WorldWideScience

Sample records for measuring particle deposition

  1. Development of a dual-tracer real-time particle dry-deposition measurement technique for simple and complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.; Hodgson, W.H.; Campbell, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Detectors are being developed and tested for measuring the airborne concentrations of lithium particles and SF 6 gas in real time. The airborne lithium detector will be used for real-time measurements of both particle dry-deposition velocities and resuspension rates. Both the lithium and SF 6 detectors will be used for measuring dry deposition in field experiments

  2. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  3. Measurement of the deposition of aerosol particles to skin, hair and clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, there are several routes whereby human populations may receive a radioactive dose from material released to the environment. The dose from radioactive aerosol deposited onto the surfaces of the human body has previously been estimated by assuming that aerosol deposition velocities (defined as the flux of aerosol onto a surface divided by the aerosol concentration above the surface) onto human body surfaces are similar to the values for inanimate surfaces. However, Jones (1990) modelled the effects on health of fallout material deposited on skin and clothing and found that the number of early deaths from skin dose was sensitively dependent on aerosol deposition velocity. He also pointed out that there was a lack of experimentally derived data on aerosol deposition velocities to human body surfaces and that the above mentioned assumption may not be valid. The purpose of the present work is to measure aerosol deposition velocities onto human body surfaces, the resultant data to allow more accurate nuclear accident consequence modelling. Aerosol deposition velocities onto human body surfaces in simulated indoor conditions have been measured by releasing tracer aerosols of three mean particle diameters (2.6, 6.2 and 9.2μm) into a test chamber containing volunteers. The skin, hair and clothing of the volunteers were sampled and analysed for deposited aerosol by Neutron Activation Analysis. Aerosol deposition velocities onto skin in the range 1.3 - 15 x 10 -3 ms -1 were recorded, values which are approximately an order of magnitude higher than the equivalent values onto the floor of the test room. These values suggest that the exposure route of radioactive aerosol particles deposited on the skin may be more significant than hitherto had been assumed. The possible mechanisms leading to this relatively high deposition were investigated experimentally and the results suggested that a combination of factors such as the body's electrostatic

  4. Modelling Measured Deposition and Resuspension Rates of Particles in Animal Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Moser, A.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    on the surfaces is shown as a function of time. High contents of organic dust in animal buildings can affect the health of both people and animals. Deposition on indoor surfaces is an important removal mechanism to reduce the airborne particle concentration. As a basis to develop methods to eliminate dust related...

  5. Simultaneous coastal measurements of ozone deposition fluxes and iodine-mediated particle emission fluxes with subsequent CCN formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Whitehead

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first observations of simultaneous ozone deposition fluxes and ultrafine particle emission fluxes over an extensive infra-littoral zone. Fluxes were measured by the eddy covariance technique at the Station Biologique de Roscoff, on the coast of Brittany, north-west France. This site overlooks a very wide (3 km littoral zone controlled by very deep tides (9.6 m exposing extensive macroalgae beds available for significant iodine mediated photochemical production of ultrafine particles. The aspect at the Station Biologique de Roscoff provides an extensive and relatively flat, uniform fetch within which micrometeorological techniques may be utilized to study links between ozone deposition to macroalgae (and sea water and ultrafine particle production.

    Ozone deposition to seawater at high tide was significantly slower (vd[O3]=0.302±0.095 mm s−1 than low tidal deposition. A statistically significant difference in the deposition velocities to macroalgae at low tide was observed between night time (vd[O3]=1.00±0.10 mm s−1 and daytime (vd[O3]=2.05±0.16 mm s−1 when ultrafine particle formation results in apparent particle emission. Very high emission fluxes of ultrafine particles were observed during daytime periods at low tides ranging from 50 000 particles cm−2 s−1 to greater than 200 000 particles cm−2 s−1 during some of the lowest tides. These emission fluxes exhibited a significant relationship with particle number concentrations comparable with previous observations at another location. Apparent particle growth rates were estimated to be in the range 17–150 nm h−1 for particles in the size range 3–10 nm. Under certain conditions, particle growth may be inferred to continue to greater than 120 nm over tens

  6. Real-time mass measurement of dust particles deposited on vessel wall in a divertor simulator using quartz crystal microbalances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Mizuki; Koga, Kazunori; Katayama, Ryu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Shiratani, Masaharu; Ashikawa, Naoko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Sagara, Akio

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a dust monitoring method using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) equipped with a dust eliminating filter. Here we report a dust eliminating ratio of the filter and first measurement results of the QCMs in a divertor simulator. The volume of spherical dust in unit area on the filter and QCM under the filter were 2.09 × 10 −9 and 1.22 × 10 −10 m 3 m −2 , respectively. Thus, the dust eliminating ratio of the filter is 94.2%. The QCM without the filter gives deposition rate due to radicals and dust particles, whereas the QCM with the filter gives deposition rate predominantly due to radicals. From the results, we deduce information of mass fraction of dust particles in deposits

  7. Deposition and detection of particles during integrated circuit manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wali, F.; Knotter, D. Martin; Kelly, John J.; Kuper, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—Deposition mechanism of silica particles on silicon wafers was investigated by depositing specially prepared mono-dispersed particles (mean diameter = 330 nm). To measure particles of the size below the detection limit of our particle measurement tools, silica particles with luminance core

  8. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    To investigate the physical process of deposition and resuspension of particles in the indoor environment, scale experiments are used and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and turbulence and velocity of the air on the dust load on a surface are analysed....

  9. EFFECT OF BODY SIZE ON BREATHING PATTERN AND FINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-child variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle, lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2um monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy...

  10. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  11. Dry deposition of particles to ocean surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.E.; Edson, J.B.; Hummelshoj, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Leeuw, G. de; Mestayer, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric particles mainly depends on wind speed and particle diameter. The dry deposition velocity, Vd, is found to vary by a factor of 100-1,000 with diameter in a likely diameter range, adding uncertainty to deposition estimates, because the diameter distribution for many

  12. Kinetics of particle deposition at heterogeneous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljković, D. Lj.; Vrhovac, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    The random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach is used to analyze adsorption of spherical particles of fixed diameter d0 on nonuniform surfaces covered by square cells arranged in a square lattice pattern. To characterize such pattern two dimensionless parameters are used: the cell size α and the cell-cell separation β, measured in terms of the particle diameter d0. Adsorption is assumed to occur if the particle (projected) center lies within a cell area. We focus on the kinetics of deposition process in the case when no more than a single disk can be placed onto any square cell (α deposition process is not consistent with the power law behavior. However, if the geometry of the pattern approaches towards ;noninteracting conditions; (β > 1), when adsorption on each cell can be decoupled, approach of the coverage fraction θ(t) to θJ becomes closer to the exponential law. Consequently, changing the pattern parameters in the present model allows to interpolate the deposition kinetics between the continuum limit and the lattice-like behavior. Structural properties of the jammed-state coverings are studied in terms of the radial distribution function g(r) and spatial distribution of particles inside the cell. Various, non-trivial spatial distributions are observed depending on the geometry of the pattern.

  13. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension....

  14. Optical transmission through aerosol deposits on diffusely reflective filters: a method for measuring the absorbing component of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, H.; Novakov, T.

    1983-01-01

    It is unclear why the backscattered radiation from nonabsorbing particles should not make a significant contribution to the optical attenuation measurement. This is especially true where the absorbing component represents only a very small fraction of the aerosol mass. In this Letter we present a simple theoretical model which accounts for all these observations and points out the critical role of the filter substrate as an almost perfect diffuse reflector in the technique

  15. Characterization of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on dielectric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, A.; Löffler, F.; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Torralba, G.; König, K.; Hausmann, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Stadler, V.; Bischoff, F. R.; Breitling, F.

    2010-04-01

    A device for the measurement of q/m-values and charge degradation of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on a surface was developed. The setup is based on the integration of currents, which are induced in a Faraday cage by insertion of a solid support covered with charged particles. The conductivity of different particle supports was taken into account. The 'blow-off' method, in which the particles are first deposited, and then blown off using an air stream, can be used for characterization of triboelectric properties of particles relative to different surfaces.

  16. Characterization of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on dielectric surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, A; Torralba, G; Hausmann, M; Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, In Neuenheimer Feld 227, Heidelberg (Germany); Loeffler, F; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Koenig, K; Stadler, V; Bischoff, F R [German Cancer Research Centre, In Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg (Germany); Breitling, F, E-mail: Frank.Breitling@KIT.ed, E-mail: alexander.nesterov-mueller@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Microstructure Technology, Herrmann von Helmholtzplatz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-04-28

    A device for the measurement of q/m-values and charge degradation of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on a surface was developed. The setup is based on the integration of currents, which are induced in a Faraday cage by insertion of a solid support covered with charged particles. The conductivity of different particle supports was taken into account. The 'blow-off' method, in which the particles are first deposited, and then blown off using an air stream, can be used for characterization of triboelectric properties of particles relative to different surfaces.

  17. Deposition of aerosol particles in bent pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Ohhata, Tsutomu

    1989-01-01

    An equation to estimate deposition fraction of aerosol particles in a bent pipe is derived and the validity is verified experimentally. The equation is obtained by assuming that the resultant acceleration of the gravity and the centrifugal force induced in the bend acts on the aerosol particles, and is found to give a relatively accurate estimation of the deposition fraction if a certain correction factor is introduced to the equation. The deposition fraction has a minimum against Reynold number, and the deposition due to centrifugal force dominates at greater Reynolds number than that at the minimum deposition fraction. On the other hand, the smaller the radius of curvature of the bend is, the larger the deposition fraction due to the centrifugal force is. (author)

  18. Testing the FOODBANCS hypothesis: Seasonal variations in near-bottom particle flux, bioturbation intensity, and deposit feeding based on 234Th measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintic, Mark A.; DeMaster, David J.; Thomas, Carrie J.; Smith, Craig R.

    2008-11-01

    Naturally occurring 234Th (24-d half-life) was used on the West Antarctic continental shelf to evaluate temporal variations in the flux of particulate material reaching the seabed, bioturbation intensity, the seasonal continuity of feeding by benthic fauna, and trends in particle selection during ingestion for six common detritivores (four surface deposit feeders and two subsurface deposit feeders). These measurements were made at three stations during the five FOODBANCS cruises (December 1999, March, June, and October 2000, and March 2001) to assess the nature of pelagic-benthic coupling on the shelf and to evaluate the seabed as a potential food bank for deposit feeders when surface primary production is minimal. Two summer regimes were sampled (March 2000 and March 2001) with the latter exhibiting a distinct 1-2-cm-thick phytodetritus layer in nearly all sediment core samples. At site B, the 234Th fluxes into the near-bottom (150/170 mab) sediment traps were indistinguishable for the December-March 2000, March-June 2000, and June-October 2000 sampling intervals (fluxes ranging from 170 to 280 dpm m -2 d -1). However, the sediment-trap 234Th flux measured for the October 2000-March 2001 interval (1000 dpm m -2 d -1) was ˜5-fold greater than during the other three sampling periods, consistent with the deposition of a phytodetritus layer. The steady-state 234Th fluxes derived from seabed inventories at site B were 2.4-2.7 times greater than the sediment-trap 234Th fluxes, indicating substantial scavenging of this particle-reactive radiotracer in the bottom 150 m of the water column and/or lateral transport near the seabed. The seabed 234Th inventories at the three stations showed no variation during the first four cruises, but were significantly greater during cruise FB-V (March 2001), when the phytodetritus layer occurred. Based on 234Th distributions in the seabed, bioturbation intensities (quantified using the diffusive mixing coefficient, Db) varied from 0

  19. Particle Tracking and Deposition from CFD Simulations using a Viscoelastic Particle Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Losurdo, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present dissertation the mathematical modelling of particle deposition is studied and the solution algorithms for particle tracking, deposition and deposit growth are developed. Particle deposition is modelled according to mechanical impact and contact mechanics taking into account the

  20. Particle deposition in low-speed, high-turbulence flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Mads; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Ullum, U.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study considers the concentration of airborne particulate contaminants, such as spores of spoilage fungi, and their deposition on a surface, in a petri dish, and on a warm box-shaped product placed in a food-processing environment. Field measurements by standard...... field measurements. Particle deposition is shown to be associated with near-wall coherent structures. Flow reversal, simulated by impulsive start, is shown to give higher deposition rates than steady mean flows. Key word index: Spoilage fungi; spores; food processing plant; deposition flux; large eddy...

  1. Orientation specific deposition of mesoporous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kjellman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a facile orientation specific deposition of plate-like mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles onto a surface (mesopores oriented normal to surface. A drop of an aqueous dispersion of particles is placed on the surface and water vaporizes under controlled relative humidity. Three requirements are essential for uniform coverage: particle dispersion should not contain aggregates, a weak attraction between particles and surface is needed, and evaporation rate should be low. Aggregates are removed by stirring/sonication. Weak attraction is realized by introducing cationic groups to the surface. Insight into the mechanisms of the so-called coffee stain effect is also provided.

  2. Deposition kinetics of nanocolloidal gold particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.A.M.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Hakbijl, Mark; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-01-01

    The deposition kinetics of the irreversible adsorption of citrate-stabilized, nanocolloidal gold particles on Si/SiO2 surfaces, derivatized with (aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), is investigated in situ using single wavelength optical reflectometry. A well-defined flow of colloids towards the

  3. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts.

  4. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  5. Deposition of magnetite particles from high velocity water onto isothermal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    The deposition rate of magnetite particles from a high velocity water slurry onto isothermal metal tubes was measured. The effects of velocity (5 to 100 m/s), slurry concentration (200 to 1000 mg Fe/kg H 2 O), temperature (25 0 to 90 0 C), pH (4 to 10 at 25 0 C), and tube material (nickel, Zircaloy-4) on deposition rate were studied. The data are interpreted in terms of two steps in series for deposition: a mass transfer step followed by a deposition or inertial coasting step. Mass transfer of particles through the bulk water phase apparently limits the deposition of particles at high Reynolds number

  6. COPDIRC - calculation of particle deposition in reactor coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeks, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    A description is given of a computer code COPDIRC intended for the calculation of the deposition of particulate onto smooth perfectly sticky surfaces in a gas cooled reactor coolant. The deposition is assumed to be limited by transport in the boundary layer adjacent to the depositing surface. This implies that the deposition velocity normalised with respect to the local friction velocity, is an almost universal function of the normalised particle relaxation time. Deposition is assumed similar to deposition in an equivalent smooth perfectly absorbing pipe. The deposition is calculated using 2 models. (author)

  7. Particle deposition and clearance of atmospheric particles in the human respiratory tract during LACE 98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, U.; Hänel, G.

    2003-04-01

    During the LACE 98footnote{Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment, (Germany) 1998} experiment microphysical, chemical and optical properties of atmospheric particles were measured by several groups. (Bundke et al.). The particle deposition and clearance of the particles in the human respiratory tract was calculated using the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) deposition and clearance model (ICRP 1994). Particle growth as function of relative humidity outside the body was calculated from measurement data using the model introduced by Bundke et al.. Particle growth inside the body was added using a non-equilibrium particle growth model. As a result of the calculations, time series of the total dry particle mass and -size distribution were obtained for all compartments of the human respiratory tract defined by ICRP 1994. The combined ICRP deposition and clearance model was initialized for different probationers like man, woman, children of different ages and several circumstances like light work, sitting, sleeping etc. Keeping the conditions observed during LACE 98 constant a approximation of the aerosol burdens of the different compartments was calculated up to 4 years of exposure and compared to the results from Snipes et al. for the "Phoenix" and "Philadelphia" aerosol. References: footnotesize{ Bundke, U. et al.,it{Aerosol Optical Properties during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98)} ,10.1029/2000JD000188, JGR, 2002 ICRP,it{Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection, Bd. ICRP Publication 66}, Annals of the ICRP, 24,1-3, Elsevier Science, Ocford, 1994 Snipes et al. ,it{The 1994 ICRP66 Human Respiratory Tract Model as a Tool for predicting Lung Burdens from Exposure to Environmental Aerosols}, Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 12, 547-553,1997}

  8. Role of hydrotreating products in deposition of fine particles in reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Chung, K.; Gray, M.R. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2001-06-11

    Hydrotreating reactions may affect the deposition of fine particles, which can eventually lead to reactor plugging. The deposition of fine particles from gas oil was measured in an internally recirculating reactor at 375{degree}C under hydrogen. H{sub 2}S from hydrodesulfurization would convert corrosion products to metal sulfides. Iron sulfide deposited rapidly in the packed bed because the mineral surface did not retain a stabilizing layer of asphaltenic material. Addition of water, to test the role of hydrodeoxygenation, doubled the deposition of clay particles by reducing the surface coating of organic material. Neither ammonia or quinoline had any effect on particle deposition, therefore, hydrodenitrogenation did not affect particle behavior. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Deposition of fine and ultrafine particles on indoor surface materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Reinhold, Claus

    2008-01-01

    -scale test chamber. Experiments took place in a 32 m3 chamber with walls and ceiling made of glass. Prior to each experiment the chamber was flushed with outdoor air to reach an initial particle concentration typical of indoor air in buildings with natural ventilation. The decay of particle concentrations...... The aim of this study was the experimental determination of particle deposition for both different particle size fractions and different indoor surface materials. The selected surface materials were glass, gypsum board, carpet, and curtain. These materials were tested vertically in a full...... was monitored. Seven particle size fractions were studied. These comprised ultrafine and fine particles. Deposition was higher on carpet and curtain than on glass and gypsum board. Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 µm had the lowest deposition. This fraction also has the highest penetration and its indoor...

  10. Particle dry deposition to water surfaces: Processes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    flux to coastal waters, atmosphere-surface exchange represents a significant component of the total flux and may be particularly critical during the summertime when both the riverine input and ambient nutrient concentrations are often at a minimum. In this chapter, we present an overview...... of the physical and chemical processes which dictate the quantity (and direction) of atmosphere-surface fluxes of trace chemicals to (and above) water surfaces with particular emphasis on the role of particles. Dry deposition (transfer to the surface in the absence of precipitation) of particles is determined...... efforts to simulate and measure fluxes close to the coastline. These arise in part from the complexity of atmospheric flow in this region where energy and chemical fluxes are highly inhomogeneous in space and time and thermally generated atmospheric circulations are commonplace. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  11. Modeling airflow and particle transport/deposition in pulmonary airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Zheng

    2008-11-30

    A review of research papers is presented, pertinent to computer modeling of airflow as well as nano- and micron-size particle deposition in pulmonary airway replicas. The key modeling steps are outlined, including construction of suitable airway geometries, mathematical description of the air-particle transport phenomena and computer simulation of micron and nanoparticle depositions. Specifically, diffusion-dominated nanomaterial deposits on airway surfaces much more uniformly than micron particles of the same material. This may imply different toxicity effects. Due to impaction and secondary flows, micron particles tend to accumulate around the carinal ridges and to form "hot spots", i.e., locally high concentrations which may lead to tumor developments. Inhaled particles in the size range of 20nm< or =dp< or =3microm may readily reach the deeper lung region. Concerning inhaled therapeutic particles, optimal parameters for mechanical drug-aerosol targeting of predetermined lung areas can be computed, given representative pulmonary airways.

  12. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  13. Unsteady Particle Deposition in a Human Nasal Cavity during Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camby M.K. Se

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the deposition efficiency during the unsteady inhalation cycle by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The unsteady inhalation profile was applied at the outlet of nasopharynx, which had a maximum flow rate of 40.3L/min which corresponds to an equivalent steady inhalation tidal volume flow rate of 24.6L/min. Aerodynamic particle sizes of 5μm and 20μm were studied in order to reflect contrasting Stokes numbered particle behaviour. Two particle deposition efficiencies in the nasal cavity versus time are presented. In general, the deposition of 5μm particles was much less than 20μm particles. The first 0.2 second of the inhalation cycle was found to be significant to the particle transport, since the majority of particles were deposited during this period (i.e. its residence time. Comparisons were also made with its equivalent steady inhalation flow rate which found that the unsteady inhalation produced lower deposition efficiency for both particle sizes.

  14. Deposition of particle-bound radionuclides in dry weather, fog, rain and snowfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberschachtsiek, D.; Sparmacher, H.; Kreh, R.; Adam, M.; Fuelber, K.; Stegger, J.; Bonka, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radionuclides emitted from nuclear plants and installations are transported in dry weather, because of turbulences and sedimentations, to plant parts above ground and near the ground and to other areas, and deposited there. The deposited activity is proportional to the activity concentration near the deposition area. In the case of particle-bound radionuclides it depends on the aerodynamic particle diameter, surface quality and other factors. In a large number of experiments deposition velocity was measured. In fog the particles to which radionuclides are bound grow by coagulation and condensation. The aerosol size spectrum changes with increasing distance from the place of emission. The type of the fog and the form of the emitted spectrum are important factors which influence this process. With normal activity distributions as a function of the aerodynamic particle diameter, the deposition velocity increases with the distance from the place of emission, up to a final value, due to the shift of the spectrum to larger diameters. (orig.) [de

  15. A new approach for modeling dry deposition velocity of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Buffa, P.

    2018-05-01

    The dry deposition process is recognized as an important pathway among the various removal processes of pollutants in the atmosphere. In this field, there are several models reported in the literature useful to predict the dry deposition velocity of particles of different diameters but many of them are not capable of representing dry deposition phenomena for several categories of pollutants and deposition surfaces. Moreover, their applications is valid for specific conditions and if the data in that application meet all of the assumptions required of the data used to define the model. In this paper a new dry deposition velocity model based on an electrical analogy schema is proposed to overcome the above issues. The dry deposition velocity is evaluated by assuming that the resistances that affect the particle flux in the Quasi-Laminar Sub-layers can be combined to take into account local features of the mutual influence of inertial impact processes and the turbulent one. Comparisons with the experimental data from literature indicate that the proposed model allows to capture with good agreement the main dry deposition phenomena for the examined environmental conditions and deposition surfaces to be determined. The proposed approach could be easily implemented within atmospheric dispersion modeling codes and efficiently addressing different deposition surfaces for several particle pollution.

  16. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  17. Transient Simulation of Accumulating Particle Deposition in Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, James; Sellier, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal particles that deposit in pipe systems can lead to fouling which is an expensive problem in both the geothermal and oil & gas industries. We investigate the gradual accumulation of deposited colloids in pipe flow using numerical simulations. An Euler-Lagrangian approach is employed for modelling the fluid and particle phases. Particle transport to the pipe wall is modelled with Brownian motion and turbulent diffusion. A two-way coupling exists between the fouled material and the pipe flow; the local mass flux of depositing particles is affected by the surrounding fluid in the near-wall region. This coupling is modelled by changing the cells from fluid to solid as the deposited particles exceed each local cell volume. A similar method has been used to model fouling in engine exhaust systems (Paz et al., Heat Transfer Eng., 34(8-9):674-682, 2013). We compare our deposition velocities and deposition profiles with an experiment on silica scaling in turbulent pipe flow (Kokhanenko et al., 19th AFMC, 2014).

  18. Gold particle formation via photoenhanced deposition on lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewski, A.M., E-mail: azaniews@asu.edu; Meeks, V.; Nemanich, R.J.

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Gold chloride is reduced into solid gold nanoparticles at the surface of a polarized semiconductor. • Reduction processes are driven by ultraviolet light. • Gold nanoparticle and silver nanoparticle deposition patterns are compared. - Abstract: In this work, we report on a technique to reduce gold chloride into sub-micron particles and nanoparticles. We use photoelectron transfer from periodically polarized lithium niobate (PPLN) illuminated with above band gap light to drive the surface reactions required for the reduction and particle formation. The particle sizes and distributions on the PPLN surface are sensitive to the solution concentration, with inhibited nucleation and large particles (>150 nm) for both low (2E−8M to 9E−7M) and high (1E−5M to 1E−3M) concentrations of gold chloride. At midrange values of the concentration, nucleation is more frequent, resulting in smaller sized particles (<150 nm). We compare the deposition process to that for silver, which has been previously studied. We find that the reduction of gold chloride into nanoparticles is inhibited compared to silver ion reduction, due to the multi-step reaction required for gold particle formation. This also has consequences for the resulting deposition patterns: while silver deposits into nanowires along boundaries between areas with opposite signed polarizations, such patterning of the deposition is not observed for gold, for a wide range of concentrations studied (2E−8 to 1E−3M).

  19. Deposition of biomass combustion aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Massling, Andreas; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sandström, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Smoke from biomass combustion has been identified as a major environmental risk factor associated with adverse health effects globally. Deposition of the smoke particles in the lungs is a crucial factor for toxicological effects, but has not previously been studied experimentally. We investigated the size-dependent respiratory-tract deposition of aerosol particles from wood combustion in humans. Two combustion conditions were studied in a wood pellet burner: efficient ("complete") combustion and low-temperature (incomplete) combustion simulating "wood smoke." The size-dependent deposition fraction of 15-to 680-nm particles was measured for 10 healthy subjects with a novel setup. Both aerosols were extensively characterized with regard to chemical and physical particle properties. The deposition was additionally estimated with the ICRP model, modified for the determined aerosol properties, in order to validate the experiments and allow a generalization of the results. The measured total deposited fraction of particles from both efficient combustion and low-temperature combustion was 0.21-0.24 by number, surface, and mass. The deposition behavior can be explained by the size distributions of the particles and by their ability to grow by water uptake in the lungs, where the relative humidity is close to saturation. The experiments were in basic agreement with the model calculations. Our findings illustrate: (1) that particles from biomass combustion obtain a size in the respiratory tract at which the deposition probability is close to its minimum, (2) that particle water absorption has substantial impact on deposition, and (3) that deposition is markedly influenced by individual factors.

  20. Superpermeable membrane for particle control in divertor: the effect of impurity deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Ohyabu, N.; Suzuki, H.; Busnyuk, A.; Alimov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of impurity (stainless steel (SS) components, carbon) deposition onto niobium membrane surface on the membrane permeability to hydrogen particles is investigated with a plasma device. The deposition of SS components onto the upstream surface of the membrane at the membrane temperature (T M ) M M ≥800 deg. C. It appears to be due to the dissolution of the impurities deposited onto the upstream surface into the membrane bulk within the measurements

  1. Kinematics of flow and sediment particles at entrainment and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Federica; Sanches, Pedro; Aleixo, Rui; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    ). Flow velocities were acquired with 2-component PIV and Vectrino-ADV. The former allowed for the spatial definition of the flow field around the particle with a temporal resolution of 15 Hz and the latter allowed for the collection of time series of 3 velocity components in the close vicinity of the particle with a temporal sampling rate of 50 Hz. High-speed video, with a sampling rate of 300 fps, was employed to register particle motion and Particle Tracking Velocimetry to retrieve material particle velocities. Velocity measurements were grouped by categories of exposure and protrusion. The flow velocity in front of the particle, up, at the instant of entrainment are generally in accordance with a theoretical model --u2p-- --1--sin-(θ--α)/cos(θ)- (s- 1)gd = CDCeC0 1+ CL-tan(θ) CD where θ -α is the angle between the direction of the weight and the plane that encompasses the centre of mass of the particle and the pivoting axis, θ is the angle between the direction normal to the bed and the plane that encompasses the point of application of the hydrodynamic force and the pivoting axis, α is the angle between the plane of the bed and an horizontal plane, CD and CL are the drag and lift coefficients, Ce is the exposure coefficient, C0 is an exposure correction, d is the diameter of the sphere, s - 1 = 1.53 is the specific gravity of the spheres and g is the acceleration of gravity. It was also found that the flow velocities and the particle velocities at the instant of deposition were poorly correlated. Furthermore, preliminary results seem to indicate that the probability density function (pdf) of particle velocities just before returning to rest is similar to that of unconstrained moving particles. This work was partially funded by FEDER, program COMPETE, and by national funds through Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012 and by Project SediTrans funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme.

  2. The deposition of magnetite particles from high velocity water onto isothermal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    The deposition rate of magnetite particles from a high velocity water slurry onto isothermal metal tubes was measured. The effects of velocity (5 to 100 m/s), slurry concentration (200 to 1000 mg Fe/kg H 2 O), temperature (25 to 90 deg C), pH (4 to 10 at 25 deg C), and tube material (nickel, Zircaloy-4) on deposition rate were studied. The data are interpreteω in terms of two steps in series for deposition: a mass transfer step followed by a deposition or ''inertial coasting'' step. Mass transfer of particles through the bulk water phase apparently limits the deposition of particles at high Reynolds number (10 5 ). (author)

  3. Air pollution dry deposition: radioisotopes as particles and volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This study focuses on determining volcanic ash and ambient airborne solids concentrations at various sampling sites subsequent to the Mt. St. Helens' eruption in order to develop an experimental basis for models predicting removal of airborne particles and gases by dry deposition onto outdoor surfaces. In addition, deposition rates were determined using dual tracer techniques in the field and in a wind tunnel in the laboratory

  4. Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Electrically Charged Membrane Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L

    1972-05-15

    A theory for the influence of electric charge on particle deposition on the surface of charged filters has been developed. It has been tested experimentally on ordinary membrane filters and Nuclepore filters of 8 mum pore size, with a bipolar monodisperse test aerosol of 1 mum particle diameter, and at a filter charge up to 20 muC/m2. Agreement with theory was obtained for the Coulomb force between filter and particle for both kinds of filters. The image force between charged filter and neutral particles did not result in the predicted deposition in the ordinary membrane filter, probably due to lacking correspondence between the filter model employed for the theory, and the real filter. For the Nuclepore filter a satisfactory agreement with theory was obtained, also at image interaction

  5. Deposition of particles and iodine to outdoor surfaces and in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Dry deposition of particles depends strongly on particle size, and is also influenced by the geometry of the surface and weather parameters. Precipitation scavenging is also influenced to some degree by particle size, but hygroscopic properties of soluble particles are also likely to enhance deposition in precipitation. Similar comments apply in the respiratory tract, where particle size and solubility may influence the extent and site of deposition: the site is important for insoluble particles at least since it determines retention time in the body. Thus measurement of particle size and investigation of solubility would be valuable in interpreting deposition inhalation and air concentration observations. Iodine has several chemical forms in the air. It is valuable to sample in such a way that different forms are partitioned, although there is some uncertainty in their identification. The rate of deposition to vegetation depends strongly on the chemical form of the iodine, but the vapour forms of iodine that occur in the atmosphere may all be retained efficiently on inhalation

  6. Time-fractional particle deposition in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2017-05-01

    In the percolation process where fluids carry small solid particles, particle deposition causes a real-time permeability change of the medium as the swarm of particles propagates along the medium. Then the permeability change influences percolation and deposition behaviors as a feedback. This fact triggers memory effect in the deposition dynamics, which means the particulate transport and deposition behaviors become history-dependent. In this paper, we conduct the time-fractional generalization of the classical phenomenological model of particle deposition in porous media to incorporate the memory effect. We tested and compared the effects of employing different types of fractional operators, i.e. the Riemann-Liouville type, the Hadamard type and the Prabhakar type. Numerical simulation results show that the system behaviors vary according to the change of distinct memory kernels in an expected way. We then discuss the physical meaning of the time-fractional generalization. It is shown that different types of fractional operators unanimously ground themselves on the local-Newtonian time transformation in a complex system, which is equivalent to a class of history integrals. By the introduction of various memory kernels, it enables the model to more powerfully fit and approximate observed data. Further, the fundamental meaning of this work is not to show which fractional operator is ‘better’, but to argue collectively the legitimacy and practicality of a non-Markovian particle deposition dynamics in porous media, and in fact it is admissible to a bunch of memory kernels which differ greatly from each other in functional forms. Hopefully the presented generalized mass conservation formalism offers a broader framework to investigate transport problems in porous media.

  7. Time-fractional particle deposition in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    In the percolation process where fluids carry small solid particles, particle deposition causes a real-time permeability change of the medium as the swarm of particles propagates along the medium. Then the permeability change influences percolation and deposition behaviors as a feedback. This fact triggers memory effect in the deposition dynamics, which means the particulate transport and deposition behaviors become history-dependent. In this paper, we conduct the time-fractional generalization of the classical phenomenological model of particle deposition in porous media to incorporate the memory effect. We tested and compared the effects of employing different types of fractional operators, i.e. the Riemann–Liouville type, the Hadamard type and the Prabhakar type. Numerical simulation results show that the system behaviors vary according to the change of distinct memory kernels in an expected way. We then discuss the physical meaning of the time-fractional generalization. It is shown that different types of fractional operators unanimously ground themselves on the local-Newtonian time transformation in a complex system, which is equivalent to a class of history integrals. By the introduction of various memory kernels, it enables the model to more powerfully fit and approximate observed data. Further, the fundamental meaning of this work is not to show which fractional operator is ‘better’, but to argue collectively the legitimacy and practicality of a non-Markovian particle deposition dynamics in porous media, and in fact it is admissible to a bunch of memory kernels which differ greatly from each other in functional forms. Hopefully the presented generalized mass conservation formalism offers a broader framework to investigate transport problems in porous media. (paper)

  8. Modeling Dry Deposition of Aerosol Particles on Rough Surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, T.; Smolík, Jiří; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2012), s. 44-59 ISSN 0278-6826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosol particles * dry deposition * transport Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.780, year: 2012

  9. Deposition of magnetite particles onto alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basset, M.; Arbeau, N.; McInerney, J.; Lister, D.H. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Fouling is a particularly serious problem in the power generating industry. Deposits modify the thermalhydraulic characteristics of heat transfer surfaces by changing the resistance to heat transfer and the resistance to fluid flow, and, if thick enough, can harbour aggressive chemicals. Deposits are also implicated in the increase of radiation fields around working areas in the primary heat transfer systems of nuclear power plants. In order to understand the preliminary steps of the formation of corrosion product deposits on the outsides of steam generator tubes, a laboratory program has investigated the deposition of magnetite particles from suspension in water onto Alloy-800 surfaces under various conditions of flow, chemistry and boiling heat transfer. A recirculating loop made of stainless steel operating at less than 400kPa pressure, with a nominal coolant temperature of 90 degrees C, was equipped with a vertical glass column which housed a 2.5E-01m-long Alloy-800 boiler tube capable of generating a heat flux of 240kW/m{sup 2} . A concentration of suspended magnetite of 5.0E-03kg/m{sup 3} was maintained in the recirculating coolant, which was maintained at a pH of 7.5. The magnetite was synthesized with a sol-gel process, which was developed to produce reproducibly monodispersed, colloidal (<1{mu}m) and nearly spherical particles. A radiotracing method was used to characterize the deposit evolution with time and to quantify the removal of magnetite particles. The results from a series of deposition experiments are presented here. The deposition process is described in terms of a two-step mechanism: the transport step, involving the transport from the bulk of the liquid to the vicinity of the surface, followed by the attachment step, involving the attachment of the particle onto the surface. Under non-boiling heat transfer conditions, diffusion seems to be the dominant factor ruling deposition with a small contribution from thermophoresis; removal was

  10. Deposition of magnetite particles onto alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, M.; Arbeau, N.; McInerney, J.; Lister, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fouling is a particularly serious problem in the power generating industry. Deposits modify the thermalhydraulic characteristics of heat transfer surfaces by changing the resistance to heat transfer and the resistance to fluid flow, and, if thick enough, can harbour aggressive chemicals. Deposits are also implicated in the increase of radiation fields around working areas in the primary heat transfer systems of nuclear power plants. In order to understand the preliminary steps of the formation of corrosion product deposits on the outsides of steam generator tubes, a laboratory program has investigated the deposition of magnetite particles from suspension in water onto Alloy-800 surfaces under various conditions of flow, chemistry and boiling heat transfer. A recirculating loop made of stainless steel operating at less than 400kPa pressure, with a nominal coolant temperature of 90 degrees C, was equipped with a vertical glass column which housed a 2.5E-01m-long Alloy-800 boiler tube capable of generating a heat flux of 240kW/m 2 . A concentration of suspended magnetite of 5.0E-03kg/m 3 was maintained in the recirculating coolant, which was maintained at a pH of 7.5. The magnetite was synthesized with a sol-gel process, which was developed to produce reproducibly monodispersed, colloidal (<1μm) and nearly spherical particles. A radiotracing method was used to characterize the deposit evolution with time and to quantify the removal of magnetite particles. The results from a series of deposition experiments are presented here. The deposition process is described in terms of a two-step mechanism: the transport step, involving the transport from the bulk of the liquid to the vicinity of the surface, followed by the attachment step, involving the attachment of the particle onto the surface. Under non-boiling heat transfer conditions, diffusion seems to be the dominant factor ruling deposition with a small contribution from thermophoresis; removal was considered

  11. Source contributions to airborne particle deposition at the Yungang Grottoes, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Lynn G.; Christoforou, Christos S.; Gerk, Timothy J.; Cass, Glen R. [Environmental Engineering Science Department and Environmental Quality Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA (United States); Casuccio, Gary S.; Cooke, Gary A.; Leger, Michael [R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Olmez, Ilhan [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-04-28

    The Buddhist cave temple complex at Yungang in northern China is affected by a rapid accumulation of airborne particles that settle onto the thousands of statues contained within those caves. Experiments have been conducted to identify the most important air pollution sources that contribute to the dust deposition problem. The spatial distribution of the deposition rate of airborne particles within a 2 km x 2 km area surrounding the grottoes was measured during a 2-day period in April, 1991. Peak particle deposition rates of >60 {mu}g m{sup -2} s{sup -1} were found at locations within the village of Yungang itself and along the adjacent coal-haul highway. Moving away from the village and coal-haul highway, deposition rates decline to much lower values, indicating that the village and highway are significant sources of airborne particles. A comparison of the mineralogical composition of the dust deposits in the caves with the composition of local soil dust, paved road dust from the coal-haul highway and deteriorated cave ceiling rock material indicates that the dust deposits in the caves are a combination of the above sources, with the paved road dust from the coal-haul highway providing the closest match to the largest quantity of the material deposited in the caves

  12. In vitro and in vivo lung deposition of coated magnetic aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Longest, P Worth; Xu, Yun Hao; Wang, Jian Ping; Wiedmann, Timothy Scott

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic induced deposition of polydispersed aerosols composed of agglomerated superparamagnetic particles was measured with an in vitro model system and in the mouse trachea and deep lung for the purpose of investigating the potential of site specific respiratory drug delivery. Oleic acid coated superparamagnetic particles were prepared and characterized by TEM, induced magnetic moment, and iron content. The particles were dispersed in cyclohexane, aerosolized with an ultrasonic atomizer and dried by sequential reflux and charcoal columns. The fraction of iron deposited on glass tubes increased with particle size and decreasing flow rate. High deposition occurred with a small diameter tube, but the deposition fraction was largely independent of tube size at larger diameters. Results from computational fluid dynamics qualitatively agreed with the experimental results. Enhanced deposition was observed in the mouse lung but not in the trachea consistent with the analysis of the aerodynamic time allowed for deposition and required magnetic deposition time. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  14. Engineering Particle Surface Chemistry and Electrochemistry with Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David Hyman Kentaro

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vapor phase thin film coating technique that relies on sequential pulsing of precursors that undergo self-limited surface reactions. The self- limiting reactions and gas phase diffusion of the precursors together enable the conformal coating of microstructured particles with a high degree of thickness and compositional control. ALD may be used to deposit thin films that introduce new functionalities to a particle surface. Examples of new functionalities include: chemical reactivity, a mechanically strong protective coating, and an electrically resistive layer. The coatings properties are often dependent on the bulk properties and microstructure of the particle substrate, though they usually do not affect its bulk properties or microstructure. Particle ALD finds utility in the ability to synthesize well controlled, model systems, though it is expensive due to the need for costly metal precursors that are dangerous and require special handling. Enhanced properties due to ALD coating of particles in various applications are frequently described empirically, while the details of their enhancement mechanisms often remain the focus of ongoing research in the field. This study covers the various types of particle ALD and attempts to describe them from the unifying perspective of surface science.

  15. Reactivity of surface of metal oxide particles: from adsorption of ions to deposition of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In this Accreditation to supervise research (HDR), the author proposes an overview of his research works in the field of chemistry. These works more particularly addressed the understanding of the surface reactivity of metal oxide particles and its implication on sorption and adherence processes. In a first part, he addresses the study of surface acidity-alkalinity: measurement of surface reactivity by acid-base titration, stability of metal oxides in suspension, effect of morphology on oxide-hydroxide reactivity. The second part addresses the study of sorption: reactivity of iron oxides with selenium species, sorption of sulphate ions on magnetite, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). Adherence effects are addressed in the third part: development of an experimental device to study adherence in massive substrates, deposition of particles under turbulent flow. The last part presents a research project on the effect of temperature on ion sorption at solids/solutions interfaces, and on the adherence of metal oxide particles. The author gives his detailed curriculum, and indicates his various publications, teaching activities, research and administrative responsibilities

  16. Theoretical calculation of solid particles deposition from the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobro Milan

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculation of harmful substance deposition (air pollution from the point source (Slanèo, et al., 2001 using equation (1. The point source shall be understood as e.g. chimneys of factory, heat plant, incinerator, boiler plant, local heating plant, etc.The theoretical calculation of concentration (1, or deposition (8 is based on the study of transfer and dispersion of pollution in air (Slanèo, et al., 2000a. The movement of pollution in air consists of a movement of the air itself and a relative movement of pollution particles and air, while the movement of harmful substance in the smoke trail is under the influence of turbulent diffusion, convection and gravitation. Molecular diffusion is not important in this process. When calculating concentrations (1 and deposition (8 of air pollution on a particular place near the source, it is assumed that the air speed is constant, the direction of wind does not change with the height and the source of air pollution is time-constant. The change in the wind speed with the height depends on the stability class of atmosphere (temperature gradient (Slanèo, et al., 2000a and it is calculated using equation (10.The theoretical calculation of concentration and or deposition of harmful substance from the point source (1 and (8 shall be applied if the harmful substance particles, which leave the source, have the same density (composition, shape (spherical and size.The experimental observations of dust deposition showed the significance of 0.1-20 µm particles. The application of equation (1 to calculate the concentration is conditioned, in addition to the recognition of source parameters and meteorological conditions, by the recognition of the particle sedimentation speed, which changes with the size of particle radius (2.For a practical calculation of deposition it is therefore necessary to know the differential distribution function f(r of particle radii, which can be made on the basis

  17. Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities of trace metals in the Tokyo metropolitan area measured with a water surface sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    2004-04-01

    Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities (=deposition flux/atmospheric concentration) for trace metals including Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the Tokyo metropolitan area were measured using an improved water surface sampler. Mercury is deposited on the water surface in both gaseous (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate (particulate mercury, Hg(p)) forms. The results based on 1 yr observations found that dry deposition plays a significant if not dominant role in trace metal deposition in this urban area, contributing fluxes ranging from 0.46 (Cd) to 3.0 (Zn) times those of concurrent wet deposition fluxes. The deposition velocities were found to be dependent on the deposition of coarse particles larger than approximately 5 microm in diameter on the basis of model calculations. Our analysis suggests that the 84.13% diameter is a more appropriate index for each deposited metal than the 50% diameter in the assumed undersize log-normal distribution, because larger particles are responsible for the flux. The deposition velocities for trace metals other than mercury increased exponentially with an increase in their 84.13% diameters. Using this regression equation, the deposition velocities for Hg(p) were estimated from its 84.13% diameter. The deposition fluxes for Hg(p) calculated from the estimated velocities tended to be close to the mercury fluxes measured with the water surface sampler during the study periods except during summer.

  18. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Hogan, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm 2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm 2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm 2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm 2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  20. Effect of exercise on deposition and subsequent retention of inhaled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.D.; Messina, M.S.; Smaldone, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the effect of exercise and its associated increase in ventilation on the deposition and subsequent retention of inhaled particles, we measured the fractional and regional lung deposition of a radioactively tagged (/sup 99m/Tc) monodisperse aerosol (2.6 microns mass median aerodynamic diam) in normal human subjects at rest and while exercising on a bicycle ergometer. Breath-by-breath deposition fraction (DF) was measured throughout the aerosol exposures by Tyndallometry. Following each exposure gamma camera analysis was used to 1) determine the regional distribution of deposited particles and 2) monitor lung retention for 2.5 h and again at 24 h. We found that DF was unchanged between ventilation at rest (6-10 l/min) and exercise (32-46 l/min). Even though mouth deposition was enhanced with exercise, it was not large enough to produce a significant difference in the deposition fraction of the lung (DFL) between resting and exercise exposures. The central-to-peripheral distribution of deposited aerosol was larger for the exercise vs. resting exposure, reflecting a shift of particle deposition to more central bronchial airways. Apical-to-basal distribution was not different for the two exposures. Retention at 2.5 h and 24 h (R24) was reduced following the exercise vs. the resting exposure, consistent with greater bronchial deposition during exercise. The product of DFL and R24 gave a measure of fractional burden at 24 h (B24), i.e., the fraction of inhaled aerosol residing in the lungs 24 h after exposure. B24 was not significantly different between rest and exercise exposures

  1. Depositing nanometer-sized particles of metals onto carbon allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Fallbach, Michael J. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Delozier, Donavon M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for depositing nanometer-sized metal particles onto a substrate in the absence of aqueous solvents, organic solvents, and reducing agents, and without any required pre-treatment of the substrate, includes preparing an admixture of a metal compound and a substrate by dry mixing a chosen amount of the metal compound with a chosen amount of the substrate; and supplying energy to the admixture in an amount sufficient to deposit zero valance metal particles onto the substrate. This process gives rise to a number of deposited metallic particle sizes which may be controlled. The compositions prepared by this process are used to produce polymer composites by combining them with readily available commodity and engineering plastics. The polymer composites are used as coatings, or they are used to fabricate articles, such as free-standing films, fibers, fabrics, foams, molded and laminated articles, tubes, adhesives, and fiber reinforced articles. These articles are well-suited for many applications requiring thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, catalytic activity, and combinations thereof.

  2. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenhorst, L.M.; Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G.; Gerhard, C.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn/ZnO mixed systems were deposited from elemental zinc by a cold plasma-spray process. • Oxidation was confirmed by XPS. • The coatings exhibited a strong absorption in the UV spectral range, thus being suitable as protective layers, e.g. on thermosensitive materials. - Abstract: In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  3. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenhorst, L.M., E-mail: lena.wallenhorst@hawk-hhg.de [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Gerhard, C. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Militz, H. [Wood Biology and Wood Products, Burckhardt Institute, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ohms, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Viöl, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn/ZnO mixed systems were deposited from elemental zinc by a cold plasma-spray process. • Oxidation was confirmed by XPS. • The coatings exhibited a strong absorption in the UV spectral range, thus being suitable as protective layers, e.g. on thermosensitive materials. - Abstract: In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  4. Characteristics of airflow and particle deposition in COPD current smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chunrui; Choi, Jiwoong; Haghighi, Babak; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2017-11-01

    A recent imaging-based cluster analysis of computed tomography (CT) lung images in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cohort identified four clusters, viz. disease sub-populations. Cluster 1 had relatively normal airway structures; Cluster 2 had wall thickening; Cluster 3 exhibited decreased wall thickness and luminal narrowing; Cluster 4 had a significant decrease of luminal diameter and a significant reduction of lung deformation, thus having relatively low pulmonary functions. To better understand the characteristics of airflow and particle deposition in these clusters, we performed computational fluid and particle dynamics analyses on representative cluster patients and healthy controls using CT-based airway models and subject-specific 3D-1D coupled boundary conditions. The results show that particle deposition in central airways of cluster 4 patients was noticeably increased especially with increasing particle size despite reduced vital capacity as compared to other clusters and healthy controls. This may be attributable in part to significant airway constriction in cluster 4. This study demonstrates the potential application of cluster-guided CFD analysis in disease populations. NIH Grants U01HL114494 and S10-RR022421, and FDA Grant U01FD005837.

  5. Particle measurement systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Paul T [Livermore, CA

    2011-10-04

    A system according to one embodiment includes a light source for generating light fringes; a sampling mechanism for directing a particle through the light fringes; and at least one light detector for detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes. A method according to one embodiment includes generating light fringes using a light source; directing a particle through the light fringes; and detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes using at least one light detector.

  6. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ommen, J. Ruud van; Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO 2 ) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.12–0.31 wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1 g min −1 . Tuning the precursor injection velocity (10–40 m s −1 ) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100 °C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of core–shell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications

  7. Numerical Simulations of Particle Deposition in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Emilie; Saha, Suvash C.; Gu, Yuantong

    2013-01-01

    Australia is a high-potential country for geothermal power with reserves currently estimated in the tens of millions of petajoules, enough to power the nation for at least 1000 years at current usage. However, these resources are mainly located in isolated arid regions where water is scarce. Therefore, wet cooling systems for geothermal plants in Australia are the least attractive solution and thus air-cooled heat exchangers are preferred. In order to increase the efficiency of such heat exchangers, metal foams have been used. One issue raised by this solution is the fouling caused by dust deposition. In this case, the heat transfer characteristics of the metal foam heat exchanger can dramatically deteriorate. Exploring the particle deposition property in the metal foam exchanger becomes crucial. This paper is a numerical investigation aimed to address this issue. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of a standard one-row tube bundle wrapped with metal foam in cross-flow are performed and highlight preferential particle deposition areas.

  8. Deposition and retention of 67Ga-labelled diesel particles in Fischer-344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Lopez, J.A.; Wolf, I.; Cheng, Y.S.; McClellan, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to 67 Ga radiolabeled diesel exhaust particles produced from a 1 cylinder engine and diluted 10:1 with filtered air. Volume median diameters of the particles were 0.14 to 0.16 μm measured using an electrical aerosol analyzer, a diffusion battery and a cascade impactor. Initial lung deposition was 7 +- 2% and 12 +- 2% in two separate experiments. Gallium-67 left the lung rapidly with a clearance half-time of about 10 days, indicating that the 67 Ga label dissociated from diesel particles

  9. Characterization of Spatial Impact of Particles Emitted from a Cement Material Production Facility on Outdoor Particle Deposition in the Surrounding Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Fan, Zhihua Tina; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Stern, Alan H; Lioy, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of a facility that processes steel production slag into raw material for cement production to local outdoor particle deposition in Camden, NJ. A dry deposition sampler that can house four 37-mm quartz fiber filters was developed and used for the collection of atmospheric particle deposits. Two rounds of particle collection (3-4 weeks each) were conducted in 8-11 locations 200-800 m downwind of the facility. Background samples were concurrently collected in a remote area located ∼2 km upwind from the facility. In addition, duplicate surface wipe samples were collected side-by-side from each of the 13 locations within the same sampling area during the first deposition sampling period. One composite source material sample was also collected from a pile stored in the facility. Both the bulk of the source material and the particle deposition flux in the study area was higher (24-83 mg/m 2 ·day) than at the background sites (13-17 mg/m 2 ·day). The concentration of Ca, a major element in the cement source production material, was found to exponentially decrease with increasing downwind distance from the facility (P particle deposition. The contribution of the facility to outdoor deposited particle mass was further estimated by three independent models using the measurements obtained from this study. The estimated contributions to particle deposition in the study area were 1.8-7.4% from the regression analysis of the Ca concentration in particle deposition samples against the distance from the facility, 0-11% from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source-receptor model, and 7.6-13% from the EPA Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST3) dispersion model using the particle-size-adjusted permit-based emissions estimates. [Box: see text].

  10. The energy deposition of slowing down particles in heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinja, A.K.; Williams, M.M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Energy deposition by atomic particles in adjacent semi-infinite, amorphous media is described using the forward form of the Boltzmann transport equation. A transport approximation to the scattering kernel, developed elsewhere, incorporating realistic energy transfer is employed to assess the validity of the commonly used isotropic-scattering and straight-ahead approximations. Results are presented for integral energy deposition rates due to a plane, isotropic and monoenergetic source in one half-space for a range of mass ratios between 0.1 and 5.0. Integral profiles for infinite and semi-infinite media are considered and the influence of reflection for different mass ratios is evaluated. The dissimilar scattering properties of the two media induce a discontinuity at the interface in the energy deposition rate the magnitude of which is sensitive to the source position relative to the interface. A comprehensive evaluation of the total energy deposited in the source free medium is presented for a range of mass ratios and source positions. An interesting minimum occurs for off-interface source locations as a function of the source-medium mass ratio, the position of which varies with the source position but is insensitive to the other mass ratio. As a special case, energy reflection and escape coefficients for semi-infinite media are obtained which demonstrates that the effect of a vacuum interface is insignificant for deep source locations except for large mass ratios when reflection becomes dominant. (author)

  11. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers - particle formation and deposition; Soodakattilan likaantuminen ja siihen vaikuttavien tekijoeiden hallinta - hiukkasten muodostuminen ja depositio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, E.I.; Mikkanen, P.; Ylaetalo, S. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, J.K.; Lyyraenen, J.; Pyykoenen, J.; Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project, the aim was to find out those critical factors that control the deposit formation in the recovery boilers. We focus on the particle formation, growth and deposition as well as the single black liquor particle combustion behaviour. The final goal is the development of the predictive model to be used to describe deposit growth and subsequent behaviour as well as the dependence of deposition on black liquor characteristics and boiler operation conditions. During year 1995 an experimental study on the aerosol particle formation within the recovery boiler furnace and a sensitivity study with the Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion (ABC) code were carried out. The experimental study confirmed the fact that the particles are already formed in the recovery boiler furnace. The particle formation is initiated in the boundary layer of the burning droplet or smelt bed, where metals are vaporised and oxidised to form tiny seed particles. Trace amounts of metals were measured in all particle sizes and the sensitivity study with the ABC model gave further evidence of the seed formation was necessary primary step in the particle formation. At the furnace outlet the sintration ratio and the sulfation ratio of the particles were dependent on the furnace temperature and the residence time in the furnace. At ESP inlet three types of particles were observed (1) fine particles with the major mass mode at about 1-2 {mu}m, (2) large agglomerates in sizes larger than 8 {mu}m, and (3) spherical particles about 2-4 {mu}m in size. The fine particles were formed from vapours and the large agglomerates were formed from fine particles agglomerated on heat exchanger surfaces and re-entrained back to flue gas flow. The large agglomerates also contain vapours that have directly condensed to surfaces. The large spherical particles contain silicon and pass the process almost unchanged. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Antti J; Jensen, Alexander C Ø; Kling, Kirsten I; Kling, Jens; Budtz, Hans Christian; Koponen, Ismo K; Tuinman, Ilse; Hussein, Tareq; Jensen, Keld A; Nørgaard, Asger; Levin, Marcus

    2018-01-05

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO 2 )-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m 3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm to 31μm-size particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as well as particle deposition onto room surfaces and on the spray gun user hand. The particle emission and deposition rates were quantified using aerosol mass balance modelling. The geometric mean particle number emission rate was 1.9×10 10 s -1 and the mean mass emission rate was 381μgs -1 . The respirable mass emission-rate was 65% lower than observed for the entire measured size-range. The mass emission rates were linearly scalable (±ca. 20%) to the process duration. The particle deposition rates were up to 15h -1 for deposited particles consisted of mainly TiO 2 , TiO 2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO 2 particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60nm to ca. 5μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhorst, L. M.; Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G.; Gerhard, C.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-07-01

    In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  14. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  15. Measurement of particle velocity using a mutual inductance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Garden, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary work on the development of a novel method for the measurement of particle velocity is described. The technique relies on measurement of the mutual inductance between two coaxial coils, one stationary and the other perturbed by the shock wave. The moving coil is the gauge and is deposited on thin film. The method was developed to assist in the study of particle velocities in large samples of porous media surrounding an explosive charge. The technique does not require measurements to be taken in a region of uniform magnetic field and therefore dispenses with the need for Helmholtz coils, the size and cost of which can become prohibitive for large experiments. This has the added advantage of allowing measurements to be taken at points widely dispersed through a sample with relative ease. Measurements of particle velocity in porous media have been compared with those from co-located conventional electromagnetic particle velocity gauges with reasonable agreement

  16. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  17. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Weber, R.E.; Yeh, H.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Snipes, M.B.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to 14 C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m 3 for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14 C contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 ± 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 ± 0.9% and 15.9 ± 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  18. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B T; Weber, R E; Yeh, H C; Lundgren, D L; Snipes, M B; Mauderly, J L

    1988-12-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to {sup 14}C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m{sup 3} for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14{sub C} contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 {+-} 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 {+-} 0.9% and 15.9 {+-} 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  19. Theoretical modeling of fine-particle deposition in 3-dimensional bronchial bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.T.; Rajendran, N.; Liao, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the prediction of the peak to average particle deposition flux in the human bronchial airways. The model involves the determination of the peak flux by a round-nose 2-dimensional bifurcation channel and the average deposition flux by a curved-tube model. The ''hot-spot'' effect for all generations in the human respiratory system is estimated. Hot spots are usually associated with the sites of bronchoconstriction or even chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. Recent studies indicate that lung cancer in smokers may be caused by the deposition of radioactive particles produced by the burning of tobacco leaves. High local concentrations of Po-210 have been measured in epithelium from bronchial bifurcations of smokes. This Po-210 is the radioactive daughter of Pb-210 which is produced from a long chain of radioactive decay starting from uranium in the fertilizer-enriched soil. It is found that the peak deposition flux is higher than the average deposition flux by a factor ranging between 5 and 30, depending on the generation number. The importance of this peak to average deposition flux ratio on consideration of environmental safety studies is discussed

  20. Labeling suspended aerosol particles with short-lived radionuclides for determination of particle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.; Bryant, S.; Welch, S.; Digenis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were developed to examine parameters that characterize pressurized aerosols designed to deliver insoluble particles suspended in the aerosol formulation. Microaggregated bovine serum albumin microspheres that were to be suspended were labeled with iodine-131 (t1/2 . 8 d). This iodination procedure (greater than 80% effective) is also applicable to iodine-123, which possesses superior characteristics for external imaging and further in vivo studies. This report shows that for pressurized aerosols containing suspended particles, each metered dose is approximately equal (not including the priming doses and the emptying doses). Increase in the delivery of the albumin particles out of the canister was best achieved by pretreating the valve assembly with a solution of 2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin in phosphate buffer. Use of a cascade impactor delineated the particle size distribution of the micropheres, with the majority of particles ranging in size from 2 to 8 microns. The data disclosed here indicate that the techniques developed with short-lived radionuclides can be used to quantitate each metered dose, characterize the particle size distribution profile of the aerosol contents, and determine the extent of deposition of the particles in the aerosol canister and all of its components

  1. Studies of Physicochemical Processes in Atmospheric Particles and Acid Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N.

    A comprehensive chemical mechanism for aqueous -phase atmospheric chemistry was developed and its detailed sensitivity analysis was performed. The main aqueous-phase reaction pathways for the system are the oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) by H_2O_2 , OH, O_2 (catalysed by Fe ^{3+} and Mn^ {2+}), O_3 and HSO_sp{5}{-}. The gas-phase concentrations of SO_2, H_2O_2, HO _2, OH, O_3 HCHO, NH_3, HNO_3 and HCl and the liquid water content of the cloud are of primary importance. The Lagrangian model predictions for temperature profile, fog development, liquid water content, gas-phase concentrations of SO_2 , HNO_3, and NH_3 , pH, aqueous-phase concentrations of SO _sp{4}{2-}, NH _sp{4}{+} and NO _sp{3}{-}, and finally deposition rates of the above ions match well the observed values. A third model was developed to study the distribution of acidity and solute concentration among the various droplet sizes in a fog or a cloud. Significant solute concentration differences can occur in aqueous droplets inside a fog or a cloud. Fogs in polluted environments have the potential to increase aerosol sulfate concentrations, but at the same time to cause reductions in the aerosol concentration of nitrate, chloride, ammonium and sodium as well as in the total aerosol mass concentration. The sulfate producd during fog episodes favors the aerosol particles that have access to most of the fog liquid water. Aerosol scavenging efficiencies of around 80% were calculated for urban fogs. Sampling and subsequent mixing of fog droplets of different sizes may result in measured concentrations that are not fully representative of the fogwater chemical composition. Isoprene and beta-pinene, at concentration levels ranging from a few ppb to a few ppm were reacted photochemically with NO_ {x} in the Caltech outdoor smog chamber facility. Aerosol formation from the isoprene photooxidation was found to be negligible even under extreme ambient conditions due to the relatively high vapor pressure of its

  2. Measurement of energy deposition near heavy ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metting, N.F.; Brady, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Rapkin, M.

    1985-01-01

    In November of 1982 work was begun in collaboration with Columbia University and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to use microdosimetric methods to measure energy deposition of heavy ions produced at LBL's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. Last year the authors reported preliminary results indicating that secondary charged particle equilibrium was probably obtained using this experimental setup, but that there seemed to be poor spatial resolution in the solid state position-sensitive detector. Further analysis of the measurements taken in August 1983 shows that because of this electronic noise in the position-sensitive detector, only the 56 Fe data yielded useful microdosimetric spectra

  3. Indoor particle dynamics in a school office: determination of particle concentrations, deposition rates and penetration factors under naturally ventilated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, X C; Zhao, J J; Jing, Z; Wang, Q G; Ni, P F

    2018-05-09

    Recently, the problem of indoor particulate matter pollution has received much attention. An increasing number of epidemiological studies show that the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter has a significant effect on human health, even at very low concentrations. Most of these investigations have relied upon outdoor particle concentrations as surrogates of human exposures. However, considering that the concentration distribution of the indoor particulate matter is largely dependent on the extent to which these particles penetrate the building and on the degree of suspension in the indoor air, human exposures to particles of outdoor origin may not be equal to outdoor particle concentration levels. Therefore, it is critical to understand the relationship between the particle concentrations found outdoors and those found in indoor micro-environments. In this study, experiments were conducted using a naturally ventilated office located in Qingdao, China. The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations were measured at the same time using an optical counter with four size ranges. The particle size distribution ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 μm, and the experimental period was from April to September, 2016. Based on the experimental data, the dynamic and mass balance model based on time was used to estimate the penetration rate and deposition rate at air exchange rates of 0.03-0.25 h -1 . The values of the penetration rate and deposition velocity of indoor particles were determined to range from 0.45 to 0.82 h -1 and 1.71 to 2.82 m/h, respectively. In addition, the particulate pollution exposure in the indoor environment was analyzed to estimate the exposure hazard from indoor particulate matter pollution, which is important for human exposure to particles and associated health effects. The conclusions from this study can serve to provide a better understanding the dynamics and behaviors of airborne particle entering into buildings. And they will also highlight

  4. Deposition and reentrainment of Brownian particles in porous media under unfavorable chemical conditions: some concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Melinda W; O'Meliae, Charles R

    2004-01-01

    The deposition and reentrainment of particles in porous media have been examined theoretically and experimentally. A Brownian Dynamics/Monte Carlo (MC/BD) model has been developed that simulates the movement of Brownian particles near a collector under "unfavorable" chemical conditions and allows deposition in primary and secondary minima. A simple Maxwell approach has been used to estimate particle attachment efficiency by assuming deposition in the secondary minimum and calculating the probability of reentrainment. The MC/BD simulations and the Maxwell calculations support an alternative view of the deposition and reentrainment of Brownian particles under unfavorable chemical conditions. These calculations indicate that deposition into and subsequent release from secondary minima can explain reported discrepancies between classic model predictions that assume irreversible deposition in a primary well and experimentally determined deposition efficiencies that are orders of magnitude larger than Interaction Force Boundary Layer (IFBL) predictions. The commonly used IFBL model, for example, is based on the notion of transport over an energy barrier into the primary well and does not address contributions of secondary minimum deposition. A simple Maxwell model based on deposition into and reentrainment from secondary minima is much more accurate in predicting deposition rates for column experiments at low ionic strengths. It also greatly reduces the substantial particle size effects inherent in IFBL models, wherein particle attachment rates are predicted to decrease significantly with increasing particle size. This view is consistent with recent work by others addressing the composition and structure of the first few nanometers at solid-water interfaces including research on modeling water at solid-liquid interfaces, surface speciation, interfacial force measurements, and the rheological properties of concentrated suspensions. It follows that deposition under these

  5. NRPB volunteer study: deposition and clearance of inhaled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etherington, G.; Smith, J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Board Meeting of the National Radiological Protection Board held on 15 February 1996, approval was given for an experimental study of the deposition and clearance of inhaled particles in the human nasal passage. This is the latest in a series of volunteer biokinetic studies that have been conducted at NRPB since its formation. This article explains the purpose of the study, how ethical approval was obtained, how the study will be performed, what volunteers will be asked to do, and what doses they will receive. Doses will of course be carefully controlled, and will be well below the annual limits set for such experiments. The success of the study is of course crucially dependent on recruitment of a sufficient number of volunteers. The aim of this article is to provide information to anyone who might be interested in volunteering. (UK)

  6. Time history of diesel particle deposition in cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebizadeh, P.; Rahimzadeh, H.; Ahmadi, G.; Brown, R.; Inthavong, K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatment reactors have recently been developed for elimination of diesel particulate matter for reducing both the mass and number concentration of particles. The role of the plasma itself is obscured by the phenomenon of particle deposition on the reactor surface. Therefore, in this study, the Lagrangian particle transport model is used to simulate the dispersion and deposition of nano-particles in the range of 5 to 500 nm in a NTP reactor in the absence of an electric field. A conventional cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactor is selected for the analysis. Brownian diffusion, gravity and Saffman lift forces were included in the simulations, and the deposition efficiencies of different sized diesel particles were studied. The results show that for the studied particle diameters, the effect of Saffman lift is negligible and gravity only affects the motion of particles with a diameter of 500 nm or larger. Time histories of particle transport and deposition were evaluated for one-time injection and a continuous (multiple-time) injection. The results show that the number of deposited particles for one-time injection is identical to the number of deposited particles for multiple-time injections when adjusted with the shift in time. Furthermore, the maximum number of escaped particles occurs at 0.045 s after the injection for all particle diameters. The presented results show that some particle reduction previously ascribed to plasma treatment has ignored contributions from the surface deposition.

  7. Time history of diesel particle deposition in cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebizadeh, P.; Rahimzadeh, H., E-mail: rahimzad@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, G. [Clarkson University, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering (United States); Brown, R. [Queensland University of Technology, Biofuel Engine Research Facility (Australia); Inthavong, K. [RMIT University, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatment reactors have recently been developed for elimination of diesel particulate matter for reducing both the mass and number concentration of particles. The role of the plasma itself is obscured by the phenomenon of particle deposition on the reactor surface. Therefore, in this study, the Lagrangian particle transport model is used to simulate the dispersion and deposition of nano-particles in the range of 5 to 500 nm in a NTP reactor in the absence of an electric field. A conventional cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactor is selected for the analysis. Brownian diffusion, gravity and Saffman lift forces were included in the simulations, and the deposition efficiencies of different sized diesel particles were studied. The results show that for the studied particle diameters, the effect of Saffman lift is negligible and gravity only affects the motion of particles with a diameter of 500 nm or larger. Time histories of particle transport and deposition were evaluated for one-time injection and a continuous (multiple-time) injection. The results show that the number of deposited particles for one-time injection is identical to the number of deposited particles for multiple-time injections when adjusted with the shift in time. Furthermore, the maximum number of escaped particles occurs at 0.045 s after the injection for all particle diameters. The presented results show that some particle reduction previously ascribed to plasma treatment has ignored contributions from the surface deposition.

  8. REGIONAL DEPOSITION OF COARSE PARTICLES AND VENTILATION DISTRIBUTION IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of inhaled pharmaceuticals depends, in part, on their site of respiratory deposition. Markedly nonuniform ventilation distribution may occur in persons with obstructive airways diseases and may affect particle deposition. We studied the relationship between regional ...

  9. Absorption by airborne and deposited particles in the 8-13 micrometer range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K; Grassl, H

    1975-01-01

    The absorption of radiation by natural aerosol particles was measured in the 8 to 13 micrometer wavelength interval. A comparison was made between an in situ method and measurements of particles of deposited form. The results are in agreement to about 30 percent. The main feature of aerosol absorption within the infrared window is a strong absorption peak near 9 micrometers caused by sulfate or quartz particles present in all continental aerosol types. Consequences for the atmospheric heat balance are clear sky cooling rates growing from about 2 per cent in the tropics to about 20 per cent of the total cooling in arctic regions under normal conditions, additionally increasing with increasing relative humidity.

  10. Detection of Soot Using a Resistivity Sensor Device Employing Thermophoretic Particle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Lutic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are reported for thermophoretic deposition of soot particles on resistivity sensors as a monitoring technique for diesel exhaust particles with the potential of improved detection limit and sensitivity. Soot with similar characteristics as from diesel exhausts was generated by a propane flame and diluted in stages. The soot in a gas flow at 240–270C∘ was collected on an interdigitated electrode structure held at a considerably lower temperature, 105–125C∘. The time delay for reaching measurable resistance values, the subsequent rate, and magnitude of resistance decrease were a function of the distance between the fingers in the electrodes and the degree of dilution of the soot containing flow. Soot deposition and subsequent removal by heating the sensor support was also performed in a real diesel exhaust. Good similarities between the behavior in our laboratory system and the real diesel exhaust were noticed.

  11. Energy deposition and GDR emission in inelastic alpha particle scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Viesti, G; Fabris, D; Nebbia, G; Cinausero, M; Fioretto, E; Napoli, D R; Prete, G; Hagel, K; Natowitz, J B; Wada, R; Gonthier, P; Majka, Z; Alfarro, R; Zhao, Y; Mdeiwayeh, N; Ho, T

    1999-01-01

    Neutron fold distributions measured for the reaction sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi(alpha,alpha') at 240 MeV have been analyzed with the help of Statistical Model calculations to determine the distribution of excitation energy in the primary target fragments as a function of the projectile energy loss, EL. Results show that the distributions in excitation energy feature a plateau which extends from the kinematical limit E sub x =EL to very small excitations, suggesting a variety of interactions of the beam particles with the target nucleus. Requiring an additional coincidence with a light charged particle leads to selection of a significant higher average excitation energy. This effect is extrapolated to explore results of previous GDR decay measurements in the case of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target. Corrections of derived GDR parameters due to the partial transfer of excitation energy are suggested.

  12. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  13. Lung dynamics of aerosol particles with special reference to deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kanji

    1977-01-01

    A movement of aerosol particles in the lungs, which was inhaled into the respiratory organ was given an outline by means of technological deposition model. The respiratory organ was considered to be one airway system, and was divided into nasopharyngeal part, trachea-bronchial part, and pulmonary part. The transport of particles in the respiratory tract was explained by mentioning structual model of the airway system, standard respiratory flow, and distribution of flow speed in the respiratory tract. It was explained that particle deposition in the respiratory tract seemed to be caused by inertia impact at bifurcation, gravity deposition and scattering deposition at tubular wall, interruption effect in nasopharyngeal part, and scattering phoresis effect in the upper respiratory tract or gas exchange part. Furthermore, an outline of calculation of the deposition amount of particles was described from a standpoint of the above-mentioned structure, breathing air flow, and deposition structure of particles. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandstroem, Kjell; Mueller, Christian; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2007-12-15

    Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling is since long considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. (author)

  15. Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjell Strandstroem; Christian Muellera; Mikko Hupa [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo (Finland)

    2007-12-15

    Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling has long been considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Deposition of colloidal particles in porous media; Depot de particules minerales de taille colloidale en milieu poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, J.P.

    1998-12-09

    The aim of this study was to determine the deposition rates of colloidal particles in porous media in relation with particle stability. It combines experimental results and theoretical analysis and gives an original approach which allows to improve the predictions of particle deposition. The colloidal particles studied are several times smaller than the pore restrictions. Experimental results shows that the porous media surface is heterogeneous, whatever the preparation mean and the history of the porous media. The degree of surface heterogeneity depends both on salinity and porous media cleaning process. Heterogeneity is responsible for initial collection efficiency values higher that the theoretical predictions. When deposition occurs mainly on the less repulsive zones, the velocity dependence of the effective grain collection efficiency is close to the -2/3 value expected for the diffusion limited deposition regime. On the other hand, when these zones have been covered and thus behave as strongly repulsive, we obtain a collection efficiency on the more repulsive zones, with a slope close to -1, which is the value expected for the reaction limited deposition regime. The fraction of surface favorable for deposition can be assessed from attachment efficiency values. The attachment efficiency can be estimated from the measurement of particles stability. (author)

  17. A Theoretically Consistent Framework for Modelling Lagrangian Particle Deposition in Plant Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brian N.; Stoll, Rob; Pardyjak, Eric R.

    2018-06-01

    We present a theoretically consistent framework for modelling Lagrangian particle deposition in plant canopies. The primary focus is on describing the probability of particles encountering canopy elements (i.e., potential deposition), and provides a consistent means for including the effects of imperfect deposition through any appropriate sub-model for deposition efficiency. Some aspects of the framework draw upon an analogy to radiation propagation through a turbid medium with which to develop model theory. The present method is compared against one of the most commonly used heuristic Lagrangian frameworks, namely that originally developed by Legg and Powell (Agricultural Meteorology, 1979, Vol. 20, 47-67), which is shown to be theoretically inconsistent. A recommendation is made to discontinue the use of this heuristic approach in favour of the theoretically consistent framework developed herein, which is no more difficult to apply under equivalent assumptions. The proposed framework has the additional advantage that it can be applied to arbitrary canopy geometries given readily measurable parameters describing vegetation structure.

  18. Particle resuspension from a multi-layer deposit by turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromentin, A.

    1989-09-01

    The aim of this work was to contribute to the understanding and quantification of particle resuspension from a bed exposed to a turbulent flow. The PARESS experiment has been set up and conducted. Multi-layer deposits of particles were created by allowing aerosols to settle on steel plates under conditions typical of a nuclear reactor containment following a severe accident. These were then exposed to a controlled turbulent airflow (U ∞ =5-25 m/s) in a wind tunnel and the evolution of the resuspension flux as a function of time was measured. The resuspension flux F r decreased with exposure time to the airflow t, according to a power law F r = a.t -b [kg/m 2 .s]. The parameters a and b depend on the flow velocity and the nature of the deposit. A new semi-empirical model, based on the comparison between the distributions of adhesive forces holding the particles on the deposit and aerodynamic forces tending to remove them, has been developed to simulate the stochastic nature of particle resuspension. This model is able to predict the experimentally observed decrease of the resuspension flux as a function of time and its dependence on flow velocity. Based on the results of the PARESS experiment, an empirical global relationship, which ignores the fine effects due to the nature of the different deposits, has been proposed. It appears that the resuspension flux is approximately proportinal to the cube of the flow velocity, and that a pseudo threshold velocity exists below which virtually no resuspension occurs. (author) 57 figs., 1 tab., 79 refs

  19. Particle deposition from aqueous suspensions in turbulent pipe flow - a comparison of observed deposition rates and predicted arrival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodliffe, R.S.

    1979-11-01

    At the present time, there appear to be only four adequately controlled and characterised experimental studies of particle deposition from single phase water in turbulent pipe flow. These are used to illustrate the ranges of applicability of methods for predicting particle arrival rates at tube walls. Arrival rates are predicted from mass transfer correlations and the theory of Reeks and Skyrme (1976) when transport is limited by Brownian diffusion and inertial behaviour, respectively. The regimes in which finite particle size limits the application of these methods are defined and preliminary consideration is given to the conditions under which gravitational settling may make a contribution to deposition in vertically mounted tubes. (author)

  20. ‘Sticky business’: The influence of streambed periphyton on particle deposition and infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Nira L.

    2011-03-01

    Strong feedbacks exist between physical and ecological components of aquatic systems. Aquatic plants can alter flow and sedimentation patterns, in turn influencing habitat condition and organism responses. In this study, I investigate the interactions between streambed periphyton, particle deposition and infiltration, and flow hydraulics to determine the influence of these organisms on the local environment. In a series of flume experiments, I measured the effects of two contrasting forms of periphyton at several densities and growth stages on near-bed hydraulics, particle loss from the water column, surface deposition, and subsurface infiltration. Data show that periphyton assemblages altered the rate and quantity of particle deposition via several mechanisms, including shear stress modification, surface adhesion, and bed clogging. Although trends varied for different size classes within a suspension of fine sediment, diatoms and algae had distinctly different effects on hydraulics, deposition, and infiltration. In general, diatoms increased the rate of decline in suspended particle concentrations relative to non-periphyton surfaces by reducing shear stresses and enhancing surface deposition via adhesion. Increases in diatom biomass, however, reduced the quantity and depth of particle infiltration, presumably by clogging interstitial pore spaces, in turn lowering rates of concentration decline. In contrast, all algal growth stages had slower or similar rates of concentration decline compared to non-periphyton conditions, due to partial clogging by high biomass and a lack of adhesion at the bed surface. Clogging effects were counteracted at later growth stages, however, as late-stage algal structures increased shear stresses and downward advection, in turn increasing amounts of infiltration. Compiled data from several field studies and experiments demonstrate a positive relation between periphyton biomass and inorganic mass, but also show a wide range in the

  1. Concurrent Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Interaction Forces Improves Particle Deposition Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Ren, Carolyn L; Emelko, Monica B

    2016-04-19

    It is widely believed that media surface roughness enhances particle deposition-numerous, but inconsistent, examples of this effect have been reported. Here, a new mathematical framework describing the effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough spherical collectors in absence of an energy barrier was developed and validated. In addition to quantifying DLVO force, the model includes improved descriptions of flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation functions. This work demonstrates that hydrodynamic effects can significantly alter particle deposition relative to expectations when only the DLVO force is considered. Moreover, the combined effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough, spherical media are not additive, but synergistic. Notably, the developed model's particle deposition predictions are in closer agreement with experimental observations than those from current models, demonstrating the importance of inclusion of roughness impacts in particle deposition description/simulation. Consideration of hydrodynamic contributions to particle deposition may help to explain discrepancies between model-based expectations and experimental outcomes and improve descriptions of particle deposition during physicochemical filtration in systems with nonsmooth collector surfaces.

  2. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A fiberoptic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurized reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverized coal particles at the pressurized entrained flow reactor in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made. In Orleans a fiberoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belongs to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme. (author)

  3. Electrical Field Guided Electrospray Deposition for Production of Gradient Particle Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Cheng; Xie, Jingwei; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-06-06

    Our previous work demonstrated the uniform particle pattern formation on the substrates using electrical field guided electrospray deposition. In this work, we reported for the first time the fabrication of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using an additional point, line, or bar electrode based on our previous electrospray deposition configuration. We also demonstrated that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating could result in the formation of uniform particle patterns instead of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using the same experimental setup. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of experimental configurations on the gradient particle pattern formation by computational simulation. The simulation results are in line with experimental observations. The formation of gradient particle patterns was ascribed to the gradient of electric field and the corresponding focusing effect. Cell patterns can be formed on the particle patterns deposited on PDMS-coated glass slides. The formed particle patterns hold great promise for high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions and sensing.

  4. Laboratory studies of immersion and deposition mode ice nucleation of ozone aged mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kanji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation in the atmosphere is central to the understanding the microphysical properties of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. Ambient conditions such as temperature (T and relative humidity (RH, as well as aerosol properties such as chemical composition and mixing state play an important role in predicting ice formation in the troposphere. Previous field studies have reported the absence of sulfate and organic compounds on mineral dust ice crystal residuals sampled at mountain top stations or aircraft based measurements despite the long-range transport mineral dust is subjected to. We present laboratory studies of ice nucleation for immersion and deposition mode on ozone aged mineral dust particles for 233 T ns are reported and observed to increase as a function of decreasing temperature. We present first results that demonstrate enhancement of the ice nucleation ability of aged mineral dust particles in both the deposition and immersion mode due to ageing. We also present the first results to show a suppression of heterogeneous ice nucleation activity without the condensation of a coating of (inorganic material. In immersion mode, low ozone exposed Ka particles showed enhanced ice activity requiring a median freezing temperature of 1.5 K warmer than that of untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD particles showed suppressed ice nucleation requiring a median freezing temperature of 3 K colder than that of untreated ATD. In deposition mode, low exposure Ka had ice active fractions of an order of magnitude higher than untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD had ice active fractions up to a factor of 4 lower than untreated ATD. From our results, we derive and present parameterizations in terms of ns(T that can be used in models to predict ice nuclei concentrations based on available aerosol surface area.

  5. Measurement of Soot Deposition in Automotive Components Using Neutron Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekveld, David; Liu, Liaohui [AMEC NSS, 700 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X6 (Canada); UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Harrison, Andrew; Gill, Spencer; Harvel, Glenn [UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Chang, Jen-Shih [McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    About 40% of air pollution is generated by vehicles and transportation. The particulate matter (PM) emission significantly impacts human health. Fine particles below 2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5) can enter the lungs and lead to respiratory problems. These particles not only influence human health, but also reduce the capability of many automobile exhaust heat exchanging devices. Neutron radiography is a non-destructive method of analyzing carbonaceous PM. While neutron radiography has been demonstrated for soot measurement in the past, the application has not considered the presence of unburned hydrocarbons, significant amounts of moisture nor examined complex geometrical configurations. The purpose of this work is to study a reliable non-destructive testing methodology using neutron radiography for measurement of soot distribution in automotive components. A soot standard (aluminium target) was designed and manufactured as a calibration tool. The standard is radiographed and used to measure the differences between various soot thickness and compositions. The radiograph images are analyzed to determine a calibration curve based upon the composition of the materials which can then be used for analysis of the automotive components. Experiments are performed using a diesel engine to produce soot deposits on exhaust piping. Soot distribution on exhaust piping is measured using neutron radiography. (authors)

  6. Measurement of Soot Deposition in Automotive Components Using Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekveld, David; Liu, Liaohui; Harrison, Andrew; Gill, Spencer; Harvel, Glenn; Chang, Jen-Shih

    2008-01-01

    About 40% of air pollution is generated by vehicles and transportation. The particulate matter (PM) emission significantly impacts human health. Fine particles below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) can enter the lungs and lead to respiratory problems. These particles not only influence human health, but also reduce the capability of many automobile exhaust heat exchanging devices. Neutron radiography is a non-destructive method of analyzing carbonaceous PM. While neutron radiography has been demonstrated for soot measurement in the past, the application has not considered the presence of unburned hydrocarbons, significant amounts of moisture nor examined complex geometrical configurations. The purpose of this work is to study a reliable non-destructive testing methodology using neutron radiography for measurement of soot distribution in automotive components. A soot standard (aluminium target) was designed and manufactured as a calibration tool. The standard is radiographed and used to measure the differences between various soot thickness and compositions. The radiograph images are analyzed to determine a calibration curve based upon the composition of the materials which can then be used for analysis of the automotive components. Experiments are performed using a diesel engine to produce soot deposits on exhaust piping. Soot distribution on exhaust piping is measured using neutron radiography. (authors)

  7. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, A.I.

    2014-11-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic observations in membrane fouling simulators revealed formation of specific particle deposition patterns for different diamond and ladder feed spacer orientations. A three-dimensional numerical model combining fluid flow with a Lagrangian approach for particle trajectory calculations could describe very well the in-situ observations on particle deposition in flow cells. Feed spacer geometry, positioning and cross-flow velocity sensitively influenced the particle transport and deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were not influenced by permeate production. This combined experimental-modeling approach could be used for feed spacer geometry optimization studies for reduced (bio)fouling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Fouling deposition characteristic by variation of coal particle size and deposition temperature in DTF (Drop Tube Furnace)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Hueon; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research; Xu, Li-hua [IAE, Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center

    2013-07-01

    One of the major operation obstacles in gasification process is ash deposition phenomenon. In this investigation, experiment was carried out to examine coal fouling characteristics using a laminar DTF (Drop Tube Furnace) with variation of operating condition such as different coal size, and probe surface temperature. Four different samples of pulverized coal were injected into DTF under various conditions. The ash particles are deposited on probe by impacting and agglomerating action. Fouling grains are made of eutectic compound, which is made by reacting with acid minerals and alkali minerals, in EPMA (Electron Probe Micro-Analysis). And agglomeration area of fouling at top layer is wide more than it of middle and bottom layer. The major mineral factors of fouling phenomenon are Fe, Ca, and Mg. The deposition quantity of fouling increases with increasing particle size, high alkali mineral (Fe, Ca, and Mg) contents, and ash deposition temperature.

  9. DepositScan, a Scanning Program to Measure Spray Deposition Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DepositScan, a scanning program was developed to quickly measure spray deposit distributions on water sensitive papers or Kromekote cards which are widely used for determinations of pesticide spray deposition quality on target areas. The program is installed in a portable computer and works with a ...

  10. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  11. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  12. Total deposition of inhaled particles related to age: comparison with age-dependent model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquemin, M.H.; Bouchikhi, A.; Yu, C.P.; Roy, M.

    1991-01-01

    To compare experimental data with age-dependent model calculations, total airway deposition of polystyrene aerosols (1, 2.05 and 2.8 μm aerodynamic diameter) was measured in ten adults, twenty children aged 12 to 15 years, ten children aged 8 to 12, and eleven under 8 years old. Ventilation was controlled, and breathing patterns were appropriate for each age, either at rest or at light exercise. Individually, deposition percentages increased with particle size and also from rest to exercise, except in children under 12 years, in whom they decreased from 20-21.5 to 14-14.5 for 1 μm particles and from 36.8-36.9 to 32.2-33.1 for 2.05 μm particles. Comparisons with the age-dependent model showed that, at rest, the observed data concerning children agreed with those predicted and were close to the adults' values, when the latter were higher than predicted. At exercise, child data were lower than predicted and lower than adult experimental data, when the latter agreed fairly well with the model. (author)

  13. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R; Joutsenoja, T [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    A fibre-optic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurised reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverised coal particles at the pressurised entrained flow reactor of VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made in order to study the effects of oxygen concentration (3-30 vol%) and pressure (0.2-1.0 MPa) on the particle temperature. The fuels used in the experiments were Westerholt, Polish and Goettelborn hvb coals, Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite. The initial nominal fuel particle size varied in the experiments from 70 to 250 ,{mu}m and the gas temperature was typically 1173 K. For the anthracite also the effects of gas temperature (1073-1423K) and CO{sub 2} concentration (6-80 vol%) were studied. In Orleans a fibreoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor of CNRS and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. The fuel in the experiments was pulverised Goettelborn char. The reliability of optical temperature measurement in this particular application was analysed. In Essen a fibre-optic pyrometric technique that is capable to measure bed and fuel particle temperatures was applied to an atmospheric fluidised bed reactor of DMT. The effects of oxygen concentration (3-8 vol%) and bed temperature (1123-1193 K) on the fuel particle temperature were studied. The fuels in these were Westerholt coal and char and EBV-coal. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belonged to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme (contract JOU2-CT93-0331). (orig.)

  14. Study on particle deposition in vertical square ventilation duct flows by different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinping; Li Angui

    2008-01-01

    A proper representation of the air flow in a ventilation duct is crucial for adequate prediction of the deposition velocity of particles. In this paper, the mean turbulent air flow fields are predicted by two different numerical models (the Reynolds stress transport model (RSM) and the realizable k-εmodel). Contours of mean streamwise velocity deduced from the k-ε model are compared with those obtained from the Reynolds stress transport model. Dimensionless deposition velocities of particles in downward and upward ventilation duct flows are also compared based on the flow fields presented by the two different numerical models. Trajectories of the particles are tracked using a one way coupling Lagrangian eddy-particle interaction model. Thousands of individual particles are released in the represented flow, and dimensionless deposition velocities are evaluated for the vertical walls in fully developed smooth vertical downward and upward square duct flows generated by the RSM and realizable k-ε model. The effects of particle diameter, dimensionless relaxation time, flow direction and air speed in vertical upward and downward square duct flows on the particle deposition velocities are discussed. The effects of lift and gravity on the particle deposition velocities are evaluated in vertical flows presented by the RSM. It is shown that the particle deposition velocities based on the RSM and realizable k-εmodel have subtle differences. The flow direction and the lift force significantly affect the particle deposition velocities in vertical duct flows. The simulation results are compared with earlier experimental data and the numerical results for fully developed duct flows. It is shown that the deposition velocities predicted are in agreement with the experimental data and the numerical results

  15. Lattice-Boltzmann Method with Dynamic Grid Refinement for Simulating Particle Deposition on a Single Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Schomburg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a numerical approach to predict the deposition behaviour of nano-scale particles on the surface of a single fibre by resolving the resulting dendrite-like particle structures in detail is presented. The gas flow simulation is carried out by a two-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann method, which is coupled with a Lagrangian approach for the particle motion. To decrease calculation time and system requirements the Lattice-Boltzmann model is extended to allow for local grid refinement. Because of the a priori unknown location of deposition, the simulation procedure starts on a coarse mesh which is then locally refined in a fully adaptive way in regions of accumulated particles. After each deposition the fluid flow is recalculated in order to resolve the coupling of the flow with the growing particle structures correctly. For the purpose of avoiding unphysical blocking of flow by growing particle dendrites the Lattice-Boltzmann method is extended to permeable cells in these regions using the Brinkmann equation. This extended deposition model is compared to simpler approaches, where the deposit has no retroaction on the flow or is treated as a solid structure. It is clear that the permeable model is most realistic and allows considering the particle deposition on a fibre as two-dimensional problem. Comprehensive simulations were conducted for analysing the importance of different parameters, i.e. free-stream velocity and particle diameter on the deposit structure. The results of this sensitivity analysis agree qualitatively well with former published numerical and experimental results. Finally the structure of the particle deposit was quantitatively characterised by using a modified fractal dimension.

  16. Measurements of dry-deposition rates on various earth surfaces by 212Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Dry deposition rates of 212 Pb on a coniferous forest (Japanese cedar) and a broad-leaf forest (Pasania edulis) have been measured. Those on various kinds of grass fields, various states on artificial surface such as water, paper, and standing paper have been also measured. The dry deposition rates depend on the characteristics of depositing particles and the conditions of deposited surfaces. Dry deposition rates on the forest of Japanese cedar are highest because of the complex and adhesive surface of the leaves. Those on various grass fields are roughly depend on the logarithm of the height of their grasses. The total deposition rates of 7 Be do not depend on the densities or heights of the grasses. 7 Be may be not kept on their leaves or surface soil for a long time. The dry deposition rates of on artificial surface, e.g. paper and water surfaces make clear the mechanism on dry deposition, and suggest that more chances of collision and more adhesive of the surface are important for the dry deposition. About 90% of all deposition on the artificial paper grass was attached on the standing paper. On water surface, 60% of the rate of paper grass was attached, but only about 20% were attached on a dry paper plate. The aerosol particles are deposited by collision with the surface, therefore the deposition velocity depends on the chance of collision and the characteristics of the surface. Therefore the dry deposition rates on forests are larger and those of coniferous forest are largest. (author)

  17. Particle deposition modeling in the secondary side of a steam generator bundle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukin, Roman, E-mail: roman.mukin@psi.ch; Dehbi, Abdel, E-mail: abdel.dehbi@psi.ch

    2016-04-01

    A steam generator (SG) tube rupture (SGTR) model is studied in this paper. This model based on a experimental facility called Aerosol Trapping In a Steam Generator (ARTIST), which is a model of a scaled steam generator tube bundle consisting of 270 tubes and a guillotine tube to address aerosol deposition phenomena on two different scales: near the tube break, where the gas velocities and turbulence are very intensive, and far away from the break, where the flow velocities are three orders of magnitude lower. Owing to complexity of the flow, 3D simulations with highly resolved computational mesh near the break were done. First, the flow inside an isolated tube with a guillotine tube break has been studied in the framework of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach. The next part is devoted to the simulation of an inclined gas jet entering the SG tube bundle via the guillotine tube breach with more advanced CFD tools. In particular, Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) and RANS are applied to tackle the wide range of flow scales. Flow field velocity comparison showed that DES results are reproducing wavy structure of the flow field in far field from the break observed in experiment. Particle transport and deposition is modelled by Lagrangian continuous random walk (CRW) model, which has been developed and validated previously. It is found that the DES combined with the CRW to supply fluctuating velocity components predicts deposition rates that are generally within the scatter of the measured data. Monodisperse, spherical SiO{sub 2} particles with AMMD = 1.4 μm were used as aerosol particles in simulations. To be economically feasible, the computations were made with the open source CFD code OpenFOAM. Comparison of the calculated flow with the experimental axial velocity distribution data at different vertical levels has been performed.

  18. Occurrence and dry deposition of organophosphate esters in atmospheric particles over the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senchao; Xie, Zhiyong; Song, Tianli; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Yingyi; Mi, Wenying; Peng, Jinhu; Zhao, Yan; Zou, Shichun; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Nine organophosphate esters (OPEs) in airborne particles were measured during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013. The concentration of the total OPEs (∑OPEs) was 47.1-160.9 pg m(-3), which are lower than previous measurements in marine atmosphere environments. Higher OPE concentrations were observed in terrestrially influenced samples, suggesting that OPE concentrations were significantly influenced by air mass transport. Chlorinated OPEs were the dominant OPEs, accounting for 65.8-83.7% of the ∑OPEs. Tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was the predominant OPE compound in the samples (45.0±12.1%), followed by tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphates (TCPPs) (28.8±8.9%). Dry particle-bound deposition fluxes ranged from 8.2 to 27.8 ng m(-2) d(-1) for the ∑OPEs. Moreover, the dry deposition input of the ∑OPEs was estimated to be 4.98 ton y(-1) in 2013 in a vast area of northern SCS. About half of the input was found to relate to air masses originating from China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Particle migration leads to deposition-free fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, van A.M.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    In membrane filtration, theporesizeofthemembranedeterminesthesizeof ‘particles’ that shouldbe rejected,leading to accumulation of particles on the membrane surface and changed particle retention in time.A process without accumulation and thereby constant retention as function of time would be well

  20. DIGESTIVE BIOAVAILABILITY TO A DEPOSIT FEDDER (ARENICOLA MARINA) OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTHRPOGENIC PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sediments around urban areas serve as catch basins for anthropogenic particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using incubations with gut fluids extracted from a deposit-feeding polychaete (Arenicola marina), we determined the digestive bioavailability ...

  1. Explicit Covariance Matrix for Particle Measurement Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Karimäki, Veikko

    1997-01-01

    We derive explicit and precise formulae for 3 by 3 error matrix of the particle transverse momentum, direction and impact parameter. The error matrix elements are expressed as functions of up to fourth order statistical moments of the measured coordinates. The formulae are valid for any curvature and track length in case of negligible multiple scattering.

  2. Feasibility study of electrophoresis deposition of DyF3 on Nd-Fe-B particles for coercivity enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of the electrophoresis deposition (EPD technique for homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the Nd-Fe-B-type particles was studied, and coercivity enhancement in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD was investigated. HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 particles were deposited with DyF3 particles by EPD. More homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the surface of Nd-Fe-B particles was made by the EPD with respect to conventional dip-coating, and this led to more active and homogeneous diffusion of Dy. More profound coercivity enhancement was achieved in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD compared to dip-coated particles.

  3. Feasibility study of electrophoresis deposition of DyF3 on Nd-Fe-B particles for coercivity enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. M.; Kang, M. S.; Kwon, H. W.; Lee, J. G.; Yu, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    Feasibility of the electrophoresis deposition (EPD) technique for homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the Nd-Fe-B-type particles was studied, and coercivity enhancement in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD was investigated. HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 particles were deposited with DyF3 particles by EPD. More homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the surface of Nd-Fe-B particles was made by the EPD with respect to conventional dip-coating, and this led to more active and homogeneous diffusion of Dy. More profound coercivity enhancement was achieved in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD compared to dip-coated particles.

  4. Measurement of heavy particle and isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masaru; Kohno, Takeshi; Imai, Takashi; Munakata, Kazuoki

    1987-01-01

    The report describes some achievements made so far in developing heavy particle and isotope measuring equipment that is planned to be mounted on the No.6 technical test satelite of the National Space Development Agency, ETS VI. Some ideas are proposed for such heavy particle and isotope measuring equipment that uses Astromag. The structure of SSD is shown which is planned to be incorporated in the sensor for the equipment. The planned charged particle detector consists of position sensitive detectors, PIN diodes and Si(Li) plates. Tests are made for the basic characteristics of such a detector. The characteristics of a PSD are also investigated. The PSD has a resolution of about 1 mm for 14 MeV He. Tests of a 0.3 mm PIN diode and 1.2 mm Si(Li) is carried out with 234 MeV-nucl Fe beams to determine their pulse height distribution. The PIN diode and Si(Li) are found to have a resolution of 6.79 and 17.6 MeV for energy loss of 158 and 710 MeV, respectively. If developed, a stripe-type Si PIN diode will serve for analysis of isotopes. A conceptual diagram of such a stripe device is proposed. The mechanism of measurement by a heavy particle and isotope detecting system incorporating Astromag is also illustrated. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Spraypainting of deposits for nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.; Tjoonk, J.

    1979-01-01

    A painting method for the preparation of uranium deposits on metallic backings using an aerograph is described. The advantages of this method compared to classical brush-painting are that very simple masks can be used to obtain geometrically well defined deposits, practically without border effects, and that rather important thicknesses can be obtained in one single spraying operation. The adherence of the layers is comparable to that obtained in brush painting. Targets prepared in a single spraying operation have still acceptable homogeneities. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of five dry particle deposition parameterizations for incorporation into atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tanvir R.; Perlinger, Judith A.

    2017-10-01

    Despite considerable effort to develop mechanistic dry particle deposition parameterizations for atmospheric transport models, current knowledge has been inadequate to propose quantitative measures of the relative performance of available parameterizations. In this study, we evaluated the performance of five dry particle deposition parameterizations developed by Zhang et al. (2001) (Z01), Petroff and Zhang (2010) (PZ10), Kouznetsov and Sofiev (2012) (KS12), Zhang and He (2014) (ZH14), and Zhang and Shao (2014) (ZS14), respectively. The evaluation was performed in three dimensions: model ability to reproduce observed deposition velocities, Vd (accuracy); the influence of imprecision in input parameter values on the modeled Vd (uncertainty); and identification of the most influential parameter(s) (sensitivity). The accuracy of the modeled Vd was evaluated using observations obtained from five land use categories (LUCs): grass, coniferous and deciduous forests, natural water, and ice/snow. To ascertain the uncertainty in modeled Vd, and quantify the influence of imprecision in key model input parameters, a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed. The Sobol' sensitivity analysis was conducted with the objective to determine the parameter ranking from the most to the least influential. Comparing the normalized mean bias factors (indicators of accuracy), we find that the ZH14 parameterization is the most accurate for all LUCs except for coniferous forest, for which it is second most accurate. From Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated mean normalized uncertainties in the modeled Vd obtained for seven particle sizes (ranging from 0.005 to 2.5 µm) for the five LUCs are 17, 12, 13, 16, and 27 % for the Z01, PZ10, KS12, ZH14, and ZS14 parameterizations, respectively. From the Sobol' sensitivity results, we suggest that the parameter rankings vary by particle size and LUC for a given parameterization. Overall, for dp = 0.001 to 1.0 µm, friction velocity was one of

  7. Evaluation of five dry particle deposition parameterizations for incorporation into atmospheric transport models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable effort to develop mechanistic dry particle deposition parameterizations for atmospheric transport models, current knowledge has been inadequate to propose quantitative measures of the relative performance of available parameterizations. In this study, we evaluated the performance of five dry particle deposition parameterizations developed by Zhang et al. (2001 (Z01, Petroff and Zhang (2010 (PZ10, Kouznetsov and Sofiev (2012 (KS12, Zhang and He (2014 (ZH14, and Zhang and Shao (2014 (ZS14, respectively. The evaluation was performed in three dimensions: model ability to reproduce observed deposition velocities, Vd (accuracy; the influence of imprecision in input parameter values on the modeled Vd (uncertainty; and identification of the most influential parameter(s (sensitivity. The accuracy of the modeled Vd was evaluated using observations obtained from five land use categories (LUCs: grass, coniferous and deciduous forests, natural water, and ice/snow. To ascertain the uncertainty in modeled Vd, and quantify the influence of imprecision in key model input parameters, a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed. The Sobol' sensitivity analysis was conducted with the objective to determine the parameter ranking from the most to the least influential. Comparing the normalized mean bias factors (indicators of accuracy, we find that the ZH14 parameterization is the most accurate for all LUCs except for coniferous forest, for which it is second most accurate. From Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated mean normalized uncertainties in the modeled Vd obtained for seven particle sizes (ranging from 0.005 to 2.5 µm for the five LUCs are 17, 12, 13, 16, and 27 % for the Z01, PZ10, KS12, ZH14, and ZS14 parameterizations, respectively. From the Sobol' sensitivity results, we suggest that the parameter rankings vary by particle size and LUC for a given parameterization. Overall, for dp  =  0.001 to 1.0

  8. RANS modeling for particle transport and deposition in turbulent duct flows: Near wall model uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraju, S.T.; Sathiah, P.; Roelofs, F.; Dehbi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Near-wall modeling uncertainties in the RANS particle transport and deposition are addressed in a turbulent duct flow. • Discrete Random Walk (DRW) model and Continuous Random Walk (CRW) model performances are tested. • Several near-wall anisotropic model accuracy is assessed. • Numerous sensitivity studies are performed to recommend a robust, well-validated near-wall model for accurate particle deposition predictions. - Abstract: Dust accumulation in the primary system of a (V)HTR is identified as one of the foremost concerns during a potential accident. Several numerical efforts have focused on the use of RANS methodology to better understand the complex phenomena of fluid–particle interaction at various flow conditions. In the present work, several uncertainties relating to the near-wall modeling of particle transport and deposition are addressed for the RANS approach. The validation analyses are performed in a fully developed turbulent duct flow setup. A standard k − ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment is used for modeling the turbulence. For the Lagrangian phase, the performance of a continuous random walk (CRW) model and a discrete random walk (DRW) model for the particle transport and deposition are assessed. For wall bounded flows, it is generally seen that accounting for near wall anisotropy is important to accurately predict particle deposition. The various near-wall correlations available in the literature are either derived from the DNS data or from the experimental data. A thorough investigation into various near-wall correlations and their applicability for accurate particle deposition predictions are assessed. The main outcome of the present work is a well validated turbulence model with optimal near-wall modeling which provides realistic particle deposition predictions

  9. Deposition of bi-dispersed particles in inkjet-printed evaporating colloidal drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Joshi, Abhijit; Chhasatia, Viral

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the deposition behaviors of inkjet-printed evaporating colloidal drops consisting of bi-dispersed micro and nano-sized particles are investigated by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The results on hydrophilic glass substrates show that, evaporatively-driven outward flow drives the nanoparticles to deposit close to the pinned contact line while an inner ring deposition is formed by microparticles. This size-induced particle separation is consistent with the existence of a wedge-shaped drop edge near the contact line region of an evaporating drop on a hydrophilic substrate. The replenishing evaporatively-driven flow assembles nanoparticles closer to the pinned contact line forming an outer ring of nanoparticles and this particle jamming further enhances the contact line pinning. Microparticles are observed to form an inner ring inside the nano-sized deposits. This size-induced particle separation presents a new challenge to the uniformity of functional materials in bioprinting applications where nanoparticles and micro-sized cells are mixed together. On the other hand, particle self-assembly based on their sizes provides enables easy and well-controlled pattern formation. The effects of particle size contrast, particle volume fraction, substrate surface energy, and relative humidity of the printing environment on particle separation are examined in detail.

  10. Contribution to the study of tracheobronchial and pulmonary deposits in 52 subjects after inhalation of radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Pierre.

    1980-03-01

    Particle deposits in the bronchopulmonary system can lead to three main types of disorder: pneumoconioses, bronchial cancers and most chronic bronchopulmonary diseases. The study of deposition is useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses. The air-borne contaminants laid down are cleared by different mechanisms corresponding roughly to distinct anatomical regions. Short-term clearance, known as tracheobronchial (TB) takes place in a few hours, while long-term clearance from the deep lung is much slower: according to the International Radiological Protection Commission, 60% of particles deposited in the bronchiolo-alveolar region take more than 500 days to eliminate. It is useful therefore to known in what proportions the particles are fixed in the tracheobronchial region and on the deep lung. This was the purpose of the present work. The distribution of the deposit between these two regions was measured in 52 subjects having breathed in radioactive particles (indium 111). A functional respiratory study was conducted at the same time to find out whether the two sets of experimental data are related in any way [fr

  11. Experimental studies on particle deposition by thermophoresis and inertial impaction from particulate high temperature gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Kim, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    In view of fouling and erosion of gas turbine blade, heat exchanger and pipelines, increasing attention has been paid to particle deposition (transport) in high temperature flow systems. This is also necessary to develop a cleaning or filtration devices. Using 'real time' laser-light reflectivity and scanning electron microscope technique, we quantitatively treat particle size effect and the interaction between Brownian diffusion, thermoporesis (particle drift down a temperature gradient), and inertial impaction of particles (0.2 to 30 μm in diameter) in laminar hot combustion gas-particles flow (ca. 1565 K)

  12. Calorimetric sensors for energy deposition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, J.; Cooper, R.; Morgan, G.

    1998-01-01

    A calorimetric sensor with several novel design features has been developed. These sensors will provide an accurate sampling of thermal power density and energy deposition from proton beams incident on target components of accelerator-based systems, such as the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project (APT) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A small, solid slug (volume = 0.347 cc) of target material is suspended by kevlar fibers and surrounded by an adiabatic enclosure in an insulating vacuum canister of stainless steel construction. The slug is in thermal contact with a low-mass, calibrated, 100-kΩ thermistor. Power deposition caused by the passage of radiation through the slug is calculated from the rate of temperature rise of the slug. The authors have chosen slugs composed of Pb, Al, and LiAl

  13. Lateral particle density reconstruction from the energy deposits of particles in the KASCADE-Grande detector stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, G.; Brancus, I.M.; Mitrica, B.; Sima, O.; Rebel, H.

    2005-01-01

    The study of primary cosmic rays with energies greater than 10 14 eV is done mostly by indirect observation techniques such as the study of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). In the much larger framework effort of inferring data on the mass and energy of the primaries from EAS observables, the present study aims at delivering a versatile method and software tool that will be used to reconstruct lateral particle densities from the energy deposits of particles in the KASCADE-Grande detector stations. The study has been performed on simulated events, by taking into account the interaction of the EAS components with the detector array (energy deposits). The energy deposits have been parametrized for different incident energies and angles. Thus it is possible to reconstruct the particle densities in detectors from the energy deposits. A correlation between lateral particle density and primary mass and primary energy (at ∼ 600 m from shower core) has been established. The study puts great emphasis on the quality of reconstruction and also on the speed of the technique. The data obtained from the study on simulated events will be used soon on real events detected by the KASCADE-Grande array. (authors)

  14. Nano/micro particle beam for ceramic deposition and mechanical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Doo-Man; Kim, Min-Saeng; Kim, Min-Hyeng; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Yeo, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2010-01-01

    Nano/micro particle beam (NPB) is a newly developed ceramic deposition and mechanical etching process. Additive (deposition) and subtractive (mechanical etching) processes can be realized in one manufacturing process using ceramic nano/micro particles. Nano- or micro-sized powders are sprayed through the supersonic nozzle at room temperature and low vacuum conditions. According to the process conditions, the ceramic powder can be deposited on metal substrates without thermal damage, and mechanical etching can be conducted in the same process with a simple change of process conditions and powders. In the present work, ceramic aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) thin films were deposited on metal substrates. In addition, the glass substrate was etched using a mask to make small channels. Deposited and mechanically etched surface morphology, coating thickness and channel depth were investigated. The test results showed that the NPB provides a feasible additive and subtractive process using ceramic powders.

  15. The influence of magnetic field on the inertial deposition of a particle on a rotating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsin, P O; Beskachko, V P

    2008-01-01

    The problem of inertial deposition attracts considerable attention in the connection with the separating of detrimental impurities and the refining of liquid metals. In the present investigation the deposition of particles suspended in a conducting melt on the rotating disk in the presence of axial uniform magnetic field is considered. The field of the fluid velocities is computed by means of the MHD-analogue of Karman reduction, which makes possible to reduce initial governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a two-point boundary value problem for the set of ordinary differential equations. The influence of magnetic field on dia-and paramagnetic particle deposition effect was estimated. The results reveal that magnetic field has significant effect on particle parameters, especially for magnetic particles

  16. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  17. Airflow structures and nano-particle deposition in a human upper airway model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Kleinstreuer, C.

    2004-07-01

    Considering a human upper airway model, or equivalently complex internal flow conduits, the transport and deposition of nano-particles in the 1-150 nm diameter range are simulated and analyzed for cyclic and steady flow conditions. Specifically, using a commercial finite-volume software with user-supplied programs as a solver, the Euler-Euler approach for the fluid-particle dynamics is employed with a low-Reynolds-number k- ω model for laminar-to-turbulent airflow and the mass transfer equation for dispersion of nano-particles or vapors. Presently, the upper respiratory system consists of two connected segments of a simplified human cast replica, i.e., the oral airways from the mouth to the trachea (Generation G0) and an upper tracheobronchial tree model of G0-G3. Experimentally validated computational fluid-particle dynamics results show the following: (i) transient effects in the oral airways appear most prominently during the decelerating phase of the inspiratory cycle; (ii) selecting matching flow rates, total deposition fractions of nano-size particles for cyclic inspiratory flow are not significantly different from those for steady flow; (iii) turbulent fluctuations which occur after the throat can persist downstream to at least Generation G3 at medium and high inspiratory flow rates (i.e., Qin⩾30 l/min) due to the enhancement of flow instabilities just upstream of the flow dividers; however, the effects of turbulent fluctuations on nano-particle deposition are quite minor in the human upper airways; (iv) deposition of nano-particles occurs to a relatively greater extent around the carinal ridges when compared to the straight tubular segments in the bronchial airways; (v) deposition distributions of nano-particles vary with airway segment, particle size, and inhalation flow rate, where the local deposition is more uniformly distributed for large-size particles (say, dp=100 nm) than for small-size particles (say, dp=1 nm); (vi) dilute 1 nm particle

  18. Particle deposition in human and canine tracheobronchial casts: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    This work measures deposition patterns and efficiencies of aerosols within realistic, physical models of the tracheobronchial airways of humans and experimental animals over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 to 1.0 μm, for a variety of respiratory modes and rates. Full morphometric and flow distribution measurements were completed on casts of human and canine tracheobronchial airways, which extend from just below the larynx to airways 1 mm in diameter. They show basic similarities in the distribution of airflow, but also species differences which must be considered. The distribution of airflow was measured for minute volumes equivalent to 6, 11, 17 and 22 L min -1 for the human and 3, 6, 8 and 11 L min -1 for the canine for both constant and pulsatile inspiratory flow. Inertance was found to carry more of the flow to airways of the lower lobes at higher flow rates. Basic differences in airway branching pattern result in a more distinct change in airflow distribution as flow rate changes for the canine cast as compared with the human cast. These differences will contribute to differing patterns of mass transfer of inhaled particles in central airways of the two species. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Effect of uncertainty in nasal airway deposition of radioactive particles on effective dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Birchall, A.; Jarvis, N.S

    1998-07-01

    In the current ICRP human respiratory tract (RT) model (ICRP Publication 66), the deposition of particles in various regions of the RT during natural breathing is modelled by considering the RT as a series of filters, resulting in deposition probabilities for distal portions of the RT being dependent on those of the proximal segments. Thus, uncertainties in regional deposition in proximal segments of the RT are reflected or propagated in uncertainties in deposition in the distal segments of the lung. Experimental data on aerosol particle deposition have demonstrated significant variability in nasal airway (NA) deposition for different individuals studied. This report summarises the impact of introducing variability in NA deposition efficiency on the calculation of effective doses using the ICRP 66 model for selected radionuclides. The computer software LUDEP, modified for this purpose, was used to customise deposition patterns, and effective doses were calculated for several radionuclides ({sup 111}In, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 60}Co, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu) chosen to represent isotopes with various decay schemes and half-lives. The results indicated significant but particle-size-specific effects of assumed NA deposition efficiencies on the calculated effective doses, which varied typically by factors of five to six. The majority of the variability was associated with direct effects on deposition patterns, but in some cases, alterations of radiation dose distribution within the various target organs also contributed to the variability. These results provide a basis for evaluating uncertainties due to inter-individual differences in deposition patterns for radiation protection and risk analysis. (author)

  20. Clearance patterns for 111In-oxide particles deposited in specific airways of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has incorporated long-term retention of radioactive particles in conducting airways into its newly approved respiratory tract dosimetry model. This model is purported to provide a better basis for assessing risk associated with human inhalation exposures to radioactive particles. However, applying the new model requires an understanding of particle retention patterns in conducting airways of the lung. Studies are being conducted at ITRI to quantify long-term retention patterns for particles deposited at specific sites in conducting airways of Beagle dogs. The dog was selected as a model because long-term retention and clearance patterns for particles deposited in the lungs of dogs and humans are similar

  1. Effects of temperature and particle size on deposition in land based turbines - article no. 051503

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.M.; Lewis, S.; Bons, J.P.; Ai, W.G.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Dept. for Mechanical Engineering

    2008-09-15

    Four series of tests were performed in an accelerated deposition test facility to study the independent effects of particle size, gas temperature, and metal temperature on ash deposits from two candidate power turbine synfuels (coal and petcoke). The facility matches the gas temperature and velocity of modern first stage high pressure turbine vanes while accelerating the deposition process. Particle size was found to have a significant effect on capture efficiency with larger particles causing significant thermal barrier coating (TBC) spallation during a 4 h accelerated test. In the second series of tests, particle deposition rate was found to decrease with decreasing gas temperature. The threshold gas temperature for deposition was approximately 960{sup o}C. In the third and fourth test series, impingement cooling was applied to the back side of the target coupon to simulate internal vane cooling. Capture efficiency was reduced with increasing mass flow of coolant air; however, at low levels of cooling, the deposits attached more tenaciously to the TBC layer. Postexposure analyses of the third test series (scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy) show decreasing TBC damage with increased cooling levels.

  2. Factors controlling deposits in recovery boilers -particle formation and deposition; Soodakattilan likaantuminen ja siihen vaikuttavien tekijoeiden hallinta. Hiukkasten muodostuminen ja depositio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, E I; Mikkanen, P; Tapper, U; Ylaetalo, S; Jaervinen, R [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, J K; Pyykoenen, J; Eskola, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the aim is to find critical factors controlling the deposit formation in the recovery boilers. Focus is on particle formation, growth and deposition. During year 1995 the aerosol particle formation was studied by an experimental study within the recovery boiler furnace and by a sensitivity study with the ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion) computer code. During year 1996 the experimental studies on the aerosol particle formation continued within the furnace and the deposition mechanisms for carry over particles were included in the ABC code and sensitivity studies of the deposition were carried out. The experimental study confirmed the fact that the particles are already formed in the recovery boiler furnace. The particle formation is initiated in the boundary layer of the burning droplet or char bed, where metals are vaporised and oxidised to form tiny seed particles

  3. Radiative effects of light-absorbing particles deposited in snow over Himalayas using WRF-Chem simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, C.; Qian, Y.; Painter, T. H.; Liu, Y.; Lin, G.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative forcing induced by light-absorbing particles (LAP) deposited on snow is an important surface forcing. It has been debated that an aerosol-induced increase in atmospheric and surface warming over Tibetan Plateau (TP) prior to the South Asian summer monsoon can have a significant effect on the regional thermodynamics and South Asian monsoon circulation. However, knowledge about the radiative effects due to deposition of LAP in snow over TP is limited. In this study we have used a high-resolution WRF-Chem (coupled with online chemistry and snow-LAP-radiation model) simulations during 2013-2014 to estimate the spatio-temporal variation in LAP deposition on snow, specifically black carbon (BC) and dust particles, in Himalayas. Simulated distributions in meteorology, aerosol concentrations, snow albedo, snow grain size and snow depth are evaluated against satellite and in-situ measurements. The spatio-temporal change in snow albedo and snow grain size with variation in LAP deposition is investigated and the resulting shortwave LAP radiative forcing at surface is calculated. The LAP-radiative forcing due to aerosol deposition, both BC and dust, is higher in magnitude over Himalayan slopes (terrain height below 4 km) compared to that over TP (terrain height above 4 km). We found that the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at surface due to increase in deposited mass of BC particles in snow layer ( 25 (W/m2)/ (mg/m2)) is manifold higher than the efficiency of dust particles ( 0.1 (W/m2)/ (mg/m2)) over TP. However, the radiative forcing of dust deposited in snow is similar in magnitude (maximum 20-30 W/m2) to that of BC deposited in snow over TP. This is mainly because the amount of dust deposited in snow over TP can be about 100 times greater than the amount of BC deposited in snow during polluted conditions. The impact of LAP on surface energy balance, snow melting and atmospheric thermodynamics is also examined.

  4. Simulation of enhanced deposition due to magnetic field alignment of ellipsoidal particles in a lung bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R C; Roshchenko, A; Minev, P; Finlay, W H

    2013-02-01

    Aerosolized chemotherapy has been recognized as a potential treatment for lung cancer. The challenge of providing sufficient therapeutic effects without reaching dose-limiting toxicity levels hinders the development of aerosolized chemotherapy. This could be mitigated by increasing drug-delivery efficiency with a noninvasive drug-targeting delivery method. The purpose of this study is to use direct numerical simulations to study the resulting local enhancement of deposition due to magnetic field alignment of high aspect ratio particles. High aspect ratio particles were approximated by a rigid ellipsoid with a minor diameter of 0.5 μm and fluid particle density ratio of 1,000. Particle trajectories were calculated by solving the coupled fluid particle equations using an in-house micro-macro grid finite element algorithm based on a previously developed fictitious domain approach. Particle trajectories were simulated in a morphologically realistic geometry modeling a symmetrical terminal bronchiole bifurcation. Flow conditions were steady inspiratory air flow due to typical breathing at 18 L/min. Deposition efficiency was estimated for two different cases: [1] particles aligned with the streamlines and [2] particles with fixed angular orientation simulating the magnetic field alignment of our previous in vitro study. The local enhancement factor defined as the ratio between deposition efficiency of Case [1] and Case [2] was found to be 1.43 and 3.46 for particles with an aspect ratio of 6 and 20, respectively. Results indicate that externally forcing local alignment of high aspect ratio particles can increase local deposition considerably.

  5. Measuring Lagrangian accelerations using an instrumented particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, R; Fiabane, L; Volk, R; Pinton, J-F; Gasteuil, Y

    2013-01-01

    Accessing and characterizing a flow imposes a number of constraints on the employed measurement techniques; in particular, optical methods require transparent fluids and windows in the vessel. Whereas one can adapt the apparatus, fluid and methods in the laboratory to these constraints, this is hardly possible for industrial mixers. In this paper, we present a novel measurement technique which is suitable for opaque or granular flows: consider an instrumented particle, which continuously transmits the force/acceleration acting on it as it is advected in a flow. Its density is adjustable for a wide range of fluids and because of its small size and its wireless data transmission, the system can be used both in industrial and in scientific mixers, allowing for a better understanding of the flow within. We demonstrate the capabilities and precision of the particle by comparing its transmitted acceleration to alternative measurements, in particular in the case of a turbulent von Kármán flow. Our technique proves to be an efficient and fast tool to characterize flows. (paper)

  6. Effect of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johzaki, T.; Nakao, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Kudo, K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasmas are investigated by making transport calculations for the fast particles. It is found that the degeneracy substantially affects the profiles of energy deposition of 3.52-MeV α-particles. On the other hand, the effect on the energy deposition of 14.1-MeV neutrons is negligibly small because the recoil ions, which transfer the neutron energy to the plasma constituents, are produced in a whole plasma volume due to the long mean-free-path of neutrons. The coupled transport-hydrodynamic calculations show that these effects of degeneracy are negligible in the ignition and burn characteristics of central ignition D-T targets. (author)

  7. Deposition characteristics of copper particles on roughened substrates through kinetic spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Bae, Gyuyeol; Lee, Changhee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic study of copper particle deposition behavior on polished and roughened surfaces (aluminum and copper) in kinetic spray process has been performed. The particle deformation behavior was simulated through finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS explicit 6.7-2. The particle-substrate contact time, contact temperature and contact area upon impact have been estimated for smooth and three different roughened substrate cases. Copper powders were deposited on smooth and grit-blasted copper and aluminium substrates and characterized through scanning electron microscopy and Romulus bond strength analyzer. The results indicate that the deformation and the resultant bonding were higher for the roughened substrates than that of smooth. The characteristic factors for bonding are reported and discussed. Thus the substrate roughness appears to be beneficial for the initial deposition efficiency of the kinetic spray process.

  8. Deposition of Fungal Particles in the Lung of Workers in a Spin Factory (Minia City/ Egypt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, M.; Moustafa, M.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated levels of particle air pollution have been associated with decreased lung function, increased respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing and asthma attacks, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer (World Health Organisation, 2002). Recently, characterization of biological particles has become an important issue because of the related health effects of exposure to bio aerosols in the indoor environment influencing the intensity of sick building syndrome symptoms, such as nasal and pharyngeal mucous membrane irritations, skin dryness, itchy eyes, breathlessness, wheezing, headache, concentration problems or fatigue. Dust particles often act as a carrier for biological particles either naturally occurring or artificially generated. In cotton-spinning mills cotton dust is the major carrier for biological particles that contribute to such respiratory problems and its effect on pulmonary function among workers employed in the factory. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the deposition of bio aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract applying a stochastic lung model using the standard breathing parameters (ICRP, 1994) for light exercise activity. We use the size distribution parameters of bio aerosols from our previous experimental study in a cotton spin factory in Minya city (Egypt). It was found that the number of deposited particles in the lung is higher in the carding and blowing department (high cotton dust exposure) than the predicted value for the spinning department (low cotton dust exposure). The results also reveal significant dependence of fungal deposition in the lung on their composition (genera and species), concentration and size where the number of deposited Aspergillus niger particles is higher than that of the Penicillium particles in both departments

  9. Protonation of the polyethyleneimine and titanium particles and their effect on the electrophoretic mobility and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Kok-Tee, E-mail: ktlau@utem.edu.my [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Anand, T. Joseph Sahaya [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Sorrell, Charles C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-10-01

    Proton activities of suspensions of Ti particles with added cationic polyelectrolyte as a function of acid additions have been investigated and compared in terms of the electrophoretic mobility and deposition yield. The proton activity in ethanol medium decreased with the addition of PEI polyelectrolyte and reduced further in the presence of Ti particles. The decrease in proton activity in the suspension indicates that protonation occurred on both the PEI molecules and Ti particles. It is proposed that the protonation of the amine groups of PEI and hydroxyl sites of Ti particle led to the formation of hydrogen bonding between the Ti particle and PEI molecules. Increase in the PEI and Ti with increasing acid addition translated to higher electrophoretic mobilities and deposition yield at low ranges of acetic acid addition (<0.75 vol%). - Highlights: • Protonation characteristics of polyelectrolytes and suspension particles are reported. • The protonation characteristics explained the electrophoretic mobility and yield results. • Adsorption mechanisms of protonated polyelectrolytes on the titanium particle is proposed. • Hydroxyl sites on the particles link the oxide particle and the polyelectrolyte molecules.

  10. Protonation of the polyethyleneimine and titanium particles and their effect on the electrophoretic mobility and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Kok-Tee; Anand, T. Joseph Sahaya; Sorrell, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Proton activities of suspensions of Ti particles with added cationic polyelectrolyte as a function of acid additions have been investigated and compared in terms of the electrophoretic mobility and deposition yield. The proton activity in ethanol medium decreased with the addition of PEI polyelectrolyte and reduced further in the presence of Ti particles. The decrease in proton activity in the suspension indicates that protonation occurred on both the PEI molecules and Ti particles. It is proposed that the protonation of the amine groups of PEI and hydroxyl sites of Ti particle led to the formation of hydrogen bonding between the Ti particle and PEI molecules. Increase in the PEI and Ti with increasing acid addition translated to higher electrophoretic mobilities and deposition yield at low ranges of acetic acid addition (<0.75 vol%). - Highlights: • Protonation characteristics of polyelectrolytes and suspension particles are reported. • The protonation characteristics explained the electrophoretic mobility and yield results. • Adsorption mechanisms of protonated polyelectrolytes on the titanium particle is proposed. • Hydroxyl sites on the particles link the oxide particle and the polyelectrolyte molecules.

  11. Experimental investigations on the deposition and remobilization of aerosol particles in turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol particle deposition and resuspension experiments in turbulent flows were performed to investigate the complex particle transport phenomena and to provide a database for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. The background motivation is related to the source term analysis of an accidental depressurization scenario of a High Temperature Reactor (HTR). During the operation of former HTR pilot plants, larger amounts of radio-contaminated graphite dust were found in the primary circuit. This dust most likely arose due to abrasion between the graphitic core components and was deposited on the inner wall surfaces of the primary circuit. In case of an accident scenario, such as a depressurization of the primary circuit, the dust may be remobilized and may escape the system boundaries. The estimation of the source term being discharged during such a scenario requires fundamental knowledge of the particle deposition, the amount of contaminants per unit mass as well as the resuspension phenomena. Nowadays, the graphite dust distribution in the primary circuit of an HTR can be calculated for stationary conditions using one-dimensional reactor system codes. However, it is rather unknown which fraction of the graphite dust inventory may be remobilized during a depressurization of the HTR primary circuit. Two small-scale experimental facilities were designed and a set of experiments was performed to investigate particle transport, deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows. The facility design concept is based on the fluid dynamic downscaling of the helium pressure boundary in the HTR primary circuit to an airflow at ambient conditions in the laboratory. The turbulent flow and the particles were recorded by high-resolution, non-invasive imaging techniques to provide a spatio-temporal insight into the particle transport processes. The different investigations of this thesis can be grouped into three categories. Firstly, the

  12. Measurements of dry-deposition parameters for the California acid-deposition monitoring program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Egami, R.T.; Bowen, J.L.; Frazier, C.A.

    1991-06-01

    The State of California monitors the concentrations of acidic gases and particles at 10 sites throughout the state. Seven sites represent urban areas (South Coast Air Basin - three sites, San Francisco Bay Area, Bakersfield, Santa Barbara, and Sacramento) and three represent forested areas (Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, and Gasquet). Several sites are collocated with monitoring instruments for other air quality and forest response networks. Continuous monitors for the dry deposition network collect hourly average values for ozone, wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, temperature, dew point, time of wetness, and solar radiation. A newly-designed gas/particle sampler collects daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and nighttime (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) samples every sixth day for sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. Particles are collected on the same day/night schedule in PM(10) and PM(2.5) size ranges, and are analyzed for mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium ions. The sampling schedule follows the regulatory schedule adopted by the EPA and ARB for suspended particulate matter. Wet deposition data are collected at or nearby the dry deposition stations. The first year of the monitoring program included installation of the network, training of technicians, acquisition and validation of data, and transfer of the sampling and analysis technology to Air Resources Board operating divisions. Data have been validated and stored for the period May, 1988 through September, 1989

  13. Atmospheric particle characterization, distribution, and deposition in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zongze; Yang Yuhua; Lu, Julia; Zhang Chengxiao

    2011-01-01

    Physical characterization and chemical analysis of settled dusts collected in Xi'an from November 2007 to December 2008 show that (1) dust deposition rates ranged from 14.6 to 350.4 g m -2 yr -1 . The average deposition rate (76.7 g m -2 yr -1 ) ranks the 11th out of 56 dust deposition rates observed throughout the world. The coal-burning power was the major particle source; (2) on average (except site 4), ∼10% of the settled dusts having size 70% having size <30 μm; (3) the concentrations for 20 out of 27 elements analyzed were upto 18 times higher than their soil background values in China. With such high deposition rates of dusts that contain elevated levels of toxic elements, actions should be taken to reduce emission and studies are needed to assess the potential impacts of settled particles on surface ecosystem, water resource, and human health in the area. - Research highlights: → High atmospheric dust deposition rate in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. → Coal-burning power plan being a major source of particulate matter in Xi'an area. → High levels of toxic elements in the settled dusts. → Enrichment of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Ni, Cu) in fine particles. - Atmospheric dust deposition rate is high and the levels of toxic elements associated with the settled dusts are elevated in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

  14. Particle transport in 3He-rich events: wave-particle interactions and particle anisotropy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading

  15. Particle transport in 3He-rich events: wave-particle interactions and particle anisotropy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hada

    Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading

  16. Dynamics of particle loading in deep-bed filter. Transport, deposition and reentrainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przekop Rafał

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep bed filtration is an effective method of submicron and micron particle removal from the fluid stream. There is an extensive body of literature regarding particle deposition in filters, often using the classical continuum approach. However, the approach is not convenient for studying the influence of particle deposition on filter performance (filtration efficiency, pressure drop when non-steady state boundary conditions have to be introduced. For the purposes of this work the lattice-Boltzmann model describes fluid dynamics, while the solid particle motion is modeled by the Brownian dynamics. For aggregates the effect of their structure on displacement is taken into account. The possibility of particles rebound from the surface of collector or reentrainment of deposits to fluid stream is calculated by energy balanced oscillatory model derived from adhesion theory. The results show the evolution of filtration efficiency and pressure drop of filters with different internal structure described by the size of pores. The size of resuspended aggregates and volume distribution of deposits in filter were also analyzed. The model enables prediction of dynamic filter behavior. It can be a very useful tool for designing filter structures which optimize maximum lifetime with the acceptable values of filtration efficiency and pressure drop.

  17. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the NCRP/ITRI model and the new ICRP66 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Phalen, R.F. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chang, I. [Lovelace Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the United States and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been independently reviewing and revising respiratory tract dosimetry models for inhaled radioactive aerosols. The newly proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model represents a significant change in philosophy from the old ICRP Task Group model. The proposed NCRP model describes respiratory tract deposition, clearance, and dosimetry for radioactive substances inhaled by workers and the general public and is expected to be published soon. In support of the NCRP proposed model, ITRI staff members have been developing computer software. Although this software is still incomplete, the deposition portion has been completed and can be used to calculate inhaled particle deposition within the respiratory tract for particle sizes as small as radon and radon progeny ({approximately} 1 nm) to particles larger than 100 {mu}m. Recently, ICRP published their new dosimetric model for the respiratory tract, ICRP66. Based on ICRP66, the National Radiological Protection Board of the UK developed PC-based software, LUDEP, for calculating particle deposition and internal doses. The purpose of this report is to compare the calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles using the NCRP/ITRI model and the ICRP66 model, under the same particle size distribution and breathing conditions. In summary, the general trends of the deposition curves for the two models were similar.

  18. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the NCRP/ITRI model and the new ICRP66 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Phalen, R.F.; Chang, I.

    1995-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the United States and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been independently reviewing and revising respiratory tract dosimetry models for inhaled radioactive aerosols. The newly proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model represents a significant change in philosophy from the old ICRP Task Group model. The proposed NCRP model describes respiratory tract deposition, clearance, and dosimetry for radioactive substances inhaled by workers and the general public and is expected to be published soon. In support of the NCRP proposed model, ITRI staff members have been developing computer software. Although this software is still incomplete, the deposition portion has been completed and can be used to calculate inhaled particle deposition within the respiratory tract for particle sizes as small as radon and radon progeny (∼ 1 nm) to particles larger than 100 μm. Recently, ICRP published their new dosimetric model for the respiratory tract, ICRP66. Based on ICRP66, the National Radiological Protection Board of the UK developed PC-based software, LUDEP, for calculating particle deposition and internal doses. The purpose of this report is to compare the calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles using the NCRP/ITRI model and the ICRP66 model, under the same particle size distribution and breathing conditions. In summary, the general trends of the deposition curves for the two models were similar

  19. Deposition of particle/bound substances during radiation fog events; Deposition von partikelgebundenen Substanzen waehrend Strahlungsnebelereignissen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautner, F. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Tschiersch, J. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    During autumnal and winterly radiation fog events size fractioned sampling of aerosol rime and fogwater was carried out. Samples were collected on polyethylene plates with a surface of 0.25 m{sup 2}. The deposited fog water quantity was as high as 15g/h.m{sup 2}. Deposition rate values were between 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -2} m/s. (orig./EW) [Deutsch] Waehrend herbstlichen und winterlichen Strahlungsnebelereignissen wurde direkt nach der groessenfraktionierenden Probennahme von Aerosol Reif und Nebelwasser auf Polyethylenplatten von 0,25 m{sup 2} Oberflaeche gesammelt. Die deponierte Nebelwassermasse betrug dabei bis zu 15 g/h . m{sup 2}. Fuer Elemente, die sowohl im Wasser als auch im Aerosol analysiert wurden erreichten die Depositionsgeschwindigkeiten Werte zwischen 10{sup -4} und 10{sup -2} m/s. (orig.)

  20. Particles in wall-bounded turbulent flows deposition, re-suspension and agglomeration

    CERN Document Server

    Pozorski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The book presents an up-to-date review of turbulent two-phase flows with the dispersed phase, with an emphasis on the dynamics in the near-wall region. New insights to the flow physics are provided by direct numerical simuation and by fine experimental techniques. Also included are models of particle dynamics in wall-bounded turbulent flows, and a description of particle surface interactions including muti-layer deposition and re-suspension.

  1. Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.

  2. Predicting the Effects of Powder Feeding Rates on Particle Impact Conditions and Cold Spray Deposited Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.; Carter, Michael J.; Johnson, Kyle W.

    2017-10-01

    As the industrial application of the cold spray technology grows, the need to optimize both the cost and the quality of the process grows with it. Parameter selection techniques available today require the use of a coupled system of equations to be solved to involve the losses due to particle loading in the gas stream. Such analyses cause a significant increase in the computational time in comparison with calculations with isentropic flow assumptions. In cold spray operations, engineers and operators may, therefore, neglect the effects of particle loading to simplify the multiparameter optimization process. In this study, two-way coupled (particle-fluid) quasi-one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations are used to test the particle loading effects under many potential cold spray scenarios. Output of the simulations is statistically analyzed to build regression models that estimate the changes in particle impact velocity and temperature due to particle loading. This approach eases particle loading optimization for more complete analysis on deposition cost and time. The model was validated both numerically and experimentally. Further numerical analyses were completed to test the particle loading capacity and limitations of a nozzle with a commonly used throat size. Additional experimentation helped document the physical limitations to high-rate deposition.

  3. Accurate particle speed prediction by improved particle speed measurement and 3-dimensional particle size and shape characterization technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernuschi, Federico; Rothleitner, Christian; Clausen, Sønnik

    2017-01-01

    Accurate particle mass and velocity measurement is needed for interpreting test results in erosion tests of materials and coatings. The impact and damage of a surface is influenced by the kinetic energy of a particle, i.e. particle mass and velocity. Particle mass is usually determined with optic...

  4. Efficiency of the deposition mode ice nucleation on mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Möhler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition mode ice nucleation efficiency of various dust aerosols was investigated at cirrus cloud temperatures between 196 and 223 K using the aerosol and cloud chamber facility AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere. Arizona test dust (ATD as a reference material and two dust samples from the Takla Makan desert in Asia (AD1 and the Sahara (SD2 were used for the experiments at simulated cloud conditions. The dust particle sizes were almost lognormally distributed with mode diameters between 0.3 and 0.5 μm and geometric standard deviations between 1.6 and 1.9. Deposition ice nucleation was most efficient on ATD particles with ice-active particle fractions of about 0.6 and 0.8 at an ice saturation ratio SiSiSi. This indicates that deposition ice nucleation on mineral particles may not be treated in the same stochastic sense as homogeneous freezing. The suggested formulation of ice activation spectra may be used to calculate the formation rate of ice crystals in models, if the number concentration of dust particles is known. More experimental work is needed to quantify the variability of the ice activation spectra as function of the temperature and dust particle properties.

  5. Experimentally Investigating the Effect of Temperature Differences in the Particle Deposition Process on Solar Photovoltaic (PV Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental investigation of the dust particle deposition process on solar photovoltaic (PV modules with different surface temperatures by a heating plate to illustrate the effect of the temperature difference (thermophoresis between the module surface and the surrounding air on the dust accumulation process under different operating temperatures. In general, if the temperature of PV modules is increased, the energy conversion efficiency of the modules is decreased. However, in this study, it is firstly found that higher PV module surface temperature differences result in a higher energy output compared with those modules with lower temperature differences because of a reduced accumulation of dust particles. The measured deposition densities of dust particles were found to range from 0.54 g/m2 to 0.85 g/m2 under the range of experimental conditions and the output power ratios were found to increase from 0.861 to 0.965 with the increase in the temperature difference from 0 to 50 °C. The PV module with a higher temperature difference experiences a lower dust density because of the effect of the thermophoresis force arising from the temperature gradient between the module surface and its surrounding air. In addition, dust particles have a significant impact on the short circuit current, as well as the output power. However, the influence of particles on open circuit voltage can be negligible.

  6. Particle dry-deposition experiment using ambient airborne soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne solid concentrations were measured simultaneously at sampling towers upwind and 305-m downwind of a site. When the wind speed and wind direction were identical at each site, isokinetic air samplers on the sampling towers were automatically activated. The fraction of the airborne solid plume remaining after the 305-m fetch ranged from 0.53 to 1.07

  7. A modeling study of the effect of gravity on airflow distribution and particle deposition in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Oberdörster, Gunter

    2006-06-01

    Inhalation of particles generated as a result of thermal degradation from fire or smoke, as may occur on spacecraft, is of major health concern to space-faring countries. Knowledge of lung airflow and particle transport under different gravity environments is required to addresses this concern by providing information on particle deposition. Gravity affects deposition of particles in the lung in two ways. First, the airflow distribution among airways is changed in different gravity environments. Second, particle losses by sedimentation are enhanced with increasing gravity. In this study, a model of airflow distribution in the lung that accounts for the influence of gravity was used for a mathematical description of particle deposition in the human lung to calculate lobar, regional, and local deposition of particles in different gravity environments. The lung geometry used in the mathematical model contained five lobes that allowed the assessment of lobar ventilation distribution and variation of particle deposition. At zero gravity, it was predicted that all lobes of the lung expanded and contracted uniformly, independent of body position. Increased gravity in the upright position increased the expansion of the upper lobes and decreased expansion of the lower lobes. Despite a slight increase in predicted deposition of ultrafine particles in the upper lobes with decreasing gravity, deposition of ultrafine particles was generally predicted to be unaffected by gravity. Increased gravity increased predicted deposition of fine and coarse particles in the tracheobronchial region, but that led to a reduction or even elimination of deposition in the alveolar region for coarse particles. The results from this study show that existing mathematical models of particle deposition at 1 G can be extended to different gravity environments by simply correcting for a gravity constant. Controlled studies in astronauts on future space missions are needed to validate these predictions.

  8. Measurement of cylindrical particles with phase Doppler anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, H; Gréhan, G; Gouesbet, G; Xu, T H; Tropea, C

    1996-09-01

    Light scattering from cylindrical particles has been described with geometric optics. The feasibility of determining the particle diameter with a planar phase Doppler anemometer has been examined by simulations and experiments. In particular, the influence of particle orientation on measurability and measurement accuracy has been investigated. Some recommendations for realizing a practical-measurement instrument have been presented.

  9. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  10. Lung Deposition Calculations for Radioactive Aerosol Particles Originating from Caves and Uranium Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfoldy, B.; Torok, Sz.; Winkler, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The present study simulates lung deposition of radioactive aerosol particles originating from the atmosphere of a therapeutic cave (Szemlohegyi cave, Budapest) and several uranium mines. Particle deposition patterns and surface densities have been calculated by the stochastic lung model of Koblinger and Hofmann. In the model, deposition can be caused by the simultaneous effects of Brownian motion, inertial impaction and gravitational settling. The calculations were carried out by considering the aerosol particle size distribution and radon concentration of the atmosphere of the cave and mines. The deposition was computed in the whole lung, in characteristic parts of the respiratory system such as extrathoracic, tracheobronchial, acinar and alveolar regions and in the singe airway generations at different flow rates for adults. The adverse health effects of inhaled radionuclides strongly depend from the local deposition density values in cellular dimensions. Thus we will built in the results to a cellular effects model of Balashazy and Hofmann for the simulation of the pathological effects of inhaled radionuclides for risk assessment. (author)

  11. The use of large surface area for particle and power deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigneur, A.; Guilhem, D.; Hogan, J.

    1993-01-01

    Since the parallel heat flux passing through the LCFS has increased dramatically with the size of machines one has to cope with very large particle and power fluxes on the limiters. Thus the size of the limiters has been increased by the use of inner bumper limiters (for example in JET, TFTR, TORE-SUPRA and JT60). The 'exponential-sine' model is widely used to estimate the heat flux (Q) to a wall for a plasma flux surface with incident angle θ. The model predict Q = q || (0) sinθ e -ρ/λ q + q(0) cosθ e -ρ/λ q , (where θ=0 o when the flux surface is exactly tangential to the limiting surface), ρ is the minor radius measured from the last closed flux surface (LCFS), λ q is the SOL decay length of the heat flux density and q(0) is the heat flux density at the last closed surface. If we approximate the heat flux as Q = q || (0) e -ρ/λ q sin(θ+α), with α ≡ tan -1 [q(0)/q || (0)], then α can be interpreted as an effective 'minimum angle of incidence'. Under conditions where the geometric angle θ has been made almost grazing (below 5 o ) the predictions of the simplest model (with α=0 o ) is not adequate to represent the observation made in TORE-SUPRA; a similar result is found in TFTR. Experimental observations of heat and particle deposition on the large area limiter on the inner wall of TORE-SUPRA are presented. These results have been analyzed with a Monte Carlo code (THOR) describing the diffusion of hydrogenic particles across the LCFS to the limiting objects in the Scrape Off Layer (SOL), and by impurity generation calculations using the full 'exponential-sine' model (α ≠ 0) used as input to an impurity (carbon) Monte Carlo code (BBQ). (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Speciated particle dry deposition to the sea surface: Results from ASEPS '97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Geernaert, L.L.S.

    1999-01-01

    on Precipitation Scavenging and Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Processes. AMS, Richland, Washington, USA, 12pp.) model to calculate size-segregated dry deposition of particle inorganic nitrogen compounds to the western Baltic during the late Spring of 1997 based on data collected as part of the Air-Sea Exchange...

  13. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  14. Transient particle emission measurement with optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Luján, José M.; Serrano, José R.; Pla, Benjamín

    2008-06-01

    Particulate matter is responsible for some respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, it is one of the most important pollutants of high-speed direct injection (HSDI) passenger car engines. Current legislation requires particulate dilution tunnels for particulate matter measuring. However for development work, dilution tunnels are expensive and sometimes not useful since they are not able to quantify real-time particulate emissions during transient operation. In this study, the use of a continuous measurement opacimeter and a fast response HFID is proven to be a good alternative to obtain instantaneous particle mass emissions during transient operation (due to particulate matter consisting mainly of soot and SOF). Some methods and correlations available from literature, but developed for steady conditions, are evaluated during transient operation by comparing with mini-tunnel measurements during the entire MVEG-A transient cycle. A new correlation was also derived from this evaluation. Results for soot and SOF (obtained from the new correlation proposed) are compared with soot and SOF captured with particulate filters, which have been separated by means of an SOF extraction method. Finally, as an example of ECU design strategies using these sort of correlations, the EGR valve opening is optimized during transient operation. The optimization is performed while simultaneously taking into account instantaneous fuel consumption, particulate emissions (calculated with the proposed correlation) and other regulated engine pollutants.

  15. Electrostatic deposition of a micro solder particle using a single probe by applying a single rectangular pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, Daizo; Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, micromanipulation techniques have been in high demand. A technique to deposit a metal microparticle onto a metal substrate by using a single metal probe has been proposed as one of the techniques. A solder particle with a diameter of 20–30 µm, initially adhering to the probe tip, is detached and deposited onto a substrate. The success rate of the particle deposition was 44% in the previous research, and is insufficient for industrial applications. In this paper, a technique of particle deposition by applying a single rectangular pulse is proposed, and the mechanism of the deposition is described. In the mechanism, an electric discharge between the probe and the particle when the particle reaches the substrate plays an important role in the particle deposition. Moreover, the mechanism of the proposed technique is verified by experiments of particle deposition, which are observed using a high-speed camera, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an oscilloscope. The success rate of the particle deposition has increased to 93% by the proposed technique. Furthermore, the damage to the particle by the electric discharge is evaluated using an RC circuit model, and the applicability of the proposed technique is discussed. (paper)

  16. Measurement of simulated lung deposition of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.; Jensen, B.

    1992-01-01

    A measurement system for the lung deposition of radon daughters based on respiratory models was suggested by Hopke et al. By choosing suitable mesh size and flow velocities it is possible to design a multiple-wire screen sampler simulating deposition in the respiratory tract of aerosols over the size range 0.5-1000 nm. This paper describes a preliminary investigation where simulated deposition in the nasal tract and in the bronchii (for mouth breathing as well as nasal breathing) is determined. The measurements were performed in atmospheres where the normalised exposure rate (equilibrium factor) was varied by changing the aerosol loading of the air as well as by enhanced electrostatic plateout. The general results of the measurements are that the energy deposited in the nose with nasal breathing and in the bronchii with mouth breathing varies as the calculated dose while the energy deposited in the bronchii with nasal breathing follows the exposure. It is also demonstrated that the energy deposited for a fixed value of the radon concentration may vary by a factor of 2-7 depending on the treatment of the air. (author)

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm 2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  18. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, Janaka, E-mail: j.gunawardena@qut.edu.au; Ziyath, Abdul M., E-mail: mohamed.ziyath@qut.edu.au; Bostrom, Thor E., E-mail: t.bostrom@qut.edu.au; Bekessy, Lambert K., E-mail: l.bekessy@qut.edu.au; Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.au; Egodawatta, Prasanna, E-mail: p.egodawatta@qut.edu.au; Goonetilleke, Ashantha, E-mail: a.goonetilleke@qut.edu.au

    2013-09-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. - Highlights: • The dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to pollutant build-up. • The dust storm increased TSS, Al, Fe and Mn loads in build-up on ground surfaces. • Dust storm did not significantly increase TOC, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd loads in build-up. • Cr and Zn in dust storm deposition were contributed by local anthropogenic sources.

  19. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M.; Bostrom, Thor E.; Bekessy, Lambert K.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. - Highlights: • The dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to pollutant build-up. • The dust storm increased TSS, Al, Fe and Mn loads in build-up on ground surfaces. • Dust storm did not significantly increase TOC, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd loads in build-up. • Cr and Zn in dust storm deposition were contributed by local anthropogenic sources

  20. Particle re-entrainment from a powder deposit in an horizontal air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloul, L.; Witschger, O.; Alloul, L.; Renoux, A.; Le Dur, D.; Monnatte, J.

    2000-01-01

    Particle re-entrainment from surfaces to turbulent air flow is an important subject in many different fields like nuclear safety, environmental air pollution, sediment transport by wind, surface contamination in semiconductor operations. Theoretical and experimental studies have been numerous and cover different aspects of the phenomena. Although a number of theoretical works have been devoted for describing the mechanisms of detachment of primary spherical particles form flat smooth surfaces in a turbulent flow, experimental data are still needed in order to comparison. Moreover, the knowledge of the effect of parameters related to the deposit (monolayer, multilayer, cone-like pile), the powder particles (particle-size distribution, adhesive properties), the surface (roughness,...),the airflow (velocity, acceleration, turbulence) or the environment (humidity,...) is still in an elementary stage. The main objective of our work is to contribute to the understanding and quantification of the parameters that govern the particle re-entrainment from a powder deposit in an turbulent horizontal airflow. Therefore, a new experimental facility called BISE (french acronym for wind tunnel for studying particle re-entrainment by airflow) has been designed and built in our laboratory. (authors)

  1. Deposition uniformity, particle nucleation and the optimum conditions for CVD in multi-wafer furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, S.K.; Nilson, R.H.

    1996-06-01

    A second-order perturbation solution describing the radial transport of a reactive species and concurrent deposition on wafer surfaces is derived for use in optimizing CVD process conditions. The result is applicable to a variety of deposition reactions and accounts for both diffusive and advective transport, as well as both ordinary and Knudsen diffusion. Based on the first-order approximation, the deposition rate is maximized subject to a constraint on the radial uniformity of the deposition rate. For a fixed reactant mole fraction, the optimum pressure and optimum temperature are obtained using the method of Lagrange multipliers. This yields a weak one-sided maximum; deposition rates fall as pressures are reduced but remain nearly constant at all pressures above the optimum value. The deposition rate is also maximized subject to dual constraints on the uniformity and particle nucleation rate. In this case, the optimum pressure, optimum temperature and optimum reactant fraction are similarly obtained, and the resulting maximum deposition rate is well defined. These results are also applicable to CVI processes used in composites manufacturing.

  2. Correcting for particle size effects on plasma actuator particle image velocimetry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masati, A.; Sedwick, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is often used to characterize plasma actuator flow, but particle charging effects are rarely taken into account. A parametric study was conducted to determine the effects of particle size on the velocity results of plasma actuator PIV experiments. Results showed that smaller particles more closely match air flow velocities than larger particles. The measurement uncertainty was quantified by deconvolving the particle image diameter from the correlation diameter. The true air velocity was calculated by linearly extrapolating to the zero-size particle diameter.

  3. Atmospheric particle characterization, distribution, and deposition in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, Central China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Zongze; Yang Yuhua [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Lu, Julia, E-mail: julialu@ryerson.c [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, 710062 (China); Zhang Chengxiao, E-mail: cxzhang@snnu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an, 710062 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Physical characterization and chemical analysis of settled dusts collected in Xi'an from November 2007 to December 2008 show that (1) dust deposition rates ranged from 14.6 to 350.4 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. The average deposition rate (76.7 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}) ranks the 11th out of 56 dust deposition rates observed throughout the world. The coal-burning power was the major particle source; (2) on average (except site 4), {approx}10% of the settled dusts having size <2.6, {approx}30% having size <10.5, and >70% having size <30 {mu}m; (3) the concentrations for 20 out of 27 elements analyzed were upto 18 times higher than their soil background values in China. With such high deposition rates of dusts that contain elevated levels of toxic elements, actions should be taken to reduce emission and studies are needed to assess the potential impacts of settled particles on surface ecosystem, water resource, and human health in the area. - Research highlights: High atmospheric dust deposition rate in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Coal-burning power plan being a major source of particulate matter in Xi'an area. High levels of toxic elements in the settled dusts. Enrichment of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Ni, Cu) in fine particles. - Atmospheric dust deposition rate is high and the levels of toxic elements associated with the settled dusts are elevated in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

  4. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  5. Deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract as a function of age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Healy, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A respiratory tract deposition model was developed that would accommodate age 1 month to adulthood as an initial step in calculating radiation dose following inhalation during environmental exposures. The approach to changing respiratory tract and physiological parameters to be applicable to children was to derive an analytical function describing the ratio of the child value to the value for a reference adult with the desired characteristics. A computer program was written to carry out the tracing of airflow through the respiratory tract and deposition in each of the sections for monodispersed particles of known density and diameter. 7 references

  6. Flow regime and deposition pattern of evaporating binary mixture droplet suspended with particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The flow regimes and the deposition pattern have been investigated by changing the ethanol concentration in a water-based binary mixture droplet suspended with alumina nanoparticles. To visualize the flow patterns, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been applied in the binary liquid droplet containing the fluorescent microspheres. Three distinct flow regimes have been revealed in the evaporation. In Regime I, the vortices and chaotic flows are found to carry the particles to the liquid-vapor interface and to promote the formation of particle aggregation. The aggregates move inwards in Regime II as induced by the Marangoni flow along the droplet free surface. Regime III is dominated by the drying of the left water and the capillary flow driving particles radially outward is observed. The relative weightings of Regimes I and II, which are enhanced with an increasing load of ethanol, determine the motion of the nanoparticles and the formation of the final drying pattern.

  7. The grain size dependency of vesicular particle shapes strongly affects the drag of particles. First results from microtomography investigations of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Daniela; Dioguardi, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Acknowledging the grain size dependency of shape is important in volcanology, in particular when dealing with tephra produced and emplaced during and after explosive volcanic eruptions. A systematic measurement of the tridimensional shape of vesicular pyroclasts of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits (Agnano-Monte Spina, Astroni 6 and Averno 2 eruptions) varying in size from 8.00 to 0.016 mm has been carried out by means of X-Ray Microtomography. Data show that particle shape changes with size, especially for juvenile vesicular clasts, since it is dependent on the distribution and size of vesicles that contour the external clast outline. Two drag laws that include sphericity in the formula were used for estimating the dependency of settling velocity on shape. Results demonstrate that it is not appropriate to assume a size-independent shape for vesicular particles, in contrast with the approach commonly employed when simulating the ash dispersion in the atmosphere.

  8. The measurement of single particle temperature in plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Bolsaitis, P.P.; Elliott, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining the size, velocity, temperature, and relative number density of particles entrained in high temperature flow fields is described. In determining the particle temperature from a two-color pyrometery technique, assumptions about the relative spectral emissivity of the particle are required. For situations in which the particle surface undergoes chemical reactions the assumption of grey body behavior is shown to introduce large Temperature measurement uncertainties. Results from isolated, laser heated, single particle measurements and in-flight data from the plasma spraying of WC-Co are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  9. Monte Carlo charged-particle tracking and energy deposition on a Lagrangian mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Moses, G A; McKenty, P W

    2005-10-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm for alpha particle tracking and energy deposition on a cylindrical computational mesh in a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations is presented. The straight line approximation is used to follow propagation of "Monte Carlo particles" which represent collections of alpha particles generated from thermonuclear deuterium-tritium (DT) reactions. Energy deposition in the plasma is modeled by the continuous slowing down approximation. The scheme addresses various aspects arising in the coupling of Monte Carlo tracking with Lagrangian hydrodynamics; such as non-orthogonal severely distorted mesh cells, particle relocation on the moving mesh and particle relocation after rezoning. A comparison with the flux-limited multi-group diffusion transport method is presented for a polar direct drive target design for the National Ignition Facility. Simulations show the Monte Carlo transport method predicts about earlier ignition than predicted by the diffusion method, and generates higher hot spot temperature. Nearly linear speed-up is achieved for multi-processor parallel simulations.

  10. Development of vapor deposited silica sol-gel particles for use as a bioactive materials system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Katherine L; Holmes, Hallie R; VanWagner, Michael J; Hartman, Natalie J; Rajachar, Rupak M

    2013-06-01

    Silica-based sol-gel and bioglass materials are used in a variety of biomedical applications including the surface modification of orthopedic implants and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work, a simple system for vapor depositing silica sol-gel nano- and micro-particles onto substrates using nebulizer technology has been developed and characterized. Particle morphology, size distribution, and degradation can easily be controlled through key formulation and manufacturing parameters including water:alkoxide molar ratio, pH, deposition time, and substrate character. These particles can be used as a means to rapidly modify substrate surface properties, including surface hydrophobicity (contact angle changes >15°) and roughness (RMS roughness changes of up to 300 nm), creating unique surface topography. Ions (calcium and phosphate) were successfully incorporated into particles, and induced apatitie-like mineral formation upon exposure to simulated body fluid Preosteoblasts (MC3T3) cultured with these particles showed up to twice the adhesivity within 48 h when compared to controls, potentially indicating an increase in cell proliferation, with the effect likely due to both the modified substrate properties as well as the release of silica ions. This novel method has the potential to be used with implants and tissue engineering materials to influence cell behavior including attachment, proliferation, and differentiation via cell-material interactions to promote osteogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Improved technique for measuring the size distribution of black carbon particles in rainwater and snow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Moteki, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Azuma, K. G.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the strongest contributor to sunlight absorption among atmospheric aerosols. Quantitative understanding of wet deposition of BC, which strongly affects the spatial distribution of BC, is important to improve our understandings on climate change. We have devised a technique for measuring the masses of individual BC particles in rainwater and snow samples, as a combination of a nebulizer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) (Ohata et al. 2011, 2013; Schwarz et al. 2012; Mori et al. 2014). We show two important improvements in this technique: 1)We have extended the upper limit of detectable BC particle diameter from 0.9 μm to about 4.0 μm by modifying the photodetector for measuring the laser-induced incandescence signal. 2)We introduced a pneumatic nebulizer Marin-5 (Cetac Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE, USA) and experimentally confirmed its high extraction efficiency (~50%) independent of particle diameter up to 2.0 μm. Using our improved system, we simultaneously measured the size distribution of BC particles in air and rainwater in Tokyo. We observed that the size distribution of BC in rainwater was larger than that in air, indicating that large BC particles were effectively removed by precipitation. We also observed BC particles with diameters larger than 1.0 μm, indicating that further studies of wet deposition of BC will require the use of the modified SP2.

  12. Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 2. Effects of sintering and deposit microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

    2000-04-01

    The authors report results from an experimental study that examines the influence of sintering and microstructure on ash deposit thermal conductivity. The measurements are made using a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. The technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. The initial stages of sintering and densification are accompanied by an increase in deposit thermal conductivity. Subsequent sintering continues to densify the deposit, but has little effect on deposit thermal conductivity. SEM analyses indicates that sintering creates a layered deposit structure with a relatively unsintered innermost layer. They hypothesize that this unsintered layer largely determines the overall deposit thermal conductivity. A theoretical model that treats a deposit as a two-layered material predicts the observed trends in thermal conductivity.

  13. Measurements of Bismuth (214Bi) in Indoor Air and Evaluation of Deposition Fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; Ahmed, A.A.; Yuness, M.

    2010-01-01

    The activity size distribution of unattached as well as attached 214 Bi to aerosol particles was measured in indoor air of physics department at Minia University, Minia City, Egypt. The samples were collected using a wire screen diffusion battery technique and a low pressure Berner cascade impactor. The mean Activity Median Thermodynamic Diameter (AMTD) of unattached 214 Bi was determined to be 1.25 nm with a relative mean Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD) of 1.29. A mean unattached fraction (fun) of 0.08±0.05 was obtained. The average activity concentration of 214 Bi was found to be 4.9±0.42 Bq m -3 . Most of the attached activities of progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The GSD of the accumulation mode of 214 Bi was determined to be 3 with an Active Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) of 350 nm. Based on the obtained measured data values, deposition fraction of 214 Bi has been evaluated by using a stochastic deposition model. The bronchial deposition efficiencies of particles in the size range of attached 214 Bi were found to be lower than those of unattached progeny

  14. Particle deposition in a realistic geometry of the human conducting airways: Effects of inlet velocity profile, inhalation flowrate and electrostatic charge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koullapis, P. G.; Kassinos, S. C.; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova

    2016-01-01

    of inlet flow conditions, particle size, electrostatic charge, and flowrate. While most computer simulations assume a uniform velocity at the mouth inlet, we found that using a more realistic inlet profile based on Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements resulted in enhanced deposition, mostly on the tongue...... between particle size, electrostatic charge, and flowrate. Our results suggest that in silico models should be customized for specific applications, ensuring all relevant physical effects are accounted for in a self-consistent fashion....

  15. Atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide films on As-synthesized magnetic Ni particles: Magnetic and safety properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uudeküll, Peep, E-mail: peep.uudekull@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kozlova, Jekaterina; Mändar, Hugo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Link, Joosep [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Sihtmäe, Mariliis [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Käosaar, Sandra [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Faculty of Chemical and Materials Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Blinova, Irina; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Stern, Raivo [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Tätte, Tanel [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kukli, Kaupo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tamm, Aile [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str.1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-05-01

    Spherical nickel particles with size in the range of 100–400 nm were synthesized by non-aqueous liquid phase benzyl alcohol method. Being developed for magnetically guided biomedical applications, the particles were coated by conformal and antimicrobial thin titanium oxide films by atomic layer deposition. The particles retained their size and crystal structure after the deposition of oxide films. The sensitivity of the coated particles to external magnetic fields was increased compared to that of the uncoated powder. Preliminary toxicological investigations on microbial cells and small aquatic crustaceans revealed non-toxic nature of the synthesized particles.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide films on As-synthesized magnetic Ni particles: Magnetic and safety properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uudeküll, Peep; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Mändar, Hugo; Link, Joosep; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Käosaar, Sandra; Blinova, Irina; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne; Stern, Raivo; Tätte, Tanel; Kukli, Kaupo; Tamm, Aile

    2017-01-01

    Spherical nickel particles with size in the range of 100–400 nm were synthesized by non-aqueous liquid phase benzyl alcohol method. Being developed for magnetically guided biomedical applications, the particles were coated by conformal and antimicrobial thin titanium oxide films by atomic layer deposition. The particles retained their size and crystal structure after the deposition of oxide films. The sensitivity of the coated particles to external magnetic fields was increased compared to that of the uncoated powder. Preliminary toxicological investigations on microbial cells and small aquatic crustaceans revealed non-toxic nature of the synthesized particles.

  17. Particle size traces modern Saharan dust transport and deposition across the equatorial North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van der Does

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust has a large impact on regional and global climate, depending on its particle size. Especially in the Atlantic Ocean downwind of the Sahara, the largest dust source on earth, the effects can be substantial but are poorly understood. This study focuses on seasonal and spatial variations in particle size of Saharan dust deposition across the Atlantic Ocean, using an array of submarine sediment traps moored along a transect at 12° N. We show that the particle size decreases downwind with increased distance from the Saharan source, due to higher gravitational settling velocities of coarse particles in the atmosphere. Modal grain sizes vary between 4 and 32 µm throughout the different seasons and at five locations along the transect. This is much coarser than previously suggested and incorporated into climate models. In addition, seasonal changes are prominent, with coarser dust in summer and finer dust in winter and spring. Such seasonal changes are caused by transport at higher altitudes and at greater wind velocities during summer than in winter. Also, the latitudinal migration of the dust cloud, associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, causes seasonal differences in deposition as the summer dust cloud is located more to the north and more directly above the sampled transect. Furthermore, increased precipitation and more frequent dust storms in summer coincide with coarser dust deposition. Our findings contribute to understanding Saharan dust transport and deposition relevant for the interpretation of sedimentary records for climate reconstructions, as well as for global and regional models for improved prediction of future climate.

  18. Properties of amorphous silicon thin films synthesized by reactive particle beam assisted chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Gyu; Wang, Seok-Joo; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Jang, Jin-Nyoung; Hong, MunPyo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous silicon thin films were formed by chemical vapor deposition of reactive particle beam assisted inductively coupled plasma type with various reflector bias voltages. During the deposition, the substrate was heated at 150 o C. The effects of reflector bias voltage on the physical and chemical properties of the films were systematically studied. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results showed that the deposited films were amorphous and the films under higher reflector voltage had higher internal energy to be easily crystallized. The chemical state of amorphous silicon films was revealed as metallic bonding of Si atoms by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An increase in reflector voltage induced an increase of surface morphology of films and optical bandgap and a decrease of photoconductivity.

  19. Dynamic Control of Particle Deposition in Evaporating Droplets by an External Point Source of Vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Robert; Volpe, Giovanni; Parkin, Ivan P; Volpe, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    The deposition of particles on a surface by an evaporating sessile droplet is important for phenomena as diverse as printing, thin-film deposition, and self-assembly. The shape of the final deposit depends on the flows within the droplet during evaporation. These flows are typically determined at the onset of the process by the intrinsic physical, chemical, and geometrical properties of the droplet and its environment. Here, we demonstrate deterministic emergence and real-time control of Marangoni flows within the evaporating droplet by an external point source of vapor. By varying the source location, we can modulate these flows in space and time to pattern colloids on surfaces in a controllable manner.

  20. The measurement of dry deposition and surface runoff to quantify urban road pollution in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunn-Jinn; Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang

    2013-10-16

    Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01-5.14 g/m(2) · day and 78-87% of these solids are in the 75-300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC) from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads.

  1. Particle connectedness and cluster formation in sequential depositions of particles: integral-equation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danwanichakul, Panu; Glandt, Eduardo D

    2004-11-15

    We applied the integral-equation theory to the connectedness problem. The method originally applied to the study of continuum percolation in various equilibrium systems was modified for our sequential quenching model, a particular limit of an irreversible adsorption. The development of the theory based on the (quenched-annealed) binary-mixture approximation includes the Ornstein-Zernike equation, the Percus-Yevick closure, and an additional term involving the three-body connectedness function. This function is simplified by introducing a Kirkwood-like superposition approximation. We studied the three-dimensional (3D) system of randomly placed spheres and 2D systems of square-well particles, both with a narrow and with a wide well. The results from our integral-equation theory are in good accordance with simulation results within a certain range of densities.

  2. Measurement of Turbulence Modulation by Non-Spherical Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    The change in the turbulence intensity of an air jet resulting from the addition of particles to the flow is measured using Laser Doppler Anemometry. Three distinct shapes are considered: the prolate spheroid, the disk and the sphere. Measurements of the carrier phase and particle phase velocities...... at the centerline of the jet are carried out for mass loadings of 0.5, 1, 1.6 and particle sizes 880μm, 1350μm, 1820μm for spherical particles. For each non-spherical shape only a single size and loading are considered. The turbulence modulation of the carrier phase is found to highly dependent on the turbulence......, the particle mass flow and the integral length scale of the flow. The expression developed on basis of spherical particles only is applied on the data for the non-spherical particles. The results suggest that non-spherical particles attenuate the carrier phase turbulence significantly more than spherical...

  3. Effect of enzyme-induced pulmonary emphysema in Syrian hamsters on the deposition and retention of inhaled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental emphysema was induced in Syrian hamsters by intratracheal injection of elastase or by inhaled papain aerosols. Control hamsters were injected with saline or exposed to enzyme diluent aerosols. After 3 weeks, all groups were simultaneously exposed to an aerosol of relatively insoluble 137 Cs in fused clay particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.4 to 1.6 and a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. The initial pulmonary deposition of particles (measured 3 hours after inhalation) was significantly lower in treated hamsters, 45 percent of controls with elastase and 65 percent with papain aerosols. The effect of both enzyme treatments on the retention of particles was similar in spite of the fact that the pulmonary lesions were not the same. Elastase I.T. caused a diffuse destruction and enlargement of alveoli with a loss of pulmonary elastic recoil. Papain aerosols caused a focal destruction and enlargement of alveoli with no loss of elastic recoil. The common feature of both lesions was an increased number of alveolar macrophages which may account for the early increased clearance of particles. The prolonged retention of particles may be due to focal accumulations of macrophages in distal alveoli. (U.S.)

  4. Calorimetry energy measurement in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wigmans, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Particle physics is the science that pursues the age-old quest for the innermost structure of matter and the fundamental interactions between its constituents. Modern experiments in this field rely increasingly on calorimetry, a detection technique in which the particles of interest are absorbed in the detector. Calorimeters are very intricate instruments. Their performance characteristics depend on subtle, sometimes counter-intuitive design details. This book, written by one of the world's foremost experts, is the first comprehensive text on this topic. It provides a fundamental and systematic introduction to calorimetry. It describes the state of the art in terms of both the fundamental understanding of calorimetric particle detection, and the actual detectors that have been or are being built and operated in experiments. The last chapter discusses landmark scientific discoveries in which calorimetry has played an important role. This book summarizes and puts into perspective the work described in some 900...

  5. Experimental comparison of particle interaction measurement techniques using optical traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Timothy P.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Molecke, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    Optical tweezers has become a powerful and common tool for sensitive determination of electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles. Recently, two techniques, 'blinking' tweezers and direct force measurements, have become increasingly prevalent in investigations of inter-particle potentials. The 'blinking' tweezers method acquires physical statistics of particle trajectories to determine drift velocities, diffusion coefficients, and ultimately colloidal forces as a function of the center-center separation of two particles. Direct force measurements monitor the position of a particle relative to the center of an optical trap as the separation distance between two continuously trapped particles is gradually decreased. As the particles near each other, the displacement from the trap center for each particle increases proportional to the inter-particle force. Although commonly employed in the investigation of interactions of colloidal particles, there exists no direct comparison of these experimental methods in the literature. In this study, an experimental apparatus was developed capable of performing both methods and is used to quantify electrostatic potentials between particles in several particle/solvent systems. Comparisons are drawn between the experiments conducted using the two measurement techniques, theory, and existing literature. Forces are quantified on the femto-Newton scale and results agree well with literature values

  6. Decomposition of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function by Particle Size and Morphology via Single Particle Scattering Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.; Martin, S.; Fernandez, E.; Chang, R.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the morphology of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 micrometer to less than 1% for particles over 5 micrometer. The average phase functions of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and morphology, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The phase functions of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the phase function of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a function of the asphericity factor.

  7. Development of the MICROMEGAS Detector for Measuring the Energy Spectrum of Alpha Particles by using a 241-Am Source

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Do Yoon; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting {\\alpha} particles emitted from an 241-Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of {\\alpha} particles from the 241-Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the {\\alpha} particle from the 241 Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the {\\alpha} particles are associated with the energies deposited by the alpha particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for {\\alpha} particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that {\\alpha} particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGA...

  8. Anisotropic Metal Deposition on TiO2 Particles by Electric-Field-Induced Charge Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewcharoen, Supakit; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Lapeyre, Veronique; Garrigue, Patrick; Fourier, Lucas; Elissalde, Catherine; Buffière, Sonia; Legros, Philippe; Gayot, Marion; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2017-09-11

    Deposition of metals on TiO 2 semiconductor particles (M-TiO 2 ) results in hybrid Janus objects combining the properties of both materials. One of the techniques proposed to generate Janus particles is bipolar electrochemistry (BPE). The concept can be applied in a straightforward way for the site-selective modification of conducting particles, but is much less obvious to use for semiconductors. Herein we report the bulk synthesis of anisotropic M-TiO 2 particles based on the synergy of BPE and photochemistry, allowing the intrinsic limitations, when they are used separately, to be overcome. When applying electric fields during irradiation, electrons and holes can be efficiently separated, thus breaking the symmetry of particles by modifying them selectively and in a wireless way on one side with either gold or platinum. Such hybrid materials are an important first step towards high-performance designer catalyst particles, for example for photosplitting of water. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Aerosol deposition velocities on the Pacific and Atlantic oceans calculated from 7Be measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Silker, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be were measured in Pacific and Atlantic ocean water for past several years to determine the deposition velocity of aerosol particles on the ocean surface. Beryllium-7 is produced at a relatively constant rate in the atmosphere by spallation reactions of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen. Immediately after its formation 7 Be becomes attached to aerosol particles, and therefore can serve as tracers of the subsequent behavior of these particles. Isopleths of 7 Be surface water concentration, 7 Be inventory in the ocean, and deposition velocity have been prepared for the Pacific Ocean from 30 0 S to 60 0 N and for the Atlantic Ocean from 10 0 N to 55 0 N. The concentrations, inventories and deposition velocities tended to be higher in regions where precipitation was high, and generally increased with latitude. The average flux of 7 Be across the ocean surface was calculated to be 0.027 atoms cm -2 sec -1 which is probably not significantly greater than the worldwide average 7 Be flux across land and ocean surfaces of 0.022 atoms cm -2 sec -1 calculated by Lal and Peters. The average deposition velocity was calculated to be 0.80 cm sec -1 . This value may be 10 to 30% too low, since it was calculated using atmospheric 7 Be concentrations which were measured at continental stations. Measurements of atmospheric 7 Be concentrations at ocean stations suggest that the concentrations at the continental stations averaged 10 to 30% higher than the concentrations over the ocean

  10. Aerosol deposition velocities on the Pacific and Atlantic oceans calculated from 7Be measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Silker, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be have been measured in Pacific and Atlantic ocean water for the past several years to determine the deposition velocity of aerosol particles on the ocean surface. 7 Be is produced at a relatively constant rate in the atmosphere by spallation reactions of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen. Immediately after its formation 7 Be becomes attached to aerosol particles, and therefore can serve as tracers of the subsequent behavior of these particles. Isopleths of 7 Be surface water concentrations, 7 Be inventory in the ocean, and deposition velocity have been prepared for the Pacific Ocean from 30 0 S to 60 0 N and for the Atlantic Ocean from 10 0 N to 55 0 N. The concentrations, inventories and deposition velocities tended to be higher in regions where precipitation was high, and generally increased with latitude. The average flux of 7 Be across the ocean surface was calculated to be 0.027 atoms cm -2 s -1 which is probably not significantly greater than the worldwide average 7 Be flux across land and ocean surfaces of 0.022 atoms cm -2 s -1 calculated by Lal and Peters. The average deposition velocity was calculated to be 0.80 cm s -1 . This value may be 10-50% too low, since it was calculated using atmospheric 7 Be concentrations which were measured at continental stations. Measurements of atmospheric 7 Be concentrations at ocean stations suggest that the concentrations at the continental stations averaged 10-50% higher than the concentrations over the ocean. (orig.)

  11. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  12. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark...... and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good...... agreement with thermocouple readings. Gas lines and bands from CO, CO2 and H2O can be observed in the spectra. CO was only observed at the first measuring port (100ms) with the strongest CO-signal seen during experiments with straw particles. Variations in gas concentration (CO2 and H2O) and the signal from...

  13. Single particle measurements and two particle interferometry results from CERN experiment NA44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Gillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    CERN experiment NA44 is optimized for the study of identified single and multiple particle distributions to p T = 0 near mid-rapidity. We measure π +- , K +- , p, bar p, d and bar d, in p + A and A + A collisions at 450 and 20OGeV/u, respectively. Two-particle intensity interferometry results from π + π + , K + K + , and K - K - measurements and single particle distributions are presented

  14. Ash formation and deposition in coal and biomass fired combustion systems: Progress and challenges in the field of ash particle sticking and rebound behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinhans, Ulrich; Wieland, Christoph; Frandsen, Flemming J.

    2018-01-01

    . The impaction of solid, molten or partially molten particles on surfaces is dependent on the particle and surface characteristics. For instance, a particulate deposit might capture incoming particles or be removed due to erosion, while a molten layer will collect all impacting particles, no matter...... if they are sticky or not. The main properties affecting the particle stickiness are the viscosity and surface tension for silicate-rich ashes. On the contrary, the stickiness of salt-rich ashes – typical for herbaceous biomass and wood- or waste-based fuels – is often described using the liquid melt fraction......, their required parameters are discussed and typical particle and surface properties found in combustion systems, are summarized. Eight different sticking criteria are implemented in a computational fluid dynamics code and computations are compared against measurements from an entrained flow reactor. Uniform...

  15. Method of air-particles determination, by remote capacity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadigzadeh, A.; Moniri, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, experimental results along with the calibration method used in opacimetry for determining atmospheric aerosol are presented. For our investigation, liquid, spherical mono dispersed particles of diocty le pha late (Dop) with particle sizes ranging for 0.07 to 1 μm is used. The light source is a He/Ne laser with the wavelength of 6328 A d eg. The range of particle concentrations is practically between 0 and 4 x 10 6 particles per cm 3 . The measured laser output transmitted through the aerosol cloud varies from 0 to 2.45 MW and is a function of particle concentration, particle sizes and the depth of aerosol cloud. It is observed that the light transmission decreases exponent rally as the particle concentration increases. The effect of particle sizes for the light transmitted through the aerosol was also studied

  16. Automatic Measuring System for Oil Stream Paraffin Deposits Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, A. V.; Koptev, V. Yu

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes a new method for monitoring oil pipelines, as well as a highly efficient and automated paraffin deposit monitoring method. When operating oil pipelines, there is an issue of paraffin, resin and salt deposits on the pipeline walls that come with the oil stream. It ultimately results in frequent transportation suspension to clean or even replace pipes and other equipment, thus shortening operation periods between repairs, creating emergency situations and increasing production expenses, badly affecting environment, damaging ecology and spoil underground water, killing animals, birds etc. Oil spills contaminate rivers, lakes, and ground waters. Oil transportation monitoring issues are still subject for further studying. Thus, there is the need to invent a radically new automated process control and management system, together with measurement means intellectualization. The measurement principle is based on the Lambert-Beer law that describes the dependence between the gamma-radiation frequency and the density together with the linear attenuation coefficient for a substance. Using the measuring system with high accuracy (± 0,2%), one can measure the thickness of paraffin deposits with an absolute accuracy of ± 5 mm, which is sufficient to ensure reliable operation of the pipeline system. Safety is a key advantage, when using the proposed control system.

  17. Measured and modeled dry deposition velocities over the ESCOMPTE area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, M.; Laville, P.; Serça, D.; Fotiadi, A.; Bouchou, P.; Peuch, V.-H.

    2005-03-01

    Measurements of the dry deposition velocity of ozone have been made by the eddy correlation method during ESCOMPTE (Etude sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphérique et de Transport d'Emissions). The strong local variability of natural ecosystems was sampled over several weeks in May, June and July 2001 for four sites with varying surface characteristics. The sites included a maize field, a Mediterranean forest, a Mediterranean shrub-land, and an almost bare soil. Measurements of nitrogen oxide deposition fluxes by the relaxed eddy correlation method have also been carried out at the same bare soil site. An evaluation of the deposition velocities computed by the surface module of the multi-scale Chemistry and Transport Model MOCAGE is presented. This module relies on a resistance approach, with a detailed treatment of the stomatal contribution to the surface resistance. Simulations at the finest model horizontal resolution (around 10 km) are compared to observations. If the seasonal variations are in agreement with the literature, comparisons between raw model outputs and observations, at the different measurement sites and for the specific observing periods, are contrasted. As the simulated meteorology at the scale of 10 km nicely captures the observed situations, the default set of surface characteristics (averaged at the resolution of a grid cell) appears to be one of the main reasons for the discrepancies found with observations. For each case, sensitivity studies have been performed in order to see the impact of adjusting the surface characteristics to the observed ones, when available. Generally, a correct agreement with the observations of deposition velocities is obtained. This advocates for a sub-grid scale representation of surface characteristics for the simulation of dry deposition velocities over such a complex area. Two other aspects appear in the discussion. Firstly, the strong influence of the soil water content to the plant

  18. A comparative study of calculated and measured particle velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    After an explosive is detonated in a blast hole, seismic waves are generated in the ground surrounding the blast hole. These waves cause the particles of rock to oscillate about its position. As the wave attenuate, the particles come back to their original position. The rapidity with which the particles move is called the particle velocity. The peak or maximum velocity is the value which is of prime concern. This value of peak particle velocity can be estimated by the equations determined by the United States Bureau of Mines and by the DUPONT. A research program was conducted by the author at the 'Beck Materials Quarry' situated near Rolla, Missouri, USA. The purpose was to draw a comparison between the predicted and measured particle velocities. It was generally found that the predicted peak particle velocities were quite high as compared to the velocities measured by the Seismographs. (author)

  19. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrah K. Sleeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling. However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138, including conventions for extrathoracic (ET deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET1 and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2. For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm–44.3 µm were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  20. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Balthaser, Susan A; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-03-07

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET₁) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET₂). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm-44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  1. Application of spherical fly-ash particles to study spatial deposition of atmospheric pollutants in northen-eastern Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.

    2000-01-01

    Spherical fly-ash particles, emitted to the atmosphere in the high-temperature combustion process of fossil fuels, were found in considerable amounts in analysed snow samples of north-eastern Estonia. Spatial deposition of particles in snow cover is compared with the results of surface sediment samples of lakes. The results from snow characterise well the distribution of pollution sources and the distance from the main power plants in north eastern Estonia. Variations in particle deposition of closely situated snow samples were found to be negligible. Fly-ash particle influxes in snow samples correlate well with modelled maximum concentration fields of flyash in the near-surface air layer. (author)

  2. Space Particle Hazard Measurement and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-30

    the spacecraft and perturbations of the environment generated by the spacecraft. Koons et al. (1999) compiled and studied all spacecraft anomalies...unrealistic for D12 than for Dα0p). However, unlike the stability problems associated with the original cross diffusion terms, they are quite manageable ...E), to mono-energetic beams of charged particles of known energies which enables one, in principle , to unfold the space environment spectrum, j(E

  3. Measurement of short-lived particles at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1987-04-01

    The contribution of PETRA to the measurement of short-lived particles is reviewed with discussion of the detectors and analysis techniques. New results are presented on lifetimes of identified particles and the systematics of b-life measurement outlined. The first application of vertex-tagging to flavour separation is described. (author)

  4. Aligned deposition and electrical measurements on single DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidelshtein, Gennady; Kotlyar, Alexander; Hashemi, Mohtadin; Gurevich, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    A reliable method of deposition of aligned individual dsDNA molecules on mica, silicon, and micro/nanofabricated circuits is presented. Complexes of biotinylated double stranded poly(dG)–poly(dC) DNA with avidin were prepared and deposited on mica and silicon surfaces in the absence of Mg 2+ ions. Due to its positive charge, the avidin attached to one end of the DNA anchors the complex to negatively charged substrates. Subsequent drying with a directional gas flow yields DNA molecules perfectly aligned on the surface. In the avidin–DNA complex only the avidin moiety is strongly and irreversibly bound to the surface, while the DNA counterpart interacts with the substrates much more weakly and can be lifted from the surface and realigned in any direction. Using this technique, avidin–DNA complexes were deposited across platinum electrodes on a silicon substrate. Electrical measurements on the deposited DNA molecules revealed linear IV-characteristics and exponential dependence on relative humidity. (paper)

  5. Hydrophobic and optical characteristics of graphene and graphene oxide films transferred onto functionalized silica particles deposited glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ibrahim, A.; Ali, H.; Khaled, M.; Laoui, T.

    2018-06-01

    Hydrophobic and optical transmittance characteristics of the functionalized silica particles on the glass surface prior and after transfer of graphene and graphene oxide films on the surface are examined. Nano-size silica particles are synthesized and functionalized via chemical grafting and deposited onto a glass surface. Graphene film, grown on copper substrate, was transferred onto the functionalized silica particles surface through direct fishing method. Graphene oxide layer was deposited onto the functionalized silica particles surface via spin coating technique. Morphological, hydrophobic, and optical characteristics of the functionalized silica particles deposited surface prior and after graphene and graphene oxide films transfer are examined using the analytical tools. It is found that the functionalized silica particles are agglomerated at the surface forming packed structures with few micro/nano size pores. This arrangement gives rise to water droplet contact angle and contact angle hysteresis in the order of 163° and 2°, respectively, and remains almost uniform over the entire surface. Transferring graphene and depositing graphene oxide films over the functionalized silica particles surface lowers the water droplet contact angle slightly (157-160°) and increases the contact angle hysteresis (4°). The addition of the graphene and graphene oxide films onto the surface of the deposited functionalized silica particles improves the optical transmittance.

  6. Advection diffusion model for particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresta, P.; Lippolis, A.; Verzicco, R.; Soldati, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian Particle Tracking are used to precisely investigate the turbulent thermally driven flow and particles dispersion in a closed, slender cylindrical domain. The numerical simulations are carried out for Rayleigh (Ra) and Prandtl numbers (Pr) equal to Ra = 2X10 8 and Pr = 0.7, considering three sets of particles with Stokes numbers, based on Kolmogorov scale, equal to St k 1.3, St k 0.65 and St k = 0.13. This data are used to calculate a priori the drift velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient for the Advection Diffusion model. These quantities are function of the Stokes, Froude, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers only. One dimensional, time dependent, Advection- Diffusion Equation (ADE) is presented to predict particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard flow in the cylindrical domain. This archetype configuration models flow and aerosol dynamics, produced in case of accident in the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a nuclear reactor. ADE results show a good agreement with DNS data for all the sets of particles investigated. (author)

  7. Radial transport processes as a precursor to particle deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thienen, P; Vreeburg, J H G; Blokker, E J M

    2011-02-01

    Various particle transport mechanisms play a role in the build-up of discoloration potential in drinking water distribution networks. In order to enhance our understanding of and ability to predict this build-up, it is essential to recognize and understand their role. Gravitational settling with drag has primarily been considered in this context. However, since flow in water distribution pipes is nearly always in the turbulent regime, turbulent processes should be considered also. In addition to these, single particle effects and forces may affect radial particle transport. In this work, we present an application of a previously published turbulent particle deposition theory to conditions relevant for drinking water distribution systems. We predict quantitatively under which conditions turbophoresis, including the virtual mass effect, the Saffman lift force, and the Magnus force may contribute significantly to sediment transport in radial direction and compare these results to experimental observations. The contribution of turbophoresis is mostly limited to large particles (>50 μm) in transport mains, and not expected to play a major role in distribution mains. The Saffman lift force may enhance this process to some degree. The Magnus force is not expected to play any significant role in drinking water distribution systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of particle and fluid velocities in particle-laden flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, D. X.; Lee, D. Y.

    2009-01-01

    For the velocity measurement in a particle-laden fluid flow, the fluid velocity and the inherently dispersed particle velocity can be analyzed by using PIV and PTV, respectively. Since the PIV result statistically represents the average displacement of all the particles in a PIV image, it is inevitable that the PIV result includes the influence of the dispersed particles' displacement if a single CCD camera is used to simultaneously measure the fluid velocity and the dispersed particle velocity. The influence of dispersed particles should be excluded before the PIV analysis in order to evaluate the fluid velocity accurately. In this study, the optimum replacement brightness of dispersed particles to minimize the false influence of dispersed particles on the PIV analysis was theoretically derived. Simulation results show that the modification of dispersed particle brightness can significantly reduce the PIV error caused by the dispersed particles. This modification method was also verified in the analysis of an actual experimental case of the particle-laden fluid flow in a triangular grooved channel

  9. Advances in Thermal Spray Deposition of Billets for Particle Reinforced Light Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzelburger, Martin; Zimmermann, Christian; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Forming of light-metals in semi-solid state offers some advantages like low process temperatures, improved mould durability, good flow behavior and fine, globular microstructure of the final material. By the introduction of ceramic particles, increased elastic modulus and yield strength as well as wear resistance and creep behavior can be obtained. By semi-solid forging or semi-solid casting, particle reinforced metals (PRM) can be produced with improved matrix microstructure and beneficial forming process parameters compared to conventional MMC manufacturing techniques. The production of this kind of light metal matrix composites requires the supply of dense semi-finished parts with well defined volume fractions of homogeneously distributed particulate reinforcement. A manufacturing method for cylindrical light metal billets is described that applies thermal spraying as a build-up process for simultaneous deposition of matrix and reinforcement phase with cored wires as spraying material. Thermal spraying leads to small grain sizes and prevents dendrite formation. However, long process cycle times lead to billet heating and recrystallization of the matrix microstructure. In order to preserve small grain sizes that enable semi-solid forming, the thermal spraying process was analyzed by in-flight particle analysis and thermography. As a consequence, the deposition process was optimized by adaptation of the thermal spraying parameters and by application of additional cooling, leading to lower billet temperatures and finer PRM billet microstructure

  10. Addressing the ice nucleating abilities of marine aerosol: A combination of deposition mode laboratory and field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, L. A.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Miller, L. A.; Schiller, C. L.; Huffman, J. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.; Bertram, A. K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2016-05-01

    This study addresses, through two types of experiments, the potential for the oceans to act as a source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INPs). The INP concentration via deposition mode nucleation was measured in situ at a coastal site in British Columbia in August 2013. The INP concentration at conditions relevant to cirrus clouds (i.e., -40 °C and relative humidity with respect to ice, RHice = 139%) ranged from 0.2 L-1 to 3.3 L-1. Correlations of the INP concentrations with levels of anthropogenic tracers (i.e., CO, SO2, NOx, and black carbon) and numbers of fluorescent particles do not indicate a significant influence from anthropogenic sources or submicron bioaerosols, respectively. Additionally, the INPs measured in the deposition mode showed a poor correlation with the concentration of particles with sizes larger than 500 nm, which is in contrast with observations made in the immersion freezing mode. To investigate the nature of particles that could have acted as deposition INP, laboratory experiments with potential marine aerosol particles were conducted under the ice-nucleating conditions used in the field. At -40 °C, no deposition activity was observed with salt aerosol particles (sodium chloride and two forms of commercial sea salt: Sigma-Aldrich and Instant Ocean), particles composed of a commercial source of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic material), or particle mixtures of sea salt and humic material. In contrast, exudates from three phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nanochloris atomus, and Emiliania huxleyi) and one marine bacterium (Vibrio harveyi) exhibited INP activity at low RHice values, down to below 110%. This suggests that the INPs measured at the field site were of marine biological origins, although we cannot rule out other sources, including mineral dust.

  11. Stereoscopic measurements of particle dispersion in microgravity turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Daniel Eduardo

    2001-08-01

    The presence of particles in turbulent flows adds complexity to an already difficult subject. The work described in this research dissertation was intended to characterize the effects of inertia, isolated from gravity, on the dispersion of solid particles in a turbulent air flow. The experiment consisted of releasing particles of various sizes in an enclosed box of fan- generated, homogenous, isotropic, and stationary turbulent airflow and examining the particle behavior in a microgravity environment. The turbulence box was characterized in ground-based experiments using laser Doppler velocimetry techniques. Microgravity was established by free-floating the experiment apparatus during the parabolic trajectory of NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The microgravity generally lasted about 20 seconds, with about fifty parabolas per flight and one flight per day over a testing period of four days. To cover a broad range of flow regimes of interest, particles with Stokes numbers (St) of 1 to 300 were released in the turbulence box. The three- dimensional measurements of particle motion were made using a three-camera stereo imaging system with a particle-tracking algorithm. Digital photogrammetric techniques were used to determine the particle locations in three-dimensional space from the calibrated camera images. The epipolar geometry constraint was used to identify matching particles from the three different views and a direct spatial intersection scheme determined the coordinates of particles in three-dimensional space. Using velocity and acceleration constraints, particles in a sequence of frames were matched resulting in particle tracks and dispersion measurements. The goal was to compare the dispersion of different Stokes number particles in zero gravity and decouple the effects of inertia and gravity on the dispersion. Results show that higher inertia particles disperse less in zero gravity, in agreement with current models. Particles with St ~ 200

  12. Formation Process of Eosin Y-Adsorbing ZnO Particles by Electroless Deposition and Their Photoelectric Conversion Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Satoshi; Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Mizusaki, Hideaki; Wagata, Hajime; Teshima, Katsuya

    2015-06-03

    The thin films consisting of crystalline ZnO particles were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide electrodes by electroless deposition. The particles were deposited from an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate, dimethyamine-borane, and eosin Y at 328 K. As the Pd particles were adsorbed on the substrate, not only the eosin Y monomer but also the dimer and debrominated species were rapidly adsorbed on the spherical ZnO particles, which were aggregated and formed secondary particles. On the other hand, in the absence of the Pd particles, the monomer was adsorbed on the flake-shaped ZnO particles, which vertically grew on the substrate surface and had a high crystallinity. The photoelectric conversion efficiency was higher for the ZnO electrodes containing a higher amount of the monomer during light irradiation.

  13. Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of trace elements measured in Bursa, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasdemir, Yuecel; Kural, Can

    2005-01-01

    Trace element dry deposition fluxes were measured using a smooth, greased, knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) holding greased Mylar strips in Bursa, Turkey. Sampling program was conducted between October 2002 and June 2003 and 46 dry deposition samples were collected. The average fluxes of crustal metals (Mg, Ca, and Fe) were one to four orders of magnitude higher than the fluxes of anthropogenic metals. Trace element fluxes ranged from 3 (Cd) to 24 230 (Ca) μg m -2 d -1 . The average trace element dry deposition fluxes measured in this study were similar to those measured in other urban areas. In addition, ambient air samples were also collected simultaneously with flux samples and concentrations of trace elements, collected with a TSP sampler, were between 0.7 and 4900 ng m -3 for Cd and Ca, respectively. The overall trace element dry deposition velocities, calculated by dividing the fluxes to the particle phase concentrations ranged from 2.3±1.7 cm s -1 (Pb) to 11.1±6.4 cm s -1 (Ni). These values are in good agreement with the values calculated using similar techniques. The anthropogenic and crustal contributions were estimated by employing enrichment factors (EFs) calculated relative to the average crustal composition. Low EFs for dry deposition samples were calculated. This is probably due to contamination of local dust and its important contribution to the collected samples. - Mechanical turbulence has an important influence on re-suspension and dry deposition of trace elements in an urban area

  14. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flame-made nanosilver dynamics are elucidated in the gas-phase & on substrates. • The resistance of freshly depositing nanosilver layers is monitored. • Low T g polymers facilitate rapid synthesis of conductive films. • Conductive nanosilver films form on top of or within the polymer depending on MW. - Abstract: Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing T g . Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring

  15. Facile Deposition of Ultrafine Silver Particles on Silicon Surface Not Submerged in Precursor Solutions for Applications in Antireflective Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile deposition method, the ultrafine silver particles are successfully deposited on the Si surface that is not submerged in precursor solutions. The ultrafine silver particles have many advantages, such as quasiround shape, uniformity in size, monodisperse distribution, and reduction of agglomeration. The internal physical procedure in the deposition is also investigated. The results show that there are more particles on the rough Si surface due to the wetting effect of solid-liquid interface. The higher concentration of ethanol solvent can induce the increase of quantity and size of particles on Si surface not in solutions. The ultrafine particles can be used to prepare porous Si antireflective layer in solar cell applications.

  16. Mass transfer effects in hygroscopic measurements of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA has been widely utilized to measure the hygroscopicity of laboratory-generated and atmospheric submicrometer particles. An important concern in investigating the hygroscopicity of the particles is if the particles have attained equilibrium state in the measurements. We present a literature survey to investigate the mass transfer effects in hygroscopicity measurements. In most TDMA studies, a residence time in the order of seconds is used for humidification (or dehumidification. NaCl and (NH42SO4 particles are usually used to verify the equilibrium measurements during this residence time, which is presumed to be sufficient for other particles. There have been observations that not all types of submicrometer particles, including atmospheric particles, attain their equilibrium sizes within this time scale. We recommend that experimentation with different residence times be conducted and that the residence time should be explicitly stated in future TDMA measurements. Mass transfer effects may also exist in the measurements of other properties related to the water uptake of atmospheric particles such as relative humidity dependent light scattering coefficients and cloud condensation nuclei activity.

  17. Comparison of cryogenic (hydrogen) and TESPEL (polystyrene) pellet particle deposition in a magnetically confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Tamura, N.; Combs, S. K.; Panadero, N.; Ascabíbar, E.; Estrada, T.; García, R.; Hernández Sánchez, J.; López Fraguas, A.; Navarro, M.; Pastor, I.; Soleto, A.; TJ-II Team

    2017-10-01

    A cryogenic pellet injector (PI) and tracer encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injector system has been operated in combination on the stellarator TJ-II. This unique arrangement has been created by piggy-backing a TESPEL injector onto the backend of a pipe-gun-type PI. The combined injector provides a powerful new tool for comparing ablation and penetration of polystyrene TESPEL pellets and solid hydrogen pellets, as well as for contrasting subsequent pellet particle deposition and plasma perturbation under analogous plasma conditions. For instance, a significantly larger increase in plasma line-averaged electron density, and electron content, is observed after a TESPEL pellet injection compared with an equivalent cryogenic pellet injection. Moreover, for these injections from the low-magnetic-field side of the plasma cross-section, TESPEL pellets deposit electrons deeper into the plasma core than cryogenic pellets. Finally, the physics behind these observations and possible implications for pellet injection studies are discussed.

  18. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  19. In situ measurements of oxygen dynamics in unsaturated archaeological deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hollesen, Jørgen; Dunlop, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is a key parameter in the degradation of archaeological material, but little is known of its dynamics in situ. In this study, 10 optical oxygen sensors placed in a 2 m deep test pit in the cultural deposits at Bryggen in Bergen have monitored oxygen concentrations every half hour for more ...... of the soil exceeds 10–15% vol, while oxygen dissolved in infiltrating rainwater is of less importance for the supply of oxygen in the unsaturated zone....... than a year. It is shown that there is a significant spatial and temporal variation in the oxygen concentration, which is correlated to measured soil characteristics, precipitation, soil water content and degradation of organic material. In these deposits oxygen typically occurs when the air content...

  20. Effect of energy deposited by cosmic-ray particles on interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hayakawa, Hideaki; Okada, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Tsunesada, Yoshiki

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the noise of interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to heat energy deposited by cosmic-ray particles. We derived a general formula that describes the response of a mirror against a cosmic-ray passage. We found that there are differences in the comic-ray responses (the dependence of temperature and cosmic-ray track position) in cases of interferometric and resonant gravitational wave detectors. The power spectral density of vibrations caused by low-energy secondary muons is 100 times smaller than the goal sensitivity of future second-generation interferometer projects, such as LCGT and Advanced LIGO. The arrival frequency of high-energy cosmic-ray muons that generate enough large showers inside mirrors of LCGT and Advanced LIGO is one per a millennium. We also discuss the probability of exotic-particle detection with interferometers.

  1. Strange particle measurements from the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justice, M.

    1995-02-01

    A high statistics sample of Λ's produced in 2 GeV/nucleon 5 8Ni + nat Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. The coverage of the EOS TPC is essentially 100% for y > y cm and extends down to P T = 0 where interesting effects such as collective radial expansion may be important. In addition, the detection of a majority of the charged particles in the TPC, along with the presence of directed flow for protons and heavier fragments at this beam energy, allows for the correlation of A production with respect to the event reaction plane. Our preliminary analysis indicates the first observation of a sidewards flow signature for A's. Comparisons with the cascade code ARC are made

  2. Influence of the ambient humidity on the concentration of natural deposition-mode ice-nucleating particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports measurements of deposition-mode ice-nucleating particle (INP concentrations at ground level during the period July–December 2014 in Córdoba, Argentina. Ambient air was sampled into a cloud chamber where the INP concentration was measured at a temperature of −25 °C and a 15 % supersaturation over ice. Measurements were performed on days with different thermodynamic conditions, including rainy days. The effect of the relative humidity at ground level (RHamb on the INP concentration was analyzed. The number of INPs activated varied from 1 L−1 at RHamb of 25 % to 30 L−1 at RHamb of 90 %. In general, a linear trend between the INP concentration and the RHamb was found, suggesting that this variability must be related to the effectiveness of the aerosols acting as INPs. From the backward trajectories analysis, it was found that the link between INP concentration and RHamb is independent of the origin of the air masses. The role of biological INPs and nucleation occurring in pores and cavities was discussed as a possible mechanism to explain the increase of the INP concentration during high ambient relative humidity events. This work provides valuable measurements of deposition-mode INP concentrations from the Southern Hemisphere where INP data are sparse so far.

  3. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing

    2009-01-01

    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... examines the use of particle velocity as the input of PNAH. Because the particle velocity decays faster toward the edges of the measurement aperture than the pressure does and because the wave number ratio that enters into the inverse propagator from pressure to velocity amplifies high spatial frequencies...

  4. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-01-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ∼100 μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact

  5. Characterization of fine particles using optomagnetic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Jeppe; Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer

    2017-01-01

    The remanent magnetic moment and the hydrodynamic size are important parameters for the synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). We present the theoretical basis for the determination of the remanent magnetic moment and the hydrodynamic size of MNPs with a narrow size...... distribution using optomagnetic measurements. In these, the 2nd harmonic variation of the intensity of light transmitted through an MNP suspension is measured as a function of an applied axial oscillating magnetic field. We first show how the measurements of the optomagnetic signal magnitude at a low frequency...... vs. magnetic field amplitude can be used to determine the MNP moment. Subsequently, we use linear response theory to describe the dynamic non-equilibrium response of the MNP suspension at low magnetic field amplitudes and derive a link between optomagnetic measurements and magnetic AC susceptibility...

  6. Numerical investigation of the effect of particle concentration on particle measurement by digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huafeng; Zhou, Binwu; Wu, Xuecheng; Wu, Yingchun; Gao, Xiang; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa

    2014-04-01

    Digital holography plays a key role in particle field measurement, and appears to be a strong contender as the next-generation technology for diagnostics of 3D particle field. However, various recording parameters, such as the recording distance, the particle size, the wavelength, the size of the CCD chip, the pixel size and the particle concentration, will affect the results of the reconstruction, and may even determine the success or failure of a measurement. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effect of particle concentration, the volume depth to evaluate the capability of digital holographic microscopy. Standard particles holograms with all known recording parameters are numerically generated by using a common procedure based on Lorenz-Mie scattering theory. Reconstruction of those holograms are then performed by a wavelet-transform based method. Results show that the reconstruction efficiency decreases quickly until particle concentration reaches 50×104 (mm-3), and decreases linearly with the increase of particle concentration from 50 × 104 (mm-3) to 860 × 104 (mm-3) in the same volume. The first half of the line waves larger than the second half. It also indicates that the increase of concentration leads the rise in average diameter error and z position error of particles. Besides, the volume depth also plays a key role in reconstruction.

  7. Small Airway Absorption and Microdosimetry of Inhaled Corticosteroid Particles after Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To predict the cellular-level epithelial absorbed dose from deposited inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) particles in a model of an expanding and contracting small airway segment for different particle forms. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model of drug dissolution, absorption and clearance occurring in the surface liquid of a representative small airway generation (G13) was developed and used to evaluate epithelial dose for the same deposited drug mass of conventional microparticles, nanoaggregates and a true nanoaerosol. The ICS medications considered were budesonide (BD) and fluticasone propionate (FP). Within G13, total epithelial absorption efficiency (AE) and dose uniformity (microdosimetry) were evaluated. Conventional microparticles resulted in very poor AE of FP (0.37%) and highly nonuniform epithelial absorption, such that <5% of cells received drug. Nanoaggregates improved AE of FP by a factor of 57-fold and improved dose delivery to reach approximately 40% of epithelial cells. True nanoaerosol resulted in near 100% AE for both drugs and more uniform drug delivery to all cells. Current ICS therapies are absorbed by respiratory epithelial cells in a highly nonuniform manner that may partially explain poor clinical performance in the small airways. Both nanoaggregates and nanoaerosols can significantly improve ICS absorption efficiency and uniformity.

  8. Turbulence in the trachea and its effect on micro-particle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Taylor; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    The health effects of inhaled aerosols are often predicted by extrapolating experimental data taken using nonhuman primate animal studies to humans. While the existence of a laminar-to-turbulent flow transition in the human larynx is widely reported in the literature, it was previously unknown, to our knowledge, whether a similar flow behavior exists in the airways of rhesus monkeys. By using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in the CT-based airway models of rhesus monkeys we demonstrate the existence of such a flow transition at elevated inspiratory flow rates. The geometries comprise the nasal cavity, larynx, and trachea. We observe turbulence intensity values that peak after the larynx and decay throughout the trachea similar to that of humans. Deposition of inhaled micro-particles is also computed and validated using experiments in 3D-printed model airways with excellent agreement. Deposition in the turbulent regions of the airway (larynx and trachea) is shown to be substantial at elevated flow rates and to depend on the flow unsteadiness. These results provide insight into the fate of inhaled particles in rhesus monkey animal experiments and their connection to human inhalation.

  9. Measurement of unattached radon progeny based in electrostatic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Lopez, F.O.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the measurement of unattached radon progeny based on its electrostatic deposition onto wire screens, using only one pump, has been implemented and calibrated. The importance of being able of making use of this method is related with the special radiological significance that has the unattached fraction of the short-lived radon progeny. Because of this, the assessment of exposure could be directly related to dose with far greater accuracy than before. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, even with the tools needed for the sample collection, as well as the measurement instruments used. Also, the suitability of this method is enhanced by the fact that it can effectively be used with a simple measuring procedure such as the Kusnetz method. (author)

  10. Cu and Cu2O films with semi-spherical particles grown by electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jin You; Jadhav, Abhijit P.; Song, Guang; Kim, Chang Woo; Kang, Young Soo

    2012-01-01

    Cu and Cu 2 O films can be prepared on indium-doped tin oxide glass substrates by simple electrodeposition in a solution containing 0.1 M Cu(NO 3 ) 2 and 3 M lactic acid at different pH values. At low pH (pH = 1.2), the uniform Cu films were obtained; when pH ≥ 7, the pure Cu 2 O films can be deposited. Especially, at pH = 11, the deposited Cu 2 O films exhibited cubic surface morphology exposing mainly {100} plane; in contrast, the films consisting of semi-spherical particles were obtained when the solution was being stirred for 2 weeks prior to use. The possible growth process and mechanism were comparatively discussed. - Highlights: ► Cu and Cu 2 O films were prepared by facile electrodeposition. ► Electrodeposition was preformed in electrolyte at different pH values. ► Dendritic Cu films were obtained at 1.2 pH with relatively high deposition potential. ► Semi-spherical Cu 2 O films were obtained with solution at 11 pH and stirred for 2 weeks. ► The possible growth mechanism of semi-spherical Cu 2 O films was discussed.

  11. Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution - Deposition and dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhäll, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Urban vegetation affects air quality through influencing pollutant deposition and dispersion. Both processes are described by many existing models and experiments, on-site and in wind tunnels, focussing e.g. on urban street canyons and crossings or vegetation barriers adjacent to traffic sources. There is an urgent need for well-structured experimental data, including detailed empirical descriptions of parameters that are not the explicit focus of the study. This review revealed that design and choice of urban vegetation is crucial when using vegetation as an ecosystem service for air quality improvements. The reduced mixing in trafficked street canyons on adding large trees increases local air pollution levels, while low vegetation close to sources can improve air quality by increasing deposition. Filtration vegetation barriers have to be dense enough to offer large deposition surface area and porous enough to allow penetration, instead of deflection of the air stream above the barrier. The choice between tall or short and dense or sparse vegetation determines the effect on air pollution from different sources and different particle sizes.

  12. The influence of inhalation technique on Technegas particle deposition and image appearance in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, J.J.; James, J.M.; Shields, R.A.; Testa, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of inhalation technique on Technegas image quality and on fractional particle deposition. This was investigated in six normal volunteers using three different types of breathing pattern. Fractional deposition was determined by analysis of dynamic gamma camera images acquired during Technegas administration. Static lung images were subsequently acquired and assessed independently by three experienced observers. High-quality images were obtained in all cases although slight differences were noted. The images produced using a slow deep inspiration with a breath hold (i.e. the standard method) were of more uniform texture and also had the least gradient in activity from apex to base. The converse was true for a rapid inhalation technique. The average fractional deposition per breath was 55%, but this varied between individuals and with breathing pattern, being most influenced by the total duration of a breath. We conclude that for patient studies the standard inhalation technique is best, although variation to suit individual patients would be acceptable. (orig./MG)

  13. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 2. Measurement test of the salt concentration in air and salt deposition in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the storage facility of spent nuclear fuel using the concrete cask, there is an issue of stress corrosion cracking(SCC). The cooling air goes up along the canister surface in the concrete cask. To evaluate the initiation of SCC or rusting, it is important to verify the estimation method of the sea salt deposition on the metal canister surface transported by cooling air including sea salt particles. To measure the deposition rate, field tests were performed in Choushi test center. In the field test, it was found that the amount of sea salt deposition was very low because the density of the atmospheric sea salt concentration was very low compared with the laboratory test. Using relation between laboratory data and filed data, it is possible to evaluate the salt deposition rate on the canister surface. We also measured atmospheric sea salt concentration in Choushi test center to make the environment condition clear and compared the measurement data with the calculation data to verify the evaluation model. We are developing the automatic measuring device for atmospheric sea salt concentration. To check its performance, we are measuring atmospheric sea salt concentration in Yokosuka Area of CRIEPI and it was confirmed that the device works for one month automatically and fulfills its specifications. (author)

  14. Photometric imaging in particle size measurement and surface visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight into photometric particle sizing approaches, which differ from the typical particle size measurement of dispersed particles. These approaches can often be advantageous especially for samples that are moist or cohesive, when dispersion of particles is difficult or sometimes impossible. The main focus of this paper is in the use of photometric stereo imaging. The technique allows the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of objects using multiple light sources in illumination. The use of photometric techniques is demonstrated in at-line measurement of granules and on-line measurement during granulation and dry milling. Also, surface visualization and roughness measurements are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Manual for target thickness measurement by alpha particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.F.; Martins, M.N.

    1990-04-01

    A system is described for thin-target thickness measurement through the alpha particle energy loss when them traverse the target. It is also described the program used in the analysis of the target thickness. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Global Particle Balance Measurements in DIII-D H-mode Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.; Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; McLean, A.; Watkins, J.G.; Whyte, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments are performed on the DIII-D tokamak to determine the retention rate in an all graphite first-wall tokamak. A time-dependent particle balance analysis shows a majority of the fuel retention occurs during the initial Ohmic and L-mode phase of discharges, with peak fuel retention rates typically similar to 2 x 10(21) D/s. The retention rate can be zero within the experimental uncertainties (<3 x 10(20) D/s) during the later stationary phase of the discharge. In general, the retention inventory can decrease in the stationary phase by similar to 20-30% from the initial start-up phase of the discharge. Particle inventories determined as a function of time in the discharge, using a 'dynamic' particle balance analysis, agree with more accurate particle inventories directly measured after the discharge, termed 'static' particle balance. Similarly, low stationary retention rates are found in discharges with heating from neutral-beams, which injects particles, and from electron cyclotron waves, which does not inject particles. Detailed analysis of the static and dynamic balance methods provide an estimate of the DIII-D global co-deposition rate of <= 0.6-1.2 x 10(20) D/s. Dynamic particle balance is also performed on discharges with resonant magnetic perturbation ELM suppression and shows no additional retention during the ELM-suppressed phase of the discharge.

  17. Particle and power deposition on divertor targets in EAST H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.; Chen, R.; Ding, S.; Gan, K.F.; Gao, X.; Gong, X.Z.; Jiang, M.; Liu, P.; Liu, S.C.; Luo, G.N.; Ming, T.F.; Wan, B.N.; Wang, D.S.; Wang, F.M.; Wang, H.Q.; Wu, Z.W.; Yan, N.; Zhang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of edge-localized modes (ELMs) on divertor particle and heat fluxes were investigated for the first time in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The experiments were carried out with both double null and lower single null divertor configurations, and comparisons were made between the H-mode plasmas with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and those with combined ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The particle and heat flux profiles between and during ELMs were obtained from Langmuir triple-probe arrays embedded in the divertor target plates. And isolated ELMs were chosen for analysis in order to reduce the uncertainty resulting from the influence of fast electrons on Langmuir triple-probe evaluation during ELMs. The power deposition obtained from Langmuir triple probes was consistent with that from the divertor infra-red camera during an ELM-free period. It was demonstrated that ELM-induced radial transport predominantly originated from the low-field side region, in good agreement with the ballooning-like transport model and experimental results of other tokamaks. ELMs significantly enhanced the divertor particle and heat fluxes, without significantly broadening the SOL width and plasma-wetted area on the divertor target in both LHCD and LHCD + ICRH H-modes, thus posing a great challenge for the next-step high-power, long-pulse operation in EAST. Increasing the divertor-wetted area was also observed to reduce the peak heat flux and particle recycling at the divertor target, hence facilitating long-pulse H-mode operation. The particle and heat flux profiles during ELMs appeared to exhibit multiple peak structures, and were analysed in terms of the behaviour of ELM filaments and the flux tubes induced by modified magnetic topology during ELMs. (paper)

  18. A Program to Generate a Particle Distribution from Emittance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, DS; Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    We have written a program to generate a particle distribution based on emittance measurements in x-x’ and y-y’. The accuracy of this program has been tested using real and constructed emittance measurements. Based on these tests, the distribution generated by the program can be used to accurately simulate the beam in multi-particle tracking codes, as an alternative to a Gaussian or uniform distribution.

  19. The Measurement of Dry Deposition and Surface Runoff to Quantify Urban Road Pollution in Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunn-Jinn; Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01–5.14 g/m2·day and 78–87% of these solids are in the 75–300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC) from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads. PMID:24135820

  20. Concentration, size distribution and dry deposition of amines in atmospheric particles of urban Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengxian; Bi, Xinhui; Zhang, Guohua; Peng, Long; Lian, Xiufeng; Lu, Huiying; Fu, Yuzhen; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying

    2017-12-01

    Size-segregated PM10 samples were collected in Guangzhou, China during autumn of 2014. Nine amines, including seven aliphatic amines and two heterocyclic amines, were detected using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer after derivatization by benzenesulfonyl chloride. The total concentration of the nine amines (Ʃamines) was 79.6-140.9 ng m-3 in PM10. The most abundant species was methylamine (MA), which had a concentration of 29.2-70.1 ng m-3. MA, dimethylamine (DMA), diethylamine (DEA) and dibutylamine (DBA) were the predominant amines in the samples and accounted for approximately 80% of Ʃamines in each size segment. Two heterocyclic amines, pyrrolidine (PYR) and morpholine (MOR), were detected in all samples and had average concentrations of 1.14 ± 0.37 and 1.89 ± 0.64 ng m-3, respectively, in particles with aerodynamic diameters ammonium ranged from 0.0068 to 0.0107 in particles with diameters <1.5 μm, and the maximum ratio occurred in the smallest particles (diameter< 0.49 μm). The average dry deposition flux and velocity of Ʃamines in PM10 were 7.9 ± 1.6 μg m-2 d-1 and 0.084 ± 0.0021 cm s-1, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information on the contribution of amines to secondary organic aerosols and dry removal mechanisms in urban areas.

  1. Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A

    2018-02-20

    Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.

  2. A robust upscaling of the effective particle deposition rate in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, Gianluca; Crevacore, Eleonora; Sethi, Rajandrea; Icardi, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    In the upscaling from pore to continuum (Darcy) scale, reaction and deposition phenomena at the solid-liquid interface of a porous medium have to be represented by macroscopic reaction source terms. The effective rates can be computed, in the case of periodic media, from three-dimensional microscopic simulations of the periodic cell. Several computational and semi-analytical models have been studied in the field of colloid filtration to describe this problem. They typically rely on effective deposition rates defined by complex fitting procedures, neglecting the advection-diffusion interplay, the pore-scale flow complexity, and assuming slow reactions (or large Péclet numbers). Therefore, when these rates are inserted into general macroscopic transport equations, they can lead to several conceptual inconsistencies and significant errors. To study more accurately the dependence of deposition on the flow parameters, in this work we advocate a clear distinction between the surface processes (that altogether defines the so-called attachment efficiency), and the pore-scale processes. With this approach, valid when colloidal particles are small enough, we study Brownian and gravity-driven deposition on a face-centred cubic (FCC) arrangement of spherical grains, and define a robust upscaling based on a linear effective reaction rate. The case of partial deposition, defined by an attachment probability, is studied and the limit of perfect sink is retrieved as a particular case. We introduce a novel upscaling approach and a particularly convenient computational setup that allows the direct computation of the asymptotic stationary value of effective rates. This allows to drastically reduce the computational domain down to the scale of the single repeating periodic unit. The savings are ever more noticeable in the case of higher Péclet numbers, when larger physical times are needed to reach the asymptotic regime and thus, equivalently, much larger computational domain and

  3. Direct deposition of gas phase generated aerosol gold nanoparticles into biological fluids--corona formation and particle size shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Svensson

    Full Text Available An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs.

  4. Direct Deposition of Gas Phase Generated Aerosol Gold Nanoparticles into Biological Fluids - Corona Formation and Particle Size Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Christian R.; Messing, Maria E.; Lundqvist, Martin; Schollin, Alexander; Deppert, Knut; Pagels, Joakim H.; Rissler, Jenny; Cedervall, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity) to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs. PMID:24086363

  5. Size- and density-controlled deposition of Ag nanoparticle films by a novel low-temperature spray chemical vapour deposition method—research into mechanism, particle growth and optical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@helmholtz-berlin.de; Plate, Paul, E-mail: paul.plate@helmholtz-berlin.de; Hinrichs, Volker; Köhler, Tristan; Song, Min; Manley, Phillip; Schmid, Martina [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (Germany); Bartsch, Peter [Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin, Fachbereich VIII Maschinenbau, Veranstaltungstechnik, Verfahrenstechnik (Germany); Fiechter, Sebastian; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (Germany); Fischer, Christian-Herbert [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Ag nanoparticles have attracted interest for plasmonic absorption enhancement of solar cells. For this purpose, well-defined particle sizes and densities as well as very low deposition temperatures are required. Thus, we report here a new spray chemical vapour deposition method for producing Ag NP films with independent size and density control at substrate temperatures even below 100 °C, which is much lower than for many other techniques. This method can be used on different substrates to deposit Ag NP films. It is a reproducible, low-cost process which uses trimethylphosphine (hexafluoroacetylacetonato) silver as a precursor in alcoholic solution. By systematic variation of deposition parameters and classic experiments, mechanisms of particle growth and of deposition processes as well as the low decomposition temperature of the precursor could be explained. Using the 3D finite element method, absorption spectra of selected samples were simulated, which fitted well with the measured results. Hence, further applications of such Ag NP films for generating plasmonic near field can be predicted by the simulation.

  6. Size- and density-controlled deposition of Ag nanoparticle films by a novel low-temperature spray chemical vapour deposition method—research into mechanism, particle growth and optical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Plate, Paul; Hinrichs, Volker; Köhler, Tristan; Song, Min; Manley, Phillip; Schmid, Martina; Bartsch, Peter; Fiechter, Sebastian; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Fischer, Christian-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles have attracted interest for plasmonic absorption enhancement of solar cells. For this purpose, well-defined particle sizes and densities as well as very low deposition temperatures are required. Thus, we report here a new spray chemical vapour deposition method for producing Ag NP films with independent size and density control at substrate temperatures even below 100 °C, which is much lower than for many other techniques. This method can be used on different substrates to deposit Ag NP films. It is a reproducible, low-cost process which uses trimethylphosphine (hexafluoroacetylacetonato) silver as a precursor in alcoholic solution. By systematic variation of deposition parameters and classic experiments, mechanisms of particle growth and of deposition processes as well as the low decomposition temperature of the precursor could be explained. Using the 3D finite element method, absorption spectra of selected samples were simulated, which fitted well with the measured results. Hence, further applications of such Ag NP films for generating plasmonic near field can be predicted by the simulation.

  7. Effects of electrode polarization and particle deposition profile on TJ-I plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurro, B.; Tabares, F.; Pardo, C.; Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Garcia-Castaner, B.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Sanchez, J.; Rodriguez-Yunta, A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of self-created radial electric field on particle confinement in TJ-I plasmas was addressed using plasma rotation data in conjunction with particle confinement times measured by laser ablation. In this paper following the pioneer work of Taylor, we have started to study the influence of a polarized electrode inserted into the plasma on particle confinement and plasma rotation in this ohmically heated tokamak. To have a supportive frame of reference, the confinement time of background particles and their transport into plasma without electrode, has been studied by measuring with space-time resolution the H α emission on varying plasma conditions. These experiments have been carried out in ohmically heated discharges of the TJ-I tokamak (R 0 =30 cm, a=10 cm) which was operated with plasma currents between 20 and 45 kA and a toroidal field ranging from 0.8 to 1.5 T. In this paper, firstly the experimental plasma and specific diagnostics are described, secondly, the parametric dependence of the particle confinement time and radial transport of background plasma is presented and finally, the influence of polarizing an inserted electrode on a particular discharge is given and discussed in the context of other polarization experiments. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs

  8. Aerosols from biomass combustion. Particle formation, relevance on air quality, and measures for particle reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Biomass combustion is a relevant source of particle emissions. In Switzerland, wood combustion contributes with 2% to the energy supply but with more than 4% to Particulate Matter smaller 10 microns (PM 10) in the ambient air. In areas with high density of residential wood heating (e.g. in the south of Chile), wood particles are the dominant source of PM 10 resulting in heavy local smog situations. Since combustion particles are regarded as health relevant and since immission limit values on PM 10 are widely exceeded, measures for particle reduction from biomass combustion are of high priority. With respect to aerosols from biomass combustion, two sources of particles are distinguished: 1. an incomplete combustion can lead to soot and organic matter contained in the particles, 2. ash constituents in the fuel lead to the formation of inorganic fly ash particles mainly consisting of salts such as chlorides and oxides. The theory of aerosol formation from fuel constituents is described and two hypotheses to reduce inorganic particles from biomass combustion are proposed: 1. a reduced oxygen content in the solid fuel conversion zone (glow bed in a fixed bed combustion) is assumed to reduce the particle mass concentration due to three mechanisms: a) reduced oxidation of fuel constituents to compounds with higher volatility, b) reduced local temperature for solid fuel conversion, c) a reduced entrainmed of fuel constituents 2. a reduced total excess air can reduce the particle number due to enhanced coagulation. The proposed low-particle concept has been implemented for an automatic furnace for wood pellets in the size range from 100 kW to 500 kW. Furthermore, the furnace design was optimised to enable a part load operation without increased emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and particles. In a 100 kW prototype furnace the low-particle conditions resulted in particle emissions between 6 mg/m n 3 to 11 mg/m n 3 at 13 vol.-% O2 and CO emissions below 70 mg/m n 3 in the

  9. On the spatial coordinate measurement of two identical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el; Schuss, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, the coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point by two narrowly separated narrow detectors, is interpreted in the limit of shrinking width and separation, as the detection of two particles by a single narrow detector. Ordinarily, the ratio between probabilities of point measurements is independent of the width of the narrow detectors. We show here that not only this is not the case, but that in some scenarios the results depend on the way the dimensions shrink to zero. The ratio between the width and the separation determines the detection result. In particular, it is shown that the bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. Moreover, it may suggests that there is a difficulty in quantum measurement theory in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles. - Highlights: • The coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point is investigated. • A discrepancy in the realization of coordinate measurement of two bosons or fermions is shown. • The bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. • There is a problem in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles.

  10. On the spatial coordinate measurement of two identical particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchewka, Avi, E-mail: avi.marchewka@gmail.com [8 Galei Tchelet St., Herzliya (Israel); Granot, Er' el, E-mail: erelgranot@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ariel University, Ariel (Israel); Schuss, Zeev, E-mail: schuss@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Mathematics, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2016-04-29

    Theoretically, the coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point by two narrowly separated narrow detectors, is interpreted in the limit of shrinking width and separation, as the detection of two particles by a single narrow detector. Ordinarily, the ratio between probabilities of point measurements is independent of the width of the narrow detectors. We show here that not only this is not the case, but that in some scenarios the results depend on the way the dimensions shrink to zero. The ratio between the width and the separation determines the detection result. In particular, it is shown that the bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. Moreover, it may suggests that there is a difficulty in quantum measurement theory in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles. - Highlights: • The coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point is investigated. • A discrepancy in the realization of coordinate measurement of two bosons or fermions is shown. • The bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. • There is a problem in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles.

  11. Enhancing the activation of silicon carbide tracer particles for PEPT applications using gas-phase deposition of alumina at room temperature and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdesueiro, D. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Garcia-Triñanes, P., E-mail: p.garcia@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Meesters, G.M.H.; Kreutzer, M.T. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Gargiuli, J.; Leadbeater, T.W.; Parker, D.J. [Positron Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Seville, J.P.K. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Ommen, J.R. van, E-mail: j.r.vanommen@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-01-21

    We have enhanced the radio-activation efficiency of SiC (silicon carbide) particles, which by nature have a poor affinity towards {sup 18}F ions, to be employed as tracers in studies using PEPT (Positron Emission Particle Tracking). The resulting SiC–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} core–shell structure shows a good labelling efficiency, comparable to γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tracer particles, which are commonly used in PEPT. The coating of the SiC particles was carried at 27±3 °C and 1 bar in a fluidized bed reactor, using trimethylaluminium and water as precursors, by a gas phase technique similar to atomic layer deposition. The thickness of the alumina films, which ranged from 5 to 500 nm, was measured by elemental analysis and confirmed with FIB-TEM (focused ion beam – transmission electron microscope), obtaining consistent results from both techniques. By depositing such a thin film of alumina, properties that influence the hydrodynamic behaviour of the SiC particles, such as size, shape and density, are hardly altered, ensuring that the tracer particle shows the same flow behaviour as the other particles. The paper describes a general method to improve the activation efficiency of materials, which can be applied for the production of tracer particles for many other applications too. - Highlights: • We deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on SiC particles at ambient conditions in a fluidized bed. • The affinity of {sup 18}F ions towards Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiC particle was improved compared to SiC. • We used the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiC activated particle as tracer in a PEPT experiment. • Tracer particles have suitable activity for accurate tracking. • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is thin enough not to alter the particle size, shape and density.

  12. Transport and deposition of particles and radionuclides at the Puy de Dome, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, L.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol particles play a key role both on air quality and on the radiative balance of the Earth. Their sources, as well as their deposition are key stages in their life cycle. This work is a contribution in a better knowledge of the chemical composition of particles, cloud droplets and rain droplets. The specificity of our study is to couple, on three sampling sites (Puy de Dome (1465 m a.s.l.), Opme (660 m a.s.l.) and Cezeaux (400 m a.s.l.)), observations on the chemical composition and the radionuclides activity in cloud/rain/aerosol phases. We observed, in aerosol phase, ionic and carbonaceous concentrations and radionuclides activity higher in summer than in winter at the Puy de Dome, inverse of the seasonal variation observed at the Cezeaux for chemical compounds. From these observations, we offer a representative composition de each mass air type. This work is supplemented by a study of cloud and rain liquid, which allow us to study the scavenging of the pollutants by the rain. The chemical composition of the rain reveals a similar behaviour to that of the particles at the Puy de Dome, indicating that the role of activation and scavenging of particles is preponderant in the composition of the rain. This is confirmed by a study of the environmental and structural factors of the rain which do not seem to influence the washout ratio in a significant manner. Our work highlights the role of long range transport of pollutants in the composition of atmospheric liquid phase. (author)

  13. Measurement of Sediment Deposition Rates using an Optical Backscatter Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridd, P.; Day, G.; Thomas, S.; Harradence, J.; Fox, D.; Bunt, J.; Renagi, O.; Jago, C.

    2001-02-01

    An optical method for measuring siltation of sediment has been developed using an optical fibre backscatter (OBS) nephelometer. Sediment settling upon the optical fibre sensor causes an increase in the backscatter reading which can be related to the settled sediment surface density (SSSD) as measured in units of mg cm -2. Calibration and laboratory tests indicate that the resolution of measurements of SSSD is 0·01 mg cm -2and an accuracy of 5% in still water. In moving water it is more difficult to determine the accuracy of the method because other methods with suitable resolution are unavailable. However, indirect methods using measurements of changing suspended sediment concentration in a ring flume, indicate that the OBS method under-predicts deposition. The series of siltation from three field sites are presented. This sensor offers considerable advances over other methods of measuring settling because time series of settling may be taken and thus settling events may be related to other hydrodynamic parameters such as wave climate and currents.

  14. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Byrne, M.A.; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    1999-01-01

    the deposition and subsequent fate of contaminant aerosol on skin, hair and clothing. The main technique applied involves the release and subsequent deposition on volunteers in test rooms of particles of differentsizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers. Experiments indicate that the deposition...... of magnitudeas the gamma doses received over the first year from contamination on outdoor surfaces. According to the calculations, beta doses from skin deposition to individuals in areas of Russia, where dry deposition of Chernobyl fallout led to very high levels ofcontamination, may have amounted to several...

  15. Fabrication of Antireflection Nanodiamond Particle Film by the Spin Coating Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-based antireflective (AR coatings were fabricated using a spin coating of diamond suspension at room temperature as nucleation enhancement procedure and microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Various working pressures were used to investigate their effect on the optical characterization of the as-deposited diamond films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic forced microscopy (AFM were employed to analyze the surface properties of the diamond films. Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM also were used for analysis of the microstructure of the films. The results showed that working pressure had a significant effect on thickness, surface roughness, and wettability of the as-deposited diamond films. Deposited under 35 Torr or working pressure, the film possessed a low surface roughness of 13.8 nm and fine diamond grain sizes of 35 nm. Reflectance measurements of the films also were carried out using UV-Vis spectrometer and revealed a low reflectance value of the diamond films. The achievement demonstrated feasibility of the proposed spin-coating procedure for large scale production and thus opens up a prospect application of diamond film as an AR coating in industrial optoelectronic device.

  16. Measurements of phoretic velocities of aerosol particles in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, F.; Santachiara, G.; Travaini, S.; Vedernikov, A.; Dubois, F.; Minetti, C.; Legros, J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Measurements of thermo- and diffusio-phoretic velocities of aerosol particles (carnauba wax, paraffin and sodium chloride) were performed in microgravity conditions (Drop Tower facility, in Bremen, and Parabolic Flights, in Bordeaux). In the case of thermophoresis, a temperature gradient was obtained by heating the upper plate of the cell, while the lower one was maintained at environmental temperature. For diffusiophoresis, the water vapour gradient was obtained with sintered plates imbued with a water solution of MgCl 2 and distilled water, at the top and at the bottom of the cell, respectively. Aerosol particles were observed through a digital holographic velocimeter, a device allowing the determination of 3-D coordinates of particles from the observed volume. Particle trajectories and consequently particle velocities were reconstructed through the analysis of the sequence of particle positions. The experimental values of reduced thermophoretic velocities are between the theoretical values of Yamamoto and Ishihara [Yamamoto, K., Ishihara, Y., 1988. Thermophoresis of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas of a transition regime. Phys. Fluids. 31, 3618-3624] and Talbot et al. [Talbot, L., Cheng, R.K., Schefer, R.W., Willis, D.R., 1980. Thermophoresis of particles in a heated boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 101, 737-758], and do not show a clear dependence on the thermal conductivity of the aerosol. The existence of negative thermophoresis is not confirmed in our experiments. Concerning diffusiophoretic experiments, the results obtained show a small increase of reduced diffusiophoretic velocity with the Knudsen number.

  17. Method of measuring a profile of the density of charged particles in a particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.G.; Jankowski, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A profile of the relative density of charged particles in a beam is obtained by disposing a number of rods parallel to each other in a plane perpendicular to the beam and shadowing the beam. A second number of rods is disposed perpendicular to the first rods in a plane perpendicular to the beam and also shadowing the beam. Irradiation of the rods by the beam of charged particles creates radioactive isotopes in a quantity proportional to the number of charged particles incident upon the rods. Measurement of the radioactivity of each of the rods provides a measure of the quantity of radioactive material generated thereby and, together with the location of the rods, provides information sufficient to identify a profile of the density of charged particles in the beam

  18. Particle velocity measurements in laser irradiated foils using ORVIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Fisk, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum foils from 2- to 200-μm thick have been subjected to a Nd:YAG laser pulse of low irradiance (10 9 W/cm 2 , approx. 10 ns pulse) to produce laser-driven shocks in the foils. The particle velocity history of the foil side opposite the laser deposition was monitored with nanosecond resolution by a velocity interferometer system called ORVIS. These histories indicate a shock reverberation process accelerates the foil. Peak foil velocities can be adequately calculated using a ricket propulsion model developed from experiments at much higher irradiances. A velocity of 1 km/s was developed in a 2-μm-thick free foil in a time of 50 ns. Water-confined foils attained peak particle velocities about three times higher than those of free foils

  19. Influence of extreme events on health-related aerosol particle deposition in an urban site during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Paula; Castro, Amaya; Calvo, Ana Isabel; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Márcio; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Fraile, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Urban populations are exposed to aerosol particles that enter in the human respiratory track posing an important risk to human health. Particle sampling conventions have been established, expressed as curves describing "penetration" to the region of interest in terms of the particle aerodynamic diameter. The inhalable, thoracic, traqueo-bronchial and respirable fractions have been estimated according to the International Standard ISO 7708:1995. This study presents the analysis of aerosol size distributions and its deposition in the human respiratory tract according to ISO 7708. The influence of ambient conditions in an urban area affected by heat waves and wildfires in the summer months has been analyzed. A laser spectrometer PCASP-X was used to characterize the aerosol size distributions. This device registers particle sizes between 0.1 and 10 microns in 31 channels. The spectrometer was installed in the city of León (Spain), between June and September 2012, and 24 measurements were carried out daily to determine the size of the ambient particles in the urban area. The measurements were averaged over 15-minute intervals. A weather station was installed at 3 m above the ground to register automatically data on precipitation, pressure, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction. The refractive index of the particles was estimated for each value of relative humidity, as the relative humidity of the ambient atmosphere affects the size and the complex refractive index of aerosols. Afterwards, raw size bins were corrected from the estimated refractive indices using a program based on Mie Theory. The regional government provided data on the exact location of summer wildfires in the province of Leon, as well as data on the land area affected. A persistent and intense thermal inversion of subsidence caused an intense pollution episode in the city during the main wildfire, which broke out at a distance of about 60 km from the sampling point. Furthermore, the

  20. Electrokinetic deposition of waterborne, particlate FeO(OH) and MnO2 on stainless steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.-P.

    1977-01-01

    The study forms part of a programme of research into corrosion product behaviour in progress at Studsvik Energiteknik AB. Attention is in this instance focused on the incluence of electrokinetic factors upon the deposition of particulate corrosion products. The work has involved the development of experimental apparatus and techniques and investigation of the deposition characteristics of FeO(OH) and MnO 2 at temperatures below 100 deg C. The experimental results indicate that the deposition rate of the compounds under review depends mainly upon the zeta potential (zeta) of particles and of the test section wall. The deposition rate attains a maximum when the zeta potential is at a minimum or zero. Deposition occurs when |zeta|< approximately 40 m. Outside this interval deposition is not observed. Furthermore, the deposition rate maximum depends upon the rate of change of pH both as regards its magnitude and its position on the pH scale. This dependence can be accounted for in terms of a general drain of material from the loop as deposition proceeds and a difference in zeta potential between particles and the wall surface of the test section. (author)

  1. Model for deposition and long-term disposition of 134Cs-labeled fused aluminosilicate particles inhaled by guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    When considering which laboratory animal species to use in inhalation studies, it is important to evaluate the similarities and differences in deposition and fate of the inhaled materials in various laboratory animals compared with humans. Beagle dogs have deposition and clearance patterns of inhaled particles similar to humans. However, some studies require smaller laboratory animals to be cost effective or to allow an adequate number of animals to address the scientific questions. This study evaluated the deposition and clearance of a relatively insoluble aerosol inhaled by guinea pigs. The test aerosol was monodisperse 134 Cs-labeled fused aluminosilicate particles inhaled during 75 minute inhalation exposure. The guinea pigs had deposition similar to rats but respiratory tract retention and clearance patterns were similar to dogs and humans. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  2. On the spatial coordinate measurement of two identical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el; Schuss, Zeev

    2016-04-01

    Theoretically, the coordinate measurement of two identical particles at a point by two narrowly separated narrow detectors, is interpreted in the limit of shrinking width and separation, as the detection of two particles by a single narrow detector. Ordinarily, the ratio between probabilities of point measurements is independent of the width of the narrow detectors. We show here that not only this is not the case, but that in some scenarios the results depend on the way the dimensions shrink to zero. The ratio between the width and the separation determines the detection result. In particular, it is shown that the bunching parameter of bosons is not a well-defined physical property. Moreover, it may suggests that there is a difficulty in quantum measurement theory in the interpretation of coordinate measurement of two particles.

  3. The erosion performance of particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings produced by co-deposition cold gas dynamic spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on the erosion performance of three particle reinforced metal matrix composite coatings, co-deposited with an aluminium binder via cold-gas dynamic spraying. The deposition of ceramic particles is difficult to achieve with typical cold spray techniques due to the absence of particle deformation. This issue has been overcome in the present study by simultaneously spraying the reinforcing particles with a ductile metallic binder which has led to an increased level of ceramic/cermet particles deposited on the substrate with thick (>400 μm) coatings produced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the erosion performance of the co-deposited coatings within a slurry environment. The study also incorporated standard metallographic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of reinforcing particles within the aluminium matrix. All coatings exhibited poorer erosion performance than the uncoated material, both in terms of volume loss and mass loss. The Al2O3 reinforced coating sustained the greatest amount of damage following exposure to the slurry and recorded the greatest volume loss (approx. 2.8 mm3) out of all of the examined coatings. Despite the poor erosion performance, the WC-CoCr reinforced coating demonstrated a considerable hardness increase over the as-received AA5083 (approx. 400%) and also exhibited the smallest free space length between adjacent particles. The findings of this study reveal that the removal of the AA5083 matrix by the impinging silicon carbide particles acts as the primary wear mechanism leading to the degradation of the coating. Analysis of the wear scar has demonstrated that the damage to the soft matrix alloy takes the form of ploughing and scoring which subsequently exposes carbide/oxide particles to the impinging slurry.

  4. Local energy deposited for alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-affan, I.A.M.; Haque, A.K.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to calculate the local energy deposited by alpha particles emitted from radon daughters deposited on the mucus surface in the lung airways. For the particular case of 218 Po (Ra A) and 214 Bi (Ra C'), microdose spectra have been evaluated in test spheres of 1 μm diameter which were taken to lie within airways of diameters 18 000, 3500 and 600 μm. In each case, the contributions of the near and far wall were computed separately. The average microdosimetric parameters y-bar F and y-bar D have also been calculated. For the two smaller airways, y-bar F and y-bar D values were found to be about 110 and 135 keV μm -1 for 218 Po and about 87 and 107 keV μm -1 for 214 Bi respectively. The corresponding values were about 10% higher for the largest airway. (author)

  5. Novel method for noncontact measurement of particle temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A nonintrusive temperature measurement technique is developed for noncontact measurement of the temperature of single particles with <200 µm dia. It is based on the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum resulting from irradiation of a certain phosphor mixture with UV light by applying

  6. Novel method for noncontact measurement of particle temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Wagenaar, B.M.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    A nonintrusive temperature measurement technique is developed for noncontact measurement of the temperature of single particles with < 200 m dia. It is based on the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum resulting from irradiation of a certain phosphor mixture with UV light by applying

  7. TiB2/Al2O3 ceramic particle reinforced aluminum fabricated by spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xing; Yang Chengxiao; Guan Leding; Yan Biao

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum matrix ceramic particle reinforced composites (AMCs) is a kind of composite with great importance. Aluminum matrix composite reinforced with TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic particles was successfully in situ synthesized in Al-TiO 2 -B 2 O 3 system in this paper, using spray deposition with hot-press treatment technique. Five groups of composites with different reinforcement volume contents were prepared and the comparisons of porosity, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation and Brinell hardness (BH) between the composites with and without hot-press treating were carried out. The composite with 21.0% reinforcement volume content was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDS). The results revealed the formation and uniform distribution of fine reinforcements in the matrix after hot-press treating, while a new intermetallic phase Al 3 Ti was found besides TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic phase

  8. Charged particle detectors based on high quality amorphous silicon deposited with hydrogen or helium dilution of silane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Wan-Shick; Drewery, J.S.; Jing, Tao; Lee, Hyoung-Koo; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Mireshghi, Ali; Kitsuno, Yu

    1994-11-01

    Electrical transport properties of the authors PECVD a-Si:H material has been improved by using hydrogen and/or helium dilution of silane and lower substrate temperature for deposition. For hydrogen-diluted material they have measured electron and hole mobilities ∼ 4 times larger, and μτ values 2-3 times higher than for their standard a-Si:H. The density of ionized dangling bonds (N D *) also showed a factor of 5-10 improvement. Due to its higher conductivity, the improved a- Si:H material is more suitable than conventional a-Si:H for TFT applications. However, it is difficult to make thick layers by H-dilution because of high internal stress. On the other hand, thick detectors can be made at a faster rate and lower stress by low temperature deposition with He-dilution and subsequent annealing. The internal stress, which causes substrate bending and delamination, was reduced by a factor of 4 to ∼90 MPa, while the electronic quality was kept as good as that of the standard material. By this technique 35 μm-thick n-i-p diodes were made without significant substrate bending, and the electronic properties, such as electron mobility and ionized dangling bond density, were suitable for detecting minimum ionizing particles

  9. Charged particle detectors based on high quality amorphous silicon deposited with hydrogen or helium dilution of silane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, W.S.; Drewery, J.S.; Jing, T.; Lee, H.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kitsuno, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical transport properties of the PECVD a-Si:H material has been improved by using hydrogen and/or helium dilution of silane and lower substrate temperature for deposition. For hydrogen-diluted material the authors measured electron and hole mobilities ∼4 times larger, and microτ values 2--3 times higher than for the standard a-Si:H. The density of ionized dangling bonds (N D *) also showed a factor of 5--10 improvement. Due to its higher conductivity, the improved a-Si:H material is more suitable than conventional a-Si:H for TFT applications. However, it is difficult to make thick layers by H-dilution because of high internal stress. On the other hand, thick detectors can be made at a faster rate and lower stress by low temperature deposition with He-dilution and subsequent annealing. The internal stress, which causes substrate bending and delamination, was reduced by a factor of 4 to ∼90 MPa, while the electronic quality was kept as good as that of the standard material. By this technique 35 microm-thick n-i-p diodes were made without significant substrate bending, and the electronic properties, such as electron mobility and ionized dangling bond density, were suitable for detecting minimum ionizing particles

  10. Measurement and modeling the coefficient of restitution of char particles under simulated entrained flow gasifier conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, LaTosha M.

    Inefficiencies in plant operations due to carbon loss in flyash, necessitate control of ash deposition and the handling of the slag disposal. Excessive char/ash deposition in convective coolers causes reduction in the heat transfer, both in the radiative (slagging) section and in the low-temperature convective (fouling) heating section. This can lead to unplanned shutdowns and result in an increased cost of electricity generation. CFD models for entrained flow gasification have used the average bulk coal composition to simulate slagging and ash deposition with a narrow particle size distribution (PSD). However, the variations in mineral (inorganic) and macerals (organic) components in coal have led to particles with a variation in their inorganic and organic composition after grinding as governed by their Particle Size Distribution (PSD) and mineral liberation kinetics. As a result, each particle in a PSD of coal exhibits differences in its conversion, particle trajectory within the gasifier, fragmentation, swelling, and slagging probability depending on the gasifier conditions (such as the temperature, coal to oxygen ratio, and swirling capacity of the coal injector). Given the heterogeneous behavior of char particles within a gasifier, the main objective of this work was to determine boundary conditions of char particle adhering and/or rebounding from the refractory wall or a layer of previously adhered particles. In the past, viscosity models based on the influence of ash composition have been used as the method to characterize sticking. It is well documented that carbon contributes to the non-wettability of particles. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that viscosity models would not be adequate to accurately predict the adhesion behavior of char. Certain particle wall impact models have incorporated surface tension which can account the contributions of the carbon content to the adhesive properties of a char particle. These particle wall impact models also

  11. Monte Carlo study of radial energy deposition from primary and secondary particles for narrow and large proton beamlet source models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, Christopher R; Titt, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    In spot-scanning intensity-modulated proton therapy, numerous unmodulated proton beam spots are delivered over a target volume to produce a prescribed dose distribution. To accurately model field size-dependent output factors for beam spots, the energy deposition at positions radial to the central axis of the beam must be characterized. In this study, we determined the difference in the central axis dose for spot-scanned fields that results from secondary particle doses by investigating energy deposition radial to the proton beam central axis resulting from primary protons and secondary particles for mathematical point source and distributed source models. The largest difference in the central axis dose from secondary particles resulting from the use of a mathematical point source and a distributed source model was approximately 0.43%. Thus, we conclude that the central axis dose for a spot-scanned field is effectively independent of the source model used to calculate the secondary particle dose. (paper)

  12. Pulmonary deposition of aerosolised pentamidine using a new nebuliser: efficiency measurements in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, P.P.; Versari, A.; Gafa, S.I.; Becquemin, M.H.; Barchi, E.; Serafini, D.; Roy, M.; Salvo, D.; Bouchikhi, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the performance of a new nebuliser (Pentasave) by comparison both in vitro and in vivo with a standard nebuliser (Respirgard II). In vitro, deposition of pentamidine labelled with technetium-99m human serum albumin was measured indirectly by capturing inhaled particles on an absolute filter and measuring radioactivity with a gamma camera. The nebulisers were initially assessed with a pentamidine dose of 100 mg in 5 ml al 44 psi and an air flow of 10 l/min for Respirgard II and 16 l/min for Pentasave. Nebuliser output, expressed as the percentage of the initial nebuliser radioactivity captured by the inhalation filter, was 15%±2% (mean±SD) for Respirgard II, and significantly increased to 23%±3% for an initial version and to 33%±2% for the final version of Pentasave. Measurements with a gamma camera in a group of ten patients with human immuno-deficiency virus infection were made in vivo. The results revealed that pulmonary drug distributions are good using both Respirgard II and Pentasave. We measured pulmonary pentamidine deposition of 20.22±4.31 mg using Respirgard II (with 300 mg in 5 ml) and of 16.00±7.18 mg using Pentasave (with 150 mg in 6 ml). These findings show that the therepeutic dose of pentamidine (9 mg) was widely exceeded with both nebulisers. (orig./MG)

  13. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  14. Measurement of charmed particle production in hadronic reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure the production cross-section for charmed particles in hadronic reactions, study their production mechanism, and search for excited charmed hadrons.\\\\ \\\\ Charmed Mesons and Baryons will be measured in $\\pi$ and $p$ interactions on Beryllium between 100 and 200 GeV/c. The trigger will be on an electron from the leptonic decay of one charmed particle by signals from the Cerenkov counter (Ce), the electron trigger calorimeter (eCal), scintillation counters, and proportional wire chambers. The accompanying charmed particle will be measured via its hadronic decay in a two-stage magnetic spectrometer with drift chambers (arms 2, 3a, 3b, 3c), two large-area multicell Cerenkov counters (C2, C3) and a large-area shower counter ($\\gamma$-CAL). The particles which can be measured and identified include $\\gamma, e, \\pi^{\\pm}, \\pi^{0}, K^{\\pm}, p, \\bar{p}$ so that a large number of hadronic decay modes of charmed particles can be studied. \\\\ \\\\ A silicon counter telescope with 5 $\\m...

  15. Particle capture by turbulent recirculation zones measured using long-time Lagrangian particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, Y.W. [Hong Kong Securities Institute, Department of Professional Education and Training, Central (China); Taylor, A.M.K.P. [Imperial College London, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We have measured the trajectories of particles into, and around, the recirculation zone formed in water flowing through a sudden pipe expansion with radius ratio 1:3.7, at Reynolds numbers between 5,960 and 41,700 over a range of particle Stokes number (here defined as St=(T{sub f})/({tau} p), where T{sub f} is an appropriate mean or turbulent timescale of the fluid flow and a particle relaxation time, {tau}{sub p},) between 6.2 and 51 and drift parameter between 0.3 and 2.8. The particles were thus weakly inertial but nevertheless heavy with a diameter about an order of magnitude larger than the Kolmogorov scale. Trajectories of particles, released individually into the flow, were taken in a Lagrangian framework by a three-dimensional particle tracking velocimeter using a single 25 Hz framing rate intensified CCD camera. Trajectories are quantified by the axial distribution of the locations of particle axial velocity component reversal and the probability distributions of trajectory angle and curvature. The effect of increasing the drift parameter was to reduce the tendency for particles to enter the recirculation zone. For centreline release, the proportion of particles entering the recirculation zone and acquiring a negative velocity decreased from about 80% to none and from about 66% to none, respectively, as the drift parameter increased from 0.3 to 2.8. Almost half of the particles experienced a relatively large change of direction corresponding to a radius of curvature of their trajectory comparable to, or smaller than, the radius of the downstream pipe. This was due to the interaction between these particles and eddies of this size in the downstream pipe and provides experimental evidence that particles are swept by large eddies into the recirculation zone over 1.0 < Z{sup *} < 2.5, where Z{sup *} is axial distance from the expansion plane normalized by the downstream pipe diameter, which was well upstream of the reattachment point at the wall (Z

  16. Rocket measurements of energetic particles in the midlatitude precipitation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.; Braswell, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of energetic ion and electron properties as a function of altitude in the midlatitude zone of nighttime energetic particle precipitation are reported. The measurements of particle fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions were obtained by a Langmuir probe, six energetic particle spectrometers and an electrostatic analyzer on board a Nike Apache rocket launched near the center of the midlatitude zone during disturbed conditions. It is found that the incident flux was primarily absorbed rather than backscattered, and consists of mainly energetic hydrogen together with some helium and a small energetic electron component. Observed differential energy spectra of protons having an exponential energy spectrum, and pitch angle distributions at various altitudes indicate that the energetic particle flux decreases rapidly for pitch angles less than 70 deg. An energetic particle energy flux of 0.002 ergs/sq cm per sec is calculated which indicates the significance of energetic particles as a primary nighttime ionization source for altitudes between 120 and 200 km in the midlatitude precipitation zone.

  17. Decay Time Measurement for Different Energy Depositions of Plastic Scintillator Fabricated by High Temperature Polymerization Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Yong-Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Plastic scintillators are based on organic fluorite. They have many advantages such as fast rise and decay time, high optical transmission, ease of manufacturing, low cost, and large available size. For these reasons they are widely used for particle identification. Also, protection of people against a variety of threats (such as nuclear, radiological, and explosive) represents a true challenge along with the continuing development of science and technology. The plastic scintillator is widely used in various devise, which serves for nuclear, photonics, quantum, and high-energy physics. The plastic scintillator is probably the most widely used organic detector, and polystyrene is one of the most widely used materials in the making of the plastic scintillator detector. Thus, a styrene monomer as a solvent was used to fabricate the plastic scintillator by using high temperature polymerization reaction, and then the emission wavelength and the decay times for different energy depositions were measured by using the fabricated plastic scintillator. A plastic scintillator was fabricated to measure decay time for different energy depositions using the high temperature polymerization. Emission wavelength was measured of 426.05 nm to confirm a scintillator property using the spectrophotometer. Four gamma-ray sources (Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, and Ba-133) were used to evaluate effect for decay time of different energy depositions. The average decay time of the fabricated plastic scintillator was measured to approximately 4.72 ns slightly higher more than commercial plastic scintillator. In future, light output and linearity will be measured to evaluate other property compared with the commercial scintillator.

  18. Decay Time Measurement for Different Energy Depositions of Plastic Scintillator Fabricated by High Temperature Polymerization Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Yong-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Plastic scintillators are based on organic fluorite. They have many advantages such as fast rise and decay time, high optical transmission, ease of manufacturing, low cost, and large available size. For these reasons they are widely used for particle identification. Also, protection of people against a variety of threats (such as nuclear, radiological, and explosive) represents a true challenge along with the continuing development of science and technology. The plastic scintillator is widely used in various devise, which serves for nuclear, photonics, quantum, and high-energy physics. The plastic scintillator is probably the most widely used organic detector, and polystyrene is one of the most widely used materials in the making of the plastic scintillator detector. Thus, a styrene monomer as a solvent was used to fabricate the plastic scintillator by using high temperature polymerization reaction, and then the emission wavelength and the decay times for different energy depositions were measured by using the fabricated plastic scintillator. A plastic scintillator was fabricated to measure decay time for different energy depositions using the high temperature polymerization. Emission wavelength was measured of 426.05 nm to confirm a scintillator property using the spectrophotometer. Four gamma-ray sources (Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, and Ba-133) were used to evaluate effect for decay time of different energy depositions. The average decay time of the fabricated plastic scintillator was measured to approximately 4.72 ns slightly higher more than commercial plastic scintillator. In future, light output and linearity will be measured to evaluate other property compared with the commercial scintillator

  19. Laboratory Measurements of Single-Particle Polarimetric Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Penttila, A.; Maconi, G.; Kassamakov, I.; Helander, P.; Puranen, T.; Salmi, A.; Hæggström, E.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring scattering properties of different targets is important for material characterization, remote sensing applications, and for verifying theoretical results. Furthermore, there are usually simplifications made when we model targets and compute the scattering properties, e.g., ideal shape or constant optical parameters throughout the target material. Experimental studies help in understanding the link between the observed properties and computed results. Experimentally derived Mueller matrices of studied particles can be used as input for larger-scale scattering simulations, e.g., radiative transfer computations. This method allows to bypass the problem of using an idealized model for single-particle optical properties. While existing approaches offer ensemble- and orientation-averaged particle properties, our aim is to measure individual particles with controlled or known orientation. With the newly developed scatterometer, we aim to offer novel possibility to measure single, small (down to μm-scale) targets and their polarimetric spectra. This work presents an experimental setup that measures light scattered by a fixed small particle with dimensions ranging between micrometer and millimeter sizes. The goal of our setup is nondestructive characterization of such particles by measuring light of multiple wavelengths scattered in 360° in a horizontal plane by an ultrasonically levitating sample, whilst simultaneously controlling its 3D position and orientation. We describe the principles and design of our instrument and its calibration. We also present example measurements of real samples. This study was conducted under the support from the European Research Council, in the frame of the Advanced Grant project No. 320773 `Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media' (SAEMPL).

  20. Deposition rates of atmospheric particulates determined from 210Pb measurements in soils and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likuku, A. S.; Branford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Deposition rates of atmospheric particles were determined using previously published 210P b data in soils and air. The dry deposition velocities for moorland and woodland soils were 2.2 ± 1.8 and 9 ± 2 mm · s - 1 , respectively. The 210P b concentration in rain was calculated to be 94 ± 10 mBq · L - 1. The large (∼ 4 times) deposition velocities in woodland relative to moorland soils is an indication of the degree of accumulation of particles, and most possibly contaminants within woodland soils, which is of practical importance in the mitigation of pollutant concentrations in urban areas by planting trees. (authors)

  1. Improving ATLAS Jet Measurements and Searches with Particle Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ramette, Joshua; Doglioni, Caterina; Young, Christopher; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    With the LHC running at record collision energies, the ATLAS detector may reveal new physics including particles decaying hadronically into jets. Measurements involving jets are often limited by the jet energy scale uncertainty associated with the calibration of the detector response to jets in the hadronic calorimeters. In this article we examine the jet energy response dependence upon the fraction of jet energy contained in charged versus neutral particles by running the multijet balance with particle flow jets on a series of charged fraction cuts using both Monte Carlo and data jet samples. We discuss how the results can contribute to a reduction of the jet energy uncertainty for high energy jets where the uncertainty is estimated with the single particle propagation technique.

  2. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. An inverse modeling procedure to determine particle growth and nucleation rates from measured aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Verheggen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical nucleation theory is unable to explain the ubiquity of nucleation events observed in the atmosphere. This shows a need for an empirical determination of the nucleation rate. Here we present a novel inverse modeling procedure to determine particle nucleation and growth rates based on consecutive measurements of the aerosol size distribution. The particle growth rate is determined by regression analysis of the measured change in the aerosol size distribution over time, taking into account the effects of processes such as coagulation, deposition and/or dilution. This allows the growth rate to be determined with a higher time-resolution than can be deduced from inspecting contour plots ('banana-plots''. Knowing the growth rate as a function of time enables the evaluation of the time of nucleation of measured particles of a certain size. The nucleation rate is then obtained by integrating the particle losses from time of measurement to time of nucleation. The regression analysis can also be used to determine or verify the optimum value of other parameters of interest, such as the wall loss or coagulation rate constants. As an example, the method is applied to smog chamber measurements. This program offers a powerful interpretive tool to study empirical aerosol population dynamics in general, and nucleation and growth in particular.

  4. Deposition of hematite particles on alumina seal faceplates of nuclear reactor coolant pumps: Laboratory experiments and industrial feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefèvre Grégory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR, the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspected to be the cause. As better understanding of the adhesion mechanism is the key factor in the prevention of fouling and particle removal, an experimental study was carried out using a laboratory set-up. With model materials, hematite and sintered alumina, the adhesion rate and surface potentials of the interacting solids were measured under different chemical conditions (solution pH and composition in analogy with the PWR ones. The obtained results were in good agreement with the DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey- Overbeek theory and used as such to interpret this industrial phenomenon.

  5. Impedance technique for measuring dielectrophoretic collection of microbiological particles

    CERN Document Server

    Allsopp, D W E; Brown, A P; Betts, W B

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of the impedance change resulting from the collection of microbiological particles at coplanar electrodes is shown to be an effective and potentially quantitative method of detecting dielectrophoresis. Strong correlations between the frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic collection characteristics measured by impedance change and those observed using an established counting method based on image analysis have been obtained for Escherichia coli. In addition it is shown that the new electrical method can be used to sense dielectrophoretic collection of 19 nm diameter latex beads, particles too small to be resolved by conventional optical detection systems. (author)

  6. Particle deposition and resuspension in gas-cooled reactors—Activity overview of the two European research projects THINS and ARCHER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T., E-mail: t.barth@hzdr.de [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Lecrivain, G. [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Jayaraju, S.T. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hampel, U. [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A summary on particle deposition and resuspension experiments is provided. • Similarities between single and multilayer particle deposits are found. • Numerical models for simulation of particle deposits are successfully developed. - Abstract: The deposition and resuspension behaviour of radio-contaminated aerosol particles is a key issue for the safety assessment of depressurization accidents of gas-cooled high temperature reactors. Within the framework of two European research projects, namely Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS) and Advanced High-Temperature Reactors for Cogeneration of Heat and Electricity R&D (ARCHER), a series of investigations was performed to investigate the transport, the deposition and the resuspension of aerosol particles in turbulent flows. The experimental and numerical tests can be subdivided into four different parts: (1) Monolayer particle deposition, (2) Monolayer particle resuspension, (3) Multilayer particle deposition and (4) Multilayer particle resuspension. The experimental results provide a new insight into the formation and removal of aerosol particle deposits in turbulent flows and are used for the development and validation of numerical procedures in gas-cooled reactors. Good agreement was found between the numerical and the experimental results.

  7. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  8. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Measurements of Suspension-Feeding Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Clos, K.; Jones, I. T.; Carrier, T. J.; Jumars, P. A.

    2016-02-01

    Active suspension feeders, such as bivalves and tunicates, connect benthic and pelagic ecosystems by packaging suspended matter into larger fecal and pseudofecal particles, greatly enhancing the flux of carbon and nutrients from the water column to the benthos. The volume of water processed by a population of suspension feeders is commonly estimated by scaling up results from experiments that measure the clearance rate (the volume of water cleared of particles per time) of one or a few individual suspension feeders. Clearance rates vary, however, between species, within a species, and over time for a single individual; and the velocity fields produced by suspension feeders are likely to interact in complex ways. We measured the water velocity fields produced by two species of bivalve, Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). We used these measurements to calculate flow rates and Reynolds numbers of inhalant and exhalant siphons. We also observed strong entrainment of water by M. arenaria's exhalant siphon jet that may help to explain how the clam avoids depleting the water around it of particles and oxygen as it feeds. We are using these measurements to inform computational fluid mechanics (CFD) models of suspension feeding, allowing us to examine the interactions of flow fields produced by multiple suspension feeders and other effects not quantified by clearance-rate measurements.

  9. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa; Durant, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16–17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m−3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between  ∼  2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20–0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25–50 Tg), plume height (8.5–25 km), mass fraction of fine ( discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  10. Can We Trust Real Time Measurements of Lung Deposited Surface Area Concentrations in Dust from Powder Nanomaterials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Marcus; Witschger, Olivier; Bau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    A comparison between various methods for real-time measurements of lung deposited surface area (LDSA) using spherical particles and powder dust with specific surface area ranging from 0.03 to 112 m2 g-1 was conducted. LDSA concentrations measured directly using Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor...... gravimetrical filter measurements and specific surface areas. Measurement of LDSA showed very good correlation in measurements of spherical particles (R2 > 0.97, Ratio 1.0 to 1.04). High surface area nanomaterial powders showed a fairly reliable correlation between NSAM and Aerotrak (R2 0...... present. We conclude that there is currently insufficient reliability and comparability between methods in the measurement of LDSA concentrations. Further development is required to enable use of LDSA for reliable dose metric and regulatory enforcement of exposure....

  11. Measurement of energy deposition distributions produced in cylindrical geometry by irradiation with 15 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandan, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    Cellular survival experiments have shown that the biological damage induced by radiation depends on the density of energy deposition along the trajectory of the ionizing particle. The quantity L is defined to measure the density of energy transfer along a charged particle's trajectory. It is equal to sigma/l, where sigma is the energy transferred to a medium and l is the path length along which the transfer takes place. L is the stochastic quantity whose mean value is the unrestricted linear energy transfer, L/sub infinity/. Measurements of the distribution of L in a thin medium by secondary charged particles from fast neutron irradiation were undertaken. A counter operating under time coincidence between two coaxial cylindrical detectors was designed and built for this purpose. Secondary charged particles enter a gas proportional counter and deposit some energy sigma. Those particles traversing the chamber along a radial trajectory strike a CsI scintillator. A coincidence between both detectors' signals selects a known path length for these events, namely the radius of the cavity. Measurements of L distributions for l = 1 μm in tissue were obtained for 3 and 15 MeV neutron irradiation of a tissue-equivalent target wall and for 15 MeV neutron irradiation of a graphite wall. Photon events were corrected for by measurements with a Pb target wall and 15 MeV neutron irradiation as well as exposure to a pure photon field. The measured TE wall distributions with 15 MeV neutron bombardment show contributions from protons, α-particles, 9 Be and 12 C recoils. The last three comprise the L distribution for irradiation of the graphite wall. The proton component of the measured L distributions at 3 and 15 MeV was compared to calculated LET distributions

  12. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  13. Laboratory measurements and model sensitivity studies of dust deposition ice nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kulkarni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ice nucleating properties of mineral dust particles to understand the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties to two different representations of contact angle in the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT. These contact angle representations are based on two sets of laboratory deposition ice nucleation measurements: Arizona Test Dust (ATD particles of 100, 300 and 500 nm sizes were tested at three different temperatures (−25, −30 and −35 °C, and 400 nm ATD and kaolinite dust species were tested at two different temperatures (−30 and −35 °C. These measurements were used to derive the onset relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice required to activate 1% of dust particles as ice nuclei, from which the onset single contact angles were then calculated based on CNT. For the probability density function (PDF representation, parameters of the log-normal contact angle distribution were determined by fitting CNT-predicted activated fraction to the measurements at different RHice. Results show that onset single contact angles vary from ~18 to 24 degrees, while the PDF parameters are sensitive to the measurement conditions (i.e. temperature and dust size. Cloud modeling simulations were performed to understand the sensitivity of cloud properties (i.e. ice number concentration, ice water content, and cloud initiation times to the representation of contact angle and PDF distribution parameters. The model simulations show that cloud properties are sensitive to onset single contact angles and PDF distribution parameters. The comparison of our experimental results with other studies shows that under similar measurement conditions the onset single contact angles are consistent within ±2.0 degrees, while our derived PDF parameters have larger discrepancies.

  14. Environmental factors controlling the seasonal variability in particle sizedistribution of modern Saharan dust deposited off Cape Blanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friese, C.A.; van der Does, M.; Merkel, U.; Iversen, M.H.; Fischer, G.; Stuut, J-B W.

    2016-01-01

    The particle sizes of Saharan dust in marine sediment core records have been used frequently as a proxyfor trade-wind speed. However, there are still large uncertainties with respect to the seasonality of theparticle sizes of deposited Saharan dust off northwestern Africa and the factors influencing

  15. Theoretical calculations of the deposition of non-spherical particles in the upper airways of the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, Robert; Hofmann, Werner

    2009-01-01

    In the contribution presented here a computer model for the description of non-spherical particle deposition in the upper human respiratory tract is introduced. The theoretical approach is mainly based on the principle of the aerodynamic diameter, whose calculation was carried out according to most current scientific findings. With the help of this parameter deposition patterns for various particle categories (fibers and oblate disks) and breathing conditions (sitting, light-work and hard-work breathing) were simulated. Concerning cylindrical fibers with a diameter ≥ 1 μm, an increase of the aspect ratio β (i.e. particle length/particle diameter) causes a significant enhancement of deposition in the uppermost regions of the respiratory tract (oropharynx, larynx, trachea). This effect is additionally intensified by an increase of the inhalative flow. Regarding the oblate disks with a diameter ≥ 1 μm, any decrease of the aspect ratio leads to an enhancement of deposition in the deeper lung regions, representing an effect contrary to that observed for fibers. An increase of the inhalative flow only induces a limited decrease of the effect. (orig.)

  16. Deposition, translocation and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahlum, D.D.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  17. Deposition, translocation, and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahlum, D.D.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO 2 --UO 2 fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  18. Optical sensor technology for simultaneous measurement of particle speed and concentration of micro sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper; Han, Anpan; Kristensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Experimental characterization of a sensor technology that can measure particle speed and concentration simultaneously in liquids and gases is presented here. The basic sensor principle is based on an optical element that shapes a light beam into well-defined fringes. The technology can be described...

  19. Measurements of particle dynamics in slow, dense granular Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueth, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental measurements of particle dynamics on the lower surface of a three-dimensional (3D) Couette cell containing monodisperse spheres are reported. The average radial density and velocity profiles are similar to those previously measured within the bulk and on the lower surface of the 3D cell filled with mustard seeds. Observations of the evolution of particle velocities over time reveal distinct motion events, intervals where previously stationary particles move for a short duration before jamming again. The cross correlation between the velocities of two particles at a given distance r from the moving wall reveals a characteristic length scale over which the particles are correlated. The autocorrelation of a single particle’s velocity reveals a characteristic time scale τ, which decreases with increasing distance from the inner moving wall. This may be attributed to the increasing rarity at which the discrete motion events occur and the reduced duration of those events at large r. The relationship between the rms azimuthal velocity fluctuations, δvθ(r), and average shear rate, γ˙(r), was found to be δvθ∝γ˙α with α=0.52±0.04. These observations are compared with other recent experiments and with the modified hydrodynamic model recently introduced by Bocquet et al.

  20. Getting the measure of particles in combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Measuring particles in combustion gases has never been entirely simple: optical systems do not measure particle mass directly and with sampling systems you have to wait for the results. A novel sensor that can give reliable, real-time information about the amount and size of particles in conventional and advanced combustion systems has now been developed by Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California. The work was funded by the Energy Technology Centre in Morgantown, West Virginia, of the United States Department of Energy. The heart of the sensor is a tapered element, oscillating microbalance (TEOM). Made of glass, it looks a bit like a hollow champagne glass. Where the base of the glass would be, a filter is fitted, and the mouth of the glass is fitted firmly to a base plate. This system was developed in support of the DOE's hot gas cleanup program, and operates at temperatures as high as 970/sup 0/C and pressures up to 10 bar in combustion chambers where is samples particles produced during combustion. Sandia's engineers believe the device has wide applications, for anywhere where information about combustion effluents or airborne particles is needed, from hospitals and clean rooms to foundries and kilns.

  1. Influence of the particle morphology on the Cold Gas Spray deposition behaviour of titanium on aluminum light alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinca, N.; Rebled, J.M.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of the particle–substrate and particle–particle interfaces in the cold spray process. ► Use of irregular feedstock particles whereas normally FIB studies have been undergone for spherical particles. ► Deep Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of the interfaces and within the particle. -- Abstract: The present work evaluates the deposition behaviour of irregular titanium powder particles impinged by Cold Gas Spraying onto an aluminium 7075-T6 alloy substrate. The influence of their irregular shape on the bonding phenomena, in particle–substrate and particle–particle interfaces are discussed in view of Transmission Electron Microscopy examinations of a Focused Ion Beam lift-out prepared sample. Key aspects will be the jetting-out, the occurrence of oxide layers and grain size refinement. Different structural morphologies could be featured; at the particle–substrate interface, both the aluminium alloy and the titanium side exhibit recrystallization. Titanium particles in intimate contact in small agglomerates during deposition, on the other hand, show grain refinement at their interfaces whereas the original structure is maintained outside those boundaries

  2. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic coatings fabricated by successive Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of micro-/nano-sized particles and surface silanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Szu; Yang, Yu-Min; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2007-11-21

    The present study demonstrates the creation of a stable, superhydrophobic surface by coupling of successive Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) depositions of micro- and nano-sized (1.5 µm/50 nm, 1.0 µm/50 nm, and 0.5 µm/50 nm) silica particles on a glass substrate with the formation of a self-assembled monolayer of dodecyltrichlorosilane on the surface of the particulate film. Particulate films, in which one layer of 50 nm particles was deposited over one to five sublayers of larger micro-sized particles, with hierarchical surface roughness and superhydrophobicity, were successfully fabricated. Furthermore, the present 'two-scale' (micro- and nano-sized particles) approach is superior to the previous 'one-scale' (micro-sized particles) approach in that both higher advancing contact angle and lower contact angle hysteresis can be realized. Experimental results revealed that the superhydrophobicity exhibited by as-fabricated particulate films with different sublayer particle diameters increases in the order of 0.5 µm>1.0 µm>1.5 µm. However, no clear trend between sublayer number and surface superhydrophobicity could be discerned. An explanation of superhydrophobicity based on the surface roughness introduced by two-scale particles is also proposed.

  3. Comparison of Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particle Data with Modelled Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentration and Deposition and Air Mass Sources in Northern Europe, 1850–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Ruppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP are a well-defined fraction of black carbon (BC, produced only by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Their past concentrations have been studied using environmental archives, but, additionally, historical trends of BC concentration and deposition can be estimated by modelling. These models are based on BC emission inventories, but actual measurements of BC concentration and deposition play an essential role in their evaluation and validation. We use the chemistry transport model OsloCTM2 to model historical time series of BC concentration and deposition from energy and industrial sources and compare these to sedimentary measurements of SCPs obtained from lake sediments in Northern Europe from 1850 to 2010. To determine the origin of SCPs we generated back trajectories of air masses to the study sites. Generally, trends of SCP deposition and modelled results agree reasonably well, showing rapidly increasing values from 1950, to a peak in 1980, and a decrease towards the present. Empirical SCP data show differences in deposition magnitude between the sites that are not captured by the model but which may be explained by different air mass transport patterns. The results highlight the need for numerous observational records to reliably validate model results.

  4. Study and characterization of an integrated circuit-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor for the detection of particles and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despeisse, M.

    2006-03-01

    Next generation experiments at the European laboratory of particle physics (CERN) require particle detector alternatives to actual silicon detectors. This thesis presents a novel detector technology, which is based on the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor on top of an integrated circuit. Performance and limitations of this technology have been assessed for the first time in this thesis in the context of particle detectors. Specific integrated circuits have been designed and the detector segmentation, the interface sensor-chip and the sensor leakage current have been studied in details. The signal induced by the track of an ionizing particle in the sensor has been characterized and results on the signal speed, amplitude and on the sensor resistance to radiation are presented. The results are promising regarding the use of this novel technology for radiation detection, though limitations have been shown for particle physics application. (author)

  5. Deposit Shedding in Biomass-fired Boilers: Shear Adhesion Strength Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared...... on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, deposit composition, sintering duration, and steel type...... on the adhesion strength....

  6. Influence of anionic stabilization of alumina particles in 2-propanol medium on the electrophoretic deposition and mechanical properties of deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdlík, D.; Bartoníčková, E.; Hadraba, Hynek; Cihlář, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 14 (2014), s. 3365-3371 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Anionic stabilization * Electric conductivity * Alumina * Electrophoretic deposition Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014

  7. Individual particles of cryoconite deposited on the mountain glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau: Insights into chemical composition and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Yajun; Li, Yang; Huang, Jie; Qin, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Cryoconite deposited on mountain glacier surfaces is significant for understanding regional atmospheric environments, which could influence the albedo and energy balance of the glacier basins, and maintain the glacial microbiology system. Field observations were conducted on the glaciers of western China, including Laohugou Glacier No.12 (LHG), Tanggula Dongkemadi Glacier (TGL), Zhadang Glacier (ZD), and Baishui Glacier No.1 in the Yulong Mountains (YL), as well as Urumqi Glacier No.1 in the Tianshan Mountains (TS) for comparison with locations in the Tibetan Plateau, in addition to laboratory TEM-EDX analysis of the individual cryoconite particles filtered on lacey carbon (LC) and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids. This work provided information on the morphology and chemical composition, as well as a unique record of the particle's physical state, of cryoconite deposition on the Tibetan Plateau. The result showed that there is a large difference in the cryoconite particle composition between various locations on the Tibetan Plateau. In total, mineral dust particles were dominant (>50%) in the cryoconite at all locations. However, more anthropogenic particles (e.g., black carbon (BC) and fly ash) were found in YL (38%) and ZD (22%) in the Ca-C grids in the southern locations. In TGL, many NaCl and MCS particles (>10%), as well as few BC and biological particles (<5%), were found in cryoconite in addition to mineral dust. In TS, the cryoconite is composed primarily of mineral dust, as well as BC (<5%). Compared with other sites, the LHG cryoconite shows a more complex composition of atmospheric deposition with sufficient NaCl, BC, fly ash and biological particles (6% in LC grid). The higher ratio of anthropogenic particles in the southern Tibetan Plateau is likely caused by atmospheric pollutant transport from the south Asia to the Tibetan Plateau. Cryoconite in the northern locations (e.g., TGL, LHG, and TS) with higher dust and salt particle ratio are

  8. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, J.G.; Bell, K.F.; Byrne, M.A.; Fogh, C.L.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Vollmair, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The deposition to human body surfaces of potentially hazardous aerosol has been investigated through tracer experiments. Particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers were released in test rooms and deposited on volunteers. Various sampling techniques to examine the clearance and retention of the aerosol to skin, hair and clothing were investigated, and a protocol for the most efficient procedure was established and validated. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed outdoor deposition velocities to be almost an order of magnitude higher than those recorded indoors. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. Using the experimentally determined parameters, a model was established for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses that could be expected from deposition on skin were of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over several years from contamination on outdoor surfaces. Assuming very high dry contamination levels, as were recorded in some areas of Russia after the Chernobyl accident, it was found that beta doses from skin deposition may amount to several Sievert and thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au)

  9. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, J.G.; Bell, K.F.; Byrne, M.A.; Fogh, C.L.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Vollmair, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The deposition to human body surfaces of potentially hazardous aerosol has been investigated through tracer experiments. Particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers were released in test rooms and deposited on volunteers. Various sampling techniques to examine the clearance and retention of the aerosol to skin, hair and clothing were investigated, and a protocol for the most efficient procedure was established and validated. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed outdoor deposition velocities to be almost an order of magnitude higher than those recorded indoors. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. Using the experimentally determined parameters, a model was established for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses that could be expected from deposition on skin were of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over several years from contamination on outdoor surfaces. Assuming very high dry contamination levels, as were recorded in some areas of Russia after the Chernobyl accident, it was found that beta doses from skin deposition may amount to several Sievert and thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au). 12 tabs., 9 ills., 43 refs.

  10. Intact deposition of cationic vesicles on anionic cellulose fibers: Role of vesicle size, polydispersity, and substrate roughness studied via streaming potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhijeet; Gilson, Laurent; Henrich, Franziska; Dahl, Verena; Kleinen, Jochen; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana; Venzmer, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanism of intact vesicle deposition on solid surfaces is important for effective utilization of vesicles as active ingredient carriers in applications such as drug delivery and fabric softening. In this study, the deposition of large (davg=12μm) and small (davg=0.27μm) cationic vesicles of ditallowethylester dimethylammonium chloride (DEEDMAC) on smooth and rough anionic cellulose fibers is investigated. The deposition process is studied quantitatively using streaming potential measurements and spectrophotometric determination of DEEDMAC concentrations. Natural and regenerated cellulose fibers, namely cotton and viscose, having rough and smooth surfaces, respectively, are used as adsorbents. Equilibrium deposition data and profiles of substrate streaming potential variation with deposition are used to gain insights into the fate of vesicles upon deposition and the deposition mechanism. Intact deposition of DEEDMAC vesicles is ascertained based on streaming potential variation with deposition in the form of characteristic saturating profiles which symbolize particle-like deposition. The same is also confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Substrate roughness is found to considerably influence the deposition mechanism which, in a novel application of electrokinetic methods, is elucidated via streaming potential measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gas and particle velocity measurements in an induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesinski, J.; Gagne, R.; Boulos, M.I.

    1981-08-01

    Laser doppler anemometry was used for the measurements of the plasma and particle velocity profiles in the coil region of an inductively coupled plasma. Results are reported for a 50 mm ID induction torch operated at atmospheric pressure with argon as the plasma gas. The oscillator frequency was 3 MHz and the power in the coil was varied between 4.6 and 10.5 kW. The gas velocity measurements were made using a fine carbon powder as a tracer (dp approx. = 1 μm). Measurements were also made with larger silicon particles (dp = 33 μm and sigma = 13 μm) centrally injected in the plasma under different operating conditions

  12. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (<1 μm) than for colloids and was numerically simulated using a Convective-Diffusion model and experimentally validated. Inclusion of flow field and hydrodynamic retardation effects explained particle deposition profiles better than when only the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) force was considered. This work provides 1) a first comprehensive framework for describing the hydrodynamic impacts of nano-scale surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.

  13. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina

    2009-03-01

    We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].

  14. EFFECT OF CENTRAL FANS AND IN-DUCT FILTERS ON DEPOSITION RATES OF ULTRAFINE AND FINE PARTICLES IN AN OCCUPIED TOWNHOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles are implicated in morbidity and mortality of certain high-risk subpopulations. Exposure to particles occurs mostly indoors, where a main removal mechanism is deposition to surfaces. Deposition can be affected by the use of forced- air circulation through duct...

  15. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, C.L.; Byrne, M.A.; Andersson, K.G.; Bell, K.F.; Roed, J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Vollmair, D.V.; Hotchkiss, S.A.M

    1999-06-01

    In the past, very little thought has been given to the processes and implications of deposition of potentially hazardous aerosol directly onto humans. This state of unpreparedness is unsatisfactory and suitable protocols have been developed and validated for tracer experiments to investigate the deposition and subsequent fate of contaminant aerosol on skin, hair and clothing. The main technique applied involves the release and subsequent deposition on volunteers in test rooms of particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed a dependence on skin deposition velocity of wind speed, indicating that outdoor deposition velocities may be great. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. This technique was also applied to estimate the fraction of aerosol dust transferred to skin by contact with a contaminated surface. The various parameters determined were applied to establish a model for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses from deposition on skin may be expected to be of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over the first year from contamination on outdoor surfaces. According to the calculations, beta doses from skin deposition to individuals in areas of Russia, where dry deposition of Chernobyl fallout led to very high levels of contamination, may have amounted to several Sievert and may thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au)

  16. Atmospheric aerosol in an urban area: Comparison of measurement instruments and methodologies and pulmonary deposition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Luciani, A.; Formignani, M.

    1996-07-01

    In March 1995 a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in the Bologna urban area (Italy) was carried out. A transportable laboratory, set up by ENEA (Italian national Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) Environmental Department (Bologna), was utilized with instruments for measurement of atmospheric aerosol and meteorological parameters. The aim of this campaign was of dual purpose: to characterize aerosol in urban area and to compare different instruments and methodologies of measurements. Mass concentrations measurements, evaluated on a 23-hour period with total filter, PM10 dichotomous sampler and low pressure impactor (LPI Berner), have provided information respectively about total suspended particles, respirable fraction and granulometric parameters of aerosol. Eight meteorologic parameters, number concentration of submicromic fraction of aerosol and mass concentration of micromic fraction have been continually measured. Then, in a daytime period, several number granulometries of atmospheric aerosol have also been estimated by means of diffusion battery system. Results related to different measurement methodologies and granulometric characteristics of aerosol are presented here. Pulmonary deposition of atmospheric aerosol is finally calculated, using granulometries provided by LPI Brener and ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model

  17. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  18. Passivation of pigment-grade TiO2 particles by nanothick atomic layer deposited SiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, David M; Liang Xinhua; Weimer, Alan W; Burton, Beau B; Akhtar, M Kamal

    2008-01-01

    Pigment-grade TiO 2 particles were passivated using nanothick insulating films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Conformal SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers were coated onto anatase and rutile powders in a fluidized bed reactor. SiO 2 films were deposited using tris-dimethylaminosilane (TDMAS) and H 2 O 2 at 500 deg. C. Trimethylaluminum and water were used as precursors for Al 2 O 3 ALD at 177 deg. C. The photocatalytic activity of anatase pigment-grade TiO 2 was decreased by 98% after the deposition of 2 nm SiO 2 films. H 2 SO 4 digest tests were performed to exhibit the pinhole-free nature of the coatings and the TiO 2 digest rate was 40 times faster for uncoated TiO 2 than SiO 2 coated over a 24 h period. Mass spectrometry was used to monitor reaction progress and allowed for dosing time optimization. These results demonstrate that the TDMAS-H 2 O 2 chemistry can deposit high quality, fully dense SiO 2 films on high radius of curvature substrates. Particle ALD is a viable passivation method for pigment-grade TiO 2 particles

  19. Particle fluxes in the Bay of Bengal measurEd. by sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Parthiban, G.

    Particle fluxes were measured between October, 1987 and March, 1988 using six automated time series sediment traps at three locations in the northern, central and southern Bay of Bengal. Particle fluxes varied between 16.8 and 345 mg m/2 day/1...

  20. Measurement of the particle production properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, Alessia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the particle production properties with the ATLAS detector A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7 TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in dependence of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results are compared to predictions of several MC generators. A similar comparison between measurements and MC generator predictions will be shown for the strange meson content in topquark pair events. Studies of particle correlations in high-energy collisions can provide valuable insights into the detailed understanding of the space-time geometry of the hadronization region. The ATLA...

  1. Synthesis of nano-composite surfaces via the co-deposition of metallic salts and nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, J.W.; Tesh, S.J.; Crane, R.A.; Hallam, K.R.; Scott, T.B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Nanofaceted surfaces are prepared by a low current density (<0.1 A cm{sup 2}) electrodeposition method. • Surfaces are formed of nanoparticles anchored to a conductive (carbon) substrate. • Formed surfaces show a high nano-reactivity and surface area. • Demonstration of INP/FeCl{sub 3} nanocomposite for water filtration effectively removing BTEX contamination. -- Abstract: A novel, low energy method for coating different nano-particles via electro-deposition to a recyclable carbon glass supporting structure is demonstrated. In the resulting composite, the nano-material is bound to the substrate surface, thereby removing the potential for causing harmful interactions with the environment. Nano-particles were suspended in a salt solution and deposited at low current densities (<0.1 A cm{sup −2}) producing thin (<100 nm), uniform nano-faceted surfaces. A co-deposition mechanism of nano-particles and cations from the salt solution is proposed and explored. This has been successfully demonstrated for iron, sliver, titanium in the current work. Furthermore, the removal of the surface coatings can be achieved via a reversed current applied over the system, allowing for the recovery of surface bound metal contaminants. The demonstrated applicability of this coating method to different nano-particle types, is useful in many areas within the catalysis and water treatment industries. One such example, is demonstrated, for the treatment of BTEX contamination and show a greatly improved efficiency to current leading remediation agents.

  2. Particle deposition on face-up flat plates in parallel airflow under the combined influences of thermophoresis and electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Handol; Yook, Sejin; Han, Seogyoung

    2012-01-01

    The deposition velocity is used to assess the degree of particulate contamination of wafers or photomasks. A numerical model was developed to predict the deposition velocity under the combined influences of thermophoresis and electrophoresis. The deposition velocity onto a face-up flat plate in parallel airflow was simulated by varying the temperature difference between the plate's surface and ambient air or by changing the strength of the electric field established above the plate. Both attraction and repulsion by thermophoresis or electrophoresis were considered. When the plate's surface was colder than ambient air, the surface of the face-up plate could be at risk of contamination by charged particles even with a repulsive applied electric force. When the temperature of the plate's surface was higher than the ambient temperature, the degree of particulate contamination on the surface of the face-up plate could be remarkably reduced in the presence of an electric field. The effect of repulsive thermophoresis, however, is expected to be reduced for very fine particles of high electric mobility or for micrometer-sized particles with large gravitational settling speed when the charged particles are influenced by an attractive electric force.

  3. Cluster-guided imaging-based CFD analysis of airflow and particle deposition in asthmatic human lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiwoong; Leblanc, Lawrence; Choi, Sanghun; Haghighi, Babak; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study is to assess inter-subject variability in delivery of orally inhaled drug products to small airways in asthmatic lungs. A recent multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA) of computed tomography (CT) lung images in an asthmatic cohort identified four clusters with statistically distinct structural and functional phenotypes associating with unique clinical biomarkers. Thus, we aimed to address inter-subject variability via inter-cluster variability. We selected a representative subject from each of the 4 asthma clusters as well as 1 male and 1 female healthy controls, and performed computational fluid and particle simulations on CT-based airway models of these subjects. The results from one severe and one non-severe asthmatic cluster subjects characterized by segmental airway constriction had increased particle deposition efficiency, as compared with the other two cluster subjects (one non-severe and one severe asthmatics) without airway constriction. Constriction-induced jets impinging on distal bifurcations led to excessive particle deposition. The results emphasize the impact of airway constriction on regional particle deposition rather than disease severity, demonstrating the potential of using cluster membership to tailor drug delivery. NIH Grants U01HL114494 and S10-RR022421, and FDA Grant U01FD005837. XSEDE.

  4. LEP measurements on production, mass, lifetime of beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.

    1993-10-01

    Present knowledge about the individual properties of the different beauty particles is discussed using the results of the LEP experiments. Individual lifetimes for B d 0 and B + are found to be equal within 10% whilst a 15% precision is reached for B s 0 and Λ b . The Λ b lifetime is found to be smaller than τ B + with a 2.7 σ significance. The production rate of each of these particles is measured at the 20% level. Preliminary evidence for Ξ b production has been reported. Finally, the B s 0 meson mass has been measured to be 5373 ± 4 MeV/c 2 . (author) 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Mathematical Model of Transfer and Deposition of Finely Dispersed Particles in a Turbulent Flow of Emulsions and Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, A. G.; Basharov, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of modeling turbulent transfer of finely dispersed particles in liquids has been considered. An approach is used where the transport of particles is represented in the form of a variety of the diffusion process with the coefficient of turbulent transfer to the wall. Differential equations of transfer are written for different cases, and a solution of the cell model is obtained for calculating the efficiency of separation in a channel. Based on the theory of turbulent transfer of particles and of the boundary layer model, an expression has been obtained for calculating the rate of turbulent deposition of finely dispersed particles. The application of this expression in determining the efficiency of physical coagulation of emulsions in different channels and on the surface of chaotic packings is shown.

  6. Nanotune: A Novel Approach to Control the Deposition and Fate of Particles in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, R.; Bianco, C.; Tosco, T.; Tiraferri, A.; Patiño Higuita, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoremediation is an innovative environmental nanotechnology aimed at reclaiming contaminated aquifers. It consists in the subsurface injection of a reactive colloidal suspension for the in-situ treatment of pollutants. The greatest challenges faced by engineers to advance nanoremediation are the effective delivery and the appropriate dosing of the nanoparticles into the subsoil. These are necessary for the correct emplacement of the in situ reactive zone and to minimize the overall cost of the reclamation and the potential secondary risks associated to the uncontrolled migration of the injected particles. In this study, a model assisted strategy, NanoTune, is developed to control the distribution of colloids in porous media. The proposed approach consists in the sequential injection of a stable suspension of reactive nanoparticles and of a destabilizing agent with the aim of creating a reactive zone within a targeted portion of the contaminated aquifer. The controlled and irreversible deposition of the particles is achieved by inducing the mixing of the two fluids in the desired portion of the aquifer. This approach is here exemplified by the delivery of humic acid-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (FeOx), a typical reagent for in situ immobilization of heavy metals. Divalent cations, which are known to cause rapid aggregation of the suspension because of their strong interaction with the humic acid coating, are used as destabilizing agents. The injection strategy is here applied in 1D columns to create a reactive zone for heavy metal removal in the central region of the sandy bed. The software MNMs was used to assess the correct sequence and duration of the injection of the different solutions in the 1D medium. Moreover, the numerical code MNM3D (MNM3D - Micro and Nanoparticle transport Model in 3D geometries) was developed by the authors of this work to support the case-specific design of the injection strategy during field scale applications. The Nano

  7. Laser ablation deposition measurements from silver and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Ellegaard, Ole; Schou, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    The deposition rate for laser ablated metals has been studied in a standard geometry for fluences up to 20 J/cm(2). The rate for silver and nickel is a few percent of a monolayer per pulse at the laser wavelengths 532 nm and 355 nm. The rate for nickel is significantly higher than that for silver...... at 532 nm, whereas the rate for the two metals is similar at 355 nm. This behaviour disagrees with calculations based on the thermal properties at low intensities as well as predictions based on formation of an absorbing plasma at high intensities. The deposition rate falls strongly with increasing...

  8. Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) During AMAZE-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the AMazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. The presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 μm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as 'viable aerosols' or 'fluorescent bioparticles' (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. First data analyses show a pronounced peak of FBAP at diameters around 2-3 μm. In this size range the biogenic particle fraction was

  9. Pulmonary deposition of urban atmospheric aerosol. Assessments of the mass, number and surface of the deposited particles; Deposizione polmonare dell'aerosol atmosferico urbano in termini di massa, numero e superficie delle particelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, A.; Berico, M.; Castellani, C.M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    Pulmonary deposition of urban atmospheric aerosol has been calculated by means of the data derived from March 1995 measurement campaign of urban aerosol. The human respiratory tract model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (n. 66) developed for radiation protection purposes has been used. The number and surface of the deposited particles, as well as the mass, have been also evaluated. [Italian] I dati relativi alla campagna di misure effettuata nel marzo 1995 sono stati rielaborati al fine di valutare la deposizione polmonare dell'aerosol atmosferico in area urbana. Le valutazioni di deposizione nel tratto respiratorio umano sono state condotte mediante l'utilizzo del modello del tratto respiratorio umano presentato per fini radioprotezionistici dalla International Commission on Radiological Protection (n. 66). Sono state effettuate valutazioni di deposizione in massa e in termini di numero e superficie delle particelle.

  10. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  11. A scintillation detector set measuring the charge particle energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Chantal.

    1979-01-01

    The S143 experiment, at CERN in 1976, needed both the measurement and the identification of light nuclei, and especially the separation between 3 H and 3 He, over a large energy range. In the chosen solution, in addition to semiconductor detectors, some scintillation counters are used. The non-linearity of light versus energy of charged particles was complicated by the fact there was two different linear laws according to the charge of particles. To obtain good analogic signals over a dynamic range nearly equal to 200, the signals from several dynodes were used simultaneously. In the experimental setting up, each scintillator was put directly in contact with the corresponding photocathode. In spite of a special shielding, some perturbations due to the magnet placed close by required to bring important corrections to linear laws. Thanks to complementary informations from semiconductor counters, a full separation between charge 1 and charge 2 particles was possible. A suitable identification as guaranted among charge 1 particles, but only kinematic constraints gave the possibility to extract 4 He corresponding to the elastic scattering [fr

  12. Measuring the thickness of austenitic weld deposits on carbon steel walls using a magnetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical background is described of a magnetic method characterized by a marked compensation of the undesirable effect of δ-ferrite content in the deposit, on the accuracy of measuring deposit thickness. A description is also given of the basic types of sensors and the results are summarized of comparing measurements performed on weld deposits of WWER-type reactor pressure vessels. (author). 7 figs., 5 refs

  13. Deposition behavior of polystyrene latex particles on solid surfaces during migration through an artificial fracture in a granite rock sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinju, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Satoru; Kuno, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    The deposition behavior of colloids during transport through heterogeneous media was observed by conducting column experiments to study migration of polystyrene latex particles (diameter=309 nm) through columns packed with artificially fractured granite rock (length=300 and 150 mm). The experiments were conducted under conditions of different ionic strengths and flow rates. The results were similar to those for colloid deposition in columns packed with glass beads reported previously; the colloid breakthrough curves showed three stages, characterized by different rates of change in the concentration of effluent. Colloid deposition on the fracture surfaces was described by considering strong and weak deposition sites. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations indicated the existence of strong and weak sites on the fracture surfaces regardless of mineral composition. The observations also showed that the strong deposition sites tended to exist on surface irregularities such as cracks or protrusions. The degree of colloid deposition increased with increasing ionic strength and decreasing flow rate. The dependencies on ionic strength and flow rate agreed qualitatively with the DLVO theory and the previous experimental results, respectively. (author)

  14. Regional monitoring of metals in the Munich metropolitan area: Comparison of biomonitoring (standardized grass culture) with deposition and airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietl, C.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Vierle, O.; Peichl, L.; Faus-Kessler, Th.

    2000-01-01

    In the Munich metropolitan area a close association of lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) impacts with traffic was observed in 1992 and 1993. The intercorrelation of both metals was found by samples of standardised grass cultures and was reflected by deposition sampling, too. With respect to location-specific variations, however, both methods revealed differing gradients of Pb and Sb concentrations with increasing distance from traffic. It appeared that Sb variations according to traffic implications were particularly well indicated by means of biomonitoring, while Pb variations were not indicated adequately. As a result, a special qualification of grass to selectively collect metals on airborne dust according to particle sizes was suggested. Further investigations on the correlations between metal biomonitoring, metal deposition and airborne metals in 1994 - 1996 corroborated method-specific sampling features. They in turn showed that one interference is the individual prevalence of the metals on different particle sizes. (author)

  15. The effect of bed particle size and deposit morphology on the filtration of magnetite through granular graphite beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.R.; Bercovich, E.J.; Liberman, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite filters are of great interest for water purification in nuclear power reactors' primary systems due to their possible operation at high temperature. The influence of the bed particle size on the retention of magnetite from aqueous suspensions at room temperature was studied. The filtration coefficient changes from 0.0 to 0.18 as the mean graphite particle diameter decreases from 1.2 to 0. mm. As the retention increases, there is also an increase in the differential pressure across the bed, so both effects must be considered in order to optimize filter's operation. The specific effective volume of the deposit was calculated with the Blake-Kozeny equation and the experimental specific volumes. These are much larger than the specific volume of solid magnetite. From the results, information regarding the morphology of the deposit in the filter is obtained. (M.E.L) [es

  16. Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides x trichocarpa 'Beaupre', Pinus nigra and x Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freer-Smith, P.H.; Beckett, K.P.; Taylor, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Trees are effective in the capture of particles from urban air to the extent that they can significantly improve urban air quality. As a result of their aerodynamic properties conifers, with their smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures, have been shown to capture larger amounts of particle matter than broadleaved trees. This study focuses on the effects of particle size on the deposition velocity of particles (Vg) to five urban tree species (coniferous and broadleaved) measured at two field sites, one urban and polluted and a second more rural. The larger uptake to conifers is confirmed, and for broadleaves and conifers Vg values are shown to be greater for ultra-fine particles (Dp<1.0 μm) than for fine and coarse particles. This is important since finer particles are more likely to be deposited deep in the alveoli of the human lung causing adverse health effects. The finer particle fraction is also shown to be transported further from the emission source; in this study a busy urban road. In further sets of data the aqueous soluble and insoluble fractions of the ultra-fines were separated, indicating that aqueous insoluble particles made up only a small proportion of the ultra-fines. Much of the ultra-fine fraction is present as aerosol. Chemical analysis of the aqueous soluble fractions of coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles showed the importance of nitrates, chloride and phosphates in all three size categories at the polluted and more rural location

  17. An approach to assess the Particulate Matter exposure for the population living around a cement plant: modelling indoor air and particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Soberón, Francisco; Mari, Montse; Kumar, Vikas [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Rovira, Joaquim [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta, E-mail: marta.schuhmacher@urv.cat [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we studied the exposure to three size fractions of outdoor particulate matter (PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, and PM{sub 1}) collected in an area influenced by a cement plant. For that purpose, three groups of population were evaluated (children, adults and retired) in two seasons (summer and winter). Outdoor measured PM concentrations, as well as physiological parameters and activity patterns of the three groups of population were used as input data in two different models. The first one was an indoor air quality model, used to elucidate indoor PM concentrations in different microenvironments. The second one was a dosimetry model, used to evaluate the internal exposure and the distribution of the different PM fractions in the respiratory tract. Results from the indoor air quality model showed that special attention must be paid to the finest particles, since they penetrate indoors in a greater degree. Highest pulmonary doses for the three PM sizes were reported for retired people, being this a result of the high amount of time in outdoor environments exercising lightly. For children, the exposure was mainly influenced by the time they also spend outdoors, but in this case due to heavy intensity activities. It was noticed that deposition of fine particles was more significant in the pulmonary regions of children and retired people in comparison with adults, which has implications in the expected adverse health effects for those vulnerable groups of population. - Highlights: • PM deposition in the respiratory tract was evaluated for three population groups. • Activity patterns and different microenvironments were used in our calculation. • Outdoor activities are the main contributors to PM deposited mass. • Children experienced the highest deposition dose in the pulmonary region. • Retired registered the highest deposited mass in the respiratory tract as a whole.

  18. An approach to assess the Particulate Matter exposure for the population living around a cement plant: modelling indoor air and particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Soberón, Francisco; Mari, Montse; Kumar, Vikas; Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied the exposure to three size fractions of outdoor particulate matter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ) collected in an area influenced by a cement plant. For that purpose, three groups of population were evaluated (children, adults and retired) in two seasons (summer and winter). Outdoor measured PM concentrations, as well as physiological parameters and activity patterns of the three groups of population were used as input data in two different models. The first one was an indoor air quality model, used to elucidate indoor PM concentrations in different microenvironments. The second one was a dosimetry model, used to evaluate the internal exposure and the distribution of the different PM fractions in the respiratory tract. Results from the indoor air quality model showed that special attention must be paid to the finest particles, since they penetrate indoors in a greater degree. Highest pulmonary doses for the three PM sizes were reported for retired people, being this a result of the high amount of time in outdoor environments exercising lightly. For children, the exposure was mainly influenced by the time they also spend outdoors, but in this case due to heavy intensity activities. It was noticed that deposition of fine particles was more significant in the pulmonary regions of children and retired people in comparison with adults, which has implications in the expected adverse health effects for those vulnerable groups of population. - Highlights: • PM deposition in the respiratory tract was evaluated for three population groups. • Activity patterns and different microenvironments were used in our calculation. • Outdoor activities are the main contributors to PM deposited mass. • Children experienced the highest deposition dose in the pulmonary region. • Retired registered the highest deposited mass in the respiratory tract as a whole.

  19. Interactions of animal age and particle size with deposition and retention of inhaled 51Cr-labeled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Skiens, W.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Hess, J.O.; Hall, D.

    1980-01-01

    Newborn, juvenile, weanling, and adult rats were exposed to aerosols of 51 Cr-labeled microspheres with AMADs of 0.91, 1.4, 2.3, 3.4, and 4.4 μm. Alveolar deposition was negligible in newborn rats for all particle sizes, and decreased to less than 6% at an AMAD of 2.3 μm in juveniles and weanlings, and an AMAD of 3.4 μm in adults

  20. Deposition of hematite particles on alumina seal faceplates of nuclear reactor coolant pumps: Laboratory experiments and industrial feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Grégory; Živković, Ljiljana S.; Jaubertie, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR), the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspec...

  1. Deposition kinetics of quantum dots and polystyrene latex nanoparticles onto alumina: role of water chemistry and particle coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Ivan R; Olsson, Adam L J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2013-03-05

    A clear understanding of the factors controlling the deposition behavior of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as quantum dots (QDs), is necessary for predicting their transport and fate in natural subsurface environments and in water filtration processes. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to study the effect of particle surface coatings and water chemistry on the deposition of commercial QDs onto Al2O3. Two carboxylated QDs (CdSe and CdTe) with different surface coatings were compared with two model nanoparticles: sulfate-functionalized (sPL) and carboxyl-modified (cPL) polystyrene latex. Deposition rates were assessed over a range of ionic strengths (IS) in simple electrolyte (KCl) and in electrolyte supplemented with two organic molecules found in natural waters; namely, humic acid and rhamnolipid. The Al2O3 collector used here is selected to be representative of oxide patches found on the surface of aquifer or filter grains. Deposition studies showed that ENP deposition rates on bare Al2O3 generally decreased with increasing salt concentration, with the exception of the polyacrylic-acid (PAA) coated CdTe QD which exhibited unique deposition behavior due to changes in the conformation of the PAA coating. QD deposition rates on bare Al2O3 were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than those of the polystyrene latex nanoparticles, likely as a result of steric stabilization imparted by the QD surface coatings. Adsorption of humic acid or rhamnolipid on the Al2O3 surface resulted in charge reversal of the collector and subsequent reduction in the deposition rates of all ENPs. Moreover, the ratio of the two QCM-D output parameters, frequency and dissipation, revealed key structural information of the ENP-collector interface; namely, on bare Al2O3, the latex particles were rigidly attached as compared to the more loosely attached QDs. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the nature of ENP coatings as well

  2. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed

  3. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed.

  4. Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Famiano, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time (∼1 micros to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, 137 Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired

  5. Direct measurements of particle flux along gap sides in castellated plasma facing component in COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejarnac, Renaud; Dimitrova, Miglena; Komm, Michael; Schweer, Bernd; Terra, Alexis; Martin, Aurelien; Boizante, Gontran; Gunn, James P.; Panek, Radomir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We designed a probe to measure plasma deposition into gaps during tokamak discharges. •Isat profiles are measured on both side of the gap for different gap orientations. •Ion current is measured at the bottom of the gap in the toroidal orientation. •Kinetic simulations reproduce well experimental profiles qualitatively. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report results of a dedicated experiment that gives the plasma penetration profiles inside a gap of a tokamak castellated plasma-facing component. A specially designed probe that recreates a gap between two tiles has been built for the purpose of this study. It allows to measure ion saturation profiles along the 2 sides and at the bottom of the gap for both poloidal and toroidal orientations. The novelty of such experiment is the real time measurement of the plasma flux inside the gap during a tokamak D-shaped discharge compared to previous experimental studies which were mainly post-mortem. This experiment was performed in the COMPASS tokamak and results are compared with particle-in-cell simulations. The plasma deposition is found to be asymmetric in both orientations with a stronger effect in poloidal gaps. The Larmor radius of the incoming ions plays a role in the plasma penetration only in poloidal gaps but seems to have little impact in toroidal gaps. Profiles are qualitatively well reproduced by simulations. Ion current is recorded at the bottom of a toroidal gap under certain conditions

  6. Size-dependent photodegradation of CdS particles deposited onto TiO2 mesoporous films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Rasin; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John; Wang Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    The particle size, size distribution and photostability of CdS nanoparticles incorporated onto mesoporous TiO 2 films by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, UV–Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution TEM indicated that the synthesized CdS particles were hexagonal phase and the particle sizes were less than 5 nm for up to nine SILAR deposition cycles. Quantum size effect was found with the CdS-sensitized TiO 2 films prepared with up to nine SILAR cycles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles decreased from 2.65 to 2.37 eV with the increase of the SILAR cycles from 1 to 11. The investigation of the stability of the CdS/TiO 2 films in air under illumination (440.6 μW/cm 2 ) showed that the photodegradation rate was up to 85 % per day for the sample prepared with three SILAR cycles. XPS analysis indicated that the photodegradation was due to the oxidation of CdS, leading to the transformation from sulphide to sulphate (CdSO 4 ). Furthermore, the degradation rate was strongly dependent upon the particle size of CdS. Smaller particles showed faster degradation rate. The size-dependent photo-induced oxidization was rationalized with the variation of size-dependent distribution of surface atoms of CdS particles. Molecular dynamics-based theoretical calculation has indicated that the surface sulphide anion of a large CdS particle such as CdS made with 11 cycles (CdS × 11, average particle size = 5.6 nm) accounts for 9.6 % of the material whereas this value is increased to 19.2 % for (CdS × 3)-based smaller particles (average particle size = 2.7 nm). The photostability of CdS nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when coated with ZnS particles deposited with four SILAR cycles. The growth mechanism of ZnS upon CdS nanoparticles was discussed.

  7. Deposition probe measurements of impurities injected into a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Herrmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Impurity confinement behaviour has been studied by using a deposition probe in conjunction with pellet injection. Generally, an exponential decay of the impurity efflux and nearly symmetric ion/electron side toroidal flows have been observed. During phases of strong plasma disturbances, asymmetric flow is seen, indicative of edge transport and prompt recycling from local sources. The application of ECRH may cause such disturbances. (author)

  8. Measurement of the magnetic field coefficients of particle accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.; Ganetis, G.; Hogue, R.; Rogers, E.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect in the development of magnets to be used in particle accelerators is the measurement of the magnetic field in the beam aperture. In general it is necessary to measure the harmonic multipoles in the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets for a series of stationary currents (plateaus). This is the case for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) which will be ramped to high field over a long period (/approximately/1000 sec.) and then remain on the flat top for the duration of the particle collision phase. In contrast to this mode of operation, the Booster ring being constructed for the Brookhaven AGS, will have a fast ramp rate of approximately 10 Hz. The multipole fields for these Booster magnets must therefore be determined ''on the ramp.'' In this way the effect of eddy currents will be taken into account. The measurement system which we will describe in this paper is an outgrowth of that used for the SSC dipoles. It has the capability of measuring the field multipoles on both a plateau or during a fast ramp. In addition, the same basic coil assembly is used to obtain the magnetic multipoles in dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Micrometeorological measurement of the dry deposition flux of sulphate and nitrate aerosols to coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyers, G.P.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of sulphate and nitrate have been determined over a coniferous canopy using the aerodynamic gradient technique. Vertical concentration gradients of sulphate and nitrate were measured with filters; the gradient of ammonium bisulphate was measured with thermodenuders. Filter

  10. Time-resolved measurements of highly-polymerised negative ions in rf silane plasma deposition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howling, A.A.; Sansonnens, L.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.

    1993-07-01

    The time-resolved fluxes of negative polysilicon hydride ions from a power-modulated rf silane plasma have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry and modeled using a simple polymerisation scheme. Experiments were performed with plasma parameters suitable for high-quality amorphous silicon deposition. Polysilicon hydride anions diffuse from the plasma with low energy (approximately 0.5 eV) during the afterglow after the electron density has decayed and the sheath fields have collapsed. The mass-dependence of the temporal behavior of the anion loss flux demonstrates that the plasma composition is influenced by the modulation frequency. The negative species attain much higher masses than the positive or neutral species, and anions containing as many as sixteen silicon atoms have been observed, corresponding to the 500 amu limit of the mass spectrometer. This suggests that negative ions could be the precursors to particle formation. Ion-molecule and ion-ion reactions are discussed and a simple negative ion polymerisation scheme is proposed which qualitatively reproduces the experimental results. The model shows that the densities of high mass negative ions in the plasma are strongly reduced by modulation frequencies near 1 kHz. Each plasma period is then too short for the polymerisation chain to propagate to high masses before the elementary anions are lost in each subsequent afterglow period. This explains why modulation of the rf power can reduce particle contamination. We conclude that, for the case of silane rf plasmas, the initiation steps which ultimately lead to particle contamination proceed by negative ion polymerisation. (author) 15 figs., 72 refs

  11. Preparation of Janus Particles and Alternating Current Electrokinetic Measurements with a Rapidly Fabricated Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren

    2017-06-23

    This article provides a simple method to prepare partially or fully coated metallic particles and to perform the rapid fabrication of electrode arrays, which can facilitate electrical experiments in microfluidic devices. Janus particles are asymmetric particles that contain two different surface properties on their two sides. To prepare Janus particles, a monolayer of silica particles is prepared by a drying process. Gold (Au) is deposited on one side of each particle using a sputtering device. The fully coated metallic particles are completed after the second coating process. To analyze the electrical surface properties of Janus particles, alternating current (AC) electrokinetic measurements, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrorotation (EROT)- which require specifically designed electrode arrays in the experimental device- are performed. However, traditional methods to fabricate electrode arrays, such as the photolithographic technique, require a series of complicated procedures. Here, we introduce a flexible method to fabricate a designed electrode array. An indium tin oxide (ITO) glass is patterned by a fiber laser marking machine (1,064 nm, 20 W, 90 to 120 ns pulse-width, and 20 to 80 kHz pulse repetition frequency) to create a four-phase electrode array. To generate the four-phase electric field, the electrodes are connected to a 2-channel function generator and to two invertors. The phase shift between the adjacent electrodes is set at either 90° (for EROT) or 180° (for DEP). Representative results of AC electrokinetic measurements with a four-phase ITO electrode array are presented.

  12. In situ measurement of electrostatic charge and charge distribution on flyash particles in power station exhaust stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang, D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrostatic charges and charge distributions on individual flyash particles were experimentally measured in situ at four power stations in New South Wales and in the laboratory with an Electrostatic Charge Classifier. The global charge of these flyashes was also measured. The electrostatic charge on flyash particles of four power stations was found to be globally native. The median charge on the flyash particles varies linearly with particle diameter for all four flyashes. The electrostatic charge on the Tallawarra flyash particles was found to increase after passage through the air heater having huge metal surface areas, suggesting that triboelectrification was the primary charging mechanism for flyash particles. Distinctly different characteristics of the electrostatic charge, particle size and particle shape were found between the Eraring and the Tallawarra flyashes. The spherical Eraring ash has the highest proportion of lines and positively charged particles, but the lowest global charge level among the four flyashes. In contrast, the Tallawarra flyash has just the opposite. It is the distinct characteristics of the flyashes from Eraring and Tallawarra power stations that are responsible for the significant differences in their baghouse performance. The napping feature on the surface of the filter bags used in the Eraring and Tallawarra power stations provides an upstream surface of low fibre density above the fabric bulk. This feature presents and advantage to highly charged particles, like the Tallawarra flyash particles. Highly charged particles tend to deposit on such an upstream surface resulting in a porous dust cake with much less contact areas with the fabric medium than would otherwise be formed. This cake is easy to remove and provides less resistance to the gas flow. After singeing the naps on the filter bag surface at the Eraring power station, the problems of high pressure drop and retention of dust cake on the bas surface have been resolved.

  13. Impinging jet study of the deposition of colloidal particles on synthetic polymer (Zeonor)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlček, Jakub; Lapčík, Lubomír; Cech, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an impinging jet deposition experiments were performed on synthetic polymer (Zeonor) original and by micro-embossing modified substrates with exactly defined topology as confirmed by AFM and SEM. Deposition experiments were performed at ambient temperature and at selected flow regi...

  14. Quantitative Measures of Chaotic Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, D. L.; Martin, R. F., Jr.; Burris, C.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been noted that the motion of charged particles in magnetotail-like magnetic fields is chaotic, however, efforts to quantify the degree of chaos have had conflicting conclusions. In this paper we re-examine the question by focusing on quantitative measures of chaos. We first examine the percentage of orbits that enter the chaotic region of phase space and the average trapping time of those particles. We then examine the average exponential divergence rate (AEDR) of the chaotic particles between their first and last crossing of the mid-plane. We show that at resonant energies where the underlying phase space has a high degree of symmetry, only a small number of particle enter the chaotic region, but they are trapped for long periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is very close to the average value of the AEDR. At the off-resonant energies where the phase space is highly asymmetric, the majority of the particle enter the chaotic region for fairly short periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is much smaller than the average value. The root cause is that in the resonant case, the longest-lived orbits tend interact with the current many times and sample the entire chaotic region, whereas in the non-resonant case the longest-lived orbits only interact with the current sheet a small number of times but have very long mirrorings where the motion is nearly regular. Additionally we use an ad-hoc model where we model the current sheet as a Lorentz scattering system with each interaction with the current sheet being considered as a "collision". We find that the average kick per collision is greatest at off-resonant energies. Finally, we propose a chaos parameter as the product of the AEDR times the average chaotic particle trapping time times the percentage of orbits that are chaotic. We find that this takes on peak values at the resonant energies.

  15. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastelberger, Sandra; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4) is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  16. Particle size distributions of radioactive aerosols measured in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorrian, M.-D.; Bailey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of published values of Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) measured in working environments was conducted to assist in the selection of a realistic default AMAD for occupational exposures. Results were compiled from 52 publications covering a wide variety of industries and workplaces. Reported values of AMAD from all studies ranged from 0.12 μm to 25 μm, and most were well fitted by a log-normal distribution with a median value of 4.4 μm. This supports the choice of a 5 μm default AMAD, as a realistic rounded value for occupational exposures, by the ICRP Task Group on Human Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Protection and its acceptance by ICRP. Both the nuclear power and nuclear fuel handling industries gave median values of approximately 4 μm. Uranium mills gave a median value of 6.8 μm with AMADs frequently greater than 10 μm. High temperature and arc saw cutting operations generated submicron particles and occasionally, biomodal log-normal particle size distributions. It is concluded that in view of the wide range of AMADs found in the surveyed literature, greater emphasis should be placed on air sampling to characterise aerosol particle size distributions for individual work practices, especially as doses estimated with the new 5 μm default AMAD will not always be conservative. (author)

  17. Statistical examination of particle in a turbulent, non-dilute particle suspension flow experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.C.; Jones, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of particles suspended in fully developed turbulent water flow in a vertical pipe was done. Three series of experiments were conducted to investigate the statistical behaviour of particles in nondilute turbulent suspension flow, for two particle densities and particle sizes, and for several particle volume loadings ranging from 0 to 1 percent. The mean free fall velocity of the particles was determined at these various particle volume loadings, and the phenomenon of cluster formation was observed. The precise volume loading which gives the maximum relative settling velocity was observed to depend on particle density and size. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, E M; Kurten, A; Almeida, J; Duplissy, J; Williamson, C; Ortega, I K; Pringle, K J; Adamov, A; Baltensperger, U; Barmet, P; Benduhn, F; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Clarke, A; Curtius, J; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Ehrhart, S; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Guida, R; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Heinritzi, M; Jokinen, T; Kangasluoma, J; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Kupc, A; Lawler, M J; Lehtipalo, K; Makhmutov, V; Mann, G; Mathot, S; Merikanto, J; Miettinen, P; Nenes, A; Onnela, A; Rap, A; Reddington, C L S; Riccobono, F; Richards, N A D; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Sengupta, K; Simon, M; Sipila, M; Smith, J N; Stozkhov, Y; Tome, A; Trostl, J; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Winkler, P M; Worsnop, D R; Carslaw, K S

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. Here we build a global model of aerosol formation using extensive laboratory-measured nucleation rates involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions and organic compounds. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A significant fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not significantly affect climate via nucleation in the present-day atmosphere.

  19. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eimear M; Gordon, Hamish; Kürten, Andreas; Almeida, João; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Ortega, Ismael K; Pringle, Kirsty J; Adamov, Alexey; Baltensperger, Urs; Barmet, Peter; Benduhn, Francois; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Clarke, Antony; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Jokinen, Tuija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lawler, Michael J; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mann, Graham; Mathot, Serge; Merikanto, Joonas; Miettinen, Pasi; Nenes, Athanasios; Onnela, Antti; Rap, Alexandru; Reddington, Carly L S; Riccobono, Francesco; Richards, Nigel A D; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N; Stozkhov, Yuri; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Paul E; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2016-12-02

    Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. We built a global model of aerosol formation by using extensive laboratory measurements of rates of nucleation involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions, and organic compounds conducted in the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds, in addition to sulfuric acid. A considerable fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied, variations in cosmic ray intensity do not appreciably affect climate through nucleation in the present-day atmosphere. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Measurements of the neutral particle spectra on Mars by MSL/RAD from 2015-11-15 to 2016-01-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Hassler, Donald M.; Köhler, Jan; Ehresmann, Bent; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Brinza, David E.

    2017-08-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, has been measuring the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars since the landing of the rover in August 2012. In contrast to charged particles, neutral particles (neutrons and γ-rays) are measured indirectly: the energy deposition spectra produced by neutral particles are complex convolutions of the incident particle spectra with the detector response functions. An inversion technique has been developed and applied to jointly unfold the deposited energy spectra measured in two scintillators of different types (CsI for high γ detection efficiency, and plastic for neutrons) to obtain the neutron and γ-ray spectra. This result is important for determining the biological impact of the Martian surface radiation contributed by neutrons, which interact with materials differently from the charged particles. These first in-situ measurements on Mars provide (1) an important reference for assessing the radiation-associated health risks for future manned missions to the red planet and (2) an experimental input for validating the particle transport codes used to model the radiation environments within spacecraft or on the surface of planets. Here we present neutral particle spectra as well as the corresponding dose and dose equivalent rates derived from RAD measurement during a period (November 15, 2015 to January 15, 2016) for which the surface particle spectra have been simulated via different transport models.

  1. Measurements of light-absorbing particles on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2015-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in temperature, increases in light-absorbing particles deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light-absorbing particles sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, 240 snow samples were collected from 15 mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the 3 years and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same year. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particles on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective black carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the LAHM analysis and the SP2 refractory black carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light-absorbing particles in the more polluted regions were likely BC. The 3 years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  2. Measurement of Beauty Particle Lifetimes and Hadroproduction Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose an experimental search for beauty particles produced in fixed target hadronic interactions. The essential feature of the proposed experimental technique is the use of two specially designed pieces of hardware~-~a high precision ``decay detector'' and a fast secondary vertex trigger processor. If these devices perform to our expectations, we should be able to obtain sufficient data sample to address several important physics issues, including measurements of the lifetimes of charged and neutral B~mesons, the B~hadroproduction cross-section, and possibly B$^0$- $ \\bar{B} ^0 $ mixing.

  3. Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaes, J

    2011-01-01

    The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA

  4. Measurements and calculations of doses from radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, J.B.; Herbaut, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Three Mile Island (TMI) and Tchernobyl reactor accidents have revealed the importance of the skin exposure to beta radiation produced by small high activity sources, named 'hot particles'. In nuclear power reactors, they may arise as small fragments of irradiated fuel or material which have been neutron activated by passing through the reactor co. In recent years, skin exposure to hot particles has been subject to different limitation criteria, formulated by AIEA, ICRP, NCRP working groups. The present work is the contribution of CEA Grenoble to a contract of the Commission of the European communities in cooperation with several laboratories: University of Birmingham, University of Toulouse and University of Montpellier with the main goal to check experiments and calculations of tissue dose from 60 Co radioactive particles. This report is split up into two parts: hot particle dosimetry close to a 60 Co spherical sample with an approximately 200 μm diameter, using a PTW extrapolation chamber model 233991; dose calculations from two codes: the Varskin Mod 2 computer code and the Hot 25 S2 Monte Carlo algorithm. The two codes lead to similar results; nevertheless there is a large discrepancy (of about 2) between calculations and PTW measurements which are higher by a factor of 1.9. At a 70 μm skin depth and for 1 cm 2 irradiated area, the total (β + γ) tissue dose rate delivered by a spherical ( φ = 200 μm) 60 Co source, in contact with skin, is of the order of 6.1 10 -2 nGy s -1 Bq -1 . (author)

  5. Diffusivity measurements of volatile organics in levitated viscous aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bastelberger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements indicating that atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles can be present in a highly viscous, glassy state have spurred numerous studies addressing low diffusivities of water in glassy aerosols. The focus of these studies is on kinetic limitations of hygroscopic growth and the plasticizing effect of water. In contrast, much less is known about diffusion limitations of organic molecules and oxidants in viscous matrices. These may affect atmospheric chemistry and gas–particle partitioning of complex mixtures with constituents of different volatility. In this study, we quantify the diffusivity of a volatile organic in a viscous matrix. Evaporation of single particles generated from an aqueous solution of sucrose and small amounts of volatile tetraethylene glycol (PEG-4 is investigated in an electrodynamic balance at controlled relative humidity (RH and temperature. The evaporative loss of PEG-4 as determined by Mie resonance spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a radially resolved diffusion model to retrieve translational diffusion coefficients of PEG-4. Comparison of the experimentally derived diffusivities with viscosity estimates for the ternary system reveals a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein relationship, which has often been invoked to infer diffusivity from viscosity. The evaporation of PEG-4 shows pronounced RH and temperature dependencies and is severely depressed for RH ≲ 30 %, corresponding to diffusivities < 10−14 cm2 s−1 at temperatures < 15 °C. The temperature dependence is strong, suggesting a diffusion activation energy of about 300 kJ mol−1. We conclude that atmospheric volatile organic compounds can be subject to severe diffusion limitations in viscous organic aerosol particles. This may enable an important long-range transport mechanism for organic material, including pollutant molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs.

  6. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eimear M.; Gordon, Hamish; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2017-04-01

    New particle formation (or nucleation) is acknowledged as a significant source of climate-relevant aerosol throughout the atmosphere. However, performing atmospherically relevant nucleation experiments in a laboratory setting is extremely challenging. As a result, until now, the parameterisations used to represent new particle formation in global aerosol models were largely based on in-situ observations or theoretical nucleation models, and usually only represented the binary H2SO4-H2O system. Several different chemicals can affect particle formation rates, even at extremely low trace concentrations, which are technically challenging to measure directly. Nucleation rates also respond to environmental changes in e.g. temperature in a highly non-linear fashion. The CERN CLOUD experiment was designed to provide the most controlled and accurate nucleation rate measurements to date, over the full range of free tropospheric temperatures and down to sulphuric acid concentrations of the order of 105 cm-3. We will present a parameterisation of inorganic nucleation rates for use in global models, based on these measurements, which includes four separate nucleation pathways: binary neutral, binary ion-induced, ternary neutral, and ternary ion-induced. Both inorganic and organic nucleation parameterisations derived from CLOUD measurements have been implemented in the GLOMAP global aerosol model. The parameterisations depend on temperature and on concentrations of sulphuric acid, ammonia, organic vapours, and ions. One of CLOUD's main original goals was to determine the sensitivity of atmospheric aerosol to changes in the nucleation rate over a solar cycle. We will show that, in a present-day atmosphere, the changes in climate-relevant aerosol (in the form of cloud-level cloud condensation nuclei) over a solar cycle are on average about 0.1%, with local changes of less than 1%. In contrast, anthropogenic changes in ammonia since pre-industrial times were estimated to have a

  7. Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, T.C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial (∼ 2 cm) and high temporal (≤ 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO 2 (10.6 μm) and 4 HeNe (.6328 μm) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO 2 degrees or 2.3 x 10 16 m -2 theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment

  8. Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, T.C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial ({approx} 2 cm) and high temporal ({le} 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO{sub 2} (10.6 {mu}m) and 4 HeNe (.6328 {mu}m) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO{sub 2} degrees or 2.3 {times} 10{sup 16}m{sup {minus}2} theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment.

  9. Heterogeneous reactivity of sea spray particles during the CalNex field campaign: Insight from single particle measurements and correlations with gas phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, C. J.; Riedel, T. P.; Thornton, J. A.; Wagner, N.; Brown, S. S.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea spray particles are ubiquitous in marine environments. Heterogeneous reactions between sea spray particles and gas phase pollutants, such as HNO3(g), and N2O5(g), alter particle composition by displacing particulate phase halogens in sea spray and releasing these halogen species into the gas phase; these halogen-containing gas phase species play a significant role in tropospheric ozone production. Measurements of both gas phase and particle phase species on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNEX 2010 field campaign provided an opportunity to examine the impact of heterogeneous reactivity of marine aerosols along the California coast. During the cruise, coastal measurements were made near the Santa Monica and Port of Los Angeles regions to monitor the chemical processing of marine aerosols. Sea spray particles were analyzed since these particles were the major chloride-containing particles detected. Real-time single particle measurements made using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) revealed the nocturnal processing of sea spray particles through the loss of particulate chloride and a simultaneous gain in particulate nitrate. Gas phase measurements are consistent with the particle phase observations: As N2O5(g) levels rose overnight, the production of ClNO2(g) coincided with the decrease in particulate chloride. These observations provide unique insight into heterogeneous reactivity from both a gas and particle phase perspective. Results from these measurements can be used to better constrain the rate of heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles.

  10. On-line tritium production and heat deposition rate measurements at the Lotus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Scherrer, P.; Anand, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Integral tritium production and heat deposition measurement in a prototype fusion blanket would enable verification of the computational codes and the data based employed for the calculations. A large number of tritium production rate measurements have been reported for different type of blankets, whereas the direct heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field in the fusion environment, is still in its infancy. In order to ascertain the kerma factors and the photon production libraries, suitable techniques must be developed to directly measure the nuclear heat deposition rates in the materials required for the fusion systems. In this context, at the Lotus facility, we have developed an extremely efficient double ionizing chamber, for the on-line tritium production measurements and employed a pure graphite calorimeter to measure the nuclear heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field of the 14 MeV, Haefely neutron generator. This paper presents both systems and some of the recent measurements. (authors). 8 refs., 13 figs

  11. Role of particle size and composition in metal adsorption by solids deposited on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-01-01

    Despite common knowledge that the metal content adsorbed by fine particles is relatively higher compared to coarser particles, the reasons for this phenomenon have gained little research attention. The research study discussed in the paper investigated the variations in metal content for different particle sizes of solids associated with pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces. Data analysis confirmed that parameters favourable for metal adsorption to solids such as specific surface area, organic carbon content, effective cation exchange capacity and clay forming minerals content decrease with the increase in particle size. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of solids was found to be the governing factor influencing the specific surface area and effective cation exchange capacity. There is high quartz content in particles >150 μm compared to particles <150 μm. As particle size reduces below 150 μm, the clay forming minerals content increases, providing favourable physical and chemical properties that influence adsorption. -- Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters investigated in build-up samples from 32 road surfaces. • Mineralogical composition primarily governs the physico-chemical characteristics. • High clay forming mineral content in fine solids increases SSA and ECEC. • Characteristics influenced by quartz and amorphous content with particle size. • High quartz content in coarse particles contributes reduced metal adsorption. -- The mineralogical composition of solids is the governing factor influencing metal adsorption to solids in pollutant build-up on urban surfaces

  12. Characterization of a catalyst-based conversion technique to measure total particulate nitrogen and organic carbon and comparison to a particle mass measurement instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Kupc, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Bartłomiej; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Liu, Yong; Selimovic, Vanessa; Zarzana, Kyle J.; Sekimoto, Kanako; Warneke, Carsten; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Roberts, James M.

    2018-05-01

    The chemical composition of aerosol particles is a key aspect in determining their impact on the environment. For example, nitrogen-containing particles impact atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and ecological N deposition. Instruments that measure total reactive nitrogen (Nr = all nitrogen compounds except for N2 and N2O) focus on gas-phase nitrogen and very few studies directly discuss the instrument capacity to measure the mass of Nr-containing particles. Here, we investigate the mass quantification of particle-bound nitrogen using a custom Nr system that involves total conversion to nitric oxide (NO) across platinum and molybdenum catalysts followed by NO-O3 chemiluminescence detection. We evaluate the particle conversion of the Nr instrument by comparing to mass-derived concentrations of size-selected and counted ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), and ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4) particles determined using instruments that measure particle number and size. These measurements demonstrate Nr-particle conversion across the Nr catalysts that is independent of particle size with 98 ± 10 % efficiency for 100-600 nm particle diameters. We also show efficient conversion of particle-phase organic carbon species to CO2 across the instrument's platinum catalyst followed by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 detector. However, the application of this method to the atmosphere presents a challenge due to the small signal above background at high ambient levels of common gas-phase carbon compounds (e.g., CO2). We show the Nr system is an accurate particle mass measurement method and demonstrate its ability to calibrate particle mass measurement instrumentation using single-component, laboratory-generated, Nr-containing particles below 2.5 µm in size. In addition we show agreement with mass measurements of an independently calibrated online particle-into-liquid sampler directly coupled to the

  13. An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer by fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin, E-mail: liumalin@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youlin; Liu, Bing

    2015-12-15

    Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle has been successful in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR), but an improved design is required for future development. In this paper, the coating layers are reconsidered, and an improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer is proposed. Three methods of preparing the porous SiC layer, called high methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentration method, high Ar concentration method and hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) method, are experimentally studied. It is indicated that porous SiC layer can be successfully prepared and the density of SiC layer can be adjusted by tuning the preparation parameters. Microstructure and characterization of the improved TRISO coated particle are given based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. It can be found that the improved TRISO coated particle with porous SiC layer can be mass produced successfully. The formation mechanisms of porous SiC layer are also discussed based on the fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition principle. - Graphical abstract: An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer to replace the inner porous pyrolytic carbon layer was proposed and prepared by FB-CVD method. This new design is aimed to reduce the total internal pressure of the particles by reducing the formation of CO and to reduce the risks of amoeba effect. - Highlights: • An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer was proposed. • Three methods of preparing porous SiC layer are proposed and experimentally studied. • The density of porous SiC layer can be controlled by adjusting experimental parameters. • Formation mechanisms of porous SiC layer were given based on the FB-CVD principle. • TRISO particles with porous SiC inner layer were mass produced successfully.

  14. Danish Experiences with Deposit Probe Measurements in Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Several measuring campaigns with focus on deposition behavior have been conducted at full-scale power plants firing biomass in Denmark. These campaigns have been reviewed in this work. The focus is the obtained experiences on deposit formation, shedding and chemistry. When comparing results from...

  15. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane

  16. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  17. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, A.I.; van Steen, M.S.H.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Picioreanu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic

  18. Preparation of SiC and Ag/SiC coatings on TRISO surrogate particles by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, Martin; Reinecke, Anne-Maria; Lippman, Wolfgang; Hurtado, Antonio; Ruiz-Moreno, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Recently published research results suggest significant advantages of using nanocrystalline instead of coarse grained SiC for nuclear applications. In this work it was attempted to prepare nanocrystalline SiC coatings on TRISO surrogate kernels using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process. As a plasma-based physical vapor deposition process, PLD allows the synthesis of dense and stoichiometric coatings in the amorphous or nanocrystalline phase. Two different types of TRISO surrogate kernels were used with outer diameters of 500 pm and 800 μm, respectively: plain Al_2O_3 kernels and ZrO_2 kernels coated with TRISO-like buffer and pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layers. In a second step, the PLD process was used for the preparation of multilayer coatings consisting of a Ag layer buried with a SiC layer. The samples were analyzed regarding their morphology, microstructure, crystalline phase and chemical composition using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscopy (LSM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy- dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The samples will be used in future work for out-of-pile investigations of both thermal stability and Ag retention capability of nanocrystalline SiC layers. X-ray diflraction measurements did not confirm nano crystallinity of the SiC coatings, but rather indicated that the coatings were mainly amorphous possibly with a little fraction of the nanocrystalline phase. Further analyses showed that some of the SiC coatings had an adequate stoichiometric composition and that Ag/SiC multilayer coatings were successfully produced by PLD. Coatings on TRISO- like buffer and PyC layers exhibited good adhesion to the substrate while coatings on Al_2O_3 kernels were susceptible to delamination. The results suggest that PLD is generally suitable for SiC coating of TRISO particles. However, further optimization of the process parameters such as the coating temperature is needed to obtain fine- grained non-columnar SiC layers that are

  19. Deposit Shedding in Biomass-Fired Boilers: Shear Adhesion Strength Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered in biomass combustion. Timely removal of ash deposits is essentialfor optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the adhesion strength of biomass ash from...... off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The effect of sintering temperature, sintering time, deposit composition, thermal shocks on the deposit, and steel type was investigated. The results reveal that the adhesion strength of ash deposits...... is dependent on two factors: ash melt fraction, and corrosion occurring at the deposit–tube interface. Adhesion strength increases with increasing sintering temperature, sharply increasing at the ash deformation temperature. However, sintering time, as well as the type of steel used, does not have...

  20. Biological Effects of Particles with Very High Energy Deposition on Mammalian Cells Utilizing the Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wang, Minli

    2013-01-01

    High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei and secondary protons and neutrons, and secondaries from protons in SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk to astronauts due to induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Experiments with high energy particles mimicking the space environment for estimation of radiation risk are being performed at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL. Experiments with low energy particles comparing to high energy particles of similar LET are of interest for investigation of the role of track structure on biological effects. For this purpose, we report results utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at BNL. The primary objective of our studies is to elucidate the influence of high vs low energy deposition on track structure, delta ray contribution and resulting biological responses. These low energy ions are of special relevance as these energies may occur following absorption through the spacecraft and shielding materials in human tissues and nuclear fragments produced in tissues by high energy protons and neutrons. This study will help to verify the efficiency of these low energy particles and better understand how various cell types respond to them.

  1. Workplace Measurements of Ultrafine Particles-A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Koivisto, Antti J; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kauppinen, Timo

    2017-08-01

    Workers are exposed to ultrafine particles (UFP) in a number of occupations. In order to summarize the current knowledge regarding occupational exposure to UFP (excluding engineered nanoparticles), we gathered information on UFP concentrations from published research articles. The aim of our study was to create a basis for future epidemiological studies that treat UFP as an exposure factor. The literature search found 72 publications regarding UFP measurements in work environments. These articles covered 314 measurement results and tabled concentrations. Mean concentrations were compared to typical urban UFP concentration level, which was considered non-occupational background concentration. Mean concentrations higher than the typical urban UFP concentration were reported in 240 workplace measurements. The results showed that workers' exposure to UFP may be significantly higher than their non-occupational exposure to background concentration alone. Mean concentrations of over 100 times the typical urban UFP concentration were reported in welding and metal industry. However, according to the results of the review, measurements of the UFP in work environments are, to date, too limited and reported too heterogeneous to allow us to draw general conclusions about workers' exposure. Harmonization of measurement strategies is essential if we are to generate more reliable and comparable data in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  2. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  4. On the temporal variation of leaf magnetic parameters: seasonal accumulation of leaf-deposited and leaf-encapsulated particles of a roadside tree crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Wuyts, Karen; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Samson, Roeland

    2014-09-15

    Understanding the accumulation behaviour of atmospheric particles inside tree leaves is of great importance for the interpretation of biomagnetic monitoring results. In this study, we evaluated the temporal variation of the saturation isothermal remanent magnetisation (SIRM) of leaves of a roadside urban Platanus × acerifolia Willd. tree in Antwerp, Belgium. We hereby examined the seasonal development of the total leaf SIRM signal as well as the leaf-encapsulated fraction of the deposited dust, by washing the leaves before biomagnetic analysis. On average 38% of the leaf SIRM signal was exhibited by the leaf-encapsulated particles. Significant correlations were found between the SIRM and the cumulative daily average atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 measurements. Moreover, a steady increase of the SIRM throughout the in-leaf season was observed endorsing the applicability of biomagnetic monitoring as a proxy for the time-integrated PM exposure of urban tree leaves. Strongest correlations were obtained for the SIRM of the leaf-encapsulated particles which confirms the dynamic nature of the leaf surface-accumulated particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Beryllium-7 and {sup 210}Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmar, M., E-mail: krmar@df.uns.ac.rs [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, Novi Sad (Serbia); Mihailović, D.T.; Arsenić, I. [Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Novi Sad (Serbia); Radnović, D. [Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, Novi Sad (Serbia); Pap, I. [Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2016-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between cumulative activity of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb measured in moss samples normalized by the cumulative precipitation. - Highlights: • Use of mosses in measurement of airborne radionuclides deposition was investigated • Prior work indicated {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb activities were not correlated with precipitation • This is unusual since radionuclides moss tissues depends on depositional fluxes. • A new method for study of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb depositional dynamics was developed • Different seasonal regimes of {sup 7}Be deposition are more noticeable in new technique.

  6. Beryllium-7 and 210Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmar, M.; Mihailović, D.T.; Arsenić, I.; Radnović, D.; Pap, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of 7 Be and 210 Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between cumulative activity of 7 Be and 210 Pb measured in moss samples normalized by the cumulative precipitation. - Highlights: • Use of mosses in measurement of airborne radionuclides deposition was investigated • Prior work indicated 7 Be and 210 Pb activities were not correlated with precipitation • This is unusual since radionuclides moss tissues depends on depositional fluxes. • A new method for study of 7 Be and 210 Pb depositional dynamics was developed • Different seasonal regimes of 7 Be deposition are more noticeable in new technique

  7. Insight into particle production mechanisms from angular correlations of identified particles in pp collisions measured by ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Two-particle angular correlations are a robust tool which provide access to the underlying physics phenomena of particle production in collisions of both protons and heavy ions by studying distributions of particles in pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle difference. The correlation measurement is sensitive to several phenomena, including mini-jets, elliptic flow, Bose-Einstein correlations, resonance decays, conservation laws, which can be separated by selections of momentum, particle type and by analysing the shapes of the correlation structures. In this talk, we report measurements of the correlations of identified particles and their antiparticles (for pions, kaons, protons, and lambdas) at low transverse momenta in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, recently submitted for publication by the ALICE Collaboration [arXiv:1612.08975]. The analysis reveals differences in particle production between baryons and mesons. The correlation functions for mesons exhibit the expected peak dominated by effects of mini-jet...

  8. Surface modification of 2014 aluminium alloy-Al2O3 particles composites by nickel electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.M.; Saravanan, R.A.; Narciso, J.; Louis, E.

    2004-01-01

    A method to modify the surface of aluminium matrix composites (AMC) by electrochemical nickel deposition has been developed. Deposition was carried out in a stirred standard Watt's bath, whereas potential and time were varied to optimize coating characteristics. The method, that allowed to overcome the serious difficulties associated to electrochemical deposition of an inherently inhomogeneous material, was used to nickel coat composites of 2014 aluminium alloy-15 vol.% Al 2 O 3 particles. Coats with a good adherence and up to 60 μm thick were easily obtained. In order to improve surface properties, the coated composite was subjected to rather long (from 10 to 47.5 h) heat treatments at a temperature of 520 deg,C. The heat treatments improved the uniformity of the deposited layer and promoted the formation of Al-Ni intermetallics (mainly Al 3 Ni 2 , as revealed by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)). Experimental results indicate that growth of the intermetallic layer is diffusion limited

  9. Injection quality measurements with diamond based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Oliver; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During the re-commissioning phase of the LHC after the long shutdown 1 very high beam losses were observed at the TDI during beam injection. The losses reached up to 90% of the dump threshold. To decrease the through beam losses induced stress on the accelerator components these loss levels need to be reduced. Measurements with diamond based particle detectors (dBLMs), which have nano-second time resolution, revealed that the majority of these losses come from recaptured SPS beam surrounding the nominal bunch train. In this MD the injection loss patterns and loss intensities were investigated in greater detail. Performed calibration shots on the TDI (internal beam absorber for injection) gave a conversion factor from impacting particles intensities to signal in the dBLMs (0.1Vs/109 protons). Using the SPS tune kicker for cleaning the recaptured beam in the SPS and changing the LHC injection kicker settings resulted in a reduction of the injection losses. For 144 bunch injections the loss levels were decreased...

  10. Channel flow structure measurements using particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazizi Mohamed; Noraeini Mokhtar; Aziz Ibrahim; Ramli Abu Hassan

    1996-01-01

    Two different flow structures in a laboratory channel were examined using a flow visualization technique, known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The first channel flow structure was that of a steady flow over a horizontal channel bottom. Photographs of particle displacements were taken in the boundary layer in a plane parallel to the flow. These photographs were analyzed to give simultaneous measurements of two components of the velocity at hundreds of points in the plane. Averaging these photographs gave the velocity profile a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel to the water surface. The results gave good agreement with the known boundary layer theory. This technique is extended to the study of the structure under a progressive wave in the channel. A wavelength of the propagating wave is divided into sections by photographing it continously for a number of frames. Each frame is analyzed and a velocity field under this wave at various phase points were produced with their respective directions. The results show that velocity vectors in a plane under the wave could be achieved instantaneously and in good agreement with the small amplitude wave theory

  11. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  12. Evaluation strategies for isotope ratio measurements of single particles by LA-MC-ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, S; Boulyga, S F; Dorta, L; Günther, D; Hattendorf, B; Koffler, D; Laaha, G; Leisch, F; Prohaska, T

    2013-03-01

    Data evaluation is a crucial step when it comes to the determination of accurate and precise isotope ratios computed from transient signals measured by multi-collector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) coupled to, for example, laser ablation (LA). In the present study, the applicability of different data evaluation strategies (i.e. 'point-by-point', 'integration' and 'linear regression slope' method) for the computation of (235)U/(238)U isotope ratios measured in single particles by LA-MC-ICPMS was investigated. The analyzed uranium oxide particles (i.e. 9073-01-B, CRM U010 and NUSIMEP-7 test samples), having sizes down to the sub-micrometre range, are certified with respect to their (235)U/(238)U isotopic signature, which enabled evaluation of the applied strategies with respect to precision and accuracy. The different strategies were also compared with respect to their expanded uncertainties. Even though the 'point-by-point' method proved to be superior, the other methods are advantageous, as they take weighted signal intensities into account. For the first time, the use of a 'finite mixture model' is presented for the determination of an unknown number of different U isotopic compositions of single particles present on the same planchet. The model uses an algorithm that determines the number of isotopic signatures by attributing individual data points to computed clusters. The (235)U/(238)U isotope ratios are then determined by means of the slopes of linear regressions estimated for each cluster. The model was successfully applied for the accurate determination of different (235)U/(238)U isotope ratios of particles deposited on the NUSIMEP-7 test samples.

  13. Method for in situ carbon deposition measurement for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2014-01-01

    Previous methods to measure carbon deposition in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes do not permit simultaneous electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements supplemented with carbon deposition quantities create the opportunity to further understand how carbon affects SOFC performance and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). In this work, a method for measuring carbon in situ, named here as the quantification of gasified carbon (QGC), was developed. TGA experiments showed that carbon with a 100 h residence time in the SOFC was >99.8% gasified. Comparison of carbon mass measurements between the TGA and QGC show good agreement. In situ measurements of carbon deposition in SOFCs at varying molar steam/carbon ratios were performed to further validate the QGC method, and suppression of carbon deposition with increasing steam concentration was observed, in agreement with previous studies. The technique can be used to investigate in situ carbon deposition and gasification behavior simultaneously with electrochemical measurements for a variety of fuels and operating conditions, such as determining conditions under which incipient carbon deposition is reversible.

  14. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  15. Ice nucleating particles measured during the laboratory and field intercomparisons FIN-2 and FIN-3 by the diffusion chamber FRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Curtius, Joachim; Haunold, Werner; Thomson, Erik; Bingemer, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INP) is still challenging. In the absence of easily applicable INP standards the intercomparison of different methods during collaborative laboratory and field workshops is a valuable tool that can shine light on the performance of individual methods for the measurement of INP [1]. FIN-2 was conducted in March 2015 at the AIDA facility in Karlsruhe as an intercomparison of mobile instruments for measuring INP [2]. FIN-3 was a field campaign at the Desert Research Institutes Storm Peak Laboratory in Colorado in September 2015 [3]. The FRankfurt Ice nucleation Deposition freezinG Experiment (FRIDGE) participated in both experiments. FRIDGE measures ice nucleating particles by electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles onto Si-wafers in a collection unit, followed by activation, growth, and optical detection of ice crystals on the substrate in an isostatic diffusion chamber [4,5]. We will present and discuss results of our measurements of deposition/condensation INP and of immersion INP with FRIDGE during FIN-2 and FIN-3. Acknowledgements: The valuable contributions of the FIN organizers and their institutions, and of the FIN Workshop Science team are gratefully acknowledged. Our work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Research Unit FOR 1525 (INUIT) and the EU FP7-ENV- 2013 BACCHUS project under Grant Agreement 603445.

  16. Deposition of SrTiO3 films by electrophoresis with thickness and particle size control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, W.D.M.; Pena, A.F.V.; Souza, A.E.; Santos, G.T.A.; Teixeira, S.R.; Senos, A.M.R.; Longo, E.

    2012-01-01

    The SrTiO3 (ST) is a material that exhibits semiconducting characteristics and interesting electrical properties. In room temperature has a structure of high cubic symmetry. The size of the crystallites of this material directly influences this symmetry, changing its network parameters. ST nanoparticles are obtained by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave (MAH). ST films are prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Approximately 1 g of the powder is dissolved in 100 ml of acetone and 1.5 ml of triethanolamine. The stainless steel substrates are arranged horizontally in the solution. The depositions are performed for 1-10 min and subjected to a potential difference of 20-100 V. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations show that it is possible to control both the thickness and size of the crystallites of the film depending on the deposition parameters adopted. (author)

  17. Numerical simulation of DPF filter for selected regimes with deposited soot particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lávička, David; Kovařík, Petr

    2012-04-01

    For the purpose of accumulation of particulate matter from Diesel engine exhaust gas, particle filters are used (referred to as DPF or FAP filters in the automotive industry). However, the cost of these filters is quite high. As the emission limits become stricter, the requirements for PM collection are rising accordingly. Particulate matters are very dangerous for human health and these are not invisible for human eye. They can often cause various diseases of the respiratory tract, even what can cause lung cancer. Performed numerical simulations were used to analyze particle filter behavior under various operating modes. The simulations were especially focused on selected critical states of particle filter, when engine is switched to emergency regime. The aim was to prevent and avoid critical situations due the filter behavior understanding. The numerical simulations were based on experimental analysis of used diesel particle filters.

  18. Details of regional particle deposition and airflow structures in a realistic model of human tracheobronchial airways: two-phase flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Gorji, Mohammad; Gorji, Tahereh B; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2016-07-01

    In the present investigation, detailed two-phase flow modeling of airflow, transport and deposition of micro-particles (1-10µm) in a realistic tracheobronchial airway geometry based on CT scan images under various breathing conditions (i.e. 10-60l/min) was considered. Lagrangian particle tracking has been used to investigate the particle deposition patterns in a model comprising mouth up to generation G6 of tracheobronchial airways. The results demonstrated that during all breathing patterns, the maximum velocity change occurred in the narrow throat region (Larynx). Due to implementing a realistic geometry for simulations, many irregularities and bending deflections exist in the airways model. Thereby, at higher inhalation rates, these areas are prone to vortical effects which tend to entrap the inhaled particles. According to the results, deposition fraction has a direct relationship with particle aerodynamic diameter (for dp=1-10µm). Enhancing inhalation flow rate and particle size will largely increase the inertial force and consequently, more particle deposition is evident suggesting that inertial impaction is the dominant deposition mechanism in tracheobronchial airways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurements of dry deposition rates of 212Pb from aerosols on various natural and artificial surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Osaki, T.

    2007-01-01

    The dry deposition rates on various grass fields and two forests have been measured by the use of 212 Pb (T 1/2 = 10.6 hours). The deposition rate on grass fields (average: 7 mm x s -1 ) roughly depends on the logarithms of the heights or densities of the grasses. The dry deposition rates on a broadleaved forest (Lithocarpus edulis) and a coniferous forest (Cryptomeria Japonica) were also measured. The highest (ave. 26 mm x s -1 ) was on the forest of C. Japonica because of the dense and adhesive surfaces of the leaves. (author)

  20. Polarization, propagation, and deposition measurements during ECCD experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Lohr, J.; Prater, R.; Austin, M.E.

    1999-03-01

    The power deposition profiles for different poloidal and toroidal launch angles have been determined by modulating the ECH power and measuring the electron temperature response. The peak of the measured power density follows the poloidal steering of the ECH launcher, and perpendicular launch gives a narrower deposition profile than does oblique (current drive) launch. The difference in wave refraction between X-mode and O-mode allows positive identification of an unwanted O-mode component of the launched beam

  1. Real-time particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges by wireless electrical resistance detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagae, Fumiya; Okawa, Kazuya; Matsuno, Shinsuke; Takei, Masahiro; Zhao Tong; Ichijo, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, wireless electrical resistance detector is developed as first step in order to develop electrical resistance tomography (ERT) that are attached wireless communication, and miniaturized. And the particle volume fraction measurement results appropriateness is qualitatively examined. The real-time particle volume fraction measurement is essential for centrifuges, because rotational velocity and supply should be controlled based on the results in order to obtain the effective separation, shorten process time and save energy. However, a technique for the particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges has not existed yet. In other words, the real-time particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges becomes innovative technologies. The experiment device reproduces centrifugation in two-phase using particle and salt solution as measuring object. The particle concentration is measured changing rotational velocity, supply and measurement section position. The measured concentration changes coincide with anticipated tendency of concentration changes. Therefore the particle volume fraction measurement results appropriateness are qualitatively indicated. (author)

  2. Spallation reactions and energy deposition in heavy target materials comparison of measurements and MC-calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Enke, M.; Galin, J.

    2001-01-01

    A renascence of interest for energetic proton induced production of neutrons originates recently by the inception of new projects for target stations of intense spallation neutron sources (like the planned European Spallation Source ESS), accelerator-driven nuclear reactors, nuclear waste transmutation and also the application for radioactive beams. Here we verify the predictive power of transport codes currently on the market by confronting observables and quantities of interest with an exhaustive matrix of benchmark data essentially coming from two experiments being performed at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Juelich. Program packages like HERMES, LCS or MCNPX master the prevision of reaction cross sections, hadronic interaction lengths, averaged neutron multiplicities and neutron multiplicity distributions in thick and thin(!) targets for a wide spectrum of incident proton energies, geometrical shapes and materials of the target. While also the observables related to the energy deposition in thick targets are in a good agreement with the model predictions, the production cross section measurements however for light charged particles on thin targets point out that problems exist within these models. (author)

  3. Effects of Surface Modification of Nanodiamond Particles for Nucleation Enhancement during Its Film Growth by Microwave Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedings of the substrate with a suspension of nanodiamond particles (NDPs were widely used as nucleation seeds to enhance the growth of nanostructured diamond films. The formation of agglomerates in the suspension of NDPs, however, may have adverse impact on the initial growth period. Therefore, this paper was aimed at the surface modification of the NDPs to enhance the diamond nucleation for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond films which could be used in photovoltaic applications. Hydrogen plasma, thermal, and surfactant treatment techniques were employed to improve the dispersion characteristics of detonation nanodiamond particles in aqueous media. The seeding of silicon substrate was then carried out with an optimized spin-coating method. The results of both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that plasma treated diamond nanoparticles possessed polar surface functional groups and attained high dispersion in methanol. The nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma jet chemical vapour deposition exhibited extremely fine grain and high smooth surfaces (~6.4 nm rms on the whole film. These results indeed open up a prospect of nanocrystalline diamond films in solar cell applications.

  4. Apparatus using radioactive particles for measuring gas temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, W.A.; Duffy, T.E.; Seegall, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a signal indicative of the temperature of a heated gas is described comprising a beta particle source; a beta particle detector which intercepts particles emitted from said source; circuitry for converting the detector output to a signal indicative of the density of the gas; a pressure transducer for generating a signal indicative of the pressure on the gas; and circuitry for dividing the pressure signal by the density signal to produce a signal indicative of the average temperature of the gas along the path between the beta particle source and the beta particle detector. (auth)

  5. Particle and power deposition on divertor targets in EAST H-mode plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    ELMs were chosen for analysis in order to reduce the uncertainty resulting from the influence of fast electrons on Langmuir triple-probe evaluation during ELMs. The power deposition obtained from Langmuir triple probes was consistent with that from the divertor infra-red camera during an ELM...

  6. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Jung, E-mail: dslim@korea.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Device Materials, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-17

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a {zeta}-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and {approx} 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  7. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon; Song, Min-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a ζ-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and ∼ 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 ± 0.4 x 10 11 cm -2 ) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  8. Biological monitoring of the deposition and transport of radioactive aerosol particles in the Chernobyl NPP zone of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorova, N.V.; Garger, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Plants are one of the main links in the trophic chains of radionuclide transport. The role of plants in such transport was studied mainly in relation to soluble compounds of radionuclides, or to global fallout in which radionuclides were in soluble or exchangeable forms. The specifics of the Chernobyl accident led to the radioactivity occurring in particular forms, and the kinetics of radionuclide migration within trophic chains sometimes vary considerably from what was established in earlier experiments. It is important to study the interaction between plants and ''hot particles'', whose physico-chemical properties determine their non-solubility, which is characteristic, for example, of the carbides and oxides of some metals. When particles come into contact with plant surface tissues, ''dissolving'' factors come into play such as changes in the acidity of the solution or interaction with complex-forming compounds and organic materials exuded by the leaves of some plants. Thanks to these factors, many plants are capable of extracting compounds of low solubility from the soil minerals. Making use of macro- and micro-radioautography, we set out to estimate the rate of conversion of low-solubility radionuclide particles into biologically mobile forms of radionuclides accessible to plants; to study the density of fuel particle fallout in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere and to assess how this varies at different distances from the fallout source over time (during the four years following the accident, 1986-1989); to study the size of the particles deposited on the leaves of plants at various strata, their activity, morphology and behaviour when kept in the form of herbarium exhibits; and to assess the contribution of alpha-active particles to the general amount of fallout and how it changes over time. (author)

  9. Improved Tandem Measurement Techniques for Aerosol Particle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Vivek Kumar

    Non-spherical, chemically inhomogeneous (complex) nanoparticles are encountered in a number of natural and engineered environments, including combustion systems (which produces highly non-spherical aggregates), reactors used in gas-phase materials synthesis of doped or multicomponent materials, and in ambient air. These nanoparticles are often highly diverse in size, composition and shape, and hence require determination of property distribution functions for accurate characterization. This thesis focuses on development of tandem mobility-mass measurement techniques coupled with appropriate data inversion routines to facilitate measurement of two dimensional size-mass distribution functions while correcting for the non-idealities of the instruments. Chapter 1 provides the detailed background and motivation for the studies performed in this thesis. In chapter 2, the development of an inversion routine is described which is employed to determine two dimensional size-mass distribution functions from Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer tandem measurements. Chapter 3 demonstrates the application of the two dimensional distribution function to compute cumulative mass distribution function and also evaluates the validity of this technique by comparing the calculated total mass concentrations to measured values for a variety of aerosols. In Chapter 4, this tandem measurement technique with the inversion routine is employed to analyze colloidal suspensions. Chapter 5 focuses on application of a transverse modulation ion mobility spectrometer coupled with a mass spectrometer to study the effect of vapor dopants on the mobility shifts of sub 2 nm peptide ion clusters. These mobility shifts are then compared to models based on vapor uptake theories. Finally, in Chapter 6, a conclusion of all the studies performed in this thesis is provided and future avenues of research are discussed.

  10. Surface deposition measurements of the TMI-2 gross decontamination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIssac, C.V.; Hetzer, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of the gross decontamination experiment (principally a water spray technique) performed in the TMI-2 reactor building, the Technical Information and Examination Program's Radiation and Environment personnel made surface activity measurements before and after the experiment. In conjunction with surface sampling, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and gamma spectrometry measurements were also performed to distinguish between radiation fields and contamination. The surface sampler used to collect samples from external surfaces within the reactor building is a milling tool having four major components: a 1.27-cm constant-speed drill; a drill support assembly that allows setting sample penetration depth; filter cartridges for intake air purification and sample collection; and an air pump that forces air across the surface being sampled and through the sample filter cartridge

  11. Deposit Probe Measurements in Danish Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    . Corresponding samples of fuels, ash deposits and fly ash have provided information on the transformation of inorganics in the boiler. Generally, grate fired boilers provide a fly ash containing high contents of K, Cl and S compared to the fuel ash, while suspension fired boilers fly ash has a composition nearly...... similar to the fuel ash. Inner most biomass deposits are always salt-rich, while thicker deposit layers also contain some Si and Ca. Deposit probe formation rate measurements have been performed in different ways on several boilers. Grate and suspension fired boilers seems to cause similar deposit...... formation rates. Suspension fired boilers generate more fly ash, while grate boilers form a fly ash with a higher fraction of melt formation (and thereby a higher sticking probability) at similar temperatures. For suspension fired units it is observed that wood with a lower ash content than straw gives rise...

  12. Mapping of sand deposition from 1993 midwest floods with electromagnetic induction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, N.R.; Sudduth, K.A.; Drummond, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sand deposition on river-bottom farmland was extensive from the 1993 Midwest floods. A technique coupling electromagnetic induction (EM) ground conductivity sensing and Global Positioning System (GPS) location data was used to map sand deposition depth at four sites in Missouri along the Missouri River. A strong relationship between EM reading and probe measured depth of sand deposition (r 2 values between 0.73-0.94) was found. This relationship differed significantly between sites, so calibration by ground-truthing was required for each sand deposition survey. An example of the sand deposition mapping using the EM/GPS system is shown for two 50-60 ha (125-150 ac) sites. Such maps can provide valuable detailed information for developing restoration plans for land affected by 1993 Midwest floods. (author)

  13. PIV measurement at the blowdown pipe outlet. [Particle Image Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Pyy, L.; Telkkae, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    This report summarizes the findings of the PIV measurement tests carried out in January - February 2013 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility at LUT. The main objective of the tests was to find out the operational limits of the PIV system regarding suitable test conditions and correct values of different adjustable PIV parameters. An additional objective was to gather CFD grade data for verification/validation of numerical models. Both water and steam injection tests were carried out. PIV measurements with cold water injection succeeded well. Raw images were of high quality, averaging over the whole measurement period could be done and flow fields close to the blowdown pipe outlet could be determined. In the warm water injection cases the obtained averaged velocity field images were harder to interpret, especially if the blowdown pipe was also filled with warm water in the beginning of the measurement period. The absolute values of the velocity vectors seemed to be smaller than in the cold water injection cases. With very small steam flow rates the steam/water interface was inside the blowdown pipe and quite stable in nature. The raw images were of good quality but due to some fluctuation in the velocity field averaging of the velocity images over the whole measured period couldn't be done. Condensation of steam in the vicinity of the pipe exit probably caused these fluctuations. A constant outflow was usually followed by a constant inflow towards the pipe exit. Vector field images corresponding to a certain phase of the test could be extracted and averaged but this would require a very careful analysis so that the images could be correctly categorized. With higher steam flow rates rapid condensation of large steam bubbles created small gas bubbles which were in front of the measurement area of the PIV system. They disturbed the measurements by reflecting laser light like seeding particles and therefore the raw images were of poor quality and they couldn

  14. Au-Nano-particle Deposition on alumina surfaces for environmental application-a density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It has been found that nanometer size gold particles on different oxide supports can act as catalysts, suggestions include quantum size effects, availability of low coordinated sites, and strain or combined effects of the gold particles and the oxide support. From photo dissociation spectroscopy and theory it has been inferred that the 2D / 3D structural transition occurs between five and seven atoms depending on charge state neutrals and singly positively charged ions. Here we will look into the interaction of gold particles over different sites of the aluminum -oxide surface to tune the catalytic activity of the novel material using first principle periodic calculations and compare them with the reactivity index to formulate a priori rule for metal cluster interaction. The catalytic application is aimed to CO adsorption type reactions for a greener environment. (author)

  15. Study of reduction permeability for deposit of fine particles and bacteria in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Restrepo, Dora Patricia; Cardona Bernal, Felipe Andres; Usta Diaz, Martha Lucia

    2004-01-01

    This work shows a theoretical and practical description of the main variables and physical principles that lead to the obstruction by fine particles and therefore a reduction in permeability for unconsolidated porous media with almost a length foot. The results were also adjusted to theoretical model for the obstruction by fine particles in the entrance face. A first study about bacteria plugging was also carried out in order to try to understand it when these bacteria are in the water of injection of a normal process of water flooding

  16. 2D modeling of direct laser metal deposition process using a finite particle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anedaf, T.; Abbès, B.; Abbès, F.; Li, Y. M.

    2018-05-01

    Direct laser metal deposition is one of the material additive manufacturing processes used to produce complex metallic parts. A thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena is required to obtain a high-quality parts. In this work, a mathematical model is presented to simulate the coaxial laser direct deposition process tacking into account of mass addition, heat transfer, and fluid flow with free surface and melting. The fluid flow in the melt pool together with mass and energy balances are solved using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software NOGRID-points, based on the meshless Finite Pointset Method (FPM). The basis of the computations is a point cloud, which represents the continuum fluid domain. Each finite point carries all fluid information (density, velocity, pressure and temperature). The dynamic shape of the molten zone is explicitly described by the point cloud. The proposed model is used to simulate a single layer cladding.

  17. Surface engineering of zirconium particles by molecular layer deposition: Significantly enhanced electrostatic safety at minimum loss of the energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijun; Yan, Ning; Hao, Haixia; An, Ting; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Because of its high volumetric heat of oxidation, Zr powder is a promising high energy fuel/additive for rocket propellants. However, the application of Zr powder is restricted by its ultra-high electrostatic discharge sensitivity, which poses great hazards for handling, transportation and utilization of this material. By performing molecular layer deposition of polyimide using 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic anhydride and ethylenediamine as the precursors, Zr particles can be uniformly encapsulated by thin layers of the polymer. The thicknesses of the encapsulation layers can be precisely controlled by adjusting the number of deposition cycle. High temperature annealing converts the polymer layer into a carbon coating. Results of thermal analyses reveal that the polymer or carbon coatings have little negative effect on the energy release process of the Zr powder. By varying the thickness of the polyimide or carbon coating, electrostatic discharge sensitivity of the Zr powder can be tuned in a wide range and its uncontrolled ignition hazard can be virtually eliminated. This research demonstrates the great potential of molecular layer deposition in effectively modifying the surface properties of highly reactive metal based energetic materials with minimum sacrifices of their energy densities.

  18. Hall Measurements on Carbon Nanotube Paper Modified With Electroless Deposited Platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwuoha Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotube paper, sometimes referred to as bucky paper, is a random arrangement of carbon nanotubes meshed into a single robust structure, which can be manipulated with relative ease. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to make the nanotube paper, and were subsequently modified with platinum using an electroless deposition method based on substrate enhanced electroless deposition. This involves the use of a sacrificial metal substrate that undergoes electro-dissolution while the platinum metal deposits out of solution onto the nanotube paper via a galvanic displacement reaction. The samples were characterized using SEM/EDS, and Hall-effect measurements. The SEM/EDS analysis clearly revealed deposits of platinum (Pt distributed over the nanotube paper surface, and the qualitative elemental analysis revealed co-deposition of other elements from the metal substrates used. When stainless steel was used as sacrificial metal a large degree of Pt contamination with various other metals was observed. Whereas when pure sacrificial metals were used bimetallic Pt clusters resulted. The co-deposition of a bimetallic system upon carbon nanotubes was a function of the metal type and the time of exposure. Hall-effect measurements revealed some interesting fluctuations in sheet carrier density and the dominant carrier switched from N- to P-type when Pt was deposited onto the nanotube paper. Perspectives on the use of the nanotube paper as a replacement to traditional carbon cloth in water electrolysis systems are also discussed.

  19. Deposition pattern and tracer particle motion of evaporating multi-component sessile droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Muhammad; Yang, Yang; Raza, Ghulam; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Leping; Du, Xiaoze; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-11-15

    The understanding of near-wall motion, evaporation behavior and dry pattern of sessile nanofluid droplets is fundamental to a wide range of applications such as painting, spray drying, thin film coating, fuel injection and inkjet printing. However, a deep insight into the heat transfer, fluid flow, near-wall particle velocity and their effects on the resulting dry patterns is still much needed to take the full advantage of these nano-sized particles in the droplet. This work investigates the effect of direct absorptive silicon/silver (Si/Ag) hybrid nanofluids via two experiments. The first experiment identifies the motion of tracer particles near the triple line of a sessile nanofluid droplet on a super-hydrophilic substrate under ambient conditions by the multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry (MnPIV) technique. The second experiment reveals the effect of light-sensitive Si/Ag composite nanoparticles on the droplet evaporation rate and subsequent drying patterns under different radiation intensities. The results show that the presence of nanoparticle in a very small proportion significantly affects the motion of tracer particles, leading to different drying patterns and evaporation rates, which can be very important for the applications such as spray coating and inkjet printing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Properties and Lung Deposition of Particles Emitted from Five Major Indoor Sources.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuan, V.Vu.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Delgado-Saborit, J.M.; Harrison, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-14 ISSN 1873-9318 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : indoor sources * particle size * hygroscopic growth Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.184, year: 2016

  1. Single particle composition measurements of artificial Calcium Carbonate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, S. R.; Mentel, T. F.; Schwinger, T.; Croteau, P. L.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Trimborn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust, with an estimated total source from natural and anthropogenic emissions of up to 2800 Tg/yr, is one of the two largest contributors to total aerosol mass, with only Sea salt having a similar source strength (up to 2600 Tg/yr). The composition of dust particles varies strongly depending on the production process and, most importantly, the source location. Therefore, the composition of single dust particles can be used both to trace source regions of air masses as well as to identify chemical aging processes. Here we present results of laboratory studies on generating artificial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles, a model compound for carbonaceous mineral dust particles. Particles were generated by atomizing an aqueous hydrogen carbonate solution. Water was removed using a silica diffusion dryer., then the particles were processed in an oven at temperatures up to 900°C, converting the hydrogen carbonate to its anhydrous form. The resulting aerosol was analyzed using an on-line single particle laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF). The results confirm the conversion to calcium carbonate, and validate that the produced particles indeed can be used as a model compound for carbonaceous dust aerosols.

  2. Measurements of the deposition rates of radon daughters on indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Essling, M.A.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deposition rates of radon daughters on indoor surfaces have been measured by exposing the window of a proportional counter to the air of a house with high concentrations of radon and its daughters. Deposition velocities for unattached 218 Po (RaA) and 214 Pb (RaB) of approximately 4 mm sec - 1 were obtained by dividing the deposition rates by the concentrations of unattached daughters in the air. These results agree with those obtained by other workers but are dependent on the assumptions made about the fractions of the daughters which are attached to the atmospheric aerosol

  3. Iced airfoil separation bubble measurements by particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jason J.

    Not long after the birth of aviation, pilots began to recognize the dangers posed by aircraft icing. Since that time, research has improved the awareness of this problem and the scientific understanding of the associated aerodynamic impacts, however, few studies have involved detailed, quantitative, flowfield measurements. For this reason, the current investigation was conducted in which high spatial-resolution flowfield measurements were acquired of a NACA 0012 airfoil with two- and three-dimensional, simulated, leading-edge, horn-ice accretions utilizing particle image velocimetry (PIV). These measurements complemented existing iced airfoil performance measurements, revealed previously unknown details regarding the structure and behavior of these flowfields, and could potentially facilitate the development and improvement of computational schemes used to predict largely separated flows, including that of an iced airfoil near stall. Previous iced airfoil investigations have demonstrated somewhat reduced aerodynamic penalties resulting from a three-dimensional ice simulation, compared to those of a two-dimensional ice simulation of a representative cross section. Correspondingly, the current measurements revealed accelerated transition of the separated shear layer emanating from a three-dimensional ice simulation and therefore enhanced pressure recovery and reduced mean separation bubble length, each relative to the flowfield of a representative two-dimensional ice simulation. These effects appeared to result from the quasi-steady distribution of discrete, streamwise vortices which aided the turbulent entrainment of fluid from the recirculation region of the three-dimensional ice simulation separation bubble flowfield. These vortices were generated by a streamwise-vortex instability excited by roughness along the three-dimensional ice simulation and produced spanwise-cell structures throughout this flowfield, as well as significant spanwise variation in peak

  4. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide loaded sodium alginate micro-particles prepared via electrospraying in controlled deposition environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhi-Cheng; Jin, Li-Jie; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Huang, Jie; Chang, Ming-Wei; Li, Jing-Song

    2017-05-30

    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) is a functional food source deployed in preventative medicine. However, applications utilizing GLP are limited due to oxidative and acidic environmental damage. Advances in preserving GLP structure (and therefore function), in situ, will diversify their applications within biomedical fields (drug and antibacterial active delivery via the enteral route). In this study, GLP loaded sodium alginate (NaAlg) micro-particles (size range 225-355μm) were generated using the electrospray (ES) process. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of GLP for composite particles (collected at different temperatures) were ∼23% and 71%, respectively. The collection substrate (CaCl 2 , 1-20w/v%) concentration was explored and preliminary findings indicated a 10w/v% solution to be optimal. The process was further modified by manipulating the collection environment temperature (∼25 to 50°C). Based on this, NaAlg/GLP micro-particles were engineered with variable surface morphologies (porous and crinkled), without effecting the chemical composition of either material (GLP and NaAlg). In-vitro release studies demonstrated pH responsive release rates. Modest release of GLP from micro-particles in simulated gastric fluid (pH ∼1.7) was observed, while rapid release was exhibited under simulated intestinal conditions (pH ∼7.4). Release of GLP from NaAlg beads was the greatest from samples prepared at elevated environmental temperatures. These findings demonstrate a facile route to fabricate GLP-NaAlg loaded micro-particles with various shapes, surface topographies and release characteristics via a one-step ES process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Eddy covariance measurements and parameterisation of traffic related particle emissions in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Mårtensson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban aerosol sources are important due to the health effects of particles and their potential impact on climate. Our aim has been to quantify and parameterise the urban aerosol source number flux F (particles m−2 s−1, in order to help improve how this source is represented in air quality and climate models. We applied an aerosol eddy covariance flux system 118.0 m above the city of Stockholm. This allowed us to measure the aerosol number flux for particles with diameters >11 nm. Upward source fluxes dominated completely over deposition fluxes in the collected dataset. Therefore, the measured fluxes were regarded as a good approximation of the aerosol surface sources. Upward fluxes were parameterised using a traffic activity (TA database, which is based on traffic intensity measurements. The footprint (area on the surface from which sources and sinks affect flux measurements, located at one point in space of the eddy system covered road and building construction areas, forests and residential areas, as well as roads with high traffic density and smaller streets. We found pronounced diurnal cycles in the particle flux data, which were well correlated with the diurnal cycles in traffic activities, strongly supporting the conclusion that the major part of the aerosol fluxes was due to traffic emissions. The emission factor for the fleet mix in the measurement area EFfm=1.4±0.1×1014 veh−1 km−1 was deduced. This agrees fairly well with other studies, although this study has an advantage of representing the actual effective emission from a mixed vehicle fleet. Emission from other sources, not traffic related, account for a F0=15±18×106 m−2 s−1. The urban aerosol source flux can then be written as F=EFfmTA+F0. In a second attempt to find a parameterisation, the friction velocity U* normalised with the average friction velocity has been included, F=EF . This parameterisation results in a somewhat reduced emission factor, 1.3×1014 veh

  6. Spheronization process particle kinematics determined by discrete element simulations and particle image velocimentry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Martin; García, R Edwin; Thommes, Markus

    2014-12-30

    Spheronization is an important pharmaceutical manufacturing technique to produce spherical agglomerates of 0.5-2mm diameter. These pellets have a narrow size distribution and a spherical shape. During the spheronization process, the extruded cylindrical strands break in short cylinders and evolve from a cylindrical to a spherical state by deformation and attrition/agglomeration mechanisms. Using the discrete element method, an integrated modeling-experimental framework is presented, that captures the particle motion during the spheronization process. Simulations were directly compared and validated against particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments with monodisperse spherical and dry γ-Al2O3 particles. demonstrate a characteristic torus like flow pattern, with particle velocities about three times slower than the rotation speed of the friction plate. Five characteristic zones controlling the spheronization process are identified: Zone I, where particles undergo shear forces that favors attrition and contributes material to the agglomeration process; Zone II, where the static wall contributes to the mass exchange between particles; Zone III, where gravitational forces combined with particle motion induce particles to collide with the moving plate and re-enter Zone I; Zone IV, where a subpopulation of particles are ejected into the air when in contact with the friction plate structure; and Zone V where the low poloidal velocity favors a stagnant particle population and is entirely controlled by the batch size. These new insights in to the particle motion are leading to deeper process understanding, e.g., the effect of load and rotation speed to the pellet formation kinetics. This could be beneficial for the optimization of a manufacturing process as well as for the development of new formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Micrometer-scale 3-D shape characterization of eight cements: Particle shape and cement chemistry, and the effect of particle shape on laser diffraction particle size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, S.T.; Nie, X.; Stutzman, P.E.; Garboczi, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Eight different portland cements were imaged on a synchrotron beam line at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray microcomputed tomography at a voxel size of about 1 μm per cubic voxel edge. The particles ranged in size roughly between 10 μm and 100 μm. The shape and size of individual particles were computationally analyzed using spherical harmonic analysis. The particle shape difference between cements was small but significant, as judged by several different quantitative shape measures, including the particle length, width, and thickness distributions. It was found that the average shape of cement particles was closely correlated with the volume fraction of C 3 S (alite) and C 2 S (belite) making up the cement powder. It is shown that the non-spherical particle shape of the cements strongly influence laser diffraction results, at least in the sieve size range of 20 μm to 38 μm. Since laser diffraction particle size measurement is being increasingly used by the cement industry, while cement chemistry is always a main factor in cement production, these results could have important implications for how this kind of particle size measurement should be understood and used in the cement industry.

  8. Advanced zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron particles for acidic magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited ZnS and other IR materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S.; Giannechini, L. J.; Romanofsky, H. J.; Golini, N.; Taylor, B.; Jacobs, S. D.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a modified version of zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI) particles that were invented at the University of Rochester in 2008. The amount of zirconia on the coating is increased to further protect the iron particles from corrosion when introduced to an acidic environment. Five low-pH, magnetorheological (MR) fluids were made with five acids: acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric. All fluids were based on the modified zirconia-coated CI particles. Off-line viscosity and pH stability were measured for all acidic MR fluids to determine the ideal fluid composition for acidic MR finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) and other infrared (IR) optical materials, such as hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) ZnS, CVD zinc selenide (ZnSe), and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). Results show significant reduction in surface artifacts (millimeter-size, pebble-like structures on the finished surface) for several standard-grade CVD ZnS substrates and good surface roughness for the non-CVD MgF2 substrate when MR finished with our advanced acidic MR fluid.

  9. TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements in the zero energy fast reactor ZEBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray energy deposition was carried out in the Zebra reactor at AEE Winfrith during a collaborative programme between the UKAEA and PNC of Japan. The programme was given the title MOZART. This paper describes the TLD experiments in the MOZART MZB assembly and discusses the technique and various corrections necessary to relate the measured quantity to the calculated energy deposition

  10. Real-time measurement of aerosol particle concentration at high temperatures; Hiukkaspitoisuuden reaaliaikainen mittaaminen korkeassa laempoetilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J; Hautanen, J; Laitinen, A [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Physics

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a new method for continuous aerosol particle concentration measurement at elevated temperatures (up to 800-1000 deg C). The measured property of the aerosol particles is the so called Fuchs surface area. This quantity is relevant for diffusion limited mass transfer to particles. The principle of the method is as follows. First, aerosol particles are charged electrically by diffusion charging process. The charging takes place at high temperature. After the charging, aerosol is diluted and cooled. Finally, aerosol particles are collected and the total charge carried by the aerosol particles is measured. Particle collection and charge measurement take place at low temperature. Benefits of this measurement method are: particles are charged in-situ, charge of the particles is not affected by the temperature and pressure changes after sampling, particle collection and charge measurement are carried out outside the process conditions, and the measured quantity is well defined. The results of this study can be used when the formation of the fly ash particles is studied. Another field of applications is the study and the development of gasification processes. Possibly, the method can also be used for the monitoring the operation of the high temperature particle collection devices. (orig.)

  11. Radioactivity measurements in Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Part II: Fallout and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; Graziani, G.; Raes, F.; Stanners, D.; Grippa, G.; Ricapito, I.

    1990-01-01

    The collection of deposition measurements, presented in this report and included in the floppy disk in the back cover has been put together as part of the REM programme (Radioactivity environmental Monitoring). This follows the compilation of air measurements (part 1) published previously (Raes, 1989). The objective of these compilations is to promote the integration of Chernobyl data on a European-wide basis to make them widely available in a coherent form for scientific study. Deposition measurements come in many forms (fallout, rain, soil) but all reflect the phenomena by which radionuclides in the air reach the surface. Depending on the manner of sampling, measurements can reflect integral values (e.g. from surface soil) or some fraction of the deposition (e.g. daily deposition using fallout or rain collectors). The latter can also be expressed as wet or dry according to the sampling apparatus used. The original sources of information from which this compilation was made vary widely : some of the data were obtained directly from floppy disks or tapes; others were copied manually from tables found in reports or papers in the scientific literature. The sets of measurements presented in this report were selected from this large patrimony of data in the REM data bank. Specific criteria were used to make this selection. Overall, only those data were used which had fully defined records. For daily deposition data actually sampled over 24 hourly periods were selected. With cumulative deposition care was taken to select data which covered the whole period of deposition marked by the passage of the cloud. The resulting data are presented on a unified format and as far as possible keep to individual measured values. In this manner the greatest flexibility is given to the user of this data

  12. Comparative assessment of pressure field reconstructions from particle image velocimetry measurements and Lagrangian particle tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, P.L.; Michaelis, D; van Oudheusden, B.W.; Weiss, P.E.; de Kat, R.; Laskari, A.; Jeon, Y.J.; David, L; Schanz, D; Huhn, F.; Gesemann, S; Novara, M.; McPhaden, C.; Neeteson, N. J.; Rival, David E.; Schneiders, J.F.G.; Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2017-01-01

    A test case for pressure field reconstruction from particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Lagrangian particle tracking (LPT) has been developed by constructing a simulated experiment from a zonal detached eddy simulation for an axisymmetric base flow at Mach 0.7. The test case comprises sequences

  13. Morphology determination of small particles by electron microscopy and electrical conduction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robrieux, B.; Desrousseaux, G.; Renou, A.; Gillet, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we show that it is possible to deduce the actual morphology of small particle condensed onto an insulator by combining the granularity analysis from electron micrographs and the electrical sheet conductance of the deposit on its substrate. Assuming the particles are truncated ellipsoids, we determine the excentricity and the contact angle with the substrate for Au on amorphous carbon and MgO substrates. (orig.)

  14. Biosensor based on measurements of the clustering dynamics of magnetic particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample.......Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample....

  15. Measurements of gamma-ray energy deposition in a heterogeneous reactor experimental configuration and their analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamand, D.; Wouters, R. de; Knipe, A.D.; Menil, R.

    1984-10-01

    An important contribution to the power output of a fast reactor is provided by the energy deposition from gamma-rays, and is particularly significant in the inner fertile zones of heterogeneous breeder reactor designs. To establish the validity of calculational methods and data for such systems an extensive series of measurements was performed in the zero power reactor Masurca, as part of the RACINE programme. The experimental study involved four European laboratories and the measurement techniques covered a range of thermoluminescent dosemeters and an ionization chamber. The present paper describes and compares the gamma-ray energy deposition measurements and analysis

  16. Study and development of an airborne instrument for collecting aerosols and for measuring radon 222 by its active deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    The study and development of an airborne instrument designed to collect aerosols and measure radon 222 is detailed in this thesis. Having discussed the context of radon and introduced the methods of the measurement of radon 222 by its natural active deposition, the measurement of aerosols with the Sextant Avionique/LSCE dynamic iso-kinetic probe is quantified. These estimations of the efficiency of the probe were obtained during iso-axial simulations of the flow around the probe at different sub-sonic speeds, then by the calculation of trajectories of particles at the entrance to the probe for several debit coefficients. The effect of the attack angle is discussed along with the iso-kinetic criteria of pressure necessary for the functioning of this probe. To conclude this theoretical study, the author has estimated the deposits during aerosol transport in pipes. The instrument once constructed, (dubbed A VIRAD), is then itself presented, along with the technological aspects adopted for its use. The instrument was validated during an experimental aerial study STAAARTE 99. The measures obtained during these flights are presented in the conclusions. (author) [fr

  17. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2010-10-01

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  18. Particle deposition and deformation from high speed impaction of Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitrakar, T.V.; Keto, J.W.; Becker, M.F.; Kovar, D.

    2017-01-01

    The impaction of a single Ag nanoparticle onto an (001) Ag substrate was studied as a function of particle diameter (2–9 nm) and impaction velocity (10–1500 m/sec) using molecular dynamics simulations. The final crystallographic structures were observed to transition from a polycrystalline to an epitaxial morphology as impaction velocity was increased and the velocity required to achieve epitaxy increased with particle size. To understand how the crystallographic structures evolved to their final state, the deformation mechanisms were then studied over a range of time scales, beginning immediately upon impaction. The observed mechanisms included disordering of the atoms and the initiation and propagation of partial dislocations. Deformation increased with impaction velocity due to increases in the degree of disordering and the partial dislocation density. At longer time scales, relaxation of the disordered particles produced epitaxial morphologies, whereas polycrystalline morphologies were observed following incomplete disordering. These results suggest that the microstructures of thick films produced by high speed impaction of nanoparticle aerosols are strongly influenced by processing parameters.

  19. Land subsidence due to groundwater pumping and recharge: considering the particle-deposition effect in ground-source heat-pump engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianze; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Yisheng; Fan, Yong; Wang, Hongxing

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and use of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) systems in China, it has become imperative to research the effects of associated long-term pumping and recharge processes on ground deformation. During groundwater GSHP operation, small particles can be transported and deposited, or they can become detached in the grain skeleton and undergo recombination, possibly causing a change in the ground structure and characteristics. This paper presents a mathematical ground-deformation model that considers particle transportation and deposition in porous media based on the geological characteristics of a dual-structure stratum in Wuhan, eastern China. Thermal effects were taken into consideration because the GSHP technology used involves a device that uses heat from a shallow layer of the ground. The results reveal that particle deposition during the long-term pumping and recharge process has had an impact on ground deformation that has significantly increased over time. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the deformation change (%) and the amount of particle deposition. The position of the maximum deformation change is also the location where most of the particles are deposited, with the deformation change being as high as 43.3%. The analyses also show that flow of groundwater can have an effect on the ground deformation process, but the effect is very weak.

  20. Land subsidence due to groundwater pumping and recharge: considering the particle-deposition effect in ground-source heat-pump engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianze; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Yisheng; Fan, Yong; Wang, Hongxing

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development and use of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) systems in China, it has become imperative to research the effects of associated long-term pumping and recharge processes on ground deformation. During groundwater GSHP operation, small particles can be transported and deposited, or they can become detached in the grain skeleton and undergo recombination, possibly causing a change in the ground structure and characteristics. This paper presents a mathematical ground-deformation model that considers particle transportation and deposition in porous media based on the geological characteristics of a dual-structure stratum in Wuhan, eastern China. Thermal effects were taken into consideration because the GSHP technology used involves a device that uses heat from a shallow layer of the ground. The results reveal that particle deposition during the long-term pumping and recharge process has had an impact on ground deformation that has significantly increased over time. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the deformation change (%) and the amount of particle deposition. The position of the maximum deformation change is also the location where most of the particles are deposited, with the deformation change being as high as 43.3%. The analyses also show that flow of groundwater can have an effect on the ground deformation process, but the effect is very weak.

  1. Comparing i-Tree modeled ozone deposition with field measurements in a periurban Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Morani; D. Nowak; S. Hirabayashi; G. Guidolotti; M. Medori; V. Muzzini; S. Fares; G. Scarascia Mugnozza; C. Calfapietra

    2014-01-01

    Ozone flux estimates from the i-Tree model were compared with ozone flux measurements using the Eddy Covariance technique in a periurban Mediterranean forest near Rome (Castelporziano). For the first time i-Tree model outputs were compared with field measurements in relation to dry deposition estimates. Results showed generally a...

  2. Comparisons of measured and modelled ozone deposition to forests in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touvinen, J. P.; Simpson, D.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a new dry deposition module, developedfor the European-scale mapping and modelling of ozone flux to vegetation, was tested against micrometeorological ozone and water vapour flux measurements. The measurement data are for twoconiferous (Scots pine in Finland, Norway spruce...

  3. Simultaneous velocity and particle size measurement in two phase flows by Laser Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungut, A.; Yule, A. J.; Taylor, D. S.; Chigier, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for particle size measurement by using Laser Doppler Anemometry is discussed. An additional gate photomultiplier has been introduced at right angles to the optical axis in order to select only those particles passing through the central region of the measurement control volume. Particle sizing measurements have been made in sprays of glass particles using the modified Laser Anemometry system. Measurements in fuel sprays are also reported and compared with the results obtained by a photographic technique. The application of the particle sizing technique to opaque particles is investigated and suitable optical arrangements are suggested. Light scattering characteristics of Laser Anemometry systems for different optical geometries are calculated to select the optimum optical arrangement for the particle sizing measurements.

  4. In-situ photo-assisted deposition of silver particles on hydrogel fibers for antibacterial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raho, Riccardo [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano, Lecce (Italy); Paladini, Federica; Lombardi, Fiorella Anna [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Boccarella, Sandro [Megatex S.p.A., Via Cima D' Aosta, 73040 Melissano, Lecce (Italy); Zunino, Benedetta [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00198 Roma (Italy); Pollini, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pollini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Silvertech Ltd., Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted intensive research interest and have been recently incorporated in polymers, medical devices, hydrogels and burn dressings to control the proliferation of microorganisms. In this study a novel silver antibacterial coating was deposited for the first time on hydrogel fibers through an in-situ photo-chemical reaction. Hydrogel blends obtained by mixing different percentages of silver-treated and untreated fibers were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Four different fluids, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS), simulated body fluid (SBF), chemical simulated wound fluid (cSWF), and deionized water (DI water), were used for evaluating the swelling properties. The results obtained confirmed that the presence of silver did not affect the properties of the hydrogel. Moreover, the results obtained through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) demonstrated very low silver release values, thus indicating the perfect adhesion of the silver coating to the substrate. Good antibacterial capabilities were demonstrated by any hydrogel blend on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) through agar diffusion tests and optical density readings. - Highlights: • An innovative nano-silver deposition technique was adopted on hydrogel fibers. • Antibacterial effects was verified by agar diffusion and optical density tests. • The swelling properties were investigated using 4 different fluids. • Hydrogel blends with different percentages of silver-treated fibers were compared.

  5. In-situ photo-assisted deposition of silver particles on hydrogel fibers for antibacterial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raho, Riccardo; Paladini, Federica; Lombardi, Fiorella Anna; Boccarella, Sandro; Zunino, Benedetta; Pollini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted intensive research interest and have been recently incorporated in polymers, medical devices, hydrogels and burn dressings to control the proliferation of microorganisms. In this study a novel silver antibacterial coating was deposited for the first time on hydrogel fibers through an in-situ photo-chemical reaction. Hydrogel blends obtained by mixing different percentages of silver-treated and untreated fibers were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Four different fluids, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS), simulated body fluid (SBF), chemical simulated wound fluid (cSWF), and deionized water (DI water), were used for evaluating the swelling properties. The results obtained confirmed that the presence of silver did not affect the properties of the hydrogel. Moreover, the results obtained through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) demonstrated very low silver release values, thus indicating the perfect adhesion of the silver coating to the substrate. Good antibacterial capabilities were demonstrated by any hydrogel blend on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) through agar diffusion tests and optical density readings. - Highlights: • An innovative nano-silver deposition technique was adopted on hydrogel fibers. • Antibacterial effects was verified by agar diffusion and optical density tests. • The swelling properties were investigated using 4 different fluids. • Hydrogel blends with different percentages of silver-treated fibers were compared

  6. Impact of two particle measurement techniques on the determination of N95 class respirator filtration performance against ultrafine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofi, Reza; Noël, Alexandra; Haghighat, Fariborz; Bahloul, Ali; Lara, Jaime; Cloutier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance evaluation of respirator using two different measurement techniques. ► Impaction and electrical mobility were used to characterize ultrafine particle. ► The experiment was done using ultrafine-sized poly-dispersed aerosols. ► Both techniques show that MPPS would occur at a similar size range. - Abstract: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare two different particle measurement devices; an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), to measure the number concentration and the size distribution of NaCl salt aerosols to determine the collection efficiency of filtering respirators against poly disperse aerosols. Tests were performed on NIOSH approved N95 filtering face-piece respirators (FFR), sealed on a manikin head. Ultrafine particles found in the aerosols were also collected and observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the results, there is a systematic difference for the particle size distribution measured by the SMPS and the ELPI. It is largely attributed to the difference in the measurement t