WorldWideScience

Sample records for measuring resident well-being

  1. Measuring resident well-being: impostorism and burnout syndrome in residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legassie, Jenny; Zibrowski, Elaine M; Goldszmidt, Mark A

    2008-07-01

    Assessing resident well-being is becoming increasingly important from a programmatic standpoint. Two measures that have been used to assess this are the Clance Impostor Scale (CIS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). However, little is known about the relationship between the two phenomena. To explore the prevalence and association between impostorism and burnout syndrome in a sample of internal medicine residents. Anonymous, cross-sectional postal survey. Forty-eight internal medicine residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 1-3) at the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry (62.3% response rate). Short demographic questionnaire, CIS and MBI-HSS. Impostorism and burnout syndrome were identified in 43.8% and 12.5% of residents, respectively. With the exception of a negative correlation between CIS scores and the MBI's personal accomplishment subscale (r = -.30; 95% CI -.54 to -.02), no other significant relations were identified. Foreign-trained residents were more likely to score as impostors (odds ratio [OR] 10.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 98.2) while senior residents were more likely to experience burnout syndrome (OR 16.5 95% CI 1.6 to 168.5). Both impostorism and burnout syndrome appear to be threats to resident well-being in our program. The lack of relationship between the two would suggest that programs and researchers wishing to address the issue of resident distress should consider using both measures. The finding that foreign-trained residents appear to be more susceptible to impostorism warrants further study.

  2. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Resident Well-Being.

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    Lin, Dana T; Liebert, Cara A; Tran, Jennifer; Lau, James N; Salles, Arghavan

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing recognition that physician wellness is critical; it not only benefits the provider, but also influences quality and patient care outcomes. Despite this, resident physicians suffer from a high rate of burnout and personal distress. Individuals with higher emotional intelligence (EI) are thought to perceive, process, and regulate emotions more effectively, which can lead to enhanced well-being and less emotional disturbance. This study sought to understand the relationship between EI and wellness among surgical residents. Residents in a single general surgery residency program were surveyed on a voluntary basis. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Resident wellness was assessed with the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form. Emotional intelligence and wellness parameters were correlated using Pearson coefficients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of well-being. Seventy-three residents participated in the survey (response rate 63%). Emotional intelligence scores correlated positively with psychological well-being (r = 0.74; p emotional exhaustion (r = -0.69; p emotional exhaustion (β = -0.63; p Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of resident well-being. Prospectively measuring EI can identify those who are most likely to thrive in surgical residency. Interventions to increase EI can be effective at optimizing the wellness of residents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Measuring Well-Being and Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. D'Acci (Luca)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWell-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes

  4. Emergency medicine resident well-being: stress and satisfaction.

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    Hoonpongsimanont, W; Murphy, M; Kim, C H; Nasir, D; Compton, S

    2014-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) residents are exposed to many work-related stressors, which affect them both physically and emotionally. It is unknown, however, how EM residents perceive the effect of these stressors on their well-being and how often they use unhealthy coping mechanisms to manage stress. To evaluate EM residents' perceptions of stressors related to their overall well-being and the prevalence of various coping mechanisms. An online survey instrument was developed to gauge resident stress, satisfaction with current lifestyle, stress coping mechanisms and demographics. A stratified random sample of EM residents from three postgraduate years (PGY-I, PGY-II and PGY-III) was obtained. Descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare residents across PGY level. There were 120 potential participants in each of the three PGYs. The overall response rate was 30% (109) with mean age of 30 and 61% were male. On a 0-4 scale (0 = completely dissatisfied), respondents in PGY-I reported significantly less satisfaction with lifestyle than those in PGY-II and III (mean rating: 1.29, 1.66 and 1.70, respectively; P stress categories: work relationships (1.37), work environment (1.10) and response to patients (1.08). Residents reported exercise (94%), hobbies (89%) and use of alcohol (71%) as coping methods. Residents reported low satisfaction with current lifestyle. This dissatisfaction was unrelated to perceived work-related stress. Some undesirable coping methods were prevalent, suggesting that training programs could focus on promotion of healthy group activities.

  5. Discriminant validity of well-being measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R E; Diener, E; Suh, E

    1996-09-01

    The convergent and discriminant validities of well-being concepts were examined using multitrait-multimethod matrix analyses (D. T. Campbell & D. W. Fiske, 1959) on 3 sets of data. In Study 1, participants completed measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and optimism on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart and also obtained 3 informant ratings. In Study 2, participants completed each of the 5 measures on 2 occasions 2 years apart and collected informant reports at Time 2. In Study 3, participants completed 2 different scales for each of the 5 constructs. Analyses showed that (a) life satisfaction is discriminable from positive and negative affect, (b) positive affect is discriminable from negative affect, (c) life satisfaction is discriminable from optimism and self-esteem, and (d) optimism is separable from trait measures of negative affect.

  6. [Stress at work and well-being in junior residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the workplace experiences of junior physicians in their first year of residency, and the impact of these experiences on their physical and psychological well-being. In a prospective longitudinal study 518 junior physicians (54.4% women, 45.6% men) were investigated twice within two years with regard to individual and institutional determinants of career development. Gender-relevant workplace experiences, i. e. effort-reward imbalance, and their relation to physical and psychological well-being, i. e. anxiety and depression, as well as life satisfaction were evaluated. The workplace experiences revealed three significant gender-specific results: Women residents received less mentoring, had more positive social relationships at work, and showed a higher over-commitment than their male colleagues. Both men and women residents reported significantly worse physical and psychological well-being as well as life satisfaction after their first year of residency (T2) compared to the time directly before their graduation from medical school (T1). The junior physicians' life satisfaction scores are significantly lower than those of the normal population. 7-10% of the respondents showed anxiety scores above cut-off, and 1-4% depression scores above cut-off. Personality traits such as a high sense of coherence and low expressiveness are protective factors for well-being and life satisfaction. Insufficient leadership of senior residents and unclear hierarchical structures as well as stress at work and over-commitment are risk factors for the development of symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. The reported results are consistent with the psychosocial stress model by Karasek and Theorell as well as with the model of effort-reward imbalance of Siegrist.

  7. Resident-to-resident relational aggression and subjective well-being in assisted living facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, Hester; Scholte, Ron; Westerhof, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    Research in settings similar to assisted living facilities suggests that relational aggression, an indirect and mature form of aggression, might occur in assisted living facilities. This empirical study investigates the existence of relational aggression in a sample of residents and the relationship between relational aggression and resident's subjective well-being. 121 residents from six assisted living facilities completed questionnaires assessing personal experiences as victims of relational aggression and subjective well-being. Also nurses reported on victimization of relational aggression for every participant. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between both reports of relational aggression and subjective well-being. Relational aggression was shown to exist in assisted living facilities according to both residents (prevalence: 19%) and nurses (prevalence: 41%). Chi-square testing revealed no association between ratings by nurses and residents. Self-reports of victimization of relational aggression were related to depression, anxiety, satisfaction with life and social loneliness, but not to emotional loneliness. Nurse-reports of victimization of relational aggression were not related to subjective well-being. Self-reports of relational aggression seem to be better predictors of resident's well-being than nurse-reports of relational aggression. Awareness of these findings and the discrepancy between nurse-reports and self-reports are important for practice and for future research regarding social dynamics and living arrangements in elderly care settings.

  8. Maintaining the Fire but Avoiding Burnout: Implementation and Evaluation of a Resident Well-Being Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riall, Taylor S; Teiman, Joshua; Chang, Michelle; Cole, Denzel; Leighn, Tambre; McClafferty, Hilary; Nfonsam, Valentine N

    2018-04-01

    There have been few programs designed to improve surgical resident well-being, and such efforts often lack formal evaluation. General surgery residents participated in the Energy Leadership Well-Being and Resiliency Program. They were assessed at baseline and 1 year after implementation using the Energy Leadership Index (measures emotional intelligence), Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey, Perceived Stress Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the annual required ACGME resident survey. Scores before and after implementation were compared using paired t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. Forty-nine general surgery residents participate in the program. One year after implementation, resident score on the Energy Leadership Index improved (from 3.16 ± 0.24 to 3.24 ± 0.32; p = 0.03). Resident perceived stress decreased from baseline (Perceived Stress Scale score, from 17.0 ± 7.2 to 15.7 ± 6.2; p = 0.05). Scores on the emotional exhaustion scale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory decreased (from 16.8 ± 8.4 to 14.4 ± 8.5; p = 0.04). Resident-reported satisfaction improved in many areas; satisfaction with leadership skills, work relationships, communication skills, productivity, time management, personal freedom, and work-life balance, increased during the 1-year intervention (p = NS). On the annual ACGME resident survey, residents' evaluation of the program as positive or very positive increased from 80% to 96%. This study demonstrates that formal implementation of a program to improve resident well-being positively impacted residents' perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, and their perception of the residency program. Formal evaluation and reporting of such efforts allow for reproducibility and scalability, with the potential for widespread impact on resident well-being. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal Associations of Autonomy, Relatedness, and Competence with the Well-being of Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Noortje; Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2018-02-24

    As proposed by the self-determination theory, satisfying nursing home residents' needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence may improve their well-being. This is the first study to test the longitudinal relations of the satisfaction of these three basic psychological needs to the subjective well-being of nursing home residents and to determine whether a balance among the satisfaction of the three needs is important for well-being. Participants in this longitudinal survey study included 128 physically frail residents (mean age 85 years) at four Dutch nursing homes. Satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs was measured at baseline, and depressive feelings and life satisfaction 5-8 months later. Absolute differences between the three basic need satisfaction scores were summed to create a score of need satisfaction balance. All three needs were related to both well-being measures over time, although autonomy had the strongest relationships. Only autonomy and competence were uniquely associated with depressive feelings, and only autonomy was uniquely associated with life satisfaction. The need satisfaction balance score was related to well-being independent of the autonomy and relatedness scores. These results confirm that all three basic psychological needs are important for nursing home residents' well-being, with autonomy having the strongest and most consistent relationship to their well-being. Additionally, high satisfaction of one need does not compensate for low satisfaction of another. Supporting residents' needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence should, therefore, have a central role in nursing home culture-change interventions.

  10. Burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being among US neurology residents and fellows in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kerry H; Shanafelt, Tait D; Keran, Christopher M; Busis, Neil A; Foster, Laura A; Molano, Jennifer Rose V; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Ratliff, Jeffrey B; Schwarz, Heidi B; Sloan, Jeff A; Cascino, Terrence L

    2017-08-01

    To study prevalence of and factors contributing to burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurology residents and fellows. A total of 938 US American Academy of Neurology member neurology residents and fellows were surveyed using standardized measures of burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being from January 19 to March 21, 2016. Response rate was 37.7% (354/938); about 2/3 of responders were residents and 1/3 were fellows. Median age of participants was 32 years and 51.1% were female. Seventy-three percent of residents and 55% of fellows had at least one symptom of burnout, the difference largely related to higher scores for depersonalization among residents. For residents, greater satisfaction with work-life balance, meaning in work, and older age were associated with lower risk of burnout; for fellows, greater satisfaction with work-life balance and effective support staff were associated with lower risk of burnout. Trainees experiencing burnout were less likely to report career satisfaction. Career satisfaction was more likely among those reporting meaning in work and more likely for those working in the Midwest compared with the Northeast region. Burnout is common in neurology residents and fellows. Lack of work-life balance and lack of meaning in work were associated with reduced career satisfaction and increased risk of burnout. These results should inform approaches to reduce burnout and promote career satisfaction and well-being in US neurology trainees. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Benefits of Multidimensional Measures of Child Well Being in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenio Gabel, Shirley; Zhang, Yiwei

    2017-11-06

    In recent decades, measures of child well-being have evolved from single dimension to multidimensional measures. Multi-dimensional measures deepen and broaden our understanding of child well-being and inform us of areas of neglect. Child well-being in China today is measured through proxy measures of household need. This paper discusses the evolution of child well-being measures more generally, explores the benefits of positive indicators and multiple dimensions in formulating policy, and then reviews efforts to date by the Chinese government, researchers, and non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations to develop comprehensive multidimensional measures of child well-being in China. The domains and their potential interactions, as well as data sources and availability, are presented. The authors believe that child well-being in China would benefit from the development of a multidimensional index and that there is sufficient data to develop such an index.

  12. Improving resident well-being and clinical learning environment through academic initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nathaniel; Appelbaum, Nital; Amendola, Michael; Dodson, Kelley; Kaplan, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Organizational effects on job satisfaction, burnout, work-life balance, and perceived support have not been studied in the context of the clinical learning environment. We evaluated the relationship between academic resources and resident well-being, the clinical learning environment, and in-service examination performance of surgical residents. Residents of general surgery and surgical specialty programs were recruited from March 2016 through June 2016 across the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast regions. Program directors were asked to allow distribution of a paper survey or to forward an electronic survey link onto residents. Five dichotomous questions were asked regarding access to academic resources. Validated measures were obtained assessing resident well-being and perceived clinical learning environment. Data were analyzed through t-tests and chi-squared test of independence. We received 276 respondents across 50 programs. Residents perceiving adequate support to succeed had less burnout (P = 0.008), better resilience (P = 0.009), better job satisfaction (P workplace climate (P < 0.001), better organizational support (P < 0.001), and were more likely to have high performance on the in-service examination (P = 0.001). Specific resources including educational stipends, review questions, in-service board prep, and support for poor performers correlated with improved well-being and perceived clinical learning environment. Provision of academic resources has implications beyond in-service examination performance, correlating with improved resident well-being and perceptions of the clinical learning environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measures of self-perceived well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Ian

    2010-07-01

    As people lead longer and generally healthier lives, aspirations and expectations of health care extend to include well-being and enhanced quality of life. Several measurement scales exist to evaluate how well health care reaches these goals. However, the definitions of well-being or quality of life remain open to considerable debate, which complicates the design, validation, and subsequent choice of an appropriate measurement. This article reviews nine measures of psychological well-being, tracing their origins in alternative conceptual approaches to defining well-being. It compares their psychometric properties and suggests how they may be used. The review covers the Life Satisfaction Index, the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, single-item measures, the Philadelphia Morale scale, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Satisfaction With Life scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index, and the Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Scales range in size from a single item to 22; levels of reliability and validity range from good to excellent, although for some of the newer scales we lack information on some forms of validity. Measures exist to assess several conceptions of psychological well-being. Most instruments perform adequately for survey research, but we know less about their adequacy for use in evaluating health care interventions. There remains active debate over how adequately the questions included portray the theoretical definition of well-being on which they are based. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between perceived gender judgment and well-being among surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Arghavan; Milam, Laurel; Cohen, Geoffrey; Mueller, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    Physician well-being is a significant problem. Here we explore whether one factor, a resident's concern for being judged by one's gender, influences well-being. Over two years at one institution, we surveyed surgical residents on validated measures of well-being as well as the extent to which they felt they were judged because of their gender (gender judgment). We used correlations and linear regression to investigate the relationships between gender judgment and well-being. There were 193 unique respondents (87% response rate). Women had significantly more concerns about gender judgment than men (M = 2.39, SD = 0.73 vs. M = 1.46, SD = 0.62, t = -9.47, p gender judgment concerns were significantly associated with all three well-being outcomes (Bs -0.34, 0.50, and 0.39, respectively for well-being, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization, all p gender is significantly associated with worse well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Positivity and well-being among community-residing elders and nursing home residents: what is the optimal affect balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Suzanne; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Kostiwa, Irene; Murrell, Stanley A

    2012-07-01

    To explore whether a ratio of positive to negative affect, from the work of Fredricksen and Losada, could predict high levels of well-being in elderly samples and especially in nursing home residents despite multiple chronic health conditions, consonant with Ryff and Singer's notion of "flourishing under fire." We used two samples: a probability sample of community-residing elders and a sample from nursing homes. We calculated ratios of positive to negative affect in each sample and measured well-being with social interaction, mental health, life satisfaction, and general well-being. The positivity ratio of 2.9 differentiated high levels of well-being in both the samples, as in previous research on younger samples. Although we expected the positivity ratio to perform less well among nursing home residents, we found that it differentiated residents with high well-being just as well as in the community sample. The ability to regulate positive affect to maintain a relative ratio of positive over negative affect appears to be an important aspect of successful adjustment in late life. Further research is needed on objective indicators of quality of life and on whether intra-individual shifts in affect balance are coupled with shifts in indicators of positive mental health.

  16. Multisensory environments for leisure: promoting well-being in nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Helen; Burns, Ian; Savage, Sally

    2004-02-01

    Multisensory environments such as Snoezelen rooms are becoming increasingly popular in health care facilities for older individuals. There is limited reliable evidence of the benefits of such innovations, and the effect they have on residents, caregivers, and visitors in these facilities. This two-stage project examined how effective two types of multisensory environments were in improving the well-being of older individuals with dementia. The two multisensory environments were a Snoezelen room and a landscaped garden. These environments were compared to the experience of the normal living environment. The observed response of 24 residents with dementia in a nursing home was measured during time spent in the Snoezelen room, in the garden, and in the living room. In the second part of the project, face-to-face interviews were conducted with six caregivers and six visitors to obtain their responses to the multisensory environments. These interviews identified the components of the environments most used and enjoyed by residents and the ways in which they could be improved to maximize well-being.

  17. Measuring the Subjective Well-being of Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch; Yutzil Tania Cadena Pedraza; María del Carmen Romero Sánchez; Monica Georgina Cinco Basurto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and va...

  18. Measuring the Subjective Well-being of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument applied to 183 Mexican teachers in the pilot test. Conclusions pint out to possible uses of this validated instrument for the design of strategies that favor the integral well-being of the future generations of teachers and a substantial improvement in the quality of education.

  19. Social well-being and its measurement in the nursing home, the SWON-scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Debby L.; Steverink, Nardi; Frijters, Dinnus H. M.; Ooms, Marcel E.; Ribbe, Miel W.

    Aims and objectives. The aim of this study was to develop an observational scale to measure the social well-being of nursing home residents, by assessing not only the social behaviour of the resident towards others, but also the behaviour of others towards the resident. Background. Traditionally,

  20. Exploring the Relationship Between Stereotype Perception and Residents' Well-Being.

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    Salles, Arghavan; Mueller, Claudia M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Medicine has historically been a male-dominated field, and there remains a stereotype that men are better physicians than women. For female residents, and in particular female surgical residents, chronically contending with this stereotype can exact a toll on their psychological health. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between women surgeons' psychological health and their perception of other people's endorsement of the stereotype (stereotype perception). This is a correlational study based on survey data collected from 14 residency programs at one medical center from September 2010 to March 2011. The participants were 384 residents (representing an 80% response rate). The main survey measures were the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Among female surgical residents, we found that those with higher degrees of stereotype perception had poorer psychological health than those with lower degrees of stereotype perception (β = -0.44, p = 0.002). For men, there was no relationship between stereotype perception and psychological health (β = 0.015; p = 0.92). Among nonsurgeons, there was no relationship between stereotype perception and psychological health for either women or men (β = -0.016; p = 0.78; β = -0.0050; p = 0.97, respectively). The data suggest that women in surgical training, but not men, can face a stressor--stereotype perception--that is negatively associated with their psychological health. This same relationship does not seem to exist for women in nonsurgical training programs. Efforts should be made to further understand this relationship and investigate possible interventions to level the playing field for male and female surgical trainees. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep disturbances predict prospective declines in resident physicians’ psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A. Min

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year. Methods: Sixty-nine (N=69 resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0–17 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12–25 at multiple occasions in a single training year. We examined the 1-month lagged effect of sleep disturbances on residents’ self-reported wellness. Results: Accounting for residents’ overall level of sleep disturbance across the entire study period, both the concurrent (within-person within-occasion effect of sleep disturbance (B=−0.20, standard error [SE]=0.06, p=0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, −0.07 and the lagged within-person effect of resident sleep disturbance (B=−0.15, SE=0.07, p=0.037, 95% CI: −0.29, −0.009 were significant predictors of decreased resident wellness. Increases in sleep disturbances are a leading indicator of resident wellness, predicting decreased well-being 1 month later. Conclusions: Sleep quality exerts a significant effect on self-reported resident wellness. Periodic evaluation of sleep quality may alert program leadership and the residents themselves to impending decreases in psychological well-being.

  2. Resident-to-resident relational aggression and subjective well-being in assisted living facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; Trompetter, Hester; Scholte, Ron; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Research in settings similar to assisted living facilities suggests that relational aggression, an indirect and mature form of aggression, might occur in assisted living facilities. This empirical study investigates the existence of relational aggression in a sample of residents and the

  3. Changes in Resident Well-Being at One Institution Across a Decade of Progressive Work Hours Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Michael F; Golob, Anna L; Wander, Pandora L; Wipf, Joyce E

    2017-10-01

    To measure changes in markers of resident well-being over time as progressive work hours limitations (WHLs) were enforced, and to investigate resident perceptions of the 2011 WHLs. A survey study of internal medicine residents was conducted at the University of Washington's multihospital residency program in 2012. The survey included validated well-being questions: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the two-question PRIME-MD depression screen, and career satisfaction questions. Chi-square tests were used to compare 2012 well-being questionnaire responses against nearly identical surveys conducted in 2001 and 2004 at the same institution. In addition, residents were asked to rate the impact of WHLs on resident well-being and education as well as patient care, and to state preferences for future WHLs. Significantly different proportions of residents met burnout criteria across time, with fewer meeting criteria in 2012 than in 2001 (2001: 76% [87/115]; 2004: 64% [75/118]; 2012: 61% [68/112]; P = .039). Depression screening results also differed across time, with fewer screening positive in 2012 than in 2004 (2001: 45% [52/115]; 2004: 55% [65/118]; 2012 [35/112]: 31%; P = .001). Residents, especially seniors, reported perceived negative impacts of WHLs on their well-being, education, and patient care. Most senior residents favored reverting to the pre-July 2011 system of WHLs. Interns were more divided. Validated measures of resident well-being changed across the three time points measured. Residents had the lowest rates of burnout and depression in 2012. Resident perceptions of the 2011 WHLs, however, were generally negative.

  4. Nutrition and psychological well-being among long-term care residents with dementia.

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    Muurinen, S; Savikko, N; Soini, H; Suominen, M; Pitkälä, K

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship between nutritional status of service housing and nursing home residents with dementia and their psychological well-being (PWB), and the associations of nutritional care and PWB. This cross-sectional nutrition study was carried out in 2011. The study included all older long-term care residents (N=4966) living in nursing homes and service housing units (N=61) in Helsinki. The response rate of was 72%. Of the respondents, only persons who had a diagnosis of dementia were included in this analysis (N=2379). The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool and a structured questionnaire were used in assessing the residents. Six dimensions of PWB were included in the questionnaire. Information was also retrieved from medical records. Of residents 9% were well-nourished and 28% malnourished according to the MNA. PWB was good in 50% (score ≥ 0.80) and poor in 10% (score snacks were associated with poor PWB. Mild cognitive impairment was more often associated with poor PWB, whereas moderate or severe impairment was more often associated with good PWB. Nutritional status and nutritional care of residents with dementia were significantly associated with their psychological well-being. The residents suffering from malnutrition had the poorest psychological well-being.

  5. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brita; Riley, Carley; Herrin, Jeph; Spatz, Erica S; Arora, Anita; Kell, Kenneth P; Welsh, John; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2018-01-01

    Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being. We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents. We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black); social and economic (child poverty, education level [divorced); clinical care (% eligible women obtaining mammography, preventable hospital stays per 100,000, number of federally qualified health centers); and physical environment (% commuting by bicycle and by public transit). Twelve factors across social and economic, clinical care, and physical environmental county-level factors explained the majority of variation in resident well-being.

  6. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Roy

    Full Text Available Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being.We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents.We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black; social and economic (child poverty, education level [resident well-being.

  7. Personal and Professional Well-Being of Surgical Residents in New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Peter S; Tackett, John J; Maxfield, Mark W; Fisher, Rosemarie; Huot, Stephen J; Longo, Walter E

    2017-06-01

    Although there is increasing literature about burnout and attrition among surgeons, little is known about personal and professional well-being of surgical trainees. General surgery residents from the 6 New England states participated in a cross-sectional, qualitative, self-reported survey to assess the domains of personal health maintenance, personal finance, work environment, and fatigue management as they relate to surgical training. All surgical residency programs in the New England region were invited to participate. Of these 19 programs, 10 elected to participate in the study. Three hundred and sixty-three total trainees were contacted with requests to participate, and 166 completed responses to the survey, resulting in a response rate of 44.9%. Ninety percent of respondents identified their programs as "university or academic." Substantial cohorts reported that during training they lacked basic healthcare maintenance visits (54%) and had undesired weight gain (44%). Although most found their stipends adequate, three-quarters worried about their finances (75%) and reported substantial educational debt (45%). Most residents enjoyed coming to work; however, the vast majority reported that work-related stress is moderate to extreme (92%). Most also reported that work-related stress negatively affects their overall well-being (72%). The mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score among respondents was 14, consistent with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness. Surgical trainee well-being is critical to optimal patient care, career development, and burnout reduction. Surgical residents attend to their own preventive health maintenance, finances, sleep, and stress reduction with variable success. Residency programs should make modest programmatic accommodations to allow trainees to tend to various aspects of their personal well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Measuring Chinese psychological well-being with Western developed instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Norvilitis, Jill M

    2002-12-01

    We explored the possibility of applying 4 psychological scales developed and commonly used in the West to Chinese culture. The participants, 273 Chinese and 302 Americans, completed measures of self-esteem (Self-Esteem Scale; Rosenberg, 1965), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988), and suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation; Beck, Kovacs, & Weissman, 1979). All scales were found to be reliable and valid cross culturally. Comparative analyses suggest that gender differences on all 4 scales are smaller among the Chinese than the Americans. Americans were more likely to score higher on the socially desirable scales (self-esteem and social support) and lower on the socially undesirable scale (suicidal ideation). However, no cultural differences were found in this study on the measure of depression. Results suggest that, with a few considerations or potential modifications, the current measures could be used in Chinese culture.

  9. Measurement of well-being in the workplace: the development of the work well-being questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Hyett, Matthew P

    2011-06-01

    Because there has been a lack of a single comprehensive measure for assessing workplace well-being, we elected to develop such a self-report measure. Provisional items were extracted from the literature on "positive psychology" and were adapted to capture their workplace application. The provisional 50-item set was completed by a nonclinical sample of 150 adults. A second and third sample was recruited to examine its reliability and any impact of depressed mood and sociodemographic and work-related variables, respectively. Factor analysis identified four domains, "Work Satisfaction," "Organizational Respect for the Employee," "Employer Care," and a negative construct-"Intrusion of Work into Private Life." High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for the final 31-item measure, whereas there was no distinct impact of depressed mood on the scale scores. Work Satisfaction scale scores were influenced by job type. Gender effects were found for two of the four scales, whereas a longer period of employment inversely linked to Organizational Respect for the Employee and Employer Care scores and was conversely associated with higher Intrusion of Work into Private Life scores. The refined measure should enable individuals and employers to quantify the levels of support and well-being provided by employing organizations.

  10. JGME-ALiEM Hot Topics in Medical Education: An Analysis of a Virtual Discussion on Resident Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Arlene; Battaglioli, Nicole; Lin, Michelle; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    Physician well-being is garnering increasing attention. In 2016, the Journal of Graduate Medical Education ( JGME ) published a review by Kristin Raj, MD, entitled "Well-Being in Residency: A Systematic Review." There is benefit in contextualizing the literature on resident well-being through an academic journal club. We summarized an asynchronous, online journal club discussion about this systematic review and highlighted themes that were identified in the review. In January 2017, JGME and the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) blog facilitated an open-access, online, weeklong journal club on the featured JGME article. Online discussions and interactions were facilitated via blog posts and comments, a video discussion on Google Hangouts on Air, and Twitter. We performed a thematic analysis of the discussion and captured web analytics. Over the first 14 days, the blog post was viewed 1070 unique times across 52 different countries. A total of 130 unique participants on Twitter posted 480 tweets using the hashtag #JGMEscholar. Thematic analysis revealed 5 major domains: the multidimensional nature of well-being, measurement of well-being, description of wellness programs and interventions, creation of a culture of wellness, and critique of the methodology of the review. Our online journal club highlighted several gaps in the current understanding of resident well-being, including the need for consensus on the operational definition, the need for effective instruments to evaluate wellness programs and identify residents in distress, and a national research collaboration to assess wellness programs and their impact on resident well-being.

  11. Evaluating Mind Fitness Training and Its Potential Effects on Surgical Residents' Well-Being: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lases, S. S.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Slootweg, Irene A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M.; Heineman, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Residents' well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents' well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related well-being

  12. Well-being in residency training: a survey examining resident physician satisfaction both within and outside of residency training and mental health in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the critical importance of well-being during residency training, only a few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have examined well-being resources. No recent studies have reported any significant concerns with respect to perceived stress levels in residency. We investigated the level of perceived stress, mental health and understanding and need for well-being resources among resident physicians in training programs in Alberta, Canada. Methods A mail questionnaire was distributed to the entire resident membership of PARA during 2003 academic year. PARA represents each of the two medical schools in the province of Alberta. Results In total 415 (51 % residents participated in the study. Thirty-four percent of residents who responded to the survey reported their life as being stressful. Females reported stress more frequently than males (40% vs. 27%, p Residents highly valued their colleagues (67%, program directors (60% and external psychiatrist/psychologist (49% as well-being resources. Over one third of residents wished to have a career counselor (39% and financial counselor (38%. Conclusion Many Albertan residents experience significant stressors and emotional and mental health problems. Some of which differ among genders. This study can serve as a basis for future resource application, research and advocacy for overall improvements to well-being during residency training.

  13. Evaluating Mind Fitness Training and Its Potential Effects on Surgical Residents' Well-Being : A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lases, S. S.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Slootweg, Irene A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M.; Heineman, Erik

    Background Residents' well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents' well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related

  14. Longitudinal associations of autonomy, relatedness, and competence with the well-being of nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Westerhof, G.J.; Kloos, N.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objective. As proposed by the self-determination theory, satisfying nursing home residents’ needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence may improve their well-being. This is the first study to test the longitudinal relations of the satisfaction of these three basic psychological

  15. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  16. Implementing a Universal Well-Being Assessment to Mitigate Barriers to Resident Utilization of Mental Health Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofka, Sarah; Grey, Carl; Lerfald, Nathan; Davisson, Laura; Howsare, Janie

    2018-02-01

    Physician utilization of well-being resources remains low despite efforts to promote use of these resources. We implemented a well-being assessment for internal medicine residents to improve access and use of mental health services. We scheduled all postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) and PGY-2 residents at West Virginia University for the assessment at our faculty and staff assistance program (FSAP). While the assessment was intended to be universal (all residents), we allowed residents to "opt out." The assessment visit consisted of an evaluation by a licensed therapist, who assisted residents with a wellness plan. Anonymous surveys were distributed to all residents, and means were compared by Student's t test. Thirty-eight of 41 PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents (93%) attended the scheduled appointments. Forty-two of 58 residents (72%, including PGY-3s) completed the survey. Of 42 respondents, 28 (67%) attended the assessment sessions, and 14 (33%) did not. Residents who attended the sessions gave mean ratings of 7.8 for convenience (1, not convenient, to 9, very convenient), and 7.9 for feeling embarrassed if colleagues knew they attended (1, very embarrassed, to 9, not embarrassed). Residents who attended the assessment sessions reported they were more likely to use FSAP services in the future, compared with those who did not attend ( P  barriers to using counseling resources. The majority of residents who participated had a positive view of the program and indicated they would return to FSAP if they felt they needed counseling.

  17. Measures of indigenous social capital and their relationship with well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    To provide the first estimates of a comprehensive measure of social capital for the Indigenous population and to link the indicators to well-being. Observational study-based. Household survey. Nationally representative sample of 7823 Indigenous Australians aged 15 years and over who were usual residents of private dwellings. Whether or not the respondent felt happy in the last 4 weeks all or most of the time (happiness), and whether or not they felt so sad that nothing could cheer them up at least a little bit of the time over the same period (sadness). There were no consistent differences in social capital measures between Indigenous men and women, nor were there consistent differences between the remote and non-remote population. High levels of social capital were, however, associated with higher subjective well-being. Social capital is both an indicator and determinant of well-being. It was possible to derive an index of social capital for Indigenous Australians that had a strong positive association with self-reported happiness and a negative association with self-reported sadness. However, the analysis also showed that there are a set of related domains of social capital, rather than there being a single underlying concept. © 2012 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care with different resident duty schedules in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshuram, Christopher S; Amaral, Andre C K B; Ferguson, Niall D; Baker, G Ross; Etchells, Edward E; Flintoft, Virginia; Granton, John; Lingard, Lorelei; Kirpalani, Haresh; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moldofsky, Harvey; Scales, Damon C; Stewart, Thomas E; Willan, Andrew R; Friedrich, Jan O

    2015-03-17

    Shorter resident duty periods are increasingly mandated to improve patient safety and physician well-being. However, increases in continuity-related errors may counteract the purported benefits of reducing fatigue. We evaluated the effects of 3 resident schedules in the intensive care unit (ICU) on patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care. Residents in 2 university-affiliated ICUs were randomly assigned (in 2-month rotation-blocks from January to June 2009) to in-house overnight schedules of 24, 16 or 12 hours. The primary patient outcome was adverse events. The primary resident outcome was sleepiness, measured by the 7-point Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Secondary outcomes were patient deaths, preventable adverse events, and residents' physical symptoms and burnout. Continuity of care and perceptions of ICU staff were also assessed. We evaluated 47 (96%) of 49 residents, all 971 admissions, 5894 patient-days and 452 staff surveys. We found no effect of schedule (24-, 16- or 12-h shifts) on adverse events (81.3, 76.3 and 78.2 events per 1000 patient-days, respectively; p = 0.7) or on residents' sleepiness in the daytime (mean rating 2.33, 2.61 and 2.30, respectively; p = 0.3) or at night (mean rating 3.06, 2.73 and 2.42, respectively; p = 0.2). Seven of 8 preventable adverse events occurred with the 12-hour schedule (p = 0.1). Mortality rates were similar for the 3 schedules. Residents' somatic symptoms were more severe and more frequent with the 24-hour schedule (p = 0.04); however, burnout was similar across the groups. ICU staff rated residents' knowledge and decision-making worst with the 16-hour schedule. Our findings do not support the purported advantages of shorter duty schedules. They also highlight the trade-offs between residents' symptoms and multiple secondary measures of patient safety. Further delineation of this emerging signal is required before widespread system change. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00679809. © 2015 Canadian Medical

  19. Sense of community in Hong Kong: relations with community-level characteristics and residents' well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Law, Lawrence S C

    2009-09-01

    Sense of community (SOC) has been one of the most studied topics in community psychology. However, no empirical study to date has investigated SOC in Hong Kong and its relations with community characteristics and residents' psychological well-being. A representative sample of 941 Hong Kong Chinese based on a randomized household survey was conducted in all 18 districts in Hong Kong. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that SOC was not associated with sociodemographic indicators on both the individual-level (i.e., gender, age, family income, education level, type of residence, and area-to-capita ratio of residence) and the community-level (i.e., proportion of individuals with tertiary education, median family income, ownership of residence, population density, and resident stability). SOC was negatively related to daily hassles and positively with social support and quality of life. Conceptualization of SOC in Hong Kong was discussed.

  20. Developing a Measure of Community Well-Being Based on Perceptions of Impact in Various Life Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Widgery, Robin N.; Lee, Dong-Jin; Yu, Grace B.

    2010-01-01

    A new measure of community well-being is developed based on the notion that community residents perceive the quality-of-life (QOL) impact of community services and conditions in various life domains (e.g., family, social, leisure, health, financial, cultural, consumer, work, spiritual, and environmental domains). These perceptions influence…

  1. Creating Structured Opportunities for Social Engagement to Promote Well-Being and Reduce Burnout in Medical Students and Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2017-12-26

    Increasing attention is being paid to medical student and resident well-being, as well as to enhancing resilience and avoiding burnout in medical trainees. Medical schools and residency programs are implementing wellness initiatives that often include meditation and other mindfulness activities, self-reflection, journaling, and lectures or workshops on resilience tools such as metacognition and cognitive restructuring. These interventions have in common the creation of opportunities for trainees to become more aware of their experiences, to better recognize stressors, and to regulate their thoughts and feelings so that stressors are less likely to have harmful effects. They often enable trainees to temporarily distance themselves mentally and emotionally from a stressful environment. In this Invited Commentary, the author suggests that medical school leaders and residency program directors should also create structured opportunities for trainees to establish meaningful connections with each other in order to provide greater social support and thereby reduce the harmful effects of stress. Social connection and engagement, as well as group identification, have potential to promote well-being and reduce burnout during training.

  2. Well-Being Tracking via Smartphone-Measured Activity and Sleep: Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMasi, Orianna; Feygin, Sidney; Dembo, Aluma; Aguilera, Adrian; Recht, Benjamin

    2017-10-05

    Automatically tracking mental well-being could facilitate personalization of treatments for mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder. Smartphones present a novel and ubiquitous opportunity to track individuals' behavior and may be useful for inferring and automatically monitoring mental well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which activity and sleep tracking with a smartphone can be used for monitoring individuals' mental well-being. A cohort of 106 individuals was recruited to install an app on their smartphone that would track their well-being with daily surveys and track their behavior with activity inferences from their phone's accelerometer data. Of the participants recruited, 53 had sufficient data to infer activity and sleep measures. For this subset of individuals, we related measures of activity and sleep to the individuals' well-being and used these measures to predict their well-being. We found that smartphone-measured approximations for daily physical activity were positively correlated with both mood (P=.004) and perceived energy level (PSleep duration was positively correlated with mood (P=.02) but not energy. Our measure for sleep disturbance was not found to be significantly related to either mood or energy, which could imply too much noise in the measurement. Models predicting the well-being measures from the activity and sleep measures were found to be significantly better than naive baselines (Psleep inferred from smartphone activity were strongly related to and somewhat predictive of participants' well-being. Whereas the improvement over naive models was modest, it reaffirms the importance of considering physical activity and sleep for predicting mood and for making automatic mood monitoring a reality. ©Orianna DeMasi, Sidney Feygin, Aluma Dembo, Adrian Aguilera, Benjamin Recht. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.10.2017.

  3. Closeness to God among those doing God's work: a spiritual well-being measure for clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Yang, Chongming; Toth, Matthew; Corbitt Rivers, Monica; Carder, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    Measuring spiritual well-being among clergy is particularly important given the high relevance of God to their lives, and yet its measurement is prone to problems such as ceiling effects and conflating religious behaviors with spiritual well-being. To create a measure of closeness to God for Christian clergy, we tested survey items at two time points with 1,513 United Methodist Church clergy. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated support for two, six-item factors: Presence and Power of God in Daily Life, and Presence and Power of God in Ministry. The data supported the predictive and concurrent validity of the two factors and evidenced high reliabilities without ceiling effects. This Clergy Spiritual Well-being Scale may be useful to elucidate the relationship among dimensions of health and well-being in clergy populations.

  4. A multidimensional approach to measuring well-being in students: Application of the PERMA framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea E.; Adler, Alejandro; White, Mathew A.

    2015-01-01

    Seligman recently introduced the PERMA model with five core elements of psychological well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. We empirically tested this multidimensional theory with 516 Australian male students (age 13–18). From an extensive well-being assessment, we selected a subset of items theoretically relevant to PERMA. Factor analyses recovered four of the five PERMA elements, and two ill-being factors (depression and anxiety). We then explored the nomological net surrounding each factor by examining cross-sectional associations with life satisfaction, hope, gratitude, school engagement, growth mindset, spirituality, physical vitality, physical activity, somatic symptoms, and stressful life events. Factors differentially related to these correlates, offering support for the multidimensional approach to measuring well-being. Directly assessing subjective well-being across multiple domains offers the potential for schools to more systematically understand and promote well-being. PMID:25745508

  5. Centeredness Theory: Understanding and Measuring Well-Being Across Core Life Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zephyr T. Bloch-Jorgensen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Centeredness Theory (CT is proposed as a new mental health paradigm that focuses on well-being at a systems-level, across the core life domains of the self, the family unit, relationships, community, and work. The current studies aimed to validate the psychometric properties of a new scale that measures CT against existing well-being and mental health measures.Methods: Study 1 included 488 anonymous online respondents (46% females, 28% males, 25% unknown with median age between 31 and 35 years across 38 countries who completed the CT scale. Study 2 included 49 first-year psychology students (90% females, mean age of 19 years from Sydney Australia that completed the CT scale and other well-being and mental health questionnaires at baseline and 2-weeks follow-up.Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a refined 60-item CT scale with five domains, each with four sub-domains. The CT scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability, and showed evidence of convergent validity against other well-being measures (e.g., COMPAS-W Wellbeing Scale, SWLS scale, and Ryff's Psychological Well-being scale.Conclusions: The CT scale appears to be a reliable measure of well-being at a systems-level. Future studies need to confirm these findings in larger heterogeneous samples.

  6. The Relationship of Physiopsychosocial Factors and Spiritual Well-Being in Elderly Residents: Implications for Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Heng; Lin, Li-Chan; Chuang, Li-Lan; Chen, Mei-Li

    2017-12-01

    Older adults in residential settings frequently suffer from functional decline, mental illness, and social isolation, which make them more vulnerable to spiritual distress. However, empirical evidence of the interrelationships between physiopsychosocial variables and spiritual well-being are still lacking, limiting the application of the biopsychosocial-spiritual model in institutional healthcare practice. To explain the mechanisms by which these variables are linked, this cross-sectional study tested a causal model of predictors of spiritual well-being among 377 institutionalized older adults with disability using a structural equation modeling approach. The primary variables in the hypothesized model were measured using the Barthel Index for functional ability, the Geriatric Depression Scale-short form for depression, the Personal Resources Questionnaire 85-Part 2 for perceived social support, and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale for spiritual well-being. The model fit indices suggest that the hypothesized model had a reasonably adequate model fit (χ 2 = 12.18, df = 6, p = .07, goodness-of-fitness index [GFI] = 0.99, adjusted GIF index [AGFI] = 0.93, nonnormed fit index [NFI] = 0.99, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99). In this study, perceived social support and depression directly affected spiritual well-being, and functional ability indirectly affected spiritual well-being via perceived social support or depression. In addition, functional ability influenced perceived social support directly, which in turn influenced depression and ultimately influenced spiritual well-being. This study results confirm the effect of physiopsychosocial factors on institutionalized older adults' spiritual well-being. However, the presence and level of functional disability do not necessarily influence spiritual well-being in late life unless it is disruptive to social relationships and is thus bound to lead to low perceived social support and the onset of depression. The findings

  7. Advances in Children's Rights and Children's Well-Being Measurement: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Jiang, Xu; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Huebner, E. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children's rights agenda and advances in children's well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of…

  8. Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being in adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell-Jones David L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD: the General Well-being Index, (GWBI – British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12. Methods Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 adults with treated or untreated GHD, and sensitivity to change in a randomised placebo-controlled study of three months' growth hormone (GH withdrawal from 12 of 21 GH-treated adults. Results Very high completion rates were evidence that both questionnaires were acceptable to respondents. Factor analyses did not indicate the existence of useful GWBI subscales, but confirmed the validity of calculating a GWBI Total score. However, very high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96, N = 152, probably indicated some item redundancy in the 22-item GWBI. On the other hand, factor analyses confirmed the validity of the three W-BQ12 subscales of Negative Well-being, Energy, and Positive Well-being, each having excellent internal reliability (alphas of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, N from 152 to 154. There was no sign of item redundancy in the highly acceptable Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 (N = 148 for the whole W-BQ12 scale. Whilst neither questionnaire found significant differences between GH-treated and non-GH-treated patients, there were correlations (for GH-treated patients with duration of GH treatment for GWBI Total (r = -0.36, p = 0.001, N = 85, W-BQ12 Total (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, N = 88 and for all W-BQ12 subscales: thus the longer the duration of GH treatment (ranging from 0.5 to 10 years, the better the well-being. Both questionnaires found that men had significantly better overall well-being than women. The W-BQ12 was more sensitive to change than the GWBI in the GH-Withdrawal study. A significant between

  9. Ergonomics Climate Assessment: A measure of operational performance and employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Krista; Gibbons, Alyssa; Schwatka, Natalie; Rosecrance, John

    2015-09-01

    Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise Performance Measurement with Smartphone Embedded Sensor for Well-Being Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Tse Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity reduces the risk of many diseases and improves physical and mental health. However, physical inactivity is widespread globally. Improving physical activity levels is a global concern in well-being management. Exercise performance measurement systems have the potential to improve physical activity by providing feedback and motivation to users. We propose an exercise performance measurement system for well-being management that is based on the accumulated activity effective index (AAEI and incorporates a smartphone-embedded sensor. The proposed system generates a numeric index that is based on users’ exercise performance: their level of physical activity and number of days spent exercising. The AAEI presents a clear number that can serve as a useful feedback and goal-setting tool. We implemented the exercise performance measurement system by using a smartphone and conducted experiments to assess the feasibility of the system and investigated the user experience. We recruited 17 participants for validating the feasibility of the measurement system and a total of 35 participants for investigating the user experience. The exercise performance measurement system showed an overall precision of 88% in activity level estimation. Users provided positive feedback about their experience with the exercise performance measurement system. The proposed system is feasible and has a positive effective on well-being management.

  11. Positive prenatal well-being: conceptualising and measuring mindfulness and gratitude in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Leary, Karen; Dockray, Samantha; Hammond, Sean

    2016-08-01

    Little research has examined the usefulness of positive well-being factors during pregnancy. Recent mindfulness research demonstrates that inconsistencies and the suitability of extant measures have yet to be examined in pregnancy. Effects of gratitude during pregnancy have yet to be examined despite consistently reported benefits in non-pregnant groups. The aims of this paper were to develop the Gratitude during Pregnancy (GDP) scale, validate the Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS) and examine the importance of gratitude and mindfulness during pregnancy. In study 1, 375 pregnant women completed gratitude and mindfulness measures. The one-factor structure of the MAAS was retained and demonstrated good reliability α = 0.88. Using exploratory factor analysis, an 18-item GDP scale was developed, demonstrating good reliability α = 0.89. The four GDP factors are as follows: general gratitude, physical changes, antenatal care and social support. In study 2, 87 pregnant women completed well-being questionnaires, including the GDP and MAAS. Gratitude correlated with positive affect, life satisfaction and pregnancy uplifts (p gratitude and provide a reliable means to measure both constructs during pregnancy.

  12. Validity of the Aboriginal children's health and well-being measure: Aaniish Naa Gegii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nancy L; Wabano, Mary Jo; Usuba, Koyo; Pangowish, Brenda; Trottier, Mélanie; Jacko, Diane; Burke, Tricia A; Corbiere, Rita G

    2015-09-17

    Aboriginal children experience challenges to their health and well-being, yet also have unique strengths. It has been difficult to accurately assess their health outcomes due to the lack of culturally relevant measures. The Aboriginal Children's Health and Well-Being Measure (ACHWM) was developed to address this gap. This paper describes the validity of the new measure. We recruited First Nations children from one First Nation reserve in Canada. Participants were asked to complete the ACHWM independently using a computer tablet. Participants also completed the PedsQL. The ACHWM total score and 4 Quadrant scores were expected to have a moderate correlation of between 0.4 and 0.6 with the parallel PedsQL total score, domains (scale scores), and summary scores. Paired ACHWM and PedsQL scores were available for 48 participants. They had a mean age of 14.6 (range of 7 to 19) years and 60.4 % were girls. The Pearson's correlation between the total ACHWM score and a total PedsQL aggregate score was 0.52 (p = 0.0001). The correlations with the Physical Health Summary Scores and the Psychosocial Health Summary Scores were slightly lower range (r = 0.35 p = 0.016; and r = 0.51 p = 0.0002 respectively) and approached the expected range. The ACHWM Quadrant scores were moderately correlated with the parallel PedsQL domains ranging from r = 0.45 to r = 0.64 (p ≤ 0.001). The Spiritual Quadrant of the ACHWM did not have a parallel domain in the PedsQL. These results establish the validity of the ACHWM. The children gave this measure an Ojibway name, Aaniish Naa Gegii, meaning "how are you?". This measure is now ready for implementation, and will contribute to a better understanding of the health of Aboriginal children.

  13. Doing the Right Thing: Measuring Well-Being for Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J. C. Forgeard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Many experts now recognize that income is not a measure that alone captures the wellbeing of individuals, and governments around the world are starting to rethink the ways in which they measure the welfare of their citizens. Wellbeing is best understood as a multifaceted phenomenon that can be assessed by measuring a wide array of subjective and objective constructs. This review summarizes the state of research on the various domains of wellbeing measured by psychologists and social scientists, and provides an overview of the main theoretical perspectives that integrate these domains. Among these theoretical perspectives, we highlight Well-being Theory, which decomposes the wellbeing construct into five domains: Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment (PERMA. We conclude by formulating recommendations for future research on the measurement of wellbeing. These recommendations include the need to combine both objective and subjective indicators, and the use of a dashboard approach to measurement. This approach conveys the multifaceted nature of wellbeing and will help policy-makers and citizens understand which domains of wellbeing should constitute priorities for public policy.

  14. A psychometric evaluation of measures of effective well-being in an insurance company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J Coetzer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to validate two measures of affective well-being, namely the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES for employees in an insurance company, to assess their construct equivalence for different language groups and to determine the relationship between burnout and work engagement. A cross-sectional survey design with an availability sample (N = 613 was used. The MBI, UWES and a biographical questionnaire were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a three-factor model of burnout, consisting of Exhaustion, Cynicism and Professional Efficacy and a three-factor model of work engagement consisting of Vigour, Dedication and Absorption. Acceptable construct equivalence of the three-factor model of burnout and work engagement for different language groups was confirmed. A second-order factor analysis of the scales resulted in two factors, namely burnout and work engagement.

  15. Technostress: measuring a new threat to well-being in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit

    2017-05-31

    Technostress is stress induced by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use. Research on the topic has focused primarily on the workforce and tended to overlook senior citizens. This study presents the development of a new scale, which was designed to measure technostress specifically among older adults. The scale explores five constructs: overload, invasion, complexity, privacy and inclusion. The initial 20-item measure was tested in a pilot study and then included in an online survey of 537 Internet users aged 60 years and over. Based on the statistical analysis, the scale was reduced to 14 items. The constructs had good internal homogeneity, significant inter-construct correlations and high loadings on a single latent factor. The scores were well distributed along the range. Concurrent validity was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. A significant negative association was found between the two scales - a correlation that remained significant even after controlling for background variables. The new scale is useful for measuring technostress in older people, and technostress ought to be considered a particular threat to well-being in later life. Future research should explore its antecedents and consequences and identify interventions useful in alleviating its harmful effect on older ICT users.

  16. Working for wellness: defining, measuring, and enhancing employee well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Kathryn May

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was on the utility of the workplace in promoting employee well-being. The thesis applied principles of positive psychology (PP) to the field of occupational health psychology (OHP). Paper 1 reviewed employee well-being with a focus on both general and work-related dimensions. Paper 2 developed a niche for positive employee well-being programs. It reviewed a number of strategies for improving employee health and well-being, including occupational health and safety leg...

  17. Well-being as a moving target: measurement equivalence of the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, S B; Dixon, R A; Hultsch, D F; Hertzog, C

    2001-03-01

    Although the Bradburn Affect Balance scale (ABS) is a frequently used two-factor indicator of well-being in later life, its measurement and invariance properties are not well documented. We examined these issues using confirmatory factor analyses of cross-sectional (adults ages 54-87 years) and longitudinal data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Stability of the positive and negative affect factors was moderate across a 3-year period. Overall, factor loadings for positive affect items were invariant over time with the exception of the pleased item. Negative affect items were time invariant. However, age-group comparisons between young-old and old-old groups revealed age differences in loadings for the upset item at Time 1. Finally, gender groups differed in loadings for the top of the world and going your way items. Thus a pattern of partial measurement equivalence characterized item response to the ABS. Our results suggest that group comparisons and longitudinal change in ABS scale scores of positive and negative affect should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Nursing Assistants' Job Commitment: Effect of Nursing Home Organizational Factors and Impact on Resident Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine E.; Weinberg, Dana Beth; Leutz, Walter; Dossa, Almas; Pfefferle, Susan G.; Zincavage, Rebekah M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are more committed to nursing home jobs when they perceive their jobs as enhanced (greater autonomy, use of knowledge, teamwork), and (b) whether CNA job commitment affects resident satisfaction. Design and Methods: A qualitative exploration of…

  19. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  20. Different types of out-of-home activities and well-being amongst urban residing old persons with mobility impediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu; Hjorthol, Randi; Levin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    , a complex one. The present study explicates this by focusing on how utilitarian and discretionary activities—representing different types out-of-home activities—contribute to well-being, using data from individual interviews with persons aged 80–95, living in Copenhagen, Denmark. We structured the material...... by the two activity types and found both to contribute to participants׳ well-being by representing different sides of ‘being’. Utilitarian activities were important in maintaining independence and fulfilling basic needs, while discretionary activities were important for the individual existing in relation...

  1. Perceived Changes in Well-Being: The Role of Chronological Age, Target Age, and Type of Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Dittburner, Julie L.; Huff, Barbara P.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate whether perceived changes in one's well-being from the present to the future are related to chronological age, target age, and type of measure (psychological well-being versus life satisfaction). Young adults (N = 114) rated their current well-being and their future well-being at one of three target ages…

  2. Measuring financial well-being in cancer prevention research: Results from the Money-Health Connection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Reginald Tucker-Seeley joined the faculty at the University of Southern California (USC) Leonard Davis School of Gerontology in June 2017. Prior to joining USC, Dr. Tucker-Seeley was an Assistant Professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). He completed master and doctoral degrees at HSPH and a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control at HSPH and DFCI. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research focuses primarily on social determinants of health, such as the association between the neighborhood environment and health behavior; and on individual-level socioeconomic determinants of multi-morbidity, mortality, self-rated health, and health self-efficacy. His current work focuses on financial well-being across the cancer continuum, from prevention to end-of-life care. He has received R21 and K01 grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop measures of financial well-being at two points along the cancer continuum: prevention and following diagnosis. He was also funded by the Academy Health/Aetna Foundation Scholars in Residence Fellowship Program to develop measures of neighborhood economic well-being. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research has been published in journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Journal of National Cancer Institute, Cancer Causes and Control, and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Tucker-Seeley is also committed to community service that targets the elimination of health disparities. He served for three years on the Rhode Island Commission for Health Advocacy and Equity. Based on his experience on this Commission, Dr. Tucker-Seeley developed a new course at HSPH called “Measuring and Reporting Health Disparities;” and in 2016, he received the HSPH teaching award for this course.

  3. New Comparative Measures of Income, Material Deprivation, and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Most societies, rich and poor, seek to measure progress in reducing poverty and need, as indicated by material deprivation or social exclusion. The yardsticks used to assess progress and policy impact mainly include income-based poverty, but broader measures of poverty based on consumption, wealth, and material deprivation are also now coming into…

  4. Social Fitness and Resilience: A Review of Relevant Constructs, Measures, and Links to Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families.

  5. The Positivity Dimension of Well-Being: Adaptation and Psychometric Evidence of a Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosevelt Vilar Lobo de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to adapt the Positivity Scale (PS to the Brazilian context, gathering evidence of validity and reliability. Two studies were performed. Study 1 was composed of 200 people from Paraíba, with a mean age of 23.4 years old (SD = 4.53, who answered the PS and demographic questions. Results pointed to a one-factor solution in this scale, which presented satisfactory reliability (α = .85. Study 2 gathered 290 undergraduate students with a mean age of 23.9 years old (SD = 7.60, who answered the PS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale and demographic questions. Confirmatory factor analyses (ML and ADF estimators corroborated the one-factor structure, which presented an acceptable reliability (CR = .65. Furthermore, its convergent validity was confirmed based on the average variance extracted (AVE = .60 and on its correlations with satisfaction with life and vitality (p < .001. In conclusion, this measure has been shown to be psychometrically adequate for use in Brazil.

  6. Long-Term Effects of Individually Tailored Physical Training and Activity on Physical Function, Well-Being and Cognition in Scandinavian Nursing Home Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frändin, Kerstin; Grönstedt, Helena; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2016-01-01

    . Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects on ADL, balance function, physical activity level, physical performance, falls-related self-efficacy, well-being and cognitive function 3 months after the completion of our intervention in nursing home residents. Methods: The study was a multicenter randomized...... and 66 from Denmark. Of these, 241 [129 intervention group (IG), 112 control group (CG)] were eligible for the 6-month follow-up tests. The level of dependence in ADL, physical activity level, several dimensions of physical function, well-being, falls-related self-efficacy and cognitive function were......Background: The preservation of physical functions such as muscle strength, balance and mobility is fundamental to maintaining independence in activities of daily living (ADL). The physical activity level of most nursing home residents is very low, which implies that they are often subject...

  7. Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavot, W; Diener, E; Colvin, C R; Sandvik, E

    1991-08-01

    The structure of subjective well-being has been conceptualized as consisting of two major components: the emotional or affective component and the judgmental or cognitive component (Diener, 1984; Veenhoven, 1984). The judgmental component has also been conceptualized as life satisfaction (Andrews & Withey, 1976). Although the affective component of subjective well-being has received considerable attention from researchers, the judgmental component has been relatively neglected. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) was developed as a measure of the judgmental component of subjective well-being (SWB). Two studied designed to validate further the SWLS are reported. Peer reports, a memory measure, and clinical ratings are used as external criteria for validation. Evidence for the reliability and predictive validity of the SWLS is presented, and its performance is compared to other related scales. The SWLS is shown to be a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction, suited for use with a wide range of age groups and applications, which makes possible the savings of interview time and resources compared to many measures of life satisfaction. In addition, the high convergence of self- and peer-reported measures of subjective well-being and life satisfaction provide strong evidence that subjective well-being is a relatively global and stable phenomenon, not simply a momentary judgment based on fleeting influences.

  8. The factorial structure of job-related affective well-being: Polish adaptation of the Warr's measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielniczuk, Emilia; Łaguna, Mariola

    2018-02-16

    The first aim of the study reported in this article was to test the factorial structure of job-related affect in a Polish sample. The second aim was to develop the Polish adaptation of the Warr's job-related affective well-being measure published in 1990, which is designed to assess 4 types of affect at work: anxiety, comfort, depression, enthusiasm. A longitudinal study design with 2 measurement times was used for verifying the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the measure. The final sample consisted of 254 Polish employees from different professions. Participants were asked to fill in a set of questionnaires consisting of measures capturing job-related affective well-being, mood, and turnover intention. The first step of analysis was to test the theoretically-based structure of the job-related affective well-being measure in a Polish sample. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a 4-factor model best describes the structure of the measure in comparison to 5 alternative models. Next, reliability of this measure was assessed. All scales achieved good internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability after 2 weeks. Finally, the convergent and discriminant validity as well as the criterion and predictive validity of all job-related affective well-being scales was confirmed, based on correlations between job-related affect and mood as well as turnover intention. The results suggest that the Polish adaptation of Warr's job-related affective well-being measure can be used by scientists as well as by practitioners who aim at assessing 4 types of affective well-being at a work context. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Construction and validation of a measure of integrative well-being in seven languages: The Pemberton Happiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We introduce the Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI), a new integrative measure of well-being in seven languages, detailing the validation process and presenting psychometric data. The scale includes eleven items related to different domains of remembered well-being (general, hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being) and ten items related to experienced well-being (i.e., positive and negative emotional events that possibly happened the day before); the sum of these items produces a combined well-being index. Methods A distinctive characteristic of this study is that to construct the scale, an initial pool of items, covering the remembered and experienced well-being domains, were subjected to a complete selection and validation process. These items were based on widely used scales (e.g., PANAS, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Psychological Well-Being Scales). Both the initial items and reference scales were translated into seven languages and completed via Internet by participants (N = 4,052) aged 16 to 60 years from nine countries (Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and USA). Results Results from this initial validation study provided very good support for the psychometric properties of the PHI (i.e., internal consistency, a single-factor structure, and convergent and incremental validity). Conclusions Given the PHI’s good psychometric properties, this simple and integrative index could be used as an instrument to monitor changes in well-being. We discuss the utility of this integrative index to explore well-being in individuals and communities. PMID:23607679

  10. Self-rated and observer-rated measures of well-being and distress in adolescence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovelli, Francesca; Albieri, Elisa; Ruini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of eudaimonic well-being in adolescence is hampered by the lack of specific assessment tools. Moreover, with younger populations, the assessment of positive functioning may be biased by self-report data only, and may be more accurate by adding significant adults' evaluations. The objective of this research was to measure adolescents' well-being and prosocial behaviours using self-rated and observer-rated instruments, and their pattern of associations. The sample included 150 Italian high school adolescents. Observed-evaluation was performed by their school teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescents completed Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scales and Symptom Questionnaire. Pearson' r correlations and Linear regression were performed. Self-rated dimensions of psychological well-being significantly correlated with all observer-rated dimensions, but Strengths and Difficulties Emotional symptom scale. Multiple linear regression showed that the self-rated dimensions Environmental Mastery and Personal Growth, and surprisingly not Positive Relations, are related to the observer-rated dimension Prosocial Behaviour. Adolescents with higher levels of well-being in specific dimensions tend to be perceived as less problematic by their teachers. However, some dimensions of positive functioning present discrepancies between self and observer-rated instruments. Thus, the conjunct use of self-reports and observer-rated tools for a more comprehensive assessment of students' eudaimonic well-being is recommended.

  11. Testing measurement invariance in the International Social Survey Program Health 2011 – the mental well-being scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deurzen, I.A.; Roosma, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the present contribution we address the measurement invariance of a new mental well-being scale of three items that was applied in the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) Health 2011 module. Our aim is to establish if and for how many countries (partial) scalar invariance is

  12. Dividing organization and unit: Measurement of work factors, well-being, and withdrawal behaviours with the new project PICTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, de I.E.

    2004-01-01

    Background Within the Royal Netherlands Army, work situation and well-being of employees are repeatedly measured by psychologists to improve the work situation. Traditionally this was done using samples of employees and generalizing findings to the whole army. However, commanders of specific units

  13. The Beck depression inventory as a measure of subjective well-being : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country

  14. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  15. Mental, social, and physical well-being in New Hampshire, Oregon, and Washington, 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: implications for public health research and practice related to Healthy People 2020 foundation health measures on well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Bann, Carla; Lewis, Megan; Zack, Matthew M; Boardman, Angela M; Boyd, Renee; Lim, Kim C; Holder, Tommy; Hoff, Anastacia KL; Luncheon, Cecily; Thompson, William; Horner-Johnson, Willi; Lucas, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Background Well-being is now accepted as one of four cross-cutting measures in gauging progress for Healthy People 2020. This shift to population indicators of well-being redresses notions of health that have focused on absence of illness (negative health) as a primary or sufficient indicator of positive functioning. The purpose of this study was to estimate mental, social, and physical well-being in three US states using new measures piloted on the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Su...

  16. The Impact of Social and Cultural Engagement and Dieting on Well-Being and Resilience in a Group of Residents in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rapacciuolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation and exclusion are associated with poor health status and premature death. A number of related isolation factors, inadequate transportation system and restrictions in individuals’ life space, have been associated with malnutrition in older adults. Since eating is a social event, isolation can have a negative effect on nutrition. Cultural involvement and participation in interactive activities are essential tools to fight social isolation, and they can counteract the detrimental effects of social isolation on health. To provide data supporting the hypothesis that encouraging participation might represent an innovative preventive and health promoting strategy for healthy living and aging, we developed an ad hoc questionnaire to investigate the relationship between cultural participation, well-being, and resilience in a sample of residents in the metropolitan area of Naples. The questionnaire includes a question on adherence to diet or to a special nutritional regimen; in addition, the participants are asked to mention their height and weight. We investigated the relationship between BMI, adherence to diet, and perceived well-being (PWB and resilience in a sample of 571 subjects over 60 years of age. Here, we present evidence that engagement into social and cultural activities is associated with higher well-being and resilience, in particular in females over 60 years of age.

  17. Measuring Best Practices for Workplace Safety, Health, and Well-Being: The Workplace Integrated Safety and Health Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Glorian; Sparer, Emily; Williams, Jessica A R; Gundersen, Daniel; Boden, Leslie I; Dennerlein, Jack T; Hashimoto, Dean; Katz, Jeffrey N; McLellan, Deborah L; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Revette, Anna; Wagner, Gregory R

    2018-05-01

    To present a measure of effective workplace organizational policies, programs, and practices that focuses on working conditions and organizational facilitators of worker safety, health and well-being: the workplace integrated safety and health (WISH) assessment. Development of this assessment used an iterative process involving a modified Delphi method, extensive literature reviews, and systematic cognitive testing. The assessment measures six core constructs identified as central to best practices for protecting and promoting worker safety, health and well-being: leadership commitment; participation; policies, programs, and practices that foster supportive working conditions; comprehensive and collaborative strategies; adherence to federal and state regulations and ethical norms; and data-driven change. The WISH Assessment holds promise as a tool that may inform organizational priority setting and guide research around causal pathways influencing implementation and outcomes related to these approaches.

  18. Measuring the Impact of Globalization on the Well-being of the Poor: Methodology and an Application to Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Tauhidur; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas a large number of empirical studies have been devoted to analyzing the relationship between measures of income and globalization (defined by openness to international trade), much less attention has been paid to the analysis of well-being for the various subgroups of population and their causal associations with globalization. To address this gap in the literature, this paper first analyzes the quality of life (QOL) of 'poor' and 'non-poor' population segments of 40 African countries ...

  19. Objective confirmation of subjective measures of human well-being: evidence from the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Andrew J; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-29

    A huge research literature, across the behavioral and social sciences, uses information on individuals' subjective well-being. These are responses to questions--asked by survey interviewers or medical personnel--such as, "How happy do you feel on a scale from 1 to 4?" Yet there is little scientific evidence that such data are meaningful. This study examines a 2005-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System random sample of 1.3 million U.S. citizens. Life satisfaction in each U.S. state is measured. Across America, people's answers trace out the same pattern of quality of life as previously estimated, from solely nonsubjective data, in one branch of economics (so-called "compensating differentials" neoclassical theory, originally from Adam Smith). There is a state-by-state match (r = 0.6, P < 0.001) between subjective and objective well-being. This result has some potential to help to unify disciplines.

  20. Gratitude and Well Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529

  1. 'Peace' and 'life worthwhile' as measures of spiritual well-being in African palliative care: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Lucy; Speck, Peter; Gysels, Marjolein; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Moll, Tony; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Ikin, Barbara; Higginson, Irene J; Harding, Richard

    2013-06-10

    Patients with incurable, progressive disease receiving palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa experience high levels of spiritual distress with a detrimental impact on their quality of life. Locally validated measurement tools are needed to identify patients' spiritual needs and evaluate and improve spiritual care, but up to now such tools have been lacking in Africa. The African Palliative Care Association (APCA) African Palliative Outcome Scale (POS) contains two items relating to peace and life worthwhile. We aimed to determine the content and construct validity of these items as measures of spiritual wellbeing in African palliative care populations. The study was conducted at five palliative care services, four in South Africa and one in Uganda. The mixed-methods study design involved: (1) cognitive interviews with 72 patients, analysed thematically to explore the items' content validity, and (2) quantitative data collection (n = 285 patients) using the POS and the Spirit 8 to assess construct validity. (1) Peace was interpreted according to the themes 'perception of self and world', 'relationship to others', 'spiritual beliefs' and 'health and healthcare'. Life worthwhile was interpreted in relation to 'perception of self and world', 'relationship to others' and 'identity'. (2) Conceptual convergence and divergence were also evident in the quantitative data: there was moderate correlation between peace and Spirit 8 spiritual well-being (r = 0.46), but little correlation between life worthwhile and Spirit 8 spiritual well-being (r = 0.18) (both p spiritual well-being in African palliative care. Peace and life worthwhile are brief and simple enough to be integrated into routine practice and can be used to measure this important but neglected outcome in this population.

  2. How is subjective well-being related to quality of life? Do we need two concepts and both measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skevington, S M; Böhnke, J R

    2018-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) and subjective quality of life (QoL) are key concepts describing experience, capacities, states, behaviours, appraisals, and emotional reactions to circumstances. Used widely in public discourse, policy, and research, their theoretical and empirical relations remain little explored. The present research aimed to develop an integrated model of SWB and QoL through empirically testing its overlapping and exclusive dimensions. Survey data was obtained from N = 2533 in 11 countries. Adults completed the WHOQOL Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs (SRPB) instrument which assesses 33 QoL facets in 6 domains. The facets operationalize components of the hedonic SWB model, extended with eudaimonia, as SWB+. Network analyses, and regression models with random effect for cultural centre, assessed the differential contributions of SWB+ and QoL in predicting general QoL, explanatory power, and model parsimony. When all SWB+ and QoL variables are assessed together, the final model explains more variance in general QoL than either of the competing models; also it shows the most parsimonious fit. This fully integrated model contains only positive feelings from SWB+, with 13 other QoL facets drawn from all six domains, when adjusted for health status and educational level. These findings provide the foundation for a new Life Quality and Well-being (LQW) model that awaits confirmation. The LQW model improves on existing models of SWB+ and QoL by better explaining general QoL than facets of either model on its own. The 14 selected facets potentially offer a new, single measure with considerable conceptual breadth, and international foundations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plotting the Course of Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Wilby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons above age 80 comprise the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and it is estimated that one in four will need long-term care due to increased disabilities and illness. A major concern for residents, families, and providers is to ensure care that “allows the resident to maintain or attain their highest practicable physical, mental and psychosocial well-being.” The challenge is measuring a subjective concept such as well-being. The Eden Alternative is a current initiative aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being of long-term care residents. The initiative consists of providing long-term care environments that emphasize person-directed decision making and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Eden Alternative Well-Being Assessment Tool (EAWBAT. There are three assessment tools designed to measure the well-being of elders (residents, family members of residents, and employees working in the long-term care environments. The sample consisted of 237 residents, 430 employees, and 134 family members from seven Eden Alternative organizations throughout the United States. Factor analysis was completed to identify the underlying structure in these data for elders, employees, and families. Reliability statistics were computed for each scale. Reliability statistics ranged from .876 (employee assessment tool to .949 (family assessment tool, indicating the potential of the EAWBAT to measure the well-being of residents residing in long-term care environments, employees supporting them, and their family members.

  4. Measuring meaning and peace with the FACIT-spiritual well-being scale: distinction without a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amy H; Reeve, Charlie L; Winford, Eboni C; Cotton, Sian; Salsman, John M; McQuellon, Richard; Tsevat, Joel; Campbell, Cassie

    2014-03-01

    The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp; Peterman, Fitchett, Brady, Hernandez, & Cella, 2002) has become a widely used measure of spirituality; however, there remain questions about its specific factor structure and the validity of scores from its separate scales. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the Meaning and Peace scales denote distinct factors. The present study addresses previous limitations by examining the extent to which the Meaning and Peace scales relate differentially to a variety of physical and mental health variables across 4 sets of data from adults with a number of chronic health conditions. Although a model with separate but correlated factors fit the data better, discriminant validity analyses indicated limited differences in the pattern of associations each scale showed with a wide array of commonly used health and quality-of-life measures. In total, the results suggest that people may distinguish between the concepts of Meaning and Peace, but the observed relations with health outcomes are primarily due to variance shared between the 2 factors. Additional research is needed to better understand the separate and joint role of Meaning and Peace in the quality of life of people with chronic illness. 2014 APA

  5. Comprehensively Measuring Health-Related Subjective Well-Being: Dimensionality Analysis for Improved Outcome Assessment in Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Emons, Wilco H M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Pietersma, Suzanne; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2016-01-01

    Allocation of inevitably limited financial resources for health care requires assessment of an intervention's effectiveness. Interventions likely affect quality of life (QOL) more broadly than is measurable with commonly used health-related QOL utility scales. In line with the World Health Organization's definition of health, a recent Delphi procedure showed that assessment needs to put more emphasis on mental and social dimensions. To identify the core dimensions of health-related subjective well-being (HR-SWB) for a new, more comprehensive outcome measure. We formulated items for each domain of an initial Delphi-based set of 21 domains of HR-SWB. We tested these items in a large sample (N = 1143) and used dimensionality analyses to find a smaller number of latent factors. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor model, which explained 65% of the total variance. Factors related to physical independence, positive affect, negative affect, autonomy, and personal growth. Correlations between the factors ranged from 0.19 to 0.59. A closer inspection of the factors revealed an overlap between the newly identified core dimensions of HR-SWB and the validation scales, but the dimensions of HR-SWB also seemed to reflect additional aspects. This shows that the dimensions of HR-SWB we identified go beyond the existing health-related QOL instruments. We identified a set of five key dimensions to be included in a new, comprehensive measure of HR-SWB that reliably captures these dimensions and fills in the gaps of the existent measures used in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How to measure PhD. students' conceptions of academic writing - and are they related to well-being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Lonka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated PhD students’ conceptions of writing and how they saw themselves as writers. The Writing Process Questionnaire was created to analyse PhD students’ ideas of academic writing. In addition, it was of interest, what the relation between conceptions of writing and the PhD students’ well-being was. The participants were 669 PhD students from a major Finnish university who volunteered to fill in a questionnaire. The present study covered scales for measuring six distinct theoretical constructs that were created by forming sum variables of 26 questions: Blocks, Procrastination, Perfectionism, Innate ability, Knowledge transforming, and Productivity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to verify the six-dimension construct. Exhaustion, stress, anxiety and lack of interest all correlated positively with Blocks, Procrastination, and Perfectionism, and negatively with Productivity. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted by LISREL confirmed the six-factor structure of the writing scale. In conclusion, there is good evidence that the questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool, and it captures some essential aspectsof academic writing process and its emotional dimensions.

  7. Measuring positive affect and well-being after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Positive Affect and Well-being bank and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Hilary; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an item response theory (IRT)-calibrated spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific Positive Affect and Well-being (PAWB) item bank with flexible options for administration. Qualitative feedback from patient and provider focus groups was used to expand on the Neurological Disorders and Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) positive affect & well-being item bank for use in SCI. New items were created and revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). We tested a 32-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the PAWB questions. A unidimensional model was observed (Confirmatory Fit Index=0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.094) and measurement precision was good (reliability in theta of -2.9 to 1.2 is roughly equivalent to classical reliability of 0.95 or above). Twelve items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes, the DIF was determined to be negligible and would have little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 28 retained items This study indicates that the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life PAWB bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and a computer adaptive test is available.

  8. Spiritual well-being and quality of life among Icelanders receiving palliative care: data from Icelandic pilot-testing of a provisional measure of spiritual well-being from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, G H; Sigurdardottir, V; Gunnarsdottir, S; Sigurbjörnsson, E; Traustadottir, R; Kelly, E; Young, T; Vivat, B

    2017-03-01

    Palliative care focuses on improving quality of life (QoL). This study examined the feasibility of the Icelandic version of a provisional European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) measure of spiritual well-being (SWB), and explored the relationship between SWB and QoL for palliative care patients in Iceland. Instruments from the EORTC were used: the provisional measure of SWB, which was undergoing pilot-testing in Iceland, and the EORTC QLQ C15-PAL. The correlation between scores was examined and descriptive statistics were used. Structured interviews explored feasibility. Thirty persons participated with average age 72 years. Belief in God or a higher power had the mean 3.33 on a 1-4 scale and the mean for overall SWB was 5.73 on a 1-7 scale. The mean score for global health/QoL was 59.4, physical functioning 48.5 and emotional functioning 78.9 on a 0-100 scale. Overall QoL was positively correlated with SWB showing r(30) = 0.386, P = 0.035. The participants found that answering the provisional EORTC QLQ-SWB prompted an emotional response and took the opportunity to discuss the subject. The provisional SWB measure was found relevant for the Icelandic context, and the study indicates that SWB and QoL are closely connected. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Relationship between Teachers' Attitudes toward Measurement and Evaluation and Their Perceptions of Professional Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Kamil; Arastaman, Gökhan; Dasci, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The quality of teaching at schools mostly depends on the teachers' competencies. One of these competencies is measurement and evaluation (MaE). Evaluation of the students' cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development requires skills and knowledge about various measuring tools and techniques. It is essential for a teacher to…

  10. Existential Well-Being Spirituality or Well-Being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

    Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality

  11. The well-being questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...

  12. Use of the measure your medical outcome profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 (Well-Being outcomes measures to evaluate chiropractic treatment: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Barbara I

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to assess the use of the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 well-being questionnaire for measuring clinical change associated with a course of chiropractic treatment. Methods Chiropractic care of the patients involved spinal manipulative therapy (SMT, mechanically assisted techniques, soft tissue therapy, and physiological therapeutic devices. Outcome measures used were MYMOP2 and the Well-Being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12. Results Statistical and clinical significant changes were demonstrated with W-BQ12 and MYMOP2. Conclusions The study demonstrated that MYMOP2 was responsive to change and may be a useful instrument for assessing clinical changes among chiropractic patients who present with a variety of symptoms and clinical conditions.

  13. Gender-Based Differences in Surgical Residents' Perceptions of Patient Safety, Continuity of Care, and Well-Being: An Analysis from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristen A; Chung, Jeanette W; Matulewicz, Richard S; Kelz, Rachel R; Shea, Judy A; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Yang, Anthony D; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about gender differences in residency training experiences and whether duty hour policies affect these differences. Using data from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial, we examined gender differences in surgical resident perceptions of patient safety, education, health and well-being, and job satisfaction, and assessed whether duty hour policies affected gender differences. We compared proportions of male and female residents expressing dissatisfaction or perceiving a negative effect of duty hours on aspects of residency training (ie patient safety, resident education, well-being, job satisfaction) overall and by PGY. Logistic regression models with robust clustered SEs were used to test for significant gender differences and interaction effects of duty hour policies on gender differences. Female PGY2 to 3 residents were more likely than males to be dissatisfied with patient safety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.29-4.84) and to perceive a negative effect of duty hours on most health and well-being outcomes (OR = 1.51-2.10; all p duty hours reduced gender differences in career dissatisfaction among interns (p = 0.028), but widened gender differences in negative perceptions of duty hours on patient safety (p duty hour policies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Happiness Analyzer : a New Technique for Measuring Subjective Well-Being : The Happiness Analyzer : een nieuwe techniek voor het meten van subjectief welbevinden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ludwigs (Kai)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn 2013 the OECD published a guideline that represents the gold standard for measuring subjective well-being in greater detail to collect data in the quality needed as a basis for efficient decisions to improve subjective well-being and the evaluation of those decisions to enable

  15. The Value of a Well-Being Improvement Strategy: Longitudinal Success across Subjective and Objective Measures Observed in a Firm Adopting a Consumer-Driven Health Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of a firm's 5-year strategy toward improving well-being while lowering health care costs amidst adoption of a Consumer-Driven Health Plan. Repeated measures statistical models were employed to test and quantify association between key demographic factors, employment type, year, individual well-being, and outcomes of health care costs, obesity, smoking, absence, and performance. Average individual well-being trended upward by 13.5% over 5 years, monthly allowed amount health care costs declined 5.2% on average per person per year, and obesity and smoking rates declined by 4.8 and 9.7%, respectively, on average each year. The results show that individual well-being was significantly associated with each outcome and in the expected direction. The firm's strategy was successful in driving statistically significant, longitudinal well-being, biometric and productivity improvements, and health care cost reduction.

  16. Are the Emotionally Intelligent Happier? Associations Between the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQUE) and External Measures of Happiness and Well-Being.

    OpenAIRE

    Raithatha, Sonal

    2009-01-01

    This study used self-report questionnaires to investigate emotional intelligence (EI) in relation to happiness and well-being. Previous research has supported the links between well-being and life satisfaction to EI. This study aimed to look specifically at associations between the full version of the ‘Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire’ (TEIQue) (Petrides, 2009) for trait EI and an external measure of happiness. A student sample (N=187) completed 4 questionnaires online; The TEIQue f...

  17. Teaching Behaviour and Well-Being in Students: Development and Concurrent Validity of an Instrument to Measure Student-Reported Teaching Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pössel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching behavior has important implications for students’ emotional well-being. Multiple models suggest students’ perceptions of teaching behaviors are more critical than other measures for predicting well-being, yet student-report instruments that measure concrete and specific teaching behavior are limited. The purpose of the present studies is to develop an instrument to assess students’ perceptions of concrete and specific teaching behavior and to test which teaching behavior is associated students’ well-being. Construct validity and internal consistency for the 37-item Teaching Behavior Questionnaire (TBQ-S, composed of instructional, negative teaching, socioemotional, and organizational behavior were examined using data from two independent samples (Study 1: n = 703; Study 2: n = 822. The factor structure was stable across both samples and internal consistencies ranged from .77 to .97. Results indicated student-ratings of teaching behavior were associated with positive and negative affect in students.

  18. Evidence for the Psychometric Validity, Internal Consistency and Measurement Invariance of Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale Scores in Scottish and Irish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R

    2017-09-01

    Mental well-being is an important indicator of current, but also the future health of adolescents. The 14-item Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) has been well validated in adults world-wide, but less work has been undertaken to examine the psychometric validity and internal consistency of WEMWBS scores in adolescents. In particular, little research has examined scores on the short 7-item version of the WEMWBS. The present study used two large samples of school children in Scotland and Northern Ireland and found that for both forms of the WEMWBS, scores were psychometrically valid, internally consistent, factor saturated, and measurement invariant by country. Using the WEMWBS full form, males reported significantly higher scores than females, and Northern Irish adolescents reported significantly higher scores than their Scottish counterparts. Last, the lowest overall levels of well-being were observed among Scottish females. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of variability in lighting and temperature environments for mature gilts housed in gestation crates on measures of reproduction and animal well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaday, D C; Salak-Johnson, J L; Visconti, A M; Wang, X; Bhalerao, K; Knox, R V

    2013-03-01

    The effects of room temperature and light intensity before breeding and into early gestation were evaluated on the reproductive performance and well-being of gilts housed individually in crates. In eight replicates, estrus was synchronized in mature gilts (n = 198) and after last feeding of Matrix were randomly assigned to a room temperature of 15°C (COLD), 21°C (NEUTRAL), or 30°C (HOT) and a light intensity of 11 (DIM) or 433 (BRIGHT) lx. Estrous detection was performed daily and gilts inseminated twice. Blood samples were collected before and after breeding for determination of immune measures and cortisol concentrations. Gilt ADFI, BW, and body temperature were measured. On d 30 postbreeding, gilts were slaughtered to recover reproductive tracts to evaluate pregnancy and litter characteristics. There were no temperature × light intensity interactions for any response variable. Reproductive measures of follicle development, expression of estrus, ovulation rate, pregnancy rate (83.2%), litter size (14.3 ± 0.5), and fetal measures were not affected by temperature or lighting (P > 0.10). Gilts in COLD (37.6°C) had a lower (P postural changes (P 0.10) of light or interaction with temperature on other immune cells or measures. These results indicate that temperatures in the range of 15 to 30°C or light intensity at 11 to 433 lx do not impact reproduction during the follicular phase and into early gestation for mature gilts housed in gestation crates. However, room temperature does impact physiological, behavioral, and immune responses of mature gilts and should be considered as a potential factor that may influence gilt well-being during the first 30 d postbreeding.

  20. Insomnia and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale

    2007-01-01

    Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…

  1. The development of a new corporate specific health risk measurement instrument, and its use in investigating the relationship between health and well-being and employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Peter R

    2005-01-28

    There is a growing body of evidence linking health and well-being to key business issues. Despite this, corporate uptake of workplace health promotion programmes has been slow outside the USA. One possible reason for this is the lack of a generally available health risk measure that is quick and easy to administer and produces data that is rich enough to inform and direct subsequent employee health promotional interventions. We report on the development and validation of the health and well-being (HWB) assessment, a free to use health risk appraisal questionnaire that has been specifically developed for use in the corporate setting. The HWB assessment focuses upon modifiable health issues that directly impact upon business drivers. Development involved interviews with business leaders to ascertain their key areas of focus, scientific and general literature review to find evidence for health status having an impact upon these areas, and end user testing.Three UK-based organisations (insurance, telecommunications and consumer goods sectors) participated in the research. A total of 2224 employees completed the HWB assessment, the short-form 36 (SF-36) and the World Health Organisation Health and Work Performance questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) as part of the validation process. The HWB assessment is a twenty item questionnaire covering ten areas of health and well-being. Completion of the HWB assessment generates a global health risk score and ten sub-scores corresponding to the ten areas covered. It is easy to use and quick to complete (average completion time was eight minutes) and showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Statistically significant correlations with similar SF-36 variables were observed. A significant negative correlation between HWB score and productivity decrement, as measured by the WHO-HPQ, was observed (r = -0.4). Individuals with HWB scores above the 25th percentile were more likely to achieve workplace productivity standards than

  2. The development of a new corporate specific health risk measurement instrument, and its use in investigating the relationship between health and well-being and employee productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Peter R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of evidence linking health and well-being to key business issues. Despite this, corporate uptake of workplace health promotion programmes has been slow outside the USA. One possible reason for this is the lack of a generally available health risk measure that is quick and easy to administer and produces data that is rich enough to inform and direct subsequent employee health promotional interventions. Methods We report on the development and validation of the health and well-being (HWB assessment, a free to use health risk appraisal questionnaire that has been specifically developed for use in the corporate setting. The HWB assessment focuses upon modifiable health issues that directly impact upon business drivers. Development involved interviews with business leaders to ascertain their key areas of focus, scientific and general literature review to find evidence for health status having an impact upon these areas, and end user testing. Three UK-based organisations (insurance, telecommunications and consumer goods sectors participated in the research. A total of 2224 employees completed the HWB assessment, the short-form 36 (SF-36 and the World Health Organisation Health and Work Performance questionnaire (WHO-HPQ as part of the validation process. Results The HWB assessment is a twenty item questionnaire covering ten areas of health and well-being. Completion of the HWB assessment generates a global health risk score and ten sub-scores corresponding to the ten areas covered. It is easy to use and quick to complete (average completion time was eight minutes and showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Statistically significant correlations with similar SF-36 variables were observed. A significant negative correlation between HWB score and productivity decrement, as measured by the WHO-HPQ, was observed (r = -0.4. Individuals with HWB scores above the 25th percentile were more

  3. Development and validation of the positive affect and well-being scale for the neurology quality of life (Neuro-QOL) measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Peterman, Amy H; Heinemann, Allen W; Nowinski, Cindy; Cella, David

    2013-11-01

    To develop and validate an item-response theory-based patient-reported outcomes assessment tool of positive affect and well-being (PAW). This is part of a larger NINDS-funded study to develop a health-related quality of life measurement system across major neurological disorders, called Neuro-QOL. Informed by a literature review and qualitative input from clinicians and patients, item pools were created to assess PAW concepts. Items were administered to a general population sample (N = 513) and a group of individuals with a variety of neurologic conditions (N = 581) for calibration and validation purposes, respectively. A 23-item calibrated bank and a 9-item short form of PAW was developed, reflecting components of positive affect, life satisfaction, or an overall sense of purpose and meaning. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure demonstrated sufficient unidimensionality and displayed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, model fit, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure was designed to aid clinicians and researchers to better evaluate and understand the potential role of positive health processes for individuals with chronic neurological conditions. Further psychometric testing within and between neurological conditions, as well as testing in non-neurologic chronic diseases, will help evaluate the generalizability of this new tool.

  4. Parenthood and Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to

  5. Well-Being and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.

  6. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  7. Measuring the Influence of Legally Recognized Partnerships on the Health and Well-Being of Same-Sex Couples: Utility of the California Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Sun, Qiankun; Breen, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This study explored the utility of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) to compare health-related outcomes among gay men, lesbians, and heterosexuals who reported being in a legally recognized partnership. Methods: We regressed sexual identity and marriage/legally recognized partnership status on seven different outcomes related to health insurance coverage, medical services access and use, and general health and well-being using CHIS data collected between 2009 and 2013. Results: There were 1432 respondents who identified as gay, lesbian, or homosexual, and 67,746 who identified as heterosexual. The percentage of participants who reported being married/legally partnered was 54.06% for heterosexual women, 52.93% for heterosexual men, 38.83% for lesbians, and 23.56% for gay men. Legally partnered/married gay and lesbian respondents were more likely to have health insurance and use healthcare than their counterparts not in such partnerships; few trends were statistically significant. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report continuous health insurance coverage, a usual medical care source, and at least one provider visit within the past 12 months. We found statistically significant poorer health status outcomes among lesbians in legally recognized partnerships compared to married heterosexual women. Conclusions: Lesbians in legally recognized partnerships did not fare as well as married heterosexual women. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships fared better than married heterosexual men on some measures. CHIS questionnaire structures limited our sample and analyses. We recommend that CHIS and other researchers ask partnered status-, marriage-, and sexual identity-related questions en bloc to ensure more robust representation, analyses, recommendations, and policy resolutions. PMID:28207297

  8. Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: a short measure for children and adolescents’ well-being and health-related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Michael; Rajmil, Luis; Herdman, Michael; Auquier, Pascal; Bruil, Jeanet; Power, Mick; Duer, Wolfgang; Abel, Thomas; Czemy, Ladislav; Mazur, Joanna; Czimbalmos, Agnes; Tountas, Yannis; Hagquist, Curt; Kilroe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a sample of 22,830 European children and adolescents aged 8–18 and their parents (n = 16,237). Correlation with the KIDSCREEN-52 and associations with other generic HRQoL measures, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status were examined. Score differences by age, gender, and country were investigated. Results Correlations between the 10-item KIDSCREEN score and KIDSCREEN-52 scales ranged from r = 0.24 to 0.72 (r = 0.27–0.72) for the self-report version (proxy-report version). Coefficients below r = 0.5 were observed for the KIDSCREEN-52 dimensions Financial Resources and Being Bullied only. Cronbach alpha was 0.82 (0.78), test–retest reliability was ICC = 0.70 (0.67) for the self- (proxy-)report version. Correlations between other children self-completed HRQoL questionnaires and KIDSCREEN-10 ranged from r = 0.43 to r = 0.63 for the KIDSCREEN children self-report and r = 0.22–0.40 for the KIDSCREEN parent proxy report. Known group differences in HRQoL between physically/mentally healthy and ill children were observed in the KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores. Associations with self-reported psychosomatic complaints were r = −0.52 (−0.36) for the KIDSCREEN-10 self-report (proxy-report). Statistically significant differences in KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores were found by socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Conclusions Our results indicate that the KIDSCREEN-10 provides a valid measure of a general HRQoL factor in children and adolescents, but the instrument does not represent well most of the single dimensions of the original KIDSCREEN-52. Test–retest reliability was slightly below a priori defined thresholds. PMID:20668950

  9. Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: A short measure for children and adolescents' well-being and health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Erhart, M.; Rajmil, L.; Herdman, M.; Auquier, P.; Bruil, J.; Power, M.; Duer, W.; Abel, T.; Czemy, L.; Mazur, J.; Czimbalmos, A.; Tountas, Y.; Hagquist, C.; Kilroe, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods: The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a

  10. Occupational Well-Being and Stress among Early Childhood Professionals: The Use of an Innovative Strategy to Measure Stress Reactivity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislin, M.; Sajaniemi, N.; Sims, M.; Suhonen, E.; Maldonado, E. F.; Hyttinen, S.; Hirvonen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine early childhood professionals' (ECPs) work engagement, burnout and stress regulation in integrated special day-care groups. The participants consisted of 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care groups in Helsinki, Finland. ECPs' work-related well-being was assessed using self-report questionnaires that…

  11. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    environment. In video surveillance, the behavior of humans and animals is monitored based on extremes: event is present/event is not present, objects behave normally/objects behave abnormally, action 1/action 2/action 3, etc. In nature, the motion of humans and animals is continuous with transitions from one...... action to another. The second aim of this thesis is to propose a method to monitor motion as a continuous process using common classification methods....... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...

  12. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  13. Well-Being, Science, and Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insu...

  14. School Satisfaction among Adolescents: Testing Different Indicators for Its Measurement and Its Relationship with Overall Life Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being in Romania and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ferran; Baltatescu, Sergiu; Bertran, Irma; Gonzalez, Monica; Hatos, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from two samples of adolescents aged 13-16 from Romania and Spain (N = 930 + 1,945 = 2,875). The original 7-item version of the Personal Well-Being Index (PWI) was used, together with an item on overall life satisfaction (OLS) and a set of six items related to satisfaction with school. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

  15. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...... that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families....

  16. Equality of Opportunity for Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...

  17. Examining the Relationship between Physiological Measurements and Self-Reports of Stress and Well-Being in Middle School Teachers over One School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Deirdre A.; Harris, Alexis R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Educators are exposed to a variety of stressors, which can lead to poorer teaching performance, burnout, and increased student misbehavior (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Although self-report measures of stress are most commonly used in education research, physiological measures of stress may also contribute to the understanding of educators'…

  18. Well-Being, Science, and Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door...... to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insufficient communication between the empirical study of well-being, and its normative/conceptual study as pursued...... in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...

  19. ‘Peace’ and ‘life worthwhile’ as measures of spiritual well-being in African palliative care: a mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selman, L.; Speck, P.; Gysels, M.; Agupio, G.; Dinat, N.; Downing, J.; Gwyther, L.; Mashao, T.; Mmoledi, K.; Moll, T.; Mpanga Sebuyira, L.; Ikin, B.; Higginson, I.J.; Harding, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with incurable, progressive disease receiving palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa experience high levels of spiritual distress with a detrimental impact on their quality of life. Locally validated measurement tools are needed to identify patients’ spiritual needs and evaluate

  20. Measuring relationships between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, burnout and well-being in student counsellors and student cognitive behavioural psychotherapists: a quantitative survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Elaine.; Durkin, Mark.; Hollins Martin, Caroline J.; Carson, Jerome.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolonged deficiency in self-care strategies puts counsellors and psychotherapists at risk of burnout and compassion fatigue. Aim: To measure associations between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, wellbeing and burnout in student counsellors and student cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. Method: A quantitative survey using four validated data collection instruments: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) short Warwick and Edinburgh Mental We...

  1. Simultaneous Ablation of Uterine Natural Killer Cells and Uterine Mast Cells in Mice Leads to Poor Vascularization and Abnormal Doppler Measurements That Compromise Fetal Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Meyer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a serious pregnancy complication with short- and long-term health consequences. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood. Animal models are the basis for understanding the causes of IUGR and for developing useful therapeutic strategies. Here, we aimed to ascertain the in utero growth of fetuses from NK (natural killer cells/MC (mast cells-deficient mothers that give birth to growth-restricted pups and to determine the time point at which IUGR starts. We used high frequency ultrasound imaging to follow-up fetal and placenta size and employed Doppler measurements to document blood supply to the fetus in females that were deficient for NK cells and MCs. In mice lacking NKs and MCs, we observed significantly reduced implantation sizes from mid gestation onward, which was further associated with smaller placentas. Additionally, NK/MC-deficiency was associated with absent and reversed end diastolic flow in umbilical arteries of the fetuses and an increased systolic/diastolic ratio as well as an elevated resistance index. Together, our results indicate that NKs/MCs promote blood flow, placental growth, and subsequent fetal development. The results of this study offer new insights as to how fetal growth is affected in vivo in NK/MC-deficient mice, whose pups are growth restricted at birth. The use of IUGR models and modern technologies enabling the in vivo follow-up of fetal development are important tools for understanding mechanisms behind pregnancy complications that in the future may lead to the development of effective therapies.

  2. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, C W; Østergaard, S D; Soendergaard, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. Since its first publication in 1998, the WHO-5 has been translated into more than 30 languages and has been used in research studies...... is very high. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents. The scale has adequate validity both as a screening tool for depression and as an outcome measure in clinical trials and has been...

  3. Managing Danish pupils’ well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad; Gad, Christopher

    The concept of well-being has become a key category of social and political imagination, cultivating new understandings of 'what it means to be a capable person' (Corsín Jiménez, 2008, 2). In 2015, the Danish Ministry of Education began conducting national, annual measurements of Danish pupils...... national objectives for pupils' well-being; 2) the Danish newspaper A4's interactive, online mapping of pupils' well-being at all Danish schools, developed from the same numbers (accessed through their juridical right to access government files) but using different calculative techniques and aimed...

  4. Sociodemographic predictors of elderly's psychological well-being in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku A; Yahaya, Nurizan

    2011-05-01

    Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders. The study included 1415 older Malays (60-100 years, 722 women), randomly selected through a multistage stratified random method from Peninsular Malaysia. WHO-Five well-being index was used to measure psychological well-being. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Using multiple regression analysis a significant model emerged (F(7, 1407) = 20.14, p ≤ 0.001), where age, sex, marital status, and household income were significant predictor variables of psychological well-being among Malay elders. However, level of education, employment status, and place of residence failed to predict psychological well-being. This study showed that the oldest old, elderly women, unmarried, and the poor elderly people are at risk for experiencing low psychological well-being. Therefore, they need special attention from family, policy makers, and those who work with elderly people.

  5. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  6. Assessment of What/For What? Teachers' and Head Teachers' Views on Using Well-Being and Involvement as a Screening Measure for Conducting Baseline Assessment on School Entry in English Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Sofia; Howe, Sally; Clausen, Sigrid Brogaard; Cottle, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Baseline assessment has recently been trialled as part of an accountability measure in English primary schools. The research presented in this colloquium examines the views of teachers related to using well-being and involvement indicators as a starting point for baseline assessment. The findings suggest that the focus on well-being was welcomed…

  7. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers’ perception and actual well-being of volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an

  8. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers' perception and actual well-being of volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background : Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods : Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results : Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life

  9. Well-Being on Planet Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Diener

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gallup World Poll allows a look at how humanity is flourishing, based on the answers of survey respondents sampled from across the globe. Several conclusions are clear. First, how people are doing depends enormously on the society in which they live, and nations vary from doing very well to extremely poorly. In terms of subjective well-being, nations vary greatly, in both judgments of overall life and in positive and negative emotions. The best predictors of global life judgments were income and ownership of modern conveniences, whereas the best predictors of emotions were social factors such as the control of corruption and being able to count on others, and personal factors such as learning new things and being able to control one’s day. Thus, the answer to the question of whether money makes people happy must be qualified by the measure of well-being that is being used. It is proposed that systematic measures of well-being across and within nations would allow individuals, leaders, and policy makers to make better decisions.

  10. Growth goals, maturity, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2004-01-01

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA

  11. The international phase 4 validation study of the EORTC QLQ-SWB32: A stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being for people receiving palliative care for cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivat, B.; Young, T. E.; Winstanley, J.; Arraras, J. I.; Black, K.; Boyle, F.; Bredart, A.; Costantini, A.; Guo, J.; Irarrazaval, M. E.; Kobayashi, K.; Kruizinga, R.; Navarro, M.; Omidvari, S.; Rohde, G. E.; Serpentini, S.; Spry, N.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Yang, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The EORTC Quality of Life Group has just completed the final phase (field-testing and validation) of an international project to develop a stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being (SWB) for palliative cancer patients. Participants (n = 451)-from 14 countries on four continents; 54% female; 188

  12. Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…

  13. Student Well-being pada Remaja Jawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Na'imah

    2017-10-01

    Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan sumber student well-being pada remaja Jawa. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan penelitian kuantitatif dan didukung dengan kualitatif. Lokasi penelitian di Banyumas dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan skala student well-being dan openquesioner sumber student well-being serta panduan wawancara. Analisis data kuantitatif menggunakan deskriptif. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1 Sumber-sumber student well-being adalah dimensi hubungan sosial, kognitif, emosi dan spiritual. 2 Faktor penghambat tercapainya student well-being adalah jika ada masalah dalam dimensi sosial, kognitif, emosi, fisik dan spiritual.

  14. Compassion for others, self-compassion, quality of life and mental well-being measures and their association with compassion fatigue and burnout in student midwives: A quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Elaine; Durkin, Mark; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Carson, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    compassion fatigue and burnout can impact on the performance of midwives, with this quantitative paper exploring the relationship between self-compassion, burnout, compassion fatigue, self-judgement, self-kindness, compassion for others, professional quality of life and well-being of student midwives. a quantitative survey measured relationships using questionnaires: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) Short Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale; (4) Compassion For Others Scale. a purposive and convenience sample of student midwives (n=103) studying at university participated in the study. just over half of the sample reported above average scores for burnout. The results indicate that student midwives who report higher scores on the self-judgement sub-scale are less compassionate towards both themselves and others, have reduced well-being, and report greater burnout and compassion fatigue. Student midwives who report high on measures of self-compassion and well-being report less compassion fatigue and burnout. student midwives may find benefit from 'being kinder to self' in times of suffering, which could potentially help them to prepare for the emotional demands of practice and study. developing, creating and cultivating environments that foster compassionate care for self and others may play a significant role in helping midwives face the rigours of education and clinical practice during their degree programme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The economics of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Gross domestic product has long been the chief measure of national success. But there's been a lot of talk lately about changing that, from economists and world leaders alike. GDP is under siege for three main reasons. First, it is flawed even on its own terms: It misses lots of economic activity (unpaid household work, for example) and, as a single-number representation of vast, complex systems, is inevitably skewed. Second, it fails to account for economic and environmental sustainability. And third, readily available alternative measures may reflect well-being far better, by taking into account factors such as educational achievement, health, and life expectancy. HBR's Justin Fox surveys historical and current views on how to assess national progress, from Jeremy Bentham to Robert Kennedy to Nicolas Sarkozy. He also looks at where we may be headed. The biggest success so far in the campaign to supplant or at least supplement GDP, he finds, is the UN's Human Development Index-on which the United States has never claimed the top spot.

  16. Studying employee well-being : Moving forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilies, R.; Pluut, Helen; Aw, S.S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to integrate the commentaries to our position paper on intra-individual models of employee well-being (EWB; Ilies, R., Aw, S. S. Y., & Pluut, H. (2015). Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here? European Journal of

  17. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  18. Autonomous teamwork and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Seinen, B.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. In the present study we investigated the hypotheses that (1) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being, (2) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy,

  19. Using spontaneous commentary of nursing home residents to develop resident-centered measurement tools: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Lauren R; Abbott, Katherine; Heid, Allison; Eshraghi, Karen; Van Haitsma, Kimberly

    Nursing home (NH) residents routinely complete surveys that assess their health, well-being, preferences, and care needs. Such surveys reveal important information, however, are largely based on the concerns of providers as opposed to the concerns of residents. Thus, researchers must enhance efforts to ensure that these surveys are guided by the priorities, needs, and concerns of residents. We present a case study to demonstrate how spontaneous commentary of NH residents holds particular efficacy for ensuring that measurement tools are guided by the needs, concerns, and priorities of residents. Spontaneous comments from NH residents (N = 370) collected as part of a study developing the Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory for NH residents (PELI-NH) were used to refine the PELI-NH across key phases of measurement development. This work demonstrates how the spontaneous commentary of NH residents may contribute to the refinement of NH measurement tools, and allow researchers to base these tools on the needs and priorities of NH residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can Facebook use induce well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Yi; Yu, Chia-Ping

    2013-09-01

    Over the past few decades, the widespread phenomenon of Internet abuse has gained attention from the public, academia, and the media. In a departure from this negative viewpoint, however, researchers and educators have devoted considerable effort in attempting to understand the influence of online communication on people's psychological well-being. This study focuses specifically on Facebook, and proposes a research model to examine the relationships among Facebook use, online social support, general social support, and psychological well-being. Our results show that using Facebook helped college students to obtain online social support, and that online social support is an extension of general social support. However, although general social support contributes to well-being, online social support appears to have little direct effect on well-being. The relationship between online social support and well-being is mediated through the factor of general social support.

  1. Pilot-testing the French version of a provisional European organisation for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC) measure of spiritual well-being for people receiving palliative care for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucette, A; Brédart, A; Vivat, B; Young, T

    2014-03-01

    Spiritual well-being is increasingly recognised as an important aspect of patients' quality of life when living with a potentially life-limiting illness such as cancer. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a measure for assessing spiritual well-being cross-culturally for people receiving palliative care for cancer. The pilot-testing phase of the study explored potential problems related to the content and administration of a provisional version of this measure. The French version was pilot-tested with 12 patients in a palliative and supportive day care unit in Paris. Participants were asked to complete the measure and the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL before being interviewed about their responses. The administration of the measure enabled participants to express the difficulties and existential concerns they experienced. The items were not considered intrusive, despite the sensitive topic of the measure. This article considers difficulties with items pertaining to 'religion' and 'spirituality' in the context of French culture. Overall, this measure appears to enhance holistic care, by providing caregivers with a means of broaching spirituality issues, a topic otherwise difficult to discuss in the context of palliative care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Well-being, capabilities and philosophical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention

  3. Conceptualising well-being for autistic persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards filling this gap. I start by giving a concise account of autism, which highlights the huge heterogeneity among autistics. I discuss some basic features of autism, ask whether there are good reasons why we would need an account of well-being specifically for autistics and what philosophical well-being research could learn from being informed by autistic experiences and phenomenology. I then investigate to what extent the capability approach gives us a helpful theory of well-being for autistics, and what looking through an autism-lens can contribute to the further development of the capabilitarian well-being. In particular, I show that some capabilities that are crucially relevant for autistics are also relevant for the lives of non-autistic people. The final part of the paper looks at an important difficulty in using the capabilitarian account of well-being for autistics, namely: should the normative focus be on achievements (functionings) or real opportunities (capabilities)? Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. On the Importance of Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...

  5. Does Social Interaction Matter Psychological Well-Being in Persons With Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Boltz, Marie; Lee, Hana; Algase, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Social interaction between residents and staff is an important factor influencing sense of well-being. This study examined the relationship between staff-resident interactions and psychological well-being of persons with dementia. A total of 831 observations of 110 persons with dementia in 17 nursing homes and 6 assisted living facilities were included. Psychological well-being was measured by observed displays of positive and negative emotional expressions. Social interaction was determined by the type of social interaction (ie, verbal interaction, nonverbal interaction, and both verbal and nonverbal interactions) and the quality of interaction (ie, positive, negative, and neutral). Verbal or both verbal and nonverbal interactions showed significant relationship with positive and negative emotional expressions. Positive interaction was significantly associated with more positive emotional expression, whereas negative interaction was not. Staff-resident interactions are important to promote the psychological well-being of persons with dementia in residential care.

  6. Family Support and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    In order to distinguish typologies of university students based on family support received in the form of tangible and intangible resources, their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life as well as subjective happiness, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347...... in the place of residence during the period of studies, socioeconomic level, need to work while studying, frequency and time available for having lunch in the place of residence, and body mass index. The family support students receive as tangible or economic resources is positively related to life...

  7. Multiple group membership and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression......A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued...

  8. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  9. Personality and well-being in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; Sá, Laura; Oliveira, João T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M = 15.44, SD = 1.731). Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed. Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents' wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices. PMID:25610408

  10. Personality and well-being in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alexandre Soares Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the description of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents’ composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M=15.44, SD=1.731. Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed.Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents’ wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices.

  11. Financial Well-being in Active Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.

  12. Students’ Well-Being Assessment at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at describing students’ well-being assessment at two private secondary schools in Sleman regency, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia. The subjects of the research were 42 secondary school students in the area. This is an evaluative research by means of quantitative approach. The data collecting technique employed a focus group discussion (FGD while the instrument used an FGD guide book based on a School Well-being Model (Konu and Rimpela, 2002. The data were analyzed quantitatively by means of thematic analysis. The research finding showed that the students’ school well-being was psychologically high at dimension of health status, but low at dimension of having, loving, and being. Another important finding is that there was a tendency of verbal, physical, as well as sexual bullying done by their classmates and teachers personally.

  13. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  14. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  15. Between Indoor and Outdoor. Norwegian Perceptions of Well-Being in Energy Efficient Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wågø, Solvår; Hauge, Bettina; Støa, Eli

    2017-01-01

    -energy building concepts are based on a rational approach to comfort in housing limited to mainly measurable aspects. This, however, hardly reflects what makes residents feel comfortable at home, since it lacks a holistic understanding of residential well-being. Well-being is a complex and multi-facetted concept...... that includes atmosphere and feeling at home. In a qualitative study of four Norwegian low-energy housing projects, we investigate and discuss the impact of visual and sensory qualities, like view, daylight and access to fresh air, on residential well-being. The study reveals that it is possible to achieve well-being...... in energy-efficient housing, but some practices jeopardize the energy- design concept and influence energy use. Residents find strategies to achieve well-being by opening windows and doors, despite restrictions on airing naturally. Access to daylight and view and the ability to open windows or balcony doors...

  16. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  17. On the Importance of Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...... central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......-being is an inclusive good, a good constituted by other things that are good in and for themselves. Then, I will put forward a case against Scanlon’s challenge by (1) showing that inclusiveness, when properly understood, does not lead to the conclusion Scanlon is led to and (2) showing that on at least the reading...

  18. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  19. Educating for Well-Being and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque

    2008-01-01

    Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy--seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives--is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal…

  20. Procrastination and well-being at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Sirois, F.M.; Pychyl, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the issues that are important to procrastination and well-being at work. In comparison with academic procrastination, many more issues need to be taken into consideration. These are discussed with the help of a conceptual framework that identifies characteristics

  1. Social networking for well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.; Prins, S.C.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present some of the work that is being done in the WeCare project (in the AAL programme). The project’s goal is to introduce social networking services in the lives of older people, in order to improve their well-being. Participation in social networks, both online and ‘in real

  2. Erectile function and assessments of erection hardness correlate positively with measures of emotional well-being, sexual satisfaction, and treatment satisfaction in men with erectile dysfunction treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorsi, Francesco; Padma-Nathan, Harin; Glina, Sidney

    2006-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether erectile function (EF) and assessments of erection hardness correlate positively with measures of psychosocial outcomes (ie, emotional well-being, sexual satisfaction, and satisfaction with erectile dysfunction [ED] treatment) in men treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra; Pfizer Inc, New York, NY). Data were collected from 33 worldwide phase 2, 3, and 4 sildenafil clinical trials, which included almost 10,000 men with ED. Most of these trials were randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled (n = 27) and were undertaken to assess doses of 50 mg adjustable to 25 mg or 100 mg, depending on efficacy and tolerability (n = 32). Doses were taken approximately 1 hour before anticipated sexual activity but not more often than once daily. EF was assessed with use of the EF domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and with assessments of erection hardness (Erection Hardness Grading Scale [EHGS] and IIEF Q2 [the frequency of erections hard enough for penetration]). Change (baseline to end point) in emotional well-being in men treated for ED was assessed with the Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire, which consisted of the Confidence domain (ie, the Self-Esteem subscale and Overall Relationship subscale) and the Sexual Relationship domain. End point treatment satisfaction (overall, speed of onset, and duration of action) was assessed with the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS). The IIEF was used to assess change and end point sexual satisfaction by means of the Intercourse Satisfaction domain, Q7 (frequency of satisfactory sexual intercourse), and the Overall Satisfaction domain (ie, Q13, satisfaction with sex life, and Q14, satisfaction with sexual relationship). In men treated with sildenafil for ED, scores for measures of EF (IIEF EF domain, IIEF Q2) and the percentage of erections graded completely hard and fully rigid (EHGS grade 4) correlated positively with scores for

  3. The international phase 4 validation study of the EORTC QLQ-SWB32: A stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being for people receiving palliative care for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivat, B; Young, T E; Winstanley, J; Arraras, J I; Black, K; Boyle, F; Bredart, A; Costantini, A; Guo, J; Irarrazaval, M E; Kobayashi, K; Kruizinga, R; Navarro, M; Omidvari, S; Rohde, G E; Serpentini, S; Spry, N; Van Laarhoven, H W M; Yang, G M

    2017-11-01

    The EORTC Quality of Life Group has just completed the final phase (field-testing and validation) of an international project to develop a stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being (SWB) for palliative cancer patients. Participants (n = 451)-from 14 countries on four continents; 54% female; 188 Christian; 50 Muslim; 156 with no religion-completed a provisional 36-item measure of SWB plus the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (PAL), then took part in a structured debriefing interview. All items showed good score distribution across response categories. We assessed scale structure using principal component analysis and Rasch analysis, and explored construct validity, and convergent/divergent validity with the PAL. Twenty-two items in four scoring scales (Relationship with Self, Relationships with Others, Relationship with Someone or Something Greater, and Existential) explained 53% of the variance. The measure also includes a global SWB item and nine other items. Scores on the PAL global quality-of-life item and Emotional Functioning scale weakly-moderately correlated with scores on the global SWB item and two of the four SWB scales. This new validated 32-item SWB measure addresses a distinct aspect of quality-of-life, and is now available for use in research and clinical practice, with a role as both a measurement and an intervention tool. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Personality and well-being in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; S?, Laura; Oliveira, Jo?o T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participate...

  5. "Social jetlag" in morning-type college students living on campus: implications for physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Ng, Eddie Chi Wai; Hui, Chi-chiu Harry; Cheung, Shu Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2013-08-01

    Although on-campus residence allows easier access to campus facilities, existing studies showed mixed results regarding the relationship between college residence and students' well-being indicators, such as sleep behaviors and mood. There was also a lack of studies investigating the role of chronotype in the relationship between on-campus residence and well-being. In particular, the temporal relationships among these factors were unclear. Hence, this longitudinal study aims to fill in these gaps by first reporting the well-being (measured in terms of mood, sleep, and quality of life) among students living on and off campus across two academic semesters. We explored factors predicting students' dropout in university residences. Although students living on campus differ in their chronotypes, activities in campus residence (if any) are mostly scheduled in the nighttime. We therefore tested if individual differences in chronotype interact with campus residence in affecting well-being. Our final sample consisted of 215 campus residents and 924 off-campus-living students from 10 different universities or colleges in Hong Kong or Macau. Their mean age was 20.2 years (SD=2.3); 6.5% of the participants are female. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires online on their sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, mood, and physical and psychological quality of life. Across two academic semesters, we assessed if students living on and off campus differed in our well-being measures after we partialed out the effects of demographic information (including age, sex, family income, and parents' education) and the well-being measures at baseline (T1). The results showed that, campus residents exhibited longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, better sleep quality, and less feeling of stress than off-campus-living students. From one semester to the next, around 10% of campus residents did not continue to live on campus. Logistic regression showed that a morning

  6. Job Crafting, Employee Well-being, and Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Westerberg, Kristina; Nordin, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The main objective is to study the effects of job crafting activities of elder care and nursing home employees on their perceived well-being and quality of care in two European countries, Spain and Sweden. The Job Crafting, the General Health, and the Quality of Care questionnaires were administered to 530 employees. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results confirm the effects of job crafting on quality of care ( r = .291, p employees' well-being ( r = .201, p well-being in Spain and Sweden and with quality of care in Spain. On the contrary, in Sweden, the relationship between job crafting and well-being was not linear. Job crafting contributes significantly to employees' and residents' well-being. Management should promote job crafting to co-create meaningful and productive work. Cultural effects are proposed to explain the differences found.

  7. [Media and children's well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Roine, Mira; Korhonen, Piia; Valkonen, Satu; Pennonen, Marjo; Partanen, Jukka; Lahikainen, Anja Riitta

    2011-01-01

    Watching television, video and computer games, and internet constitute a significant part of children's leisure time. High media exposure, however, increases the risk of psychosocial symptoms in children, such as aggressions, difficulties of behavioral regulation and concentration. In particular, media violence is thought to be harmful for children's well-being. Although the risks associated with media exposure may at least partly reflect the accumulation of social risk factors, they also seem to have an independent role as a factor increasing the symptoms. It is likely that the adverse effects of media can be lessened by providing guidance for parents.

  8. Well-Being and Economic Freedom: Evidence from the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasen, Ariel R.; Hafer, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    There is ample evidence that well-being, measured in various ways for a large number of countries, is positively related to the level of general intelligence. Pesta at al. (2010a) verify this close relationship between well-being and IQ across states. There also is evidence that well-being is positively related to economic freedom across…

  9. Life Events and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2014-01-01

    The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper.......The first is the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) with data collected over 8 annual waves from 1994 to 2001 in 15 EU member countries. Observations are available for up to 15 countries with big differences in fertility levels, child care institutions and labour force participation for married women....... At the same time, the ECHP data contains a lot of relevant demographic and labour market background variables to be included in the econometric analyses of the SWB impact from children. The second data set is The German Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP). Like the ECHP, the GSOEP data contains many relevant...

  10. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: The Common Swine Industry Audit: Future steps to assure positive on-farm animal welfare utilizing validated, repeatable and feasible animal-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M; Moeller, S J

    2017-03-01

    The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. Animal-based measures represent approximately 50% of CSIA evaluation criteria and encompass critical failure criteria, including observation of willful acts of abuse and determination of timely euthanasia. Objective, science-based measures of animal well-being parameters (e.g., BCS, lameness, lesions, hernias) are assessed within CSIA using statistically validated sample sizes providing a detection ability of 1% with 95% confidence. The common CSIA platform is used to identify care issues and facilitate continuous improvement in animal care through a validated, repeatable, and feasible animal-based audit process. Task force members provide continual updates to the CSIA tool with a specific focus toward 1) identification and interpretation of appropriate animal-based measures that provide inherent value to pig welfare, 2) establishment of acceptability thresholds for animal-based measures, and 3) interpretation of CSIA data for use and improvement of welfare within the U.S. swine industry.

  11. Relations between urban bird and plant communities and human well-being and connection to nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Davidson, Penny; Boxall, Dianne; Smallbone, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    By 2050, 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas. In many cases urbanization reduces the richness and abundance of native species. Living in highly modified environments with fewer opportunities to interact directly with a diversity of native species may adversely affect residents' personal well-being and emotional connection to nature. We assessed the personal well-being, neighborhood well-being (a measure of a person's satisfaction with their neighborhood), and level of connection to nature of over 1000 residents in 36 residential neighborhoods in southeastern Australia. We modeled these response variables as a function of natural features of each neighborhood (e.g., species richness and abundance of birds, density of plants, and amount of vegetation cover) and demographic characteristics of surveyed residents. Vegetation cover had the strongest positive relations with personal well-being, whereas residents' level of connection to nature was weakly related to variation in species richness and abundance of birds and density of plants. Demographic characteristics such as age and level of activity explained the greatest proportion of variance in well-being and connection to nature. Nevertheless, when controlling for variation in demographic characteristics (examples were provided above), neighborhood well-being was positively related to a range of natural features, including species richness and abundance of birds, and vegetation cover. Demographic characteristics and how well-being was quantified strongly influenced our results, and we suggest demography and metrics of well-being must be considered when attempting to determine relations between the urban environment and human well-being. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Children: The Development and Validation of the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…

  13. Happy classes make happy students: Classmates' well-being predicts individual student well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B; Datu, Jesus Alfonso

    2017-12-01

    Student well-being has mostly been studied as an individual phenomenon with little research investigating how the well-being of one's classmates could influence a student's well-being. The aim of the current study was to examine how the aggregate well-being of students who comprise a class could predict students' subsequent well-being (Time 2 well-being) after controlling for the effects of prior well-being (Time 1 well-being) as well as key demographic variables such as gender and age. Two studies among Filipino secondary school students were conducted. In Study 1, 788 students from 21 classes participated; in Study 2, 404 students from 10 classes participated. For Study 1, questionnaires assessing students' life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect were administered twice seven months apart. For Study 2, the well-being questionnaires were administered twice, three months apart. Hierarchical linear modeling was used with level 1 (Time 1 individual well-being, gender, and age) and level 2 (class well-being) predictors. Results across the two studies provided converging lines of evidence: students who were in classes with higher levels of life satisfaction and positive affect were also more likely to have higher life satisfaction and positive affect at Time 2. The study indicated that the well-being of a student partly depends on the well-being of their classmates providing evidence for the social contagion of well-being in the classroom context. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Decontamination reduces radiation anxiety and improves subjective well-being after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Michio; Harada, Shigeki; Oki, Taikan

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2011 Fukushima accident, rebuilding society to protect against anxiety and improve feelings of well-being has grown in importance. A questionnaire was carried out among residents of Marumori Town, Igu County, Miyagi Prefecture, to evaluate the effects of radiation-related countermeasures implemented by the town to reduce residents' anxiety and improve their subjective well-being (response rate: 31%; valid responses: n = 174). Further, to propose effective countermeasures regarding town planning for the improvement in subjective well-being, we analyzed associations between residents' sense of attachment to the town and subjective well-being, and then identified primary factors behind their sense of attachment. Marumori Town, located about 50 km to the northwest of the Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, is a good site for evaluating the effects of countermeasures taken by the town itself to fight anxiety, because there have been limited surveys and professional medical support, and mitigation efforts were primarily initiated by the town. The results suggested that decontamination evaluations were associated with a reduction in anxiety after the accident, which contributed to an increase in residents' subjective well-being. On the other hand, the evaluation of items related to human interactions in the community and the natural environment was found as a primary factor of sense of attachment toward the town, which contributed to an increase of residents' subjective well-being. This is the first study to quantitatively measure the effects of radiation-related countermeasures on reducing anxiety and to propose an effective policy approach for improving subjective well-being. (author)

  15. The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Martin; Fors, Filip

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affective (emotional) well-being—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory componentof affective well-being, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reportsof both variables, including current mood-bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experie...

  16. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  17. Life Goals and Well-Being: Are Extrinsic Aspirations Always Detrimental to Well-Being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Brdar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has revealed that relative importance a person places on extrinsic life goals as oposed to intrinsic ones is related to lower well-being. But sometimes it is more important why a goal is being pursued than the content of the goal. Materialistic aspirations will not decrease people's well-being if they help them to achieve basic financial security or some intrinsic goals. On the other hand, if social comparison or seeking power drives extrinsic orientation, these aspirations may be detrimental for well-being, since they do not satisfy satisfy our basic psychological needs. Research from Croatia and other, less rich countries suggest that extrinsic aspirations are not necessarily deterimental but may even contribute to well-being. This finding suggests that various factors can moderate the relationship between aspirations and well-being. Intrinsic life goals may probably be affordable only for people who are well off enough. The meaning of financial success in transitional and poor countries may not necesseraly be associated with purchase and consumption. On the contrary, it may bring opportunities and possibilities of self-expression and self-growth. Individualistic societies allow individuals to pursue their intrinsic goals while collectivistic cultures stress extrinsic ones. Although this extrinsic orientation may detract their well-being, the sense of individual well-being may not be as important to them as the survival of the group they belong to or so called social well-being.

  18. ACTIVITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN KHABAROVSKY KRAI IN CONDITIONS OF THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO PROTECT THE TERRITORY AND POPULATION THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes activities of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Khabarovsky Krai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Khabarovsky Krai" in the situation related to the Fukushima accident in Japan

  19. Perceptions of Equid Well Being Well-Being in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lindsey R; Bott, Rebecca C; Mastellar, Sara L; Djira, Gemechis; Carroll, Heidi K

    2018-01-01

    In South Dakota, the status of equid well being is relatively unknown. This study sought to (a) gain understanding about the current perceptions of nonhuman animal well being in South Dakota, with an emphasis on horses and other equids; (b) determine the level of care equids are reportedly receiving and the perceived challenges to equine well being in South Dakota, and (c) determine if people from diverse geographical locations (east or west of the Missouri River) have similar views on the well being of equids in South Dakota. Respondents indicated the current level of equid well being in South Dakota is sufficient, but there is room for improvement. Current challenges for the equid population of South Dakota were the high annual cost of horse care, poor horsemanship, dental problems, and whether caregivers understand basic equine care. Several significant associations arose between where a respondent lives (Western or Eastern South Dakota) and their level of agreement with various statements. The results provide a benchmark to gauge well being and help give direction for future educational needs that can continue to improve equid care.

  20. Well-being at work--overview and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul; Vainio, Harri

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of and perspective on the concept of well-being at work. Well-being is a term that reflects not only on one's health but satisfaction with work and life. Well-being is a summative concept that characterizes the quality of working lives, including occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects, and it may be a major determinant of productivity at the individual, enterprise and societal levels. Based on a review of the literature and a recent conference, we suggest a model linking workforce well-being, productivity, and population well-being. To appraise the validity of the model, we consider five questions: (i) is there a robust and usable definition of workplace well-being? (ii) have the variables that influence well-being been aptly described and can they be measured and used in risk assessments? (iii) what is the nature of evidence that well-being is linked to productivity? (iv) what is the state of knowledge on the effectiveness of interventions to promote workplace well-being? and (v) should interventions aimed at improving well-being at work focus on more than work-related factors?

  1. Beyond Money: Progress on an Economy of Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Seligman, Martin E P

    2018-03-01

    In our 2004 "Beyond Money" article, we argued that national accounts of psychological and subjective well-being should complement the economic indicators that frequently guide policy decisions. We claimed that economic indicators fail to reflect important aspects of quality of life that well-being indicators capture. Since the time of our article, progress has been made, and scores of nations have used some forms of well-being measures. The National Academy of Sciences of the United States and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development both issued reports on accounts of well-being. Researchers have pointed to policies that are supported by the findings, such as environmental and economic policies. The emergence of "big data" has opened major new pathways for measuring well-being in inexpensive, unobtrusive, and nonreactive fashion. Psychological researchers now need to create superordinate combinations of subjective and objective measures of well-being to study the impact of the policies they advocate. The accounts can serve as a lever for convincing policymakers to enact policies that increase human flourishing.

  2. High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Deaton, Angus

    2010-09-21

    Recent research has begun to distinguish two aspects of subjective well-being. Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality of an individual's everyday experience--the frequency and intensity of experiences of joy, stress, sadness, anger, and affection that make one's life pleasant or unpleasant. Life evaluation refers to the thoughts that people have about their life when they think about it. We raise the question of whether money buys happiness, separately for these two aspects of well-being. We report an analysis of more than 450,000 responses to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, a daily survey of 1,000 US residents conducted by the Gallup Organization. We find that emotional well-being (measured by questions about emotional experiences yesterday) and life evaluation (measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale) have different correlates. Income and education are more closely related to life evaluation, but health, care giving, loneliness, and smoking are relatively stronger predictors of daily emotions. When plotted against log income, life evaluation rises steadily. Emotional well-being also rises with log income, but there is no further progress beyond an annual income of ~$75,000. Low income exacerbates the emotional pain associated with such misfortunes as divorce, ill health, and being alone. We conclude that high income buys life satisfaction but not happiness, and that low income is associated both with low life evaluation and low emotional well-being.

  3. High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Deaton, Angus

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has begun to distinguish two aspects of subjective well-being. Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality of an individual's everyday experience—the frequency and intensity of experiences of joy, stress, sadness, anger, and affection that make one's life pleasant or unpleasant. Life evaluation refers to the thoughts that people have about their life when they think about it. We raise the question of whether money buys happiness, separately for these two aspects of well-being. We report an analysis of more than 450,000 responses to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, a daily survey of 1,000 US residents conducted by the Gallup Organization. We find that emotional well-being (measured by questions about emotional experiences yesterday) and life evaluation (measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale) have different correlates. Income and education are more closely related to life evaluation, but health, care giving, loneliness, and smoking are relatively stronger predictors of daily emotions. When plotted against log income, life evaluation rises steadily. Emotional well-being also rises with log income, but there is no further progress beyond an annual income of ~$75,000. Low income exacerbates the emotional pain associated with such misfortunes as divorce, ill health, and being alone. We conclude that high income buys life satisfaction but not happiness, and that low income is associated both with low life evaluation and low emotional well-being. PMID:20823223

  4. Environment and Personal Well-being in Urban China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yuwen; Yang Wenya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between environment and personal well-being using a sample of 562 urban employees from three cities in Liaoning province in the People's Republic of China. In contrast to previous studies, this study controlled positive affectivity (PA), negative affectivity (NA), job satisfaction and Big Five personality traits. In addition, the research variables of personal well-being index (PWI), positive affectivity, negative affectivity, job satisfaction, Big Five, and environmental satisfaction are measured with multi-item scales. The research finds that environmental satisfaction is positively related to personal well-being, suggesting that improvement of the natural surroundings in the cities can improve people's well-being.

  5. Play or hard work: unpacking well-being at preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S

    2015-03-01

    Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Explaining social class differences in depression and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, S A; Head, J; Marmot, M G

    1998-01-01

    Work characteristics, including skill discretion and decision authority, explain most of the socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression in middle-aged British civil servants from the Whitehall II Study, London. Social support explained about one-third of the gradient, life events and material difficulties less than one-third. Socioeconomic status was measured by employment grade. Work characteristics were based on the Karasek model, social support was measured by the Close Persons Questionnaire, depression by the General Health Questionnaire and well-being by the Affect Balance Scale. Despite a small contribution from social selective factors measured by upward mobility, the psychosocial work environment explained most of the cross-sectional socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression.

  7. Evaluation of spiritual well-being in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Arenas, M Dolores; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, M Dolores; Albaladejo-Blázquez, Natalia; Gil, M Teresa; de la Fuente, Vanesa

    2012-01-01

    Spirituality can be defined as a personal search for meaning and purpose in life that may or may not encompass religion. In this article we report on the development and testing of an instrument for measuring spiritual well-being within a sample of haemodialysis patients. The main instrument, a 21-item Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS), comprises four scales: Life Perspective, Purpose and Goals, Confusion and Lessened Meaning, Harmony and Peace, and Benefits of Spirituality. A total score for spiritual well-being is also produced. We also used the following variables: clinical (time on haemodialysis, modified Charlson comorbidity index), sociodemographic (age, gender), and self-assessments of health, quality of life (general and recent), personal happiness, religiosity, and belief in the afterlife. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 94 haemodialysis patients. This study demonstrates that the MiLS-Sp is a psychometrically sound measure of spiritual well-being for dialysis patients (reliability, validity) as they manage the complex demands of a chronic illness. Spiritual well-being was significantly associated with various quality of life variables, health status, personal happiness, or religiosity in patients on dialysis. There was no relationship between spirituality scores and comorbidity, HD duration, gender, or age. Spiritual well-being is relatively low in dialysis patients. Spirituality may play an important role on psychological well-being, quality of life, and self-rated health for patients on haemodialysis. Spiritual well-being in these patients is relatively low. Results suggest that assessing and addressing spiritual well-being in dialysis patients may be helpful in clinical practice.

  8. Associations between the Application of Signature Character Strengths, Health and Well-being of Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hausler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown a positive relation between character strengths, well-being and health. The aim of this analysis was to identify relations between the application of signature character strengths (ASCS at work, and well-being and health, among medical students (Study 1 and resident physicians (Study 2. We expected positive direct links between the constructs and indirect effects through emotional exhaustion. To test these hypotheses, 387 medical students in their first year and 136 resident physicians completed five scales measuring well-being, mental/physical health, character strengths, the application of their five individual signature strengths, and emotional exhaustion as an indicator of burnout. Partial correlations were examined, and mediation analyses performed. ASCS at work was positively linked with well-being and mental health but not with physical health. All links were mediated by emotional exhaustion in Study 1 and (except for mental health also in Study 2. Future studies would therefore do well to investigate the promotion of ASCS at work of people operating in medical education and its potential in fostering well-being and preventing burnout from the outset.

  9. Self-transcendence and well-being in homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runquist, Jennifer J; Reed, Pamela G

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the relationships of spiritually and physically related variables to well-being among homeless adults. A convenience sample of 61 sheltered homeless persons completed the Spiritual Perspective Scale, the Self-Transcendence Scale, the Index of Well-Being, and items measuring fatigue and health status. The data were subjected to correlational and multiple regression analysis. Positive, significant correlations were found among spiritual perspective, self-transcendence, health status, and well-being. Fatigue was inversely correlated with health status and well-being. Self-transcendence and health status together explained 59% of the variance in well-being. The findings support Reed's theory of self-transcendence, in which there is the basic assumption that human beings have the potential to integrate difficult life situations. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence that conceptualizes homeless persons as having spiritual, emotional, and physical capacities that can be used by health care professionals to promote well-being in this vulnerable population.

  10. The relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhesam Khajeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.

  11. Internet Gaming Disorder and Well-Being: A Scale Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarda, Elisa; Bègue, Laurent; Bry, Clémentine; Gentile, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    The overuse of online games is known to be inversely related to various indicators of well-being. This article validates the DSM-5 criteria of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and analyzes its links with five indicators of well-being: life satisfaction, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and academic performance in a French-speaking sample of 693 gamers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed a one-factor structure of IGD criteria. The IGD scale showed satisfactory validity and reliability and was related in a consistent way with well-being measures. The IGD scale appears to be an appropriate measure to assess video game addiction and will contribute to increase the comparability of international research on video game addiction.

  12. The Short Inventory on Stress and Well-Being: A psychometric evaluation of the well-being indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Witte, Hans

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics (i.e., the validity and the reliability of the Short Inventory on Stress and Well-being (S-ISW, in particular the part of the S-ISW that measures well-being. The S-ISW is developed by ISW Limits in both Dutch and French and measures the following well-being indicators: strain, motivation and negative acts at work, which can be considered as possible outcome variables or employees’ reactions to the perceived work situation. Four samples (N1 = 17,781; N2 = 462; N3 = 264; N4 = 3596 were used to perform analyses, with longitudinal data available for Sample 2 and 3. The results supported the three-factor structure of the S-ISW (factor validity and the invariance of this factor structure between the Dutch and the French S-ISW. Furthermore, we established the content similarity of strain and motivation with negative stress and positive stress, respectively, supporting the construct validity of the S-ISW. The predictive validity of the well-being indicators was established using measures of absenteeism and doctor consultations. Finally, the S-ISW was reliable, as the indicators of well-being showed high test-retest reliability and adequate internal consistency. The part of the S-ISW that measures well-being is thus both valid and reliable, and may be a helpful instrument in conducting research to aid organizations in the development of their well-being policy.

  13. Promoting Well-Being: The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.

  14. Promoting well-being: The contribution of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Di Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI, assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TeiQue were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait emotional intelligence in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.

  15. Affect and well-being similarity among older Indian spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that husbands and wives are likely to share affective states so that depression or happiness in one spouse is predictive of depression or happiness in the other. Studies that have examined spousal affect similarity, however, have been concentrated in the Western world where the meaning of marriage may be different than it is in other cultural contexts. Marriage in India, unlike that in the United States, is focused on the extended family so that love and intimacy between spouses are downplayed. This study examined affect and well-being similarity between 603 older married couples in India using pilot data from the Longitudinal Aging Study of India. We ran linear regression models to assess the relationship between the well-being states of husbands and wives using dyadic observations for four different measures: depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with daily life, social isolation, and overall life satisfaction. Across all four measures, the well-being scores of one spouse were positively and significantly associated with the well-being scores of the other. These associations did not vary by marital satisfaction, but were slightly stronger for respondents reporting poor health. Our increased understanding of social connectedness has prompted a shift from the consideration of single individuals to a broader understanding of individuals in the context of their social environments. The results of this study suggest that interventions designed to foster well-being among older adults in India might benefit from a focus on couples as a unit rather than individuals.

  16. Objective Academic Achievement and Subjective Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…

  17. Deprivation, Social Exclusion and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…

  18. A null relationship between media multitasking and well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-I Shih

    Full Text Available There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently. In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument--the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD--to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM.

  19. A Null Relationship between Media Multitasking and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shui-I

    2013-01-01

    There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently). In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument – the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD) – to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed) what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM. PMID:23691236

  20. Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García-Alandete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.

  1. Employee entitlements during pregnancy and maternal psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2007-12-01

    Antenatal psychological well-being is multifactorially determined, including by social circumstances. Evidence suggests that workplace conditions are salient determinants of mental health, but it is not known whether employment conditions influence antenatal psychological well-being. To investigate the relationship between employment conditions and antenatal psychological well-being in Australian women. A sociodemographically diverse consecutive cohort of employed nulliparous women was recruited in late pregnancy. Data were collected by a structured interview assessing sociodemographic characteristics, employment arrangements, experience of pregnancy-related discrimination, and access to maternity leave entitlements. Participants completed two standardised psychometric measures of maternal mood: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Profile of Mood States (PoMS). Comparisons of self-reported mood were made between women by experience of workplace adversity, using a composite measure of workplace events. Of 205 eligible women, 165 agreed to participate. Of these, 114 of 165 (69%) reported at least one form of workplace adversity during pregnancy. More women without private health insurance (78%) reported workplace adversity than those who were privately insured (57%) (chi2(1)=6.95, P=0.008). Women experiencing workplace adversity had significantly worse psychological well-being as indicated by the EDS score (7.7+/-5.1) than those who were experiencing no workplace adversity (5.5+/-3.4), mean difference (95% CI)=-2.2 (-3.7 to -0.8), P=0.003. Similar results were reported for the PoMS. Workplace adversity during pregnancy is associated with poorer maternal psychological well-being. Workplace conditions and entitlements are salient factors for consideration in assessments of antenatal psychosocial well-being.

  2. Running on a high: parkrun and personal well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunseit, Anne; Richards, Justin; Merom, Dafna

    2017-07-25

    Sporting or physical recreation event participation can affect different domains of mental and social well-being if sufficiently frequent, yet previous research has focused mainly on the physical health benefits of single-location or infrequent mass-participation events. We examined overall and domain specific subjective well-being of adult participants of "parkrun", a weekly, community-based, highly accessible and widespread running event. Data were from a national online survey of 865 adult Australian parkrunners. Scores on nine individual measures and the global Personal Well-being Index (PWI) were compared to national, normative data. Regression models tested associations between personal well-being and perceived benefits of parkrun (mental health and connection to community). Of 100 scores, 28% of means for parkrunners fell outside overall and age and gender subgroups normative ranges. Satisfaction with health was higher for male, those aged over 45 and overall parkrunners; only parkrunners aged 18-24 fell below their age group norm. Satisfaction with life as a whole was positively associated with perceived mental health benefits of parkrun, but not perceived community connection for women, and neither measure for men. PWI was positively associated with perceived community connection for men and with mental health benefit for women. Australian parkrunners mostly reflect the general population on personal well-being, except report superior satisfaction with physical health. Women's personal well-being may benefit from parkrun through improved mental health and men's from community connectedness. parkrun may facilitate positive expression of identity and continuation of healthy habits among athletes, and non-demanding, health enhancing activity and social interaction for non-athletes.

  3. Increasing Overall Well-Being is Salient in Treating Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jennifer

    2017-04-03

    Homeless treatment programs have focused on physical solutions rather than attending to all aspects of well-being. Support services that address overall well-being have demonstrated effectiveness. Previous research suggests that overall well-being is defined as satisfaction within all life spheres. Objective life indices have been the primary evidence of success among various programs, which include food, housing, income, leisure, health, access to psychiatric and medical services, and maintenance of positive support networks. This does not account for other important subjective components, such as psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. This study was designed to assess quality of life and psychiatric symptoms among the people who were chronically and formerly chronically homeless. The people who were formerly chronically homeless are defined as individuals who were chronically homeless in the past but have successfully remained in housing for 6 months or more and have access to intensive case management services. People who are chronically homeless are homeless individuals who have lacked a residence for a year or more or have had four or more episodes in three years, are single, and have a persistent disability. Participants completed the Oxford Happiness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and a brief questionnaire. All participants were disabled in accordance with the definition of chronic homelessness adopted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. This researcher hypothesized that high quality-of-life scores, low frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and greater access to basic life indices indicate happiness overall. Additionally, it was hypothesized that people who are chronically homeless have a higher foster care rate than the general population.

  4. The well-being of laboratory non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-01-01

    The well-being of non-human primates in captivity is of joint concern to scientists, veterinarians, colony managers, caretakers, and researchers working with non-human primates in biomedical research. With increased regulatory, accreditation, and research focus on optimizing the use of social housing for laboratory primates, as well as the advent of techniques to assess indices of chronic stress and related measures of well-being, there is no better time to present the most current advances in the field of non-human primate behavioral management. The collective body of research presented here was inspired in part by a 2014 symposium entitled, "Chronic Hormones and Demographic Variables: Center-Wide Studies on Non-Human Primate Well-Being" held at the American Society of Primatologists' 37th Annual Meeting in Decatur, GA. By aiming to target readership with scientific and/or management oversight of captive primate behavioral management programs, this special issue provides badly-needed guidance for implementing social housing programs in a research environment and leverages collaboration across multiple facilities to address key components of behavioral management, explore refinements in how well-being can be measured, and identify the interrelationships between varying indices. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22520, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes.

  6. Air and well being. A way to more profitability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempski, D. von [DVK air vitalizing system, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Until recently the quality of air did not play a major role in the planning of buildings. Quality of air was simply understood to be synonymous with pollution-free and safe air. This process omitted consideration of how to achieve the well-being of the occupants. The economic consequences of this limited approach were not apparent to investors, developers and tenants. More recently however, competition and market conditions in the commercial property market have led some investors to seek a new way forward. They have found their answer in performance-based buildings. These buildings go well beyond traditional methods of addressing the well-being of building occupants, resulting in enhanced productivity, reduced absenteeism and reduced health risks. Physiological and neurophysiological research shows that air quality, encompassing both olfactory and thermal comfort, plays an important role. The elimination of pollutants is far from being sufficient and does not significantly reduce the dissatisfaction. Today, research is focused on the occupants' perception of indoor air with the goal of increasing their satisfaction rate. It is known that people's well-being improves when the air around them is perceived as natural and fresh. This can only be the case if sufficient stimulating positive olfactory substances are found in the indoor air. It is therefore important that the hedonic value of indoor air always be taken into consideration when measuring air quality. To create an indoor environment that increases the well-being and performance of occupants, thermal and olfactory comfort have to complement one another. The performance-based building addresses the well-being of the building users in order to realize a significant increase in a building's value. (orig.)

  7. Dating violence and nursing student well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Conceição; Gouveia, Ana; Chaves, Melanie; Lourenço, Rafael; Marques, Sara; Santos, Telmo

    2014-11-01

    Violence in dating relationships involves dimensions such as physical, psychological and sexual abuse, requiring strategies for prevention and early intervention. To identify the socio-demographic variables that influence violence in dating relationships; to identify whether having been a victim and/or witnessing violence in childhood has significant effect on violence in dating relationships; to verify the correlation between violence in dating relationships and psychological well-being. Quantitative non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. Data collection conducted by a socio-demographic characterisation questionnaire; Dating Relationship Victimization Practices and Behaviours Scale and Demonstration of Psychological Well-Being Measurement Scale. The non-probabilistic, convenience sample consisted of 203 students from the Health School of Viseu. Mostly female students gender; Mean age of 18.85 years, minimum of 18 and maximum of 34; Gender and having been a victim or witness of violence against children and sexual violence are variables that seem to intervene in dating violence and psychological well-being. Age has an influence on psychological well-being. Stalking violence and psychological violence were more prevalent in the study sample. It was found that the presence of any type of violence is associated with a decrease in student psychological well-being. By analysing the results we can infer the need to include this topic in education/training, active methodologies and effective participation of all stakeholders in the process, with a view to promoting and developing relationship and affective skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Well-being improvement in a midsize employer: changes in well-being, productivity, health risk, and perceived employer support after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community. Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity. This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.

  9. Gratitude and well being: the benefits of appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2010-11-01

    The word "gratitude" has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows-gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude.

  10. Mediators of Psychological Well-being in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Beauchamp, Mark R; Miller, Andrew; Lonsdale, Chris; Parker, Philip; Dally, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention on psychological well-being in adolescent boys and to examine the potential mediating mechanisms that might explain this effect. ATLAS was evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools located in low-income communities (N = 361 adolescent boys, mean age = 12.7 ± .5 years). The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and involved: professional development for teachers, provision of fitness equipment to schools, enhanced school sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies for reducing screen time. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately post intervention (8 months). Psychological well-being was measured using the Flourishing Scale. Motivational regulations (intrinsic, identified, introjected, controlled, and amotivation) and basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in school sport, muscular fitness, resistance training skill competency, and recreational screen time were examined as potential mediating mechanisms of the intervention effect. The intervention effect on well-being was small but statistically significant. Within a multiple mediator model, changes in autonomy needs satisfaction, recreational screen time, and muscular fitness significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on psychological well-being. In addition to the physical health benefits, targeted physical activity programs for adolescent boys may have utility for mental health promotion through the mechanisms of increasing autonomy support and muscular fitness and reducing screen time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Independent assessment is key to financial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karling, J; Pyper, T

    1999-02-01

    Both traditional group practices and IPAs have felt the impact of changes brought about by managed care. Group practices need to ensure that their financial reporting and cost-accounting methods capture information that is key to decision making. An independent assessment of financial procedures helps identify any outstanding issues and maintain financial well-being. This assessment should be conducted at least quarterly so that potential problems can be resolved, income opportunities explored, and cost-saving measures adopted in a timely manner.

  12. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  13. Measurement of the residence time distribution in industrial flotation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yianatos, Juan; Diaz, F; Rodriguez, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a determination of the effective liquid and solid residence time in mechanical cell banks of primary and sweep flotation, and in cleaning flotation columns, at Codelco-Chile's Salvador Division. The determination was carried out using the residence time distribution (RTD) measurement with radioactive tracers. Br-82 was used as the trace element for the liquid. Different kinds of minerals were used to trace the solid: a) activated global tailing (non floatable), b) tailing activated by size classifications (non floatable) and c) activated floatable mineral. The residence time measurement defined effective volumes of 50-80% of the total volume in flotation cell banks, and effective volumes of 77% of the total volume of large-size flotation solids. The effective residence time of the solid (23%+212 microns) in industrial flotation cell banks was 5% below that for the liquid. The residence time of the mineral decreased with increased particle size. Thick mineral (>150 microns) showed a residence time 8% below that for thin mineral (<45 microns). The RTD of industrial mechanical cell banks is adequately represented with a number of perfect mixers in series equivalent to the number of real bank cells. The RTD of the industrial columns equals less than two perfect mixers in series and adjusts better when considering a perfect mixers in series model, but in a different size. Common operating problems could also be observed and analyzed through the RTD measurement, such as embankment of the equipment and the deficient regulation of the outflow, used to control the pulp level (Cw)

  14. Measuring Error Identification and Recovery Skills in Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternbach, Joel M; Wang, Kevin; El Khoury, Rym; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Meyerson, Shari L

    2017-02-01

    Although error identification and recovery skills are essential for the safe practice of surgery, they have not traditionally been taught or evaluated in residency training. This study validates a method for assessing error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents using a thoracoscopic lobectomy simulator. We developed a 5-station, simulator-based examination containing the most commonly encountered cognitive and technical errors occurring during division of the superior pulmonary vein for left upper lobectomy. Successful completion of each station requires identification and correction of these errors. Examinations were video recorded and scored in a blinded fashion using an examination-specific rating instrument evaluating task performance as well as error identification and recovery skills. Evidence of validity was collected in the categories of content, response process, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. Fifteen general surgical residents (9 interns and 6 third-year residents) completed the examination. Interrater reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.78 between 4 trained raters. Station scores ranged from 64% to 84% correct. All stations adequately discriminated between high- and low-performing residents, with discrimination ranging from 0.35 to 0.65. The overall examination score was significantly higher for intermediate residents than for interns (mean, 74 versus 64 of 90 possible; p = 0.03). The described simulator-based examination with embedded errors and its accompanying assessment tool can be used to measure error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents. This examination provides a valid method for comparing teaching strategies designed to improve error recognition and recovery to enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The well-being of farm animals: challenges and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E

    2004-01-01

    .... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...

  16. Religious meaning and subjective well-being in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religious meaning and subjective well-being. A major emphasis is placed on assessing race differences in the relationship between these constructs. Interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of older White and older Black adults. Survey items were administered to assess a sense of meaning in life that is derived specifically from religion. Subjective well-being was measured with indices of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The findings suggest that older adults who derive a sense of meaning in life from religion tend to have higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The data further reveal that older Black adults are more likely to find meaning in religion than older White adults. In addition, the relationships among religious meaning, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism tend to be stronger for older African Americans persons than older White persons. Researchers have argued for some time that religion may be an important source of resilience for older Black adults, but it is not clear how these beneficial effects arise. The data from this study suggest that religious meaning may be an important factor.

  17. Well-Being Therapy in Dutch mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbeek, Petrus Antonius Maria

    2017-01-01

    Relapse after treatment of mental disorders is a major problem. Enhancing psychological well-being and resilience may reduce the risk of relapse in patients with mental disorders. Well-being therapy tries to address these factors. The original model of well-being therapy was developed by the Italian

  18. Virtues and Well-Being of Korean Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…

  19. Well-Being: Positive Development across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Davidson, Lucy, Ed.; Keyes, Corey L. M., Ed.; Moore, Kristin A., Ed.

    This book offers a holistic examination of well-being across the life course by experts in psychology, sociology, child development, and medicine, and describes foundational strengths for well-being from infancy through adulthood. The chapters are: (1) "A Brief History of the Study of Well-Being in Children and Adults" (Kristin A. Moore…

  20. Spiritual Well-Being and Suicidal Ideation among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explored whether specific dimensions of spiritual well-being (religious well-being and existential well-being) relate to reduced suicidal ideation, and whether associations persisted after controlling for religiosity and psychosocial variables associated with suicide. Participants: Participants were 457 college students who…

  1. Nurses' comfort with touch and workplace well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Measuring Well-Being across Europe: Description of the ESS Well-Being Module and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Felicia A.; Marks, Nic; Clark, Andrew; Siegrist, Johannes; Stutzer, Alois; Vitterso, Joar; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2009-01-01

    It has become customary to judge the success of a society through the use of objective indicators, predominantly economic and social ones. Yet in most developed nations, increases in income, education and health have arguably not produced comparable increases in happiness or life satisfaction. While much has been learned from the introduction of…

  3. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective

  4. Physical activity and mental well-being in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Clare L

    2012-04-01

    There is strong evidence that suggests physical activity can enhance mental well-being. However, this relationship has not been widely investigated in student nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between physical activity and mental well-being in undergraduate student nurses (n=215). Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Other outcomes included self-esteem, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. Almost, a quarter (23.8%) of the total sample, were meeting the Department of Health's physical activity guideline. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.0 with 40% being in the overweight to morbidly obese category. Self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with total physical activity (r=0.16, p=0.038) and moderate intensity activity (r=0.17, p=0.021). No other significant relationships were found between anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life and physical activity. Outcome expectations for exercise and self-efficacy were significantly positively correlated with moderate (r=0.17, p=0.019) and vigorous (r=0.28, p=0.000) intensity activity and total physical activity (r=0.29, p=0.000). BMI was significantly positively correlated with age (r=0.242, p=0.001), significantly negatively correlated with self-efficacy for exercise (r=0.257, p=0.000) and satisfaction with life (r=-0.144, p=0.041). Regression analysis showed that low self efficacy for exercise and increasing age were significant predictors of BMI with a small effect size r(2)=0.126, adjusted r(2)=0.112. BMI and physical activity variables collectively explained only 2% of the variance for anxiety, 4% for depression, 5% for self esteem and 6% for satisfaction with life. BMI was a significant predictor of satisfaction with life (Beta=-0.171, p=0.027). Participation in physical activity may be influential in improving mental well-being in student nurses. Promoting physical

  5. Psychological well-being and workability in child abuse investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, N

    2018-05-17

    Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces. The surveillance was undertaken online and the data were encrypted and personal identifiers removed. The four clinical measures were Goldberg Anxiety/Depression Scale, Professional Quality of Life and Impact of Events (extended). Eighty-two per cent of 2798 CAIs returned questionnaires. There was a statistically significant relationship between all four clinical symptoms and workability (P < 0.001), between tenure and primary trauma (P < 0.01) and between anxiety, depression, primary trauma and workability and adverse childhood experience (ACE) scores (P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that workability, tenure and ACE scores explained between 12 and 23% of the variance. There were gender differences with women having higher levels of symptoms; however, the effect size and clinical significance were negligible for all but the primary trauma scores. Psychological surveillance can provide an important source of evidence for occupational health practitioners working with CAIs in informing them of the factors which could be considered in selecting, training, supporting and retaining officers and staff. Psychological surveillance can also help police management to identify ways to monitor the long-term effectiveness and well-being of CAIs.

  6. Assessment of well-being in kindergarten children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye

    2013-01-01

    Child well-being is a major concern in Danish kindergartens, but well-being is a multi-dimensional concept that may be evaluated in a variety of ways. This article explores the well-being of kindergarten children from a methodological perspective. It presents results from a quantitative survey...... study and from a parallel qualitative interview study and discusses how the disparate findings communicate. The strategy of choosing a standard survey did not provide valuable data, but the meaning ascribed to well-being in the two approaches are compared and the article points to development...... of a future mixed methods study, in which child well-being is defined and evaluated with attention to play, social well-being, bodily skills and aesthetics....

  7. The Network Theory of Well-Being: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bishop

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a novel approach to investigating the nature of well-being and a new theory about well-being. The approach is integrative and naturalistic. It holds that a theory of well-being should account for two different classes of evidence – our commonsense judgments about well-being and the science of well-being (i.e., positive psychology. The network theory holds that a person is in the state of well-being if she instantiates a homeostatically clustered network of feelings, emotions, attitudes, behaviors, traits, and interactions with the world that tends to have a relatively high number of states that feel good, that lead to states that feel good, or that are valued by the agent or her culture.

  8. THE WEIGHT OF SUCCESS: THE BODY MASS INDEX AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING IN SOUTHERN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Martin

    2013-10-01

    We show that body mass increases with economic resources among most Southern Africans, although not all. Among Black South Africans the relationship is non-decreasing over virtually the entire range of incomes/wealth. Furthermore in this group other measures of "success" (e.g., employment and education) are also associated with increases in body mass. This is true in both 1998 (the Demographic and Health Survey) and 2008 (National Income Dynamics Survey). A similar relationship holds among residents of Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Malawi, and Namibia. This suggests that body mass can be used as a crude measure of well-being. This allows us to examine the vexed question in South African labor economics whether there is involuntary unemployment. The fact that the unemployed are lighter than the employed, even when we control for household fixed effects, suggests that they are not choosing this state.

  9. Happiness matters: productivity gains from subjetive well-being

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the link between people's subjective well-being, defined as life satisfaction, and productivity in the framework of efficiency analysis. We adopt Data Envelopment Analysis to compute productive efficiency indices using European Social Survey and AMECO data for 20 European countries. While accounting for reverse causality, we find significant efficiency gains when subjective well-being is an input to production. This supports the view that promoting subjective well-being r...

  10. Financial well-being among Malaysian manufacturing employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau Wei Chan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Employees and financial well-being are two aspects that are closely related to each other, and have been deeply studied by researchers. Not only can financial well-being directly affect an individual, but it can also indirectly affect his/her organization as well as employer. Any level of financial employees’ well-being, either low or high, will change their job performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the level of financial well-being among manufacturing employees in Batu Pahat, as well as to test the relationships between determinants and financial well-being among manufacturing employees in Batu Pahat. In this study, seven research hypotheses were developed to examine seven determinants, including age, income, gender, education, current job position, in-come, and marital status which influence employees‘ financial well-being. In this study, 220 employees at the production level were selected randomly from a manufacturing company in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Then, a questionnaire was distributed to the employees. The data obtained were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS version 22.0. The results of this study revealed that the level of financial well-being was moderate and all of the determinants were positively related to financial well-being among the manufacturing employees. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing industry in Malaysia in order to gain insight on the correlation between financial well-being and its determinants.

  11. Happiness matters: the role of well-being in productivity

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the link between people’s subjective well-being, defined as an evaluation of one’s own life, and productivity. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that subjective well-being contributes to productivity using a two step approach: first, we establish whether subjective well-being can be a candidate variable to study Total Factor Productivity; second, we assess how much subjective well-being contributes to productivity at aggregate level through efficiency gains. We adopt ...

  12. The Impact of Having a Baby on the Level and Content of Women's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenaar, Peter Johannes; van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to more fully understand the impact of having a baby on women's well-being by attending to both the level and the content of well-being. To cover the judgemental and affective aspects of well-being we included global measures of life satisfaction and well-being and affective experience measures derived from…

  13. Flourishing across Europe: Application of a New Conceptual Framework for Defining Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Felicia A.; So, Timothy T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Governments around the world are recognising the importance of measuring subjective well-being as an indicator of progress. But how should well-being be measured? A conceptual framework is offered which equates high well-being with positive mental health. Well-being is seen as lying at the opposite end of a spectrum to the common mental disorders…

  14. Well-being, health, and productivity improvement after an employee well-being intervention in large retail distribution centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Augustine S; Sears, Lindsay E; Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate changes in well-being, biometric, and productivity indicators after a well-being intervention. Biometric and self-reported outcomes were assessed among 677 retail distribution center employees before and after a 6-month well-being intervention. Despite lower well-being at baseline compared to an independent random sample of workers, program participants' well-being, productivity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol improved significantly after the intervention, whereas the decline in diastolic blood pressure was not significant. Moreover, participants' specific transition across well-being segments over the intervention period demonstrated more improvement than decline. There is evidence that programs designed to improve well-being within a workforce can be used to significantly and positively impact employee health and productivity, which should result in reduced health care costs, improved employee productivity, and increased overall profitability.

  15. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  16. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  17. Affluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed; Aurora, Raksha; Harter, James

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Gallup World Poll highlighted the differential relations between perceived stress, well-being, and wealth at the individual- versus nation-level. At the nation level, stress was a distinct concept from negative affect (NA). It correlated positively with well-being (positive affect, life satisfaction, and domain satisfaction) and…

  18. Supportive Family Contexts: Promoting Child Well-Being and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention and intervention programmes for children at risk aim to improve child well-being and resilience. They do so using both direct and indirect strategies, intervening with children but also considering broader contextual factors (such as family dynamics). Children's subjective well-being comprises five main components (physical health,…

  19. SUSTAINABLE WELL-BEING AT WORK: A REVIEW AND REFORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Peiró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of work and organizational psychology is to promote the well-being and performance of employees. Nevertheless, the yoke of the current economic crisis tyrannizes this aim, mercilessly threating the sustainability of the well-being and performance achieved in previous decades. The decrease in one of these factors may hamper the other, resulting in a vicious circle. In this context, one of the biggest challenges faced by organizational psychologists is to reverse this trend in a virtuous cycle, where promoting high levels of well-being creates a performance improvement and vice-versa, in a “sustainable well-being-productivity synergy sustainable productivity and well-being synergy”. However, previous efforts have shown inconclusive results. We argue that the neglectfulness and lack of rigorousness of the most contemporaneous conceptualizations of well-being and job performance, as common praxis, are part of the reason for these disappointing results. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the contributions and efforts to the new reformulation of the concept of well-being and productivity. It also aims to integrate the most contemporaneous concepts of well-being and job performance, revisiting the “happy productive-worker thesis”, and using as framework Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, where the suitability and sustainability of the alternative models of “unhappy-productive worker” and “happy-unproductive worker” will be discussed.

  20. Designing for crowd well-being : Needs and design suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; De Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the needs or criteria for sustaining well-being in crowded situations through two focus group discussions with a total of ten participants. We conclude that pursuing crowd well-being could be divided into two different cases: one is obtaining the enhancement of the current

  1. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  2. Spiritual well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahbakhshian, Maryam; Jafarpour, Mahshid; Parvizi, Soroor

    2011-01-01

    Spiritual well-being is one of the fundamental concepts in chronic diseases which create meaning and purpose in life and is an important approach in promoting general health and quality of life. This study performed to determine the level of spiritual health and its dimensions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). 236 members of Iranian MS Society were volunteered to participate in a descriptive co-relational study. Spiritual well-being was evaluated by The Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) questionnaires in two religious and Existential dimensions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyse the data. The majority of patients (% 97.9) showed moderate spiritual well-being (mean score = 74.3, SD= 8.90). Although Existential well-being (mean score = 40.3, SD= 5.51) was higher than religious well- being (mean score = 33.9, SD= 4.88). A significant relationship was seen between economic status and the spiritual well-being. The results emphasize on the necessity of spiritual well-being as an effective factor on different aspects of these patients' life. This key point is useful and even necessary to be considered to design programs of care and cure for these patients in a country (like Iran) with cultural and religious beliefs. On the other hand, patients' economic status should be considered.

  3. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  4. Direction: happiness : improving well-being of vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Laura Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people with

  5. Preschool Teacher Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…

  6. Familial Reciprocity and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…

  7. A composite view of well-being since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a parsimonious overview of the trends in various well-being dimensions covered in the previous chapters by constructing a composite index of well-being. It discusses the crucial problem of choosing a set of weights to calculate such a composite index. Related problems include

  8. Mindfulness, psychological well-being and doping in talented young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this research was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being relate to the propensity to use Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) in a sample of talented young athletes. A secondary aim was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being are related. This was a survey ...

  9. Community perspectives on conservation and well - being in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examines local perceptions of social well - being in two forest - dependent communities near Zahamena National Park (ZNP), Madagascar. Key informant interviews were conducted to observe how local context, including community and ecological factors, influenced perceptions of social well - being. Overall ...

  10. Psychological Well-Being and Internet Addiction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…

  11. Joint physical custody and adolescents' subjective well-being: a personality × environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodermans, An Katrien; Matthijs, Koen

    2014-06-01

    Shared residence after divorce is rising in most Western countries and legally recommended by law in Belgium since 2006. Living with both parents after divorce is assumed to increase children's well-being, through a better parent-child relationship, but may also be stressful, as children live in 2 different family settings. In this study, we investigate whether the association between the residential arrangement of adolescents and 3 measures of subjective well-being (depressive feelings, life satisfaction, and self-esteem) is moderated by the Big Five personality factors. The sample is selected from the national representative Divorce in Flanders study and contains information about 506 children from divorced parents between 14- and 21-years-old. Our findings indicated a consistent pattern of interactions between conscientiousness and joint physical custody for 2 of the 3 subjective well-being indicators. The specific demands of this residential arrangement (making frequent transitions, living at 2 places, adjustment to 2 different lifestyles, etc.) may interfere with the nature of conscientious adolescents: being organized, ordered, and planful. Our results showed support for a Person × Environment interaction, and demonstrate the need for considering the individual characteristics of the child when settling postdivorce residential arrangements. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Japan's silver human resource centers and participant well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert S; Bass, Scott A; Heimovitz, Harley K; Oka, Masato

    2005-03-01

    Japan's Silver Human Resource Center (SHRC) program provides part-time, paid employment to retirement-aged men and women. We studied 393 new program participants and examined whether part-time work influenced their well-being or "ikigai." The participants were divided into those who had worked in SHRC-provided jobs in the preceding year, and those who had not. Gender-stratified regression models were fitted to determine whether SHRC employment was associated with increased well-being. For men, actively working at a SHRC job was associated with greater well-being, compared to inactive members. And men with SHRC jobs and previous volunteering experience had the greatest increase in well-being. Women SHRC job holders did not experience increased well-being at the year's end. The study concludes that there is justification for exploring the usefulness of a similar program for American retirees who desire post-retirement part-time work.

  13. Near-death experiences and spiritual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Surbhi; Greyson, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    People who have near-death experiences often report a subsequently increased sense of spirituality and a connection with their inner self and the world around them. In this study, we examined spiritual well-being, using Paloutzian and Ellison's Spiritual Well-Being Scale, among 224 persons who had come close to death. Participants who reported having near-death experiences reported greater spiritual well-being than those who did not, and depth of spiritual well-being was positively correlated with depth of near-death experience. We discussed the implications of these findings in light of other reported aftereffects of near-death experiences and of spiritual well-being among other populations.

  14. Systematic review: complementary therapies and employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravalier, J M; Wegrzynek, P; Lawton, S

    2016-08-01

    A variety of workplace-based interventions exist to reduce stress and increase productivity. However, the efficacy of these interventions is sometimes unclear. To determine whether complementary therapies offered in the workplace improve employee well-being. We performed a systematic literature review which involved an electronic search of articles published between January 2000 and July 2015 from the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and PubMed. We also undertook a manual search of all applicable article reference lists to ensure that no relevant studies were missed. We only selected published, full-length, English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Articles had to address the research objective using valid and reliable measures. We excluded articles concerning return to work or whose populations had been adversely affected by work resulting in the development of health issues. We included 10 articles in the review from 131 identified. Mindfulness and meditation-based interventions were most effective in improving workplace health and work performance; the latter demonstrating some evidence of maintaining gains up to 3 months later. The evidence for relaxation interventions was inconclusive. Mindfulness and meditation interventions may be helpful in improving both psychosocial workplace health and work performance, but long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Handbook of smart homes, health care and well-being

    CERN Document Server

    Demiris, George; Wouters, Eveline

    2017-01-01

    Smart homes, home automation and ambient-assisted living are terms used to describe technological systems that enrich our living environment and provide means to support care, facilitate well-being and improve comfort. This handbook provides an overview of the domain from the perspective of health care and technology.  In Part 1, we set out to describe the demographic changes in society, including ageing, and diseases and impairments which lead to the needs for technological solutions. In Part 2, we describe the technological solutions, ranging from sensor-based networks, components, to communication protocols that are used in the design of smart homes. We also deal will biomedical features which can be measured, and services that can be delivered to end-users as well as the use of social robots.  In Part 3, we present best practices in the field. These best practices mainly focus on existing projects in Europe, the USA and Asia, in which people receive help through dedicated technological solutions being p...

  16. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattner Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  17. Does personality predict health and well-being? A metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickhouser, Jason E; Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2017-08-01

    To derive a robust and comprehensive estimate of the overall relation between Big Five personality traits and health variables using metasynthesis (i.e., second-order meta-analysis). Thirty-six meta-analyses, which collectively provided 150 meta-analytic effects from over 500,000 participants, met criteria for inclusion in the metasynthesis. Information on methodological quality as well as the type of health outcome, unreliability adjustment, population sampled, health outcome source, personality source, and research design was extracted from each meta-analysis. An unweighted model was used to aggregate data across meta-analyses. When entered simultaneously, the Big Five traits were moderately associated with overall health (multiple R = .35). Personality-health relations were larger when examining mental health outcomes than physical health outcomes or health-related behaviors and when researchers adjusted for measurement unreliability, used self-report as opposed to other-report Big Five scales, or focused on clinical as opposed to nonclinical samples. Further, effects were larger among agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism than extraversion or openness to experience. This metasynthesis provides among the most compelling evidence to date that personality predicts overall health and well-being. In addition, it may inform research on the mechanisms by which personality impacts health as well as research on the structure of personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The work environment, stress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, E J K; Chaplin, K S; Smith, A P

    2010-12-01

    Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. To consider the effect sizes seen at different ends of job characteristic dimensions and to compare the impact of the presence and absence of job characteristics in association with mental health and well-being outcomes. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.

  19. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective wel...

  20. Does performance management affect nurses' well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decramer, Adelien; Audenaert, Mieke; Van Waeyenberg, Thomas; Claeys, Tine; Claes, Claudia; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Crucke, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    This article focuses on employee performance-management practices in the healthcare sector. We specifically aim to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of employee performance-management practices on affective well-being of nurses in hospitals. Theory suggests that the features of employee-performance management (planning and evaluation of individual performances) predict affective well-being (in this study: job satisfaction and affective commitment). Performance-management planning and evaluation and affective well-being were drawn from a survey of nurses at a Flemish hospital. Separate estimations were performed for different aspects of affective well-being. Performance planning has a negative effect on job satisfaction of nurses. Both vertical alignment and satisfaction with the employee performance-management system increase the affective well-being of nurses; however, the impact of vertical alignment differs for different aspects of affective well-being (i.e. job satisfaction and affective commitment). Performance-management planning and evaluation of nurses are associated with attitudinal outcomes. The results indicate that employee performance-management features have different impacts on different aspects of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep quality and spiritual well-being in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Khayri, Freidoon; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza; Masoudi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    Sleep disorders are considered as one of the most important problems in hemodialysis patients, making their everyday life a serious hazard. Sleep quality of hemodialysis patients and consequences of sleep disorders on other aspects of health such as spiritual well-being are important issues. This study examined the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran. This study was a correlation research, carried out on 190 hemodialysis patients. Data collection Questionnaires included demographic forms, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and Ellison and Paloutzian spiritual well-being scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis) at P spiritual health conditions. Pearson correlation test showed significant relationship between the sleep quality items of Pittsburg and spiritual well-being (P spiritual health, family, education, financial status, marital status, occupation, and use of sleep medication, the predictive power of these variables was found 0.417% and prediction of spiritual well-being was more than others (ß = 0.209). Considering bed as one of the most vital physical, mental, and emotional needs, it is very important in mental and spiritual well-being of hemodialysis patients as an influencing factor in mental relaxation and reducing disease tensions. Paying attention to sleep quality and spiritual well-being components of hemodialysis patients in formulating and promoting healthcare programs is recommended.

  2. Spiritual well-being and moral distress among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharif, Saeed Pahlevan; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Panarello, Bianca; Win, Ma Thin Mar

    2016-06-16

    Moral distress is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting healthcare professionals, especially nurses. If not addressed, it may create job dissatisfaction, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of patient care, or even encourage one to leave the profession. Spiritual well-being is a concept which is considered when dealing with problems and stress relating to a variety of issues. This research aimed to examine the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress among a sample of Iranian nurses and also to study the determinant factors of moral distress and spiritual well-being in nurses. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed to collect data from 193 nurses using the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Moral Distress Scale-Revised. This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. Mean scores of spiritual well-being and moral distress were 94.73 ± 15.89 and 109.56 ± 58.70, respectively. There was no significant correlation between spiritual well-being and moral distress (r = -.053, p = .462). Marital status and job satisfaction were found to be independent predictors of spiritual well-being. However, gender and educational levels were found to be independent predictors for moral distress. Age, working in rotation shifts, and a tendency to leave the current job also became significant after adjusting other factors for moral distress. This study could not support the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress. However, the results showed that moral distress is related to many elements including individual ideals and differences as well as organizational factors. Informing nurses about moral distress and its consequences, establishing periodic consultations, and making some organizational arrangement may play an important role in the identification and management of moral distress and

  3. Enhancing Well-Being During Breast Cancer Recurrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coltman, Charles

    2004-01-01

    .... Targeted support services are currently unavailable. This study tests the hypothesis that patients experience greater well-being by participating in an intervention designed for breast cancer patients experiencing a first recurrence...

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility and Workers' Well-being in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impacts of corporate social responsibility on the well-being of workers in the ... policies have been the healthcare, education, security, housing, agriculture, arts and tourism, sports, charity organization, religion, social clubs, government ...

  5. Improving the well-being of children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    . Through a comprehensive effectiveness evaluation and a similar substantial process evaluation, this study is designed to gain knowledge on a broad variety of implementation issues and give detailed information on project delivery and challenges at the school level - among other things to better inform......Background: The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children...... and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th...

  6. The significance of deaf identity for psychological well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory......Research has paid attention to how deaf identity affects life outcomes such as psychological well-being. However, studies are often carried out with small samples and without controlling for other variables. This study examined how different forms of identity—deaf, hearing, bicultural (deaf...... and hearing), and marginal (neither deaf nor hearing)—were associated with levels of psychological well-being and a number of other variables. The sample was 742 adults with hearing loss in Denmark. The study found that those with a deaf, hearing or bicultural identity had significantly higher levels...

  7. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  8. Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... X Y Z Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Video of Scientific ...

  9. Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Video of Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being—Full Video Runtime: 16min 37sec The video from ...

  10. Psychometric properties of the Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiviboontham, Suchira; Phinitkhajorndech, Noppawan; Hanucharurnkul, Somchit; Noipiang, Thaniya

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale in patients with advanced cancer. This cross-sectional study was employed to investigate psychometric properties. Some 196 participants from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok and suburban Thailand were asked to complete a Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Validity was determined by known-group, concurrent, and constructs validity. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficients. Three factors were extracted: so-called existential well-being, religious well-being, and peacefulness accounted for 71.44% of total variance. The Cronbach's α coefficients for total SWB, EWB, RWB, and peacefulness were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively. These findings indicate that the Thai SWBS is a valid and reliable instrument, and it presented one more factor than the original version.

  11. Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-06-01

    Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.

  12. The Importance of Resilience for Well-Being in Retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Nalin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.

  13. Income Distribution and Economic Well-Being within European Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    well-being declines and wives raises the more she earns relatively to him. However, the relationships are often of an inversed u-shaped form for both sexes with men getting the highest well-being at an earlier stage than women. Within the Scandinavian welfare state regime this preferred distribution......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being.......The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within...

  14. Aggression and psychological well-being of adolescent taekwondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Aggression and psychological well-being of adolescent taekwondo participants in comparison with hockey participants and a non sport group ... According to experts, schools in South ...

  15. Predictors of well-being among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, S Lee; Newton, Karen S; Staten, Ruth R; Crawford, Timothy N; Hall, Lynne A

    2016-01-01

    Identification of health-related risk behaviors associated with well-being in college students is essential to guide the development of health promotion strategies for this population. The purposes were to evaluate well-being among undergraduate students and to identify health-related risk behaviors that predict well-being in this population. A cross-sectional Web-based survey of undergraduate students was conducted at a metropolitan university in the Southeast United States. A total of 568 students responded (response rate 14.2%). Data were collected on health-related risk behaviors using the National College Health Assessment II. Controlling demographic characteristics, the best predictive model included physical activity, current tobacco user, depression, ever received mental health services, and sleep quality, which was the strongest predictor (β = .45, p college students may be most beneficial in improving well-being.

  16. Alternative transportation options, well-being & livable communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Transportation is critical to everyday activities and is also the underpinning of wellbeing. Well-beingoften related to happinesscan be defined in many ways and while : happiness is often considered an important element of well-being, it ...

  17. The social life of well-being assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Kathrin

    verbalization among practitioners and thus a move towards shared understandings of what it means to fare well. Ideally, this should lead to timely pedagogical interventions to improve the lives of children who are not perceived to be thriving. In this manner, the tool addresses larger concerns around the role...... that simply ‘is’. This involves a focus on well-being as it is experienced, shaped, practiced, and recognized in everyday practices, always already embedded within wider contexts of institutional settings, social relationships and political agendas. In the discussion of perceptions and practices of well......-being, the paper will draw on the analytical concept of social technology (Jöhncke, Svendsen and Whyte, 2004) to explore the well-being assessment tool as not simply a solution to the problem of working pedagogically and systematically with well-being but also as a tool that activates particular perspectives...

  18. Internet addiction and cyberchondria - Their relationship with Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Ivanova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results from some research on the relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria, and different aspects of well-being. The information available on the Internet, which is not necessarily truthful and accurate, can unreasonably amplify users health concerns. Problematic Internet use, health anxiety aroused by online searches for health information and escalation of health concerns as an indicator of cyberchondria, are all associated with a decrease in subjective and eudaimonic well-being as well as in self-esteem. The analyses indicate positive relationships between depressive symptoms on the one hand, and Internet addiction and health anxiety, on the other. A conclusion regarding the existence of a relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria and decreased levels of well-being could be drawn from the research. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-esteem and eudaimonic well-being correlate positively with the number of people with whom users communicate online.

  19. Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being

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    Full Text Available ... Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Video of Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being—Full Video Runtime: 16min 37sec The video from ...

  20. Nursing students’ spiritual well-being, spirituality and spiritual care

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-be...

  1. Presidential Immigration Policies: Endangering Health and Well-being?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva; O Gostin, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?......President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?...

  2. Training Programs for Managing Well-being in Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treven Sonja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed the significance of well-being (WB and well-being management (WBM. As successful WBM requires the implementation of different training programs, such programs are presented in detail. The cause–effect relationship between training and individual/organizational performance is researched as well. The aim of the research to support this article was to present WBM, its training programs, as well as the determination of WBM activities concerning the mentioned programs implemented in Slovenian organizations.

  3. HRM, company performance and employee well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhala, Sinikka; Tuomi, Kaija

    2006-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the relationships between HRM, company performance and employee well-being. The relationship between S/HRM and company performance has received much attention in prior literature, while the employee perspective has been widely neglected in this research tradition. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to identify and evaluate how company performance and employee well-being are related, and, secondly, to evaluate the possibilities of HR policies and practices...

  4. Nature: a new paradigm for well-being and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan

    2017-02-01

    Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context. Practitioner Summary: Nature-based solutions are coming to the fore to address societal challenges such as well-being. As ergonomics is concerned with well-being, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the discipline. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being.

  5. Religious well-being in noninstitutionalized elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, C R; Johnson, M T

    1997-01-01

    Spirituality is recognized as an important component of health care practice with elderly people. Yet, discussion of the role it plays in elderly women on a day-to-day basis is minimal, and it is frequently not addressed in quality-of-life studies in this population. The purposes of this study were to describe the level of religious well-being and selected characteristics of religiosity in a sample of 114 non-institutionalized, largely rural elderly women (Mdn age = 75), as well as to identify the relationship between selected factors and the level of religious well-being. Descriptive research revealed a high level of religious well-being among the participants and significant positive correlation between religious well-being and the variables of social support and hope (p hope emerged as the single significant predictor of religious well-being (p religious activities, highly rated the value or influence of religious beliefs in their lives, and identified that religious beliefs become increasingly important with age. Conducting a comprehensive assessment and implementing focused interventions associated with religious well-being will strengthen the scope of health care practice for elderly women.

  6. Self-perceived mental well-being amongst Malaysian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab-Murat, Norintan; Mason, Lydia; Kadir, Rahimah Abdul; Yusoff, Noriah

    2018-06-01

    To assess Malaysian dentists' perceptions of their mental well-being. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on a conceptual framework of mental health and well-being model. Two aspects were assessed, namely the physiological (two domains) and the psychological (six domains). Participants were asked to rate their experiences of the aforementioned aspects using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from all the time to never. The response rate was 81%. Most of the dentists (61.7%) perceived having positive mental well-being. Under the physiological aspect, most respondents reported that they were 'generally happy' (93.3%), but about 30% stated they were 'stressed physically and emotionally'. Of the six domains under the psychological aspect, positive well-being was observed in the 'sense of coherence' and 'behavioural stress' domains. Participants who were above 40 years old, married and had children reported having a more positive mental well-being when compared with their counterparts. Overall, most Malaysian dentists perceived having a positive mental well-being. It is crucial, however, to closely monitor and initiate early interventions for those with negative symptoms to ensure the safe practice of dentistry.

  7. Online intimacy and well-being in the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Lomanowska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in intimate social interactions and relationships has an important influence on well-being. However, recent advances in Internet and mobile communication technologies have lead to a major shift in the mode of human social interactions, raising the question of how these technologies are impacting the experience of interpersonal intimacy and its relationship with well-being. Although the study of intimacy in online social interactions is still in its early stages, there is general agreement that a form of online intimacy can be experienced in this context. However, research into the relationship between online intimacy and well-being is critically limited. Our aim is to begin to address this research void by providing an operative perspective on this emerging field. After considering the characteristics of online intimacy, its multimodal components and its caveats, we present an analysis of existing evidence for the potential impact of online intimacy on well-being. We suggest that studies thus far have focused on online social interactions in a general sense, shedding little light on how the level of intimacy in these interactions may affect well-being outcomes. We then consider findings from studies of different components of intimacy in online social interactions, specifically self-disclosure and social support, to indirectly explore the potential contribution of online intimacy to health and well-being. Based on this analysis, we propose future directions for fundamental and practical research in this important new area of investigation.

  8. Transforming Well-Being in Wuppertal—Conditions and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rose

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional welfare production is unsustainable. A societal emphasis on (green economic growth may therefore be superseded by an extended concept of well-being. Taking a transformative approach, science may take part in catalysing this challenging transformation of both the understanding and the level of well-being. Instead of economic growth at the expense of sustainability, we aim to cooperatively refocus on integrating economic, social and ecological perspectives into a more holistic, sustainable approach to individual and municipal well-being in Wuppertal (Germany. Therefore, the research team investigates and develops concepts of local sustainable well-being production, e.g., by employing a new indicator system and the real-world laboratory approach. What are the conditions and constraints of transforming well-being in Wuppertal and most particularly of the role of scientists in this endeavour? Answering this research question with a comparative case study approach, we have analysed our resources, processes, contexts and normativity. The results show that the role of ‘transformative scientists’ in Wuppertal faces constraints of timing and funding, as well as challenges from the different demands of science and practice. Hampered co-design interacts with role conflicts. Open-minded stakeholders are crucial for local well-being transformation, as is the awareness that urban residential districts have bottomed out. However, the normative sustainability claims of the transformative research project are not fully shared by all of its stakeholders, which is both necessary and challenging for transformative research.

  9. The relations among well-being outcomes, religiosity, and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghababaei Naser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A major focus of attention in psychology has been on the consequences and determinants of well-being. Religiosity and personality have both been shown to predict mental health and well-being, but the two predictors have not often been investigated together. In 4 studies involving 7 surveys (total N = 1,530 in various social and religious contexts, the relations among well-being, religious orientation, and personality factors were studied. Results showed that Extraversion was the single strongest correlate of higher levels of subjective and psychological well-being. Religiosity had null or weak positive relationships with well-being, and managed to explain variance in some aspects of positive functioning beyond personality factors. The null or week relationship of religiosity with well-being beyond personality was consistent across the HEXACO and the Big Five models of personality structure. It has been suggested that religion is relatively more important for eudaimonic than for hedonic way of living.

  10. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Differences between Caucasian Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Chester, Terri; Nunn, David; Vickers, Valerie

    This paper presents an exploratory factor analysis of the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale, which was developed to examine overall life satisfaction. It is a 20-item, self-report instrument that measures three dimensions: an overall Spiritual Well-Being score, a Religious Well-Being score, and an Existential Well-Being score. The findings show…

  11. Playing music improves well-being of oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploukou, Stella; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2018-02-01

    Nurses experience high levels of stress associated with the demands of their workplace. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common in this occupational group and the necessity of supportive actions is vital. This is especially true for nurses working in high intensity and demanding settings such as oncology units. This study examined the effects of a music intervention on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms of oncology nurses. Forty-eight oncology nurses, were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 22) attending four consecutive weekly 1-h music classes or a control group with no intervention (n = 26) who maintained their usual lifestyle habits, for one month. Intervention group played and improvised music using percussion instruments. Courses consisted of varied multitask exercises of progressive difficulty, sometimes involving team playing, or individual performances. Depression, anxiety, and physical symptoms were measured before and after the end of the intervention. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychosomatic symptoms were assessed with Pennebaker Inventory οf Limbic Languidness. Anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms significantly reduced for the intervention group at the end of the study. No statistical significant change was observed for the control group in any of the three psychological indicators. The findings of our study highlight the fact that music can be a cost-effective resource in developing interventions to reduce stress and improve well-being. Playing music can be the next step for further investigation, since we already know that listening to music is beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CORRELATION OF WELL-BEING WITH RESILIENCE AND AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guna Svence

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resilience and positive thinking, resilience and optimism, kindness as value could be the factors which could impact the future of our humanity and Earth as well as health and welfare of society. There is an active process of research in the positive psychology carried out in Latvia within the last ten years. The most important category of positive psychology is resilience and well-being. A lot of work has been done regarding adaptation of the concept of well-being and resilience in Latvia. There is a group of young researchers (master level students who have made a contribution to adaptation of the concept of resilience and well-being in the science of psychology in Latvia at Riga Teacher Training and Education Management Academy (RTTEMA. A group of professors have recently made a joint research, where different samples of adults are demonstrated among the Latvian population in this article. The idea of this research is to analyse the collected secondary data on different groups of adults concerning correlation between the aspects of well-being and resilience. The aim of the research is to investigate the dimension of well-being in cognitive, eudaimonistic, hedonistic, interpersonal and spiritual (transcendent relationship with resilience indicators - self-perseverance, self-reliance, acceptance of life, as well as the relevance of well-being indicators to age. One statement of this analysis was the hypothesis about the age as a factor which predetermines development of well-being and resilience. Methods- 1 Questionnaire on well-being (Majors, Majore, Svence, 2009, 2 Resilience scale, RS (Wagnild, Young, 1993, linguistically adapted by I. Bērziņa, G. Svence, 2011, 3 correlation and hierarchical regression analysis of the secondary data. Questions of the research: 1\twhat kind of correlation does exist between the indicators of well-being and resilience? 2\twhich well-being indicators predict these resilience indicators? 3\tis there any

  13. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers’ perception and actual well-being of volunteers [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Kragh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively, to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’ model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not

  14. Aesthetic dermatology and emotional well-being questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, M Covadonga; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya; Guerra-Tapia, Aurora

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a great development of esthetic dermatology as a subspecialty of dermatology. It is important to know to which extent the general population regard this branch of medical surgical specialty as being of interest and contributing to emotional well-being. To analyze the technical features of a questionnaire which has been designed to reflect such perception of the general population about esthetic dermatology and its contribution to emotional well-being. Production and psychometric analysis of a self-filled in questionnaire in relation to esthetic dermatology and emotional well-being (DEBIE). This questionnaire is made of 57 items and has been applied to a sample of 770 people within the general population. The drawing-up process of the questionnaire is described to provide content validity. Items analysis was carried out together with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to assess the structure and construct validity of the tool. The extent of internal consistency (reliability) and concurrent validity has also been verified. DEBIE questionnaire (Spanish acronym for Aesthetic Dermatology and Emotional Well-being) revolves around six factors explaining 53.91% of the variance; there is a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.90) and reasonable criterion validity. DEBIE questionnaire brings together adequate psychometric properties that can be applied to assess the perception that the general population have in relation to esthetic dermatology and its contribution to their emotional well-being. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Religion, Time Use, and Affective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaeyoon Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether religious people experience more positive affect and less negative affect in everyday life and, if they do, whether it is because of the differences in how they allocate time to different activities or because they feel differently during similar activities. Using the well-being module from the 2010–13 American Time Use Survey (ATUS, I show that churchgoers enjoy a significantly higher level of affective well-being on Sunday than non-churchgoers do. The supplementary analysis of the Gallup Daily Poll data suggests that this higher level of affective well-being among churchgoers is found throughout the rest of the week as well. Further analyses of the ATUS demonstrate that about 40 percent of the affective well-being gap between churchgoers and non-churchgoers on Sunday can be explained by how they spend their time differently. Churchgoers spend more time on Sunday participating in pleasant activities shared with family members and friends than non-churchgoers do. More than half of the gap, however, remains unexplained, implying that it has to do with how they feel during similar activities rather than the activities in which they participate. I discuss the implications of these findings on the mechanisms underlying the link between religion and subjective well-being.

  16. Job satisfaction and subjective well-being among Czech nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurková, Elena; Haroková, Sylvie; Džuka, Jozef; Žiaková, Katarína

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between domains of the job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in nurses. A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited from six hospitals in Czech Republic. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, the Negative Affect Scale and the Personal Well-being Index. We confirmed low association between job satisfaction and subjective well-being of nurses. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, co-workers and family/work balance accounted for only a small percentage of variance in cognitive component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling. Negative affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling and intention to leave the actual workplace. Low percentage of the variance suggests that subjective well-being is not strongly influenced by job satisfaction. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. A Route to Well-being: Intelligence vs. Wise Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Na, Jinkyung; Varnum, Michael E.W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Laypeople and many social scientists assume that superior reasoning abilities lead to greater well-being. However, previous research has been inconclusive. This may be because prior investigators used operationalizations of reasoning that favored analytic as opposed to wise thinking. We assessed wisdom in terms of the degree to which people use various pragmatic schemas to deal with social conflicts. With a random sample of Americans we found that wise reasoning is associated with greater life satisfaction, less negative affect, better social relationships, less depressive rumination, more positive vs. negative words used in speech, and greater longevity. The relationship between wise reasoning and well-being held even when controlling for socio-economic factors, verbal abilities, and several personality traits. As in prior work there was no association between intelligence and well-being. Further, wise reasoning mediated age-related differences in well-being, particularly among the middle-aged and older adults. Implications for research on reasoning, well-being and aging are discussed. PMID:22866683

  18. Resources and well-being among Arab-American elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajrouch, Kristine J

    2007-06-01

    This study addresses diversity of aging experiences by examining the associations among immigrant status, religious affiliation, and resources in the form of both human and social capital with the well-being of Arab-American elders. Data were drawn from a face-to-face survey of 101 Arab-American men and women aged 56 and over living in the metropolitan Detroit area. Correlations demonstrate that religious affiliation is not associated with well-being. Multiple regression analyses reveal that U.S. born Arab Americans reported less frequent feelings of depression and greater life satisfaction than did immigrants, but this variation appears to be accounted for by human capital indicators including education level and language. Social capital including perceptions of the ability to confide in child and relationship quality with spouse is significantly associated with well-being, yet does not constitute a pathway to well-being for Arab-American elders. Human and social capital represent valuable resources and their distribution within this immigrant/ethnic group is associated with noteworthy variations in well-being.

  19. Does Group-Level Commitment Predict Employee Well-Being?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services parti...... disturbances (T2) were partially mediated by individual-level AOC (T1). CONCLUSIONS: Group-level AOC is an important predictor of employee well-being in contemporary health care organizations.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services...

  20. Tracking Context-Aware Well-Being through Intelligent Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio SILVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth of personal sensors and the ability to sensorize attributes connected with the physical beings and environments are increasing. Initiatives such as Internet of Things (IoT aim to connect devices and people through communication channels in order to automate and fuel interaction. Targeted approaches can be found on the Smart Cities projects which use the IoT to gather data from people and attributes related to city management. Though good for management of new cities, well-being should as well be of principal importance. It regards users higher than infrastructure and managerial data. Taking lessons from ergonomic studies, health studies and user habits it is possible to track and monitor user daily living. Moreover, the link between user living conditions and sparse events such as illness, indispositions can be tracked to well-being data through autonomous services. Such application is detailed in the approach categorized by this article and the research presented

  1. Monitoring of psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461...... outpatients with diabetes who were randomly assigned to standard care or to the monitoring condition. In the latter group, the diabetes nurse specialist assessed and discussed psychological well-being with the patient (with an interval of 6 months) in addition to standard care. The computerized Well...... nurse. The two groups did not differ for HbA(1c) or in their overall evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. In the monitoring condition, significantly more subjects were referred to the psychologist. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and discussing psychological well-being as part of routine diabetes...

  2. Occupational health and psychological well-being of industrial employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bhardwaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF REPRODUCTIVE NORMATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Aleksandrovna Zmievskaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the reproductive normativity in the context of its relationship to person’s psychological well-being. The theoretical analysis allowed to formulate the definition of reproductive normativity (RN and its structural components. It’s considered the problem of relation between objective and subjective components of RN as the determinant of psychological well-being. It’s presented and justified one of the possible typologies of RN, reflecting the most common variants of modern Russians’ reproductive behavior: 1 high RN («The total normativity»; 2 medium-high RN («Family with deviant past»; 3 medium-low RN («Single parenthood»; 4 low RN («No family and children». The presence of different relations between objective and subjective components of RN in described types is empirically detected. The highest consistency of RN components is observed in groups with high and low RN, the lowest consistency is manifested among single parents. The mismatch between RN components is associated with lower psychological well-being. Single parents are at risk: they demonstrate the most negative evaluations of their life, self-awareness and self-attitude. Average- auspicious and almost identical indicators of psychological well-being were found among respondents with deviant past (medium-high RN and respondents with no family and children (low RN: psychological benefits of having family and children are eliminated by abnormal parenthood experience and by the mismatch between desired and actual implementation of family life. Thereby the «blocked» parent role is connected with the same level of psychological well-being as the improperly played parent role. The highest level of psychological well-being is expectedly found among respondents with high RN («The total normativity».

  4. Preschool Child Care and Child Well-being in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.

    Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...... socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents, suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant...

  5. Well-being therapy in depression: New insights into the role of psychological well-being in the clinical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Guidi, Jenny; Tomba, Elena

    2017-09-01

    A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination. The evidence supporting the use of WBT and its specific contribution when it is combined with other psychotherapeutic techniques is still limited. However, the insights gained by the use of WBT may unravel innovative approaches to assessment and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, to be confirmed by controlled studies, with particular reference to decreasing vulnerability to relapse and modulating psychological well-being and mood. An important characteristic of WBT is self-observation of psychological well-being associated with specific homework. Such perspective is different from interventions that are labeled as positive but are actually distress oriented. Another important feature of WBT is the assumption that imbalances in well-being and distress may vary from one illness to another and from patient to patient. Customary clinical taxonomy and evaluation do not include psychological well-being, which may demarcate major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same diagnosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance

  8. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Malaysian Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…

  9. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  10. Identity Support, Identity Devaluation, and Well-Being among Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2005-01-01

    This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…

  11. Work Separation Demands and Spouse Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…

  12. Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and ... Objective: The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic .... of mood that can be used to calculate a Total Mood.

  13. Career Coping and Subjective Well-Being among University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odirile, Bonkamile E.; Mpofu, Elias; Montsi, Mercy R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined coping strategies by higher education employees to handle work stress as differentiated by personnel variables. We further examined levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in the same employees. Sixty-three higher education employees participated (males = 30; females = 33; mean age = 41.3 years). The participants completed the Coping…

  14. The Interconnectedness between Well-Being and the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Johanna G.; Venter, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine participants' perceptions of the positive influence of the natural environment on their well-being. Through a qualitative study, semistructured interviews were held with selected participants who enjoy activities in the natural environment. From the data analysis, particular themes emerged, namely the…

  15. BATHROOM TRANSFORMATION: FROM HYGIENE TO WELL-BEING?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....

  16. Well-Being in the Context of Workplace Ethnic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…

  17. Poverty and Subjective Well-Being in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Joaquina Palomar

    2004-01-01

    There are two tendencies in the literature regarding the relationship between income and subjective well-being. The first tendency maintains that there is a strong relationship between these two variables, and that the poorer the population, the more pronounced this relationship. The second tendency downplays this relationship, arguing that a…

  18. PACES: A Model of Student Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark D.; Tarabochia, Dawn W.; Koltz, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    School counselors design, deliver, and evaluate comprehensive, developmental school counseling programs that are focused on enhancing student development and success. A model of student well-being, known as PACES, is defined and described that consists of five distinct and interactive domains: physical, affective, cognitive, economic, and social.…

  19. International Migration and Transnational Ethics of Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Migration involves a search for well-being and security, but is not guaranteed to bring either. In the short run it quite often reduces both. What are the hoped for benefits for which the risks are undertaken? Insecurity can generate migration, and in the case of refugees

  20. Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Diane M.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Many people have concealable stigmatized identities: Identities that can be hidden from others and that are socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. Understanding how these concealable stigmatized identities affect psychological well-being is critical. We present our model of the components of concealable stigmatized identities including valenced content – internalized stigma, experienced discrimination, anticipated stigma, disclosure reactions, and counter-stereotypic/positive informati...

  1. Persuasive technology for human well-being : Setting the scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Midden, C.J.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this short paper we aim to give a brief introduction to persuasive technology, especially as it pertains to human well-being. We discuss a number of current research opportunities in areas of healthcare, environmental conservation, and education. We conclude by highlighting what we regard as the

  2. Predictors of well-being in a Czech population sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, 1-2 (2006), s. 59-61 ISSN 0960-7560 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/06/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Well-being * social gradient * resilience factors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  3. Well-being in a Czech population sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Kodl, M.; Šolcová, Iva; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 414-414 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : well-being * Czech population sample * determinants Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  4. Promoting social and emotional well-being in schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, Margaret M.; Clarke, Aleisha Mary; Dowling, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical perspective on the international evidence on promoting young people’s social and emotional well-being in schools. The challenges of integrating evidence-based interventions within schools are discussed and the need for innovative approaches

  5. Tracking Health and Well-Being in Goa's Mining Belt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    The search for balance. “Closing the mines because of their environmental impact is not an option ... As a result, local communities, governments, and mining companies are ... in mining communities would be critical to arriving at work- able solutions. ... “quality of life” instrument to assess the well-being of people in mining ...

  6. Personal Narratives, Well-Being, and Gender in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Fivush, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Relations between narratives, especially the inclusion of internal state language within narratives, and well-being have been found in adults. However, research with adolescents has been sparse and the findings inconsistent. We examined gender differences in adolescents' personal autobiographical narratives as well as relations between internal…

  7. Emotional regulation, perceived socialalienation and well-being of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional regulation, perceived socialalienation and well-being of students in a Nigerian University: implilcations for assessment and coaching of emotional regulation. A O Ojedokun. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for the psychological studies of social issue Vol. 10 (1&2) 2007: pp. 76-90. Full Text: EMAIL FULL ...

  8. Family Time Activities and Adolescents' Emotional Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Shira

    2013-01-01

    The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…

  9. Pets, Attachment, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)

  10. Building a neuroscience of pleasure and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness or en...

  11. Leisure Activities and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Leisure and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byunggook

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a conceptual framework for an individual's subjective perception of leisure that contributes to Subjective Well-Being (SWB). More specifically, this study was an attempt to examine causal relationships among social cognitive variables, subjective perception of leisure, and SWB. A survey was administered to…

  13. Mobility and Well-being in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions...

  14. Talking about Happiness: Interview Research and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In addition to teaching research and writing skills, First-Year Composition classes are well situated to help students develop strategies for managing stress and increasing well-being. I describe an assignment sequence in which students interview others from three generations about topics related to happiness and wellbeing, analyze shared…

  15. [Involvement of Turkish Immigrant Fathers Elevates Children's Well-Being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyendecker, Birgit; Agache, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    This study examined paternal involvement in parenting, the association between parents' perception of mutual support, and the relation to their children's well-being before (t1) and after the transition to first grade (t2). Participants were first and second generation immigrant families from Turkey (n = 134). In addition, German families (n = 45) were included for the comparison of paternal involvement. The percentage of highly involved fathers was higher in the German sub-sample (54 %) than in the Turkish sub-sample (38 %), but we found no influence of parents' education, household income, employment status, or children's gender. First generation fathers were more likely to be highly involved than second generation fathers. Analyses of the longitudinal data revealed that mothers with highly involved fathers were more likely to report higher marital support. This pattern was less clear for fathers. Children with highly involved fathers reported significantly higher well-being at t1. For t2, a moderator analysis revealed a positive effect on children's well-being only for those fathers who were both highly involved and reported the highest fathering self-efficacy. Among other variables, we controlled for children's well-being at t1, their health status, fathers' work hours and mothers' marital satisfaction.

  16. A Web Survey Analysis of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit

  17. A Model of Psychological Well-Being among International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between acculturation attitude (i.e. adjustment and attachment attitudes) and individuals' psychological adaptation (i.e. life satisfaction, depression and self-esteem). Additionally, the relationship between the dimensions of psychological adaptation with psychological well-being and their mediation…

  18. Childhood Placement in Special Education and Adult Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesmore, Ashley A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between childhood placement in special education and adult well-being among 1,377 low-income, minority children participating in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Roughly 16% of the sample received special education services in Grades 1 to 8. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and early…

  19. Discourse and Practice: Using the Power of Well Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Steven; Howarth, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges the drawing of explicit boundaries between discourse and practice. Reflecting on the intricacies of practice and meaning, it begins by recounting the "story" of the national evaluation of the Well Being Power and the myriad of ways in which local practitioners interpreted its use. It then draws on political…

  20. Parental Contributions to Southeast Asian American Adolescents' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung

    2008-01-01

    Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…

  1. Do family policy regimes matter for children's well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.

  2. Young Children's Physical and Psychological Well-Being through Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Jin; Wee, Su-Jeong; Gilbert, Beverly Boals; Choi, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Children's participation in yoga activities is receiving increasingly widespread attention as an exercise system that promotes not only physical health benefits but also psychological well-being. The authors of this article introduce how yoga practices can be implemented in an early childhood classroom to enhance children's mind and body harmony,…

  3. Family, housing and well-being in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbers, Daniël Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of many western populations calls for a better understanding of the factors related to well-being in later life. Family and housing are two domains that become increasingly important at older ages. At older ages people generally spend more time in and around the home, and social networks

  4. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue

  5. Women's well-being : The role of individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    The present study examined the relationship between physical and psychological well-being, personality characteristics and demographic variables related to motherhood, work and marital status in a sample of 3,723 Dutch women. Analysis revealed several interesting relationships. First, whereas

  6. Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... second installment in NCCIH’s video series entitled The Science of Mind and Body Therapies . The first video, Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being , was launched September 2010. Learn more about yoga Press release NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to ...

  7. Social support, locus of control, and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R

    1997-01-01

    Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2

  8. Effects Of Parenting Styles On Psychosocial Well-Being Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Parenting Styles On Psychosocial Well-Being Of Adolescents In Selected Secondary Schools In Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. ... Based on these findings, it was recommended that the schools or teachers should learn how to satisfy the emotional needs of children, using appropriate teaching techniques in the ...

  9. Psychological well-being: The contributions of perceived prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the contributions of perceived prevalence of financial crime, socioeconomic status and gender on psychological well-being among unemployed. The cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Participants were 288 unemployed graduates sampled in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria.

  10. Alcohol use, intimate partner violence and family well being: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking-related domestic violence generalizes the negative consequences of drinking, engenders and aggravates household economic and health problems, and compromises the well-being of the family. The poor socioeconomic condition of the affected family constrains their capacity to provide treatment services for the ...

  11. Anxiety, Locus of Control, Subjective Well Being and Knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determines a few differences between accident free drivers and drivers with a history of accidents. 30 public transport bus drivers with a record of road accidents were compared with 30 public transport drivers free of accidents on their knowledge of road rules an regulations, subjective well being, state and ...

  12. Relationship between emotional intelligence and family well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and family well-being among couples in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State. This was against the backdrop of incessant family crises and maladjustment in contemporary society. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Three hundred and ...

  13. Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...

  14. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie

    2014-01-01

    in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...

  15. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  16. Solace in solidarity: Disability friendship networks buffer well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Arielle M; Molton, Ivan R; Smith, Amanda E; Jensen, Mark P; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether having friends who share one's disability experiences is associated with higher well-being, and whether these friendships buffer well-being from disability-related stressors. Research Method/Design: In 2 cross-sectional studies, adults with long-term physical disabilities identified close friends who shared their diagnosis. We assessed well-being as a function of the number of friends that participants identified in each group. Study 1 included 71 adults with legal blindness living in the United States, while Study 2 included 1,453 adults in the United States with either muscular dystrophy (MD), multiple sclerosis (MS), post-polio syndrome (PPS), or spinal cord injury (SCI). In Study 1, having more friends sharing a blindness diagnosis was associated with higher life satisfaction, even controlling for the number of friends who were not blind. In Study 2, Participants with more friends sharing their diagnosis reported higher quality of life and satisfaction with social role participation. Participants with more friends sharing their diagnosis also showed and attenuated associations between the severity of their functional impairment and their quality of life and social role satisfaction, suggesting that their friendships buffered the impact of their functional impairment on well-being. Participants reporting more friends with any physical disability showed similar benefits. Friends with disabilities can offer uniquely important informational and emotional support resources that buffer the impact of a functional impairment on well-being. Psychosocial interventions should help people with long-term disabilities build their peer support networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Nurse entrepreneurs' well-being at work and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankelo, Merja; Akerblad, Leena

    2009-11-01

    This study describes the well-being at work of nurse entrepreneurs and owner-managers of social care companies in Finland from the vantage point of health and working capacity, general coping and job satisfaction and identifies factors associated with well-being. In recent years, increasing numbers of nurses have been starting up in business in the social care sector. As yet, there has been only limited research into their well-being at work. Survey. This study was conducted as part of a questionnaire survey among 335 social care entrepreneurs with different educational backgrounds. The sample for the study reported here consisted of those respondents who had a registered nurse degree (n = 84). The data were analysed by SPSS statistical software. Most of the respondents rated their physical, mental, financial and social situation and working capacity as good. Less than half of the respondents had experienced stress during the past year. Over half felt their coping efficacy was better than it had been shortly after starting up in business. The respondents' resources were consumed and strengthened by a range of different work-related factors. The majority were satisfied with their job as an entrepreneur. Several background factors were associated with the results. Most of the nurse entrepreneurs reported being content with their well-being at work. Nevertheless, the results also highlighted factors that could and should be addressed to improve the well-being at work of entrepreneurs who struggle to cope. The results provide useful information for the development of entrepreneurial training for nurses, for the design and provision of occupational health care services and for the enrichment of the content of the entrepreneur's job.

  18. Chocolate, well-being and health among elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, T E; Strandberg, A Y; Pitkälä, K; Salomaa, V V; Tilvis, R S; Miettinen, T A

    2008-02-01

    We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men. We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses. Psychological well-being in old age. The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02). In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being. The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.

  19. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. The Sickness Impact Profile as a measure of the health status of noncognitively impaired nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, M L; Hedrick, S; Inui, T

    1989-03-01

    The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is a multidimensional, behaviorally based measure of the health status that has been successfully used in a wide range of applications. The characteristics of this measure have not been assessed with nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, reliability (internal consistency), validity, and comprehensiveness of the SIP as a measure of the health status of a selected group of nursing home residents. One hundred sixty-eight veterans residing in community and VA nursing homes responded to a questionnaire consisting of the SIP, Index of Activities of Daily Living, Barthel Index, Life Satisfaction Index Z, and the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. In general, the respondents correctly interpreted instructions; reliability and validity were supported; and the SIP was found to provide a comprehensive assessment of physical function. Adding a measure of psychologic well-being to a study protocol involving this population may, however, provide additional useful information regarding this construct.

  1. Well-being and depression in individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaellegaard, Katrine; Kvetny, Jan; Allerup, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    triiodothyronine (tT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and anti-TPO was measured. Prevalence of poor well-being and depression was measured using the WHO-5 Well-being questionnaire and WHO MDI [Major (ICD-10) Depression Inventory] questionnaire. RESULTS: Raw score for well-being or depression overall and stratified for sex...

  2. Adaptation of the PERMA Well-Being Scale into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayse, Eliüsük Bülbül

    2018-01-01

    Seligman's "well-being scale" PERMA evaluates people's level of well-being in five dimensions: P: Positive and Negative emotions, E: Engagement, R: Relationships, M: Meaning, A: Accomplishment, N: Negative Emotion and H: Health. This scale measures a person's level of well being using five components. The measurement scale developed…

  3. Air quality assessment on human well-being in the vicinity of quarry site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, W. H. W.; Marinie, E.; Yunus, J.; Asra, N.; Sukor, K. Mohd

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the variation of air pollutants associated with the quarry activities prior to classified distance from quarry site. Air pollutants were monitored with the use of instruments which are Rae System Multirae Lite Pumped (PGM-6208) to measure indoor air quality while TSI 8533 Dusttrack Drx Desktop Aerosol Monitor to measure outdoor air quality. Sampling will be replicated two times. The locations of quarry are at Bandar Saujana Putra and Taman Kajang Perdana 2, Selangor. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of quarry mining by preparing the suitable Indoor Air Quality Index and to prepare preventive measure for residential that caused from quarry mining activities. Both Qualitative and Quantitative approaches will be implemented in this study, which employed case study and interview survey. Both quarries identified previously will be the main case study. The Respondent’s interviews are from Local Authority and Quarry Management Staff while questionnaire surveys from selected residences. Measurement method will be used to measure the Particle Matter (PM2.5) for indoor and outdoor in selected resident’s area. However, this paper is primed to discuss the method used in this study. It is not only presents the beneficial information for future research on methodologies employed but also it is anticipated the benefit to environment which can increased residents’ well-being in the vicinity of quarry sites.

  4. Nursing students' spiritual well-being, spirituality and spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; Givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. This is a descriptive-comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann-Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year nursing course. Including spiritual care in the curriculum of

  5. Nursing students’ spiritual well-being, spirituality and spiritual care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive–comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann–Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Results: Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. Conclusions: The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year

  6. Effects of yoga on functional capacity and well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled. Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE on modified Borg′s scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions. Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000, RPE (P value < 0.000, recovery time (P value < 0.000 and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000. Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults. Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient′s functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the

  7. Setting a New Research Agenda: Professional Migration Experiences and Their Impact on Family Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the growing pattern of migration experiences for professional people and the impact these have on the well-being of the family as a whole and individual family members who reside outside their home countries for prescribed periods of time. It is easy to argue that the experiences of such families are far…

  8. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  9. The interrelation between mindfulness and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelikson D.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of mindfulness and its relationship to subjective well-being. The main objective of the study was the empirical confirmation of the relationship between mindfulness and components of hedonic model of subjective well-being. To this end, we held a correlation study with the participation of 94 men and 137 women (average age totaled 27.35 years. The participants filled out a questionnaire “Scale of life satisfaction” by E. Dinera, questionnaire" Mindfulness and awareness” as well as a modified version of the questionnaire "Scale differential emotions". A positive relationship of mindfulness and positive emotions, life satisfaction and the ratio of positive and negative emotions. We detected the negative relationship of negative emotions and mindfulness with life satisfaction. The obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies and suggest that there exists an interaction between emotional and cognitive processes.

  10. Experiences of well-being and suffering after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life after hip fracture. Identifying the meaning of a hip fracture in older people can provide a deeper understanding of what matters during rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life. Aim: To aggregate, appraise, interpret and synthesize findings from...... whole. Conclusion: The meta-synthesis provided evidence that both the sufferings and the possibilities of older people need to be addressed during rehabilitation to support experiences of well-being, independency and confidence after a hip fracture. The study contributed with evidence......Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during...

  11. Miami's Third Sector Alliance for Community Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Scotney D; Raymond, Catherine; Levine, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    Traditional capacity-building approaches tend to be organizationally focused ignoring the fact that community-based organizations learn and take action in a larger network working to promote positive community change. The specific aim of this paper was to outline a vision for a Third Sector Alliance to build organizational, network, and sector capacity for community well-being in Miami. Building a foundation for social impact requires a strategy for organizational, network, and sector capacity building. Organizational, network, and sector capacity building can best be achieved through a cooperative network approach driven by a solid community-university partnership. Although a Third Sector Alliance for Community Well-being does not yet exist in Miami, Catalyst Miami and the University of Miami (UM) have partnered closely to articulate a vision of what could be and have been working to make that vision a reality.

  12. Editorial: Human well-being from different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito-Santo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2018, the editors of the Portuguese Journal of Behavioral and Social Research (PJBSR continue to favor the publication of original articles of investigation and revision in the areas of social and behavioral sciences. The PJBSR continues to promote thinking, questioning the changes in society, their realities, and rethinking their problems, encouraging a reflection among their readers. The number 1 of the fourth volume of the PJBSR adds four original articles and one review article. Although this issue of the PJBSR addresses different contents, there is evidence of a focus on the study of positive psychological variables and their relation to human well-being, whether it is operationalized as physical or mental health, studied in the context of institutionalization or in the context of the work, evaluated at the level of the subjective perception of well-being or the level of the conception of death with dignity.

  13. Multidimensional aspects related to shiftworkers' health and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of shift and night work on health shows a high inter- and intra-individual variability, both in terms of kind of troubles and temporal occurrence, related to various intervening factors dealing with individual characteristics, lifestyles, work demands, company organisation, family relations and social conditions. The way we define "health" and "well-being" can significantly influence appraisals, outcomes and interventions. As the goal is the optimisation of shiftworkers' health, it is necessary to go beyond the health protection and to act for health promotion. In this perspective, not only people related to medical sciences, but many other actors (ergonomists, psychologists, sociologists, educators, legislators, as well as shiftworkers themselves. Many models have been proposed aimed at describing the intervening variables mediating and/or moderating the effects; they try to define the interactions and the pathways connecting risk factors and outcomes through several human dimensions, which refer to physiology, psychology, pathology, sociology, ergonomics, economics, politics, and ethics. So, different criteria can be used to evaluate shiftworkers' health and well-being, starting from biological rhythms and ending in severe health disorders, passing through psychological strain, job dissatisfaction, family perturbation and social dis-adaptation, both in the short- and long-term. Consequently, it appears rather arbitrary to focus the problem of shiftworkers' health and tolerance only on specific aspects (e.g. individual characteristics, but a systemic approach appears more appropriate, able to match as many variables as possible, and aimed at defining which factors are the most relevant for those specific work and social conditions. This can support a more effective and profitable (for individuals, companies, and society adoption of preventive and compensative measures, that must refer more to "countervalues" rather than to

  14. International migration desires related to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...

  15. Adolescents Eating Behavior, Body Image and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Lana; Sujoldžić, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the middle school students in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. The survey was designed to examine adolescent eating behavior as it relates to body image and psychological well-being (self-esteem, life-satisfaction and stress) in relation to body mass index; BMI. Differences among participants in food intake were examined according to demographic variables and eating behavior (regular food intake or dieting) as well. Psychological variables were highly associated with die...

  16. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  17. Psychological well-being of Thai nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Wang, Chia-Chih D C

    2011-05-01

    The psychological well-being of nursing students is a very important component in the training and development of future nurses. While previous studies have explored different aspects of nursing students' mental and psychological health in various countries, they have given little attention to comparing nursing students with their non-nursing student peers. The present study investigated the differences between nursing students and non-nursing students in Thailand with regard to their psychological well-being. The gender effect was also examined. Four hundred students were included in this study (200 nursing students and 200 non-nursing students). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and four psychological instruments that examined their self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and social difficulties. Overall, compared to their non-nursing counterparts, nursing students were found to score significantly higher on self-esteem and life satisfaction and reported lower levels of depression and social difficulties. Gender was also found to have a significant main effect on participants' social difficulties. Several recommendations for improving the mental health and psychological well-being of nursing students are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overtime and psychological well-being among Chinese office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Zhou, J; Hassard, J

    2011-06-01

    Research on the relationship between overtime and psychological well-being, and workers' perceptions of the factors that determine overtime, has been conducted exclusively in the Western cultural context. To examine whether existing theory and evidence can be applied to a non-Western cultural setting by investigating the constructs among a sample of office workers drawn from a Chinese branch of an international information and communication technology company. Data were collected from 130 full-time employees on overtime hours worked, psychological well-being, and four variables identified by participants as being important determinants of overtime: job demands, intrinsic motivation, anticipated rewards, and overtime work culture. T-tests and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between variables. All study participants had worked overtime in the previous 6 months period; the mean weekly overtime rate was 14.2 h. High overtime employees demonstrated significantly lower levels of psychological well-being than those who worked low levels of overtime. In combination, the four reasons for working overtime predicted approximately one-fifth of the variance in overtime hours worked, suggesting that knowledge of these variables could be used by practitioners to predict the amount of overtime in which workers are likely to engage. The findings suggest that existing theory and evidence may apply beyond the individualist cultural context. The findings might usefully inform the organization of work in collectivist cultures and the implementation of multinational operations in these cultures.

  19. Subjective well-being among primary health care patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alis Ozcakir

    Full Text Available The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status.A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42 and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants.In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years, educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years, educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction.Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

  20. Subjective well-being among primary health care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcakir, Alis; Oflu Dogan, Fatma; Cakir, Yakup Tolga; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status. A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42) and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants. In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction. Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

  1. Emotional Interdependence and Well-Being in Close Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sels, Laura; Ceulemans, Eva; Bulteel, Kirsten; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64%) did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction) or even negatively (empathic concern) related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects) accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects). Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions. PMID:27014114

  2. Maintaining families’ well-being in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ziegert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss how everyday life changes for the family in the event of chronic illness or disability. It changes physically due to loss of body function and socially due to time and other constraints related to treatment or lack of mobility. Equally important, there is a psychological impact due to the uncertainty of the future. The article will explore how family participation can help to maintain well-being in everyday life. The family should therefore focus on their own needs as much as on the needs of the family members who are ill. In order to maintain well-being in everyday life, it is crucial for the family to create routines and spend time doing things that they enjoy. By doing this, the family will create a rhythm of well-being regardless of the critical family situation. Family members and professional caregivers also need to come together at the beginning and during the illness or disability event to discuss changes that could be made day-to-day for all those involved, thereby making for an easier transition into care giving.

  3. Emotional interdependence and well-being in close relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSels

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64% did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction or even negatively (empathic concern related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects. Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions.

  4. Family meals and the well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Robinson, Elizabeth; Fleming, Theresa; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Grant, Sue

    2013-11-01

    The current study describes the relationships between family meals and family connectedness, parental monitoring and parent-child communication and determines if frequent family meals are associated with better mental well-being and fewer risk-taking behaviours among adolescents. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of secondary school students in New Zealand (n = 9107). Frequent family meals were positively associated with better indicators of family relationships (P family meals were significantly associated with higher well-being scores (P family connectedness, parental monitoring and parental communication. Our findings suggest that family meals may provide a unique opportunity for building stronger families and young people. Creating environments where frequent family meals are normative, valued and feasible for families may result in benefits for young people that extend beyond good nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Assessing chimpanzee personality and subjective well-being in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hong, Kyung-Won; Inoue, Eiji; Udono, Toshifumi; Ochiai, Tomomi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; King, James E

    2009-04-01

    We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies, older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not affected by the culture of the raters.

  6. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.

  7. School Staff Perceptions of Well-Being and Experience of an Intervention to Promote Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrocks, Louise

    2014-01-01

    An intervention was carried out with primary school staff to promote well-being with weekly sessions of a project which became known as Chill and Chat. Data were gathered via questionnaires completed before and after the project and from three focus groups (before, during and after the intervention), and were analysed using thematic analysis.…

  8. On the well-being of adult expremies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Marianne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Jensen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study health, well-being in daily life, educational level and socio-economic status in adulthood in moderately premature infants and the relationship to gender and socio-economic status at birth. METHODS: Prospective long-term follow-up study of a cohort of infants with a gestational age...... educational level at birth with no demonstrable effects due to gestation or gender. CONCLUSION: Moderately premature infants, born before the era of intensive care, at the age of 32 years with regard to health, quality of life, education and social status proved to fare as well as their term counterparts....

  9. Manufacturing leisure - Innovations in happiness, well-being and fun

    OpenAIRE

    Pantzar, Mika; Shove, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Kulutus ja vapaa-ajan talous ovat nousseet useissa länsimaissa elinkeinopoliittisen keskustelun huomion kohteeksi viime vuosina. Talouden kasvu on nähty yhä enemmän tapahtuvan ns. elämystalouden ja viihdeteollisuuden virittämänä. Manufacturing leisure - Innovations in happiness, well-being and fun lähestyy vapaa-ajan klusteria kuluttajien vapaa-ajan käytäntöjen näkökulmasta. Saksalaiset, englantilaiset ja suomalaiset tutkijat pyrkivät vastaamaan muun muassa seuraaviin kysymyksiin: · Minkälais...

  10. Beyond time management: time use, performance and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona BONIWELL; Evgeny OSIN

    2015-01-01

    In this review questions such as “What is a good use of time?”, “How can one achieve satisfaction with their time?” and “How can one’s relationship with time contribute to their well-being?” are raised and discussed with regard to empirical research on various aspects of positive psychology of time. This paper differs from traditional approach to thinking about time in organisations in three substantial ways. Firstly, it reviews the existing empirical research on time use, focusin...

  11. Career satisfaction, commitment, and well-being among Taiwanese pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Der-Fang; Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan; Lei, Sio-Meng

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the pediatrician shortage in Taiwan has raised concerns about pediatricians' workloads and wellbeing. This study aimed to understand in-hospital pediatricians' perceptions toward career satisfaction and their wellbeing. A questionnaire exploring pediatricians' life management, commitment to work, and work satisfaction was distributed to all the pediatricians (including attending physicians and residents) in 79 certified training institutions in Taiwan. After expert validation and pilot testing, 17 items with a five-point rating scale were developed to reflect the pediatricians' perceptions. There were 287 responses in total, including 180 attending physicians and 107 residents. Factor analysis was used to explore the construct structure underlying the 17 items. None of the 17 items had a "positive" mean score (≥4/5). Using factor analyses, five factors were extracted: commitment to medical career, self-care, benefit, work environment, and job satisfaction, which accounted for 66.97% of the variance. The factor with the lowest scores was self-care, followed by benefit. The mean score of factors ranged from 2.91 ± 0.17 to 1.64 ± 0.1, all considered "negative." Only 33.6% indicated satisfaction with their jobs. Only 60% of the pediatricians liked their medical career and work environment. The reliability alphas of the five factors ranged from 0.85 to 0.60. Currently, Taiwanese pediatricians are not satisfied with their jobs, having low commitment, poor self-care, and little wellbeing. This study provides a possible explanation for why young physicians leave the pediatric sector, and it also reveals the consequences of physician shortage in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Workplace design contributions to mental health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    People spend much of their waking time in their workplaces (approximately 33% on a weekly basis), which raises the possibility that the conditions they experience at work influence their health and well-being. The workplace design literature has given scant attention to mental health outcomes, instead focusing on healthy populations. Conversely, the mental health literature gives scant attention to the potential contribution of workplace design in preventing mental health problems; nor does it provide much insight into facilitating return to work. Taken together, however, the literature does suggest both lines of research and possible interventions. Existing knowledge proposes that workplace design can influence mental health via the effects of light exposure on circadian regulation, social behaviour and affect; the effects of aesthetic judgement on at-work mood and physical well-being and at-home sleep quality; access to nature and recovery from stressful experiences; and privacy regulation and stimulus control. This paper includes a short review of the literature in this area, proposals for new research directions and consideration of the implications of this information on the design choices made by business owners, designers and facility managers. Providing suitable working conditions for all employees avoids stigmatizing employees who have mental health problems, while facilitating prevention and return to work among those who do. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.

  13. Towards better work and well-being: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Hannu; Vainio, Harri

    2010-12-01

    The "Towards Better Work and Well-being" conference, held in Helsinki in February 2010, was attended by 190 participants from 34 countries. During the Conference 12 keynote presentations and 57 oral and 47 poster communications were given. The conference was arranged by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in cooperation with the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health as well as with the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy. The Conference was supported by the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion, the European Network Education and Training in Occupational Health and Safety, and the European Technology Platform on Industrial Safety. The aim of the Conference was to provide an opportunity to discuss strategies and tools for promotion of health and well-being at work and its effect on productivity. The main topics of the Conference were scientific and practical evidence; management and good practices--better productivity; workplace as an arena for health and safety promotion; and expert services and policies.

  14. Ethnic Harassment, Ethnic Identity Centrality, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona

    2018-02-12

    In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.

  15. NATURE’S MEANINGS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosomatic functioning, a holistic approach would become possible. Results of public data will be discussed as a way of expanding the explanation framework. Also a theoretical framework will be presented so that all these would have a meaning for practitioners. Finally, acknowledging the fact that the environments’ benefits have been known and consciously used for human growth in several aspects, as in yoga or martial arts, some recent application will be discussed such as those in psychotherapy (nature psychotherapy or unification experiential psychotherapy.

  16. Emotion expression, decision-making and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Erte

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of emotion expression in decision-making. To understand connections between emotion and decision it is helpful first to differentiate between emotion experience and emotion expression. Understanding how emotion expression influences decision-making is important as a practical matter. However, in contrast to emotion experience, economic research has paid little attention to the significance of emotion expression in decision-making. I review recent studies on emotion expression, paying specific attention to possible connections between emotion expression, punishment, fair economic exchange, and well-being. In contrast to emotions, which are typically difficult to control, I suggest that opportunities for emotion expression can feasibly be manipulated through appropriately designed policies. I further suggest that this approach may have the ability to positively affect well-being and economic outcomes. VALUE OF THE CHAPTER: The chapter provides new perspectives on how policy-makers can benefit by understanding the effect of emotion expression in decision-making. The chapter also suggests future research to improve our understanding of emotion expression.

  17. ETHOS OF MUSIC ART AND HUMAN WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COZMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.

  18. Flexible working hours and well-being in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolin, I; Härmä, M; Toivanen, M

    2001-12-01

    Flexibility of working hours became more prevalent in the 1990s in Finland. According to a representative survey on Finnish wage and salary earners (n = 1790) at the beginning of 2000, a great majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees regularly worked overtime and/or had irregular working hours every month. These employees were flexible in meeting the needs of their companies/employers. Individual flexibility of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees were able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and had more conflicts in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.

  19. A sedentary job? Measuring the physical activity of emergency medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Elaine B; Caputo, Nicholas D; Pedraza, Solimar; Reynolds, Toussaint; Sharifi, Rahim; Waseem, Muhammad; Kornberg, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the quality of health care provided in the United States has continued to be waged as concerns have grown over the years. Stress, sleep deprivation, poor diet, and lack of exercise may lead to inadequate work performance by physicians. This study was undertaken to determine whether Emergency Medicine (EM) residents satisfy daily recommendations for total number of steps taken per day set forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Surgeon General in a 12-h shift. An observational prospective cohort study was conducted between August 2009 and November 2009 at an urban Level I trauma center with an annual census of over 165,000 Emergency Department (ED) visits per year. The mean number of steps taken by EM residents during 12-h shifts was measured. Mean steps taken during a shift were 7333 (95% confidence interval 6901-7764). Only nine (9.9%) pedometer readings reached the target level of 10,000 (10 K) steps or above. A t-test was used to compare steps with the hypothesized 10 K steps target. Recordings of 10K steps or greater were not correlated with ED sections (p=0.60) shift (medical vs. surgical, p=0.65) or ED census (r(2)physical activity regimens may help improve the overall well-being of EM residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability in impact of air pollution on subjective well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guodong; Shin, Kong Joo; Managi, Shunsuke

    2018-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of variability in impact of air pollution on life satisfaction (LS). Previous studies have shown robust negative impact of air pollution on subjective well-being (SWB). However, empirical studies that consider variability in air pollution effects through comparative city study are limited. This study provides comparative evaluation of two major Chinese cities: Beijing and Shanghai. We apply a geo-statistical spatial interpolation technique on pollution data from monitoring sites to estimate the Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), coarse particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM10) and fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) pollution exposure of respondents of a survey conducted in 2016. The results show that all pollutants have robust negative impacts on LS for Beijing residents, whereas only SO2 and NO2 have significant negative impacts on LS for Shanghai residents; Per unit impact of SO2 is greater in Shanghai, and that of NO2 is greater in Beijing. Beijing and Shanghai residents have almost same monetary valuation for SO2 reduction but Beijing residents place approximately 1.5 times valuation on NO2 reduction compared to Shanghai residents. Moreover, the LS of Beijing residents is sensitive to temporal changes in the pollution level, whereas Shanghai residents are unaffected by such changes.

  1. Nursing staffs' emotional well-being and caring behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chana, Navtej; Kennedy, Paul; Chessell, Zoë J

    2015-10-01

    To examine the relationships between structural factors (work stressors), individual factors (demographics and the personal resources of resilience and social support) and transactional factors (appraisals and coping), and nursing staffs' levels of burnout, psychological distress and caring behaviours. A further aim was to examine the relationships between nursing staffs' levels of burnout and psychological distress and their caring behaviours. Burnout and psychological distress levels have been found to be high in National Health Service nursing staff and furthermore this emotional distress has been found to affect patient care. In a National Health Service striving to provide high-quality patient-centred care, it is essential that factors affecting nursing staffs' well-being and their caring behaviours are examined. A cross-sectional correlation-based survey design. A sample of 102 nursing staff from an Acute National Health Service Trust were recruited in 2010. Participants completed the questionnaires: Nursing Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire-Short Form, Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale-2, Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Scale for Nurses, PsychNurse Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Caring Behaviours Inventory-revised. Due to the nonparametric nature of part of the data, Spearman's Rho correlations were used for analysis. Demographics were not found to be regularly correlated with nursing staffs' burnout, psychological distress or caring behaviours. Work stressors, coping strategies and self-efficacy were found to be significantly correlated with nursing staffs' burnout and psychological distress. Caring behaviours were also correlated with coping strategies and self-efficacy. Importantly, correlations were found between caring behaviours and nursing staffs' burnout and psychological distress. It is extremely important that the emotional well-being of nursing staff is supported, both for them, and

  2. Facilitation: A Novel Way to Improve Students' Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified...... and institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. Itwas successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue...... that facilitation makes study groups more inclusive, and they provide the potential for deep learning by structuring the learning situation...

  3. The health of healthcare: Emergency department physician well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gagne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physician health and well-being is an important issue that ultimately affects job performance. We compared the self-reported incidence of known medical issues, physical and mental health symptoms, and health behaviors of Emergency Physicians (EPs with the general public in the United States. Methods: Questions selected from a national survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC about public health trends were distributed to via Facebook to a private group of 12,917 EPs. Responses were compared between EPs and the general population using Chi-square tests of independence. Results: Our results demonstrated that EPs suffer less from chronic diseases, especially those related to the cardiopulmonary system; however, they suff er from a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain and infectious disease complaints. EPs also exhibit higher rates of mental health symptoms, sleep-related complications, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Awareness, education, and advocacy may help improve physician health and ultimately job performance.

  4. Music, health, and well-being: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Raymond A R

    2013-08-07

    The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.

  5. Music, health, and well-being: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components. PMID:23930991

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Assessment of Fetal Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lynn; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Dudiak, Kika M; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Henrichsen, Tara L; Meyer, Benjamin J; Nyberg, David A; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-12-01

    Although there is limited evidence that antepartum testing decreases the risk for fetal death in low-risk pregnancies, women with high-risk factors for stillbirth should undergo antenatal fetal surveillance. The strongest evidence supporting antepartum testing pertains to pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. The main ultrasound-based modalities to determine fetal health are the biophysical profile, modified biophysical profile, and duplex Doppler velocimetry. In patients at risk for cardiovascular compromise, fetal echocardiography may also be indicated to ensure fetal well-being. Although no single antenatal test has been shown to be superior, all have high negative predictive values. Weekly or twice-weekly fetal testing has become the standard practice in high-risk pregnancies. The timing for the initiation of assessments of fetal well-being should be tailored on the basis of the risk for stillbirth and the likelihood of survival with intervention. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  8. Climate equivalence scales and the effects of climate change on Russian welfare and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Frijters; Bernard M.S. van Praag

    1998-01-01

    This paper measures the concepts of welfare and well-being in Russia on the basis of two large Russian household surveys, carried out in 1993 and 1994. Welfare refers to satisfaction with income and well-being refers to satisfaction with life as a whole. This paper investigates how climate conditions in various parts of Russia affect the cost of living and well-being. Climate equivalence scales have been constructed for both welfare and well-being.

  9. Strength-based well-being indicators for Indigenous children and families: A literature review of Indigenous communities' identified well-being indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Jennifer; Smith, Addie

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream child and family well-being indicators frequently are based on measuring health, economic, and social deficits, and do not reflect Indigenous holistic and strength-based definitions of health and well-being. The present article is a review of literature that features Indigenous communities' self-identified strength-based indicators of child and family well-being. The literature search included Indigenous communities from across the world, incorporating findings from American Indians and Alaska Natives, First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, and Sámi communities. Sorting the identified indicators into the quadrants of the Relational Worldview, an Indigenous framework for well-being based on medicine wheel teachings that views health and well-being as a balance among physical, mental, contextual, and spiritual factors, the authors discuss the findings.

  10. Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Eliasson, Ingegärd

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county ( N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.

  11. Psychology's contribution to the well-being of older americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Do Facebook Status Updates Reflect Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Tov, William; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Qiu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, millions of people around the world use social networking sites to express everyday thoughts and feelings. Many researchers have tried to make use of social media to study users' online behaviors and psychological states. However, previous studies show mixed results about whether self-generated contents on Facebook reflect users' subjective well-being (SWB). This study analyzed Facebook status updates to determine the extent to which users' emotional expression predicted their SWB-specifically their self-reported satisfaction with life. It was found that positive emotional expressions on Facebook did not correlate with life satisfaction, whereas negative emotional expressions within the past 9-10 months (but not beyond) were significantly related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that both the type of emotional expressions and the time frame of status updates determine whether emotional expressions in Facebook status updates can effectively reflect users' SWB. The findings shed light on the characteristics of online social media and improve the understanding of how user-generated contents reflect users' psychological states.

  13. Dopaminergic Modulation of Decision Making and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robb B; Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-08

    The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach-avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. Copyright © 2015 Rutledge et al.

  14. Mobile Phone Use, Emotion Regulation, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Cynthia A; Lee, Sangmi

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the use of mobile phones to regulate negative emotions, considering both the role of different aspects of phone use and individual differences in emotion regulation strategies. A total of 287 young adult smartphone users completed an online survey that addressed use of mobile phones for negative emotion regulation. They responded to a phone loss scenario by rating how much they would miss various uses/functions of the phone (which could be involved in emotion regulation). Habitual use of reappraisal to regulate emotion was associated with missing both interpersonal contact and social support, but not access to entertainment/information. In contrast, habitual use of emotion suppression was associated only with missing entertainment/information content. Regulating negative emotions via mobile phone was associated with missing all three uses/functions of the phone, but perception that the phone was effective in remediating negative emotion was associated only with missing social support. Well-being was related to greater use and perceived effectiveness of the mobile phone for emotion regulation. Overall, this study demonstrates that mobile phones can yield psychological benefits, depending on how they are used. Findings suggest that using the phone for social support is most likely to lead to effective remediation of negative emotion. Interpretations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Time with children and employed parents' emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Shira

    2014-09-01

    Using the experience sampling method and survey data from the 500 Family Study this study examined how parents feel when they spend time with their children and whether their emotional experiences differ by type of activity and the parent's gender. I found that mothers spent more time in childcare than fathers but this disparity was primarily due to mothers' more frequent engagement in activities that were not child-centered (i.e., non-focused and passive childcare). Multilevel models further showed that engagement in these activities was related to higher positive affect. Shared meals and leisure activities were particularly beneficial to parents' emotional well-being and the likelihood of engaging in them was not affected by parents' paid work hours. By contrast, routine childcare was associated with increased stress and lower engagement but only among mothers. Mothers were also less likely to provide childcare in conjunction with their spouse. These findings reveal the subtle dimensions of the unequal division of childcare by gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design for Health and Well Being: Knitted Products for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.

  17. Well-being and excellence in the Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Charles L.

    In the symposium on Earth Sciences and Society at the Spring AGU Meeting May 29-June 1, Baltimore, Md.), I was assigned to speak on the maintenance of excellence and national well-being in the Earth sciences. I developed serious writer's block every time I approached the topic until I remembered a paragraph at the beginning of Doug Adams' great text, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe [Adams, 1982]. It tells how [A race of highly intelligent pan-dimensional beings once built themselves a gigantic supercomputer called Deep Thought to calculate once and for all the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, Universe and Everything. For seven and a half million years, Deep Thought computed and calculated, and in the end announced that the answer was in fact Forty-two—and so another, even bigger, computer had to be built to find out what the actual question was. And this computer, which was called the Earth, was so large that it was frequently mistaken for a planet-especially by the strange apelike beings who roamed its surface, totally unaware that they were simply part of a gigantic computer program. And this is very odd, because without that fairly simple and obvious piece of knowledge, nothing that ever happened on the Earth could possibly make the slightest bit of sense.

  18. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke

    2010-02-09

    To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Survey response rate of 51% (102/199). Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS) and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS). Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors); similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  19. Physical Activity Levels and Well-Being in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wonyul; Ik Suh, Young; Ryu, Jungsu; Heo, Jinmoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the interconnectedness of different intensity levels of physical activity and psychological (life satisfaction and positive affect) and physical (physical health) well-being. Participants were from the National Study of Midlife in the United States with assessments in 2004 and aged 25 to 74 living in the United States were included in the analyses. We conducted bivariate correlations to examine significant relationships among the study variables. In addition, after multicollinearity among the independent variable was checked, a series of hierarchical regression analyses with physical health, positive affect, and life satisfaction as criterion variables were conducted. The results showed that light physical activities were positively associated with physical health and life satisfaction in summer, whereas light physical activities and all dependent variables were positively correlated in winter. Furthermore, engaging in moderate physical activities was positively related only with physical health. Meanwhile, vigorous physical activities were not associated with life satisfaction, physical health, and positive affect in summer and winter.

  20. [Relationships between psychological well-being, lifestyle factors and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Enikő; Szabó, Gábor; F Szigeti, Judit; Balog, Piroska

    2015-03-22

    10 to 15% of the Hungarian fertile age population struggles with reproductivity problems. Previous researches have shown that psychological well-being and lifestyle factors play a pivotal role in overall health status, which is closely related to fertility. The aim of the study was to examine fertility-related psychological and lifestyle factors in a Hungarian sample. 194 women (115 infertile and 79 fertile) took part in the study. Standardized, validated questionnaires were used for the assessment of psychological factors and self-administered questions were used for exploring lifestyle factors. The results show that infertile women are younger (33.98±4.89 vs. 36.43±5.81 years, pfertile counterparts. The number of their depressive (BDI 14.00±12.21 vs. 7.79±9.17, p40.25±10.65, pfertile women. Findings related to lifestyle factors show that lower level of fluid consumption (1.71±0.67 vs. 1.95±0.68, pfertile group (OR = 1.65, CI = 2.58-1.06), independently of body mass index and age. The results confirm the findings of international researches showing that women struggling with infertility are in worse psychological condition than their fertile counterparts. The authors conclude that the findings demand further investigations and follow-up studies in order to more specifically determine the relationship between fluid consumption and fertility.

  1. [Bullying, work organization and employee well-being.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjœrg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn

    2004-12-01

    The study assessed the association between well-being, work-environment and employees? health among the personnel in savings- and other banks? branches with reference to whether they had been exposed to bullying at work. A questionnaire based on the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work was sent to all employees (N=1847) in the spring of 2002. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical package. The response rate was 80% with 1475 employees returning the questionnaire. Women were 86% (n=1192) of the responders. About 15% of the employees (n=209) had experienced some form of harassment in connection with work. The majority of those had experienced bullying (8% (n=110)). The victims of bullying were more likely to have poor psychosocial work-environment and were less likely to have experienced a positive relationship with supervisors and other staff. There was only minimal association between bullying and seeking medical attention for a selected number of medical conditions. The victims of bullying were more likely to have experienced significant stress recently (p=0.025), to be mentally exhausted at the end of the workday (p=0.013), to have significant sleep difficulties (p=0.001), and poor mental health (pworkplace, that they will quit their job. In light of this it is of importance to study the experience of bullying among those receiving benefits due to long-term sickness absence or disability.

  2. Dopaminergic Modulation of Decision Making and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach–avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. PMID:26156984

  3. Adolescent Psychological Well-Being by Identity Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tommy M.; Pittman, Joe F.

    2007-01-01

    High school-age adolescents (N=262) in two samples completed a measure of identity style, along with measures of self-esteem, hopelessness, delinquent attitudes, educational expectations, and optimism/efficacy. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the relationship between identity style and the other psychosocial variables. Participants…

  4. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.

  5. Exploring constructs of well-being, happiness and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Oleg N; Landhuis, C Erik

    2018-01-01

    Existing definitions of happiness, subjective well-being, and quality of life suggest conceptual overlap between these constructs. This study explored the relationship between these well-being constructs by applying widely used measures with satisfactory psychometric properties. University students ( n = 180) completed widely used well-being measures including the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. We analyzed the data using correlation, regression, and exploratory factor analysis. All included well-being measures demonstrated high loadings on the global well-being construct that explains about 80% of the variance in the OHQ, the psychological domain of Quality of Life and subjective well-being. The results show high positive correlations between happiness, psychological and health domains of quality of life, life satisfaction, and positive affect. Social and environmental domains of quality of life were poor predictors of happiness and subjective well-being after controlling for psychological quality of life. Together, these data provide support for a global well-being dimension and interchangeable use of terms happiness, subjective well-being, and psychological quality of life with the current sample and measures. Further investigation with larger heterogeneous samples and other well-being measures is warranted.

  6. Measuring Value in Internal Medicine Residency Training Hospitals Using Publicly Reported Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickedanz, Adam; Gupta, Reshma; Arora, Vineet M; Braddock, Clarence H

    2018-03-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) lacks measures of resident preparation for high-quality, cost-conscious practice. The authors used publicly reported teaching hospital value measures to compare internal medicine residency programs on high-value care training and to validate these measures against program director perceptions of value. Program-level value training scores were constructed using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program hospital quality and cost-efficiency data. Correlations with Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Annual Survey high-value care training measures were examined using logistic regression. For every point increase in program-level VBP score, residency directors were more likely to agree that GME programs have a responsibility to contain health care costs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.18, P = .04), their faculty model high-value care (aOR 1.07, P = .03), and residents are prepared to make high-value medical decisions (aOR 1.07, P = .09). Publicly reported clinical data offer valid measures of GME value training.

  7. BEAUTY, HEALTH AND WELL-BEING WITH COSMETOTEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETU Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cosmetotextiles, as another aspect of new beauty and health marques a growing success. This hybrid fabric, is definite as a textile article that contains a substance that is release sustainable on the human body skin pointed to perfume, change of appearance, maintenance in good condition, protection, or correction of body odors. Cosmetotextiles are created by microencapsulating different substances for body care or health, that are gradually transfer to the skin, by movement, pressure or the effect of the skin’s natural warmth and enzymes. The paper presents some elements regarding to the microencapsulating process (the major components of them general structure, the major advantages compare to usual presentation of cosmetic substances, some of the used active ingredients and them specific cosmetic and health benefits and the new generation of cosmetotextiles that bring together the latest innovations in fiber and textile structures and products. So, one of the manufacturing processes of a cosmetotextile is based on functionalisation of fibers by fixing microcapsules in them structure, resulting fibers as Novorel, Tencel C, Nilit Breeze, Emana, or by the functionalisation of fabrics, so of products made by these fabrics, where microcapsules are fixed on the external surface of the fabric, resulting in revolutionary “fabrics’ treatments” for beauty, health-care and well-being. Among these cosmeto fabrics and products are Sensitive Ultra Light Firming fabric, Sensitive Fabric Body ware, textile fabrics with the revolutionary Quiospheres technology, Doubleskin and different cosmeto-knitted products including specific placed areas with micro encapsulated ingredients, depending on them destinations (slimming, anti-cellulite treatment, corrective effect

  8. [Personal resources relevant to psychological well-being in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual Media and Childhood Well-being and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Strasburger, Victor C; Brown, Jane D; Donnerstein, Edward; Lenhart, Amanda; Ward, L Monique

    2017-11-01

    Sexual content is highly prevalent in traditional media, and portrayals rarely depict the responsibilities and risks (eg, condom use, pregnancy) associated with sexual activity. Exposure to such content is linked with shifts in attitudes about sex and gender, earlier progression to sexual activity, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection among adolescents. However, little information is available about moderators and mediators of these effects. We also know little about digital media, their sex-related content, and their potential influence on youth. Data from a few studies of older youth indicate that sexual displays on social media sites are related to problematic beliefs and behaviors among those who post this content and among viewers. Online pornography appears to be more problematic for youth than off-line sources. Given the vast and increasing amount of time youth spend online and their developmental openness to influence, more research attention to digital sexual media is needed. Those who undertake this work should identify potential negative consequences of use and opportunities to improve adolescent sexual health through digital media. Studies of on- and off-line media in which researchers examine younger media audiences, identify processes explaining sexual media effects on behavior, and moderators of effects are needed. Such studies could be used to inform interventions to reduce negative outcomes and increase positive media effects. Policy makers should stimulate the development of such interventions, including tools to help parents identify and manage negative media influences on their children's sexual well-being and development and dissemination of innovative media literacy programs related to sexual health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Iranian and Swedish adolescents: differences in personality traits and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N.E. Kjell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011 in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose.Methods. Iranian (N = 122, mean age 15.23 years and Swedish (N = 109, mean age 16.69 years adolescents were asked to fill out a Big Five personality test, as well as questionnaires assessing subjective well-being and psychological well-being.Results. Swedes reported higher subjective and psychological well-being, while Iranians reported higher degree of Agreeableness, Openness and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Extraversion did not differ between cultures. Neuroticism was related to well-being within both cultures. Openness was related to well-being only among Iranians, and Extraversion only among Swedes. A mediation analysis within the Swedish sample, the only sample meeting statistical criteria for mediation analysis to be conducted, demonstrated that psychological well-being mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and subjective well-being as well as between Extraversion and subjective well-being.Conclusions. Certain personality traits, such as Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, relate differently to well-being measures across cultures. Meanwhile, Neuroticism seems to relate similarly across cultures at least with regard to subjective well-being. Furthermore, the results give an indication on how psychological well-being might mediate the relationship between certain personality traits and subjective well-being. Overall, the complexity of the results illustrates the need for more research whilst supporting the importance of contextualizing well-being

  11. Well-being and pressures of daily life in two West Bank villages-Exploring context and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaia, Yoke; de Jong, Joop; Abdullah, Anita; Giacaman, Rita; van de Ven, Peter

    2018-06-05

    Interest in the well-being of people exposed to long-term violence and conflict has tended to focus on measurable effects of acute traumatic events, while attention to the pressures of their daily living context is relatively new. Using qualitative and quantitative data from a 2005 survey of all female family caretakers in 2 neighbouring Israeli-occupied West Bank villages (n = 820), we explored the associations of demographic, health-related and contextual factors with reported pressures and WHO-5 well-being index scores. The final model explained 17.8% of the variance with negative associations between health-related factors ("back-aches," "stomach aches" "psychological illness in the family") and family-related factors ("male head of household aggressive", "male head of household physically violent") and the WHO-5 well-being index scores. We found positive associations between socio-economic factors ("standard of living"; "number of rooms") and village-related factors ("residency in village A/B") and the WHO-5 well-being index score. Exploring the daily living context of villages A and B illuminated how the impact of historical and political events differed, even in villages that are geographically close. The paper lends support to calls for including politics and history in research on well-being in contexts of long-term violence and conflict. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Positive mental health and well-being among a third level student population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS.

  13. The influence of community well-being on mortality among Registered First Nations people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lisa N; Penney, Chris; Peters, Paul A

    2016-07-20

    Living in a community with lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher mortality. However, few studies have examined associations between community socioeconomic characteristics and mortality among the First Nations population. The 1991-to-2006 Census Mortality and Cancer Cohort follow-up, which tracked a 15% sample of Canadians aged 25 or older, included 57,300 respondents who self-identified as Registered First Nations people or Indian band members. The Community Well-Being Index (CWB), a measure of the social and economic well-being of communities, consists of income, education, labour force participation, and housing components. A dichotomous variable was used to indicate residence in a community with a CWB score above or below the average for First Nations communities. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated for First Nations cohort members in communities with CWB scores above and below the First Nations average. Cox proportional hazards models examined the impact of CWB when controlling for individual characteristics. The ASMR for First Nations cohort members in communities with a below-average CWB was 1,057 per 100,000 person-years at risk, compared with 912 for those in communities with an above-average CWB score. For men, living in a community with below-average income and labour force participation CWB scores was associated with an increased hazard of death, even when individual socioeconomic characteristics were taken into account. Women in communities with below-average income scores had an increased hazard of death. First Nations people in communities with below-average CWB scores tended to have higher mortality rates. For some components of the CWB, effects remained even when individual socioeconomic characteristics were taken into account.

  14. Predictors of subjective well-being among older Ghanaians | Calys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The single item measure of life satisfaction was used to determine subjective wellbeing. Descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the predictors of SWB. Results: A total of 4724 individuals aged 50 years and above responded to the questionnaires. Of these 50.4% were males.

  15. Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Knez, Igor; Eliasson, Ingegärd

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite site...

  16. The authentic worker's well-being and performance: the relationship between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Ralph; Taris, Toon W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on authenticity has mainly focused on trait conceptualizations of authenticity (e.g., Wood et al., 2008), whereas in specific environments (e.g., at work) state conceptualizations of authenticity (cf. Van den Bosch & Taris, 2013) are at least as relevant. For example, working conditions are subject to change, and this could well have consequences for employees' perceived level of authenticity at work. The current study employs a work-specific, state-like conceptualization of authenticity to investigate the relations between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes. A series of ten separate hierarchical regression analyses using data from 685 participants indicated that after controlling for selected work characteristics and demographic variables, authenticity at work accounted for on average 11% of the variance of various wellbeing and work outcomes. Of the three subscales of authenticity at work (i.e., authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting influence), self-alienation was the strongest predictor of outcomes, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence, respectively. These findings are discussed in the light of their practical and theoretical implications.

  17. Well-Being at Work Scale: Exploratory and Confirmatory Validation in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Demo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given the lack of instruments to measure both affective and cognitive elements of well-being at work, the objective of this study is to look for evidence of validity in the US regarding the well-being at work scale, which was first validated in Brazil to measure employee well-being perceptions. Two studies using two different American samples of 809 participants in total were conducted for the exploratory and confirmatory validation of the scale. Construct validity was determined using convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity, which was assessed using a structural equation model to determine a correlation between well-being at work and human resources management practices. This research provides a comprehensive and operationally valid measure of well-being in work settings. The three-factor model can be used as a diagnostic tool for managers who wish to identify and improve the well-being of their work teams.

  18. Testing the Main Determinants of Teachers' Professional Well-Being by Using a Mixed Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the perception of professional well-being appears as a problematic issue in past studies. Literature reviews show that previous studies have not yet reached an agreement on measures of teachers' professional well-being. Furthermore, when we consider the cultural context, a research gap becomes clearer. The aim of this study was to…

  19. Subjective well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, M S C; Cappa, C; Patton, G C

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being incorporates elements of life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. It is increasingly relevant in the assessment of population health and economic development. There are strong continuities in well-being from youth into later life. Despite its significance, few global surveys capture subjective well-being. This paper describes patterns of well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries [Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine] and investigates association between demographic factors and well-being. Nationally representative household surveys, including large Roma population samples, were conducted as part of UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme. Young people aged 15-24 years ( N  = 11 944) indicated their satisfaction with life, happiness and expectations about the future. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to determine the impact of individual-level predictors while accounting for country- and cluster-level variability. Around 40% of young people considered themselves very happy or very satisfied with their life overall. Three quarters reported optimism. Yet well-being varied greatly between countries, with youth in BiH and Ukraine reporting lowest levels of well-being. Current marriage, increasing wealth, higher education, rural residence and not having children were associated with greater well-being. Patterns of well-being in youth vary substantially between countries and are only partly accounted for by standard demographic characteristics. Despite higher rates of adolescent marriage and childbearing, and lower levels of educational attainment and employment, Roma youth had similar levels of well-being to the general population.

  20. Life-threatening event reduces subjective well-being through activating avoidance motivation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Dina; Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Heller, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Drawing on the approach-avoidance theory, we have examined the role of avoidance motivation in explaining the negative effects of a life-threatening event on subjective well-being (SWB). Residents of the south of Israel were surveyed during heavy missile attacks in January 2009 (T1; n = 283), and again after 6 months (T2; n = 212) and 1 year (T3; n = 154). During the missile attacks, we also surveyed a group from the center of the country (T1; n = 102), not exposed to the attacks. The results indicate that avoidance motivation was activated by the life threat and further mediated its detrimental influence on SWB measures (positive/negative affects, anxiety, and subjective health). Moreover, within the southern sample, the drop in avoidance motivation over time mediated the parallel drop in SWB. In contrast to avoidance motivation, approach motivation remained stable over time and was related to positive emotions. The role of avoidance and approach motivations in life-threatening situations is further discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Does gender identity influence children's psychological well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger, Jennifer L; Carver, Priscilla R; Perry, David G

    2004-07-01

    This study examined influences of gender identity on change in preadolescents' adjustment over time. In each of two successive years, three measures of gender identity (felt gender typicality, contentment with gender assignment, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and four measures of adjustment (self-esteem, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and acceptance by peers) were collected. Low gender typicality, low gender contentedness, and high felt pressure all foreshadowed deterioration on one or more indexes of adjustment. The combination of low gender typicality with high felt pressure was especially conducive to internalizing problems, underscoring the importance of the cognitive organization of the gender identity variables. The advantages of a multidimensional perspective on gender identity are discussed. Copyright 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  2. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potentia...

  3. Psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life in a UK population with Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Gavin; Orford, Amy; Staines, Roy; McGee, Anna; Smith, Kimberley J

    2017-01-12

    To determine whether psychosocial well-being is associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people with Usher syndrome. The survey was advertised online and through deafblind-related charities, support groups and social groups throughout the UK. 90 people with Usher syndrome took part in the survey. Inclusion criteria are having a diagnosis of Usher syndrome, being 18 or older and being a UK resident. All participants took part in a survey that measured depressive symptoms, loneliness and social support (predictors) and their physical and mental HRQOL (outcomes). Measured confounders included age-related, sex-related and health-related characteristics. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses examined the association of each psychosocial well-being predictor with the physical and mental HRQOL outcomes while controlling for confounders in a stepwise manner. After adjusting for all confounders, psychosocial well-being was shown to predict physical and mental HRQOL in our population with Usher syndrome. Increasing depressive symptoms were predictive of poorer physical (β=-0.36, pUsher syndrome. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that psychosocial well-being is an important factor to consider in people with Usher syndrome alongside functional and physical impairment within research and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Alternative approaches to well-being and engagement in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This article describes some innovative approaches to understanding, measuring and attributing value to traditional wisdom in Vanuatu. The article uses decolonising methodologies to privilege indigenous perspectives. In particular, the study features the use of endogenous practices, such as sand drawing, as a vehicle for facilitating community engagement in the research. The results of the project reveal that, in the context of broad structural support for customary practices, communities leveraging traditional wisdom into commercial realms are able to generate livelihoods and maintain cultural heritage transmission. Local communities report increased pride and pleasure in the resurgence and innovation of cultural practices. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Autobiographical memory and well-being in aging: The central role of semantic self-images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, Clare J; Holmes, Emily A; Murphy, Susannah E; Ellis, Judi A

    2015-05-01

    Higher levels of well-being are associated with longer life expectancies and better physical health. Previous studies suggest that processes involving the self and autobiographical memory are related to well-being, yet these relationships are poorly understood. The present study tested 32 older and 32 younger adults using scales measuring well-being and the affective valence of two types of autobiographical memory: episodic autobiographical memories and semantic self-images. Results showed that valence of semantic self-images, but not episodic autobiographical memories, was highly correlated with well-being, particularly in older adults. In contrast, well-being in older adults was unrelated to performance across a range of standardised memory tasks. These results highlight the role of semantic self-images in well-being, and have implications for the development of therapeutic interventions for well-being in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teacher Support Resources, Need Satisfaction and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Lloret-Segura, Susana; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo

    2015-03-03

    Based on Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R), this study examines the relationships among teacher support resources, psychological need satisfaction, engagement and burnout in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher psychological needs were identified based on the study of Bess and on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the constructs selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by structural equation modeling. The results reveal a good model fit to the data (NNFI = .88; CFI = .90; GFI = .90; RMSEA = .061). The analyses indicate a positive and significant effect of latent variable Psychological Need Satisfaction on engagement (β = .74, p Satisfaction in the relationship between teacher support resources and both engagement and burnout (additional paths did not improve the model fit: Δχ2(2) = 2.428, p = .29). Finally, practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Well-Being and Posttraumatic Growth Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Niveen; Segal, Steven P

    2018-04-01

    The Syrian War has created a mass exodus of Syrian citizens to neighboring countries and exposed them to many atrocities. We explored factors affecting well-being and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of refugees residing in Jordan. Participants (N = 250) were surveyed via nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Outcome criteria included a global well-being rating and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Trauma exposure assessment included The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and The War Events Questionnaire. Ordinary least squares regression examined associations between potential contributors to refugee well-being and PTG, including work, age, sex, income, education, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, physical pain, health, NGO assistance, psychotic/affective mental disorder, and length of residence in Jordan. Mean participant score on the PTSD-HTQ scale was 2.37 (SD = 0.63; range: 1 [no symptoms] to 3.88 [extremely severe symptoms]). Additionally, 74.6% of participants received NGO assistance and 92.7% experienced war events. Univariate and multivariate results indicated enhancement of well-being was associated with income, r = .34, β = .26, p Syrian refugees' mental health. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Original article Entitlement and subjective well-being: a three-nations study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB: hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological. Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998 and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300. To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF. Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.

  9. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  10. Population facts that can spur women's well being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1994-01-01

    Although women's rights proposals included in the International Conference on Population and Development deserve support on their own merit, governments are more likely to increase funding for human development if the environmental and economic advantages of investing in women are spelled out. A significant negative association between income growth and population growth emerged in the 1980s. During this decade, 41 countries where population was growing more slowly demonstrated an average income growth of 1.23% per year, while average income fell by an average of 1.25% per year in 41 countries where there was more rapid population growth. In the 1965-80 period, there was no such correlation. Moreover, population control is among the most effective measures for protecting the environment. If--through female education, women's rights, maternal-child health, and family planning--the United Nations' low population projection existed in the year 2050 as opposed to the medium projection (2.2 billion higher), 4.4 million square kilometers of land would be saved and there would be 9.3 billion tones less in carbon dioxide emissions per year. This would be equivalent to halting all current deforestation and a 26% improvement in global energy improvement. Achievement of the low projection would further result in 342 million fewer cases of malnutrition than the medium projection.

  11. Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS. The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11, educational qualifications (at age 33, personality traits (at age 50, current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54. Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.

  12. Emotional Intelligence Relates to Well-Being: Evidence from the Situational Judgment Test of Emotional Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Jeremy; Betancourt, Anthony; Holtzman, Steven; Minsky, Jennifer; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D

    2012-07-01

    This research was conducted to examine whether people high in emotional intelligence (EI) have greater well-being than people low in EI. The Situational Test of Emotion Management, Scales of Psychological Well-being, and Day Reconstruction Method were completed by 131 college students. Responses to the Situational Test of Emotion Management were strongly related to eudaimonic well-being as measured by responses on the Scales of Psychological Well-being (r=.54). Furthermore, the ability to manage emotions was related to hedonic well-being, correlating with both the frequency of experienced positive affect and the frequency of experienced negative affect, as measured by the Day Reconstruction Method. Two aspects of these results suggest a relationship between EI and well-being. First, the observed relationship between ability EI and psychological well-being is the largest reported in the literature to date. Second, this study is the first use of the Day Reconstruction Method to examine the relationship between well-being and EI. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for training emotion management to enhance well-being. Methodological advances for future research are also suggested. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. The Business Case for Investing in Physician Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait; Goh, Joel; Sinsky, Christine

    2017-12-01

    on investment measurable. Addressing this issue is not only the organization's ethical responsibility, it is also the fiscally responsible one.

  14. What does a well-being perspective add to our understanding of poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Khadija

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on unique survey data for rural Pakistan, we investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on life satisfaction with particular emphasis on subjective well-being measurement to evaluate poverty and its different components. The data elicits information on overall well-being in terms of households’ satisfaction with the current socio-economic status as well as financial well-being regarding satisfaction with the current income or expenditure. We estimate a happiness model to e...

  15. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...

  16. 'I try not to bother the residents too much' - the use of capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Lillan Mo; Granas, Anne Gerd; Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Kjome, Reidun Lisbet Skeide

    2016-01-01

    Capillary blood glucose measurements are regularly used for nursing home residents with diabetes. The usefulness of these measurements relies on clear indications for use, correct measurement techniques, proper documentation and clinical use of the resulting blood glucose values. The use of a regular, invasive procedure may also entail additional challenges in a population of older, multimorbid patients who often suffer from cognitive impairment or dementia. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of physicians, registered nurses and auxiliary nurses on the use, usefulness and potential challenges of using capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes, and the procedures for doing so. This was a qualitative study that used three profession-specific focus group interviews. Interviews were transcribed in modified verbatim form and analysed in accordance with Malterud's principles of systematic text condensation. Five physicians, four registered nurses and three auxiliary nurses participated in the focus groups. All professional groups regarded capillary blood glucose measurements as a necessity in the management of diabetes, the physicians to ensure that the treatment is appropriate, and the nurses to be certain and assured about their caring decisions. Strict glycaemic control and excessive measurements were avoided in order to promote the well-being and safety of the residents. Sufficient knowledge of diabetes symptoms, equivalent practices for glucose measurement, and unambiguous documentation and communication of results were determined to be most helpful. However, all professional groups seldom involved the residents in managing their own measurements and stated that guidelines and training had been inconsistent or lacking. Inadequate procedures and training in diabetes care may compromise the rationale for capillary blood glucose measurements in nursing homes, and hence the residents' safety. These concerns should be addressed together

  17. Eating habits and subjective well-being. A typology of students in Chilean state universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Etchebarne, Soledad; Mora, Marcos; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in the place of residence and the frequency of consumption of eight food groups. A cluster analysis was used to determine student typologies. Three typologies of students were distinguished with significant differences in the average scores of the SWLS and SWFL scales, self-perception of health, days with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Father Involvement, Nurturant Fathering, and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Camille C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the psychological well-being among young adult women. A total of 99 young adult, female, university students completed retrospective measures of nurturant fathering, father involvement, and measures of current psychological well-being (measured in terms of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological distress). Results indicated that retrospective perceptions of both fat...

  19. Perceived Changes in Well-Being of Parents with a Child in a Therapeutic Toddler Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Alexander H. C.; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Oud, Johan H. L.; Savelberg, Martine M. H. W.

    2000-01-01

    Eighty-one Dutch mothers and 67 fathers completed a questionnaire developed to measure perceived changes in well-being of parents with a toddler with motor disabilities who participated in a therapeutic toddler class. Parents perceived a positive change in well-being 10 months after their child started participation. The impact was greater for…

  20. The Role of Basic Needs Fulfillment in Prediction of Subjective Well-Being among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkdogan, Turgut; Duru, Erdinc

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the role of fulfillment level of university students' basic needs in predicting the level of their subjective well being. The participants were 627 students (56% female, 44% male) attending different faculties of Pamukkale University. In this study, subjective well being was measured with Life Satisfaction Scale…

  1. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  2. Starting school: The effect of early childhood factors on child well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette; Rosenstjerne Andersen, Angelo

    Children’s well-being around the age when they start school is crucial for their future success in the educational system. Factors in the first 3 years of a child’s life matter for the child’s well-being when he or she starts school. This article analyzes the relationship between early childhood...... factors–such as maternal employment, family structure, and family life–and future child well-being. The analysis uses the psychosocial SDQ-scale and the number of problems experienced around starting school as measures of well-being. Results show that family factors in particular are important, while...

  3. Quality of life considered as well-being: views from philosophy and palliative care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Gert; Dekkers, Wim

    2005-01-01

    The main measure of quality of life is well-being. The aim of this article is to compare insights about well-being from contemporary philosophy with the practice-related opinions of palliative care professionals. In the first part of the paper two philosophical theories on well-being are introduced: Sumner's theory of authentic happiness and Griffin's theory of prudential perfectionism. The second part presents opinions derived from interviews with 19 professional palliative caregivers. Both the well-being of patients and the well-being of the carers themselves are considered in this empirical exploration. In the third part the attention shifts from the description of "well-being" to prescriptions for the promotion of well-being. Our interview data are analysed in light of the theories of Sumner and Griffin for clues to the promotion of "well-being." The analysis (1) underscores the subject-relativity of well-being, (2) points out that values that are considered important in every life still seem to be relevant (at least in palliative care practice), and (3) shows the importance of living a certain sort of life when aiming to enhance dying patients' well-being.

  4. Accounting for the impact of conservation on human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, E J; McGregor, J A; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, J M; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-10-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  5. Living Near to Attractive Nature? A Well-Being Indicator for Ranking Dutch, Danish, and German Functional Urban Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, Michiel N.; Veneri, Paolo

    While nature is widely acknowledged to contribute to people's well-being, nature based well-being indicators at city-level appear to be underprovided. This study aims at filling this gap by introducing a novel indicator based on the proximity of city-residents to nature that is of high-amenity.

  6. Urban Green Space Perception and Its Contribution to Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothencz, Gyula; Kolcsár, Ronald; Cabrera-Barona, Pablo; Szilassi, Péter

    2017-07-12

    Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors' level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors' crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics. Results revealed that perceived green space characteristics with direct well-being benefits were strong predictors of both dependent variables. Perceived green space characteristics with indirect, yet fundamental, well-being benefits, namely, regulating ecosystem services had minor influence on the dependent variables. The crowd-sourced geo-tagged data predicted only the perceived quality of life contributions; but revealed spatial patterns of recreational green space use and aesthetics. This study recommends that regulating ecosystem services should be planned with a focus on residents' aesthetic and recreational needs. Further research on the combination of green space visitors´ perceptions and crowd-sourced geo-tagged data is suggested to promote planning for well-being and health benefits of urban green spaces.

  7. One-Year Linear Trajectories of Symptoms, Physical Functioning, Cognitive Functioning, Emotional Well-being, and Spiritual Well-being Among Patients Receiving Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Paul, Sudeshna; Ward, Sandra E; Gilet, Constance A; Hladik, Gerald A

    2018-01-25

    This study evaluated 1-year linear trajectories of patient-reported dimensions of quality of life among patients receiving dialysis. Longitudinal observational study. 227 patients recruited from 12 dialysis centers. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Participants completed an hour-long interview monthly for 12 months. Each interview included patient-reported outcome measures of overall symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System), physical functioning (Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), cognitive functioning (Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory), emotional well-being (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and spiritual well-being (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale). For each dimension, linear and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used. Linear trajectories of the 5 dimensions were jointly modeled as a multivariate outcome over time. Although dimension scores fluctuated greatly from month to month, overall symptoms, cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and spiritual well-being improved over time. Older compared with younger participants reported higher scores across all dimensions (all Pspiritual well-being compared with their white counterparts (P<0.01). Clustering analysis of dimension scores revealed 2 distinctive clusters. Cluster 1 was characterized by better scores than those of cluster 2 in nearly all dimensions at baseline and by gradual improvement over time. Study was conducted in a single region of the United States and included mostly patients with high levels of function across the dimensions of quality of life studied. Multidimensional patient-reported quality of life varies widely from month to month regardless of whether overall trajectories improve or worsen over time. Additional research is needed to identify the best approaches to incorporate

  8. Defining and measuring the mean residence time of lateral surface transient storage zones in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Jackson; R. Haggerty; S.V. Apte; A. Coleman; K.J. Drost

    2012-01-01

    Surface transient storage (STS) has functional significance in stream ecosystems because it increases solute interaction with sediments. After volume, mean residence time is the most important metric of STS, but it is unclear how this can be measured accurately or related to other timescales and field-measureable parameters. We studied mean residence time of lateral...

  9. [Eating habits and subjective well-being among university students in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Paiva, Galo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    To distinguish typologies of university students in southern Chile on the basis of their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and to characterize them according to their eating habits inside and outside the place of residence, aspects associated with health and demographic characteristics. A structured questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347 students at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instruments for collecting information included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and the HRQOL (Health-related Quality of Life Index). Questions were asked about eating habits inside and outside the place of residence, weight and approximate height, and variables for demographic classification. Using a cluster analysis, three student typologies were distinguished, with significant differences in the SWLS and SWFL scores. The typologies differed in the number of days affected by emotional health problems, classification of their nutritional status (BMI), self-perception of their state of health, importance of food to personal well-being, place of residence during the period of studies, frequency of eating in the place of residence and frequency of meals at inconvenient times. The possibility of living with parents during the period of university studies is associated with better eating habits, better emotional health and self-perception of health, lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, and greater satisfaction with the life and food-related life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress, burnout, and maladaptive coping: strategies for surgeon well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; Khan, Zarrish; Babu, Maya; Hamed, Osama

    2011-08-01

    Practicing physicians and surgeons, medical and surgical residents, and medical students dedicate their lives to providing optimum patient care, but doing so places them at significant risk for personal and professional stress and, ultimately, burnout. Of great concern is the fact that unrecognized stress and unmanaged burnout are more prevalent among residents than previously believed. Research shows that stress without conflict resolution may lead to burnout, which can contribute to impaired technical performance, medical errors, physical and mental health problems, and even increase the risk of suicide. Therefore, it is crucial that surgeons, and the organizations that train and employ them, recognize the early signs of stress and burnout, adopt adaptive coping strategies, and maintain a culture wherein work-life balance and surgeon well-being are shared goals.

  11. A virtual reality endoscopic simulator augments general surgery resident cancer education as measured by performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ian; Buchberg, Brian; Tsikitis, V Liana; Herzig, Daniel O; Vetto, John T; Lu, Kim C

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. The need for screening colonoscopies, and thus adequately trained endoscopists, particularly in rural areas, is on the rise. Recent increases in required endoscopic cases for surgical resident graduation by the Surgery Residency Review Committee (RRC) further emphasize the need for more effective endoscopic training during residency to determine if a virtual reality colonoscopy simulator enhances surgical resident endoscopic education by detecting improvement in colonoscopy skills before and after 6 weeks of formal clinical endoscopic training. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected surgery resident data on an endoscopy simulator. Residents performed four different clinical scenarios on the endoscopic simulator before and after a 6-week endoscopic training course. Data were collected over a 5-year period from 94 different residents performing a total of 795 colonoscopic simulation scenarios. Main outcome measures included time to cecal intubation, "red out" time, and severity of simulated patient discomfort (mild, moderate, severe, extreme) during colonoscopy scenarios. Average time to intubation of the cecum was 6.8 min for those residents who had not undergone endoscopic training versus 4.4 min for those who had undergone endoscopic training (p Virtual reality endoscopic simulation is an effective tool for both augmenting surgical resident endoscopy cancer education and measuring improvement in resident performance after formal clinical endoscopic training.

  12. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Delaney, Liam; O'Farrelly, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Nick; Daly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems. Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing. The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday. The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments.

  13. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems.Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing.The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM. Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday.The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments.

  14. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F

    2010-01-01

    The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.

  15. Four-year stability, change, and multidirectionality of well-being in very-old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Markus; Schilling, Oliver K; Reidick, Ortrun; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2015-09-01

    We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed. However, mean numbers of depressive symptoms were close to the cutoff point of clinical depression. Analyses of intra-individual correlations revealed high loadings of depressive symptoms, positive affect, and environmental mastery on a common factor. However, several well-being indicators were not substantially interrelated on the intra-individual level, suggesting their trajectories were rather independent of each other. Acceptance of death and dying was surprisingly high and even increased, whereas mean levels in fear of death were very low and declined over time. Overall, our findings do not suggest late-life dedifferentiation of well-being trajectories in very-old age. Our results rather support the need to consider indicators of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as mental distress, to understand the multifaceted and multidirectional dynamics of well-being in very-old age. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. PREDICTING INDIVIDUAL WELL-BEING THROUGH THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Kern, Margaret L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kapelner, Adam; Agrawal, Megha; Blanco, Eduardo; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Park, Gregory; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2016-01-01

    We present the task of predicting individual well-being, as measured by a life satisfaction scale, through the language people use on social media. Well-being, which encompasses much more than emotion and mood, is linked with good mental and physical health. The ability to quickly and accurately assess it can supplement multi-million dollar national surveys as well as promote whole body health. Through crowd-sourced ratings of tweets and Facebook status updates, we create message-level predictive models for multiple components of well-being. However, well-being is ultimately attributed to people, so we perform an additional evaluation at the user-level, finding that a multi-level cascaded model, using both message-level predictions and userlevel features, performs best and outperforms popular lexicon-based happiness models. Finally, we suggest that analyses of language go beyond prediction by identifying the language that characterizes well-being.

  17. Religiosity and Coping: Racial Stigma and Psychological Well-Being among African American Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Martin, Pamela P; Hope, Elan C; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lawrence Scott, Marquisha

    2018-06-02

    This study examined how having a relationship with God served as a protective factor between racial stigma beliefs and psychological well-being. A church sample of African American adolescent girls (N = 117, M age = 15) completed measures on racial stigma, psychological well-being, and reports on having a relationship with God. After controlling for adolescent age, family income, and church attendance, positive racial beliefs and having a relationship with God were associated with a healthier psychological well-being. Findings also revealed that having a relationship with God and internalizing healthier racial beliefs were associated with a healthier psychological well-being, whereas reporting higher levels of having a relationship with God served as a protective factor for African American girls when internalizing moderate levels of racial stigma. Overall, results suggest that having a relationship with God can serve as a coping mechanism and promote a healthier psychological well-being for African American adolescent girls.

  18. The moderating role of age in the relationship between volunteering motives and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuen Wan; You, Jin; Fung, Helene H

    2012-12-01

    Driven by socioemotional selectivity theory, this study examined whether age moderated the associations of volunteering motives with physical and psychological well-being in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese volunteers. Volunteering motives were measured by the volunteer functions inventory. Findings revealed that even after controlling for demographic characteristics and volunteering experience, age was related to higher social and value motives but lower career motives, and moderated the associations of social and protective motives with well-being. The associations of social motives with physical well-being were positive among older volunteers, but were negative among younger- and middle-aged volunteers. While protective motives were positively related to psychological well-being among all the volunteers, such effects were stronger among younger- and middle-aged volunteers than among older volunteers. Findings highlight the role of age in determining the relationship between volunteering motives and well-being.

  19. Altruism, Helping, and Volunteering: Pathways to Well-Being in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, Eva; Bhatta, Tirth; Lovegreen, Loren D.; Kahana, Boaz; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We examined the influence of prosocial orientations including altruism, volunteering, and informal helping on positive and negative well-being outcomes among retirement community dwelling elders. Method We utilize data from 2 waves, 3 years apart, of a panel study of successful aging (N = 585). Psychosocial well-being outcomes measured include life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, and depressive symptomatology. Results Ordinal logistic regression results indicate that altruistic attitudes, volunteering, and informal helping behaviors make unique contributions to the maintenance of life satisfaction, positive affect and other well being outcomes considered in this research. Predictors explain variance primarily in the positive indicators of psychological well-being, but are not significantly associated with the negative outcomes. Female gender and functional limitations are also associated with diminished psychological well-being. Discussion Our findings underscore the value of altruistic attitudes as important additional predictors, along with prosocial behaviors in fostering life satisfaction and positive affect in old age. PMID:23324536

  20. Childlessness, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction among the elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Guiping

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of childlessness on the well-being of persons aged 65 and above in China. It is based on an application of ordered-logit regression in the analysis of the data from the 2002 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in 22 provinces of China (N = 13,447). It compares parents with the childless elderly, focusing on three dimensions of psychological well-being, namely feelings of anxiety, loneliness, and uselessness, and on life satisfaction. The findings include the following. First, with control of social demographic variables of age, gender and education, childlessness is significantly associated with life satisfaction, feeling of anxiety and loneliness, but not feeling of uselessness. The childless elderly are less satisfied with their lives and feel more anxious and lonely than do parents, but they do not necessarily feel significantly more useless. Second, when controlled with social-demographic variables and additional socioeconomic variables of residence, living arrangement, availability of pension and medical services, childlessness is no longer significantly related to anxiety and loneliness, and it is related at only a marginally-significant level to life satisfaction. Third, individual education, place of residence, living arrangements, economic security and access to medical services are consistently related to life satisfaction and psychological well-being among the elderly. We conclude that providing social investments in education in early life and economic security and medical insurance in later life for both the childless and parents are crucial for improving individual psychological well-being and life satisfaction for the elderly.

  1. Well-being among persons at risk of psychosis: the role of self-labeling, shame, and stigma stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Müller, Mario; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-04-01

    When young people at risk of psychosis experience early signs of the disorder or early intervention, they may label themselves as "mentally ill." However, empirical data related to the potentially harmful effects of self-labeling and stigma among young people at risk of psychosis are lacking. This study used a stress-coping model to examine mechanisms by which stigma may exert an impact on young people at risk of psychosis. The authors assessed self-reports of perceived public stigma, shame about having a mental illness, self-labeling, and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor (stigma stress) as predictors of well-being among 172 residents of Zürich, Switzerland, who were between 13 and 35 years old. All participants were at high risk or ultra-high risk of psychosis or at risk of bipolar disorder. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and well-being was measured by instruments that assessed quality of life, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling were independently associated with increased stigma stress. More stigma stress, in turn, predicted reduced well-being, independent of age, gender, symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity. Stigma stress partly mediated the effects of perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling on well-being. Perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling appear to be associated with stigma stress and reduced well-being among young people at risk of psychosis. With early intervention programs gaining traction worldwide, effective strategies to address the shame and stigma associated with at-risk states and early psychosis are needed.

  2. Measuring general surgery residents' communication skills from the patient's perspective using the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stausmire, Julie M; Cashen, Constance P; Myerholtz, Linda; Buderer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) has been used and validated to assess Family and Emergency Medicine resident communication skills from the patient's perspective. However, it has not been previously reported as an outcome measure for general surgery residents. The purpose of this study is to establish initial benchmarking data for the use of the CAT as an evaluation tool in an osteopathic general surgery residency program. Results are analyzed quarterly and used by the program director to provide meaningful feedback and targeted goal setting for residents to demonstrate progressive achievement of interpersonal and communication skills with patients. The 14-item paper version of the CAT (developed by Makoul et al. for residency programs) asks patients to anonymously rate surgery residents on discrete communication skills using a 5-point rating scale immediately after the clinical encounter. Results are reported as the percentage of items rated as "excellent" (5) by the patient. The setting is a hospital-affiliated ambulatory urban surgery office staffed by the residency program. Participants are representative of adult patients of both sexes across all ages with diverse ethnic backgrounds. They include preoperative and postoperative patients, as well as those needing diagnostic testing and follow-up. Data have been collected on 17 general surgery residents from a single residency program representing 5 postgraduate year levels and 448 patient encounters since March 2012. The reliability (Cronbach α) of the tool for surgery residents was 0.98. The overall mean percentage of items rated as excellent was 70% (standard deviations = 42%), with a median of 100%. The CAT is a useful tool for measuring 1 facet of resident communication skills-the patient's perception of the physician-patient encounter. The tool provides a unique and personalized outcome measure for identifying communication strengths and improvement opportunities, allowing residents to receive

  3. Unpacking the Relationship between Parental Migration and Child well-Being: Evidence from Moldova and Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Franziska; Siegel, Melissa; Vanore, Michaella; Waidler, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Using household survey data collected between September 2011 and December 2012 from Moldova and Georgia, this paper measures and compares the multidimensional well-being of children with and without parents abroad. While a growing body of literature has addressed the effects of migration for children 'left behind', relatively few studies have empirically analysed if and to what extent migration implies different well-being outcomes for children, and fewer still have conducted comparisons across countries. To compare the outcomes of children in current- and non-migrant households, this paper defines a multidimensional well-being index comprised of six dimensions of wellness: education, physical health, housing conditions, protection, communication access, and emotional health. This paper challenges conventional wisdom that parental migration is harmful for child well-being: while in Moldova migration does not appear to correspond to any positive or negative well-being outcomes, in Georgia migration was linked to higher probabilities of children attaining well-being in the domains of communication access, housing, and combined well-being index. The different relationship between migration and child well-being in Moldova and Georgia likely reflects different migration trajectories, mobility patterns, and levels of maturity of each migration stream.

  4. Well-Being and Associated Factors among Women in the Gender-Segregated Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Jradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Well-being is an essential measure that contributes to the evaluation of the health and quality of life of populations. In 1948, the World Health Organization (WHO defined health as physical, mental and social well-being. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between July and September 2015. Women aged 18 years old and above were invited to participate in the study. The data were collected using the WHO’s Well-Being Index questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors that are significantly associated with well-being. A total of 900 women completed the survey. Approximately 58% of the women reported moderate to high (≥50 score of well-being, whereas 41.7% reported ill-being/likely depression. Experiencing violence, living in unfavorable physical conditions and reporting morbidities were shown to be significantly associated with low levels of subjective well-being (ill-being (p < 0.0001. Our study revealed a significant percentage of low levels of well-being among women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and identified the factors associated with them. Further research in this domain is recommended to better investigate additional causes of the low levels of well-being hence help in planning and guiding necessary interventions.

  5. Review of some advances of the literature about predictive variables concerning subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Cajiao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review of scientific literature presents some tendencies, conceptual advances, empirical findings and tests that measure the predictive variables of subjective well-being. It was done through the search in bibliographical database like ProQuest, PsycArticles, Psyctest, OVID SP, books and Thesis. Two types of predictive variables were recognized- internal and external to the individual-. Both of them influence the achievement of the subjective well-being. Besides, the studies and conceptualization about Subjetive well-being and some of the Predictive Variables were analyzed in the conclusion.

  6. Positive well-being and work-life balance among UK railway staff

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jialin; Smith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Failure to manage the well-being and work-life balance of railway workers\\ud may result in an increased risk to train safety and employees’ health. This article\\ud reports the findings of a study that measured positive well-being and\\ud work-life balance, and identified the factors affecting these among UK railway\\ud staff. On the whole, staff who perceived high levels of control and support had\\ud a better work-life balance and an increased sense of well-being. A positive\\ud personality was ...

  7. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ. Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2 and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999 were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2 and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all. Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned.

  8. Anasakti, the Hindu ideal, and its relationship to well-being and orientations to happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banth, Sudha; Talwar, Charu

    2012-09-01

    Anasakti, a Sanskrit term for traits like non-attachment, equipoise, selfless duty orientation, and effort in the absence of concern for the outcome, can be regarded as a Hindu-ideal cluster of personality traits. The relationship of Anasakti with well-being and the three distinct happiness orientations was explored through a study of 676 college students and a sample of 65 yogic practitioners in India. The findings revealed that the yogic practitioners were markedly higher in Anasakti than the secular population. For the yogic population, there was a large correlation between Anasakti and the Orientation to Meaningful Life, and it accounted for more than 20% of the variance in the regression of Anasakti against all the measures of well-being. The yogic population's scores also correlated with several other measures of well-being. The scores of the secular population were less strongly related to the well-being scores; though, several correlation coefficients were statistically significant.

  9. Migrants, health, and happiness: Evidence that health assessments travel with migrants and predict well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunge, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Health assessments correlate with health outcomes and subjective well-being. Immigrants offer an opportunity to study persistent social influences on health where the social conditions are not endogenous to individual outcomes. This approach provides a clear direction of causality from social conditions to health, and in a second stage to well-being. Natives and immigrants from across the world residing in 30 European countries are studied using survey data. The paper applies within country analysis using both linear regressions and two stage least squares. Natives' and immigrants' individual characteristics have similar predictive power for health, except Muslim immigrants who experience a sizeable health penalty. Average health reports in the immigrant's birth country have a significant association with the immigrant's current health. Almost a quarter of the birth country health variation is brought by the immigrants, while conditioning on socioeconomic characteristics. There is no evidence of the birth country predictive power declining neither as the immigrant spends more time in the residence country nor over the life course. The second stage estimates indicate that a one standard deviation improvement in health predicts higher happiness by 1.72 point or 0.82 of a standard deviation, more than four times the happiness difference of changing employment status from unemployed to employed. Studying life satisfaction yields similar results. Health improvements predict substantial increases in individual happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Can Early Intervention Policies Improve Well-being? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla; Fitzpatrick, Nick; O'Farrelly, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of wellbeing, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal wellbeing in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global w...

  11. How the attachment styles associated with Student Alienation: The Mediation Role of Emotional Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Mert, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined emotional well-being as a mediator between parental attachment (mother and father) and student alienation. A total of 227 high school students from the city of Ankara completed the self-report measures of parental attachment, positive and negative affect, and alienation. Using structural equation modeling, a model was examined in which emotional well-being mediated the link between parental attachment and alienation feeling of students. Results from structural equat...

  12. Child Allergic Symptoms and Mental Well-Being: The Role of Maternal Anxiety and Depression ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Study design Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child ...

  13. Social Well-Being and Related Factors in Students of School of Nursing and Midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Alireza; Marzban, Maryam; Sourosh, Maryam; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Nejabat, Mahmoud; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization viewpoint, social well-being is an important dimension of health along with physical and mental aspects. Evaluation of social well-being is necessary in students, especially in medical sciences students due to future responsibility as health care professionals. The present study attempted to investigate the level of social well-being, five domains of it (like actualization, integration, contribution), and some related factors in the school of nursing and midwifery students. This cross-sectional study was carried out between Julys to December 2015 and comprised 346 students in the school of nursing and midwifery in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Social well-being, socio-demographic status and physical activity were measured by valid questionnaires. Univariate linear regression analysis, multiple imputation method, ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used as different statistical methods. The P values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. The mean score of social well-being was 50. The minimum and maximum scores of social well-being were 20 to 100. Married students had higher social well-being than single students in univariate linear regression (Beta: 2.111, 95% CI: (0.387 to 3.738), P=0.017). Also, social integration had higher scores in married students (P=0.015). Social actualization was higher in male students (P=0.015); on the other hand, social contribution was higher in female students (P=0.026). The results of our study showed that social well-being status of students in this research was not satisfactory. Designing and conducting programs for promotion of social well-being, for example preparing facilities for marriage of students, can be helpful. Evaluation of social well-being in students of other schools with multicenter studies seems to be useful.

  14. Social Well-Being and Related Factors in Students of School of Nursing and Midwifery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Salehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the World Health Organization viewpoint, social well-being is an important dimension of health along with physical and mental aspects. Evaluation of social well-being is necessary in students, especially in medical sciences students due to future responsibility as health care professionals. The present study attempted to investigate the level of social well-being, five domains of it (like actualization, integration, contribution, and some related factors in the school of nursing and midwifery students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between Julys to December 2015 and comprised 346 students in the school of nursing and midwifery in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Social well-being, socio-demographic status and physical activity were measured by valid questionnaires. Univariate linear regression analysis, multiple imputation method, ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used as different statistical methods. The P values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean score of social well-being was 50. The minimum and maximum scores of social well-being were 20 to 100. Married students had higher social well-being than single students in univariate linear regression (Beta: 2.111, 95% CI: (0.387 to 3.738, P=0.017. Also, social integration had higher scores in married students (P=0.015. Social actualization was higher in male students (P=0.015; on the other hand, social contribution was higher in female students (P=0.026. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that social well-being status of students in this research was not satisfactory. Designing and conducting programs for promotion of social well-being, for example preparing facilities for marriage of students, can be helpful. Evaluation of social well-being in students of other schools with multicenter studies seems to be useful.

  15. Acculturation and well-being among college students from immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Waterman, Alan S; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Lee, Richard M; Kim, Su Yeong; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Huynh, Que-Lam; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Park, Irene J K; Hudson, Monika; Zamboanga, Byron L; Bersamin, Melina M; Williams, Michelle K

    2013-04-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain the associations between acculturation and well-being in first-generation and second-generation immigrant college students. Acculturation was operationalized as a multidimensional construct comprised of heritage and American cultural practices, values (individualism and collectivism), and identifications, and well-being was operationalized in terms of subjective, psychological, and eudaimonic components. Participants were 2,774 first-generation and second-generation immigrant students (70% women), from 6 ethnic groups and from 30 colleges and universities around the United States. Participants completed measures of heritage and American cultural practices, values, and identifications, as well as of subjective, psychological, and eudaimonic well-being. Findings indicated that individualistic values were positively related to psychological and eudaimonic well-being, and positively, although somewhat less strongly, linked with subjective well-being. American and heritage identifications were both modestly related to psychological and eudaimonic well-being. These findings were consistent across gender, immigrant generation (first versus second), and ethnicity. Psychological and eudaimonic well-being appear to be inherently individualistic conceptions of happiness, and endorsement of individualistic values appears linked with these forms of well-being. Attachments to a cultural group-the United States, one's country of origin, or both-appear to promote psychological and eudaimonic well-being as well. The present findings suggest that similar strategies can be used to promote well-being for both male and female students, for students from various ethnic backgrounds, and for both first-generation and second-generation immigrant students. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The impact of pain on spiritual well-being in people with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, P J; McIndoe, L; Austin, P; Wrigley, P J

    2017-01-01

    The study uses a cross-sectional, group comparison, questionnaire-based design. To determine whether spinal cord injury and pain have an impact on spiritual well-being and whether there is an association between spiritual well-being and measures of pain and psychological function. University teaching hospital in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Questionnaires evaluating pain, psychological and spiritual well-being were administered to a group of people with a spinal cord injury (n=53) and a group without spinal cord injury (n=37). Spiritual well-being was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness and Therapy - Spirituality Extended Scale (FACIT-Sp-Ex). Pain and psychological function were also assessed using standard, validated measures of pain intensity, pain interference, mood and cognition. Levels of spiritual well-being in people with a spinal cord injury were significantly lower when compared with people without a spinal cord injury. In addition, there was a moderate but significant negative correlation between spiritual well-being and pain intensity. There was also a strong and significant negative correlation between depression and spiritual well-being and a strong and significant positive correlation between spiritual well-being and both pain self-efficacy and satisfaction with life. Consequences of a spinal cord injury include increased levels of spiritual distress, which is associated, with higher levels of pain and depression and lower levels of pain self-efficacy and satisfaction with life. These findings indicate the importance of addressing spiritual well-being as an important component in the long-term rehabilitation of any person following spinal cord injury. This study was supported by grant funding from the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.

  17. Caregiver Burden, Spirituality, and Psychological Well-Being of Parents Having Children with Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anum, Jawaria; Dasti, Rabia

    2016-06-01

    The research determined the relationship of caregiving burden, spirituality and psychological well-being of parents of Pakistani thalassemic patients in a crosssectional research design. The sociodemographic form, Montgomery-Borgatta burden measure (Montgomery et al. in Who should care for the elderly? An east-west value divide. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 27-54, 2000), Multidimensional Measure of Islamic Spirituality (Dasti and Sitwat in J Muslim Ment Health 8(2):47-67, 2014. doi: 10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.204 ) and Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-being (Ryff in J Pers Soc Psychol 57(6):1069-1081, 1989. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069 ) were administered on a sample of 80 parents (32 fathers and 48 mothers) recruited from different Thalassemic Centers of Lahore city, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through correlation and mediational analyses. Results indicated that the caregiver burden was negatively correlated with the psychological well-being and the domains of spirituality, while the psychological well-being and spirituality were positively correlated. We identified that the caregiver burden has direct effect on the psychological well-being of the parents and it influences the psychological well-being through the pathway of the two domains of spirituality, i.e., self-discipline and meanness-generosity. These results highlighted the role of spirituality upon the psychological well-being of caregivers, which could be utilized to prevent pathological influences (such as hard feelings, hopelessness, depressed mood, anxiety, and relationship problems) of caregiver burden and enhance psychological well-being through spiritual counseling. Caregivers can work on their well-being and burden by disciplining their lives and forgoing hard feelings toward others.

  18. Does physical activity impact on presenteeism and other indicators of workplace well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen E; Gilson, Nicholas D; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2011-03-01

    The term 'presenteeism' is a relatively new concept in workplace health, and has come to signify being at work despite poor health and performing below par. Presenteeism, which is potentially critical to employers, has been associated with a range of psychosocial outcome measures, such as poor mental health and employee well-being. Physical activity is a potential strategy for reducing presenteeism, and for improving the mental health of employees. This article reviews evidence on the relationships between physical activity and employee well-being and presenteeism in the workplace, and identifies directions for research in an emerging field. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 20 articles that met the inclusion criteria. These included 13 intervention trials (8 randomized controlled trials, 5 comparison trials) and 7 observational studies (3 cohort, 4 cross-sectional). Outcome measures were grouped into 'workplace well-being', 'psychosocial well-being' and 'physical well-being'. Studies measured a wide variety of outcomes, with absenteeism being the most commonly assessed. Evidence indicated a positive association between physical activity and psychosocial health in employees, particularly for quality of life and emotional well-being. However, findings were inconclusive as to the role of physical activity in promoting workplace well-being. Only one study reported on presenteeism, with mixed evidence for outcomes. This article indicates that physical activity and employee psychosocial health are positively related, but there is limited evidence of a relationship between physical activity and presenteeism. A standardized definition of presenteeism and an appropriate evaluation tool are key research priorities if the complex relationships between physical activity and workplace well-being are to be better understood. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting well-being longitudinally for mothers rearing offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, K A; Glidden, L M

    2015-07-01

    Well-being outcomes for parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) may vary from positive to negative at different times and for different measures of well-being. Predicting and explaining this variability has been a major focus of family research for reasons that have both theoretical and applied implications. The current study used data from a 23-year longitudinal investigation of adoptive and birth parents of children with IDD to determine which early child, mother and family characteristics would predict the variance in maternal outcomes 20 years after their original measurement. Using hierarchical regression analyses, we tested the predictive power of variables measured when children were 7 years old on outcomes of maternal well-being when children were 26 years old. Outcome variables included maternal self-report measures of depression and well-being. Final models of well-being accounted for 20% to 34% of variance. For most outcomes, Family Accord and/or the personality variable of Neuroticism (emotional stability/instability) were significant predictors, but some variables demonstrated a different pattern. These findings confirm that (1) characteristics of the child, mother and family during childhood can predict outcomes of maternal well-being 20 years later; and (2) different predictor-outcome relationships can vary substantially, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures to gain a more comprehensive understanding of maternal well-being. These results have implications for refining prognoses for parents and for tailoring service delivery to individual child, parent and family characteristics. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Meanings of well-being from the perspectives of youth recently diagnosed with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shalini; Ungar, Michael; Malla, Ashok; Frankish, Jim; Suto, Melinda

    2014-02-01

    The phenomenon of well-being has attracted a surge of attention in mental health policy, clinical practice and research internationally. Yet, the definitions of well-being remain elusive, and there is limited understanding on its meanings from the perspectives of youth mental health service users. This study explored the meanings of well-being from the perspectives of youth mental health service users diagnosed with psychosis in the past 3 years. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews and participant-photography elicited focus groups with 17 youth recruited from an early intervention program for psychoses and a mental health program specializing in the delivery of psychiatric services to street youth. Analysis combined the methods of constructivist grounded theory and narrative inquiry. The findings illustrate five key themes in participants' conceptualizations of well-being: multidimensionality; active oriented states; social environment; identity; and normality. Dimensions of well-being identified in participants' accounts include: psychological, physical, emotional, moral/virtuous, financial/material, spiritual, and social aspects. Our heuristic framework for conceptualizing well-being, grounded in the narrative accounts of youth participants, can inform the future planning and design of interventions, research, and outcome measures pertaining to the well-being of youth recently diagnosed with psychosis.