution atlas of gene expression in the domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Bush, Stephen J; McCulloch, Mary E B; Farquhar, Iseabail L; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Pridans, Clare; Tsang, Hiu G; Wu, Chunlei; Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Watson, Mick; Whitelaw, C Bruce; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; Archibald, Alan L; Hume, David A

    2017-09-01

    Sheep are a key source of meat, milk and fibre for the global livestock sector, and an important biomedical model. Global analysis of gene expression across multiple tissues has aided genome annotation and supported functional annotation of mammalian genes. We present a large-scale RNA-Seq dataset representing all the major organ systems from adult sheep and from several juvenile, neonatal and prenatal developmental time points. The Ovis aries reference genome (Oar v3.1) includes 27,504 genes (20,921 protein coding), of which 25,350 (19,921 protein coding) had detectable expression in at least one tissue in the sheep gene expression atlas dataset. Network-based cluster analysis of this dataset grouped genes according to their expression pattern. The principle of 'guilt by association' was used to infer the function of uncharacterised genes from their co-expression with genes of known function. We describe the overall transcriptional signatures present in the sheep gene expression atlas and assign those signatures, where possible, to specific cell populations or pathways. The findings are related to innate immunity by focusing on clusters with an immune signature, and to the advantages of cross-breeding by examining the patterns of genes exhibiting the greatest expression differences between purebred and crossbred animals. This high-resolution gene expression atlas for sheep is, to our knowledge, the largest transcriptomic dataset from any livestock species to date. It provides a resource to improve the annotation of the current reference genome for sheep, presenting a model transcriptome for ruminants and insight into gene, cell and tissue function at multiple developmental stages.

  9. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  10. HERITABILITY AND BREEDING VALUE OF SHEEP FERTILITY ESTIMATED BY MEANS OF THE GIBBS SAMPLING METHOD USING THE LINEAR AND THRESHOLD MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ Piwczynski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on 4,030 Polish Merino ewes born in the years 1991- 2001, kept in 15 flocks from the Pomorze and Kujawy region. Fertility of ewes in subsequent reproduction seasons was analysed with the use of multiple logistic regression. The research showed that there is a statistical influence of the flock, year of birth, age of dam, flock year interaction of birth on the ewes fertility. In order to estimate the genetic parameters, the Gibbs sampling method was applied, using the univariate animal models, both linear as well as threshold. Estimates of fertility depending on the model equalled 0.067 to 0.104, whereas the estimates of repeatability equalled respectively: 0.076 and 0.139. The obtained genetic parameters were then used to estimate the breeding values of the animals in terms of controlled trait (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction method using linear and threshold models. The obtained animal breeding values rankings in respect of the same trait with the use of linear and threshold models were strongly correlated with each other (rs = 0.972. Negative genetic trends of fertility (0.01-0.08% per year were found.

  11. PORK CARCASS COMPOSITION AND THE MEAT QUALITY OF THE BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG – THE ENDANGERED BREEDS IN THE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR KEEPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Butko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has been made on 20 Black Slavonian Pigs in both ways of keeping them (indoor, outdoor. The pigs have been fed up to 135 kg body weight. The pigs in the outdoor system have been held on a natural pasture ground. Other than pasture, the pigs have consumed, over the summer period, the food offered on stubble-fields after the harvest (barley, wheat and over the winter times after corn harvest. They had only minimal corn consumption; mostly during the winter (average daily consumption was 0.15 kg. Dissection of cold (+40C right sided pig body composition has been made by the modified Weniger et al (1963 method. The meat quality has been determined on a long back muscle sample (musculus longissimus dorsi- MLD taken berween 13th and 14th rib. The pig carcasses in the outdoor system had a very significant (P<0.01 absolute and relative leg share, less belly-rib share and higher meat quantity. Commercially, more valuable parts-legs and back had a greater share of muscle tissue in pigs' carcasses in the outdoor system. The meat of the pigs in the outdoor system had no signifficant differences from the pigs in the indoor system, concerning the pH1, pH2, water holding capacity, colour and marbling. However, the meat of the pigs in the outdoor system had higher content of crude fat from the pigs in the indoor system.

  12. Identification and analysis of genetic variations in pri-miRNAs expressed specifically or at a high level in sheep skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators in miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks and play important roles in many biological processes, such as growth and development of mammals. In this study, we used microarrays to detect 261 miRNAs that are expressed in sheep skeletal muscle. We found 22 miRNAs that showed high levels of expression and equated to 89% of the total miRNA. Genetic variations in these 22 pri-miRNAs were further investigated using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP and sequencing. A total of 49 genetic variations, which included 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 8 deletions/insertions, were identified in four sheep breeds. Three variations were further researched in a larger sample set, including five sheep breeds with different meat production performances. We found that the genotype and allele frequencies of the CCC deletion/insertion in pri-miR-133a were significantly related to the sheep meat production trait. Finally, cell assays and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR were employed to investigate the effect of pri-miRNA genetic variation on the miRNA biogenesis process. The results confirmed that genetic variations can influence miRNA biogenesis and increase or decrease the levels of mature miRNAs, in accordance with the energy and stability change of hair-pin secondary structures. Our findings will help to further the understanding of the functions of genetic variations in sheep pri-miRNAs in skeletal muscle growth and development.

  13. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  14. Significance of authenticity in meat and meat products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,,  and  base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.

  15. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  16. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction.

  17. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic trends for live weight and fleece traits in Menz sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Menz sheep are indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia, and highly valued for their meat and wool production. The area is characterized as a low input mixed barley-sheep production system. In 1998, a selection experiment was set up to evaluate the response of Menz sheep to selection for yearling

  18. Polymorphism of calpastatin gene in Arabic sheep using PCR- RFLP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastatin has been known as candidate gene in muscle growth efficiency and meat quality. This gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep. In order to evaluate the calpastatin gene polymorphism, random blood sample were collected from 111 Arabic ram sheep from different regions. The DNA extraction was ...

  19. Effects of sarcoptic mange and its control with oil of Cedrus deodara, Pongamia glabra, Jatropha curcas and benzyl benzoate, both with and without ascorbic acid on growing sheep: assessment of weight gain, liver function, nutrient digestibility, wool production and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used acaricidal drugs in India and also to assess the effect of ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy in 72 growing sheep with sarcoptic mange, aged 5-6 months and weighing 20.4-31.7 kg. Eight replicates of nine animals were formed based on sex, and day 0 body weight. Drugs were applied locally on the affected parts daily and recovery changes in skin lesions were observed at the time of every application. L-ascorbic acid was administered intramuscularly. Skin scrapings were collected daily from each group and examined for the presence of mites. Body weights were measured every 10th day from day 0 to 60. Nutrient digestiblity was evaluated by studying digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, total carbohydrates and nutrient balance (nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus) for a 30-day period. The liver function was evaluated by bromosulphophthalein (BSP) dye retention time. The animals were shorn on day 60 post-treatment (PT). Meat quality assesment was carried out by killing sheep at 60 days PT and estimating pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness, muscle colour, rib eye area and fat thickness. The lambs treated with oil of Jatropha curcas ascorbic acid had significantly (P retention time in sheep with sarcoptic mange. Post -treatment, the BSP retention time decreased in all treated groups and the decrease was maximum in OJC-AA treated group. The carcasses of sheep treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P water holding capacity, rib eye area and back fat thickness than the untreated infected control group. The muscle pH and tenderness values were significantly lower in OJC-AA treated group post-slaughter than infested untreated control group. Muscle colour of OJC-AA treated group was maximum bright red. The lambs treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P meat production.

  20. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND WEANING ON LAMB CARCASS TRAITS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCHTHONOUS JEZERSKO-SOLČAVA BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Jezersko-Solčava lambs were used in a 2X2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of production system (fattening in stable with hay and cereals ad libitum or on the pasture and weaning (suckling or weaned lambs on carcass and meat traits of lambs. Suckling lambs were slaughtered at 125 days of age (30 kg of live weight and weaned lambs were slaughtered at 165 days (38 kg of live weight. No significant differences in daily gain and dressing percentage compared to the production system or weaning were observed. Lambs from pasture had greater percentage of liver, heart and spleen. They had longer and wider carcasses and lower carcass fatness as indicated by lower percentage of kidney fat (1.16 vs. 1.99 and lower percentage of fat in leg than lambs from stable. They also had higher percentage of shoulder and leg and lower percentage of back, loin and rib with flank. Production system also affected meat color. Lambs from pasture had higher CIE L, a and b values of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Mostly, weaning influenced carcass fatness and related traits. Suckling lambs had lower fatness score (4.94 vs. 6.25, lower percentage of kidney fat and fat in leg (8.66 vs. 10.31 and lower percentage of rib with flank than weaned lambs. Meat from suckling lambs was also of lighter colour. There was no significant interaction between production system and weaning on studied carcass or meat traits.

  1. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly ( P  culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  2. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  3. Dairy sheep production research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David L; Berger, Yves M; McKusick, Brett C; Mikolayunas, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased

  4. Dairy sheep production research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased

  5. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.

  6. Polymorphism investigation of calpastatin gene in Zel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hosein

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... Meat tenderness is an important quality characteristic for which consumers are interested. ... Key words: Calpastatin gene, polymorphism, Zel sheep, meat and polymerase chain reaction- ..... correlations for bovine postrigor calpastatin activity, intramuscular fat ... expression of the mRNA in skeletal muscle.

  7. Plasma progesterone profiles, ovulation rate, donor embryo yield and recipient embryo survival in native Saloia sheep in the fall and spring breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas e Silva, J; Lopes da Costa, L; Cidadão, R; Robalo Silva, J

    2003-08-01

    The response to superovulatory (SOV) and estrus synchronization (ES) treatments and the fertility of donor (n=68) and recipient (n=118) Saloia ewes was evaluated in the fall and spring breeding seasons. The proportion of acyclic ewes at treatment time was significantly higher in the spring than in the fall (42.6% versus 4.0%, P<0.00001). Donors treated with eCG had a significantly higher mean number of follicles over 5mm in diameter in the ovaries at embryo recovery and a significantly lower mean efficiency of recovery than FSH-treated ewes. These negative effects were more pronounced in the fall than in the spring, which resulted in a significantly lower mean number of total and fertilized ova recovered from eCG-treated ewes, compared to FSH donors in the fall, but not in the spring. Season had no significant effect on the ovulation rate and plasma P4 concentrations of recipients treated with a progestagen plus eCG combination. Although the recipient lambing and embryo survival rates were higher in the fall than in the spring the differences were not significant. No significant differences were observed in the ovulation rate or P4 concentrations of recipients that lambed compared to those that did not lamb. These preliminary results show that, in Portugal, response of Saloia ewes to SOV or ES treatments and donor fertility following the SOV treatment were similar in the spring and the fall, which suggests that in the spring acyclic ewes are in moderate anestrus. The effect of season on fertility following embryo transfer should be confirmed in further studies involving a larger number of animals. The semilaparoscopic transfer method reported here allowed lambing and embryo survival rates higher (although not significantly) than a standard surgical approach.

  8. Identification of Meat Species by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Technique

    OpenAIRE

    İLHAK, O. İrfan; ARSLAN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The origin of horse, dog, cat, bovine, sheep, porcine, and goat meat was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, using species-specific primers. Test mixtures of meat were prepared by adding 5%, 2.5%, 1%, 0.5%, and 0.1% levels of pork, horse, cat, or dog meat to beef, sheep, and goat meat. Samples taken from those combinations were analyzed by PCR for species determination. Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) fragments of 439, 322, 274, 271, 225, 212, and 157 bp for horse, dog, ca...

  9. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  10. Revealing the history of sheep domestication using retrovirus integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Bernardo; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2009-04-24

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication.

  11. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  12. Genomewide association study of body weight traits in Baluchi sheep

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assisted selection (MAS) and gene-based selection in sheep breeding strategies. ... control criteria (genotyping frequency >95%, minor allele frequency >0.05 and .... of roles in the body: food digestion, regulation of other proteins and ...

  13. APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PRACTICAI- APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP BREEDING. C.A. van der ..... There is, however, no practical evidence in this ... 1910" Comparison of three Australian merino strains for wool and body traits.

  14. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  15. ORIGIN, HISTORY AND CURRENT SITUATION OF PELIBUEY SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio Ubaldo Aguilar Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic sheep (Ovis aries is descendant from Asian mouflon and was domesticated in the Near East. Later, sheep began its dissemination to West Africa, where it is believed that the ancestry of Pelibuey sheep came from. Pelibuey sheep were brought to America by the Spaniards to feed the crew of the boats. It is unclear whether these animals came directly from West Africa or from the Canary Islands. It is considered that Pelibuey sheep entered to Mexico between 1930 and 1940, although some authors think that this breed already existed in the country in the late nineteenth century. Since 1963, Pelibuey sheep has been the most studied breed in Mexico, due to its ability to produce in tropics, as well as its high adaptability to most agro-ecological zones of the country. A brief review about productive and reproductive traits in current Pelibuey herds, allowed to conclude that they are very similar to those of the first sheep studied almost 50 years ago. Currently, the breed has been subjected to  non-planned crosses with other breeds to increase productivity, which puts in risk this important genetic resource. Therefore, there is a need to realize the conservation of the breed.

  16. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesús, C. De; Domínguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15) improved (p<0.01) the carcass (118 vs. about 104 kg) and live weights (149 vs. 133-139 kg). Killing out percentage was also better for chestnuts groups than for control group. With regards the morphometric parameters, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force) of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10%) did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05) the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15). Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality. (Author)

  17. Risk assessment of the risk of introduction and distribution of Sheep and goat pox in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...

  18. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    per capita consumption of mutton is five kg and the sheep meat ... A market segment for goat's meat has been identified in the growing Muslim .... basis of studies at two farms; one located in the fjord and the other in .... But in most cases the differences are small as ..... behaviour of Korean American Families in. California.

  19. A consumer perspective of the South African red meat classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... The South African consumer market is characterised by socio-economic and ... the red meat knowledge, usage and perceptions regarding beef and sheep meat ... The paper also briefly reports on an in-store 'observational' research project that was ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  1. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  2. Partial substitution of barley for corn: effect on "Hamra" lamb growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Kaddour; Khaled, Méghit Boumédiène

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two kinds of given diets on growth, on some carcass characteristics and on the major meat nutrients of local Algerian sheep breed. The investigated sheep breed called "Hamra" is one of the most famous breeds in Algeria. Among one 106 animals, 40 lambs were selected according to their age, similar livestock characteristics and body weight. The samples were divided into two equal groups: control and experimental lambs according to their live weight; 24.63 ± 0.47 and 24.35 ± 0.64 kg, respectively. Both groups were fed with two varieties of concentrate diets: corn diet based for the first group of control lambs (n = 20) and corn substituted by barley (Variety Saïda 183) for the second experimental group lambs (n = 20). Both diets were supplemented with 200 g straw of barley/animal/ration. The chemical analysis of diets showed an elevated crude fibre content in the commercial concentrate. However, the experimental concentrate contained higher amounts of calcium. After 59 days of fattening, no significant difference was found among the two studied groups on the growth performance (p > 0.05), showing the same final body weight. In contrast, a significant difference was found (p ≤ 0.001) in relation to the cost of the given diet. This could affect the price of the produced meat. At 37.85 ± 0.78 kg live weight, 10 lambs fed with experimental concentrate were slaughtered. The dressing percentage was 46.65 %, with 2.49 % of carcass shrink. Furthermore, an interesting percentage of total muscle was obtained (63.73 %) with a good carcass conformation scoring 9.56. Compared to other breed sheep, Hamra carcass could be considered as the most valuable one economically.

  3. Parentage verification and identity test of Ghezel sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... The Ghezel sheep is a fat tail high weight Iranian breed which is raised in the North-west of Iran. To design an efficient improvement program and genetic evaluation system for this indigenous breed, accurate estimates of the population genetic parameters is per-required and all pedigrees and relationships ...

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological meat quality, growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beatriz

    2015-05-15

    May 15, 2015 ... and microbiological quality of sheep and goat meat and compares the .... of Rio Verde, GO and supervised by the Municipal Inspection Service (Serviço de ... blood, skin, guts, internal organs, feet (severed at the level of the.

  5. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approach for authentication of meat species from minced meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Kamuni, Veeranna; Muthukumar, Muthupalani; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Kiran, Mohan; Rapole, Srikanth

    2018-02-01

    Fraudulent mislabelling of processed meat products on a global scale that cannot be detected using conventional techniques necessitates sensitive, robust and accurate methods of meat authentication to ensure food safety and public health. In the present study, we developed an in-gel (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2DE) and OFFGEL-based proteomic method for authenticating raw and cooked water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Caprus hircus) meat and their mixes. The matrix-assisted liquid desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of proteins separated using 2DE or OFFGEL electrophoresis delineated species-specific peptide biomarkers derived from myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC1 and MLC2) of buffalo-sheep-goat meat mix in definite proportions at 98:1:1, 99:0.5:0.5 and 99.8:0.1:0.1 that were found stable to resist thermal processing. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approaches are efficient in authenticating meat mixes spiked at minimum 1.0% and 0.1% levels, respectively, in triple meat mix for both raw and cooked samples. The study demonstrated that authentication of meat from a complex mix of three closely related species requires identification of more than one species-specific peptide due to close similarity between their amino acid sequences. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  7. Adaptability and suitability of local cattle breeds in Egypt: Farmers and actors’ perceptions and practices of the cattle value chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Osman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Egypt, where the mean temperature is expected to increase by 1−1.5°C over the next two decades, is particularly concerned with climate change in the Mediterranean. Most of the research works on adaptive animal traits have focused on sheep and goats in non-irrigated areas, with little interest in livestock systems in irrigated areas. However, meat and dairy products in Egypt are mainly supplied by large ruminants − cattle and buffaloes. In addition, research on genetic improvement to increase production has neglected local cattle breeds such as the Baladi, which appears to be endangered. Based on individual and collective interviews conducted in two governorates of Egypt, this study aimed to describe the situation of this local breed based on the perceptions and practices of the actors in the sector (including farmers, traders and service suppliers, and to draw perspectives for its future. From the interviews, the Baladi appeared adapted and more resistant to harsh conditions, especially to extreme warm temperatures, feed shortage periods, and some diseases, in particular foot-and-mouth disease. However, there is no organization or collective action to preserve or promote this breed because of its low level of dairy production, although its meat is highly valued in rural areas and could be the source of a potential niche market.

  8. Trypanotolerance in Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats : Importance of trypanosomosis, nutrition, helminth infections and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different

  9. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  10. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  11. The role of red and processed meat in colorectal cancer development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Alexander, Jan; Amdam, Gro V.

    2014-01-01

    different types of processed meats, as potential health risks may not be the same for all products. Better biomarkers of meat intake and of cancer occurrence and updated food composition databases are required for future studies. Modifying meat composition via animal feeding and breeding, improving meat...

  12. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered ruminants (sheep, goats and cattle) in Northwest Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdouni, Yosra; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Amairia, Safa; Awadi, Sofia; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the molecular prevalence of T. gondii infection in meat from slaughtered sheep, goats and cattle in Northwest Tunisia (Béja district). PCRs were performed on genomic DNA extracted from 420 meat samples (150 ewes, 120 goats and 150 cows). The overall molecular prevalence of T. gondii in sheep, goats and cattle were 33.3 (50/150), 32.5 (39/120) and 19.3% (29/150), respectively. Toxoplasma gondii molecular prevalences in the three meat ruminant species were significantly higher in adults compared to young animals (pgoats (pmeat. Extension programmes should be implemented to decrease the risk of infection related to sheep, goats and cattle meat manipulation and raw or undercooked meat consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro F.T. Amarante

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France, naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerated in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05. There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France, naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantificados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05. Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a

  14. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Babiker Idris Babiker; Abdul-Jabbar Mohammed Abdullah; Mohamed Ahmed Al-Feel

    2011-01-01

    The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livesto...

  15. Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doosti, Abbas; Ghasemi Dehkordi, Payam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established. The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in Iran. In present study, 224 meat products include 68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cut meats were collected from different companies and food markets in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was performed for gene amplification of meat species using specific oligonucleotid primers. Raw meat samples are served as the positive control. For differentiation between donkey's and horse's meat, the mitochondrial DNA segment (cytochrome-b gene) was amplified and products were digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Results showed that 6 of 68 fermented sausages (8.82%), 4 of 48 frankfurters (8.33%), 4 of 55 hamburgers (7.27%), 2 of 33 hams (6.6%), and 1 of 20 cold cut meat (5%) were found to contain Haram (unlawful or prohibited) meat. These results indicate that 7.58% of the total samples were not containing Halal (lawful or permitted) meat and have another meat. These findings showed that molecular methods such as PCR and PCR-RFLP are potentially reliable techniques for detection of meat type in meat products for Halal authentication.

  16. Composição química e rendimento da carne ovina in natura e assada Chemical composition and yield of in natura and roast sheep meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o músculo Triceps brachii de cordeiros não castrados ½ Ile de France ½ Santa Inês terminados em confinamento para a realização das análises físico-químicas. Foram determinados: a umidade, a proteína, a gordura, as cinzas e os carboidratos da carne, in natura e assada, destes animais, assim como o rendimento desta carne, após o processo de cocção. A carne assada apresentou valores maiores de gordura e proteína (7,49 e 33,67% em comparação com a carne in natura (5,36 e 18,85%, respectivamente. Os percentuais de cinzas e carboidratos não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos estudados, porém para os valores de umidade, a carne in natura obteve valores superiores ao da carne assada, 74,05 e 57,02%, respectivamente. A carne assada teve perdas durante o seu preparo por evaporação, por gotejamento e por cocção de 33,20, 1,36 e 35,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a carne assada apresenta valor nutricional mais elevado que a carne in natura, para os teores de gordura e proteína, pelo fato da carne in natura apresentar maior valor de umidade em relação à assada, ocasionando assim a concentração de gordura e de proteína na carne assada. O preparo da carne ocasionou perdas por cocção de 35,20%, por gotejamento e evaporação.Tríceps brachii muscle from non-castrated ½ Ile de France ½ Santa Inês lambs terminated in confinement was used for physical and chemical analyses. In natura and roast meat moisture, protein, fat, ashes, carbohydrates, and meat yield were determined after the cooking process. Roast meat presented higher fat and protein values (7,49 and 33,67%, compared to in natura meat (5,36 and 18,85%, respectively. Ashes and carbohydrates percentages were not influenced by the treatments studied; however, in natura meat presented higher moisture values than roast meat (74,05 and 57,02%, respectively. Roast meat presented losses of 33, 20, 1,36, and 35,20% from evaporation, dripping, and cooking

  17. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  18. Meet meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Gerben A.; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  19. Genome-wide detection of CNVs in Chinese indigenous sheep with different types of tails using ovine high-density 600K SNP arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Caiye; Fan, Hongying; Yuan, Zehu; Hu, Shijin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Xuan, Junli; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Wei, Caihong; Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Fuping; Du, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese indigenous sheep can be classified into three types based on tail morphology: fat-tailed, fat-rumped, and thin-tailed sheep, of which the typical breeds are large-tailed Han sheep, Altay sheep, and Tibetan sheep, respectively. To unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic differences among Chinese indigenous sheep with tails of three different types, we used ovine high-density 600K SNP arrays to detect genome-wide copy number variation (CNV). In large-tailed Han sheep, A...

  20. The Use of Cytochrome b Gene as a Specific Marker of the Rat Meat (Rattus norvegicus on Meat and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sumantri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Falsification of the origin of livestock meat and its processed with rat meat is a problem that must be overcome to ensure food safety. One way that is often used to detect forgeries by using cytochrome b gene as a marker. The purpose of this study was to create a specific primer derived from cytochrome b sequences in rat (Rattus norvegicus as the DNA marker to detect any contamination of rat meat on fresh livestock meat and its processed meat products. Meatballs were made from beef meat with the addition of rat 1%-25%, and the meatballs were obtained from traditional markets. DNA extraction was conducted from seven species (goat, chicken, cattle, sheep, pig, horse, and rat by using phenol-chloroform. The highest success rate in detecting the presence of rat meat in a mixture of beef meatballs at concentration of 15% was 100%. The specific fragment of cytochrome b gene in R. norvegicus has no similarity with the cytochrome b gene from six other species, so it can be used as molecular markers to detect the presence of rat meat contamination in the processed of meat products. Amplified fragment length for goats, chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and rats 157, 227, 274, 331, 398, 439 and 603 bp respectively. The amplification of cytochrome b gene in seven species of animals with different fragment length indicated the specificity of cytochrome b gene sequences among species.

  1. INFLUENCE OF TRACE ELEMENTS AND THEIR CHELATES CONNECTIONS ON MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CARCASSES AND TASTING ESTIMATION OF MEAT AND CLEAR SOUP GOT FROM THE ANIMALS OF BLACK-GRAY BREED

    OpenAIRE

    FARIONIK T.V.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the investigational are described tasting estimation of meat and clear soup of got from experimental animals on food of scarce trace elements and them indifferent connections (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co). During adding to the ration of animals of scarce trace elements additions found out really the best organoleptic indexes of meat and clear soup.

  2. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products. Key words: Pigs ...

  3. Morphometric, densitometric and mechanical properties of mandibular deciduous teeth in 5-month-old Polish Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Szabelska, Anna; Krupski, Witold; Tymczyna, Barbara; Luszczewska-Sierakowska, Iwona; Bieniaś, Jarosław; Ostapiuk, Monika

    2014-02-19

    Caries, enamel hypoplasia, molar incisor hipomineralization, amylogenesis imperfecta, dentine dysplasia, hypophosphatasia and other dental disorders lead to tooth mineralization disturbances and structural abnormalities, decreasing masticatory organ functions. Dental disorders in sheep can lead to premature slaughter before they have attained final stage of their reproductive life and induce economic loss due to high flock replacement costs. Growth rate, health status and meat quality of sheep depends on tooth properties and quality determining in large extent efficiency of the masticatory apparatus and initial food break up. Considering lack of basic anatomical and physiological data on teeth properties in sheep, the aim of the study was to evaluate morphometric, densitometric and mechanical traits of deciduous mandibular incisor, canine and the second premolar obtained at the slaughter age of 5 months of life. The obtained results have shown the highest values of weight, total tooth volume, enamel volume and dentine volume in second premolar. Morphometric and mechanical parameters of incisors reached the highest values in first incisor and decreased gradually in second and third incisor, and in canine. Densitometric measurements have not revealed significant differences of the volumetric tooth mineral density in hard dental tissues between the investigated teeth. In conclusion, proposed methodological approach is noninvasive since the deciduous teeth undergo physiological replacement with permanent teeth. Deciduous teeth can be easy collected for analyses from large animal population and may reflect mineral status and metabolism resulting from postnatal growth and development of the whole flock. In individual cases, evaluation of properties of deciduous teeth may serve for breeding selection and further reproduction of sheep possessing favorable traits of teeth and better masticatory system functions.

  4. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  5. Comparison the physicochemical quality indicators of Musculus Longissimus Dorsi from Mangalitsa Breed and their crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Debreceni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a current trend in the market of pork to create products based on traditional, regional specialities, where is used technology such as drying, smoking and fermentation of products. These products require a specific quality of meat from pure-bred indigenous breeds or their crossbreeds with emphasis on dry matter content, intramuscular fat content in meat and fatty acid composition with higher share of unsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids. Due to this fact, indigenous breed such as the Mangalitsa has received attention from the aspect of high meat quality and meat products compared to pig meat breeds. The aim of study was to compare the meat quality of Musculus longissimus dorsi from Mangalitsa breed, the crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc and the pig meat breed Slovak Large White. The experimental material comprised of 28 pcs of pigs, which were reared in the same intensive conditions and they were fed ad libitum by complete feed mixtures for fatteners. The fattening period lasted from 30 kg to 100 kg of body weight. In the presented study was found that the crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc had lighter colour of meat and the Mangalitsa had darker colour than Slovak Large White (P < 0.01. From the point of texture of meat, it was found stiffer meat from Slovak Large White and more tender meat from crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc compared to meat of Mangalitsa (P < 0.01. The crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc had the highest intramuscular fat content and cholesterol content in meat (P < 0.01. The intramuscular fat content and cholesterol content was the lowest in Slovak Large White (P < 0.01. The results indicate that utilization of Mangalitsa breed for crossing with pig meat breeds can improve quality meat traits in their crossbreeds, which are requiring for production of special meat products.

  6. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  7. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  8. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  9. Meat flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, R.; Liger, P.; Roussel-Ciquard, N.

    1978-01-01

    For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future [fr

  10. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  11. Growth at fattening and carcass characteristics of D'man, Sardi and meat-sire crossbred lambs slaughtered at two stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujenane, Ismaïl

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate growth at fattening, carcass characteristics and carcass measurements of 19 Sardi, 19 D'man and 52 meat-sire crossbred lambs of both sexes slaughtered at 50 and 70 % of mature weight. Crossbred lambs were born from Sardi, D'man and F1 Sardi × D'man ewes mated to meat-breed rams (Ile de France and Mérinos Précoce). Lambs of each group (breed type by sex) were chosen at random and slaughtered either at 50 or 70 % of mature weight. Sardi and D'man purebred lambs had significantly lower growth at fattening, pre-slaughter live weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fatness, red offal, white offal, sub-products and non-carcass fat than meat-sire crossbred lambs. Differences were 42.2 g/day, 5.03 kg, 4.46 kg, 2.57 kg, 0.96, 0.59, 0.18 kg, 0.39 kg, 0.63 kg and 0.12 kg, respectively. B and Wr measurements of meat-sire crossbred lambs were higher than those of Sardi and D'man purebred lambs, whereas the F measurement was in favour of purebreds. Likewise, CC, G/F and Wr/Th indices of meat-sire crossbreds were higher than those of purebreds; however, the opposite was observed for L/G and Th/G indices. Maternal heterosis was positive and not significant for most traits, negative and not significant for few traits (P > 0.05), but negative and significant for the proportion of sub-products (P carcass characteristics of local sheep can be significantly improved by terminal crossbreeding.

  12. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  13. Estabilidade físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial de carne ovina embalada a vácuo estocada sob refrigeração Physical and chemical stability microbiological and sensory analysis of vacuum packed sheep meat stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella de Paula Paseto Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    (lipid oxidation, objective color, pH value, chemical composition, cooking losses and instrumental texture, microbiological analysis (total count of psychrotrophic anaerobic, coliform count at 45°C, coagulase-positive staphylococci and the presence of Salmonella and sensory analysis (color, flavor and overall appearance. The vacuum packed lamb meat remained stable as to most physical and chemical indexes and microbiological indexes showed good stability throughout the 28 days of storage according to Brazilian legislation standards to pathogenic microorganisms. In relation to the stability evaluation of chilled sheep loin, it was detected a high increase of counts for psychrotrophic anaerobic microorganisms, reaching around 10(7CFU g-1 sample at 14 days storage, but the pannelists did not detect significant sensory changes during all the period. It is concluded that the shelf life of sheep loin stored at 4°C, is at least, 28 days.

  14. The transfer of radiocaesium to ewes through a breeding cycle - an illustration of the pitfalls of the transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Mayes, R.W. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    A study to measure the transfer of radiocaesium to adult female sheep through a breeding cycle is described. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle (estimated as the equilibrium transfer coefficient) was significantly lower to pregnant, and especially lactating, animals compared to non-lactating and barren animals. High dry matter intake rates were also associated with significantly lower transfer coefficients. Known relationships between dry matter intake rates and protein turnover could credibly explain some of these differences. However, when described as the concentration ratio, radiocaesium transfer to meat was apparently highest during lactation. The apparent difference in results obtained by the two approaches of determining transfer is the consequence of daily dry matter intake being a denominator within the estimation of transfer coefficient. A wider discussion of transfer coefficients and concentration ratios leads us to suggest that the concentration ratio is the more robust and potentially generic parameter.

  15. The transfer of radiocaesium to ewes through a breeding cycle - an illustration of the pitfalls of the transfer coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Mayes, R.W.; Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    A study to measure the transfer of radiocaesium to adult female sheep through a breeding cycle is described. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle (estimated as the equilibrium transfer coefficient) was significantly lower to pregnant, and especially lactating, animals compared to non-lactating and barren animals. High dry matter intake rates were also associated with significantly lower transfer coefficients. Known relationships between dry matter intake rates and protein turnover could credibly explain some of these differences. However, when described as the concentration ratio, radiocaesium transfer to meat was apparently highest during lactation. The apparent difference in results obtained by the two approaches of determining transfer is the consequence of daily dry matter intake being a denominator within the estimation of transfer coefficient. A wider discussion of transfer coefficients and concentration ratios leads us to suggest that the concentration ratio is the more robust and potentially generic parameter

  16. Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filipe; Davis, Simon J M; Pereira, Luísa; McEvoy, Brian; Bradley, Daniel G; Amorim, António

    2006-07-01

    Highly adaptable and versatile populations of domestic sheep, the result of millennia of intense husbandry, are found in almost every corner of the world. Here we describe a genetic survey of sheep from the western fringe of its European distribution. We studied the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 161 individuals belonging to 7 Portuguese sheep breeds. Our study revealed a high level of genetic diversity, with an average breed haplotype diversity of 0.983, substantially above that observed in central European breeds, as well as the presence of maternal lineages until now only found in the Middle East and Asia. A broad north-south pattern describes the most important trend in the Portuguese sheep population with a southern population clearly distinct from most other breeds. A recurrent influx of new genetic diversity, probably via the Mediterranean Sea, may explain these patterns and appears to corroborate the importance of this maritime route in the history of both mankind and livestock. Zooarchaeological studies of sheep bones from southern Portugal indicate a marked size increase during the Moslem period that may reflect an improvement of this animal--perhaps part of the well known "Arab agricultural revolution" in Andalusia. This could have been a time when the gene pool of Iberian sheep was substantially enriched and may help to explain the history of modern sheep breeds in this peninsula.

  17. Efeitos do sexo, do grupo racial e da idade ao abate nas características de carcaça e maciez da carne de caprinos Carcass and meat tenderness of goats according to age, breed group and age at slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakilane Jacque Leal de Menezes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de quantificar e qualificar a carcaça e os cortes cárneos de cabritos de dois sexos (machos e fêmeas e três grupos raciais - Alpino; ½ Boer + ½ Alpino (½ BA; e ¾ Boer + ¼ Alpino (¾ BA - abatidos em três idades (aos 60, 90 e 120 dias de confinamento, visando avaliar o aproveitamento de cabritos provenientes de rebanhos leiteiros. As carcaças foram avaliadas pelas características de peso, rendimento, conformação, gordura de cobertura, comprimento interno e externo, comprimento da perna, perímetro da garupa, profundidade torácica, largura da garupa, compacidade, rendimento dos cortes cárneos e proporção dos tecidos. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial incompleto 2 X 3 X 3 (2 sexos X 3 grupos raciais X 3 idades de abate. O aumento da idade dos animais promove aumento do peso e das medidas da carcaça, assim como dos componentes comestíveis da carcaça e do rendimento comercial. Mestiços Boer apresentam maior compacidade de perna e menos osso em relação aos Alpinos. O grupo racial, a idade de abate e o sexo não influenciam a maciez da carne.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the yield and quality of the carcass and meat cuts from kids of both sexes, slaughtered at three different ages, aiming to use animals from dairy herds. Forty-one kids were used, from three breed groups: Alpine, ½ Boer ½ Alpine (½ BA and ¾ Boer ¼ Alpine (¾ BA, which were slaughtered at 60, 90 or 120 days of slaughter age. The animals were raised in a feedlot system. The following carcass traits were evaluated: carcass weight, commercial yield, conformation, subcutaneous fat, internal and external length, leg length, rump perimeter, thoracic depth, rump width, compactness, meat cut yield and tissue proportion. Meat tenderness was evaluated by means of the Warner-Bratzler shear force. Data were analyzed as an incomplete factorial arrangement

  18. Carcass merit and meat quality in Suffolk lambs, Katahdin lambs, and meat-goat kids finished on a grass-legume pasture with and without supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Belesky, D P; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-10-01

    The experiment evaluated traditional U.S. sheep (Suffolk), hair sheep (Katahdin), and meat goat (Boer crossbred; Goat) carcass and meat quality parameters when finished on pasture with and without supplemental whole cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Supplemented animals had greater ribeye area (PGoat. Goat LM had less (Pgoats would be acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA. Omega6:Omega3 ratios in chevon and lamb were within the guidelines for meats that can improve human diets and health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Live monitoring of cattle, reindeer and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result

  20. Fetal programming in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Krvavica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

  2. Improving artificial breeding of cattle in Africa. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA technical cooperation regional AFRA project on increasing and improving milk and meat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the African Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA), with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a technical cooperation project entitled Improving and Increasing Milk and Meat Production. The objectives of this project were to be achieved by (a) assessing the performance of existing artificial insemination (AI) programmes for small-scale dairy farmers and identifying constraints; (b) formulating and assisting in the implementation of remedial measures including appropriate strategies; (c) establishing sustainable routine non-pregnancy diagnosis (N-PD) and related services to farmers; and (d) harmonizing managerial and field practices and sharing of expertise within the region. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of progesterone in milk and blood of cattle and use of the computer database AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) are important components of an integrated approach to these activities. The project commenced in 1999 and, in addition to other national and regional activities, two meetings were held specifically to address objective (d) above: - Task Force Meeting on Training of Artificial Insemination (AI) Technicians, Field Assessment of Fertility and Database Management, November 1999 in Pretoria, South Africa. - Task Force Meeting to Harmonize Procedures for Selection and Management of AI Bulls and Use of Semen Technology in African Countries, May 2001 in Arusha, Tanzania. The meeting in Tanzania provided a comprehensive overview of the current practices being adopted for selection and management of AI bulls and use of semen technology in five African countries, and compared these with international practices. It also provided an opportunity for participants to discuss technical issues related to provision of improved breeding services to

  3. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profit rate for a meat production enterprise can be decomposedinto the unit price for meat and herd ... supply and demand, whereas breeding improvement is gen- ... Herd efficiency is total live mass for slaughter divided by costs .... tenance and above-maintenance components by Dickerson, and ..... Growth and productivity.

  4. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  5. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Drew

    Full Text Available Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  6. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep. PMID:28282407

  7. Breeding objectives and breeding strategies for small ruminants in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Small ruminants (i.e., sheep and goats) are widespread in the tropics and are important to the subsistence, economic and social livelihoods of a large human population in these areas. The aim of this thesis was to identify the breeding objectives for tropical small ruminants, and to develop

  8. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  9. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  10. Composição física da carcaça e aspectos qualitativos da carne de bovinos de diferentes raças alimentados com diferentes níveis de energia Physical composition of carcass and qualitative characteristics of meat of young bulls from different breed fed diets with different energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Luiz Brondani

    2006-10-01

    when the estimate carcass weight reached at least 190 kg. A completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (two breeds vs. two energy levels was used. Within breed, meat from HE showed the lowest loss of liquid during thawing and cooking. Meat from HE animals also showed the greatest tenderness when evaluated either by a panel or by the Shear force technique. Animals fed the higher energy diet had greater proportion of muscle, lower loss of liquid at thawing (2.54 vs. 7.22%, and a more tender meat (Shear force than those fed the lower energy diet. A significant interaction was observed between breed and energy level for both meat flavor and color; AA bulls fed the higher energy diet had meat with greater flavor and better color.

  11. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by "1H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  12. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejón, David [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Segura, Juan Manuel [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Escudero, Rosa [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrera, Antonio [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cambero, María Isabel, E-mail: icambero@vet.ucm.es [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  13. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  14. The Reproductive Performance of the Nigerian Dwarf Sheep | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three of the most important parameters of reproduction in sheep, the age at first lambing, the lambing interval and the number of lambs born per ewe at each lambing, were analysed from the herdbook of the breeding flock of the University of Ibadan for the period-1968 to 1974. The means were as follows: 1. age at first ...

  15. Evaluation of large stock unit equivalents for sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    does not recognize body weight differences of up to 20% between these two breeds. According to ... in body weight; lactating ewes lose 100 g/day in body weight; metabolizability (q) of energy of the feed which sheep select in the veld is .... normally slaughtered at a lower body weight due to fat accumulation. Conclusion.

  16. Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of progestagen outside the normal breeding season. JPC Greyling, WF Kotzé, GJ Taylor, WJ Hagendijk, F Cloete. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Genetic diversity of Najdi sheep based on microsatellite analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prime objective of this research was to measure the genetic polymorphism of main sheep breed of Saudi Arabia, Najdi. Randomly selected 49 blood samples were used to extract the DNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using 19 microsatellite markers, which were used to investigate the genetic ...

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Kurdish sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...

  19. Genetic variation among pelt sheep population using microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation in three Iranian pelt sheep breeds namely: Gray Shiraz, Zandi and Karakul were investigated using fifteen microsatellite loci. Genomic DNA was extracted from 360 blood samples by extraction kits and salting-out procedure with some modifications. The total number of alleles ranged from 6 to12 in loci.

  20. supplementing sheep with protein and phosphorus on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanges between the different treatments and breeds, were statistically significant (P ... (i) a Protein supplement (Fish meal SO/n Sa|t 30f",. Dicalciumphosphate l5f' ... as the cause for the poor response by sheep to supplementary feeding in the form.

  1. Polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with meat quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hung Nguyen

    Abstract. The objectives of this study were to analyse genotype distribution and sequence variations of candidate genes putatively associated with meat quality and disease resistance in exotic and indigenous. Vietnamese pig breeds. For this purpose, 340 pigs from four indigenous and two exotic breeds were included.

  2. Polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with meat quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to analyse genotype distribution and sequence variations of candidate genes putatively associated with meat quality and disease resistance in exotic and indigenous Vietnamese pig breeds. For this purpose, 340 pigs from four indigenous and two exotic breeds were included in the analysis ...

  3. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be

  4. Measurement of trimethylamine concentration and evaluation of pig meat natural quality by a spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Abdul HAMID,Xi WANG,Xiangdong DING,Chuduan WANG,Xingbo ZHAO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pig meat off-flavor is attributed to trimethylamine (TMA concentration, and it is considered as the precursor of the fishy off-flavor problems. In this study, TMA concentrations in pig meat were determined, and the interactions with breed and gender effects were discussed. In addition, the TMA threshold for meat off-flavor and pig meat natural quality was measured in relation to meat storage and movement, and the influential factors including the pig breed and storage time were discussed. The results indicated positive effects on the precursor of the fishy off-flavor and the TMA threshold. Native breeds were found to have lower TMA concentrations than European breeds (P<0.01, and females and castrated males had significantly lower TMA concentration than males (P<0.01, The threshold concentration of TMA when meat was classed as off-flavored was 25 μg·g-1, and this occurred after 35–38 h of storage. The natural qualities, such as appearance, flavor, color and overall acceptable scores declined significantly after 4 days in storage (P<0.01. It is concluded that pig meat off-flavor, breed and gender were essential factors affecting flavor for meat breeding programs, and storage time is important for pig meat natural quality.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    is very prevalent, and eating unprocessed sheep and lamb meat has a high risk of transmitting infections to humans. The presence of cats on the farm, farm size and using surface water as drinking water for the animals were risk factors for infection in sheep, with age as a significant confounder...... outdoor on pasture and only one was claiming organic farming. Having cats on the farm, age of the animals, farm size and the use of surface water sources for drinking were all significantly associated with T. gondii-infected animals on the farm. T. gondii infection in mutton used for human consumption...

  6. Comparative analysis of the number of sheep in FYR and some European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming in Serbia, from year to year, notices a descending course in number of sheep, as well as in production of milk and meat. The main objective of this paper is the analysis of the number of sheep in Serbia and the surrounding countries (FYR. By comparing the current state of the total number of sheep (in 2011 with the state in the former Yugoslavia, the result shown is that there are 66% less sheep in Serbia compared to the total number seen in 1967 (base year. Compared to the last census from 2012, there is an increased number of sheep in Serbia, compared to previous year (2011 by 18.4%. Other former Yugoslav republics (FYR also have a decrease in the total number of sheep: in Bosnia and Herzegovina by 76.5%, in Montenegro by 64.3%, in Croatia by 41.3%, in Macedonia by 63.5% compared to 1967 (base year, except for Slovenia, which has an increase in the total number of sheep by 83,000 head of cattle. In paper is given overview of the number of sheep for some European countries and for some part of world, in purpose of comparison with sheep state in FYR.

  7. Carcass and meat quality determination as a tool to promote local meat consumption in outermost regions of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Moreno-Indias, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    of this study, therefore, was to evaluate local and imported carcasses and meat quality in order to promote the consumption of local breeds, using the Canary Islands (Spain) as a model for other subtropical outermost regions. For this study 20 half-carcasses from Palmera breed and 20 imported half...

  8. [Development and application of real-time PCR for identification and detection of horse meat in animal-origin products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Shen, Qing; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fengqin; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Tao

    2013-11-01

    To develop a real-time PCR method for identification and detection of domestic horse meat (Equus caballus) in animal-origin products. The primer and TaqMan-probe was designed and synthesized according to the EU reference laboratory and 87 bp fragments was amplified for horse ingredients. The specificity and sensitivity was tested by artificially spiked horse meat into other domestic meat, such as cattle, sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit. 122 samples of cattle and sheep products were random collected in Beijing market and the detection of horse meat was carried out. The real-time PCR in this study has high specificity and sensitivity for horse meat. No cross-reaction was observed between the horse and sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit meat. There was little cross reaction between horse and cattle when the CT value reach 33. 81. The method can detect 0.1% of horse meat mixed with other domestic animal-origin products. No horse meat ingredients were detected in 122 samples in this survey. There was no horse meat mixed into cattle and sheep products in Beijing marked.

  9. Meat Processing Company Staff as Innovation Intermediaries: Developing a Framework from New Zealand's Red Meat Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooke, Victoria; Guenther, Meike; Bewsell, Denise; Greer, Glen

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Meat processing companies have the potential to raise farm and sector productivity by directly working with farmers. This study assesses how commercial companies can undertake the roles of innovation intermediaries to increase productivity in New Zealand's sheep and beef sector. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a case study…

  10. Managing meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of meat tenderness using a carcass grading scheme which utilizes the concept of total quality management of those factors which impact on beef palatability. The scheme called Meat Standards Australia (MSA) has identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs) from the production, pre-slaughter, processing and value adding sectors of the beef supply chain and quantified their relative importance using large-scale consumer testing. These CCPs have been used to manage beef palatability in two ways. Firstly, CCPs from the pre-slaughter and processing sectors have been used as mandatory criteria for carcasses to be graded. Secondly, other CCPs from the production and processing sectors have been incorporated into a model to predict palatability for individual muscles. The evidence for the importance of CCPs from the production (breed, growth path and HGP implants), pre-slaughter and processing (pH/temperature window, alternative carcass suspension, marbling and ageing) sectors are reviewed and the accuracy of the model to predict palatability for specific muscle×cooking techniques is presented.

  11. Association between AA-NAT gene polymorphism and reproductive performance in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Ding-ping,Bai; Cheng-jiang,Yu; Yu-lin,Chen

    2012-01-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was firstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP m...

  12. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A

    2002-07-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to {sup 137}Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding

  13. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137 Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137 Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137 Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  14. Identification of skin-expressed genes possibly associated with wool growth regulation of Aohan fine wool sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nan; Li, Hegang; Liu, Kaidong; Yu, Juanjuan; Bu, Ran; Cheng, Ming; De, Wei; Liu, Jifeng; He, Guangling; Zhao, Jinshan

    2014-01-01

    Background Sheep are valuable resources for the animal fibre industry. Therefore, identifying genes which regulate wool growth would offer strategies for improving the quality of fine wool. In this study, we employed Agilent sheep gene expression microarray and proteomic technology to compare the gene expression patterns of the body side (hair-rich) and groin (hairless) skins of Aohan fine wool sheep (a Chinese indigenous breed). Results Comparing the body side to the groin skins (S/G) of Aoh...

  15. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  16. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Mark L.; Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including s...

  17. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success. PMID:23084976

  18. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  19. Proximate Composition, and -Carnitine and Betaine Contents in Meat from Korean Indigenous Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samooel Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female and meat type (breast and thigh meat was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y] from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (p<0.05. The males in line G and females in line B showed the highest protein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (p<0.05. The highest l-carnitine content was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea.

  20. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timm; Bone, Gemma; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Tortosa, Raul; Davis, Andrew; Dexter, Glenda; Hill, Peter; Jeffrey, Martin; Simmons, Marion M; Chaplin, Melanie J; Bellworthy, Susan J; Berthelin-Baker, Christine

    2008-04-29

    The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Forty-seven (34%) of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ). None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87%) BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16-20 weeks. Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route

  1. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Martin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34% of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ. None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87% BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to

  2. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  3. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... encephalopathy. (e) Meat or dressed carcasses of hunter-harvested wild sheep, goats, or other ruminants other than cervids. The meat or dressed carcass (eviscerated and the head is removed) is derived from a wild...

  4. Radioactivity and countermeasures like clean feeding of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    It's been 25 years since the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, but there is still radioactivity remaining in the Norwegian nature. The radioactive cesium-137 is taken up by plants and fungi and transferred to animals on rangelands. In the grazing season of 2010 had 20 000 sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding to reduce radioactivity levels in the meat before slaughter. Oppland had most sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding with almost 12 000 animals. Total was paid 2.2 million in compensation to livestock owners in 2010. In the period 1986-2010 is about 2.2 million sheep have been suspended with a charge of approximately NOK 227 million. (AG)

  5. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  6. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  7. Efeito dos níveis de concentrado sobre as características de carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova em confinamento Effect of concentrate levels on carcass characteristics of the Morada Nova breed sheep in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovergue Rodrigues de Medeiros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características de carcaça e os rendimentos dos cortes medidos in vivo e na carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo diversos níveis de concentrado. Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros castrados, Morada Nova, com 8,11 ± 1,15 meses de idade e peso inicial de 19,67 ± 2,97 kg, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, cada um com oito repetições. Os animais foram abatidos com 30,0 kg e alimentados com quatro níveis de concentrado (20, 40, 60 ou 80%. Houve efeito linear crescente do nível de concentrado da dieta sobre o peso do corpo vazio e peso e o rendimento da carcaça fria e efeito linear decrescente sobre o conteúdo do trato digestório e o número de dias em confinamento. Os níveis de concentrado tiveram efeito linear crescente sobre o peso e rendimento de pescoço e efeito linear decrescente sobre os rendimentos da paleta e perna, ao passo que o peso do costilhar foi influenciado de forma quadrática pelos tratamentos. Nas medidas in vivo, apenas o perímetro da perna sofreu efeito decrescente. Nas medidas na carcaça, houve efeito linear crescente sobre a largura do tórax e a compacidade, que aumentaram com o nível de concentrado na dieta, enquanto a largura da garupa teve efeito quadrático. O uso de concentrado na dieta eleva os pesos e os rendimentos de carcaça fria, mas não aumenta os pesos e rendimentos dos cortes da carcaça de cordeiros Morada Nova.The in vivo carcass characteristics and the cut yields measured in the carcass of Morada Nova sheep finished in feedlot system fed increasing levels of dietary concentrate were evaluated. Thirty-two castrated Morada Nova lambs with 8.11 ± 1.15 months of age and 19.67 ± 2.97 kg of initial body weight were used in this trial. The experimet was analyzed as a completely randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Animals were slaughtered at 30.0 kg BW and fed diets with four concentrate levels: 20, 40, 60 or 80

  8. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Qualitative Indices of Meat Production in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dabija

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat, in most cases, is a basic production in rabbits. The influence on meat quality and quantity have such factors as breed, age, slaughter gain, sex, etc. By age, adult rabbits have a higher body weight compared with the young, but their meat is more expensive. The most convenient is intensive growth of youth as the age of 3 months to be 2.3 to 2.5 kg body weight, food and labor costs during this period was minimal. It is considered optimal as young rabbits are slaughtered when they reach 50-60% by weight of adult animals. The biological material which was used was represented in two groups of Chinchilla rabbit and Flanders breed, each one consisting of seven rabbits of various sex. Groups of rabbits had the same conditions of maintenance and nutrition. Carcass weight was determined at slaughter, carcass meat, bones, by-products, blood, head, skin of young rabbit. The largest share of the carcass of live weight was obtained at age 4 months - 59%, and meat in the carcass weight at 2 months of life - 71.2% at Chinchilla breed. On average 31.9% had bones, by-products - 6.23%, blood - 3.78% head - 8.21% and skin of young rabbit - 11.9%. Average of carcass weight from live weight was 52.76%, in Flanders breed the highest recorded at age 4 months and 66.78% of the carcass meat, the highest being at 2 months old. The average weight of bones was 33.21%, by-products - 6.25%, blood - 3.53%, the head - 7.86%, and the skin of young rabbit - 11.89%. Slaughter gain ranged from 47% to 59% at Chinchilla breed, and from 47% to 60% in Flanders breed. The highest index was recorded in both breeds at the age of four months.

  10. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZUZA

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... 1The Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Pig Breeding and Production, ul. Wolynska 33,. 60-637 ... ZS x D had significantly higher share of meat cuts in comparison with purebred fatteners ZS and crossbred fatteners ZS x (ZS x D). ... Proximate composition of diets. Item. Diet. Starter. Grower.

  11. Effects of breed on milk fatty acid profile in dairy ewes, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine and compare the fatty acid profile of milk fat, with particular reference to cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), in two indigenous Romanian sheep breeds (Spanca and Turcana), irrespective of the effects of diet and season. The ewes (n = 25 for each breed) received the ...

  12. Successes and failures of small ruminant breeding programmes in the tropics: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Baker, R.L.; Udo, H.M.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the large numbers and importance of adapted indigenous sheep and goats in the tropics, information on sustainable conventional breeding programmes for them is scarce and often unavailable. This paper reviews within-breed selection strategies for indigenous small ruminants in the tropics,

  13. Genome-wide analysis reveals signatures of selection for important traits in domestic sheep from different ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohua; Ji, Zhibin; Wang, Guizhi; Chao, Tianle; Hou, Lei; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-11-03

    Throughout a long period of adaptation and selection, sheep have thrived in a diverse range of ecological environments. Mongolian sheep is the common ancestor of the Chinese short fat-tailed sheep. Migration to different ecoregions leads to changes in selection pressures and results in microevolution. Mongolian sheep and its subspecies differ in a number of important traits, especially reproductive traits. Genome-wide intraspecific variation is required to dissect the genetic basis of these traits. This research resequenced 3 short fat-tailed sheep breeds with a 43.2-fold coverage of the sheep genome. We report more than 17 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and 2.9 million indels and identify 143 genomic regions with reduced pooled heterozygosity or increased genetic distance to each other breed that represent likely targets for selection during the migration. These regions harbor genes related to developmental processes, cellular processes, multicellular organismal processes, biological regulation, metabolic processes, reproduction, localization, growth and various components of the stress responses. Furthermore, we examined the haplotype diversity of 3 genomic regions involved in reproduction and found significant differences in TSHR and PRL gene regions among 8 sheep breeds. Our results provide useful genomic information for identifying genes or causal mutations associated with important economic traits in sheep and for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to different ecological environments.

  14. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    In these diseases, a neuronal glycoprotein known as prion protein PrPC ... sheep or goats in Turkey, but the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) does not .... Turkish goat breeds was approximately 6.3%, which is a low starting point for ...

  15. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Hoving, R.A.H.; Priem, J.; Bossers, A.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined

  16. Occurrence of Salmonella in ruminants and camel meat in Maiduguri, Nigeria and their antibiotic resistant pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Musa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Salmonella in various meat products (beef from cattle, chevon from goats, mutton from sheep and jaziir from camel, by screening the various selling points which includes; meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in Maiduguri and its environs. Materials and methods: A total of 120 samples of fresh meat from cattle, sheep, goats and camels sampled from ten meat retailers in abattoir, markets and shops in the Maiduguri metropolis, using simple random sampling technique. All samples were processed and examined according to standard bacteriological protocols. Results: Percentage occurrence of Salmonella species had the highest value of 15 (50.1% from the market, found in sheep, while the lowest occurrence of Salmonella species was associated with 3(10.0% in goats sampled from shop meat.. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species from cattle meat revealed high resistant to Erythromycin (52%. In sheep, the higher percentage of resistance occurred against Ampicillin (33.3% and less resistant to Amoxicillin (4% was obtained. The isolates from camel meat recorded 25% resistant against Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 12.5% to Streptomycin. A total of 28.4% of the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Gentamycin and 23.1% to Ofloxacin. Conclusion: The study has shown that Salmonella species are present in fresh meat sold in abattoir, retail markets and shops. We recommend strict hygienic measures in places where fresh meat are sold in Maiduguri metropolis, Nigeria to ensure consumers right to have safe food. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 227-233

  17. Comparative evaluation of local poultry breeds status in Algeria, Vietnam and the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Abdellah, Salhi; Do Duc, Luc; Vu Dinh, Ton; Leroy, Pascal; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Local chicken breeds contribute significantly to the world production of meat and eggs. Indigenous breeds represent 80% of the world poultry population. However, the majority of these breeds has not been recorded and studied. About 40% of poultry breeds have an unknown risk status. Hence, considerable efforts are necessary to evaluate them. Obviously, managing animal genetic resources requires the identification of the concerned phenotypes, population sizes, their geographical ...

  18. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Y chromosome haplotype diversity of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Peng, Wei-Feng; Yang, Guang-Li; Lv, Feng-Hua; Liu, Ming-Jun; Li, Wen-Rong; Liu, Yong-Gang; Li, Jin-Quan; Wang, Feng; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Sheng-Guo; Hehua, Eer; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Murawski, Maziek; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Popa; Dorina Cotarlea; Doina Sprinjean

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus). The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  1. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Popa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus. The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  2. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  3. Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent; Fog-Larsen, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were...... submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial...... pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes...

  4. Determining the value of Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep for the conservation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous Pramenka (Zackel sheep has been recognized as an important element of regional agro-biodiversity, relevant to the tradition that encompasses the cultural heritage of Serbia. The recognition that locally adapted animal breeds gained genetic resistance and adaptability through evolution; modern sustainable farming practices are far more attuned to the need for preserving and utilizing Zackel sheep types. The risk factors leading to rapid and severe decline in Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep population have been described in the paper. The objective of the study was to obtain the data necessary for development of conservation and sustainable use strategies of Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep. Determination of the conservation value upon characteristics of the breed was performed, in aim to identify priorities in accordance with the criteria of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. The positive and negative characteristics of the Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep, opportunities for utilization, as well as ambiental challenges that affect the breed were analyzed in the paper. The importance of this breed for maintenance of cultural tradition, landscape preservation and longterm rural development by in-situ conservation through utilization is also discussed in the paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31085

  5. Influence of Nutrition in Milk Production of Sheep and Lambs in Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Roşu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.

  6. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  7. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chenxi; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng; Ge, Yubin; Liu, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. ► Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. ► shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. ► MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. ► Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  8. The evalution of reproduction parametres in chosen herd of sheep

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠOVÁ, Kristýna

    2009-01-01

    It has been observed the breed herd of Texel sheep in the foothills area of Orlické mountains in the year 2005-2008. The base of herd was consisted of 374 ewes, 575 lambs and 6 rams in total. These parametres of reproduction - conception, fertility, rearing, empty ewes, abortions, lambing, stillborn, death after born, were monitored at ewes. For the parametres of reproduction at ewes were found significant effects of ewe´s age and ram´s line.

  9. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  10. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of calves of Avileña-Negra Ibérica breed fattened under free-range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argimiro Daza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gender (entire males vs females on growth performance, carcass traits and meat and fat quality of Avileña-Negra Ibérica calves, fattened under free range conditions and supplemented with concentrate, were investigated. The average daily gain, leg width and thorax depth were higher in males than in females. Carcass conformation score, fore-quarter weight and percentage in carcass were higher in males than in females, whereas dressing percentege, loins and flank percentages in carcass and carcass fatness degree were higher in females than in males. Instrumental colour variables of muscle were not affected by gender at days 1, 3, 7 and 9 of refrigerated storage. In muscle, the L*, a*, b*, chroma, oxymyoglobine and oxymyoglobine/metmyoglobine ratio values observed 9 days after slaughter were lower than those at days 1 and 3 after slaughter. Intramuscular fat percentage of Longissimus thoracis muscle was higher in females than in males. Gender had no effect on α-tocopherol content in intramuscular fat (IMF from Longissimus thoracis muscle. The omental and IMF of females had lower C18:2 n-6, Σ n-6 and Σ PUFA proportions than those from the males. In IMF C16:1, C18:1 n-9 and Σ MUFA proportions were greater in females than in males. The IMF percentage in Longissimus thoracis affected significantly to its fatty acid composition.

  11. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis between small-tail Han sheep and the Surabaya fur sheep using high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao

    2013-06-01

    The small-tail Han sheep and the Surabaya fur sheep are two local breeds in north China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-prolificacy breed respectively. Significant genetic differences between these two breeds have provided increasing interests in the identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in these sheep. High prolificacy is a complex trait, and it is difficult to comprehensively identify the candidate genes related to this trait using the single molecular biology technique. To understand the molecular mechanisms of fecundity and provide more information about high prolificacy candidate genes in high- and low-fecundity sheep, we explored the utility of next-generation sequencing technology in this work. A total of 1.8 Gb sequencing reads were obtained and resulted in more than 20 000 contigs that averaged ∼300 bp in length. Ten differentially expressed genes were further verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR to confirm the reliability of RNA-seq results. Our work will provide a basis for the future research of the sheep reproduction.

  12. Associations of the variation in the porcine myogenin gene with muscle fibre characteristics, lean meat production and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Choi, B D; Kim, B C; Park, S S; Hong, K C

    2009-04-01

    Pig breeding is aimed at improving lean meat production ability as well as meat quality, and muscle fibre characteristics may be important for enhancing these traits. Therefore, new molecular markers have been demanded for selecting lean meat production ability and meat quality in live animals. Myogenin belongs to the MyoD gene family, and is a candidate gene responsible for muscle fibre characteristics. We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site in the 5' upstream region of the myogenin gene (nucleotides C and T). A total of 252 pigs of three breeds were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using BspCNI. Additionally, they were genotyped for the previously detected MspI site in the 3'-flanking region (alleles A and B). The CCBB diplotype had the highest frequency over breeds, followed by TCBB and CCAB. The other diplotypes were not found in studied pigs. Association analysis performed for the markers found that the TCBB diplotype has desirable effects on the total number of fibres (p lean meat production ability with good meat quality.

  13. Genetic diversity of Colombian sheep by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ocampo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the sheep production systems are managed under extensive conditions and mainly correspond to peasant production systems so their genetic management has led to increased homozygosity and hence productivity loss. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity in 549 individuals corresponding to 13 sheep breeds in Colombia, using a panel of 11 microsatellite molecular markers. One hundred and fifty seven alleles were found (average of 14.27 alleles/locus, with a range of observed and expected heterozygosity from 0.44 to 0.84 and 0.67 to 0.86, respectively. Thirty-three of 143 Hardy Weinberg tests performed showed significant deviations (p < 0.05 due to a general lack of heterozygous individuals. The Fis ranged from 0.01 in Corriedale to 0.15 for the Persian Black Head breed, suggesting that there are presenting low to moderate levels of inbreeding. Overall, Colombian sheep showed high levels of genetic diversity which is very important for future selection and animal breeding programs.

  14. Effect of conventional cooking methods on lipid oxidation indices in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    A Pourkhalili; M Mirlohi; E Rahimi; M Hojatoleslami

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the most deteriorative reactions occurred in foodstuff which has harmful impacts on the both food quality and consumer's health. This study was designed to speculate the influence of three conventional cooking methods including boiling, frying and grilling on lipid oxidation parameters in cooked lamb meat. Sections of lamb meat from longissimus dorsi muscle, taken from native Lori-Bakhtiary sheep species were cut into uniform pieces and cooked using boiling, frying a...

  15. Opportunities for detection and use of QTL influencing seasonal reproduction in sheep: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notter David R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic improvement in traits associated with seasonal breeding in sheep is challenging because these traits have low heritabilities, are generally not expressed until late in life, are commonly recorded only in females, and are expressed only in some lambing seasons and management systems. Detection of quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection could therefore substantially enhance selection responses. A population of sheep with an extended breeding season was developed through selection for fertility in spring matings and provides opportunities for further study of candidate genes influencing seasonal breeding. In particular, the melatonin receptor 1a gene is polymorphic in many sheep breeds and appears to influence a number of seasonal reproductive responses. In addition, a variety of clock genes have been identified in laboratory mammals and shown to influence biological rhythms. Mutations in these clock genes have been identified and shown to influence circadian periodicities and reproductive patterns in golden hamster and mouse. In sheep, expression of clock genes in the suprachaismatic nucleus and pars tuberalis (PT suggests that "calendar" cells in the ovine PT play a role in maintaining circannual rhythms. Thus the various clock genes represent potentially important candidate genes that may be involved in control of seasonal breeding.

  16. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  17. Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Sousa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions

  18. Validation of biomarkers for loin meat quality (m. longissimus) of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierzchala, M.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Urbanski, P.; Kruijt, L.; Kristensen, L.; Young, L.; Oksbjerg, N.; Goluch, D.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate previously reported associations between microarray gene expression levels and pork quality traits using real-time PCR. Meat samples and meat quality data from 100 pigs were collected from a different pig breed to the one tested by microarray (Large White versus

  19. The impact of MYOG, MYF6 and MYOD1 genes on meat quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of the MYOG, MYF6 and MYOD1 genes on selected meat quality traits in crossbred pigs. The observation of these effects on the total amount of 20 indicators of meat quality traits was carried out on a sample of 124 slaughter pigs of cross-breed combinations Pietrain ...

  20. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation.

  1. Polymorphism in exon2 of BMP15 gene in Iranian sangsari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zana pirkhezranian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertility rate is an economically important trait in sheep, which is influenced by genetic and environment. So far, three genes have been identified that affects this trait, one of them would be the BMP family, the most famous one is BMP15. Different mutations in the BMP15 gene, increases reproductive performance and growth rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and phylogenetic of BMP15 gene sequence in Iranian Sangsari sheep. For this purpose, the blood samples from 20 animal of Damghan station were collected. After DNA extracting, a segment of 222 bp of exon 2 of BMP15 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Then, all of the PCR products were sequenced. The results showed existence of four haplotypes and three significant mutations of the gene that which one of them was seen for first. In order to determine the genetic distance of Sansari sheep with other animals especially sheep breeds about 103 sequences were taken from Genebank, Then, phylogenetic trees were drawn. Genetic distances and nucleotide differences were calculated. The results showed that goat, cattle and buffalo have minimum genetic distance and monkey, human and mouse have maximum distance with Sangsari sheep and native Hindi and Kashmiri sheep have not any differences with Iranian Sangsari sheep.

  2. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  3. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Weyreter, H.; Heller, R.; Lechner, M.; Schultka, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  4. Analysis of genetic variation in different sheep breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Department of Cell Biology, Genetic Engineering Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, .... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA extracted ..... Technology, Egypt through the project titled "Genetic.

  5. (GDF9) gene in the Shal breed of sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The amplified PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. ... Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a growth factor and a member of the transforming .... clear that the used PCR and electrophoresis strategies are suitable for ...

  6. and K-casein genes in Egyptian sheep breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Casein genetic polymorphisms are important and well known due to their effects on quantitative traits and technological properties of milk manufacturing. The casein fraction of ruminant milk proteins consists of four caseins, namely 8s1-, 8s2-, β-and K-casein. At the DNA level, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ...

  7. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwisa Chumngoen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR and Taiwan native chicken (TNC breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1, TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2, TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3, TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  8. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  9. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggressive trait in sheep. Five of sheep breed were used, i.e.: Barbados Black belly Cross sheep (BC, Composite Garut (KG, Local Garut (LG, Composite Sumatra (KS and St. Cross Croix (SC. Duration of ten behavior traits, blood serotonin concentrations and DNA sequence of exon 8 of MAO-A gene from the sheep aggressive and nonaggressive were observed. PROC GLM of SAS Ver. 9.0 program was used to analyze variable behavior and blood serotonin concentrations. DNA polymorphism in exon 8 of MAO-A gene was analyzed using the MEGA software Ver. 4.0. The results show that the percentage of the aggressive rams of each breed was less than 10 percent; except for the KS sheep is higher (23%. Based on the duration of behavior, aggressive sheep group was not significantly different with non aggressive sheep group, except duration of care giving and drinking behavior. It is known that concentration of blood serotonin in aggressive and non aggressive rams was not significantly different. The aggressive trait in sheep has a mechanism or a different cause like that occurs in mice and humans. In this study, aggressive behavior in sheep was not associated with a mutation in exon 8 of MAO-A gene.

  10. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  11. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  12. Survey of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii in human consumed ovine meat in Tunis City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boughattas

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis has been recognized as parasitic zoonosis with the highest human incidence. The human infection by the parasite can lead to severe clinical manifestations in congenital toxoplasmosis and immunocompromised patients. Contamination occurs mainly by foodborne ways especially consumption of raw or undercooked meat. In contrast to other foodborne infections, toxoplasmosis is a chronic infection which would make its economic and social impact much higher than even previously anticipated. Ovine meat was advanced as a major risk factor, so we investigated its parasite survey, under natural conditions. Serological MAT technique and touchdown PCR approaches were used for prevalence determination of the parasite in slaughtered sheep intended to human consumption in Tunis City. The genotyping was carried by SNPs analysis of SAG3 marker. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were present in 38.2% of young sheep and in 73.6% of adult sheep. Molecular detection revealed the contamination of 50% of ewes' tissue. Sequencing and SNPs analysis enabled unambiguous typing of meat isolates and revealed the presence of mixed strains as those previously identified from clinical samples in the same area. Our findings conclude that slaughtered sheep are highly infected, suggesting them as a major risk factor of Toxoplasma gondii transmission by meat consumption. Special aware should target consequently this factor when recommendations have to be established by the health care commanders.

  13. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  14. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-05-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  15. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  16. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  17. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  18. Polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with meat quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hung Nguyen

    has augmented the lean meat proportion and high-growth rate in the ... are closely linked to the blood group inhibitor (S) and Escherichia coli F18 ... granular pattern recognition molecule and has bactericidal activity on ..... The selection pressure on the growth rate in indigenous native pig breeds has been weak and.

  19. upstream region of the myostatin gene in four chicken breeds and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... processing site and a carboxy-terminal region containing nine cysteines ... cultivated meat breed (minitype) and the Youxi chicken is a local breed raised for ..... Allele R was the additive gene on growth traits. Bian chickens ...

  20. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  1. Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

    2011-10-01

    Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged.

  2. Seasonal changes in water metabolism of Sudan desert sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hadi, H.M.; Hassan, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    Seasonal changes that occur in body weight, body temperature, total body water and water turnover were investigated in grazing sheep and goats at different times of the year to understand how different breeds adapt to the environmental conditions in Sudan. (author)

  3. The adaption of the South Africa sheep industry to new trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of sheep breeding research in South Africa can be divided roughly into four eras, namely the research and development phase, the commencement of recording and evaluation, the expansion of recording schemes, and, most recently, the adaptation of schemes to international benchmarks. The most recent era ...

  4. Using an online genome resource to identify myostatin variation in U.S. sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    We created a public, searchable DNA sequence resource for sheep that contained approximately 14x whole genome sequence of 96 rams. The animals represent 10 popular U.S. breeds and share minimal pedigree relationships, making the resource suitable for viewing gene variants in the user-friendly Integ...

  5. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  6. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  7. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  8. Seasonal organic pig production with a local breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Horsted, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    It is important that organic pork differs markedly from conventional pork regarding taste, appearance and production methods in order to overcome the heavy price competition. That is the hypothesis behind thecurrent project. A seasonal outdoor rearing system based on a traditional and local breed...... to the modern genotype and thefat of the Black-Spotted pig was characterised as having a special nutty taste. In conclusion, preliminaryresults indicate that the local breed differs markedly with respect to several meat quality aspects comparedto the modern breed but also shows clear disadvantages regarding...

  9. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  10. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, supported by IDRC and GAC through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), will improve food security and nutrition in Tanzania through an integrated breeding and management program that will increase goat milk and meat production. Researchers will test improved cassava and ...

  11. Gaucher disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Lancaster, Malcolm J; Nimmo, Judith S; Hopwood, John J

    2011-02-01

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene, was recently discovered in sheep on a "Southdown" sheep stud in Victoria, Australia. Clinical signs include neuropathy, thickened leathery skin, and ichthyosis, with lambs unable to stand from birth. Affected lambs were found to be deficient in glucocerebrosidase activity, and mutational analysis found them to be homozygous for the missense mutations c.1142G>A (p.C381Y) and c.1400C>T (p.P467L). In addition, four silent mutations were detected (c.777C>A [p.Y259Y], c1203A>G [p.Q401Q], c.1335T>C [p.I445I], c.1464C>G [p.L488L]). The human equivalent [C342Y] to the C381Y mutation leads to an acute neuronopathic phenotype in patients. Identification of an acute neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease in sheep provides a large animal model that will enable studies of pathology and evaluation of therapies to treat this common lysosomal storage disorder.

  12. Identifying of meat species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foong, Chow Ming; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Meat has been widely consumed as an important protein source in daily life of human. Furthermore, with busy and intense urban lifestyle, processed food is now one of the main protein sources of one’s diet. Consumers rely on the food labeling to decide if the meat product purchased is safe and reliable. Therefore, it is important to ensure the food labeling is done in a correct manner to avoid consumer fraud. More consumers are now concern about the food quality and safety as compared to before. This study described the meat species identification and detection method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 8 types of meats (cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, pork and horse). The objective of this study is to decide on the specificity of oligonucleotide sequences obtained from previous study. There were 5 proposed oligonucleotide primer in this study. The main important finding in this work is the specificity of oligonucleotide primers to raw meats. It if found that the oligonucleotide primers proposed were not specific to the local raw meat species. Therefore, further study is needed to obtain a species-specific oligonucletide primers for PCR, in order to be applied in food product testing

  13. Identifying of meat species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foong, Chow Ming; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Meat has been widely consumed as an important protein source in daily life of human. Furthermore, with busy and intense urban lifestyle, processed food is now one of the main protein sources of one’s diet. Consumers rely on the food labeling to decide if the meat product purchased is safe and reliable. Therefore, it is important to ensure the food labeling is done in a correct manner to avoid consumer fraud. More consumers are now concern about the food quality and safety as compared to before. This study described the meat species identification and detection method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 8 types of meats (cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, pork and horse). The objective of this study is to decide on the specificity of oligonucleotide sequences obtained from previous study. There were 5 proposed oligonucleotide primer in this study. The main important finding in this work is the specificity of oligonucleotide primers to raw meats. It if found that the oligonucleotide primers proposed were not specific to the local raw meat species. Therefore, further study is needed to obtain a species-specific oligonucletide primers for PCR, in order to be applied in food product testing.

  14. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  15. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  16. Study on the polymorphism of POU1F1 gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan Bai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, POU1F1 gene polymorphism was detected in five sheep populations (large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Lanzhou large-tailed, and Mongolian sheep, using DNA pooling and sequencing, to provide theoretical basis for the breeding of excellent sheep varieties. Three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci of POU1F1 gene were detected in five sheep populations, namely C355T (C/T, C71G (C/G, and C330G (C/G. C and T frequencies of C355T were 0.67/0.33, 0.81/0.19, 0.67/0.33, 1.00/0.00, and 0.93/0.07, respectively, in large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Mongolian, and Lanzhou large-tailed sheep. C of C355T locus was the dominant allele in five sheep populations. C and G allele frequencies of C330G locus were detected in Yuxi fat-tailed sheep; their frequencies were 0.75 and 0.25, respectively. C and G allele of C71G locus were only detected in Yuxi fat-tailed and large-tailed Han sheep; their frequencies were 0.87/0.13 and 0.87/0.13, respectively. The cluster analysis based on POU1F1 gene sequence showed that bactrian camel, dromedary, and wild camel clustered first, and dolphin and killer whales clustered according to taxonomy. Although the four species Tibetan antelope, buffalo, goat, and sheep were alone, they got close and the relative genetic relationship was intimate according to the dendrogram. The mutation site analysis of the POU1F1 gene in five sheep populations in this study would be favorable for uncovering the function of POU1F1 gene deeply.

  17. Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P cooking (P cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  19. Meat : a natural symbol.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiddes, Nick

    1989-01-01

    In Britain, and in cultures around the world, meat's significance extends beyond what might be anticipated from its nutritional utility. By looking at the academic and popular literature, and through a series of looselystructured interviews, this study investigates the range of ideas that people hold about meat in modern Britain for evidence as to what it is that makes animal flesh such an esteemed foodstuff. The principle conclusion is that meat's pre-eminence derives from ...

  20. Chemical analysis and full value of albumens of meat of pork

    OpenAIRE

    BIRTA G.O.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of meat has a genetic conditionality and changes depending on external factors. The pedigree differences of quality of pork are based on quantitative correlation the degree of forming of muscular and fatty fabric. Meat of pigs of greasy and meat breeds already on a 5-6 monthly age has a complex of chemical and фізико-біологічних properties which determine his maturity, and meat and bacon to 6-7 monthly, that is why the animals of different directions of the productivity in a the same ...

  1. Genetic differentiation between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Bravo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have not been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12 and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14 were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022 and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070 indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.

  2. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  3. Healthier meat and meat products: Their role as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; Carballo, José; Cofrades, Susana

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of meat raw material and reformulation of meat products to obtain healthier meat and meat products. Fu...

  4. Meat science research tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo García Macías

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high quality food due its higher protein content, besides to provide energy, vitamins particularly B complex, water and minerals, resulting in an appreciated food for humans. Even in same country, consumers search for different stuffs, since north consumers looks for meat cuts with fat and bone, whereas center-south consumers prefers fatless debones meat cuts. Modern consumers demand excellent appearance, color, taste and flavor in foods, microbiologically safe, minimal processed and curing salts, very nutritive and cheap. All these together in one single product are a hard challenge in the meat products area.

  5. Molecular genetic variation in sheep of the central Volga area inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TAPIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on morphology, native northern European sheep breeds belong to the short tailed type, of which the Romanov is the only native example still distributed in northwest Russia. Besides this, there exist local sheep populations kept by Finno-Ugric peoples in the central Volga region, which represent additional genetic resources in the area. Four sheep populations from the central Volga region were genotyped for 20 microsatellites and compared with geographically proximate breeds (Estonian Whitehead and Blackhead, the Finnsheep and an exported and a native population of Russian Romanov and with local populations in Estonia, Finland and Russian Karelia. Between-breed analyses including admixture analysis using molecular genetic markers and the phenotypic characteristics indicated that the Volgaic populations have not remained pure. The Viena population from Russian Karelia, the Romanov breed and, to some extent, the Komi population, have escaped extensive mixing, making them most attractive for conservation programmes. The study compared imported and native Romanov breed populations and the results suggest that the diversity parameters are markedly similar in these two populations.;

  6. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  7. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  8. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HALL, H E; ANGELOTTI, R

    1965-05-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C.

  9. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  10. Quality of Italian Istrian Milk lamb meat. Influence of carcass weight and feeding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kompan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Istrian Milk sheep is an endangered breed of the Pramenka group raised in the North-Adriatic Karst region. Carcass and meat characteristics of 46 suckling, 6- to 14- week-old intact male light lambs from two feeding systems were analysed. Thirty-two lambs were raised in a flock fed only with forage (hay supplied in stall during winter or fresh herbage directly grazed during the other seasons. The lambs had free access to the forage supplied to their dams (feeding sys- tem: milk and forage; MF. The other fourteen suckling ovine were grown on a farm with a feeding system incorporat- ing a concentrated supply of the forage base. The lambs were stabled and creep fed on a concentrate (20% CP at a daily rate of 100 g/head, in addition to the suckled milk (feeding system: milk and concentrate; MC. The carcasses were divid- ed into three categories of weight, following the Community scale of light lambs classification: A (lesser than or equal to 7 kg, n=17, B (7.1-10 kg, n=15 and C (10.1-13 kg, n=14. The frequency of 1st quality carcasses increased with carcass weight, reaching 100% in category C. On average, 72% of the carcasses were scored as 1st quality, without significant differences between feeding systems. The lightness of lamb meat from A carcasses was higher than that from the heaviest ones. Cooking losses showed a pattern opposite to that of pH (mean 5.44; SE 0.058, increasing where pH decreased (cate- gories A and B and concentrate-fed lambs. Shear force values were significantly affected by factors linked to the feed- ing system; in fact, MC lambs provided more tender meat than MF ones (32.6 vs 46.6 N. As carcass weight increased, moisture concentration decreased steadily (from 77.8% to 75.5%, while lipid content increased progressively (from 1.58% to 3.14%. In agreement with these patterns, the contribution of individual fatty acids (FA to muscle weight gen- erally increased with carcass weight. A similar trend was observed for the

  11. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of sheep and goat pox in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Fenta, Nigusie; Leta, Samson; Molla, Wassie; Ayele, Birhanu; Teshome, Yechale; Nigatu, Seleshe; Assefa, Ashenafi

    2017-12-11

    Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease. A total of 672 serum samples were collected from 30 Kebeles and tested using virus neutralization test. From a total of 672 sera tested, 104 (15.5%) were positive for sheep and goat pox virus antibody; from which 56 (17%) were sheep and 48 (14%) were goats. The diseases were prevalent in all study zones, the highest sero-prevalence was observed in South Gondar (20.9%) and the lowest in North Gondar and West Gojjam zones (11.9% each). From the potential risk factors considered (species, sex, age, agro-ecology and location); only sex and age were significantly associated (p pox is one of the most prevalent and widespread diseases of sheep and goats in the study area. Hence, annual mass vaccination program must be implemented for economic and viable control of sheep and goat pox diseases in the Amhara region in particular and at a national level in general.

  12. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Seeiso

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80 % of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143 were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237 of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20 slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3, while the rest (n = 37 sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per mℓ in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per mℓ. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12 and Escherichia coli (n=15. During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was

  13. Characteristics of Smallholder Sheep Production at Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The household owners of sheep seldom fed forage to their sheep (17.86%), while 25% of commercial sheep farmers fed forage. The common diseases in the area were diarrhea, pneumonia and mange. The constraints to sheep production in the area included automobile accidents, seasonal lack of feed, diseases, theft and ...

  14. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. BULLA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  15. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULLA, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  16. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p  0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  17. Problems and Solution Proposals Related to Sheep and Goat Husbandry in Kastamonu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Tüfekci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted by using a survey made at 80 enterprises from 63 villages with the aim of determining situations, problems and solution proposals related to the sheep and goat farms in Kastamonu province. The average age of the farmers was 49.3 years. The farmers were 8.75% of primary school graduates, 68.75% of secondary school and also 22.6% of illiterate. The enterprises have raised animals as 31.75% of state + own land and 68.75%’ of private + leased land. Also they are kept the rate of 70% Hair goat, 30% Angora goat and 55% Merino sheep, 42.5% Akkaraman sheep, and 16.25% Turkmen genotype, 7.5% Sakız sheep and 6.25% of Kıvırcık Sheep. The average flock sizes goat and sheep enterprises were 77.3 head goats and 71.7 heads sheep, respectively. Sixty percent of the breeder feed their animals on the pasture for 8-10 months and only 30% the breeders give supplementary feeding before and during mating period. The enterprises have 31.2% parturition chamber and 92.5% lamb growth areas. While all enterprises are routinely used to protective vaccines but only used disinfectant of 73.7% enterprises. The reason of sheep and goat breeders is majority contributions of income and habits. So, flock sizes are small (74.5 heads animal. In conclusion, young people by encouraging small animal farming in the province of Kastamonu, should be given to technical, economic support and educational seminars. In the future, as the sole source of income and a large flock size may lead to a development of sheep and goat breeding in Kastamonu province.

  18. Nematodiasis in sheep and goats kept under traditional farming practice in Batujajar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriajaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relation of age, sex, season and reproduction on gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of the two most commonly kept breeds of sheep and goat in Bogor district. A total of 119 Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep and 130 Peranakan Etawah (PE goats with different age and sex were monitored for 16 months. Age of sheep and goat was divided into 3 groups respectively, i.e. before weaning (8 months 31 and 35. Each 4 weeks, individual faeces were collected and individual animals were weighed. Information on the mortality, morbidity, pregnancy, slaughtered and sold was recorded. The results showed that Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. were dominant species of nematodes found in the faecal cultured. In the period of monitoring, egg counts of nematodes in sheep were higher (P<0.05 than in goats, however both animals have similar pattern of egg counts. In the first three months, the egg counts remained steady relatively in 3 groups of age, but soon after that the egg counts increased and reached its peak (in March of 6186 eggs in sheep and 3434 in goats, there after they decreased along with the onset of dry season. A part from this, the egg counts increased (P<0.05 three months before lambing and remained steady until 2 months after partus in sheep, but not in goats. During the monitoring period, weight gain in wet season was lower (P<0.05 as compared to dry season. There was no effect of sex on faecal egg count in either sheep or goats although male sheep had higher egg counts than female sheep had in November and January. Evidence of diarrhoeic faeces was higher in wet season than in dry season.

  19. Invited review: Current production trends, farm structures, and economics of the dairy sheep and goat sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulina, G; Milán, M J; Lavín, M P; Theodoridis, A; Morin, E; Capote, J; Thomas, D L; Francesconi, A H D; Caja, G

    2018-05-30

    Dairy small ruminants account for approximately 21% of all sheep and goats in the world, produce around 3.5% of the world's milk, and are mainly located in subtropical-temperate areas of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Dairy sheep are concentrated around the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, where their dairy products are typical ingredients of the human diet. Dairy goats are concentrated in low-income, food-deficit countries of the Indian subcontinent, where their products are a key food source, but are also present in high-income, technologically developed countries. This review evaluates the status of the dairy sheep and goat sectors in the world, with special focus on the commercially and technically developed industries in France, Greece, Italy, and Spain (FGIS). Dairy small ruminants account for a minor part of the total agricultural output in France, Italy, and Spain (0.9 to 1.8%) and a larger part in Greece (8.8%). In FGIS, the dairy sheep industry is based on local breeds and crossbreeds raised under semi-intensive and intensive systems and is concentrated in a few regions in these countries. Average flock size varies from small to medium (140 to 333 ewes/farm), and milk yield from low to medium (85 to 216 L/ewe), showing substantial room for improvement. Most sheep milk is sold to industries and processed into traditional cheese types, many of which are Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheeses for gourmet and export markets (e.g., Pecorino, Manchego, and Roquefort). By comparing break-even milk price among FGIS countries, we observed the following: (1) most Greek and French dairy sheep farms were unprofitable, with the exception of the intensive Chios farms of Greece; (2) milk price was aligned with cost of production in Italy; and (3) profitable farms coexisted with unprofitable farms in Spain. In FGIS, dairy goat production is based on local breeds raised under more extensive systems than sheep. Compared with sheep, average dairy goat herds are

  20. Cloning and sequencing of growth hormone gene of Iranian Lori Bakhtiari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dayani-Nia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and animals. It is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesized, stored, and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. The goal of this research was to clone and sequence sheep growth hormone of Lori Bakhtiary breed in Iran. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from the pituitary gland of freshly slaughtered sheep and cDNA of growth hormone produced. The T/A cloning technique was used to clone the cDNA of growth hormone and then the synthesized construct was transferred into E. coli as the host. Once the correct recombinants were further confirmed by colony PCR or restriction enzyme digestion, sequencing was done. The sequencing results showed that, the length of sheep growth hormone cDNA was 690 bp fragments. Comparison of sequence of growth hormone inside the synthesized construct with those recorded in Genebank (NCBI, Blast indicated high degrees of similarity between Iranian native sheep and other sheep breeds of the world.

  1. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  2. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  3. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  4. The Relationship between Farm-Gate and Consumer Demand for Meat Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh fathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Demand for farm output is theoretically consistent with consumer demand and marketing performance. Many studies have focused on demand interrelationships at the retail level, but not on the demand for farm output. In this study, derived demand elasticities of sheep, beef and chicken were estimated in a complete system of demand functions by seemingly unrelated regression estimator (SURE for the years 1984-2012. Sheep, beef and chicken are considered as inputs for food processing and marketing and so their corresponding derived demands are related to consumer demand and marketing performance. Based on findings of this study, the elasticities of substitution are estimated to be 0.26 for sheep, 0.38 for cattle and 0.32 for poultry. The results showed that derived demand elasticity is more sensitive than the one measured by the traditional method. The price elasticities of the derived demands for the three types of meat were calculated-0.922, -0.775 and -0.716 for sheep, beef and chicken, respectively. This presents that demands at the farm level are less elastic than the associated demands at the retail level. Therefore, policies that change meat price at farm or retail level affect marginal markets of other meat products. According to the results of this study, it is necessary for policy makers to have information on the derived demand elasticity.

  5. Mutations in MC1R Gene Determine Black Coat Color Phenotype in Chinese Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Li Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R plays a central role in regulation of animal coat color formation. In this study, we sequenced the complete coding region and parts of the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of the MC1R gene in Chinese sheep with completely white (Large-tailed Han sheep, black (Minxian Black-fur sheep, and brown coat colors (Kazakh Fat-Rumped sheep. The results showed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: two non-synonymous mutations previously associated with coat color (c.218 T>A, p.73 Met>Lys. c.361 G>A, p.121 Asp>Asn and three synonymous mutations (c.429 C>T, p.143 Tyr>Tyr; c.600 T>G, p.200 Leu>Leu. c.735 C>T, p.245 Ile>Ile. Meanwhile, all mutations were detected in Minxian Black-fur sheep. However, the two nonsynonymous mutation sites were not in all studied breeds (Large-tailed Han, Small-tailed Han, Gansu Alpine Merino, and China Merino breeds, all of which are in white coat. A single haplotype AATGT (haplotype3 was uniquely associated with black coat color in Minxian Black-fur breed (P=9.72E-72, chi-square test. The first and second A alleles in this haplotype 3 represent location at 218 and 361 positions, respectively. Our results suggest that the mutations of MC1R gene are associated with black coat color phenotype in Chinese sheep.

  6. Meat and meat product preservation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egginger, R.

    A brief summary is given of experience with the preservation of meat and meat products by ionizing radiation, or by combined methods. The results of the research have proved that hygienically significant microorganisms (mainly salmonellas) are reliably destroyed and that the consumption of thus irradiated meat and meat products presents no danger to human health. (B.S.)

  7. An outbreak of tuberculosis in Lleyn sheep in the UK associated with clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, G M; Drummond, F; Crawshaw, T; Morris, S

    2013-01-19

    This case report describes an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection a Lleyn sheep flock associated with clinical signs of illthrift. There was no known direct contact with tuberculous cattle although bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in the area. The spoligotype isolated from the diseased sheep was the local spoligotype. The repeated use of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, and the subsequent removal of reactor animals, resulted in apparent elimination of bTB from the flock. Lesions caused by M bovis in sheep may contain very few acid-fast bacilli, and gross lesions may resemble those found in cases of Caseous Lymphadenitis. Routine meat inspection may, therefore, not always easily detect this notifiable disease.

  8. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  9. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Knowles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile.

  11. Selection to improve spring fertility in a crossbred sheep population

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shorepy, Salih Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Reproductive and productive performance of a composite sheep population, containing 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet and 25% Finnsheep breeding and under selection for ability to lamb in the fall, was evaluated. Traits considered were spring fertility, faIl litter size, live weights at birth, weaning, and at about 90 and 120 d of age, and scrotal circumference at weaning and at about 90 and 120 d of age. Fertility was defined as 1 or 0 depending upon whether a ewe lambed or failed t...

  12. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  13. Genetic Testing for TMEM154 Mutations Associated with Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Dustin T.; Simpson, Barry; Kijas, James W.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.

    2013-01-01

    In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal’s health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks. PMID:23408992

  14. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    Full Text Available In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal's health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154 has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes. The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks.

  15. Presence of Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Sheep from the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the nematode Toxocara canis, and less frequently Toxocara cati, whose final hosts are the dog and cat, respectively. It is acquired by the ingestion of embryonated parasite eggs; the ingestion of meat from animals carrying cystic larvae plays a central role in this disease. The study was conducted in Ayapango, Mexico. Ninety-two sheep where used, of which 72 were females and 20 males. The total prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 15.21% (14/92, ranging from 17.24% in the one to six months age group to 14.28% in the group older sheep six months, with a higher percentage in females (19.44% compared to males (5.0%, with a significant difference between positive males and females older than six months of age (Chi-square test = 4.22, P < 0.05. The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in sheep suggests that a high number of animals are infected with Toxocara spp. The consumption of meat from paratenic hosts, including sheep, is considered a means of transmission of toxocariasis to humans.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF HORSE MEAT SCANDAL ON ROMANIAN MEAT MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius STANCIU; Nicoleta STANCIUC; Loredana DUMITRASCU; Roxana ION; Costel NISTOR

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appea...

  17. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  18. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranco, B. A.; Rava, C.

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06). Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (de boned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts), four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI). The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and dis aggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations. (Author)

  19. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Lanfranco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06. Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (deboned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts, four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish, and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI. The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and disaggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations.

  20. Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hodžić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological